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Sample records for stage ia1 squamous

  1. Cisplatin, Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy, and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-30

    Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  2. Entolimod in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Receiving Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-10

    Mucositis; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  3. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Radiation Therapy in Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-30

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  4. Studying the Physical Function and Quality of Life Before and After Surgery in Patients With Stage I Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lymphedema; Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility; Stage IA1 Cervical Cancer; Stage IA2 Cervical Cancer; Stage IB1 Cervical Cancer

  5. Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Who Have Undergone Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-04

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Spindle Cell Variant; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Radiation Therapy With Cisplatin, Docetaxel, or Cetuximab After Surgery in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-14

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  7. Phase I/II Study of Postoperative Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Advanced-Stage Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (cSCCHN)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-17

    Recurrent Skin Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity

  8. Radiotherapy Alone for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx and Hypopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, Robert L.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To describe and illustrate examples of early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Review of the NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines. Representative examples are included. Results: Early-stage larynx and hypopharynx cancer is defined by tumor extent based on physical and imaging examination. Conclusions: Radiotherapy alone is appropriate treatment for properly selected early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx. The NCCN and ASCO practice guidelines can be an aid to the clinician in identifying favorable cancers that can be successfully treated with radiotherapy alone with preservation of organ function.

  9. Value of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy in Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To review outcome and toxicity of Stage IVa and IVb head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with concomitant chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) according to a hybrid fractionation schedule. Methods and Materials: Between 2006 and 2008, 42 patients with Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were irradiated according to a hybrid fractionation schedule consisting of 20 fractions of 2 Gy (once daily), followed by 20 fractions of 1.6 Gy (twice daily), to a total dose of 72 Gy. Chemotherapy (cisplatinum, 100mg/m{sup 2}) was administered at the start of Weeks 1 and 4. Treatment outcome and toxicity were retrospectively compared with a previous patient group (n = 55), treated according to the same schedule, but without intensity modulation. Results: Locoregional control (LRC) and overall survival were 81% and 56% after 2 years, respectively. In comparison with the previous cohort, no significant differences were observed regarding either LRC (66%, p = 0.38) or overall survival (73%, p = 0.29). No Grade 4 or 5 toxicity was reported in the IMRT group, either acute or chronic. The use of IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of late Grade 2 or 3 xerostomia (52.9% vs. 90.2%, p < 0.001). No difference was observed regarding late Grade 2 or 3 dysphagia (p = 0.66). Conclusions: Intensity-modulated chemoradiotherapy does not compromise LRC and significantly reduces late toxicity, especially regarding xerostomia.

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma among Yemenis: Onset in young age and presentation at advanced stage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mohaya, Maha; Abdulhuq, Mahmoud; Al-Mandili, Ahmad; Al-Anazi, Yousef

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide. Up to 90% of oral cancer cases are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The data on oral SCC in Yemen are lacking. The objective of this study therefore was to describe and analyze the demographic, clinical and histological characteristics of Yemeni patients with oral SCC. Study Design: In this cross-sectional study, two sets of retrospective data for Yemeni cancer patients were obtained officially by two different registries. Patients with oral SCC were included. Their ages were dichotomized using 40 and 45 years alternately as individual cut-points for young and old patients. The patients` demographic, clinical and histological characteristics were statistically analyzed. Results: There were 457 Yemenis with oral SCC; 253 patients (55.4%) were men. The overall mean age was 58.15±14.11 years. The tongue was the most affected oral sub-site accounting for 53% of the reported cases. The well and moderately differentiated oral SCC accounted for 55.5% and 25.6% of the total cases respectively. Noteworthy, 62 patients (14%) were affected by the age of ?40; this increased to 105 patients (23%) aged ?45 years. Additionally, a high proportion of oral SCC patients (62%, 283) were diagnosed at advanced tumor stages (regional extension or metastasized). The distributions of histological grades and tumor stages in young and old patients were significantly different (P=0.006 and 0.026 respectively). Conclusion: The relative frequency of oral SCC among Yemeni young people is high. Unfortunately, most of oral SCC patients in Yemen were diagnosed at advanced stage. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Yemen, young patients, advanced stage. PMID:24558559

  11. Evaluation and staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: limitations despite technological breakthroughs.

    PubMed

    Zafereo, Mark E

    2013-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC) and squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx (SCCOP) represent two distinct disease entities. SCCOC continues to be related to tobacco risk factors, and the current anatomic staging system provides useful prognostic value. Most patients with SCCOP in Western countries now have HPV-associated tumors, and tumor HPV status is considered the most important prognostic factor. Smoking status is emerging as an important prognostic factor for HPV-driven SCCOP, independent of tumor HPV status. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and FDG-PET/CT imaging are diagnostic staging tools useful in select patients with SCCOC and SCCOP.

  12. Global metabolomics reveals potential urinary biomarkers of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for diagnosis and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Chen, Yanhua; Zhang, Ruiping; He, Jiuming; Song, Yongmei; Wang, Jingbo; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Luhua; Zhan, Qimin; Abliz, Zeper

    2016-10-01

    We performed a metabolomics study using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) combined with multivariate data analysis (MVDA) to discriminate global urine profiles in urine samples from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and healthy controls (NC). Our work evaluated the feasibility of employing urine metabolomics for the diagnosis and staging of ESCC. The satisfactory classification between the healthy controls and ESCC patients was obtained using the MVDA model, and obvious classification of early-stage and advanced-stage patients was also observed. The results suggest that the combination of LC-MS analysis and MVDA may have potential applications for ESCC diagnosis and staging. We then conducted LC-MS/MS experiments to identify the potential biomarkers with large contributions to the discrimination. A total of 83 potential diagnostic biomarkers for ESCC were screened out, and 19 potential biomarkers were identified; the variations between the differences in staging using these potential biomarkers were further analyzed. These biomarkers may not be unique to ESCCs, but instead result from any malignant disease. To further elucidate the pathophysiology of ESCC, we studied related metabolic pathways and found that ESCC is associated with perturbations of fatty acid β-oxidation and the metabolism of amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.

  13. Hsp90 Inhibitor AT13387 in Treating Patients With Locoregionally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Receiving Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  14. Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 expression correlates to tumor staging in tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de Carli, Marina-Lara; Sperandio, Felipe-Fornias; Hanemann, João-Adolfo-Costa; Pereira, Alessandro-Antônio-Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background The immunohistochemical expression of Cyclin D1 and Ki-67 were analyzed in tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), relating them to the clinical and morphological exhibition of these tumors. Material and Methods Twenty-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; clinical data included gender, age, ethnicity and use of licit drugs such as alcohol and tobacco. The TNM staging and histopathological differentiation grading was assessed for each case. In addition, T1 patients were gathered with T2 patients; and T3 patients were gathered with T4 patients to assemble two distinct groups: (T1/T2) and (T3/T4). Results The mean follow-up time was 24 months and 30% of the patients died as a consequence of the disease, while 23.3% lived with the disease and 46.7% lived lesion-free. T1 and T2 tumors showed statistically lesser Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 staining when compared to T3 and T4 tumors. Conclusions Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 pose as auxiliary tools when determining the progression of tongue SCC at the time of diagnosis. Key words:Carcinoma, squamous cell, cyclin D, immunohistochemistry, Ki-67 antigen, prognosis. PMID:26449430

  15. Two-stage hybrid feature selection algorithms for diagnosing erythemato-squamous diseases.

    PubMed

    Xie, Juanying; Lei, Jinhu; Xie, Weixin; Shi, Yong; Liu, Xiaohui

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes two-stage hybrid feature selection algorithms to build the stable and efficient diagnostic models where a new accuracy measure is introduced to assess the models. The two-stage hybrid algorithms adopt Support Vector Machines (SVM) as a classification tool, and the extended Sequential Forward Search (SFS), Sequential Forward Floating Search (SFFS), and Sequential Backward Floating Search (SBFS), respectively, as search strategies, and the generalized F-score (GF) to evaluate the importance of each feature. The new accuracy measure is used as the criterion to evaluated the performance of a temporary SVM to direct the feature selection algorithms. These hybrid methods combine the advantages of filters and wrappers to select the optimal feature subset from the original feature set to build the stable and efficient classifiers. To get the stable, statistical and optimal classifiers, we conduct 10-fold cross validation experiments in the first stage; then we merge the 10 selected feature subsets of the 10-cross validation experiments, respectively, as the new full feature set to do feature selection in the second stage for each algorithm. We repeat the each hybrid feature selection algorithm in the second stage on the one fold that has got the best result in the first stage. Experimental results show that our proposed two-stage hybrid feature selection algorithms can construct efficient diagnostic models which have got better accuracy than that built by the corresponding hybrid feature selection algorithms without the second stage feature selection procedures. Furthermore our methods have got better classification accuracy when compared with the available algorithms for diagnosing erythemato-squamous diseases.

  16. Radical hysterectomy versus radiation therapy for stage IB squamous cell cancer of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, M.P.; Morley, G.W. )

    1991-07-15

    Three hundred forty-five patients with Stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated at the University of Michigan Medical Center from 1970 to 1985. The overall cumulative 5-year survival rate was 89% and the mean age was 44.6 years. In 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy the cumulative 5-year survival rate was 92%; 14 patients were explored for radical hysterectomy that was not performed due to high risk features and their survival rate was 50%. Ninety-seven patients underwent radiation therapy as initial treatment and had a 5-year survival rate of 86%. There was no significant difference when radiation therapy was compared with radical hysterectomy (P = 0.098). The survival rates for lesions 3 cm or smaller were 94% for radical hysterectomy and 88% for radiation therapy. When the lesion was larger than 3 cm, the survival rates were 82% with radical surgery and 73% with radiation therapy. Metastatic disease to lymph nodes was present in 26 of the 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy. When 1 to 3 nodes were involved 16 of 19 patients survived and when 4 to 10 nodes were involved 3 of 7 patients survived. The addition of radiation therapy did not influence survival. Complications were similar in both treatment groups. Fistulas occurred in 4 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 1 of 111 undergoing radiation. Second surgery for a complication was required in 6 of 213 patients undergoing radical hysterectomy and 7 of 111 undergoing radiation. Survival and complication rates in early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix are equal with either radical surgery or radiation therapy.

  17. Stage Presentation, Care Patterns, and Treatment Outcomes for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis

    SciTech Connect

    Burt, Lindsay M.; Shrieve, Dennis C.; Tward, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare entity, with few published series on outcomes. We evaluated the stage distributions and outcomes for surgery and radiation therapy in a U.S. population database. Methods and Materials: Subjects with SCC of the penis were identified using the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program database between 1988 and 2006. Descriptive statistics were performed, and cause-specific survival (CSS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons of treatment modalities were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression. Subjects were staged using American Joint Committee on Cancer, sixth edition, criteria. Results: There were 2458 subjects identified. The median age was 66.8 years (range, 17-102 years). Grade 2 disease was present in 94.5% of cases. T1, T2, T3, T4, and Tx disease was present in 64.8%, 17.1%, 9.5%, 2.1%, and 6.5% of cases, respectively. N0, N1, N2, N3, and Nx disease was noted in 61.6%, 6.9%, 4.0%, 3.7%, and 23.8% of cases, respectively. M1 disease was noted in 2.5% of subjects. Individuals of white ethnicity accounted for 85.1% of cases. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 16.7% of cases. The CSS for all patients at 5 and 10 years was 80.8% and 78.6%. By multivariable analysis grades 2 and 3 disease, T3 stage, and positive lymph nodes were adverse prognostic factors for CSS. Conclusion: SCC of the penis often presents as early-stage T1, N0, M0, grade 1, or grade 2 disease. The majority of patients identified were treated with surgery, and only a small fraction of patients received radiation therapy alone or as adjuvant therapy.

  18. Progression of gingival squamous cell carcinoma from early to late stage after invasive dental procedure.

    PubMed

    Hinchy, Nicole V; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Rigual, Nestor; Reid, Mary; Frustino, Jennifer L; Rossitto, Rachael; Groman, Adrienne; Sullivan, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Early presentation of gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC) is at times misdiagnosed as a benign inflammatory or reactive oral condition. Some misdiagnosed patients undergo unnecessary, invasive dental procedures, resulting in delayed cancer diagnosis and an increased risk of accelerated disease progression due to disruption of the periosteum and cortical bone. The records of 58 patients with biopsy-proven GSCC were retrospectively reviewed. The sample included 32 patients who underwent an invasive dental procedure (IDP) prior to cancer diagnosis and 26 patients who did not undergo an IDP (non-case group). Patients from both groups initially presented with similar symptoms. The median duration of symptoms at initial clinical presentation was 6 months for the IDP group and 2 months for the non-case group. In IDP patients, symptoms worsened after the IDP was rendered, with 37.5% presenting with a severe-grade symptom. In both groups, the majority of lesions were found on the posterior mandible and had a histologic grading of moderately differentiated GSCC. The odds of the IDP group having late-stage disease were 2.94 times greater than the odds for the control group. Stage T3/T4 malignancy was diagnosed in 77.4% of the IDP patients versus 53.8% of non-case patients. Disease-specific mortality was comparable; however, surgical treatment was significantly more extensive in the IDP group than in the non-case group. The disruption of alveolar periosteum in undiagnosed oral cancer patients results in significant delay in diagnosis, necessitating more complicated treatment regimens because of local tumor progression.

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma of pancreas: an unusual site of relapse from early-stage lung cancer: 12-month postsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anand; Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Polychronis, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with abdominal pain and backache, weight loss of 10 kg and irregular bowel movements. He was previously diagnosed with Stage IB squamous cell carcinoma of lung and had undergone lobectomy 12 months previously. Investigations including imaging revealed a cystic mass in the body and tail of the pancreas which was biopsied and it was confirmed to be a recurrence of the squamous lung cancer involving the pancreas. He was treated with systemic chemotherapy and has shown a partial response on repeat imaging. This case illustrates a rare and unusual site of relapse in lung cancer after adjuvant therapy and a key message for follow-up surveillance for these patients. PMID:23608858

  20. Intra-Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin With Radiotherapy for Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneyasu, Yuko Nagai, Nobutaka; Nagata, Yasushi; Hashimoto, Yasutoshi; Yuki, Shintaro; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyota, Naoyuki; Fujiwara, Hisaya; Kudo, Yoshiki; Ito, Katsuhide

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the effectiveness of concomitant intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) using cisplatin (CDDP) with radiotherapy for Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 29 cases of Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix treated with radiotherapy and IAIC of CDDP from 1991 to 2006. External-beam therapy was given to the whole pelvis using four opposing parallel fields with an 18-MV linear accelerator unit. A central shield was used after 30-40 Gy with external whole-pelvic irradiation, and the total dose was 50 Gy. High-dose-rate brachytherapy was given with {sup 192}Ir microSelectron. The dose at Point A was 6 Gy per fraction, 2 fractions per week, and the total number of fractions was either 3 or 4. Two or three courses of IAIC were given concomitantly with CDDP 120 mg or carboplatin 300 mg. Results: We confirmed excellent medicine distribution directly by using computed tomographic angiography. The 5-year overall survival rate for Stage III patients was 62%, the cause-specific survival rate was 70%, and the local relapse-free survival rate was 89%. Local recurrence, distant metastasis, and occurrences of both were 7%, 38%, and 3%, respectively. The incidence of severe acute hematologic adverse reactions (Grade {>=}3) was 27% for all patients; however, all recovered without interruption of radiotherapy. Severe nonhematologic effects (Grade {>=}3) were 3%, including nausea and ileus. Only 1 patient's radiotherapy was interrupted for a period of 1 week because of ileus. Severe late complication rates (Grade {>=}3) for the bladder, rectum, and intestine were 3%, 3%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: A combination of IAIC and systemic chemotherapy should be considered to improve the prognosis of patients with Stage III squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  1. KLF4 is downregulated but not mutated during human esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis and has tumor stage-specific functions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yizeng; Katz, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The transcriptional regulator Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is decreased in human esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC), and Klf4 deletion in mice produces squamous cell dysplasia. Nonetheless the mechanisms of KLF4 downregulation in ESCC and the functions of KLF4 during ESCC development and progression are not well understood. Here, we sought to define the regulation of KLF4 and delineate the stage-specific effects of KLF4 in ESCC. We found that KLF4 expression was decreased in human ESCC and in 8 of 9 human ESCC cell lines. However, by genomic sequencing, we observed no KLF4 mutations or copy number changes in any of 52 human ESCC, suggesting other mechanisms for KLF4 silencing. In fact, KLF4 expression in human ESCC cell lines was increased by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism for KLF4 silencing. Surprisingly, while KLF4 decreased in high-grade dysplasia and early stage tumors, KLF4 increased with advanced cancer stage, and KLF4 expression in ESCC was inversely correlated with survival. Interestingly, KLF4 promoted invasion of human ESCC cells, providing a functional link to the stage-specific expression of KLF4. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF4 loss is necessary for esophageal tumorigenesis but that restored KLF4 expression in ESCC promotes tumor spread. Thus, the use of KLF4 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cancer requires careful consideration of context. PMID:26934576

  2. KLF4 is downregulated but not mutated during human esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis and has tumor stage-specific functions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yizeng; Katz, Jonathan P

    2016-04-02

    The transcriptional regulator Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is decreased in human esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC), and Klf4 deletion in mice produces squamous cell dysplasia. Nonetheless the mechanisms of KLF4 downregulation in ESCC and the functions of KLF4 during ESCC development and progression are not well understood. Here, we sought to define the regulation of KLF4 and delineate the stage-specific effects of KLF4 in ESCC. We found that KLF4 expression was decreased in human ESCC and in 8 of 9 human ESCC cell lines. However, by genomic sequencing, we observed no KLF4 mutations or copy number changes in any of 52 human ESCC, suggesting other mechanisms for KLF4 silencing. In fact, KLF4 expression in human ESCC cell lines was increased by the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism for KLF4 silencing. Surprisingly, while KLF4 decreased in high-grade dysplasia and early stage tumors, KLF4 increased with advanced cancer stage, and KLF4 expression in ESCC was inversely correlated with survival. Interestingly, KLF4 promoted invasion of human ESCC cells, providing a functional link to the stage-specific expression of KLF4. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF4 loss is necessary for esophageal tumorigenesis but that restored KLF4 expression in ESCC promotes tumor spread. Thus, the use of KLF4 as a diagnostic and therapeutic target in cancer requires careful consideration of context.

  3. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  4. SU-E-I-85: Exploring the 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose PET Characteristics in Staging of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics derived from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET image and assess its capacity in staging of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: 26 patients with newly diagnosed ESCC who underwent 18F-FDG PET scan were included in this study. Different image-derived indices including the standardized uptake value (SUV), gross tumor length, texture features and shape feature were considered. Taken the histopathologic examination as the gold standard, the extracted capacities of indices in staging of ESCC were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test. Specificity and sensitivity for each of the studied parameters were derived using receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: 18F-FDG SUVmax and SUVmean showed statistically significant capability in AJCC and TNM stages. Texture features such as ENT and CORR were significant factors for N stages(p=0.040, p=0.029). Both FDG PET Longitudinal length and shape feature Eccentricity (EC) (p≤0.010) provided powerful stratification in the primary ESCC AJCC and TNM stages than SUV and texture features. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor textural analysis can capability M stages with higher sensitivity than SUV measurement but lower in T and N stages. Conclusion: The 18F-FDG image-derived characteristics of SUV, textural features and shape feature allow for good stratification AJCC and TNM stage in ESCC patients.

  5. Postoperative chemoradiotherapy improves survival in patients with stage II–III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: An analysis of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Bingwen; Pang, Jing; Liu, Yongmei; Xu, Yong; Li, Lu; Zhou, Lin; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Meijuan; Wang, Jin; Ren, Li; Gong, Youlin; Lu, You; Chen, Longqi

    2016-01-01

    Background We compared the efficacy of postoperative chemoradiation (POCRT) and surgery alone (SA) in patients with stage II–III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods We analyzed the records of 265 patients with stage II–III ESCC who had undergone transthoracic esophagectomy and lymphadenectomy; 105 patients received POCRT, while 160 had SA. Results The median disease‐free survival (DFS) of the whole cohort was 22 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.2–24.8), while the median overall survival (OS) was 29 months (95% CI 25.5–32.5). The median DFS of the SA group was 21 months (95% CI 17.9–24.0), while that of the POCRT group was 29 months (95% CI 18.8–31.2; P = 0.048). Consistently, patients in the POCRT group had significantly longer median OS than patients in the SA group (34 vs. 26 months, respectively). Subgroup analysis showed that in patients with positive lymph nodes, pathological stage III, T3–4 stage, and poorly differentiated carcinoma, POCRT was apparently more effective than SA at improving OS and decreasing the rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that lymph node involvement and treatment with POCRT were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion Compared with SA, POCRT may be more effective in improving OS and decreasing the rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis, particularly in stage III or positive lymph node stage II–III ESCC patients. PMID:27766781

  6. Diffusion-Weighted MRI for Nodal Staging of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Impact on Radiotherapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Dirix, Piet; Vandecaveye, Vincent; De Keyzer, Frederik; Op de beeck, Katya; Poorten, Vincent Vander; Delaere, Pierre; Verbeken, Eric; Hermans, Robert; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the use of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for nodal staging and its impact on radiotherapy (RT) planning. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), as well as MRI (with routine and DW sequences) prior to neck dissection. After topographic correlation, lymph nodes were evaluated microscopically with prekeratin immunostaining. Pathology results were correlated with imaging findings and an RT planning study was performed for these surgically treated patients. One set of target volumes was based on conventional imaging only, and another set was based on the corresponding DW-MRI images. A third reference set was contoured based solely on pathology results. Results: A sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 97% per lymph node were found for DW-MRI. Nodal staging agreement between imaging and pathology was significantly stronger for DW-MRI (kappa = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) than for conventional imaging (kappa = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96; p = 0.019, by McNemar's test). For both imaging modalities, the absolute differences between RT volumes and those obtained by pathology were calculated. Using an exact paired Wilcoxon test, the observed difference was significantly larger for conventional imaging than for DW-MRI for nodal gross tumor volume (p = 0.0013), as well as for nodal clinical target volume (p = 0.0415) delineation. Conclusions: These results suggest that DW-MRI is superior to conventional imaging for preradiotherapy nodal staging of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and provides a potential impact on organsparing and tumor control.

  7. Stage T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendenhall, W.M.; Million, R.R.; Sharkey, D.E.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1984-03-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of 68 patients with Stage T3 squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx treated with surgery and/or irradiation from March 1965 to April 1981 at the University of Florida. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 17.5 years. Initial local-regional control of disease above the clavicles (i.e., prior to salvage attempts) by treatment technique for patients a risk for greater than or equal to 2 years was 11/19 (58%) with irradiation alone, 5/7 (71%) with preoperative irradiation and surgery, 8/9 (89%) with surgery and postoperative irradiation, and 18/23 (78%) with surgery alone. Initial control of disease at the primary site was accomplished in 11/18 (61%) treated with radiation therapy alone, and ultimate control of the primary was obtained in 15/18 (83%) after surgical salvage. Analysis of complications and survival is included, and treatment recommendations are discussed.

  8. VX-970, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced HPV-Negative Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  9. FADD Expression as a Prognosticator in Early-Stage Glottic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx Treated Primarily With Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijvers, Michiel L.; Pattje, Wouter J.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Gibcus, Johan H.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wal, Jacqueline E. van der; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. vn der

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We recently reported on the identification of the Fas-associated death domain (FADD) as a possible driver of the chromosome 11q13 amplicon and the association between increased FADD expression and disease-specific survival in advanced-stage laryngeal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine whether expression of FADD and its Ser194-phosphorylated isoform (pFADD) predicts local control in patients with early-stage glottic carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy only. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical staining for FADD and pFADD was performed on pretreatment biopsy specimens of 92 patients with T1-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinoma primarily treated with radiotherapy between 1996 and 2005. Cox regression analysis was used to correlate expression levels with local control. Results: High levels of pFADD were associated with significantly better local control (hazard ratio, 2.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-5.55; p = 0.040). FADD overexpression showed a trend toward better local control (hazard ratio, 3.656; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-15.663; p = 0.081). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that high pFADD expression was the best predictor of local control after radiotherapy. Conclusions: This study showed that expression of phosphorylated FADD is a new prognostic biomarker for better local control after radiotherapy in patients with early-stage glottic carcinomas.

  10. Upregulation of MAGEA4 correlates with poor prognosis in patients with early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Zi-Hao; Yang, Tong-Xin; Wang, Han-Jin; Cao, Xiu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is a common type of cancer in the People’s Republic of China. Many genes have been reported to be linked with it. Melanoma antigen gene family A (MAGEA) genes are frequently highly expressed in various types of carcinoma. However, the specific role of MAGEA gene expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) still remains unclear. MAGEA4 is a member of MAGEA genes. We aimed to investigate the expression and prognosis of MAGEA4 expression in ESCC. MAGEA4 messenger RNA expression levels of 120 pairs of tumor and nontumor tissues of patients with ESCC were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly elevated in tumor tissues of patients with ESCC compared to nontumor ones. In addition, overexpression of MAGEA4 messenger RNA was significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (P=0.018) in early stage of patients with ESCC (I–IIA). In conclusion, MAGEA4 played an important role in the early stage of ESCC and overexpression of MAGEA4 was expected to become a potential prognostic marker for patients with early stage of ESCC. PMID:27478386

  11. The administration of multipotent stromal cells at precancerous stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Flavia; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha; Plaza, Anita; Espinoza, Iris; Conget, Paulette

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) are envisioned as a powerful therapeutic tool. As they home into tumors, secrete trophic and vasculogenic factors, and suppress immune response their role in carcinogenesis is a matter of controversy. Worldwide oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the fifth most common epithelial cancer. Our aim was to determine whether MSC administration at precancerous stage modifies the natural progression of OSCC. OSCC was induced in Syrian hamsters by topical application of DMBA in the buccal pouch. At papilloma stage, the vehicle or 3×10(6) allogenic bone marrow-derived MSCs were locally administered. Four weeks later, the lesions were studied according to: volume, stratification (histology), proliferation (Ki-67), apoptosis (Caspase 3 cleaved), vasculature (ASMA), inflammation (Leukocyte infiltrate), differentiation (CK1 and CK4) and gene expression profile (mRNA). Tumors found in individuals that received MSCs were smaller than those presented in the vehicle group (87±80 versus 54±62mm(3), p<0.05). The rate of proliferation was two times lower and the apoptosis was 2.5 times higher in lesions treated with MSCs than in untreated ones. While the laters presented dedifferentiated cells, the former maintained differentiated cells (cytokeratin and gene expression profile similar to normal tissue). Thus, MSC administration at papilloma stage precludes tumor growth and epithelial dedifferentiation of OSCC.

  12. Nuclear fractal dimension in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a novel method for the evaluation of grading, staging, and survival.

    PubMed

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Nicola, Marta; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Muraro, Raffaella; Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Penitente, Enrico; Piccirilli, Marcello; Aprile, Giuseppe; Perrotti, Vittoria; Artese, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    Fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was evaluated. FD values in different stages of OSCC, and the correlations with clinicopathological variables and patient survival were investigated. Histological sections from OSCC and control non-neoplastic mucosa specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for pathological analysis and with Feulgen for nuclear evaluation. FD in OSCC groups vs. controls revealed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001). In addition, a progressive increase of FD from stage I and II lesions and stage III and IV lesions was observed, with statistically significant differences (P = 0.003). Moreover, different degrees of tumor differentiation showed a significant difference in the average nuclear FD values (P = 0.001). A relationship between FD and patients' survival was also detected with lower FD values associated to longer survival time and higher FD values with shorter survival time (P = 0.034). These data showed that FD significantly increased during OSCC progression. Thus, FD could represent a novel prognostic tool for OSCC, as FD values significantly correlated with patient survival. Fractal geometry could give insights into tumor morphology and could become an useful tool for analyzing irregular tumor growth patterns.

  13. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  14. Factors related to late stage diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Mahía, Inés; Seoane, Juan; Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Tomás, Inmaculada; López-Cedrún, José-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To identify factors related to advanced-stage diagnosis of oral cancer to disclose high-risk groups and facilitate early detection strategies. Study design: An ambispective cohort study on 88 consecutive patients treated from January 1998 to December 2003. Inclusion criteria: pathological diagnosis of OSCC (primary tumour) at any oral site and suffering from a tumour at any TNM stage. Variables considered: age, gender, smoking history, alcohol usage, tumour site, macroscopic pattern of the lesion, co-existing precancerous lesion, degree of differentiation, diagnostic delay and TNM stage. Results: A total of 88 patients (mean age 60±11.3; 65.9% males) entered the study. Most patients (54.5%) suffered no delayed diagnosis and 45.5% of the carcinomas were diagnosed at early stages (I-II). The most frequent clinical lesions were ulcers (70.5%). Most cases were well- and moderately-differentiated (91%). Univariate analyses revealed strong associations between advanced stages and moderate-poor differentiation (OR=4.2; 95%CI=1.6-10.9) or tumour site (floor of the mouth (OR=3.6; 95%CI=1.2-11.1); gingivae (OR=8.8; 95%CI=2.0-38.2); and retromolar trigone (OR=8.8; 95%CI=1.5-49.1)). Regression analysis recognised the site of the tumour and the degree of differentiation as significantly associated to high risk of late-stage diagnosis. Conclusions: Screening programmes designed to detect asymptomatic oral cancers should be prioritized. Educational interventions on the population and on the professionals should include a sound knowledge of the disease presentation, specifically on sites like floor of the mouth, gingivae and retromolar trigone. More studies are needed in order to analyse the part of tumour biology on the extension of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Key words: Oral cancer, advanced-stage, diagnosis, cohort study. PMID:21743390

  15. Carotid-Sparing Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Early-Stage Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the True Vocal Cord

    SciTech Connect

    Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Amdur, Robert J.; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: To compare radiation doses to carotid arteries among various radiotherapy techniques for treatment of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the true vocal cords. Methods and Materials: Five patients were simulated using computed tomography (CT). Clinical and planning target volumes (PTV) were created for bilateral and unilateral stage T1 vocal cord cancers. Planning risk volumes for the carotid arteries and spinal cord were delineated. For each patient, three treatment plans were designed for bilateral and unilateral target volumes: opposed laterals (LATS), three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), for a total of 30 plans. More than 95% of the PTV received the prescription dose (63Gy at 2.25 Gy per treatment). Results: Carotid dose was lowest with IMRT. With a bilateral vocal cord target, the median carotid dose was 10Gy with IMRT vs. 25 Gy with 3DCRT and 38 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05); with a unilateral target, the median carotid dose was 4 Gy with IMRT vs. 19 Gy with 3DCRT and 39 Gy with LATS (p < 0.05). The dosimetric tradeoff with IMRT is a small area of high dose in the PTV. The worst heterogeneity results were at a maximum point dose of 80 Gy (127%) in a unilateral target that was close to the carotid. Conclusions: There is no question that IMRT can reduce the dose to the carotid arteries in patients with early-stage vocal cord cancer. The question is whether the potential advantage of reducing the carotid dose outweighs the risk of tumor recurrence due to contouring errors and organ motion and the risk of complications from dose heterogeneity.

  16. Impact of FDG-PET/CT Imaging on Nodal Staging for Head-And-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Ryuji . E-mail: murakami@kaiju.medic.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Uozumi, Hideaki; Hirai, Toshinori; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Shiraishi, Shinya; Ota, Kazutoshi D.D.S.; Murakami, Daizo; Tomiguchi, Seiji; Oya, Natsuo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yamashita, Yasuyuki

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging on nodal staging for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 23 patients with head-and-neck SCC who were evaluated with FDG-PET/CT and went on to neck dissection. Two observers consensually determined the lesion size and maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) and compared the results with pathologic findings on nodal-level involvement. Two different observers (A and B) independently performed three protocols for clinical nodal staging. Methods 1, 2, and 3 were based on conventional modalities, additional visual information from FDG-PET/CT images, and FDG-PET/CT imaging alone with SUV data, respectively. Results: All primary tumors were visualized with FDG-PET/CT. Pathologically, 19 positive and 93 negative nodal levels were identified. The SUV{sub max} overlapped in negative and positive nodes <15 mm in diameter. According to receiver operating characteristics analysis, the size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values were 1.9, 2.5, and 3.0 for lymph nodes <10 mm, 10-15 mm, and >15 mm, respectively. These cutoff values yielded 79% sensitivity and 99% specificity for nodal-level staging. For Observer A, the sensitivity and specificity in Methods 1, 2, and 3 were 68% and 94%, 68% and 99%, and 84% and 99%, respectively, and Method 3 yielded significantly higher accuracy than Method 1 (p = 0.0269). For Observer B, Method 3 yielded the highest sensitivity (84%) and specificity (99%); however, the difference among the three protocols was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Imaging with FDG-PET/CT with size-based SUV{sub max} cutoff values is an important modality for radiation therapy planning.

  17. A novel molecular and clinical staging model to predict survival for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun; Wei, Min; Zhu, Xinghua; He, Qi; Ling, Tianlong; Chen, Xiaoyan; Cao, Ziang; Zhang, Yixin; Liu, Lei; Shi, Minxin

    2016-01-01

    Current prognostic factors fail to accurately determine prognosis for patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) after surgery. Here, we constructed a survival prediction model for prognostication in patients with ESCC. Candidate molecular biomarkers were extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and Cox regression analysis was performed to determine significant prognostic factors. The survival prediction model was constructed based on cluster and discriminant analyses in a training cohort (N=205), and validated in a test cohort (N=207). The survival prediction model consisting of two genes (UBE2C and MGP) and two clinicopathological factors (tumor stage and grade) was developed. This model could be used to accurately categorize patients into three groups in the test cohort. Both disease-free survival and overall survival differed among the diverse groups (P<0.05). In summary, we have developed and validated a predictive model that is based on two gene markers in conjunction with two clinicopathological variables, and which can accurately predict outcomes for ESCC patients after surgery. PMID:27556859

  18. High expression of TGF-β1 in the vaginal incisional margin predicts poor prognosis in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Xin-Jun; He, Tao; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Dan; Kong, Guo-Qiang; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Mei-Mei

    2012-04-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between altered cytoplasmic expression of TGF-β1 in tissues of the vaginal incisional margin and vaginal cancer recurrence in patients with stage Ib-IIa cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). This paper also discusses the prognostic value of TGF-β1 expression at these locations. We found that TGF-β1 expression in the vaginal margin had a close association with vaginal recurrence of stage Ib-IIa CSCC and was an independent prognostic marker of this disease.

  19. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  20. Patient Preferences in Making Treatment Decisions in Patients With Stage I-IVA Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-01

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Tongue Cancer

  1. Sunitinib, Cetuximab, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-07-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  2. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  3. TLR8 Agonist VTX-2337 and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Recurrent, or Metastatic Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-03

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage

  4. High Expression of KIF20A Is Associated with Poor Overall Survival and Tumor Progression in Early-Stage Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haifeng; Li, Min; Liu, Zhimin; Feng, Yanling; Zheng, Nianzhen; Xie, Chuanmiao; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background The kinesin family member 20a (KIF20A) protein has been implicated in the development and progression of many human cancers; however, its precise function and role in cervical cancer remain largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate the expression profile and prognostic value of KIF20A in patients with early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Methods We examined the mRNA and protein levels of KIF20A in eight cervical cancer cell lines and eight paired cervical cancer samples, compared with normal cervical epithelial cells and adjacent normal cervical tissues, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of KIF20A in paraffin-embedded specimens from 169 early-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients. Statistical analyses were applied to analyze the association between KIF20A expression and clinical variables, as well with patient survival. Results The mRNA and protein expression levels of KIF20A were significantly elevated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and corresponding normal tissues (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemistry analysis in 169 cervical cancer cases revealed that increased KIF20A expression was strongly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.008), clinical stage (P = 0.001), tumor recurrence (P = 0.016), vital status (P < 0.001), the property of the surgical margin (P = 0.032), the lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.014), and pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). The overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with high levels of KIF20A expression were significantly poorer than those with low KIF20A expression. KIF20A was an independent survival prognostic factor, as evidenced by univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions Our results illustrate that elevated KIF20A expression correlates with HPV infection, clinical stage, tumor recurrence, lymphovascular space involvement, pelvic lymph node metastasis, and poor outcome

  5. Sorafenib Tosylate, Cisplatin, and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-01

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  6. Contrary melanoma-associated antigen-A expression at the tumor front and center: A comparative analysis of stage I and IV head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Stefan; Brisam, Muna; Rauthe, Stephan; Driemel, Oliver; Brands, Roman C.; Rosenwald, Andreas; Kübler, Alexander C.; Müller-Richter, Urs D. A.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence indicating that several melanoma-associated antigen-A (MAGE-A) subgroups contribute to the malignancy of head and neck cancer. The present study retrospectively analyzed the expression of all known MAGE-A subgroups in the tumor front and center of 38 head and neck cancer patients (Union for International Cancer Control stage I or IV) by immunohistochemistry. MAGE-A1, -A6, -A8, -A9 and -A11 were expressed at significantly higher levels at the tumor front of stage IV specimens compared with the tumor front of stage I specimens. In stage I cancer, the tumor center and front ratio (C/F ratio) for each subgroup was >1.0. In stage IV cancer, the C/F ratio was <1.0 in 9/11 subgroups. The most significant change in the expression pattern was observed for MAGE-A11. These results indicated that there is a marked alteration and shift to the invasive front of almost all MAGE-A subgroups, but particularly MAGE-A11, during the progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27703530

  7. Metastatic lymph node ratio demonstrates better prognostic stratification than pN staging in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongdian; Liang, Huagang; Gao, Yongyin; Shang, Xiaobin; Gong, Lei; Ma, Zhao; Sun, Ke; Tang, Peng; Yu, Zhentao

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR) by establishing a hypothetical tumor-ratio-metastasis (TRM) staging system in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The records of 387 ESCC patients receiving curative esophagectomy were retrospectively investigated. The optimal cut-point for LNR was assessed via the best cut-off approach. Potential prognostic parameters were identified through univariate and multivariate analyses. A novel LNR-based TRM stage was proposed. The prognostic discriminatory ability and prediction accuracy of each system were determined using hazard ratio (HR), Akaike information criterion (AIC), concordance index (C-index), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). The optimal cut-points of LNR were set at 0, 0~0.2, 0.2~0.4, and 0.4~1.0. Multivariate Cox analysis indicated that the LNR category was an independent risk factor of overall survival (P < 0.001). The calibration curves for the probability of 3- and 5-year survival showed good consistency between nomogram prediction and actual observation. The LNR category and TRM stage yielded a larger HR, a smaller AIC, a larger C-index, and a larger AUC than the N category and TNM stage did. In summary, the proposed LNR category was superior to the conventional N category in predicting the prognosis of ESCC patients. PMID:27941828

  8. TNM Staging Matched-pair Comparison of Surgery After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy, Surgery Alone and Definitive Chemoradiotherapy for Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShiLiang; Qiu, Bo; Luo, GuangYu; Liang, Ying; Zheng, YuZhen; Chen, ZhaoLin; Luo, KongJia; Xi, Mian; Liu, Qing; Hu, YongHong; Li, Qun; Fu, JianHua; Liu, MengZhong; Yang, Hong; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: We used the TNM staging matched-pair approach to compare the efficacies of surgery after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCT), surgery alone and definitive chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with localized advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods: A total of 642 patients with ESCC from previous studies were studied. Patients whose treatment involved NCT + surgery and surgery alone were compared with patients receiving CCRT. Prospensity score matched-pair comparison based on pre-treatment TNM staging was developed to assess the efficacies of these treatment options. Results: Prospensity score matched-pair comparison to control for bias generated a cohort of 274 patients who were eligible for comparison. The 3-year OS rate was 70.0% in the NCT + surgery group, compared to 51.7% in the surgery group (p=0.000) and 61.9% in the CCRT group (p=0.082). With the TNM staging matched-pair approach, the CCRT group had more upper thoracic ESCC patients (43/92, 46.7%), while the surgery group had more lower thoracic ESCC patients (37/92, 40.2%). The 3-year OS rates were comparable between the surgery alone group and CCRT group (p=0.109). Conclusions: NCT plus surgery was superior in OS to surgery alone or CCRT. The 3-year OS rates were comparable between the surgery alone group and CCRT group with TNM staging matched-pair approach. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:28367248

  9. Locally Advanced Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Impact of Pre-Radiotherapy Hemoglobin Level and Interruptions During Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk Stoehr, Monika; Kazic, Nadja; Hakim, Samer G.; Walz, Annette; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Stage IV head and neck cancer patients carry a poor prognosis. Clear understanding of prognostic factors can help to optimize care for the individual patient. This study investigated 11 potential prognostic factors including pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level and interruptions during radiotherapy for overall survival (OS), metastases-free survival (MFS), and locoregional control (LC) after radiochemotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eleven factors were investigated in 153 patients receiving radiochemotherapy for Stage IV squamous cell head and neck cancer: age, gender, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), tumor site, grading, T stage, N stage, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, surgery, chemotherapy type, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. Results: On multivariate analysis, improved OS was associated with KPS 90-100 (relative risk [RR], 2.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-4.93; p = .012), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.01-3.53; p = .048), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.15-5.78; p = .021). Improved LC was significantly associated with lower T stage (RR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.16-4.63; p = .013), hemoglobin {>=}12 g/dL (RR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.92-9.09; p < .001), surgery (RR, 2.67; 95% CI, 1.28-5.88; p = .008), and no radiotherapy interruptions (RR, 3.32; 95% CI, 1.26-8.79; p = .015). Improved MFS was associated with KPS 90-100 (RR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.46-8.85; p = .012). Conclusions: Significant predictors for outcome in Stage IV head and neck cancer were performance status, stage, surgery, pre-radiotherapy hemoglobin level, and interruptions during radiotherapy >1 week. It appears important to avoid anemia and radiotherapy interruptions to achieve the best treatment results.

  10. Performance of 18F-FDG PET/contrast-enhanced CT in the staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, C A; Balink, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Dol, J; de Visscher, J G A M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated whole body positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/CECT) as a one step examination in the initial staging of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC). Seventy three consecutive OOSCC patients who underwent PET/CECT for initial staging and tumour resection and neck dissection as primary treatment, were included. For each PET/CECT result, the contribution of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-uptake and radiologic criteria was assessed. PET/CECT results were correlated to histological specimens obtained with tumour resection and neck dissection. For detecting the primary tumour PET/CECT showed a sensitivity of 96% and for detecting cervical metastases a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 81%, respectively. In the clinically N0 subgroup (n=37), PET/CECT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 81%, respectively. In five of six patients PET/CECT detected a second primary tumour. The results show that the use of diagnostic PET/CECT as a one step examination is a reliable alternative for PET/CT in combination with a separate diagnostic CT in patients with OOSC for initial staging. The need for treatment of the neck in the clinically negative neck should not be based on PET/CECT results only, due to the risk of missing a small metastasis.

  11. Feasibility and Efficacy of Induction Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Combined With Cisplatin Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Nonmetastatic Stage IV Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, Robin J.; Oeksuez, Didem Colpan; Dyker, Karen; Coyle, Catherine; Sen, Mehmet

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To report the experience of treating selected fit patients with locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma with three cycles of induction TPF (docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2}, cisplatin 75 mg/m{sup 2}, 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m{sup 2}, Days 2-5) followed by concurrent three-weekly bolus cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2006 and February 2010, 66 patients with nonmetastatic Stage IV head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were treated in a single institution with three cycles of induction TPF, followed by radical radiotherapy with concurrent cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2}. Results: Median age was 54 years (range, 33-69 years). Median follow-up was 21 months (range, 4-55 months). During TPF, Grade 3 toxicity occurred in 18 patients (27%), dose modifications in 10 (15%), delays in 3 (5%), and unplanned admissions in 6 (9%); a clinical tumor response was documented in 60 patients (91%). Median time from the final cycle of TPF to commencing radiotherapy was 22 days. Sixty-two patients (94%) received radical radiotherapy, and all completed treatment with no delays {>=}3 days. One, two, and three cycles of concurrent cisplatin were delivered to 18 patients (29%), 38 patients (61%), and 3 patients (5%), respectively. Ninety-two percent of patients received enteral feeding; median weight loss during treatment was 7%. Forty-two patients (68%) had unplanned admissions with no on-treatment deaths. Three unrelated deaths occurred after treatment. At 1 year after treatment, 21% of patients without disease progression remained gastrostomy dependent. Of 58 assessable patients, 50 (86%) achieved a complete response after treatment. One- and 2-year progression-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival were 88%, 92%, and 86% and 80%, 85%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of induction TPF with concurrent cisplatin chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell

  12. Chemotherapy With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Tongue Carcinoma; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Neck With Occult Primary

  13. Current Advancement in Multidisciplinary Treatment for Resectable cStage II/III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Ando, Nobutoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Multidisciplinary treatment comprising surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy for resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is widely used with improved prognosis. Transthoracic esophagectomy (TTE) with extended lymph node (LN) dissection, known as three field LN dissection, has been recommended for ESCC using open thoracotomy or the thoracoscopic approach. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) trial (JCOG1409) is investigating the patients’ long term survival using the thoracoscopic approach that has been shown to reduce the incidence of postoperative respiratory complication. For perioperative treatment, neoadjuvant chemotherapy using cisplatin plus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), has been accepted as the standard of care in Japan based on the JCOG9907 trial. In Western countries, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was shown to prolong overall survival for esophageal cancer, including ESCC. Although surgery has been recognized as an initial curative treatment for esophageal cancer, definitive chemoradiotherapy is an alternative treatment for patients who are unable to undergo thoracotomy or who decline to undergo surgery. This article reviews multidisciplinary treatment advances for ESCC. However, current standard treatments are country dependent and the ongoing trial may help standardize ESCC treatment across various societies. PMID:27384595

  14. Clinical evaluation of Lugol's iodine staining in the treatment of stage I-II squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Umeda, M; Shigeta, T; Takahashi, H; Minamikawa, T; Komatsubara, H; Oguni, A; Shibuya, Y; Komori, T

    2011-06-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is often surrounded by epithelial dysplasia; leaving it unresected can result in local recurrence. Staining with Lugol's iodine solution detects epithelial dysplasia in oral mucosa, but whether it decreases local recurrence after OSCC surgery is unknown. This study investigated local recurrence rates in patients with early tongue cancer who underwent surgery using Lugol's staining. 93 patients with T1-2N0 tongue SCC underwent partial glossectomy using Lugol's staining during surgery. Resection was performed at least 5mm from the margin of the unstained area. Patients were investigated retrospectively for local recurrence status. Postoperative histology revealed negative surgical margins for SCC or epithelial dysplasia in 81 patients, close margins for SCC in 5, positive margins for mild epithelial dysplasia in 6, and a positive margin for SCC in one. Those with a positive or a close margin for SCC underwent additional resection 2-4 weeks after surgery; one was proved histologically to have residual SCC. No patients developed local recurrence, but 2 died of neck metastasis and 2 of distant metastasis. The 5-year disease specific survival rate was 93.8%. Lugol's staining during surgery can reduce local recurrence and improve survival in patients with early tongue SCC.

  15. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  16. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  17. A retrospective study of neoadjuvant chemotherapy plus radical hysterectomy versus radical hysterectomy alone in patients with stage II cervical squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a bulky mass

    PubMed Central

    Takatori, Eriko; Shoji, Tadahiro; Takada, Anna; Nagasawa, Takayuki; Omi, Hideo; Kagabu, Masahiro; Honda, Tatsuya; Miura, Fumiharu; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Sugiyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for stage II cervical squamous cell carcinoma with a bulky mass, we retrospectively compared patients receiving NAC followed by radical hysterectomy (RH; NAC group) with patients who underwent RH without NAC (Ope group). Patients and methods The study period was from June 2002 to March 2014. The subjects were 28 patients with a stage II bulky mass in the NAC group and 17 such patients in the Ope group. The chi-square test was used to compare operative time, volume of intraoperative blood loss, use of blood transfusion, and time from surgery to discharge between the two groups. Moreover, the log-rank test using the Kaplan–Meier method was performed to compare disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between the groups. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in operative time, volume of intraoperative blood loss, or use of blood transfusion. However, the time from surgery to discharge was 18 days (14–25 days) in the NAC group and 25 days (21–34 days) in the Ope group; the patients in the NAC group were discharged earlier (P=0.032). The hazard ratio for DFS in the NAC group as compared with that in the Ope group was 0.36 (95% CI 0.08–0.91), and the 3-year DFS rates were 81.2% and 41.0%, respectively (P=0.028). Moreover, the hazard ratio for OS was 0.39 (95% CI 0.11–1.24), and the 3-year OS rates were 82.3% and 66.4%, respectively (P=0.101). Conclusion NAC with cisplatin and irinotecan was confirmed to prolong DFS as compared with RH alone. The results of this study suggest that NAC might be a useful adjunct to surgery in the treatment of stage II squamous cell carcinoma presenting as a bulky mass. PMID:27695343

  18. Middle Frontal Horizontal Partial Laryngectomy (MFHPL): A Treatment for Stage T1b Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Glottic Larynx Involving Anterior Vocal Commissure

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Wen-bin; Jiang, Ai-yun; Chai, Li-ping; Zhu, Xiao-lin; Wang, Zhang-feng; Wen, Yi-hui; Su, Zhen-zhong; Wen, Wei-ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The therapeutic effect of middle frontal horizontal partial laryngectomy (MFHPL) in treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx involving anterior vocal commissure (AVC) was compared with that of the anterior frontolateral vertical partial laryngectomy (AFVPL). The feasibility and practical significance of MFHPL in clinical application was discussed in the present study. Methods From January 1996 to January 2010, a total of 65 patients diagnosed with stage T1bN0M0 glottic laryngeal cancer were treated with MFHPL or AFVPL. The postoperative complications, glottic reconstruction, recurrence rate, voice quality and survival rates were evaluated and compared between two treatments. Results AFVPL and MFHPL were performed in 34 and 31 patients, respectively. Flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy revealed that in the MFHPL-treated patients the reconstructed glottis was spacious and symmetric. In contrast, AFVPL treatment resulted in irregular glottic area with poor symmetry and tubular glottis. The incidence of postoperative laryngeal stenosis significantly differed between the MFHPL- and AFVPL-treated groups (P = 0.025). No significant difference was detected in the 3- and 5-year overall- or tumor-free survival rates between two treatments. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and maximum phonation time (MPT) after surgery were 51.0±12.99 and 12.42±3.44 sec in the AFVPL-treated group; while in the MFHPL-treated patients they were 31.81±7.48 and 7.65±1.98 sec, respectively. Both differences in VHI (P = 0.012) and MPT (P = 0.024) were significant between two treatments. Conclusions MFHPL was comparable to AFVPL with respect to postoperative complications, recurrence rate and survival rates, but possessed advantages over AFVPL in terms of the incidence of laryngeal stenosis and voice quality. Our study indicated that MFHPL has a potential value in clinical practice of treating stage T1b squamous cell carcinoma of the glottic larynx

  19. Evaluation of 18F-FDG PET/CT as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool for feline oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Randall, E K; Kraft, S L; Yoshikawa, H; LaRue, S M

    2016-03-01

    18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (18FDG-PET/CT) has been shown to be effective for staging human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) but its application for cats with oral SCC is unknown. Twelve cats with biopsy-proven oral SCC were imaged with whole body 18FDG-PET/CT to determine its value as a diagnostic imaging and staging tool and fine needle aspirates were obtained of accessible regional lymph nodes. All tumors were FDG avid and conspicuous on 18FDG-PET/CT images, with an average of the maximum standardized uptake value 9.88 ± 5.33 SD (range 2.9-24.9). Soft tissue infiltrative tumors that were subtle and ill defined on CT were highly visible and more extensive on FDG-PET/CT. Tumors invading the osseous structures were more similar in extent on 18FDG-PET/CT and CT although they were more conspicuous on PET images. Three cytologically confirmed metastases were hypermetabolic on PET, while two of those metastases were equivocal on CT.

  20. Plasma miR-324-3p and miR-1285 as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for early stage lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xujie; Wang, Yang; Zhao, Hua; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Xinwei; Su, Yanjun; Wang, Changli; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2016-01-01

    Background Specific biomarkers for early detection and outcome prediction of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) are still lacking. This study assessed the differentially expressed miRNAs as potential biomarkers for early stage LSCC. Results Base on the results of multi-phase study, we found that miR-324-3p was significantly up-regulated, whereas mir-1285 was significantly down-regulated in plasma of stage I LSCC patients compared to healthy controls. ROC analysis showed that AUC of miR-324-3p and miR-1285 were 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. The combination of these two miRNAs could further improve the diagnostic accuracy (AUC = 0.89). The multivariate analysis revealed that plasma miR-324-3p level was an independent prognostic predictor for early stage LSCC. Methods 395 patients and 195 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. We screened the differentially expressed plasma miRNAs using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) followed by three-phase qRT-PCR validation. We also evaluated the association of candidate miRNAs with overall survival of early stage LSCC patients. Finally, the target genes of the candidate miRNAs were analyzed using public available databases and bioinformatics methods. Conclusions The current study suggests that plasma miR-324-3p and miR-1285 levels could serve as LSCC early detection markers while miR-324-3p may serve as a prognostic marker for LSCC patients. PMID:27517633

  1. Nomogram and recursive partitioning analysis to predict overall survival in patients with stage IIB-III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shufei; Zhang, Wencheng; Ni, Wenjie; Xiao, Zefen; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Zongmei; Feng, Qinfu; Chen, Dongfu; Liang, Jun; Fang, Dekang; Mao, Yousheng; Gao, Shugeng; Li, Yexiong; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    We have developed statistical models for predicting survival in patients with stage IIB–III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and assessing the efficacy of adjuvant treatment. From a retrospective review of 3,636 patients, we created a database of 1,004 patients with stage IIB–III thoracic ESCC who underwent esophagectomy with or without postoperative radiation. Using a multivariate Cox regression model, we assessed the prognostic impact of clinical and histological factors on overall survival (OS). Logistic analysis was performed to identify factors to include in a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to predict 5-year OS. The nomogram was evaluated internally based on the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration plot. The median survival time in the training dataset was 30.9 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 33.9%. T stage, differentiated grade, adjuvant treatment, tumor location, lymph node metastatic ratio (LNMR), and the presence of vascular carcinomatous thrombi were statistically significant predictors of 5-year OS. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.70 (95% CI 0.67–0.73). RPA resulted in a three-class stratification: class 1, LNMR ≤ 0.15 with adjuvant treatment; class 2, LNMR ≤ 0.15 without adjuvant treatment and LNMR > 0.15 with adjuvant treatment; and class 3, LNMR > 0.15 without adjuvant treatment. The three classes were statistically significant for OS (P < 0.001). Thus, the nomogram and RPA models predicted the prognosis of stage IIB–III ESCC patients and could be used in decision-making and clinical trials. PMID:27487146

  2. Phase II Study of Chemoradiotherapy With 5-Fluorouracil and Cisplatin for Stage II-III Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: JCOG Trial (JCOG 9906)

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Ken; Muro, Kei; Minashi, Keiko; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ishikura, Satoshi; Boku, Narikazu; Takiuchi, Hiroya; Komatsu, Yoshito; Miyata, Yoshinori; Fukuda, Haruhiko

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: In this Phase II study, we evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for Stage II-III esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients and Methods: Patients with clinical Stage II-III (T1N1M0 or T2-3N0-1M0) thoracic ESCC were enrolled between April 2000 and March 2002. Chemotherapy comprised two courses of protracted infusion of 5-FU (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and 8-12, and 2-h infusion of CDDP (40 mg/m{sup 2}) on Days 1 and 8; this regimen was repeated every 5 weeks. Concurrent radiotherapy involved 60-Gy irradiation (30 fractions) for 8 weeks with a 2-week break. Responders received two courses of 5-FU (800 mg/m{sup 2}/day) on Days 1-5 and CDDP (80 mg/m{sup 2}) on Day 1. Final analysis was conducted in March 2007. Survival and late toxicities were monitored for 5 years. Results: The characteristics of the 76 patients enrolled were as follows: median age, 61 years; male/female, 68/8; performance status 0/1, 59/17 patients; Stage IIA/IIB/III, 26/12/38 patients. Of the 74 eligible patients, 46 (62.2%) achieved complete response. Median survival time was 29 months, with 3- and 5-year survival rates of 44.7% and 36.8%, respectively. Acute toxicities included Grade 3/4 esophagitis (17%), nausea (17%), hyponatremia (16%), and infection without neutropenia (12%). Late toxicities comprised Grade 3/4 esophagitis (13%), pericardial (16%) and pleural (9%) effusion, and radiation pneumonitis (4%), causing 4 deaths. Conclusions: CRT is effective for Stage II-III ESCC with manageable acute toxicities and can provide a nonsurgical treatment option. However, further improvement is required for reduction in late toxicity.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of a 14-gene risk score assay to target adjuvant chemotherapy in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua A; Billings, Paul; Ramsey, Scott D; Dumanois, Robert; Carlson, Josh J

    2014-05-01

    Life Technologies has developed a 14-gene molecular assay that provides information about the risk of death in early stage non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery. The assay can be used to identify patients at highest risk of mortality, informing subsequent treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this novel assay. Patients and Methods. We developed a Markov model to estimate life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs for testing versus standard care. Risk-group classification was based on assay-validation studies, and chemotherapy uptake was based on pre- and post-testing recommendations from a study of 58 physicians. We evaluated three chemotherapy-benefit scenarios: moderately predictive (base case), nonpredictive (i.e., the same benefit for each risk group), and strongly predictive. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results. In the base case, testing and standard-care strategies resulted in 6.81 and 6.66 life years, 3.76 and 3.68 QALYs, and $122,400 and $118,800 in costs, respectively. The ICER was $23,200 per QALY (stage I: $29,200 per QALY; stage II: $12,200 per QALY). The ICER ranged from "dominant" to $92,100 per QALY in the strongly predictive and nonpredictive scenarios. The model was most sensitive to the proportion of high-risk patients receiving chemotherapy and the high-risk hazard ratio. The 14-gene risk score assay strategy was cost-effective in 68% of simulations. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the 14-gene risk score assay may be a cost-effective alternative to standard guideline-based adjuvant chemotherapy decision making in early stage non-small cell lung cancer.

  4. KLF4 and PCNA identify stages of tumor initiation in a conditional model of cutaneous squamous epithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Conway C; Liu, Zhaoli; Li, Xingnan; Bailey, Sarah K; Nail, Clinton D; Foster, K Wade; Frost, Andra R; Ruppert, J Michael; Lobo-Ruppert, Susan M

    2005-12-01

    KLF4 is induced upon growth-arrest in vitro and during epithelial maturation in vivo, and is essential for proper cell fate specification of post-mitotic cells. In spite of a normal role in post-mitotic cells, expression is upregulated and constitutive in certain tumor types. KLF4 functions as an oncogene in vitro, and enforced expression in basal cells of mouse skin rapidly induces lesions similar to hyperplasia, dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Here we used conditional expression to characterize early steps in KLF4-mediated tumor initiation. In contrast to SCC-like lesions that result when using a conditional, keratin 14 promoter-dependent strategy, lower conditional expression achieved using a MMTV promoter induced only epidermal cycling within morphologically normal skin, a process we termed occult cell turnover. Surprisingly, KLF4-induced hyperplastic lesions showed increased transgene-derived mRNA and protein in maturing, PCNA-negative cells, a property of endogenous KLF4. In contrast, hyperplastic lesions induced by GLI1, a control, showed uniform transgene expression. In KLF4-induced dysplasia and SCC the complementarity of KLF4 and PCNA was replaced by concordance of the two proteins. These studies show that KLF4 transcripts are normally suppressed in cycling cells in a promoter-independent fashion, consistent with a post-transcriptional control, and reveal loss of this control in the transition from hyperplasia to dysplasia. Like the mouse tumors, human cutaneous SCCs and adjacent dysplasias frequently showed maturation-independence of KLF4, with co-expression of KLF4 and PCNA. A smaller subset of human SCCs showed complementarity of KLF4 and PCNA, similar to hyperplastic mouse skin. The results identify parallels between a mouse model and human primary tumors, and show that successive increases of KLF4 in the nuclei of basal keratinocytes leads to occult cell turnover followed by hyperplasia, dysplasia, and invasive SCC.

  5. Cetuximab and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Tongue Cancer

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 ...

  7. p16 expression independent of human papillomavirus is associated with lower stage and longer disease-free survival in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Satgunaseelan, Laveniya; Virk, Sohaib A; Lum, Trina; Gao, Kan; Clark, Jonathan R; Gupta, Ruta

    2016-08-01

    There is limited information regarding the incidence of p16 expression, its association with human papillomavirus (HPV) and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The role of p16 in OSCC is evaluated in 215 cases using tissue microarrays (TMAs). p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation were performed on TMAs following histopathology review of 215 patients with OSCC in the Sydney Head and Neck Cancer Institute database. Thirty-seven (17.2%) cases showed p16 expression without association with HPV. p16 expression significantly decreased with increasing pT category (p=0.002). p16 expression was associated with longer disease-specific survival on univariable analysis (p=0.044) but not on multivariable analysis adjusting for depth of invasion. Amongst patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, patients with p16 expression had significantly longer disease-free and overall survival. p16 expression was seen in early stage OSCCs and was associated with better survival following surgery and radiotherapy. While not an independent predictor of survival, p16 may mediate its effects by contributing to reduced proliferative capacity, leading to smaller tumour size and lower invasive potential.

  8. Bortezomib With or Without Irinotecan in Treating Patients With Locally Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-07

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  9. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  10. Association of global levels of histone modifications with recurrence-free survival in stage IIB and III esophageal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    I, Hoseok; Ko, Eunkyung; Kim, Yujin; Cho, Eun Yoon; Han, Joungho; Park, Joobae; Kim, Kwhanmien; Kim, Duk-Hwan; Shim, Young Mog

    2010-02-01

    This study was aimed at understanding the effects of histone modifications on recurrence-free survival (RFS) after esophagectomy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The acetylation of histone H3 lysine (H3K9Ac), histone H3 lysine 18 (H3K18Ac), and histone H4 lysine 12 (H4K12Ac), and the dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9diMe) and histone H4 arginine 3 (H4R3diMe) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 237 ESCCs. The K-means clustering algorithm was used to identify unique patterns of histone modifications. At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 109 (46%) of 237 patients had developed recurrence of disease. Mean global levels of H3K9Ac, H3K18Ac, H3K9diMe, H4K12Ac, and H4R3diMe were 81.5%, 65.1%, 80.3%, 45.9%, and 27.4%, respectively. In the analysis of individual histones, a 1% increase in the global level of H3K18Ac in pathologic stage III worsened RFS at 1.009 times [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.001-1.016; P = 0.03], after adjusting for age, sex, and operative method. Cluster analysis also showed significant effects of histone modifications on RFS. For stage IIB cancers, Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that RFS of cluster 1, with high global levels of H3K18Ac and H4R3diMe, was 2.79 times poorer (95% CI, 1.14-6.27; P = 0.008) than that of cluster 2, with low levels. RFS for stage III cancers was also poorer in cluster 1 than cluster 2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.10-5.34; P = 0.02). In conclusion, the present study suggests that global levels of histone modifications in ESCC may be an independent prognostic factor of RFS.

  11. Early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx: Radiotherapy vs. Trans-Oral Robotic Surgery (ORATOR) – study protocol for a randomized phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has markedly increased over the last three decades due to newly found associations with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Primary radiotherapy (RT) is the treatment of choice for OPSCC at most centers, and over the last decade, the addition of concurrent chemotherapy has led to a significant improvement in survival, but at the cost of increased acute and late toxicity. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has emerged as a promising alternative treatment, with preliminary case series demonstrating encouraging oncologic, functional, and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. However, comparisons of TORS and RT in a non-randomized fashion are susceptible to bias. The goal of this randomized phase II study is to compare QOL, functional outcomes, toxicity profiles, and survival following primary RT (± chemotherapy) vs. TORS (± adjuvant [chemo] RT) in patients with OPSCC. Methods/Design The target patient population comprises OPSCC patients who would be unlikely to require chemotherapy post-resection: Tumor stage T1-T2 with likely negative margins at surgery; Nodal stage N0-2, ≤3 cm in size, with no evidence of extranodal extension on imaging. Participants will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio between Arm 1 (RT ± chemotherapy) and Arm 2 (TORS ± adjuvant [chemo] RT). In Arm 1, patients with N0 disease will receive RT alone, whereas N1-2 patients will receive concurrent chemoradiation. In Arm 2, patients will undergo TORS along with selective neck dissections, which may be staged. Pathologic high-risk features will be used to determine the requirement for adjuvant radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy. The primary endpoint is QOL score using the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI), with secondary endpoints including survival, toxicity, other QOL outcomes, and swallowing function. A sample of 68 patients is required. Discussion This study, if successful, will provide a much-needed randomized

  12. The role of lymphoscintigraphy, sentinel mode biopsy and positron emission tomography in the staging of the neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Nicholas Charles

    This thesis explores the limitations of current imaging modalities in the evaluation of the clinically node negative (N0) neck in early oral squamous cell carcinoma and evaluates the utility of two new interventions. It will become evident that the use of clinical parameters and conventional imaging to detect clinically occult cervical lymph node metastases is an imprecise science. The presence of metastases in the neck is the single most important determinant of survival. Hitherto the lack of timely intervention in this regard may have been contributory in amplifying their effect upon survival. There is an obvious requirement for a more accurate technique to stage the neck in this patient group. Therefore the application of lymphoscintigraphy in combination with sentinel node biopsy (SNB), and positron emission tomography (PET) have been investigated. It appears that PET, whilst having a number of useful roles in the generic head and neck oncology patient, has little to contribute in the diagnosis of occult neck disease. In contra-distinction lymphoscintigraphy and SNB are not only feasible in the diagnosis of occult metastases, but also enhance our knowledge of lymphatic drainage from the oral cavity. This has, in some circumstances, led to the modification of initially prescribed treatment plans. Such is the current pace of technological advance that over the course of this research an entirely new imaging modality has emerged - PET/CT. Whilst it has not been possible to apply this retrospectively to the original patient population early experience of this novel technique in head and neck malignancy is explored and reported. The results of these initial applications are encouraging.

  13. Stages III and IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mouth: Three-Year Experience with Superselective Intraarterial Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin Prior to Definitive Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hirai, Toshinori; Korogi, Yukunori; Hamatake, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Baba, Yuji; Takahashi, Mutsumasa; Uji, Yasuyoshi; Taen, Akira

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the 3-year experience with superselective intraarterial chemotherapy prior to definitive treatment for stages III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth. Methods: Twenty-two patients prospectively received superselective intraarterial chemotherapy using relatively low-dose cisplatin via a transfemoral approach. The locations of the tumors were the tongue (n= 12), gingiva (n= 5), buccal mucosa (n= 2), hard palate (n= 1), floor of the mouth (n= 1), and lip (n= 1). After intraarterial chemotherapy, 21 patients underwent surgery (n= 14), radiation therapy (n= 6), or both (n= 1). The survival rate of 25 patients who underwent surgery with/without radiation therapy until 1992 at Kumamoto University Hospital was also evaluated as a historical control. The survival curve was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method, and the statistical difference between survival curves was determined with the generalized Wilcoxon test. Results: The overall response rate was 95% [complete response (tumor completely resolved), 24%; partial response (tumor reduction {>=}50%), 71%]. Fifty-two intraarterial infusions were performed without any catheter-related complications. Mild and transient local toxicity such as edema or mucositis of the infused area was relatively common. One patient died of renal failure from cisplatin. After a median follow-up of 20 months (range 2-41 months), the estimated 3-year survival rate for patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery was 91%. The survival of the patients who underwent intraarterial chemotherapy plus surgery tended to be longer than that of the historical control. Conclusions: Early tumor reduction without delay of subsequent treatments can be obtained by intraarterial chemotherapy while minimizing complications and possibly improving survival. Further investigations of long-term survival with larger series need to be performed.

  14. Strong expression of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 independently predicts shortened disease-free survival in patients with early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Harada, Yoshikazu; Izumi, Hiroto; Noguchi, Hirotsugu; Kuma, Akihiro; Kawatsu, Yuichiro; Kimura, Tomoko; Kitada, Shohei; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Wang, Ke-Yong; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Hijioka, Hiroshi; Miyawaki, Akihiko; Oya, Ryoichi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Kohno, Kimitoshi; Yamada, Sohsuke

    2016-01-01

    The polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (GalNAc-Ts) family of enzymes regulates the critical initial steps of mucin-type O-glycosylation. Among GalNAc-Ts that may significantly influence cancer biology, thus affecting cell differentiation, adhesion, invasion, and/or metastasis, GalNAc-T3 exhibits a high expression in several human cancers, closely associated with tumor progression and a poor prognosis. However, the expression pattern of GalNAc-T3 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains obscure. Since postoperative recurrence of even early stage OSCC (ESOSCC) occurs at an early phase, significantly affecting their clinical course and worse outcome, the identification of clinically significant accurate biomarkers is needed. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between the immunohistochemical GalNAc-T3 expression and various clinicopathological characteristics and recurrence using 110 paraffin-embedded tumor samples obtained from patients with surgically resected ESOSCC (T1-2N0). Recurrence was recognized in 37 of 110 (33.6 %) patients. The GalNAc-T3 expression was considered to be strongly positive when 20 % or more of the cancer cells showed positive cytoplasmic staining. Consequently, a strong expression of GalNAc-T3 was observed in 40 patients (36.4 %), showing a close relationship to poor differentiation, the presence of lymphatic and vascular invasion, and recurrence. Univariate and multivariate analyses further demonstrated that the patients with a strong GalNAc-T3+ status had markedly lower disease-free survival (DFS) rates, especially within the first 2 years postoperatively. Therefore, GalNAc-T3 might play a role in the pathogenesis of ESOSCC recurrence, and its immunohistochemical detection potentially predicts a shorter DFS and may be a useful parameter for providing clinical management against ESOSCC in the early postoperative phase.

  15. Soy Isoflavones in Preventing Head and Neck Cancer Recurrence in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-01

    Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  16. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-19

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  17. Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, Cetuximab, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  18. Phase 2 Study of Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and Concurrent Radiation for Technically Resectable Stage III-IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Inohara, Hidenori; Takenaka, Yukinori; Yoshii, Tadashi; Nakahara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Tomiyama, Yoichiro; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Osamu; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Sumida, Iori; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: We investigated the efficacy and safety of weekly low-dose docetaxel and cisplatin therapy concurrent with conventionally fractionated radiation in patients with technically resectable stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Between March 2004 and October 2011, we enrolled 117 patients, of whom 116 were analyzable (43 had oropharyngeal cancer, 54 had hypopharyngeal cancer, and 19 had laryngeal cancer), and 85 (73%) had stage IV disease. Radiation consisted of 66 Gy in 33 fractions. Docetaxel, 10 mg/m{sup 2}, followed by cisplatin, 20 mg/m{sup 2}, administered on the same day were given once a week for 6 cycles. The primary endpoint was overall complete response (CR) rate after chemoradiation therapy. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in oropharyngeal cancer was examined by PCR. Results: Of 116 patients, 82 (71%) completed treatment per protocol; 102 (88%) received the full radiation therapy dose; and 90 (78%) and 12 (10%) patients received 6 and 5 chemotherapy cycles, respectively. Overall CR rate was 71%. After median follow-up of 50.9 months (range: 15.6-113.9 months for surviving patients), 2-year and 4-year overall survival rates were 82% and 68%, respectively. Cumulative 2-year and 4-year local failure rates were 27% and 28%, respectively, whereas distant metastasis rates were 15% and 22%, respectively. HPV status in oropharyngeal cancer was not associated with treatment efficacy. Acute toxicity included grade 3 and 4 in-field mucositis in 73% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas myelosuppression and renal injury were minimal. No patients died of toxicity. Feeding tube dependence in 8% and tracheostomy in 1% of patients were evident at 2 years postchemoradiation therapy in patients who survived without local treatment failure. Conclusions: Local control and survival with this regimen were satisfactory. Although acute toxicity, such as mucositis, was common, late toxicity, such as laryngoesophageal

  19. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-16

    Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  20. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  1. Induction of cytochrome p-450-ia1 in juvenile fish by creosote-contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoor, W.P.; Williams, D.E.; Takahashi, N.

    1991-01-01

    Intact sediment cores, including their surface layers, were used in simulated field exposure tests of juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to creosote-contaminated sediments. Mixed-function oxygenase activity was induced in the fish after 43 days of exposure to environmentally realistic, sublethal concentrations of creosote-related compounds. An average 50-fold induction in the cytochrome P-450-IA1 was found in the liver in the absence of any histopathological lesions. The possibility that a threshold level for proliferative liver changes was not reached is discussed in the light of the observed biochemical activation.

  2. Cytochrome P450IA1 induction and localization in endothelium of vertebrate (teleost) heart.

    PubMed

    Stegeman, J J; Miller, M R; Hinton, D E

    1989-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high levels of cytochrome P450 can occur in cardiac microsomes of vertebrates [Mol. Pharmacol. 21:517-526, (1982)]. Here we identify the dominant cardiac P450 in the marine fish scup as P450E, a teleost representative of P450IA1, and we describe its restricted cellular localization in the heart. Treatment of scup with beta-naphthoflavone produced an unusually strong (10-fold) induction of spectrally measured P450 in cardiac microsomes, with specific content reaching levels (0.5 nmol/mg) similar to those induced in scup liver. Microsomal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities, catalytic functions of scup P450E, were induced in parallel with P450 content. Similar induction was seen in both atrium and ventricle. Immunoblot analysis with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3, specific to scup P450E and other vertebrate P450IA1 proteins, showed that this hydrocarbon-inducible P450 is the dominant and possibly sole P450 form in heart microsomes of experimentally induced animals. Immunohistochemical analysis of scup heart sections (2-4-microns) with monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 revealed that P450E was detectable only in endothelial cells of the endocardium and of the coronary vasculature. A similar endothelial cell localization of the monoclonal antibody 1-12-3 epitope was observed in heart of rainbow trout, induced with beta-naphthoflavone, indicating a general nature for the endothelial localization of induced cardiac P450. Morphometric analysis showed that endothelium could constitute 8-9% of the volume of teleost heart, from which we calculate that P450IA1 could account for as much as 25% of the endothelial cell microsomal protein. Heart microsomes of untreated animals from contaminated environments also contained high levels of P450E, indicating that induction like that caused by beta-naphthoflavone could occur with chemicals in the environment. Strongly induced P450E (P450IA1) in endothelium could play a critical

  3. ACTOplus Met XR in Treating Patients With Stage I-IV Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer Undergoing Definitive Treatment

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-10

    Oral Cavity Neoplasm; Oropharyngeal Neoplasm; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7

  4. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer or Salivary Gland Cancer That Is Metastatic and/or Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-07

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharynx Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage III Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Antifungal properties of an actinomycin D-producing strain, Streptomyces sp. IA1, isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Goudjal, Yacine; Riba, Amar; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2015-02-01

    An actinomycete strain named IA1, which produced an antimicrobial compound, was isolated from a Saharan soil in In Amenas, Algeria. The study of the 16S rDNA sequence of this strain permitted to relate it to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (99.93% of similarity). Strain IA1 exhibited strong activity against a wide range of plant pathogenic fungi. One bioactive compound produced in large amounts (46.7 mg L(-1)  day(-1) ), named YA, was isolated and purified by TLC and reverse phase HPLC. The structure elucidation of the pure substance, using combined data from UV visible, NMR spectra, and mass spectrometry, permitted to identify it as actinomycin D, and was thus found for the first time in S. mutabilis related species. The biocontrol abilities of the strain IA1 and compound YA were evaluated through two diseases, i.e., chocolate spot of field bean and Fusarium wilt of flax. The occurrence of the two fungal diseases was effectively reduced. The reduction of chocolate spot disease symptoms reached 80 and 91.7% with IA1 and YA seedlings pretreatments, respectively. Soil pretreatment with IA1 or YA also allowed to reduce Fusarium wilt disease impact by almost 60%.

  6. Oral Rigosertib for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Penile Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Webb, Julie L; Burns, Rachel E; Brown, Holly M; LeRoy, Bruce E; Kosarek, Carrie E

    2009-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a relatively common, malignant neoplasm of dogs and cats that can arise in a variety of locations. The gross appearance of SCC can be variable and nonspecific, so definitive diagnosis requires microscopic examination of the tissue (cytology or histology). Several treatment modalities exist, but surgical excision, if possible, is regarded as the best treatment option. Early diagnosis and treatment of SCC are key because small, early-stage tumors are the most amenable to treatment and carry the best prognosis.

  8. Induction of cytochrome P450IA1 gene expression in rat epidermis and human keratinocytes by. beta. -napthoflavone and benzanthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, I.U.; Mukhtar, H.; Bickers, D.R.; Haqqi, T.M. )

    1991-03-15

    Cytochrome P450IA1 (P450IA1) plays a major role in the bioactivation of procarcinogens in various tissues including skin. However, factors controlling the expression of P450IA1 gene message in mammalian skin are unknown. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers was employed to study the expression of P450IA1 mRNA transcripts in rat epidermis and human keratinocytes (HK) treated with {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}NF) and benzanthracene (BA). Total RNA was extracted from the epidermis of control and inducer-treated 4-day-old and adult Sprague Dawley rats, and from control and inducer-treated HL. cDNAs were synthesized using random primers and reverse transcriptase. PCR products were analyzed on agarose gel and quantitated by densitometry. Inducer treatment of rats and HK resulted in several-fold increases in aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity. The level of P450IA1 gene message increased 2-5-fold in treated animals as compared to controls; higher basal level and inducibility in adult than in 4-day-old rats. This induction occurred as early as 4 h after {beta}NF application, reached a maximum at 16 h and returned to basal levels by 36 h. Exposure to {beta}NF and BA resulted in 2-3-fold increase in gene message in HK. Northern blot analysis complemented PCR data. These results indicate that in mammalian skin P450IA1 gene expression is increased by the inducers of epidermal AHH activity.

  9. Genetic Testing in Screening Patients With Stage IB-IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Has Been or Will Be Removed by Surgery (The ALCHEMIST Screening Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-12

    Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIB Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  10. Multivariate Analysis of Para-Aortic Lymph Node Recurrence After Definitive Radiotherapy for Stage IB-IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Chen, H.-C.; Fang, F.-M.; Huang, Y.-J.; Wang, C.-Y.; Hsu, H.-C.

    2008-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the pretreatment risk factors of para-aortic lymph node (PALN) recurrence after primary radiotherapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 1992 and January 2006, the data from 758 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were retrospectively analyzed. No patient had undergone PALN radiotherapy as their initial treatment. PALN recurrence was diagnosed by computed tomography. PALN relapse-free status was determined clinically or radiographically. We analyzed the actuarial rates of PALN recurrence using Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analyses were performed with Cox regression models. Results: Of the 758 patients, 38 (5%) and 42 (6%) had isolated and nonisolated PALN recurrences after a median follow-up of 50 months (range, 2-159 months), respectively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rate after PALN recurrence was 35% and 28%, respectively. A squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) level >40 ng/mL (p <0.001), advanced parametrial involvement (score 4-6; p = 0.002), and the presence of pelvic lymphadenopathy (p = 0.007) were independent factors associated with PALN relapse on multivariate analysis. The 5-year PALN recurrence rate in patients with a SCC-Ag level >40 ng/mL, SCC-Ag level of 20-40 ng/mL, parametrial score of 4-6, pelvic lymphadenopathy, and no risk factors was 57%, 22%, 34%, 37%, and 9%, respectively. Conclusions: Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix and a high SCC-Ag level, pelvic lymphadenopathy, or advanced PM involvement were predisposed to PALN recurrence after definitive radiotherapy. More intensive follow-up schedules are suggested for early detection and salvage in high-risk patients.

  11. Transoral Robotic Surgery in Treating Patients With Benign or Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-07

    Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage

  12. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin Before Radiation Therapy With Paclitaxel in Treating HPV-Positive Patients With Stage III-IV Oropharynx, Hypopharynx, or Larynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx

  13. A phase III, multicenter randomized controlled trial of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy paclitaxel plus cisplatin versus surgery alone for stage IIA–IIIB esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yan; Liu, Xianben; Zhang, Ruixiang; Wang, Zongfei; Sun, Haibo; Liu, Shilei

    2017-01-01

    Background The survival benefits of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains controversial. The surgical procedure was not well defined in NAC strategy, in past trials. The different surgical procedure and different levels of lymphadenectomy may decrease the survival benefits from NAC. The new chemotherapy regimen with paclitaxel is promising. The purpose of this study is to confirm the superiority of paclitaxel, cisplatin and McKeown esophagectomy with total two-field lymphadenectomy compared with surgery alone for ESCC. Methods A two-arm phase III trial was launched in June 2015. A total of 528 patients will be recruited from eight Chinese institutions within 2.5 years. The overall survival (OS) is the primary endpoint, and the secondary endpoints include disease-free survival (DFS), R0 resection rate, complication rate, perioperation mortality, days of hospitalization, quality of life (QOL), NAC response rate, pathologic response rate, toxicities of NAC, prognostic factors, predictive factors, progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse events. Discussion The study will provide the final conclusion of NAC for ESCC in China. Trial registration NCT02442440 (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/). PMID:28203424

  14. International trial of adjuvant therapy in high risk stage I non-squamous cell carcinoma identified by a 14-gene prognostic signature.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Johannes R; Mann, Michael J; Jablons, David M

    2013-06-01

    There is widespread agreement amongst clinical oncologists that more refined risk-stratification in early-stage lung cancer patients beyond conventional TNM staging is needed. Over the past decade, a number of molecular prognostic signatures have been designed to meet this need by correlating patterns in the differences in gene expression or modification to patient prognosis. Unfortunately, the majority of proposed signatures are not amenable to practical widespread implementation or have not yet undergone large-scale, rigorous clinical validation. A practical 14-gene prognostic signature that has undergone large-scale blinded independent validation is now ready for widespread clinical use. An international clinical trial is underway that has been designed to document the precise degree of benefit derived from adjuvant therapy in high-risk stage I patients identified by the 14-gene prognostic assay.

  15. A Prospective Evaluation of Staging and Target Volume Definition of Lymph Nodes by {sup 18}FDG PET/CT in Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Thoracic Esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Wen; Fu Xiaolong; Zhang Yingjian; Xiang Jiaqing; Shen Lei; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To determine an optimal standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold for detecting lymph node (LN) metastases in esophageal cancer using {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computer tomography ({sup 18}FDG PET/CT) and to define the resulting nodal target volume, using histopathology as a 'gold standard.' Methods: Sixteen patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma who underwent radical esophagectomy and three-field LN dissection after {sup 18}FDG PET/CT and CT scans were enrolled into this study. Locations of LN groups were recorded according to a uniform LN map. Diagnostic performance of different SUV thresholds was assessed by receiver operating characteristic analysis. The optimal cutoff SUV was determined by plotting the false-negative rate (FNR) and false-positive rate (FPR), the sum of both error rates (FNR+FPR), and accuracy against a hypothetical SUV threshold. For each patient, nodal gross tumor volumes (GTVNs) were generated with CT alone (GTVNCT), PET/CT (GTVNPET), and pathologic data (GTVNpath). GTVNCT or GTVNPET was compared with GTVNpath by means of a conformity index (CI), which is the intersection of the two GTVNs divided by the sum of them minus the intersection, e.g., CI{sub CT} and {sub path} = GTVN{sub CT} and {sub path}/(GTVN{sub CT}+ GTVN{sub path} - GTVN{sub CT} and {sub path}). Results: LN metastases occurred in 21 LN groups among the 144 specimens taken from the 16 patients. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9017 {+-} 0.0410. The plot of error rates showed a minimum of FNR+FPR for an SUV of 2.36, at which the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.19%, 95.93%, and 93.06%, respectively, whereas those of CT were 33.33%, 94.31%, and 85.42% (p values: 0.0117, 0.7539, and 0.0266). Mean GTVN{sub CT}, GTVN{sub PET}, and GTVN{sub path} were 1.52 {+-} 2.38, 2.82 {+-} 4.51, and 2.68 {+-} 4.16cm{sup 3}, respectively. Mean CI{sub CT} and {sub path} and CI{sub PET} and {sub path

  16. Programmed cell death‐ligand 1 (PD‐L1) expression and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification in stage III/IV lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQC)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qinxiang; Sun, Yu; Yu, Sifan; Bai, Hua; Zhao, Jun; Zhuo, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to explore programmed cell death‐ligand‐1 (PD‐L1) expression and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) amplification in stage IIIB/IV lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQC). Correlations between PD‐L1 and FGFR1, and with clinicopathological characteristics, efficacy of platinum‐based chemotherapy, and prognosis were analyzed. Methods One hundred and twenty‐eight consecutive stage III/IV SQC patients were enrolled in this study from 2009 to 2014. Seventy‐eight patients received platinum‐based chemotherapy. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess PD‐L1 expression and fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied to detect FGFR1 amplification. Results PD‐L1 expression was detected in 61.7% (79/128) of lung SQC patients. Smokers had significantly higher PD‐L1 expression rates than non‐smokers (66.1% vs. 44.0%, P = 0.042, respectively). The objective response and disease control rates for platinum‐based chemotherapy were not significantly different between PD‐L1 negative and positive patients (43.3% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.434; 80.0% vs. 78.7% P = 0.840, respectively); however, overall survival in PD‐L1‐negative patients was significantly longer than in PD‐L1‐positive patients (41.5 vs. 19.3 months, P = 0.001). Twenty‐five percent (32/128) of patients displayed FGFR1 amplification, with a lower rate in stage III patients compared to stage IV (17.1% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.013, respectively). There was no significant difference in FGFR1 amplification levels between overall response, disease control or overall survival rates. No correlation was observed between PD‐L1 expression and FGFR1 amplification (P = 0.916). Conclusion PD‐L1 expression may function as a prognostic factor in Chinese stage III/IV SQC patients. FGFR1 amplification is more prevalent in late stage SQC patients but does not predict chemotherapy response. There is no apparent correlation between PD‐L1 expression

  17. Construction of a pathological risk model of occult lymph node metastases for prognostication by semi-automated image analysis of tumor budding in early-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Nicklas Juel; Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Lelkaitis, Giedrius; Kiss, Katalin; Charabi, Birgitte; Specht, Lena; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-02-14

    It is challenging to identify at diagnosis those patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), who have a poor prognosis and those that have a high risk of harboring occult lymph node metastases. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized and objective digital scoring method to evaluate the predictive value of tumor budding. We developed a semi-automated image-analysis algorithm, Digital Tumor Bud Count (DTBC), to evaluate tumor budding. The algorithm was tested in 222 consecutive patients with early-stage OSCC and major endpoints were overall (OS) and progression free survival (PFS). We subsequently constructed and cross-validated a binary logistic regression model and evaluated its clinical utility by decision curve analysis. A high DTBC was an independent predictor of both poor OS and PFS in a multivariate Cox regression model. The logistic regression model was able to identify patients with occult lymph node metastases with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.89, P <0.001) and a 10-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.79. Compared to other known histopathological risk factors, the DTBC had a higher diagnostic accuracy. The proposed, novel risk model could be used as a guide to identify patients who would benefit from an up-front neck dissection.

  18. How Are Squamous and Basal Cell Skin Cancers Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Staging Tests for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers Most skin cancers are brought to a ... non-cancerous) without the need for a biopsy. Skin biopsy If the doctor thinks that a suspicious ...

  19. Esophagoscopy in Evaluating Treatment in Patients With Stage I-IV Head and Neck Cancer Who Are Undergoing Radiation Therapy and/or Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-09

    Stage I Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  20. A matched cohort comparison of mTHPC-mediated photodynamic therapy and trans-oral surgery of early stage oral cavity squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakullukcu, Baris; Stoker, Sharon D; Wildeman, Anne P E; Copper, Marcel P; Wildeman, Maarten A; Tan, I Bing

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of early stage oral cavity tumors have been thoroughly reported. However, statistical comparison of PDT to the surgical treatment is not available in published literature. We have identified and matched cohorts of patients with early stage oral cavity cancers undergoing surgery (n = 43) and PDT (n = 55) from a single institute experience. The groups are matched demographically and had the same pre-treatment screening and follow-up schedule. Both groups consisted only of tumors thinner than 5 mm to ensure comparability. The endpoints were local disease free survival, disease free survival, overall survival and response to initial treatment. Local disease free survival at 5 years were 67 and 74 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 1.9 (p = 0.26), multivariable HR = 2.7 (p = 0.13)]. Disease free survival at 5 years are 47 and 53 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [univariate HR = 0.8 (p = 0.52), multivariable HR = 0.75 (p = 0.45)]. Overall survival was 83 and 75 % for PDT and surgery groups, respectively [(univariate HR = 0.5 (p = 0.19), multivariable HR = 0.5 (p = 0.17)]. In the PDT group, six patients (11 %) and in the surgery group 11 patients (26 %) had to receive additional treatments after the initial. All of the tested parameters did not have statistical significant difference. Although there is probably a selection bias due to the non-randomized design, this study shows that PDT of early stage oral cavity cancer is comparable in terms of disease control and survival to trans-oral resection and can be offered as an alternative to surgical treatment.

  1. Aurora-A signaling is activated in advanced stage of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck cancer and requires osteopontin to stimulate invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Su, Li-Jen; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Shiu, Li-Yen; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Fang, Fu-Min; Yu, Chun-Chieh; Su, Huei-Ting; Chen, Chang-Han

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significances, cellular effects, and molecular mechanisms by which Aurora-A mediate its invasive effects in HNSCC are still unclear. Here, we found that Aurora-A expression is significantly higher in tumor tissues on 14-microarray of HNSCC in Oncomine-databases. The activity of Aurora-A was not only found in HNSCC specimens, but also significantly correlated with advanced-T-classification, positive-N-classification, TNM-stage and the poor 5-year survival rate. HNSCC-microarray profile showed that osteopontin and Aurora-A exhibited positive correlation. Stimulation of HNC cells with osteopontin results in an increase in Aurora-A expression where localized at the centrosome. Functionally, Aurora-A had the abilities to stimulate cell motility in HNC cells through increase ERK1/2 activity under osteopontin stimulation. Conversely, depletion of Aurora-A expression by siRNAs suppressed ERK1/2 activity as well as inhibition of cell invasiveness. Treatment with anti-CD44 antibodies in HNC cells not only caused a decrease of mRNA/protein of Aurora-A and ERK1/2 activity upon osteopontin stimulation, but also affected the abilities of Aurora-A-elicited cell motility. Finally, immunohistochemical/Western-blotting analysis of human aggressive HNSCC specimens showed a significant positively correlation between osteopontin-Aurora-A and ERK1/2. These findings suggest that Aurora-A is not only an important prognostic factor but also a new therapeutic target in the osteopontin/CD44/ERK pathway for HNSCC treatment. PMID:24810160

  2. Induction therapy with cetuximab plus docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (ETPF) in patients with resectable nonmetastatic stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx. A GERCOR phase II ECHO-07 study.

    PubMed

    Chibaudel, Benoist; Lacave, Roger; Lefevre, Marine; Soussan, Patrick; Antoine, Martine; Périé, Sophie; Belloc, Jean-Baptiste; Banal, Alain; Albert, Sébastien; Chabolle, Frédéric; Céruse, Philippe; Baril, Philippe; Gatineau, Michel; Housset, Martin; Moukoko, Rachel; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; de Gramont, Aimery; Bonnetain, Franck; Lacau St Guily, Jean

    2015-05-01

    Induction TPF regimen is a standard treatment option for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oropharynx. The efficacy and safety of adding cetuximab to induction TPF (ETPF) therapy was evaluated. Patients with nonmetastatic resectable stage III/IV SCC of the oropharynx were treated with weekly cetuximab followed the same day by docetaxel and cisplatin and by a continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil on days 1-5 (every 3 weeks, 3 cycles). The primary endpoint was clinical and radiological complete response (crCR) of primary tumor at 3 onths. Secondary endpoints were crCR rates, overall response, pathological CR, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Forty-two patients were enrolled, and 41 received ETPF. The all nine planned cetuximab doses and the full three doses of planned chemotherapy were completed in 31 (76%) and 36 (88%) patients, respectively. Twelve (29%) patients required dose reduction. The crCR of primary tumor at the completion of therapy was observed in nine (22%) patients. ETPF was associated with a tumor objective response rate (ORR) of 58%. The most frequent grade 3-4 toxicities were as follows: nonfebrile neutropenia (39%), febrile neutropenia (19%), diarrhea (10%), and stomatitis (12%). Eighteen (44%) patients experienced acne-like skin reactions of any grade. One toxic death occurred secondary to chemotherapy-induced colitis with colonic perforation. This phase II study reports an interesting response rate for ETPF in patients with moderately advanced SCC of the oropharynx. The schedule of ETPF evaluated in this study cannot be recommended at this dosage.

  3. In Vivo{sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Lactate in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Koong, Albert; Lieskovsky, Yee Yie; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Graves, Edward; Pinto, Harlan; Brown, J. Martin; Spielman, Daniel

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate in vivo{sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging of lactate for assessing tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancers and to determine its utility in predicting the response and outcomes. Methods and Materials: Volume-localized lactate-edited {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 1.5 T was performed in vivo on involved neck nodes and control subcutaneous tissues in 36 patients with Stage IV head and neck cancer. The signal intensities (SIs) of lactate, choline, and creatine and the choline/creatine ratio were measured. The tumor partial pressure of oxygen (pO{sub 2}) was obtained in the same lymph node before MRS. Patients were treated with either two cycles of induction chemotherapy (tirapazamine, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil) followed by simultaneous chemoradiotherapy or the same regimen without tirapazamine. The lactate SI and the choline/creatine ratio correlated with the tumor pO{sub 2}, nodal response, and locoregional control. Results: The lactate SI was greater for the involved nodes (median, 0.25) than for the subcutaneous tissue (median, 0.04; p = 0.07). No significant correlation was found between the lactate SI and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 0.46 {+-} 0.10 for hypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} {<=}10 mm Hg, n = 15] vs. 0.36 {+-} 0.07 for nonhypoxic nodes [pO{sub 2} >10 mm Hg, n = 21], p = 0.44). A significant correlation was found between the choline/creatine ratios and tumor pO{sub 2} (mean, 2.74 {+-} 0.34 for hypoxic nodes vs. 1.78 {+-} 0.31 for nonhypoxic nodes, p = 0.02). No correlation was found between the lactate SI and the complete nodal response (p = 0.52) or locoregional control rates. Conclusions: The lactate SI did not correlate with tumor pO{sub 2}, treatment response, or locoregional control. Additional research is needed to refine this technique.

  4. Differential cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes IA1 and IIB1 determined by their way of membrane incorporation.

    PubMed

    Balvers, W G; Boersma, M G; Veeger, C; Rietjens, I M

    1992-09-15

    The cytochrome P-450-dependent O-dealkylation of alkoxyresorufins was used to study the effect of cumene hydroperoxide on cytochrome P-450 IIB1 and IA1 in microsomal and reconstituted systems. In liver microsomal systems from respectively phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene pretreated male Wistar rats, cytochrome P-450 IIB1-dependent pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation appeared to be more sensitive to cumene hydroperoxide treatment than cytochrome P-450 IA1-dependent ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylation. This phenomenon was also observed when the cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of P-450 IIB1 and IA1 was studied in an isosafrole pretreated rat liver microsomal system. The decrease in alkoxy-O-dealkylating activities appeared to proceed by destruction of the cytochrome P-450 component of the enzyme system. Purification and reconstitution of the enzyme system components in a system in which the isolated proteins were not incorporated into a membrane resulted in the disappearance of the difference in sensitivity between the two P-450 enzymes. However, in a reconstituted system with membrane incorporated proteins, again cytochrome P-450 IIB1 expressed a higher sensitivity towards cumene hydroperoxide than cytochrome P-450 IA1. From this it was concluded that the differential cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity of cytochrome P-450 IIB1 and IA1 is not caused by an intrinsic difference in their sensitivity but by a differential effect of membrane incorporation on their cumene hydroperoxide sensitivity.

  5. S0819: Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab and/or Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Stage IV or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-16

    Recurrent Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IV Lung Adenocarcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma

  6. Comparison of Four Cisplatin-Based Radiochemotherapy Regimens for Nonmetastatic Stage III/IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck;Head-and-neck cancer; Cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy; Toxicity; Treatment outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Rades, Dirk; Kronemann, Stefanie; Meyners, Thekla; Bohlen, Guenther; Tribius, Silke; Kazic, Nadja; Schroeder, Ursula; Hakim, Samer G.; Schild, Steven E.; Dunst, Juergen

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of four cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy regimens in 311 patients with Stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: Concurrent chemotherapy consisted of three courses of cisplatin 100 mg/m{sup 2} on Day 1 (Group A, n = 74), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group B, n = 49), two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 plus 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group C, n = 102), or two courses of cisplatin 20 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1-5 (Group D, n = 86). The groups were retrospectively compared for toxicity and outcomes, and 11 additional factors were evaluated for outcomes. Results: No significant difference was observed among the groups regarding radiation-related acute oral mucositis and radiation-related late toxicities. Acute Grade 3 skin toxicity was significantly more frequent in Group B than in the patients of the other three groups (p = .013). The chemotherapy-related Grade 3 nausea/vomiting rate was 24% for Group A, 8% for Group B, 9% for Group C, and 6% for Group D (p = .003). The corresponding Grade 3 nephrotoxicity rates were 8%, 1%, 2%, and 1% (p = .019). The corresponding Grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity rates were 35%, 41%, 19%, and 21% (p = .027). Chemotherapy could be completed in 50%, 59%, 74%, and 83% of the Group A, B, C, and D patients, respectively (p = .002). Toxicity-related radiotherapy breaks occurred in 39%, 43%, 21%, and 15% of Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .005). The 3-year locoregional control rate was 67%, 72%, 60%, and 59% for Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively (p = .48). The corresponding 3-year metastasis-free survival rates were 67%, 74%, 63%, and 79% (p = .31), and the corresponding 3-year survival rates were 60%, 63%, 50%, and 71% (p = .056). On multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance status, histologic grade, T/N category, preradiotherapy hemoglobin level

  7. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, Carolina Barbosa de Sousa; Balassiano, Laila Klotz de Almeida; Pinto, Julyana Calegari; de Souza, Flávia Crespo Schueler; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Treu, Curt Mafra

    2016-01-01

    Although subungual squamous cell carcinoma is rare, it is the most common primary malignant neoplasms in this location. The higher incidence occurs in the fingernails, but involvement of the toenails is also possible. Subungual squamous cell carcinoma often looks like other more common benign lesions, such as fungal infection, onychomycosis, or viral wart. These factors, together with a general lack of awareness of this disease among physicians, often result in delayed diagnosis. Therefore, it is underdiagnosed, with few reports in the literature. The authors present a case of a man with a diagnosis of subungual squamous cell carcinoma in the hallux, without bone involvement, which was submitted to the appropriate surgical treatment. PMID:28099608

  8. Induction of cytochrome P450IA1 in rat colon and liver by indole-3-carbinol and 5,6-benzoflavone.

    PubMed

    Vang, O; Jensen, M B; Autrup, H

    1990-08-01

    It is known that consumption of cruciferous vegetables protects against the chemical induction of cancer in many organs. It has been suggested that this protection is mediated through an effect on the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system. This system is responsible for the activation of a number of chemical carcinogens to their ultimate forms. In the present study, the effect of indole-3-carbinol (I3C) and 5,6-benzoflavone (5,6BF) on the expression of cytochrome P450IA1 in rat colon and liver has been investigated. Cytochrome P450IA1 mRNA was induced in colon following a single oral administration of I3C or 5,6BF. A biphasic induction profile was obtained with maxima at 4 and 16 h post-administration. Both inducers caused an approximately 2-fold increase in P450IA1 mRNA at 4 h and a 10-fold increase at 16 h. In contrast, both cytochrome P450IA1 and IA2 mRNAs was increased over the control between 4 and 24 h. The total amount of P450IA mRNAs in liver at 4 and 16 h was increased about 2- and 4-fold respectively by I3C; 5,6BF induced the P450IA mRNAs 4- and 5-fold respectively. The expression of cytochrome P450IA1 and IA2 is induced by I3C and several flavones present in cruciferous vegetables. This suggests that one of the protective effects of cruciferous vegetables in the reduction of chemically induced cancer may be regulation of cytochrome P450s involved in the metabolism of the chemical carcinogens.

  9. Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy Followed by Paclitaxel and Carboplatin in Treating Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-16

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  10. Comparison of Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage III or Stage IV Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-30

    Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma, Variant With Squamous Differentiation; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage III Uterine Corpus Cancer

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Ia1a, a New Strain for Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid and Exopolysaccharide Production

    PubMed Central

    Cress, Brady F.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the 4.092-Mb high-quality draft genome assembly of a newly isolated poly-γ-glutamic acid–producing strain, Bacillus subtilis Ia1a. The genome sequence is considered a critical tool to facilitate the engineering of improved production strains. Exopolysaccharides and many industrially important enzymes can be produced by this new strain utilizing different carbon sources. PMID:27979935

  12. Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to squamous cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotoulas, Christophoros; Panagiotou, Ioannis; Tsipas, Panteleimon; Koutoulakis, Emmanouil

    2015-06-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone is a disorder of impaired water excretion caused by the inability to suppress secretion of antidiuretic hormone. It has been commonly associated with small cell carcinoma. The association of this syndrome with squamous cell lung carcinoma has rarely been reported, with only 4 cases over the past two decades in the English literature. We describe the case of a 75-year-old Caucasian male who developed the syndrome after a right pneumonectomy for down-staged squamous cell lung cancer previously treated with neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  13. HPV-Related Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Andrzej; Szylberg, Łukasz

    Since more than 5 years, it becomes evident that there is a new group of patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck area, namely human papillomavirus (HPV)-related (caused) tumors. As clinical statistics indicate, those patients have better prognosis, even despite more advanced stage compared to those with HPV-negative tumors. In fact, as a surrogate of HPV infection for clinical studies, an immunohistochemical expression of p16 protein is used. In the following chapter, the spectrum of squamous cell carcinomas variants with indication of the percentage cases with proved HPV infection will be presented.

  14. Anogenital squamous cell carcinoma in neglected patient.

    PubMed

    Svecova, D; Havrankova, M; Weismanova, E; Babal, P

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) are arguably the second most common carcinoma of the skin and are responsible for the majority of non-melanoma skin cancer deaths. Gynecologist treated a Caucasian 56-years old female patient for genital wart with podophyllotoxin cream. She did not achieve complete response and therefore she has interrupted the therapy and the collaboration with the gynecologist. At the time of evaluation the lesion had a size of man's palm in anogenital region and showed characteristic features of neoplasm. The regional lymph nodes have produced infiltrated painful bubo. PCR analysis for HPV proved negative. Histopathology revealed well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma from the tumor as well as from the regional lymph node packet. Staging computed tomography scans proved negative and pelvis scans disclosed regional lymphadenopathy underlying the tumor. Palliative radiation therapy (by linear accelerator) was administered for the oversized tumor to the total TD 50.0Gy. The patient died 6 months after diagnostic assessment from cardio-respiratory failure. Staging computed tomography before her death did not disclose distinct metastases in her inner organs. Well-differentiated squamous cell keratinizing carcinoma could be growing endophytically affecting the underlying adipose tissue and musculature, with spreading into the regional lymph nodes. The rate of metastases into inner organs seems to vary according to the aggressiveness and metastatic behavior of each SCC. The case report calls for attention to the importance of collaboration among various specialists assisting in the diagnosis and management of skin neoplasm (Fig. 5, Ref. 12). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  15. Glycoprotein and Glycan in Tissue and Blood Samples of Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer Undergoing Surgery to Remove Pelvic and Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  16. A phase I study afatinib/carboplatin/paclitaxel induction chemotherapy followed by standard chemoradiation in HPV-negative or high-risk HPV-positive locally advanced stage III/IVa/IVb head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Christine H.; Rudek, Michelle A.; Kang, Hyunseok; Marur, Shanthi; John, Pritish; Tsottles, Nancy; Bonerigo, Sarah; Veasey, Andy; Kiess, Ana; Quon, Harry; Cmelak, Anthony; Murphy, Barbara A.; Gilbert, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Afatinib is an ErbB family receptor inhibitor with efficacy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A phase I trial was conducted to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of afatinib in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel as induction chemotherapy (IC). Material and Methods Patients with newly diagnosed, locally advanced HPV-negative or HPV-positive HNSCC with a significant smoking history were enrolled. Afatinib alone was given daily for two weeks as lead-in and subsequently given with carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml*min and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 every 21 days as IC. Afatinib was started at a dose of 20 mg daily and dose escalated using a modified Fibonacci design. After completion of IC, afatinib was discontinued and patients received concurrent cisplatin 40 mg/m2 weekly and standard radiation. Toxicity was assessed using CTCAE version 4.0. Results Seven of nine patients completed afatinib lead-in and IC. Five patients had partial response and two patients had stable disease after IC. Dose level 1 (afatinib 20 mg) was well tolerated with one grade 3 (ALT elevation) and one grade 4 (neutropenia) toxicities. However, dose level 2 (afatinib 30 mg) was not well tolerated with nine grade 3 (pneumonia, abdominal pain, diarrhea, pancytopenia, and UTI), two grade 4 (sepsis) and one grade 5 (death) toxicities. Conclusions The MTD of afatinib given with carboplatin AUC 6 mg/ml*min and paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 is 20 mg daily. Combination of afatinib at doses higher than 20 mg with carboplatin and paclitaxel should be administered with caution due to the toxicities. PMID:26705063

  17. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Cancer.gov

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  18. Radiation Therapy and Cisplatin With or Without Triapine in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage IB2, II, or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer or Stage II-IVA Vaginal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-23

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Vaginal Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Vaginal Cancer; Stage IVB Vaginal Cancer

  19. [Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Campos Arbulú, Ana L; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Sánchez Ruiz, Alejandro; Fernández Vila, Juan M; Dillon, Horacio S; Mezzadri, Norberto A

    2017-01-01

    Primary orbital squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity. There is little published literature. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the orbital soft tissues. Surgical resection offered the best treatment for the patient. Complete resection of the lesion was achieved. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy due to the proximity of the lesion to the surgical margins. Surgical treatment is feasible and should be considered as part of the surgeon's arsenal. However, therapeutic decisions must be made on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  1. Penile squamous cell carcinoma: a review of the literature and case report treated with Mohs micrographic surgery*

    PubMed Central

    Marchionne, Elizabeth; Perez, Caroline; Hui, Andrea; Khachemoune, Amor

    2017-01-01

    The majority of penile carcinoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Although uncommon in the United States, it represents a larger proportion of cancers in the underdeveloped world. Invasive squamous cell carcinoma may arise from precursor lesions or de novo , and has been associated with lack of circumcision and HPV infection. Early diagnosis is imperative as lymphatic spread is associated with a poor prognosis. Radical surgical treatment is no longer the mainstay, and penile sparing treatments now are often used, including Mohs micrographic surgery. Therapeutic decisions should be made with regard to the size and location of the tumor, as well as the functional desires of the patient. It is critical for the dermatologist to be familiar with the evaluation, grading/staging, and treatment advances of penile squamous cell carcinoma. Herein, we present a review of the literature regarding penile squamous cell carcinoma, as well as a case report of invasive squamous cell carcinoma treated with Mohs micrographic surgery. PMID:28225964

  2. Sirolimus and Gold Sodium Thiomalate in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-12-13

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  3. Labeling index in squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx

    SciTech Connect

    Balzi, M.; Ninu, B.M.; Becciolini, A.; Scubla, E.; Boanini, P.; Gallina, E.; Gallo, O.; Fini-Storchi, O.; Bondi, R. )

    1991-07-01

    Two cell kinetic parameters, the 3H-thymidine labeling index (TLI) and the mitotic index (MI), were studied in vitro on fragments of squamous cell carcinoma tissue of the larynx. They were evaluated to identify those elements able to characterize the growth of these solid tumors. The values of these parameters were analyzed as a function of the clinical stage and the involvement of the regional lymph nodes. Results showed a statistically significant increase in the TLI from stage T1 to T3. No statistically significant differences in the TLI values were observed between the patients with positive and negative lymph nodes.

  4. MRI and PET Imaging in Predicting Treatment Response in Patients With Stage IB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Cervical Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Cervical Carcinoma; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  5. Pure Primary Ovarian Squamous Cell Carcinoma Perforating the Rectum

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Aiko; Haraguchi, Naotsugu; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Kimura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Rectal perforation is uncommon in ovarian cancer, even in advanced stages. Pure primary ovarian squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare subtype of ovarian cancer and has not been reported to cause rectal perforation. A 50-year-old woman presented with rectal bleeding. Rectosigmoidoscopy suggested perforation of a pelvic tumor into the rectum. Abdominopelvic magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 9 cm heterogeneous mass in the pouch of Douglas. We performed complete cytoreduction, including an en-bloc resection of the tumor and rectosigmoid colon. Histopathology showed squamous cell carcinoma of the left ovary penetrating the rectal wall. A common symptom of rectal bleeding was caused by a very rare entity of ovarian cancer penetrating the rectal wall, but thorough evaluation led to its accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:28316851

  6. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Enable Javascript to view the ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  7. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-13

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. Veliparib With or Without Radiation Therapy, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-03

    Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma, Mixed Subtype; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials. This summary section describes treatments that are ... want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. For some patients, taking part in a ...

  10. Isolated Limb Perfusion With Melphalan in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB-IV Melanoma or Sarcoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-22

    Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Eccrine Carcinoma of the Skin; Recurrent Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Skin Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin; Stage III Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  11. Chemoradiation Therapy and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Stages IB2-IIB or IIIB-IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-08

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Positive Para-Aortic Lymph Node; Positive Pelvic Lymph Node; Stage IB2 Cervical Cancer; Stage II Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIB Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  12. Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Graur, Florin; Mois, Emil; Al Hajjar, Nadim

    2014-09-01

    Primary pure squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum is a very rare type of duodenal neoplasm and is more likely to be presented as a metastatic tumor. The literature offers little information on this subject and includes very few articles and case reports. Laboratory tests, CT and ultrasound examinations, x-rays and immunohistochemical markers assisted us in making this rare diagnosis of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the duodenum in a 47 year old female patient, who presented with weight loss and melena. The 8 cm duodenal tumor with pancreas invasion was resected by a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. The pathology examination revealed a primary duodenal squamous cell carcinoma moderately differentiated (G2), invasive in the head of the pancreas, with keratinization, stage II B (pT4N0MxL0V0R0). Positive outcome after surgery was highlighted, no recurrence being registered at the 6 month CT scan follow-up.

  13. Strategies in late stage cervix carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Krochak, R.

    1986-03-01

    Stage IIB-IV squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix when treated by irradiation has a significant failure rate. Causes of pelvic and distant failure are discussed. New techniques employed to improve local control and decrease distant metastasis are presented. Data on morbidity, mortality, and survival will be reviewed with respect to these new strategies employed.

  14. Identification of Prognostic Biomarkers for Progression of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-19

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell; Carcinoma, Squamous; Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Lung Neoplasms; Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Lung Cancer; Neoplasms, Lung; Neoplasms, Pulmonary; Pulmonary Cancer; Pulmonary Neoplasms

  15. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression in Indonesian Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Priyanto, Priyanto; Indrasari, Sagung Rai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This research aimed to determine the association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma clinical stage. Methods. We retrospectively analyzed paraffin-embedded tissue from 47 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients from 2011 to 2014. HIF-1α expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using an anti-HIF-1α mouse monoclonal antibody. The association between HIF-1α expression and clinical stage was analyzed using the chi square test. Results. The glottis was the predominant site of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma occurrence, and 43/47 (91.5%) patients presented at an advanced stage. Of the advanced stage patients, 27/43 stained positive for HIF-1α expression and 16/43 stained negative. Of the early stage patients, 2/4 stained positive for HIF-1α expression and 2/4 stained negative. Statistical analysis did not demonstrate significant association of HIF-1α expression. Conclusion. There was no statistically significant association between HIF-1α expression and the clinical stage or histological differentiation of LSCC. PMID:27882053

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 16 cases.

    PubMed

    Guo, Charles C; Gomez, Enrique; Tamboli, Pheroze; Bondaruk, Jolanta E; Kamat, Ashish; Bassett, Roland; Dinney, Colin P; Czerniak, Bogdan A

    2009-10-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon histologic type in the urinary bladder. We searched our surgical pathology files and identified 16 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The mean age of patients was 65.4 years (range, 41-77 years). All patients received transurethral resection of the bladder, which demonstrated pure squamous cell carcinomas. Seven patients had clinical evidence of tumor spreading out of the bladder (T4) and did not undergo radical cystectomy. The other 9 patients underwent cystectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection. The cystectomy specimens revealed tumors invading muscularis propria (T2) (n = 4) or perivesical soft tissue (T3) (n = 5). Two patients also had metastasis to lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that squamous cell carcinoma cells were positive for epidermal growth factor receptor (n = 16) and for p53 (n = 11). For the 9 patients who received cystectomy, 5 patients were alive at a mean of 92.8 months (range, 59-128 months) and 4 patients died of disease at a mean of 24.0 months (range, 6-58 months). For the 7 patients who did not receive cystectomy, 6 died at a mean of 5.7 months (range, 3-9 months), and no follow-up was available for the remaining patient. In conclusion, squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder frequently presents at an advanced stage and is associated with enhanced expression of EGFR and p53.

  17. miR-448 is a novel prognostic factor of lung squamous cell carcinoma and regulates cells growth and metastasis by targeting DCLK1.

    PubMed

    Shan, Changting; Fei, Fan; Li, Fengzhu; Zhuang, Bo; Zheng, Yulong; Wan, Yufeng; Chen, Jianhui

    2017-03-15

    MicroRNA-448 (miR-448) has been showed to be low-expressed and function as tumor suppressor in most human cancers. However, there are limited reports on the clinical significance and biological function of miR-448 in lung squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we observed that miR-448 expression was decreased in lung squamous cell carcinoma tissues and cell lines. Meanwhile, miR-448 expression associated with differentiated degree, T classification (tumor size), N classification (lymph node metastasis), M classification (distant metastasis), clinical stage and prognosis of lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. In survival analysis, low expression of miR-448 was a poor independent prognostic factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies showed miR-448 acted as a tumor suppressor regulating lung squamous cell carcinoma cells growth and metastasis. Furthermore, DCLK1 has been identified as a potential target for miR-448 to regulate lung squamous cell carcinoma cells growth and metastasis. In conclusion, miR-448 low-expression was a poor prognostic factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma patients, and miR-448 served as a tumor suppressor in lung squamous cell carcinoma cells via targeting DCLK1.

  18. Prognostic impact of metallothionein on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sérgio V; Barbosa, Hugo M; Candellori, Ignez M; Loyola, Adriano M; Aguiar, Maria Cássia F

    2002-08-01

    Metallothionein (MT), a low-molecular-weight protein with high cysteine content, seems to be related to neoplastic resistance to oncologic treatment and therefore has been studied as a prognostic factor for a variety of human malignant tumors. MT overexpression in neoplasms of ectodermal origin is usually associated with a poor prognosis. MT expression was evaluated in 60 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma by immunohistochemistry to study its prognostic influence on oral cancer. Possible associations of MT immunoexpression were also investigated with respect to clinical stage (TNM), histological grading, and proliferation index (Ki-67) of the lesions. No significant statistical correlation was observed among these variables. The impact on overall survival was assessed by uni and multivariate statistical tests. Mean MT labeling index was 60%. High MT labeling indexes (over 76%) predicted shorter survival in univariate statistical analysis. In multivariate analysis, MT labeling index and clinical stage were independent prognostic factors. MT overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma seems to be related to a worse prognosis for patients.

  19. Squamous carcinoma of the nasopharynx

    SciTech Connect

    Moloy, P.J.; Chung, Y.T.; Krivitsky, P.B.; Kim, R.C.

    1985-07-01

    Nasophryngeal carcinoma is an unusual neoplasm among squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. The tumor is rare in most parts of the world but is strikingly common in several Asian subpopulations, notably Chinese in Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. The Epstein-Barr virus is intimately related to the disease and elicits the formation of antibodies that are useful for diagnosis and follow-up study. The virus has not been conclusively shown to cause nasopharyngeal cancer, however. Histologically, nasopharyngeal carcinoma is anaplastic in 75% of cases and better differentiated in 25% of patients. All tumors are treated by high-dose radiation to the primary site and both sides of the neck. Surgical treatment, in the neck only, is reserved for irradiation failures. The prognosis is better in patients younger than 40 years, in patients without clinical cervical nodal involvement and, unexpectedly, in patients with anaplastic tumors. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  20. SOX2 and PI3K Cooperate to Induce and Stabilize a Squamous-Committed Stem Cell Injury State during Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Tarumi, Shintaro; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Wang, Dennis; Virtanen, Carl; Bandarchi, Bizhan; Pham, Nhu An; Lee, Sharon; Keshavjee, Shaf; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Although cancers are considered stem cell diseases, mechanisms involving stem cell alterations are poorly understood. Squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) is the second most common lung cancer, and its pathogenesis appears to hinge on changes in the stem cell behavior of basal cells in the bronchial airways. Basal cells are normally quiescent and differentiate into mucociliary epithelia. Smoking triggers a hyperproliferative response resulting in progressive premalignant epithelial changes ranging from squamous metaplasia to dysplasia. These changes can regress naturally, even with chronic smoking. However, for unknown reasons, dysplasias have higher progression rates than earlier stages. We used primary human tracheobronchial basal cells to investigate how copy number gains in SOX2 and PIK3CA at 3q26-28, which co-occur in dysplasia and are observed in 94% of SQCCs, may promote progression. We find that SOX2 cooperates with PI3K signaling, which is activated by smoking, to initiate the squamous injury response in basal cells. This response involves SOX9 repression, and, accordingly, SOX2 and PI3K signaling levels are high during dysplasia, while SOX9 is not expressed. By contrast, during regeneration of mucociliary epithelia, PI3K signaling is low and basal cells transiently enter a SOX2LoSOX9Hi state, with SOX9 promoting proliferation and preventing squamous differentiation. Transient reduction in SOX2 is necessary for ciliogenesis, although SOX2 expression later rises and drives mucinous differentiation, as SOX9 levels decline. Frequent coamplification of SOX2 and PIK3CA in dysplasia may, thus, promote progression by locking basal cells in a SOX2HiSOX9Lo state with active PI3K signaling, which sustains the squamous injury response while precluding normal mucociliary differentiation. Surprisingly, we find that, although later in invasive carcinoma SOX9 is generally expressed at low levels, its expression is higher in a subset of SQCCs with less squamous identity and

  1. Resection of intraocular squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Char, D H; Crawford, J B; Howes, E L; Weinstein, A J

    1992-01-01

    A patient with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva was referred with 20/20 vision in an eye with obvious intraocular extension. A modified iridocyclochoroidectomy was performed and the tumour was removed. Three and a half years later the patient's vision is 20/30 and there is no recurrence. This is the first case in which an eye has been successfully salvaged with documented intraocular squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Images PMID:1739709

  2. Rare tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Monika; Swanson, Paul E

    2016-10-01

    In spite of increasing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in the last few decades, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) still remains the dominant subtype of esophageal cancer worldwide. Apart from conventional SCC, some rare unconventional tumors of esophageal squamous mucosa are also well known. This study provides an introduction to these and presents a brief review of the literature, including the diagnostic and prognostic importance of each variant.

  3. Laryngeal Dysplasia, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Variants.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lester D R

    2017-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epithelial tumor showing evidence of squamous differentiation. It is the most common malignancy of the larynx, with several variants (verrucous, exophytic or papillary, spindle-cell, basaloid, acantholytic, adenosquamous) recognized, with well-established precursor lesions. Dysplasia is now separated into only low-grade and high-grade categories. Each SCC variant has unique cytomorphologic features and histologic differential diagnoses that are important to consider, as management and outcomes are different.

  4. Intraperitoneal Paclitaxel, Doxorubicin Hydrochloride, and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Endometrial Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Mixed Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Endometrial Undifferentiated Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer

  5. Atypical squamous cells in the urine revealing endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with squamous cell differentiation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinong; Otis, Christopher N; Florence, Roxanne R

    2015-01-01

    Urine cytology is mainly used to detect urothelial carcinoma (UC), especially for high-grade lesions including urothelial carcinoma in situ. Benign squamous cells are often seen in the urine specimens of women, they are either exfoliated from the trigone area of the bladder, the urethra, or the cervicovaginal region. However, abnormal squamous cells in the urine raise concerns of abnormalities of the urinary tract and cervicovaginal area which range from squamous metaplasia of the urothelium, a cervicovaginal squamous intraepithelial lesion, condyloma acuminatum of the bladder, UC with squamous differentiation, and squamous cell carcinoma. We present here a unique case of atypical squamous cells (ASCs) in the urine subsequently leading to the diagnosis of endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the endometrium with squamous differentiation. The presence of ASCs in voided urine is a rare finding that may indicate an underlying malignancy. Careful evaluation of squamous cells in the urine is an important part of our daily cytopathology practice.

  6. Chemoprevention of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, Gary D. Wang Lishu; Chen Tong

    2007-11-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is responsible for approximately one-sixth of all cancer-related mortality worldwide. This malignancy has a multifactorial etiology involving several environmental, dietary and genetic factors. Since esophageal cancer has often metastasized at the time of diagnosis, current treatment modalities offer poor survival and cure rates. Chemoprevention offers a viable alternative that could well be effective against the disease. Clinical investigations have shown that primary chemoprevention of this disease is feasible if potent inhibitory agents are identified. The Fischer 344 (F-344) rat model of esophageal SCC has been used extensively to investigate the biology of the disease, and to identify chemopreventive agents that could be useful in human trials. Multiple compounds that inhibit tumor initiation by esophageal carcinogens have been identified using this model. These include several isothiocyanates, diallyl sulfide and polyphenolic compounds. These compounds influence the metabolic activation of esophageal carcinogens resulting in reduced genetic (DNA) damage. Recently, a few agents have been shown to inhibit the progression of preneoplastic lesions in the rat esophagus into tumors. These agents include inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and c-Jun [a component of activator protein-1 (AP-1)]. Using a food-based approach to cancer prevention, we have shown that freeze-dried berry preparations inhibit both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of esophageal SCC in F-344 rats. These observations have led to a clinical trial in China to evaluate the ability of freeze-dried strawberries to influence the progression of esophageal dysplasia to SCC.

  7. Histopathologic risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma variants: An update with special reference to HPV-related carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    : basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), undifferentiated carcinoma (UCa), papillary squamous carcinoma (PSCC) and small cell carcinoma. Some studies have suggested favorable prognosis in some variants, analogous to that of the (NKSCC), while others showed poorer outcome. So far the number of studies on this subject is limited and the number of cases evaluated in each investigation is few. Because of that, it is prudent at this stage, not to alter management protocols as a result of identification of HPV in these variants and to await additional information Key words:Histopathologic risk-factors, oral cavity, oropharynx, squamous cell carcinoma variants, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma, HPV, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, papillary squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma. PMID:24880454

  8. Combination Chemotherapy, Radiation Therapy, and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-11-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  9. Nuclear factor κB and cyclooxygenase-2 immunoexpression in oral dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; de Carvalho, Pedro Luiz; Pereira, Erika Martins; de Abreu, Michelle Carvalho; de Freitas Silva, Brunno Santos; dos Santos Pinto, Décio

    2013-02-01

    Oral leukoplakia is the main potentially malignant oral lesion, and oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for more than 95% of all malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the immunoexpression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in dysplastic oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed on 6 inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, 28 oral leukoplakia, and 15 oral squamous cell carcinoma paraffin-embedded samples. Immunoperoxidase reaction for NF-κB and COX-2 was applied on the specimens, and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Using the analysis of variance and the Tukey post hoc statistical analyses, a significantly increased immunoexpression for NF-κB was observed when oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were compared with the other groups studied. However, using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn post hoc tests, a statistically significant result for COX-2 expression was obtained only when the moderate dysplasia group was compared with the inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia group. Nuclear factor κB may participate in the malignant phenotype acquisition process of the oral squamous cell carcinoma in its late stages, whereas COX-2 may be involved in the early stages of oral carcinogenesis process.

  10. Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica Associated with Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daveluy, Steven D.; Joiner, Michael C.; Hurst, Newton; Bishop, Michael; Miller, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica, or Bazex syndrome, is a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by cutaneous psoriasiform lesions with associated acral erythema and scale, as well as nail changes, including onycholysis and ungual dystrophy. Its most advanced, severe form involves the trunk, elbows, and knees. It is typically associated with upper aerodigestive tract malignancies in males. Rare cases associated with gynecological cancers have been reported, including uterine adenocarcinoma, as well as ovarian and vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Cutaneous manifestations often precede cancer diagnosis. In most reported cases, skin changes resolve when the underlying malignancy is adequately treated. Main Observations. We present the case of a 56-year-old female diagnosed with acrokeratosis paraneoplastica following the discovery of FIGO stage IIB cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Scaling, hyperpigmentation, xerosis, and fissuring were noted on the patient's hands, feet, legs, arms, and lower back. Pitting was noted on her fingernails. Her cervical cancer was successfully treated with chemoradiotherapy, after which her cutaneous lesions persisted for two months before resolving. Conclusions. The presentation of acrokeratosis paraneoplastica in this context is atypical. Reports of associations with gynecological cancers, as in our patient's case, are exceedingly rare. PMID:28101384

  11. Fluorescence detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Hyperflav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, Ivan S.; Dets, Sergiy M.; Rawicz, Andrew H.; Zhang, Lewei

    2000-05-01

    A novel hypericin-based drug HyperflavTM has been evaluated for light-induced fluorescence detection of oral cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma was induced with carcinogenic agent in right pouches of forty hamsters (20/20 males/females). Solution of HyperflavTM was sprinkled into stomach with a single dose 0.2 - 4 mg of pure hypericin per kg b.w. and 4 - 8 hours before fluorescence analysis. In two animal groups with cancer symptoms the autofluorescence and hypericin-induced fluorescence were taken under 442 nm excitation. The buccal mucosa and adjacent areas were measured fiberoptically in-vivo and in-vitro using orange/green ratio (610/540). The in-vivo fluorescence imaging of malignant areas was conducted to assist the biopsy guidance and to compare with white-light images. Histological and morphological analyses were performed from biopsies. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in its early stage demonstrated specific higher 610/540 ratio for 37 tested hamsters. Advanced state involved another higher fluorescence maximum around 640 nm that in our opinion caused by strong porphyrin-induced native fluorescence. Such deformation of fluorescence spectra may lead to inadequate perception of diseased tissue area. To avoid this problem the autofluorescence spectra & images were added. HyperflavTM application is promising for demarcation of early oral cancer when combined with autofluorescence measurements.

  12. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas in a patient with mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Le, Katie; Lim, Adrian; Samaraweera, Ushma; Morrow, Christine; See, Adrian

    2005-11-01

    A 51-year-old man with type IV skin presented for evaluation of a generalized rash associated with multiple ulcerated, nodular lesions on his legs. The nodular lesions occurred approximately 18 months after the initial onset of generalized rash, which had been diagnosed as plaque/patch stage mycosis fungoides. He continued to develop further nodular lesions on his trunk in the weeks following presentation. The nodular lesions were shown to be squamous-cell carcinoma on histopathology. He had received only topical hydrocortisone prior to the development of the second cutaneous malignancy and had no past exposure to carcinogens. His squamous cell carcinomas were treated with surgical excision and split-skin grafting. He received total skin electron-beam therapy to treat the mycosis fungoides. Second malignancy in mycosis fungoides is a recognized phenomenon and usually occurs after potentially carcinogenic therapy. This case demonstrates the occurrence of second malignancy in the absence of a precipitating factor, suggesting that there are innate, immune-mediated mechanisms in the development of cancer in patients with mycosis fungoides.

  13. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Pancreas: Mystery and Facts.

    PubMed

    Raghavapuram, Saikiran; Vaid, Arjun; Rego, Rayburn F

    2015-08-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the pancreas is very rare as pancreas does not have any squamous cells. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. We describe such a case where in the patient presented with painless jaundice. CT and EUS confirmed the pancreatic mass biopsy of which showed squamous cell cancer.

  14. Genome-wide association study identifies novel susceptibility loci for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chahal, Harvind S.; Lin, Yuan; Ransohoff, Katherine J.; Hinds, David A.; Wu, Wenting; Dai, Hong-Ji; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Li, Wen-Qing; Kraft, Peter; Tang, Jean Y.; Han, Jiali; Sarin, Kavita Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma represents the second most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting 7–11% of Caucasians in the United States. The genetic determinants of susceptibility to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma remain largely unknown. Here we report the results of a two-stage genome-wide association study of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, totalling 7,404 cases and 292,076 controls. Eleven loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10−8) including seven previously confirmed pigmentation-related loci: MC1R, ASIP, TYR, SLC45A2, OCA2, IRF4 and BNC2. We identify an additional four susceptibility loci: 11q23.3 CADM1, a metastasis suppressor gene involved in modifying tumour interaction with cell-mediated immunity; 2p22.3; 7p21.1 AHR, the dioxin receptor involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and melanoma progression; and 9q34.3 SEC16A, a putative oncogene with roles in secretion and cellular proliferation. These susceptibility loci provide deeper insight into the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27424798

  15. A Case of Acantholytic Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji Yeon; Do, Mi Ok; Kim, Seong Hyun; Hahm, Jeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma is a well-defined variant of squamous cell cancer in which significant portions of the neoplastic proliferation show a pseudoglandular or tubular microscopic pattern. It usually presents as a nodule with various colors, and it is accompanied by scaling, crusting, and ulceration on the sun-exposed areas of older aged individuals. Histologically, the tumor consists of a nodular, epidermal-derived proliferation that forms island-like structures. At least focally or sometimes extensively, the tumor cells shows a loss of cohesion within the central gland-like or tubular spaces. This tumor resembles the structure of eccrine neoplasms, but it is negative for dPAS, CEA and mucicarmine and it is only positive for EMA and cytokeratins. Herein we report a case of acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma that occurred on the face of an 82-year-old woman. PMID:27303210

  16. [Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  17. Lichen sclerosus and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Pascual, M; Vicente-Martín, F J; López-Estebaranz, J L

    2012-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory disease that can progress to malignancy. The literature indicates an association with anogenital squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Two pathogenic pathways, differentiated vulvar and penile intraepithelial neoplasias, which have recently been described in relation to squamous cell carcinoma, are both highly associated with genital lichen sclerosus independently of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. Furthermore, tumor-promoting molecular changes unrelated to HPV infection have been demonstrated and may explain the malignant potential of lichen sclerosus. The possible relationship between HPV and genital lichen sclerosus currently remains open to discussion, and the prognostic importance of the overlapping of these 2 diseases is still unclear. This review considers the relationship between lichen sclerosus and squamous cell and verrucous carcinomas, the possible oncogenic mechanisms involved, and their possible association with HPV infection.

  18. Incidental Detection of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma on 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Lawhn-Heath, Courtney; Flavell, Robert R; Glastonbury, Christine; Hope, Thomas A; Behr, Spencer C

    2017-04-01

    We present a case of an incidentally detected squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx on Ga-PSMA-11 PET. A 71-year-old man's condition was diagnosed as prostate carcinoma after a year of rising serum prostate-specific antigen. The staging Ga-PSMA PET/CT demonstrated focal radiotracer uptake in the prostate corresponding to his known primary prostate cancer. However, a PSMA-avid 3.4-cm mass was incidentally found in the right tongue base that was biopsied, confirming squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Emerging challenges of advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Chen; Zhou, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is an aggressive type of lung cancer and most are diagnosed at advanced stage. Patients with advanced SQCLC tend to be older, current or former smoker, with central type tumour located near large blood vessels and seldom with druggable genetic alternations. Consequently, progress of targeted therapy and antivascular agents available in lung adenocarcinoma could not be duplicated in this subset of patients. The treatment paradigms have long been dominant by cytotoxic agents and posed many therapeutic challenges. Until recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors, other monoclonal antibodies and afatinib have been approved for treatment of advanced SQCLC, presenting a novel treatment landscape and initiating the era of precision medicine in this subset of patients. This review will summarise the recent treatment progresses in advanced SQCLC with a focus on checkpoint inhibitors of programmed cell death-1 receptor or its ligand, and discuss the emerging challenges in this new era. PMID:28255454

  20. Squamous-cell carcinoma of the tongue: preoperative interstitial radium and external irradiation. Part 1. Local and regional control

    SciTech Connect

    Vermund, I.; Brennhovd, I.O.; Kaalhus, O.; Poppe, E.

    1984-05-01

    Results of therapy in 300 patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue are presented in terms of control of the primary tumor (local) and metastases to the lymph nodes in the neck (regional). Correlation between clinical stage and control was good. Different methods of treatment were analyzed separately for various stages of disease and compared with results from other institutions. Possible methods of improving treatment are discussed.

  1. ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy for the Assessment of Biochemical Changes in Skin Due to Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Cássio A.; Goulart, Viviane P.; Côrrea, Luciana; Pereira, Thiago M.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2015-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancers represent 95% of cutaneous neoplasms. Among them, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the more aggressive form and shows a pattern of possible metastatic profile. In this work, we used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy to assess the biochemical changes in normal skin caused by squamous cell carcinoma induced by multi-stage chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Changes in the absorption intensities and shifts were observed in the vibrational modes associated to proteins, indicating changes in secondary conformation in the neoplastic tissue. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of the technique to differentiate the spectra of neoplastic and normal skin tissue, so that the accuracy obtained for this classification was 86.4%. In this sense, attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy provides a useful tool to complement histopathological analysis in the clinical routine for the diagnosis of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25811925

  2. Metachronous squamous-cell carcinoma of the colon and treatment of rectal squamous carcinoma with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Brammer, R D; Taniere, P; Radley, S

    2009-02-01

    Rectal squamous-cell carcinoma is a rare tumour with an incidence of less than 1 per 1000 cases. We report such a case treated with chemoradiotherapy. The patient developed a metastasis in the spleen and a further squamous tumour in the right colon, both of which were successfully resected. No histological evidence of recurrent rectal tumour has been found. Two years following presentation, the patient remains disease-free although symptomatic from a radiotherapy-induced stricture of the rectum.

  3. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a meningomyelocele.

    PubMed Central

    Saksun, J. M.; Fisher, B. K.

    1978-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma developed in the meningomyelocele of a 25-year-old man. This is the third such case reported. The possibility of malignant disease arising in this congenital defect must be taken into account when treatment is being considered. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:709475

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma associated with lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Gooptu, C; Marks, N; Thomas, J; James, M P

    1998-05-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas are known to arise in certain chronic, scarring dermatoses and also to be associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We now report a case arising in a plaque of lupus vulgaris, the patient having received radiation from a Finsen lamp as a child for a tuberculous abscess in that region.

  5. Impact of Treatment Modalities on Survival of Patients With Locoregional Esophageal Squamous-Cell Carcinoma in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Shan; Hung, Wei-Heng; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Hsu, Po-Kuei; Liu, Chia-Chuan; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2016-03-01

    The optimal treatment modality for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still undetermined. This study investigated the treatment modalities affecting survival of patients with ESCC in Taiwan.Data on 6202 patients who underwent treatment for locoregional esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma during 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan were collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Patients were stratified by clinical stage. The major treatment approaches included definitive chemoradiotherapy, preoperative chemoradiation followed by esophagectomy, esophagectomy followed by adjuvant therapy, and esophagectomy alone. The impact of different treatment modalities on overall survival was analyzed.The majority of patients had stage III disease (n = 4091; 65.96%), followed by stage II (n = 1582, 25.51%) and stage I cancer (n = 529, 8.53%). The 3-year overall survival rates were 60.65% for patients with stage I disease, 36.21% for those with stage II cancer, and 21.39% for patients with stage III carcinoma. Surgery alone was associated with significantly better overall survival than the other treatment modalities for patients with stage I disease (P = 0.029) and was associated with significantly worse overall survival for patients with stage III cancer (P < 0.001). There was no survival risk difference among the different treatment methods for patients with clinical stage II disease.Multimodality treatment is recommended for patients with stage II-III esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients with clinical stage I disease can be treated with esophagectomy without preoperative therapy.

  6. ASC contributes to metastasis of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    OuYang, Chun-Nan; Kao, Huang-Kai; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, Lih-Chyang; Cheng, Hsiao-Yun; Liang, Ying; Liou, Willisa; Liang, Chih-lung; Chang, Yu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    ASC (Apoptosis-associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD) acts as a platform protein in the inflammasome cascade of some cancer types. However, its potential involvement in OSCC (oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma) has not yet been determined. Here, we investigated the potential role of ASC in OSCC. RT-qPCR analysis of 20 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples revealed that the mRNA levels of ASC, along with IL-1β, CASP1, and NLRP3 in ASC-associated NLRP3 inflammasome were significantly elevated in OSCC tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of these four proteins in 111 clinical specimens revealed that high-level expression of ASC was significantly associated with tumor stage, node stage (p=0.001), overall stage (p<0.001), extracapsular spread (p<0.001), perineural invasion (p=0.004) and tumor depth (p<0.001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis further revealed that high-level ASC expression was correlated with poorer overall survival (p=0.001), disease-specific survival (p<0.001) and disease-free survival (p<0.001). Studies using OSCC cell lines indicated that high-level ASC expression enhanced cell migration and invasion, and experiments using an orthotropic nude mouse model confirmed that ASC overexpression induced metastasis of OSCC cells. This is the first report to show that ASC contributes to OSCC metastasis, and that high-level ASC expression is a marker for poor prognosis in OSCC patients. PMID:27367024

  7. Second-line afatinib administration in an elderly patient with squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Steinheimer, Michael; Benhassen, Naim; Sardeli, Chrysanthi; Stalikas, Nikos; Toitou, Melpomeni; Huang, Haidong

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The majority of cases of lung cancer are still diagnosed at a late stage. At this stage, palliative therapeutic options including nonspecific cytotoxic drugs, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy can be utilized. In 2016, immunotherapy was approved in Europe for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Moreover, afatinib was also approved as second-line therapy for squamous cell carcinoma. Case report This article presents a case of a 76-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma who received nab-paclitaxel as first-line therapy, and his treatment was switched to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib (40 mg) after disease progression with left lung atelectasis. After receiving afatinib for only 28 days, the atelectasis resolved. No adverse effects were observed from the afatinib therapy. Discussion In this case, afatinib 40 mg proved to be an effective alternative treatment for an elderly patient. Treatment choice should be based on the performance status of the patient, cost-effectiveness, and drug treatment guidelines. PMID:28356747

  8. Optimization of the extent of surgical treatment in patients with stage I in cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    The study included 26 patients with FIGO stage Ia1-Ib1 cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing surgery (transabdominaltrachelectomy). To visualize sentinel lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-labelled nanocolloid was performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes using hand-held gamma probe was carried out to determine the radioactive counts over the draining lymph node basin. The sentinel lymph node detection in cervical cancer patients contributes to the accurate clinical assessment of the pelvic lymph node status, precise staging of the disease and tailoring of surgical treatment to individual patient.

  9. Sentinel node biopsy for early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stoeckli, Sandro J; Alkureishi, Lee W T; Ross, Gary L

    2009-06-01

    The appearance of lymph node metastases represents the most important adverse prognostic factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, accurate staging of the cervical nodes is crucial in these patients. The management of the clinically and radiologically negative neck in patients with early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma is still controversial, though most centers favor elective neck dissection for staging of the neck and removal of occult disease. As only approximately 30% of patients harbor occult disease in the neck, most of the patients have to undergo elective neck dissection with no benefit. The sentinel node biopsy concept has been adopted from the treatment of melanoma and breast cancer to early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma during the last decade with great success. Multiple validation studies in the context of elective neck dissections revealed sentinel node detection rates above 95% and negative predictive values for negative sentinel nodes of 95%. Sentinel node biopsy has proven its ability to select patients with occult lymphatic disease for elective neck dissection, and to spare the costs and morbidity to patients with negative necks. Many centers meanwhile have abandoned routine elective neck dissection and entered in observational trials. These trials so far were able to confirm the high accuracy of the validation trials with less than 5% of the patients with negative sentinel nodes developing lymph node metastases during observation. In conclusion, sentinel node biopsy for early oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma can be considered as safe and accurate, with success rates in controlling the neck comparable to elective neck dissection. This concept has the potential to become the new standard of care in the near future.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma at maxillary sinus: clinicopathologic data in a single Brazilian institution with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Marcello Roter M; Servato, João Paulo S; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising at maxillary sinus is a rare neoplasm, characterized by aggressive growth pattern and glooming prognosis. There are no studies describing specifically its epidemiology in the South America. The aim of the current paper is to characterize a Brazilian maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma sample and to compare such data with others worldwide relevant series. The records of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (1997-2006) were gathered and plotted. Additionally, an extensive literature review was carry out using electronic database (PUBMED/MEDLINE and LILACS) over a period of 54 years. A descriptive statistics and univariate survival test (log rank) were employed. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignancy of sinonasal epithelium found. It affected mainly mid-age white men and most of them were diagnosed at advanced stage. Surgery combined with radiotherapy was the most therapeutic modalities given. The overall mortality rate in our sample was of 65.5%. Overall 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rate was 57.9%, 44.8%, and 17.7%, respectively. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor normally diagnosed at the advanced stage and most patients present an unfavorable prognosis and reduced survival rate. PMID:25674251

  11. Squamous cell carcinoma at maxillary sinus: clinicopathologic data in a single Brazilian institution with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcello Roter M; Servato, João Paulo S; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; Eisenberg, Ana Lúcia A; Dias, Fernando Luiz; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma arising at maxillary sinus is a rare neoplasm, characterized by aggressive growth pattern and glooming prognosis. There are no studies describing specifically its epidemiology in the South America. The aim of the current paper is to characterize a Brazilian maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma sample and to compare such data with others worldwide relevant series. The records of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (1997-2006) were gathered and plotted. Additionally, an extensive literature review was carry out using electronic database (PUBMED/MEDLINE and LILACS) over a period of 54 years. A descriptive statistics and univariate survival test (log rank) were employed. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest malignancy of sinonasal epithelium found. It affected mainly mid-age white men and most of them were diagnosed at advanced stage. Surgery combined with radiotherapy was the most therapeutic modalities given. The overall mortality rate in our sample was of 65.5%. Overall 1-, 2- and 5-year survival rate was 57.9%, 44.8%, and 17.7%, respectively. Maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive tumor normally diagnosed at the advanced stage and most patients present an unfavorable prognosis and reduced survival rate.

  12. Docetaxel, Cisplatin, Pegfilgrastim, and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage IIIB or Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-17

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  13. Impact of HPV infection on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Götz, Carolin; Drecoll, Enken; Straub, Melanie; Bissinger, Oliver; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kolk, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are often divided by their aetiology. Noxae associated collectives are compared with the human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated group, whereas different localisations of oral (OSCC) and oropharyngeal (OPSCC) squamous cell carcinomas are mostly discussed as one single group. Our aim was to show that classification by aetiology is not appropriate for OSCC. Results HPV DNA was detected by PCR in 7 (3.47%) patients, and we identified 12 (5.94%) positive (+) cases by p16INK4a immunostaining. Only 4 (1.98%) of the p16INK4a+ cases were + for HPV using PCR. Our homogenous collective of OSCC allowed us to compare HPV+ and HPV negative (−) patients without creating bias for tumour localisation, age, gender or tumour stage. Materials and methods After testing OSCC samples for HPV positivity, we compared the results of two commonly used HPV detection methods, p16INK4a immunostaining and HPV DNA-related PCR, on 202 OSCC patients. HPV subtypes were determined with an HPV LCD Array Kit. Clinicopathological features of the patients were analysed, and the disease specific survival rates (DSS) for HPV+ and HPV− patients were obtained. Conclusions p16INK4a immunostaining is a not a reliable HPV detection method for OSCC. Positive p16INK4a immunostaining did not agree with + results from PCR of HPV DNA. Furthermore, the influence of HPV-related oncogenic transformation in OSCC is overestimated. The significance of HPV infection remains clinically unclear, and its influence on survival rates is not relevant to OSCC cases. PMID:27732948

  14. Changes in gene expression of neo-squamous mucosa after endoscopic treatment for dysplastic Barrett’s esophagus and intramucosal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Levert-Mignon, Angelique; Bourke, Michael J; Lord, Sarah J; Taylor, Andrew C; Wettstein, Antony R; Edwards, Melanie; Botelho, Natalia K; Sonson, Rebecca; Jayasekera, Chatura; Fisher, Oliver M; Thomas, Melissa L; Macrae, Finlay; Hussey, Damian J; Watson, David I

    2016-01-01

    Background Endoscopic therapy, including by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), is first line treatment for Barrett’s esophagus (BE) with high-grade dysplasia (HGD) or intramucosal cancer (IMC) and may be appropriate for some patients with low-grade dysplasia (LGD). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular effects of endotherapy. Methods mRNA expression of 16 genes significantly associated with different BE stages was measured in paired pre-treatment BE tissues and post-treatment neo-squamous biopsies from 36 patients treated by RFA (19 patients, 3 IMC, 4 HGD, 12 LGD) or EMR (17 patients, 4 IMC, 13 HGD). EMR was performed prior to RFA in eight patients. Normal squamous esophageal tissues were from 20 control individuals. Results Endoscopic therapy resulted in significant change towards the normal squamous expression profile for all genes. The neo-squamous expression profile was significantly different to the normal control profile for 11 of 16 genes. Conclusion Endotherapy results in marked changes in mRNA expression, with replacement of the disordered BE dysplasia or IMC profile with a more “normal” profile. The neo-squamous mucosa was significantly different to the normal control squamous mucosa for most genes. The significance of this finding is uncertain but it may support continued endoscopic surveillance after successful endotherapy.

  15. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sacs in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Mellett, S; Verganti, S; Murphy, S; Bowlt, K

    2015-03-01

    Anal sac squamous cell carcinoma is rare in dogs. Five cases have been previously reported, treatment of which involved surgery alone. This report describes three further cases of canine anal sac squamous cell carcinoma which underwent medical (meloxicam) management alone, resulting in survival of up to seven months. No metastases were identified. Squamous cell carcinoma, although extremely uncommon, should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis when a dog is presented for investigation of an anal sac mass.

  17. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  20. Immunohistochemical characterization of mammary squamous cell carcinoma of the dog.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Francesco; Sarli, Giuseppe; Brunetti, Barbara; Morandi, Federico; Benazzi, Cinzia

    2008-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the mammary gland is rare in both veterinary and human medicine. Whereas human metaplastic and squamous variants are known, the objectives of the current study were to ascertain the presence of such entities in canine mammary tumors and to distinguish them from other (epidermal, sweat gland) squamous tumors that may develop in the same area. A panel of antibodies (anti-cytokeratin [CK] 19, CK 14, CK 5/6, pancytokeratin, and vimentin) was used on 18 mammary gland malignancies with squamous features and 16 malignant skin tumors (11 squamous cell carcinomas of the skin and 5 sweat glands). Fifteen of the 18 mammary carcinomas were classified as metaplastic carcinomas, and the remaining 3 were classified as squamous cell carcinomas. The 2 most useful markers to establish the histogenesis of mammary tumors were pancytokeratin and CK 19. All other antibodies were equally expressed (CK 14 and 5/6) in all histotypes. The antibody panel discriminated primary epidermal squamous tumors (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 negative) from gland-derived squamous neoplasms (pancytokeratin positive and CK 19 positive) but failed to distinguish primary mammary tumors from other squamous tumors of glandular origin.

  1. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Stage IB, II, or IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer That Was Completely Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-19

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  2. Chronic estrogen-induced cervical and vaginal squamous carcinogenesis in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Arbeit, J M; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1996-04-02

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs), including type 16, have been identified as factors in cervical carcinogenesis. However, the presence and expression of the virus per se appear to be insufficient for carcinogenesis. Rather, cofactors most likely are necessary in addition to viral gene expression to initiate neoplasia. One candidate cofactor is prolonged exposure to sex hormones. To examine the possible effects of estrogen on HPV-associated neoplasia, we treated transgenic mice expressing the oncogenes of HPV16 under control of the human keratin-14 promoter (K14-HPV16 transgenic mice) and nontransgenic control mice with slow release pellets of 17beta-estradiol. Squamous carcinomas developed in a multistage pathway exclusively in the vagina and cervix of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice. Estrogen-induced carcinogenesis was accompanied by an incremental increase in the incidence and distribution of proliferating cells solely within the cervical and vaginal squamous epithelium of K14-HPV16 mice. Expression of the HPV transgenes in untreated transgenic mice was detectable only during estrus; estrogen treatment resulted in transgene expression that was persistent but not further upregulated, remaining at low levels at all stages of carcinogenesis. The data demonstrate a novel mechanism of synergistic cooperation between chronic estrogen exposure and the oncogenes of HPV16 that coordinates squamous carcinogenesis in the female reproductive tract of K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

  3. Clinical relevance of copy number profiling in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Pauline M W; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Moelans, Cathy B; Rifi, Widad; Savola, Suvi; Koole, Ronald; Grolman, Wilko; van Es, Robert J J; Willems, Stefan M

    2015-10-01

    Current conventional treatment modalities in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are nonselective and have shown to cause serious side effects. Unraveling the molecular profiles of head and neck cancer may enable promising clinical applications that pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. We examined copy number status in 36 common oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a cohort of 191 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) and 164 oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) using multiplex ligation probe amplification. Copy number status was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) status in OPSCC, with occult lymph node status in OSCC and with patient survival. The 11q13 region showed gain or amplifications in 59% of HPV-negative OPSCC, whereas this amplification was almost absent in HPV-positive OPSCC. Additionally, in clinically lymph node-negative OSCC (Stage I-II), gain of the 11q13 region was significantly correlated with occult lymph node metastases with a negative predictive value of 81%. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a significantly decreased disease-free survival in both HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCC with a gain of Wnt-induced secreted protein-1. Gain of CCND1 showed to be an independent predictor for worse survival in OSCC. These results show that copy number aberrations, mainly of the 11q13 region, may be important predictors and prognosticators which allow for stratifying patients for personalized treatment of HNSCC.

  4. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. Material and Methods A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words “squamous cell carcinoma”, “early diagnosis” “oral cavity”, “Potentially Malignant Disorders” y “premalignant lesions”. The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Results Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. Conclusions The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed. Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, early diagnosis, oral cavity, potentially malignant disorders, premalignant lesions. PMID:25662554

  5. Nivolumab in the treatment of metastatic squamous non-small cell lung cancer: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joline S J; Soo, Ross A

    2016-10-01

    Progress in the treatment of patients with advanced stage squamous cell non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been limited. An improvement in the understanding of tumor immunosurveillance has resulted in the development of the immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab. Nivolumab (Opdivo(®)), a human immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 anti-programmed death (PD)-1 monoclonal antibody, was the first PD-1 inhibitor approved in the treatment of patients with advanced stage squamous cell NSCLC following platinum-based chemotherapy. CHECKMATE 017, a randomized phase III study of second-line nivolumab versus docetaxel, significantly improved overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), patient reported outcomes and the safety and tolerability favored patients treated with nivolumab. The ligand (PD-L1) expression did not predict for outcome. In this paper, we review the role of nivolumab in the treatment of NSCLC with particular attention on recent studies, ongoing combination studies, toxicity profile, current and potential predictive biomarkers.

  6. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  7. "Intercellular bridges" in a case of well differentiated squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Michaela; Mikita, Geoffrey; Hoda, Rana S

    2016-02-01

    Intercellular bridges may aide in definitive identification of malignant cell origin, especially in squamous cell carcinoma. They are difficult to identify in routine cytologic specimens and are especially rare in smear preparations. Herein, we present images of intercellular bridges from a case of well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in a cytologic specimen obtained from FNA of a paraesophageal lymph node.

  8. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts. PMID:23217175

  9. Multistep process of squamous differentiation in tracheobronchial epithelial cells in vitro: analogy with epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, A M

    1989-01-01

    The lung, in particular the bronchial epithelium, is a major site for tumor formation in humans. Environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke, in conjunction with genetic factors are important determinants in this disease. Malignant cells exhibit alterations in their control of proliferation and differentiation. It is believed that the acquisition of defects in the regulation of these processes is important in the process of carcinogenesis. A clear insight into the basic mechanisms of the regulation of proliferation and differentiation is required to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor development and in other pathological conditions. Studies using in vitro cell culture systems of tracheobronchial epithelial cells provide useful models in which to study the regulation of differentiation and proliferation. The clonogenic cells derived from the treacheobronchial epithelium are pluripotent: They have self-renewal capacity and can differentiate along either a normal, mucosecretory, or a squamous cell pathway. Squamous differentiation in tracheobronchial epithelial cells has many morphological, biochemical, and regulatory properties in common with epidermal differentiation. This pathway of differentiation is a multistep process consisting of at least three stages. In the initial stage, cells become committed to terminal cell division. This is followed by the expression of the squamous differentiated phenotype and finally cornification. Various factors, such as several growth factors, retinoids, calcium ions, and phorbol esters, regulate the program of differentiation at different stages. Studies have indicated that the controls of proliferation and differentiation are interrelated. Cell lines established from tracheobronchial epithelial cells expressing SV 40 large T-antigen, as well as carcinoma cell lines, exhibit altered responses to growth and differentiation regulatory factors. Alterations in the commitment to terminal cell division must be a

  10. Elevated maspin expression is associated with better overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Sheng, Shijie; Zhang, Jianzhi; Dzinic, Sijana; Li, Shaolei; Fang, Fang; Wu, Nan; Zheng, Qingfeng; Yang, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Tumor suppressor maspin is a differentially regulated gene in the progression of many types of cancer. While the biological function of maspin in blocking tumor invasion and metastasis is consistent with the loss of maspin expression at the late stage of tumor progression, the differential expression and the biological significance of maspin in early stage of tumor progression appear to be complex and remain to be elucidated. In the current study, we examined the expression of maspin in 84 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases (stages I-III) and 55 non-tumor adjacent esophageal tissue specimens by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The correlation of maspin with clinicopathological parameters was analyzed. Compared to normal esophageal squamous tissue where 80% (47/55) of the cases expressed maspin at a low to moderate level, all ESCC specimens (100% (84/84)) were positive for maspin expression at a moderate to high level. ESCC with low or moderate maspin expression had significantly shorter postoperative survival rates compared to those that had high maspin expression (p<0.001). Since the correlation of maspin with ESCC histology and the correlation of maspin with ESCC prognosis seem to be at odds, we further investigated the biological function of maspin in ESCC using the established ESCC cell lines. The expression of maspin in five human esophageal squamous cancer cell lines (T12, E450, KYSE150, EC109, and KYSE510) was examined by the Western blot. ESCC cell line KYSE510 that did not express maspin and was stably transfected by maspin cDNA or an empty vector. The resulting transfected cells were characterized in vitro. Maspin expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation, motility and matrigel invasion. Taken together, our data suggest that the transient up-regulation of maspin in the early development of ESCC may be a defense mechanism against further transition towards more malignant phenotypes, ultimately slowing down ESCC tumor progression.

  11. Advances in the management of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Sonal A.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common non-melanoma skin cancers worldwide. While most cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas are easily managed, there is a high-risk subset of tumors that can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Tumor characteristics as well as patient characteristics contribute to the classification of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas as low-risk vs. high-risk. Advances in the treatment of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas largely relate to the management of this high-risk subset. Surgical and non-surgical management options, including newer targeted molecular therapies, will be discussed here. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to determine the exact significance of individual risk factors with respect to aggressive clinical behavior and the risks of metastasis and death, as well as the role of surgical and adjuvant therapies in patients with high-risk cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:25165569

  12. Achalasia: a risk factor that must not be forgotten for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ríos-Galvez, Shareni; Meixueiro-Daza, Arturo; Remes-Troche, Jose Maria

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco abuse are the main risk factors for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), but other conditions that induce chronic irritation of the esophageal mucosa have also been attributed to it. For example, long-standing achalasia increases 16 times the risk of developing ESCC. We report the case of a patient with long-standing achalasia who developed ESCC. Although this complication is infrequent, it should be remembered by clinicians who treat patients with achalasia to detect early stages cancer. PMID:25564630

  13. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery as treatment for oral maxillary squamous cell carcinoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, L A; Bernardo, E; Niza, M M R E; Lloret, A; Buracco, P

    2012-07-01

    A gingival maxillary squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in a 12-year-old male Yorkshire Terrier. After a complete diagnostic work-up, including a computed tomography scan, the tumour was staged as T3bN1aM0 and considered non-resectable at presentation. The combination of neoadjuvant megavoltage radiotherapy and neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and doxorubicin decreased the size of the tumour, allowing for surgery. The dog was free from local disease for 421 days after which it was euthanased at the owners' request.

  14. Urothelial and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Renal Pelvis – A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hippargi, Surekha B.; Kumar, Mayank

    2016-01-01

    Primary malignant tumors of the renal pelvis are relatively rare. Urothelial carcinoma of renal pelvis accounts for 7% of all renal neoplasms, with Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) forming a very small percentage of these cases. Urothelial and SCC of renal pelvis is still a rarer entity. This malignancy of the renal pelvis lacks the characteristic presentation of common renal cell carcinoma and usually presents at an advanced disease stage. We report a case of urothelial and SCC of renal pelvis in a 61-year-old male who presented with non-specific clinical complaints like dysuria and right flank pain. PMID:27790450

  15. Clinicopathologic features of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma: a study of 197 patients from eastern China.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhexuan; Yang, Xihu; Shi, Linjun; Feng, Jinqiu; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Zengtong

    2012-12-01

    Oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma are 2 clinicopathologically distinctive papillary epithelial tumors. The current study aims to compare the clinical and pathologic features of these oral papillary lesions in a patient population from eastern China. A retrospective review in a series of patients with clinical and pathologic diagnosis of oral squamous papilloma (n = 141) and papillary squamous cell carcinoma (n = 56) was conducted. The average age of oral squamous papilloma was 51.0 years (male-to-female ratio, 1.82), with the palate being the predominant site. The average age of oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma was 63.3 years (male-to-female ratio, 1.67), with the gingiva being the predominant site. Multivariate analysis revealed that the elderly patient with papillary lesion (≥60 years) was associated with 3.09-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.59-6.03) increased carcinoma risk compared with the nonelderly patient. The lesion located on the gingiva was associated with 4.98-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.96-12.63) increased carcinoma risk compared with other oral sites. Collectively, clinicopathologic features of oral squamous papilloma and papillary squamous cell carcinoma in eastern China were elucidated. Elderly patients with oral papillary lesions located on the gingiva correlate with higher carcinoma risk. It highlights the importance of using a histologic examination to confirm the clinical diagnosis for any suspicious papillary lesions.

  16. [Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast: rare form carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Maksimović, Sinisa

    2009-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare form of breast carcinoma. Incidence is reported to be 0.1-3.6%. We report a case of a young woman, 37-year-old, with history of a lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast with ulceration of the skin surface. Menarche occurred at age of 12. The patient was married, had two deliveries and had her first child at age of 26. She did not use contraceptive pills. Diagnosis of the tumour of the breast was made at the Department of surgery in General Hospital in Bijeljina in September 2007. Clinical examination, mammography and ultrasonography were performed. Physical examination revealed a circumscribed and firm mass measuring 60 x 60 x 80 mm. Mammogram showed a round, high-density mass with almost regular but partially irregular margin. Ultrasonogram of the left breast tumor identified an irregularly shaped hypoechoic lesion. After clinical staging of the disease, we performed incision biopsy of the skin and tumour of the left breast with histopathology examination (standard hematoxylin and eosin). Patient had estrogen and progesteron receptors negative and was HER2/neu negative. After histopathology, patient's case was presented to the working group for breast tumors which decided to start with the neoadjuvant chemotherapy using platinum. After six cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, regression of breast tumor was confirmed. Working group decided that radical mastectomy of left breast should be performed.

  17. Molecular profiling of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gatalica, Zoran; Knezetic, Joseph; Reddy, Sandeep; Nathan, Cherie‐Ann; Javadi, Nader; Teknos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) exhibits high rates of recurrence, and with few approved targeted agents, novel treatments are needed. We analyzed a molecular profiling database for the distribution of biomarkers predictive of chemotherapies and targeted agents. Methods Seven hundred thirty‐five patients with advanced HNSCC (88 with known human papillomavirus [HPV] status), were profiled using multiple platforms (gene sequencing, gene copy number, and protein expression). Results Among the entire patient population studied, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was the protein most often overexpressed (90%), TP53 gene most often mutated (41%), and phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase (PIK3CA) most often amplified (40%; n = 5). With the exception of TP53 mutation, other biomarker frequencies were not significantly different among HPV‐positive or HPV‐negative patients. PIK3CA mutations and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss are frequent events, independent of HPV status. The immune response‐modulating programmed cell death 1 (PD1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PDL1) axis was active across sites, stages, and HPV status. Conclusion Molecular profiling utilizing multiple platforms provides a range of therapy options beyond standard of care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1625–E1638, 2016 PMID:26614708

  18. Squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities

    SciTech Connect

    Lifeso, R.M.; Bull, C.A.

    1985-06-15

    Between January 1976 and January 1983, 37 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities have been treated at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre by the authors. Each case has arisen in an area of preexisting scar or sinus. Twenty-nine cases were treated by definitive amputation, with 2 local recurrences and 12 nodal metastases. Seven cases had local excision, with three local recurrences and two nodal metastases. Recurrence rate was highest in Grade II and Grade III lesions, and 11 of 15 cases with Grade II disease had metastases to the regional lymph nodes an average of 5 months after surgery. With Grade I disease patients, 4 of 15 had nodal metastases an average of 5 months after surgery. Prophylactic regional nodal irradiation or node dissection was performed in seven cases. None of these cases have shown nodal metastases at an average of 24 months following definitive surgery and radiation. Routine prophylactic regional node irradiation is recommended in all cases of peripheral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  20. Human papillomavirus detection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vietía, Dayahindara; Liuzzi, Juan; Ávila, Maira; De Guglielmo, Zoraya; Prado, Yrneh; Correnti, María

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with benign and malignant lesions in different epitheliums. The relationship between specific genotypes of high-risk HPV and some human cancers is well established. The aim of this work was to detect the HPV genotypes present in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods We evaluated 71 samples of patients with histopathological diagnosis of HNSCC. The DNA extraction was conducted with the QIAGEN commercial kit. HPV detection and genotyping were performed by reverse hybridisation (INNO-LiPA) following the commercial specifications. Results The mean age of the patients evaluated was 60.7 ± 13.11 years. The distribution of the lesions included 25 (35.20%) cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity, 23 (32.39%) of larynx, 16 (22.50%) of the oropharynx, 4 (5.63%) of paranasal sinus, and 2 (2. 80%) cases of SCC of the nostril. Of the patients, 78.9% were males, and of these 76% were tobacco users and 67.6% were alcohol consumers. The viral DNA was detected in 67.6% of the samples. The oral cavity and the larynx were the highest HPV-positivity sites with 35.40% and 29.10% respectively. The most frequent genotype was 16 as single infection (18.70%), or in combination with another HPV types. In the oral cavity and larynx the genotypes 16 or the combination 6 and 51 were present in 11.76% and 14.28%, respectively; and in the oropharynx the most frequent genotype was 16 in 22.50% of the cases, and in the paranasal sinus 50% presented infection with HPV-6. We observed that tumours with most advanced size and stage presented greater HPV positivity. Conclusions This study shows a high percentage of HPV positivity in SCC is mainly associated with high-risk HPV. It is important to highlight that viral infection, especially HPV-16, could be a risk factor in HNSCC progression. PMID:25374623

  1. [Advances of molecular targeted therapy in squamous cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Zhang, Shucai

    2013-12-01

    Squamous cell lung cancer (SQCLC) is one of the most prevalent subtypes of lung cancer worldwide, about 400,000 persons die from squamous-cell lung cancer around the world, and its pathogenesis is closely linked with tobacco exposure. Unfortunately, squamous-cell lung cancer patients do not benefit from major advances in the development of targeted therapeutics such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors that show exquisite activity in lung adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations or echinoderm microtubule associated protein like-4 (EML4)-ALK fusions, respectively. Major efforts have been launched to characterize the genomes of squamous-cell lung cancers. Among the new results emanating from these efforts are amplifications of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) gene, the discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) gene mutation as potential novel targets for the treatment of SQCLCs. Researchers find that there are many specific molecular targeted genes in the genome of squamous-cell lung cancer patients. These changes play a vital role in cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, cell apoptosis, squamous epithelium differentiation, may be the candidate targeted moleculars in SQCLCs. Here, we provide a review on these discoveries and their implications for clinical trials in squamous-cell lung cancer assessing the value of novel therapeutics addressing these targets.

  2. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Vishakha; Pradeep, G. L.; Prakash, Nilima; Mahajan, Aarti M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15). Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population. PMID:27994410

  3. Helicobacter Pylory infection in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poyrazoglu, Omer Bilgehan; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur; Gultepe, Bilge Sumbul

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common esophageal diseases in the developing world, but the relationship between esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and Helicobacter pylori infection remains a neglected topic. The primary objective of this study was to determine the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. A second purpose was to determine the incidence and factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection following esophagectomy. METHOD: The microorganism was identified by testing the gastric biopsy materials from 95 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients (66 females; 39 were esophagectomized) for urease activity in a medium containing urea and a power of hydrogen detection reagent and comparing the results with those from a healthy population. Differences in patient characteristics were assessed with chi-square tests and t-tests for categorical and continuous factors, respectively. RESULTS: The patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma had a significantly lower prevalence of Helicobacter pylori compared with the healthy population (p<0.001). The naive and esophagectomized patients, in contrast, showed no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori infection (p>0.005). Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma showed a significant association between leukocytosis and hypoglobulinemia and the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection (p=0.023 and p=0.045, respectively). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Helicobacter pylori is not an etiological factor in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. We found a statistically significant negative correlation between esophageal squamous cell cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. These findings may guide new strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy. PMID:28355360

  4. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  5. A novel marker for basal (stem) cells of mammalian stratified squamous epithelia and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Samuel, J; Noujaim, A A; Willans, D J; Brzezinska, G S; Haines, D M; Longenecker, B M

    1989-05-01

    We have developed a monoclonal antibody (174H.64) which selectively recognizes antigens shared by the basal cells of mammalian stratified squamous epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Histopathological studies of the frozen tissue sections demonstrated selective binding of this antibody to SCCs of human, bovine, canine, feline, and murine origin. Tumors of other histological types did not show reactivity with the antibody. In well-differentiated SCCs the peripheral layer of the tumor showed preferential binding of the antibody, suggesting that the antigens are associated with the proliferative compartment of the tumor. Studies on normal human tissues showed selective binding of the antibody to the basal layer of stratified squamous epithelia, thymic epithelial cells, and myoepithelial cells around breast ducts, while no antibody binding was observed for the suprabasal layers of stratified epithelia, simple epithelia, or tissues of nonepithelial origin. A similar pattern of antibody binding was also observed for bovine and murine skin with staining of the basal layer. The antigens detected by monoclonal antibody 174H.64 were characterized from cytoskeletal protein extracts of normal human keratinocytes as well as human and bovine SCC tissues by using an immunoblotting technique. The antigens detected in normal human keratinocytes consisted of two major protein bands of approximate molecular weights of 48,000-50,000 and 57,000. In bovine SCC tumor the antigen detected was the Mr 48,000-50,000 band and in the human SCC tumor it was the Mr 57,000 band. A murine lung SCC model was developed with a murine SCC cell line KLN-205. The lung tumor obtained was reactive against the antibody and showed selective staining of the peripheral layer of the tumor containing the stem cell population. The antigens described by monoclonal antibody 174H.64 appear to be molecules associated with the stem cell populations of normal stratified epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma.

  6. Prognostic significance of CT-emphysema score in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Cho, Eun Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Although emphysema is a known independent risk factor of lung cancer, no study has addressed the prognostic impact of computed tomography (CT)-emphysema score in advanced stage lung cancer. Methods For 84 consecutive patients with stage IIIB and IV squamous cell lung cancer that underwent palliative chemotherapy, severity of emphysema was semi-quantitatively scored using baseline chest CT images according to the Goddard scoring system (possible scores range, 0–24). The cutoff of high CT-emphysema score was determined using the maximum chi-squared test and the prognostic significance of the high CT-emphysema score was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis. Results The median CT-emphysema score was 5 (range, 0–22). Patients with a high CT-emphysema score (≥4) tended to have poorer overall survival (OS) (median: 6.3 vs. 13.7 months) than those with a score of <4 (P=0.071). Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher CT-emphysema score was a significant independent prognostic factor for poor OS [hazard ratio (HR) =2.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.24–3.41; P=0.005), along with no response to first-line therapy (P=0.009) and no second-line therapy (P<0.001). Conclusions CT-emphysema score is significantly associated with poor prognosis in patients with advanced squamous cell lung cancer. PMID:27621848

  7. Profile of nivolumab in the treatment of metastatic squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ang, Yvonne Le; Lim, Joline Sj; Soo, Ross A

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the prognosis and treatment of patients with advanced-stage squamous cell lung cancers have been limited. An improvement in the understanding of the role of the immune system in tumor immunosurveillance has led to the development of the programmed death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab (Opdivo). Nivolumab is the first PD-1 inhibitor approved for the treatment of advanced-stage squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer following platinum-based chemotherapy. In the key Phase III trial CHECKMATE 017, a better overall survival and progression-free survival were seen in patients treated with second-line nivolumab compared with docetaxel. Programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression did not predict for outcome. In addition, nivolumab had better safety and tolerability, and led to better patient reported outcomes. Further research on the role of PD-L1 expression as a predictive biomarker should be performed, and other biomarkers that can predict the efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors should also be pursued. Further studies on the combination treatment are ongoing to determine the optimal role of nivolumab as monotherapy or nivolumab with other agents in non-small-cell lung cancer.

  8. Expression of HIWI in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is significantly associated with poorer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background HIWI, the human homologue of Piwi family, is present in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and germ cells, but not in well-differentiated cell populations, indicating that HIWI may play an impotent role in determining or maintaining stemness of these cells. That HIWI expression has been detected in several type tumours may suggest its association with clinical outcome in cancer patients. Methods With the methods of real-time PCR, western blot, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry, the expression of HIWI in three esophageal squamous cancer cell lines KYSE70, KYSE140 and KYSE450 has been characterized. Then, we investigated HIWI expression in a series of 153 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemistry and explored its association with clinicopathological features. Results The expression of HIWI was observed in tumour cell nuclei or/and cytoplasm in 137 (89.5%) cases, 16 (10.5%) cases were negative in both nuclei and cytoplasm. 86 (56.2%) were strongly positive in cytoplasm, while 49 (32.0%) were strongly positive in nuclei. The expression level of HIWI in cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells was significantly associated with histological grade (P = 0.011), T stage (P = 0.035), and clinic outcome (P < 0.001), while there was no correlation between the nuclear HIWI expression and clinicopathological features. Conclusion The expression of HIWI in the cytoplasm of esophageal cancer cells is significantly associated with higher histological grade, clinical stage and poorer clinical outcome, indicating its possible involvement in cancer development. PMID:19995427

  9. Diagnostic Value of Autoantibodies against Ezrin in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lan; Liu, Ming; Lin, Jian-Bang; Hong, Xin-Bin; Chen, Wen-Xia; Guo, Hong; Xu, Li-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), one of the most common malignancies worldwide, is a highly aggressive and homogeneous entity occurring in esophageal squamous epithelium, and a reliable noninvasive test for early detection is needed. A recent study showed that serum autoantibodies against Ezrin could be detected in patients with pancreatic cancer. Here, we assessed whether autoantibodies against Ezrin could have diagnostic relevance for early ESCC. We analyzed autoantibodies against Ezrin in sera of 98 normal controls and 149 patients with ESCC. Ezrin autoantibodies levels were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that higher levels of autoantibodies against Ezrin were observed in serum samples from patients with ESCC than in serum from normal controls (P < 0.0001). Based on a cutoff value of 0.319, the sensitivity and specificity of autoantibodies against Ezrin for diagnosis of ESCC were 27.5% and 95.9%, respectively. Compared with normal controls, the positive rate of autoantibodies against Ezrin was significantly elevated in patients with early-stage ESCC (P < 0.0001). Moreover, there was no significant difference of positivity of autoantibodies against Ezrin in ESCC patients categorized according to age, gender, tumor size, tumor invasion depth, tumor site, histological grade, lymph node status, or tumor stage. Our study indicates that the presence of autoantibodies against Ezrin is significantly associated with ESCC. PMID:28298808

  10. Desmosomal defects in acantholytic squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    O’Shea, Charlene; Fitzpatrick, James E.; Koch, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (Acantholytic SCC) are epithelial tumors characterized by a loss of cell adhesion between neoplastic keratinocytes. The mechanism underlying loss of cell-cell adhesion in these tumors is not understood. Methods A retrospective analysis of acantholytic SCC (n=17) and conventional SCC (n=16, controls not showing acantholysis) was conducted using a set of desmosomal and adherens junction protein antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify tumors with loss of adhesion protein expression. Results The vast majority of acantholytic SCC (89%) showed focal loss of at least one desmosomal cell adhesion protein. Most interestingly, 65% of these tumors lost expression of two or more desmosomal proteins. Conclusions Loss of cell adhesion in acantholytic SCC is most likely linked to the focal loss of desmosomal protein expression, thus providing potential mechanistic insight into the patho-mechanism underlying this malignancy. PMID:25264142

  11. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  12. Squamous cell carcinoma arising from neglected meningocele

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar A.; Raswan, Uday K.; Malik, Nayil K.; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Lone, Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Background: A neural tube defect (NTD) is a common congenital anomaly with an incidence of 6.57–8.21 per 1000 live births. Patients usually present early because of obvious swelling or due to neurological deficit. However, neglecting the obvious cystic swelling on the back till its transformation into malignant tumor is rare. Case Description: We describe a case of malignant transformation of meningocele in a 60-year-old man. Magnetic resonance imaging showed sacral meningocele. Neurological examination revealed intact motor and sensory examination with normal bladder and bowel function. There were no signs of meningitis and hydrocephalus. Excision was done and biopsy revealed it as squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: Meningocele should be treated early and possibility of malignant change should be kept in mind in neglected cases presenting in adulthood. PMID:28194302

  13. Image-Guided Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Boost and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Stage II-III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  14. Clinical, Epidemiological And Histopathological Prognostic Factors In Oral Squamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dragomir, L.P.; Simionescu, Cristiana; Dăguci, Luminiţa; Şearpe, Monica; Dragomir, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    The study that was carried out was comprised of 117 cases of oral squamous carcinomas, selected in two years interval, between 2007-2008. The tumors were diagnosed especially at patients between the ages of 50 and 79 years, 96,6% being over 40 years old. It came out a clear predominance of the male sex in approximatively 90% of the cases. The main localisation was the lower lip and the tongue ( 67,5% ), in approximatively equal proportions ( 35% and 32,5% ). The histopathologically analisys releaved that 37,6% were well differentiated squamous carcinomas, 27,4% were moderately differentiated squamous carcinomas and 35% were poorly differentiated squamous carcinomas. Out of these 3,3% were microcarcinomas, 91,9% were non-metastatic invasive carcinomas and 4,8% were invasive carcinomas with metastatic adenopathy. PMID:24778830

  15. Detection of squamous carcinoma cells using gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Wei-Yun; Lee, Sze-tsen; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study is to use gold nanoparticle as a diagnostic agent to detect human squamous carcinoma cells. Gold nanoparticles were synthesized and the gold nanoparticle size was 34.3 ± 6.2 nm. Based on the over-expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) biomarkers in squamous carcinoma cells, we hypothesized that EGFR could be a feasible biomarker with a target moiety for detection. We further modified polyclonal antibodies of EGFR on the surface of gold nanoparticles. We found selected squamous carcinoma cells can be selectively detected using EGFR antibody-modified gold nanoparticles via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Cell death was also examined to determine the survival status of squamous carcinoma cells with respect to gold nanoparticle treatment and EGFR polyclonal antibody modification.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of cervix metastatic to ileal loop

    SciTech Connect

    Hulecki, S.J.; Klein, F.A.; Davis, J.E.

    1985-12-01

    A case is presented of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix with an isolated metastasis to an ileal loop six years after diversion and seven years after definitive treatment of the primary lesion with irradiation.

  17. Intra-oral cancer at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth.

    PubMed Central

    Ildstad, S T; Bigelow, M E; Remensnyder, J P

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review of 163 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven, invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth who underwent inpatient treatment at the Massachusetts General Hospital during the 15-year period from January 1962 through December 1976 is presented. The stage at first presentation, clinical features of the disease, incidence of second primary tumors, analysis of therapeutic modalities, and survival statistics are compared with reports from other large centers. Floor of mouth tumors comprised 28%, (163/592) of oral squamous cell carcinomas seen at the Massachusetts General Hospital during that time period. Seventy-one per cent of floor of mouth tumors were in men and 29% in women; women tended to present earlier in the course of their disease. Thirty-seven patients (23%) developed a secondary primary malignancy, and four of these 37 patients developed two second primaries. Distant metastatic disease appeared in 6% of patients with Stage I, II, or III disease and 26% of patients with Stage IV disease. Radiation therapy alone and surgery alone resulted in equivalent long-term survival rates for early stage disease. In more advanced stages (III and IV), a combined approach utilizing surgery and radiation therapy obtained superior results for short-term survival than either modality alone. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment and suggestions for development of cooperative protocols in an attempt to improve salvage of patients with this disease is discussed. PMID:6848053

  18. Histopathologic risk factors in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma variants: an update with special reference to HPV-related carcinomas.

    PubMed

    El-Mofty, Samir K

    2014-07-01

    : basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC), undifferentiated carcinoma (UCa), papillary squamous carcinoma (PSCC) and small cell carcinoma. Some studies have suggested favorable prognosis in some variants, analogous to that of the (NKSCC), while others showed poorer outcome. So far the number of studies on this subject is limited and the number of cases evaluated in each investigation is few. Because of that, it is prudent at this stage, not to alter management protocols as a result of identification of HPV in these variants and to await additional information.

  19. Radiation Therapy, Chemotherapy, and Soy Isoflavones in Treating Patients With Stage IIIA-IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Adenosquamous Cell Lung Cancer; Bronchoalveolar Cell Lung Cancer; Large Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  20. Coexpression of COX-2 and iNOS in Angiogenesis of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Youichi; Sobajima, Jun; Higashi, Morihiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Fukuchi, Minoru; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Mochiki, Erito; Yakabi, Koji; Kawano, Tatsuyuki; Tamaru, Jun-ichi; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2015-04-01

    Using immunohistochemical staining, the present study was conducted to examine whether cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) affect angiogenesis in early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We also analyzed the correlation between these two factors. Cyclooxygenase 2, iNOS, and angiogenesis in early-stage ESCC are unclear. Using 10 samples of normal squamous epithelium, 7 samples of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LGIN), and 45 samples of superficial esophageal cancer, we observed the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. We then investigated the COX-2 and iNOS immunoreactivity scores and the correlation between COX-2 or iNOS scores and microvessel density (MVD) using CD34 or CD105. The intensity of COX-2 or iNOS expression differed significantly according to histological type (P < 0.001). The scores of COX-2 and iNOS were lowest for normal squamous epithelium, followed in ascending order by LGIN, carcinoma in situ and tumor invading the lamina propria mucosae (M1-M2 cancer); and tumor invading the muscularis mucosa (M3) or deeper cancer. The differences were significant (P < 0.001). Cancers classified M1-M2 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively); M3; or deeper cancer (P < 0.01) had significantly higher COX-2 and iNOS scores than normal squamous epithelium. There was a significant correlation between COX-2 and iNOS scores (P < 0.001, rs = 0.51). Correlations between COX-2 score and CD34-positive MVD or CD105-positive MVD were significant (rs = 0.53, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P < 0.001, respectively). Inducible nitric oxide synthase score was also significantly correlated with CD34 MVD and CD105 MVD (rs = 0.45, P < 0.001; rs = 0.60, P < 0.001, respectively). Chemoprevention of COX-2 or iNOS activity may blunt the development of ESCC from precancerous lesions.

  1. Stage Posts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulsby, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty about identity and the future is occurring at a stage of life when people do question what they have achieved and what they still want to achieve. The notion of midlife crisis has been in existence for some time but recently its occurrence has coincided with opportunities to take early retirement or redundancy. This has meant that the…

  2. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Three Related Kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Richard; Killick, Rowena; Barrows, Michelle; Stidworthy, Mark

    2017-02-11

    We report three kowari (Dasyuroides byrnei) with squamous cell carcinoma affecting the gingiva. These cases occurred in rapid succession in a related group of individuals of similar age, suggesting a familial tendency to this condition and a typical age of presentation. Other conditions affecting the oral cavity can mimic the appearance of oral squamous cell carcinoma in this species, and so knowledge of this condition can assist the veterinarian in making rapid decisions regarding prognosis and improving the welfare of these animals.

  3. Squamous Papilloma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Prashant P; Suvarna, Prashant V; Desai, Rajiv S

    2010-01-01

    Squamous papillomas are common lesions of the oral mucosa with a predilection for the mucosa of the hard and soft palate. As an oral lesion, it raises concern because of its clinical appearance, which may mimic exophytic carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma or condyloma acuminatum. Its pathogenesis is related to human papilloma virus but there is controversy regarding its viral origin. We present a case of squamous papilloma presenting as oral lesion along with a review of the literature. PMID:21404972

  4. Corneal squamous cell carcinoma in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Busse, Claudia; Sansom, Jane; Dubielzig, R R; Hayes, Alison

    2008-01-01

    A 6-year-old, female, spayed Border Collie was presented to the Unit of Comparative Ophthalmology at the Animal Health Trust with a 6-month history of a progressive nonpainful opacity of the left cornea. A keratectomy was performed and the tissue submitted for histopathology. The diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma. There has been no recurrence of the neoplasm to date (5 months). Canine corneal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has not been reported previously in the UK.

  5. Decreased Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 Predicts Poor Prognosis of Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinshuang; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhong, Hua; Liu, Fengjun; Liang, Ning; Wang, Yao; Meng, Xiangjiao; Du, Juan

    2016-01-01

    TUSC3 was recently identified as a potential tumor suppressor gene in a variety of human malignancies. However, no data are currently available regarding the expressions of TUSC3 in esophageal cancer (ESCC).The purposes of this study was to investigated the expressions of TUSC3 in ESCC tissues and assess the relationship between TUSC3 levels and clinico-pathological characteristics of ESCC patients. TUSC3 protein expressions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on tissue microarray slides in esophageal cancer, which included 95 esophageal squamous carcinoma specimens (ESCC), and 75 normal esophageal mucosa (NEM). We found that TUSC3 in ESCC was significant lower than that in NEM (P=0.000). According to multi-clinical classifications, TUSC3 level varied significantly with TNM stage, T stage, and N stage (p<0.001, p=0.0368, p<0.0001, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that gender, TNM stage, T stage, N stage, TUSC3 expression were prognostic factors for survival. Multivariate analysis showed that in our study, only TUSC3 expression was independent prognostic factors for ESCC. Our results indicated for the first time, a combined analysis of TUSC3 expressions as well as the clinical variables will help predict the prognosis of ESCC patients. Further large-sample validation and functional analysis should be performed to evaluate its potential prognostic and therapeutic values for ESCC patients.

  6. Adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Pradier, Olivier . E-mail: opradier@gwdg.de; Christiansen, Hans; Schmidberger, Heinz; Martin, Alexios; Jaeckel, Martin C.; Steiner, Wolfgang; Ambrosch, Petra; Kahler, Elke; Hess, Clemens F.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvant radiotherapy after transoral laser microsurgery for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and to show that a less invasive surgery with organ preservation in combination with radiotherapy is an alternative to a radical treatment. Patients and Methods: Between 1987 and 2000, 208 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with postoperative radiotherapy after surgical CO{sub 2} laser resection. Primary sites included oral cavity, 38; oropharynx, 88; larynx, 36; hypopharynx, 46. Disease stages were as follows: Stage III, 40 patients; Stage IV, 168 patients. Before 1994, the treatment consisted of a split-course radiotherapy with carboplatinum (Treatment A). After 1994, the patients received a conventional radiotherapy (Treatment B). Results: Patients had 5-year locoregional control and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates of 68% and 48%, respectively. The 5-year DSS was 70% and 44% for Stages III and IV, respectively (p = 0.00127). Patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater or equal to 13.5 g/dL before radiotherapy had a 5-year DSS of 55% as compared with 39% for patients treated with a hemoglobin level greater than 13.5 g/dL (p = 0.0054). Conclusion: In this series of patients with advanced head-and-neck tumors, transoral laser surgery in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy resulted in locoregional control and DSS rates similar to those reported for radical surgery followed by radiotherapy. Treatment B has clearly been superior to Treatment A. A further improvement of our treatment regimen might be expected by the combination of adjuvant radiotherapy with concomitant platinum-based chemotherapy.

  7. Adjuvant Therapy for a Microscopically Incomplete Resection Margin after an Esophagectomy for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bo; Li, JiaXiang; Wang, Bin; Wang, ZhiQiang; Liang, Ying; Cai, Peiqiang; Chen, ZhaoLin; Liu, MengZhong; Fu, JianHua; Yang, Hong; Liu, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with a microscopically incomplete (R1) resection margin following an esophagectomy, as well as the impact of adjuvant treatment on survival. Methods: Data obtained from 124 patients with R1-resected ESCC were reviewed. The impact of clinicopathological factors and adjuvant treatment on the overall survival, locoregional recurrence, and distant recurrence were explored. Results: For a median follow-up time of 16.8 months, the median overall survival of 124 patients was 25.6 months. The 1, 3, and 5-year overall survival rates were 75.6%±4.0%, 35.9%±5.1%, and 23.2%±5.0%, respectively. Adjuvant therapy was administered in 78 patients. In the univariate analyses, patients with a pN0 stage (log rank, p=0.028) and adjuvant chemotherapy (log rank, p=0.032) exhibited more favorable overall survival. In the multivariate analyses, the pN stage (HR=2.192, p=0.004) and adjuvant chemotherapy (HR=0.032, p=0.004) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Locoregional recurrence was the main failure pattern after R1 resection. The pN stage (HR=2.567, p=0.009) and adjuvant radiotherapy (HR=0.278, p=0.000) were independent prognostic factors for locoregional recurrence. Conclusion: In R1-resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adjuvant radiotherapy reduced locoregional recurrence; however, it did not improve overall survival. Adjuvant chemotherapy demonstrated benefits for overall survival. The pN stage was an independent prognostic factor for locoregional recurrence and overall survival. PMID:28243329

  8. Evaluation of Cyclin D1 expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Vishal; Verma, Jyoti; Misra, Vatsala; Srivastav, Sapan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is an aggressive epithelial malignancy of the upper aero digestive tract and comprises 90% of all Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC). It is the sixth leading cancer worldwide with approximately 600,000 cases reported annually. It is one of the most common cancers in India. Tumour Lymph Node and Metastases (TNM) staging has been the most useful indicator to predict prognosis in HNSCC but recently various biomolecular markers have potentially offered new methods for early diagnosis and treatment alternatives for HNSCC patients; one amongst them being cyclin D1. Aim This study has been undertaken to evaluate expression of cyclin D1 in HNSCC cases and to find out its association with various pathological prognostic factors. Materials and Methods A 48 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour sections, stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin were graded and staged. Immunohistochemistry for cyclin D1 was evaluated as Extent Score (ES), Intensity Score (IS) and Total Score (TS) was calculated. Statistical Analysis All the relevant data collected was transferred on to the excel sheet. Chi square test with and without Yate’s correction was used to compare various parameters. The p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results A significant association was seen between TS of Cyclin D1 expression with tumour stage and with lymph node metastasis but not with grade. Conclusion Higher Cyclin D1 expression is associated with higher tumour stage and lymph node metastasis. Therefore, there is value of analysing cyclin D1 amplification and expression, for prognostic evaluation. This may also be further used for targeted therapy in head and neck cancers. PMID:28384866

  9. Progressive squamous epithelial neoplasia in K14-human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Arbeit, J M; Münger, K; Howley, P M; Hanahan, D

    1994-01-01

    To model human papillomavirus-induced neoplastic progression, expression of the early region of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) was targeted to the basal cells of the squamous epithelium in transgenic mice, using a human keratin 14 (K14) enhancer/promoter. Twenty-one transgenic founder mice were produced, and eight lines carrying either wild-type or mutant HPV16 early regions that did not express the E1 or E2 genes were established. As is characteristic of human cancers, the E6 and E7 genes remained intact in these mutants. The absence of E1 or E2 function did not influence the severity of the phenotype that eventually developed in the transgenic mice. Hyperplasia, papillomatosis, and dysplasia appeared at multiple epidermal and squamous mucosal sites, including ear and truncal skin, face, snout and eyelids, and anus. The ears were the most consistently affected site, with pathology being present in all lines with 100% penetrance. This phenotype also progressed through discernible stages. An initial mild hyperplasia was followed by hyperplasia, which further progressed to dysplasia and papillomatosis. During histopathological progression, there was an incremental increase in cellular DNA synthesis, determined by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and a profound perturbation in keratinocyte terminal differentiation, as revealed by immunohistochemistry to K5, K14, and K10 and filaggrin. These K14-HPV16 transgenic mice present an opportunity to study the role of the HPV16 oncogenes in the neoplastic progression of squamous epithelium and provide a model with which to identify genetic and epigenetic factors necessary for carcinogenesis. Images PMID:7515971

  10. Survival benefit of surgery to patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miao-Fen; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Lu, Ming- Shian; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    To assess if surgery provided survival benefit to patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), we performed a retrospective review of 1230 patients who were newly diagnosed with stage T2-T4 esophageal SCC from 2007 to 2014 in our hospital. There were greater than 70% of patients with age under 65 years, and more than 85% were stage T3-T4 at the time of diagnosis. The median survival time was 1.06 year (95% CI 0.99–1.1 yrs). Survival analyses showed that survival time was significantly associated with age, T stage, clinical lymph node involvement and treatment modality (surgery versus definite chemoradiotherapy). Surgery still possessed a powerful impact on overall survival by multivariable analysis. Death risk of patients treated with curative surgery was significantly lower than those with definite chemoradiotherapy. Furthermore, for patients of stage T3N(+) and T4, surgery combined with (neo-)adjuvant treatment were significantly associated with higher survival rate than surgery alone or definite chemoradiotherapy. In conclusion, the patients who undergo surgery were significantly associated longer survival, therefore, curative resection should be considered for esophageal cancer patients who are medically fit for surgery. Moreover, combined with (neo-)adjuvant treatment is recommended for surgically resectable stage T3-T4 esophageal SCC. PMID:28383075

  11. Proteomic analysis indicates the importance of TPM3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shao-Bin; Gao, Qin; Lin, Wen-Wei; Kang, Ming-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Numerous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients exhibit tumor recurrence following radical resection. Invasion and metastasis are key factors in poor prognosis following esophagectomy. In the present study, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to define patterns of protein expression in ESCC tissues at different pathological stages. The expression levels of identified proteins were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. A total of fifteen protein spots with >2-fold differences were observed when comparing results of 2-DE for stage III and stage I ESCC tissue sample. A total of 12 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis and database searches. The results of immunohistochemistry and western blotting demonstrated expression levels of tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) were higher in stage III ESCC tissue compared with stage I (P<0.05). The findings of the present study identified twelve proteins, which are closely associated with ESCC invasion and metastasis, apoptosis and cell signal transduction. Furthermore, the overexpression of TPM3 may be important in ESCC invasion and metastasis. PMID:28138712

  12. Pembrolizumab Combined With Cetuximab for Treatment of Recurrent/Metastatic Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-28

    HNSCC; Lip SCC; Oral Cavity Cancer; Oropharynx Cancer; Larynx Cancer; Hypopharynx Cancer; Nasopharynx Cancer; Sinonasal Carcinoma; Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Head and Neck Neoplasms; Head and Neck Cancer; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  13. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer What’s New in Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Research? ... cancer cells. Researchers are working to apply this new information to strategies for preventing and treating skin ...

  14. [Squamous cell carcinoma in lupus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Kimmritz, Jens; Hermes, Barbara; Schewe, Christiane; Haas, Norbert

    2004-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris and carcinoma in lupo have become rare events that take place in the developed countries only under special circumstances. A 53-year-old woman developed such a carcinoma. She suffered from alcoholism, a well known risk factor for tuberculosis. The diagnosis of lupus vulgaris was confirmed by biopsy when an erythematous lesion on her arm that had been present for 25 years enlarged and subsequently ulcerated. Chemotherapy was discontinued because of lack of compliance and the ulcer grew markedly over the following 16 months. Therefore the entire lesion was excised. Histology showed a squamous cell carcinoma within the ulcer. Neither further systemic manifestations of tuberculosis nor metastases of the carcinoma were found. Under continuous combined antituberculous therapy, the patient remained free of symptoms. This case underlines the problems associated with a disease that has been nearly forgotten in the western countries. It also shows that alcoholism is a risk factor for tuberculosis, along with debilitating diseases such as lymphoma and AIDS as well as immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. Idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cornegliani, Luisa; Vercelli, Antonella; Abramo, Francesca

    2007-12-01

    A new papillomatous clinical entity is described affecting the penile mucosa of dogs. The animals, 11 male dogs of different breeds, ageing from 6 to 13 years, were presented for genital mass and occasional haematuria. Surgical incision of the prepuce skin of the anaesthetized dogs showed the presence of single pedunculated, soft, pink-red, cauliflower-like masses arising from the penile mucosa, with diameter ranging from 2 to 8 cm. In all cases, histopathological examination of the excised masses showed normal epithelial differentiation with digitiform expansion of all the layers and elongated rete ridges slanted towards the periphery of the lesion. Evidence of ballooning degeneration or basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies was not found. Both immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction techniques failed to reveal papillomavirus. According to the histological World Health Organization classification of papillomatous lesions and due to the lack of evidence of a viral origin the masses were identified as idiopathic mucosal penile squamous papillomas. Urinary problems resolved after surgical excision, haematuria was therefore considered secondary to ulceration of the papillated masses.

  16. Development of a squamous cell carcinoma mouse model for immunotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Sominski, Devon D; Rafferty, Patricia; Brosnan, Kerry; Volk, Amy; Walker, Mindi; Capaldi, Dorie; Emmell, Eva; Johnson, Kjell; Weinstock, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    An important component of safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals is evaluation of their potential to increase the risk of developing cancer in humans. The traditional 2-year rodent bioassay often is not feasible or scientifically applicable for evaluation of biotherapeutics. Additionally, it has poor predictive value for non-genotoxic immunosuppressive compounds. Thus, there is a need for alternative testing strategies. A novel 3-stage tumor model in syngeneic C3H/HeN mice was evaluated here to study the effects of immunosuppressive drugs on tumor promotion and progression in vivo. The model employed a skin squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC VII) due to the increased prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in humans associated with immunosuppression after transplants. Local invasion, colonization and tumor progression were evaluated. The validation set of immunosuppressive drugs included: Cyclosporin (CSA), cyclophosphamide (CTX), azathioprine, etanercept, abatacept and prednisone. Local invasion was evaluated by histological assessment as well as fluorescence trafficking from Qdot(®)-labeled tumor cells from the site of inoculation to the draining lymph node. Colonization was evaluated by lung colony counts following intravenous inoculation. Tumor progression was assessed by morphometric analysis of lesion area, angiogenesis and growth fraction of established metastatic neoplasia. Immunosuppressive drugs in the validation set yielded mixed results, including decreased progression. The methods and results described herein using an in vivo syngeneic mouse tumor model can provide insight about the assessment of immunosuppressive drugs in carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  17. Apoptosis in cervical squamous carcinoma: predictive value for survival following radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, J; Bolger, B; Armour, A; Symonds, R; Mao, J; Burnett, R

    2000-01-01

    Background—Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, can be induced by radiotherapy. The extent of apoptosis in a tumour before treatment may have important implications for response to radiotherapy and long term survival. Aim—To examine the extent of apoptosis in tumour tissue from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix before radiotherapy, and to correlate this with response to treatment and prognosis. Methods—The percentage of apoptotic cells was assessed in 146 carcinomas of the cervix from patients scheduled to receive radiotherapy. The CAS 200 static image analysis system was used to count the number of tumour nuclei per high power field, while the numbers of apoptotic cells in the same field were visualised simultaneously on the image analyser and recorded manually. Results—The median apoptotic level was 0.73%. Patients were divided into two groups around the median. There was no statistically significant difference in outcome between the two groups as determined by long term survival following radiotherapy. Conclusions—The CAS 200 static image analyser system can be used to assist in the rapid semiautomated assessment of apoptosis in conventionally prepared tissue. The results suggest that the apoptotic state of a tumour before treatment is of no value in predicting response to radiotherapy and subsequent prognosis. Tumour stage, size, and BrdU labelling index, as a measure of proliferation rate, remain the most important prognostic factors in terms of predicting local tumour control. Key Words: apoptosis • uterine cervix • squamous cell carcinoma PMID:10823138

  18. Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Scalp and Calvarium: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Podda, Silvio; Szymanski, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between immunosuppression-associated skin cancer and lymphoma has been well established. This includes squamous cell carcinoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. When a lesion requires excision, reconstruction can be challenging based on the depth and size of the tumor. We present a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the scalp that extended through the calvarium to the dura mater. His tumors were badly neglected for a long period of time and presented at an advanced stage. Methods: This type of reconstruction was performed utilizing a multidisciplinary approach. Our patient required calvarial reconstruction with titanium mesh, dural reconstruction, latissimus dorsi free flap, and an overlying skin graft. Results: The patient had appropriate resection of his tumor while maintaining flap viability. Postoperatively, he presented with excellent soft-tissue thickness and aesthetic result. Conclusion: We believe that this type of reconstruction was best, considering our patient had a significant scalp and calvarial defect at presentation. Using a latissimus dorsi free flap bestows a robust blood supply to help decrease infections and improve healing and circulation, especially in light of the need of further radiation therapy. PMID:27909467

  19. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J.; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M.

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM. Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC. PMID:25575813

  20. Gene expression analysis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma survival and recurrence.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Xu; Lamperska, Katarzyna; Golusinski, Paweł; Schork, Nicholas J; Luczewski, Lukasz; Kolenda, Tomasz; Golusinski, Wojciech; Masternak, Michal M

    2015-01-01

    The squamous cell carcinomas represent about 90 % of all head and neck cancers, ranking the sixth most common human cancer. Approximately 450,000 of new cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are diagnosed every year. Unfortunately, because of diagnosis at the advanced stages and early metastasis to the lymph nodes, the HNSCC is associated with very high death rate. Identification of signature biomarkers and molecularly targeted therapies could provide more effective and specific cancer treatment, prevent recurrence, and increase survival rate. We used paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples to screen with RT² Profiler™ PCR Array Human Cancer PathwayFinderTM . Total of 20 up-regulated genes and two down-regulated genes were screened out. Out of 22 genes, 12 genes were subsequently validated to be significantly altered in the HNSCC; the samples were from all 41 patients. Five year survival and recurrence selected genes that could represent the biomarkers of survival and recurrence of the disease. We believe that comprehensive understanding of the unique genetic characteristics of HNSCC could provide novel diagnostic biomarkers and meet the requirement for molecular-targeted therapy for the HNSCC.

  1. Occult esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with metastases to the spine and central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Roballo, Carla Adriane; de Campos, Pompeu Tomé Ribeiro; Teixeira, Carlos Osvaldo; Teixeira, Maria Aparecida Barone

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal malignancy encompasses a group of diseases that are mostly represented by the squamous cell carcinoma and the adenocarcinoma. Quite frequently, these neoplasms present aggressive behavior; therefore, the diagnosis is often made when the condition is in advanced stages. Dysphagia is the typical clinical complaint, although it is present only when most of the lumen is obstructed. Therefore, quite often, the metastatic disease is first diagnosed, which contributes to the patient's poor survival expectancy. The authors report the case of a 58-year-old man who looked for medical care complaining of a long-term history of scapular pain. The diagnostic work-up disclosed a cervical spine lytic lesion surrounded by a tumoral mass shown by computed tomography. The cervical tumor was sampled by fine needle aspiration, revealing an undifferentiated carcinoma. The outcome was unfavorable and the patient died. The autopsy findings revealed metastatic disease to the spine and central nervous system, and the primary tumor was found to be an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, which had progressed without typical dysphagia. PMID:26484322

  2. FRMD4A: A potential therapeutic target for the treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xianghuai; Jia, Bo; Lin, Xi; Han, Jiusong; Qiu, Xiaoling; Chu, Hongxing; Sun, Xiang; Hu, Weitao; Pan, Jie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Jianjiang

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify agents capable of inhibiting the invasion and metastasis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and thereby improve the outcomes of patients suffering from tongue cancer. FRMD4A antibodies were used to probe 78 paraffin-embedded specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma and 15 normal tongue tissues, which served as controls. Immunohistochemical methods were then used for analysis. Clinical pathological parameters were obtained, and the association between FRMD4A expression in the samples and the pathological parameters was analyzed. The human tongue cancer cell line CAL27 was used to study the effects of FRMD4A. CAL27 cells were transfected with small-interfering RNA against FRMD4A (FRMD4A-siRNA) and the mRNA and protein levels of FMRD4A were then evaluated by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis, respectively. The proliferation and cell-cycle assays of CAL27 cells were evaluated using the CCK8 method and flow cytometry. The invasion and migration of the cells were measured using a Matrigel invasion chamber and a scratch assay, respectively. The results showed FRMD4A overexpression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the positive reaction was predominately located in the cytoplasm. Tumor clinical stage and lymph node metastasis showed a statistically significant correlation with FRMD4A expression. Transient silencing of the FRMD4A gene for 24 and 48 h significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of FRMD4A, respctively. Silencing FRMD4A gene reduced the proliferation of CAL27 cells and led to cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, as well as significantly suppressing the migration and invasion capacity of CAL27 cells. The findings of the present study suggest that FRMD4A expression correlates with the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma. For this reason, FRMD4A merits further study as it may be suitable for use as a therapeutic agent in antitumor treatment regimens. PMID:27666346

  3. Evaluation of prognostic markers for patients with curatively resected thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ikeguchi, Masahide; Kouno, Yusuke; Kihara, Kyoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Endo, Kanenori; Nakamura, Seiichi; Sawada, Takashi; Shimizu, Tetsu; Matsunaga, Tomoyuki; Fukumoto, Yoji; Saito, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) are prognostic parameters for malignancies. Additionally, serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1) are tumor markers for squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, the prognostic importance of these markers in patients with resectable thoracic esophageal cancer was investigated. In this retrospective study, 84 enrolled patients diagnosed with resectable clinical stage I–III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) underwent thoracic esophageal resection and three-field lymph node dissection at Tottori University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2013. The correlations among preoperative patient markers (GPS, NLR, PNI, SCC-Ag and CYFRA 21-1) and the occurrence of postoperative complications and patient survival were analyzed. The operative mortality was 2.4%, and morbidity was 42.9%. Strong correlations between occurrence of postoperative complications and open thoracotomy (P=0.083) and high-serum CYFRA 21-1 (P=0.007) were observed. In 15 patients with high-serum CYFRA 21-1, postoperative complications were detected in 11 of them (73.3%); on the other hand, complications occurred in 25 of 69 (36.2%) with low-serum CYFRA 21-1. The 5-year disease-free survival rate and 5-year overall survival rate of all the patients were 52.2 and 50.8%, respectively. Among the prognostic parameters, preoperative high NLR was determined to be a poor prognostic factor, independent of the tumor stage in the multivariate analysis. These results may indicate that, in patients with preoperative high-serum CYFRA 21-1, more attention should be paid to the occurrence of postoperative complications. Therefore, in such cases, anastomosis between blood vessels of the substitute esophagus and cervical vessels would be recommended. Furthermore, in patients with high preoperative NLR, effective adjuvant

  4. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    2012-09-27

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, here we profile 178 lung squamous cell carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. We show that the tumour type is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumour. We find statistically recurrent mutations in 11 genes, including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations are seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2 and KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway genes in 47%, and CDKN2A and RB1 in 72% of tumours. We identified a potential therapeutic target in most tumours, offering new avenues of investigation for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancers.

  5. p16 expression is not associated with human papillomavirus in urinary bladder squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Riley E; Hu, Yingchuan; Kum, Jennifer B; Montironi, Rodolfo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Maclennan, Gregory T; Idrees, Muhammad T; Emerson, Robert E; Ulbright, Thomas M; Grignon, David G; Eble, John N; Cheng, Liang

    2012-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is unusual and of unknown etiology. There is a well-established association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the development of cervical and head/neck squamous cell carcinomas. However, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is uncertain. The purposes of this study were to investigate the possible role of HPV in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and to determine if p16 expression could serve as a surrogate marker for HPV in this malignancy. In all, 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation were investigated. HPV infection was analyzed by both in situ hybridization at the DNA level and immunohistochemistry at the protein level. p16 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA and protein were not detected in 42 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (0%, 0/42) or 27 cases of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation (0%, 0/15). p16 expression was detected in 13 cases (31%, 13/42) of squamous cell carcinoma and 9 cases (33%, 9/27) of urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. There was no correlation between p16 expression and the presence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. Our data suggest that HPV does not play a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation. p16 expression should not be used as a surrogate marker for evidence of HVP infection in either squamous cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder or urothelial carcinoma with squamous differentiation as neither HVP DNA nor protein is detectable in these neoplasms.

  6. Existence of a squamous cell carcinoma antigen-immunoglobulin complex causes a deviation between squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations determined using two different immunoassays: first report of squamous cell carcinoma antigen coupling with immunoglobulin A.

    PubMed

    Mori, Eriko; Kurano, Makoto; Tobita, Akiko; Shimosaka, Hironori; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Background Squamous cell carcinoma antigen is used as a tumour marker and is routinely measured in clinical laboratories. We validated two different immunoassays and found three cases in which the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations deviated greatly between the two immunoassays. Here, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these deviations. Methods The squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations were determined using the ARCHITECT SCC (CLIA method) and the ST AIA-PACK SCC (FEIA method). We performed polyethylene glycol precipitation and size exclusion chromatography to assess the molecular weight and spike recovery and absorption tests to examine the presence of an autoantibody. Results Both methods exhibited good performances for the measurement of squamous cell carcinoma antigen, although a correlation test showed large differences in the squamous cell carcinoma antigen concentrations measured using the two methods in three cases. The results of polyethylene glycol treatment and size exclusion chromatography indicated the existence of a large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen in these three cases. The spike recovery tests suggested the possible presence of an autoantibody against squamous cell carcinoma antigen. Moreover, the absorption test revealed that large squamous cell carcinoma antigen complexes were formed by the association of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgG in two cases and with both IgG and IgA in one case. Conclusions This study describes the existence of large molecular weight squamous cell carcinoma antigen that has complexed with immunoglobulin in the serum samples. The reason for the deviations between the two immunoassays might be due to differences of their reactivities against the squamous cell carcinoma antigen immune complexes with their autoantibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the coupling of squamous cell carcinoma antigen with IgA.

  7. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal sac in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Esplin, D G; Wilson, S R; Hullinger, G A

    2003-05-01

    Tumors of the perianal area of dogs are common and include multiple tumor types. Whereas perianal adenomas occur often, adenocarcinomas of the apocrine glands of the anal sac occur less frequently. A review of the literature revealed no reports of squamous cell carcinomas arising from the epithelial lining of the anal sac. Squamous cell carcinomas originating from the lining of the anal sac were diagnosed in five dogs. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of variably sized invasive nests and cords of epithelial cells displaying squamous differentiation. Four of the five dogs were euthanatized because of problems associated with local infiltration by the tumors. In the fifth dog, there was no evidence of tumor 7 months after surgical removal, but further follow up was not available.

  8. Induction of Human Squamous Cell-Type Carcinomas by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Victor D.; Becker-Santos, Daiana D.; Vucic, Emily A.; Lam, Stephen; Lam, Wan L.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic is a potent human carcinogen. Around one hundred million people worldwide have potentially been exposed to this metalloid at concentrations considered unsafe. Exposure occurs generally through drinking water from natural geological sources, making it difficult to control this contamination. Arsenic biotransformation is suspected to have a role in arsenic-related health effects ranging from acute toxicities to development of malignancies associated with chronic exposure. It has been demonstrated that arsenic exhibits preference for induction of squamous cell carcinomas in the human, especially skin and lung cancer. Interestingly, keratins emerge as a relevant factor in this arsenic-related squamous cell-type preference. Additionally, both genomic and epigenomic alterations have been associated with arsenic-driven neoplastic process. Some of these aberrations, as well as changes in other factors such as keratins, could explain the association between arsenic and squamous cell carcinomas in humans. PMID:22175027

  9. Primary invasive ocular squamous cell carcinoma in a horse.

    PubMed

    Kaps, Simone; Richter, Marianne; Philipp, Martin; Bart, Madeleine; Eule, Corinna; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2005-01-01

    A 12-year-old Haflinger gelding was presented to the veterinary medical teaching hospital of the University of Zurich with a light-pink raised mass on the temporal limbus and conjunctiva of the left eye. Squamous cell carcinoma was confirmed histologically after keratectomy and cryotherapy. Seven months later, a smooth pink, progressively enlarging mass was observed within the cornea of the left eye. Ultrasonographically, the mass was not only infiltrating the corneal stroma but seemed to protrude into the anterior chamber. The globe was surgically removed and submitted for pathology. A histologic diagnosis of corneal ocular squamous cell carcinoma with deep stromal invasion, infiltration of the uveoscleral meshwork and iridocorneal angle and resulting intraocular extension was made. This is the first detailed description of a limbal squamous cell carcinoma with invasion into the cornea and uvea in the horse.

  10. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  11. Treatment Outcomes of Patients with Locally Advanced Synchronous Esophageal and Head/Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Receiving Curative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Hao; Lu, Hung-I.; Chien, Chih-Yen; Lo, Chien-Ming; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chou, Shang-Yu; Su, Yan-Ye; Shih, Li-Hsueh; Li, Shau-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated clinical outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with locally advanced synchronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and head/neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) receiving curative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT), and determined whether synchronous ESCC/HNSCC patients had worse prognosis compared to isolated ESCC patients. Using propensity score matching method, we compared 60 locally advanced synchronous ESCC/HNSCC patients with 60 matched isolated ESCC patients. Compared to 60 matched isolated ESCC patients, synchronous ESCC/HNSCC patients had significantly worse prognosis (13.5 months versus 17.2 months, P = 0.01), more grade 3–4 CCRT toxicity, and higher percentage of CCRT interruption. For synchronous ESCC/HNSCC group, the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 52% and 13%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that early ESCC stage, non-T4b disease, and salvage operations were significantly associated with superior survival. In multivariate analysis, ESCC stage represented an independent prognosticator. For chemotherapy regimen during CCRT, cisplatin/5-fluorouracil had significantly more grade 3–4 mucositis/esophagitis and neutropenia than weekly cisplatin. In conclusion, synchronous ESCC/HNSCC patients receiving curative CCRT have worse prognosis and poorer compliance of CCRT compared to isolated ESCC patients. For these patients, ESCC stage and T4b disease were significantly associated with clinical outcomes, and salvage operation may improve overall survival. PMID:28134308

  12. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin–stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929–42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients’ survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients. PMID:28322245

  13. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes correlate with improved survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dongxian; Liu, Yalan; Wang, Hao; Wang, Haixing; Song, Qi; Sujie, Akesu; Huang, Jie; Xu, Yifan; Zeng, Haiying; Tan, Lijie; Hou, Yingyong; Xu, Chen

    2017-03-21

    We undertook a study of tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in a large and relatively homogeneous group of patients with completely resected esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of 235 ESCC tumours were evaluated for density of TILs in intratumoural (iTIL) and stromal compartments (sTIL). Foxp3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in tumoural and stromal areas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Of the 235 tumours, high sTIL (>10%), and iTIL (>10%) were observed in 101 (43.0%) and 98 (41.7%), respectively. The median follow-up period was 36.0 months (95% CI 29.929-42.071). Univariate analysis revealed that sTIL (>10%), iTIL (>20%), vessels involvement, lymph node metastasis, and clinical stage were significantly associated with postoperative outcome. In multivariate analysis, high sTIL (HR: 0.664, P = 0.019 for Disease free survival; HR: 0.608, P = 0.005 for Overall survival) was identified as independent better prognostic factor. Further analysis, sTIL was identified as independently prognostic factor in Stage III-IVa disease, which was not found in Stage I-II disease. Our study demonstrated that sTIL was associated with better ESCC patients' survival, especially in Stage III-IVa disease. Assessment of sTIL could be useful to discriminate biological behavior for ESCC patients.

  14. Atypical squamous epithelium in cytologic specimens from the pancreas: cytological differential diagnosis and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Cramer, H; Madden, J; Gopez, E V; Liu, K

    2001-07-01

    Atypical squamous epithelium is an uncommon finding in cytologic specimens obtained from pancreatic lesions. A variety of pathologic conditions can result in the presence of these cells, including primary or metastatic carcinomas, chronic pancreatitis, and squamous metaplasia related to pancreatic or biliary duct stent placement. Primary adenosquamous and squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas are rare, representing 3.4% and 1.4 % of pancreatic carcinomas, respectively. Cytologic separation of these malignancies from less ominous metaplasias has immense clinical importance. We reviewed Indiana University Hospital's and Duke University's experiences with atypical squamous epithelium occurring within pancreatic aspirates. Study cases were identified using a computer to search the cytology records of these two institutions. Nine cases with a diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, or atypical squamous epithelium were retrieved from the two institutions' Department of Pathology files. One case of pure squamous-cell carcinoma occurred in a patient with a known pulmonary primary; a single case of adenosquamous carcinoma was diagnosed in a patient with a coexistent endometrial primary; a single sample of adenocarcinoma with squamous differentiation was diagnosed in a patient without other known disease; and four primary squamous-cell carcinomas of the pancreas were detected. In addition, a single case of atypical squamous metaplasia associated with a stent was identified, and one case of atypical squamous epithelium associated with chronic pancreatitis was diagnosed. Despite the reactive atypia present in the examples of metaplastic squamous epithelium, separation of these cases from true squamous-cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma was achievable by cytologic evaluation. No cytologic criteria aided in separating primary pancreatic carcinomas with squamous differentiation from metastatic lesions. In this study, we report our findings in a

  15. Invasive Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Masquerading as Nodular Scleritis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Medha; Sundar, Dheepak; Vanathi, Murugesan; Meel, Rachna; Kashyap, Seema; Chawla, Rohan; Tandon, Radhika

    The authors report a rare case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia with intraocular involvement that had an initial masquerade presentation of recurrent anterior nodular scleritis. A 35-year-old male patient presented with right eye recurrent anterior nodular scleritis for which a lamellar patch graft was done. Two months later, the patient presented with recurrence of symptoms. Histopathology review revealed the presence of well-differentiated squamous cell malignancy. A high index of suspicion for malignancy is required in such cases when they do not respond to conventional therapy.

  16. Unexpected Anal Squamous Cells Carcinoma after Open Hemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Luca, Navarra; Valentina, Abruzzese; Federico, Sista; Renato, Pietroletti

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of unexpected anal squamous cells carcinoma found in hemorrhoidectomy specimen. The patient had a 3-year history of prolapsing hemorrhoids. A prolapsing hemorrhoid was present at eleven o'clock in lithotomy. Milligan-Morgan was performed and gross examination of the specimen was unremarkable. Histopathologic evaluation showed noninvasive squamous cells carcinoma. The present case report evidences the opportunity of routine histopathologic analysis of hemorrhoidal specimens particularly in case of long-standing prolapse. Questions arise in the option of those techniques where no specimens are collected or tissue is excised far from deceased area. PMID:25922781

  17. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip simulating squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gad, A; Willén, H; Willén, R; Thorstensson, S; Ekman, L

    1980-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip in an 68-year-old pipe smoker is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a self-healing non-neoplastic disease probably of ischaemic nature. Thirty-nine cases of sialometaplasia are described in the literature up to early 1979. These cases appeared in the palate, nasal cavity, gingiva, lip, hypopharynx and maxillary sinus. Six cases have also been reported from major salivary glands. Histologically there is necrosis of mucous cells with partial replacement by squamous epithelium. This entity has often been mistaken for squamous or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One has to be familiar with the existence of necrotizing sialometaplasia in ordeg surgery.

  18. Perineural Spread of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Manifesting as Ophthalmoplegia

    PubMed Central

    Koukkoulli, Antigoni; Koutroumanos, Nikolas; Kidd, Desmond

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 89-year-old female presented with horizontal diplopia and was diagnosed with VI nerve palsy attributed to a microvascular event. She subsequently progressed to develop an orbital apex syndrome, with neuroimaging demonstrating tumour invasion. Eighteen months earlier, she had squamous cell carcinoma of the forehead excised with clear margins. Intraneural and perineural spread of squamous carcinoma from the face to the cranial cavity is an important cause of delayed cranial nerve palsies after local excision of the skin tumour. PMID:27928347

  19. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Yarak, Samira; Machado, Taila Yuri Siqueira; Ogawa, Marilia Marufuji; Almeida, Mirian Luzia da Silva; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous epidermal nevi are hamartomatous lesions of the epidermis that, unlike other epidermal nevi (such as sebaceous nevus or nevus comedonicus), are rarely associated with malignant neoplasms. The majority of squamous cell carcinoma develop in linear or multiple epidermal nevus and rarely in solitary epidermal nevus. In general, the prognosis is favorable. We report a case of well-differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from a multiple verrucous epidermal nevus. Although there is no consensus on prophylactic removal of epidermal nevus, its removal and biopsy should be considered if changes occur. PMID:28300931

  20. Cinacalcet for Hypercalcemia Caused by Pulmonary Squamous Cell Carcinoma Producing Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Bech, Anneke; Smolders, Koen; Telting, Darryl; de Boer, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Current treatments for hypercalcemia caused by lung cell carcinomas producing parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTH-rp) have limited efficacy, probably because of their lack of effect on PTH-rp secretion. In this case study we explored the efficacy of the calcimimetic cinacalcet as suppressor of PTH-rp production. Patient A 57-year-old male with severe and recurrent hypercalcemia induced by a PTH-rp-producing squamous cell lung carcinoma, stage cT4N3M1b, poorly responding to standard treatments. Results Serum PTH-rp levels were not affected by saline, calcitonin or zoledronate. PTH-rp decreased during chemotherapy and cinacalcet monotherapy. The combination of chemotherapy plus cinacalcet was most effective in rapidly reducing serum calcium and PTH-rp. Conclusion This case study is the first to suggest that cinacalcet may be of value in some cases of PTH-rp-dependent hypercalcemia. Corroborative evidence is needed. PMID:22379470

  1. [Concurrent radiochemotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell oral and oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Semin, D Iu; Medvedev, V S; Marbynskiĭ, Iu S; Gulidov, I A; Isaev, P A; Radzhanova, M U; Derbugov, D N; Pol'kin, V V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the end results of the radiochemotherapy of 237 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa (locally advanced, stage III-IV, - 134; 56.4%, and metastases to regional lymph nodes of the neck - 91; 38.4%) carried out at the Center's Clinic. Interstitial neutron (252 californium) plus polychemotherapy was given to 26 (11%) (group 1); neutron + distant radio + polychemotherapy - 34 (14 %) (group 2); distant fractionated radiotherapy + polychemotherapy - 177 (75%) (group 3). Complete response was reported in 190 (80.2%); partial - 44 (18.6%) and stabilization - 3 (1.3%). Overall response was 98.8%; 5-year survival - 64.5 +/- 3.3%, irrespective of tumor site, grade and method of treatment. Concomitant modality proved highly effective, free from toxic and functional or cosmetic harm.

  2. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas consistently show histologic evidence of in situ changes: a clinicopathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, S T; Hurwitz, R M; Buckel, L J; Gray, H R

    1999-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma on sun-damaged skin is a malignant neoplasm that evolves from its inception as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, which is commonly referred to as an actinic keratosis. In this study, we reviewed 1011 squamous cell carcinomas on sun-damaged skin and found that nearly 100% of these lesions contained histopathologic changes consistent with squamous cell carcinoma in situ at the periphery or within the confines of the squamous cell carcinoma. These malignant changes began in single layer areas of the lower epidermis and evolved into the epidermis and dermis.

  3. Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy With or Without Metformin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-20

    Adenosquamous Lung Carcinoma; Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma; Large Cell Lung Carcinoma; Lung Adenocarcinoma; Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Lung Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

  4. Distinct molecular alterations in complex endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) with and without immature squamous metaplasia (squamous morules).

    PubMed

    Brachtel, Elena F; Sánchez-Estevez, Carolina; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Prat, Jaime; Palacios, José; Oliva, Esther

    2005-10-01

    Several molecular alterations, most commonly PTEN mutations but also K-ras mutations, microsatellite instability, and beta-catenin mutations have been detected in endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (EEC). Specifically, mutations in the beta-catenin gene are seen in 15% to 20% of EECs, whereas immunohistochemical expression of beta-catenin ranges from 13% to 44%, nuclear staining being concentrated in areas of immature squamous metaplasia (squamous morules). Complex endometrial hyperplasia with atypia (CEH-A) is a well-known precursor of EEC, which can also show immature squamous metaplasia. In this study, we compared the immunohistochemical and molecular profiles of 13 CEH-A with and 11 CEH-A without squamous morules (SM) for mutations of beta-catenin, PTEN, K-ras, and microsatellite instability (MSI). In all cases of CEH-A with SM, beta-catenin immunostaining showed strong and diffuse nuclear expression in areas of SM and weak to moderate nuclear expression in the glandular component. Six different beta-catenin mutations were found in 7 of 13 cases (54%) (G34E, G34V, S33C, D32Y, S33F, D32A); however, no mutations of the PTEN or K-ras genes were identified. beta-Catenin immunostaining showed focal nuclear staining in only 2 cases of CEH-A without SM. Only 1 case had a beta-catenin mutation (S45A), which was associated with a K-ras mutation (G12D). Another 3 cases had both PTEN and K-ras mutations (C296Stop Ex 8 and G12V, 244del C Ex 7 and G12D, 251ins TGAT Ex 7 and G13D), and one had a PTEN mutation (G230E Ex 7) only. Of all 24 cases, only 1 case of CEH-A without SM showed MSI. In conclusion, marked differences in the molecular profiles regarding beta-catenin, PTEN, and K-ras mutations were observed between CEH-A with and without SM. beta-catenin mutations might represent a signaling pathway leading to a distinctive morphology in hyperplastic/neoplastic endometrium with SM. Other molecular events such as K-ras or PTEN mutations are likely to occur in CEH

  5. CEP55 overexpression predicts poor prognosis in patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhou; Jia, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) involves alterations in multiple genes with corresponding proteins. Recent studies have demonstrated that centrosomal protein 55 (CEP55) shares certain features with oncogenes, and CEP55 overexpression is associated with the development and progression of malignant tumors. The present study aimed to analyze, for the first time, whether CEP55 expression is related to clinicopothalogic features in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as patient survival. A total of 110 patients with mid-thoracic ESCC who suffered from Ivor-Lewis were enrolled. The CEP55 expression profile of these patients in tumour tissues and corresponding healthy esophageal mucosa (CHEM) was detected by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Correlations between CEP55 expression and clinicopathological factors were analyzed using χ2 test. The log-rank test was employed to calculate survival rate. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to determine independent prognostic factors. The results demonstrated that CEP55 expression in ESCC was significantly higher than that of CHEM (P<0.001). Overexpression of CEP55 was significantly associated with differentiation degree (P=0.022), T stage (P=0.019), lymph node metastasis (P=0.033), clinicopathological staging (P=0.002) and tumor recurrence (P=0.021) in locally advanced ESCC patients. In addition, CEP55 overexpression was significantly associated with reduced overall survival of patients after surgery (P=0.012). The 5-year survival rate of patients without CEP55 overexpression was significantly higher than that of patients with CEP55 overexpression (P=0.012). Therefore, these findings suggest that CEP55 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in locally advanced ESCC patients. PMID:28123547

  6. Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells Express B7-H1 and B7-DC Receptors in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Groeger, Sabine; Howaldt, H P; Raifer, H; Gattenloehner, S; Chakraborty, T; Meyle, J

    2017-01-01

    B7-H1 and B7-DC ligands are members of the B7 family with important regulatory functions in cell-mediated immune response. Both receptors are ligands of the programmed death receptor PD-1. B7-H1 expression has been detected in the majority of human carcinomas in vivo. B7-H1 mediated signals are able to negatively regulate activated T cell functions and survival, and enable tumor cells to overcome host response. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of B7-H1 and B7-DC proteins in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) in vivo. Tissues from 15 samples were cryo-sected and following histological routine staining (HE), incubated with antibodies against human B7-H1 and B7-DC. Immuno-staining of pan-cytokeratin was performed to ascertain the epithelial origin of the tissue and CK 19 to demonstrate the proliferating stage. Confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the presence of both B7-H1 and B7-DC in all 15 OSCC. The B7-H1 and B7-DC staining was located in areas of the tissue that were identified as cancerous lesions in the previously stained HE sections before. Staining with Pan-CK and CK19 provided evidence for the epithelial origin and the proliferating stage of the tissue. The in vivo expression of the B7-H1 and B7-DC receptors in oral squamous cell carcinomas suggest that general mechanisms for immune evasion of tumors are also found in OSCC.

  7. Clinical impact of surveillance for head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yano, Tomonori; Yoda, Yusuke; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical impact of surveillance for head and neck (HN) region with narrow band imaging (NBI) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS Since 2006, we introduced the surveillance for HN region using NBI for all patients with ESCC before treatment, and each follow-up. The patients with newly diagnosed stage I to III ESCC were enrolled and classified into two groups as follows: Group A (no surveillance for HN region); between 1992 and 2000), and Group B (surveillance for HN region with NBI; between 2006 and 2008). We comparatively evaluated the detection rate of superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and the serious events due to metachronous advanced HNSCC during the follow-up. RESULTS A total 561 patients (group A: 254, group B: 307) were enrolled. Synchronous superficial HNSCC was detected in 1 patient (0.3%) in group A, and in 12 (3.9%) in group B (P = 0.008). During the follow up period, metachronous HNSCC were detected in 10 patients (3.9%) in group A and in 30 patients (9.8%) in group B (P = 0.008). All metachronous lesions in group B were early stage, and 26 patients underwent local resection, however, 6 of 10 patients (60%) in group A lost their laryngeal function and died with metachronous HNSCC. CONCLUSION Surveillance for the HN region by using NBI endoscopy increase the detection rate of early HNSCC in patients with ESCC, and led to decrease serious events related to advanced metachronous HNSCC. PMID:28246479

  8. Understanding c-MET signalling in squamous cell carcinoma of the head & neck.

    PubMed

    Szturz, P; Raymond, E; Abitbol, C; Albert, S; de Gramont, A; Faivre, S

    2017-03-01

    c-MET is a membrane spanning receptor tyrosine kinase for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) also termed scatter factor. Transmitting signals from mesenchymal to epithelial cells, the HGF/c-MET axis mediates a range of biological processes that stimulate proliferation, motility, invasiveness, morphogenesis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Aberrant c-MET signal transduction favours tumorigenesis with the acquisition of invasive and metastatic phenotypes. Biological functions of c-MET may strongly vary according to microenvironmental changes, which occur at different stages of tumorigenesis and include also HGF/c-MET activation in stromal cells. In this review, we focused on abnormalities in non-nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma of the head & neck. While the prevalence of c-MET mutations and amplifications ranges 0-25%, c-MET upregulation can be found in the majority of squamous head & neck carcinomas. Despite marked heterogeneity in published scoring methods, immunohistochemical overexpression of c-MET has been typically linked to advanced stages and associated with impaired survival and/or resistance to radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and cetuximab. Experimental studies in cell lines and patient-derived xenografts using various c-MET antagonists (both as single-agents and in combination with cytotoxic and epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-directed agents) yielded promising results, albeit benefit in clinical trials remains to be demonstrated. Consequently, selecting more active agents and integrating them effectively in studies, which incorporate predictive biomarkers such as c-MET gene mutations, amplifications, and overexpression, remains challenging. Further investigations should increase emphasis on disentangling the role of tumour-stromal interactions and analyse their potential as modifiers of drug response.

  9. Podoplanin expression in the development and progression of laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Podoplanin expression is attracting interest as a marker for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of podoplanin during the development and progression of laryngeal carcinomas. Results Podoplanin expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal premalignancies and 53 patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. We found podoplanin expression extending from the basal to the suprabasal layer of the epithelium in 37 (44%) of 84 dysplastic lesions, whereas normal epithelium showed negligible expression. Patients carrying podoplanin-positive lesions had a higher laryngeal cancer incidence than those with negative expression reaching borderline statistical significance (51% versus 30%, P = 0.071). Podoplanin expression in laryngeal carcinomas exhibited two distinct patterns. 20 (38%) cases showed diffuse expression in most tumour cells and 33 (62%) focal expression at the proliferating periphery of tumour nests. High podoplanin expression was inversely correlated with T classification (P = 0.033), disease stage (P = 0.006), and pathological grade (P = 0.04). There was a trend, although not significant, towards reduced disease-specific survival for patients with low podoplanin levels (P = 0.31) and diffuse expression pattern (P = 0.08). Conclusions Podoplanin expression increases in the early stages of laryngeal tumourigenesis and it seems to be associated with a higher laryngeal cancer risk. Podoplanin expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas, however, diminishes during tumour progression. Taken together, these data support a role for podoplanin expression in the initiation but not in the progression of laryngeal cancers. PMID:20196862

  10. Cell membrane CD44v6 levels in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: association with high cellular proliferation and high concentrations of EGFR and CD44v5.

    PubMed

    Ruibal, Álvaro; Aguiar, Pablo; Del Río, María Carmen; Nuñez, Matilde Isabel; Pubul, Virginia; Herranz, Michel

    2015-02-18

    Membranous CD44v6 levels in tumors and surrounding samples obtained from 94 patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas were studied and compared to clinical stage, cellular proliferation, membranous CD44v5 levels, epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and cytoplasmatic concentrations of CYFRA 21.1. CD44v6 positive values were observed in 33/38 non-tumor samples and in 76/94 tumor samples, but there were not statistically significant differences between both subgroups. In CD44v6 positive tumor samples, CD44v6 was not associated with clinical stage, histological grade, ploidy and lymph node involvement, but significant association was found with high cellular proliferation. Likewise, CD44v6 positive tumors had significantly higher levels of EGFR and CD44v5. In patients with squamous cell lung carcinomas and clinical stage I, positive CD44v6 cases were associated with the same parameters. Furthermore, positive CD44v5 squamous tumors were associated significantly with histological grade III and lower levels of CYFRA21.1. Our findings support the value of CD44v6 as a possible indicator of poor outcome in patients with squamous lung carcinomas.

  11. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour. PMID:24455099

  12. Squamous odontogenic tumor-like proliferation in a radicular cyst: A case report.

    PubMed

    Sala-Pérez, Sergi; Marco-Molina, Vicente; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2013-12-01

    The squamous odontogenic tumour is a rare benign neoplasm whose aetiology remains unknown. It usually appears in the jaw and its origin could be related to the ephitelial remnants of Malassez. Histologically comprises numerous islets of squamous, non-keratinized, well-differentiated and rounded epithelial cells a fibrous stroma without signs of atypical cells. There is a non-neoplastic lesion with the same histological pattern than the squamous odontogenic tumour. This entity is characterized by squamous odontogenic tumour proliferations isolated into the cyst wall of an odontogenic cyst. It is rare and has a benign behavior. It has been suggested that these epithelial proliferations could be the former expression of the neoplastic form. It is very important to carry out clinical and radiological controls periodically. So far it has not been documented any change towards a squamous odontogenic tumour nor toward malignancy in a squamous odontogenic tumour like proliferation. Key words:Radicular cyst, squamous odontogenic tumour.

  13. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland: primary squamous cell and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warman, Meir; Lipschitz, Noga; Ikher, Sergey; Halperin, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland is defined when independent and histologically distinct tumors coexist within the gland. The presence of both papillary and squamous cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland is unusual. Suggested etiologies include embryonic remanents of squamous epithelium, chronic inflammation, or thyroid malignancies promoting squamous metaplasia. Case Presentation. An elderly patient presented with a rapid enlargement of a long-standing right thyroid nodule. The tumor was locally invasive and unresectable. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Possible primary sites for squamous cell carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tract were excluded. The patient outcome was fatal although palliative chemoradiotherapy. Discussion. Collision tumor of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare entity that may imply bad prognosis, as to the presence of the squamous portion. The best treatment includes resection of the tumor; unfortunately it is not possible in most cases.

  14. Verrucous carcinoma and squamous cell papilloma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Alan, Hilal; Agacayak, Serkan; Kavak, Gulten; Ozcan, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) of oral cavity is a rare variant of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass. There is a certain clinical similarity between squamous cell papilloma and VC. We presented a report of two cases which are VC and squamous cell papilloma that are showed the same clinical appearance but different pathological appearance, with a review of the literature. PMID:26430380

  15. Relationship between COX-2 and cell cycle-regulatory proteins in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun-Xing; Xiao, Wei; Chen, Wei-Chang; Lin, Mao-Song; Song, Zheng-Xiang; Chen, Ping; Zhang, Yun-Lei; Li, Feng-Yue; Qian, Rong-Yu; Salminen, Eeva

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cell cycle-regulatory proteins in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS: One hundred and two surgically obtained specimens of ESCC were randomly collected. All specimens were obtained from patients who had not received chemo- or radiotherapy prior to surgical resection. Twenty-eight specimens of normal squamous epithelium served as controls. The expression of COX-2, Ki-67, cyclin A and p27 was examined by immunohistochemistry. The Pearson test was used to analyze the relationship between groups. RESULTS: The protein level of COX-2, Ki-67 and cyclin A was significantly higher in ESCC than in normal squamous epithelium (74.7 ± 61.2 vs 30.2 ± 43.4, 64.0 ± 51.6 vs 11.6 ± 2.3, 44.2 ± 32.2 vs 11.7 ± 5.0, respectively, all P < 0.01). In contrast, the protein level of p27 was significantly lower in ESCC than in normal squamous epithelium (182.0 ± 69.0 vs 266.4 ± 28.0, P < 0.01). In ESCC, COX-2 expression was correlated with T stage, the score of T1-T2 stage was lower than that of T3-T4 stage (55.0 ± 42.3 vs 83.0 ± 66.5, P < 0.05), and Ki-67, cyclin A and p27 expressions were correlated with the tumor differentiation (43.8 ± 31.7 vs 98.4 ± 84.8, 32.0 ± 19.0 vs 54.1 ± 53.7, 206.2 ± 61.5 vs 123.5 ± 68.3, respectively, all P < 0.01). COX-2 expression was positively correlated to Ki-67, cyclin A and negatively correlated to p27 expression in ESCC (r = 0.270, 0.233 and -0.311, respectively, all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of COX-2 is correlated with tumor cell invasion and is closely related to the cell proliferation in patients with ESCC. PMID:21157974

  16. Squamous cell cancer of female urethra. Successful treatment with chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, A.B.; Kalra, J.K.; Silber, L.; Molho, L.

    1985-03-01

    The case is reported of a seventy-four-year-old woman with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra who achieved complete biopsy-proved regression of the tumor for more than thirty months after therapy with 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin-C, and radiotherapy.

  17. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shehla; Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi; Bose, Shikha

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. METHODS: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. RESULTS: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  18. Subungual Squamous Cell Carcinoma: The Diagnostic Challenge and Clinical Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Wai Leong; Lee, Joyce Siong See; Chio, Martin Tze-wei

    2016-01-01

    Subungual squamous cell carcinoma is a rare entity and difficult to diagnose as its clinical presentation may resemble benign conditions. This case report highlights the need to maintain a high clinical index of suspicion, and recommends a practical approach for subungual conditions. Dermoscopy and a biopsy for histology are important adjuncts to clinch the diagnosis. PMID:27920677

  19. A dog with squamous cell carcinoma in the middle ear.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Mayer, Monique N; Linn, Kathleen A; Dickinson, Ryan M; Carr, Anthony P

    2008-09-01

    An 8-year-old, castrated male golden retriever was referred for lethargy and inappetance. Severe pain was elicited on palpation of the left temporomandibular joint region. Computed tomography revealed aggressive bone destruction of the left bulla. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed. Malignant tumor in the canine middle ear is rare.

  20. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. ); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); Zitelli, J.A. )

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  1. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia Associated with Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ankit; Espana, Edgar M.; Singh, Arun D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe 2 cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma that originated in the setting of severe atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods Case one involved a 73-year-old male with atopic eczema and severe AKC who developed a limbal lesion suspicious for ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Slit-lamp examination was significant for a new sessile lesion in the temporal limbal region of the left eye. The lesion was treated with excisional biopsy and cryotherapy. Topical therapy with mitomycin C, topical interferon alpha 2b, and topical 5-fluorouracil provided only partial control. Exenteration was eventually needed. Case two involved a 53-year-old male with history of severe AKC and eczema. Computed tomography imaging showed an infiltrative mass of the right orbit. Incisional biopsies confirmed conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma of both sides (invasive in the right eye, in situ in the left eye). Exenteration was needed for control of invasive carcinoma in the right eye. Results Squamous cell carcinoma was treated without success in spite of surgical excision and aggressive treatment with multiple topical agents and multiple applications of cryotherapy. Orbital exenteration was needed in both cases. Conclusion Chronic inflammation associated with AKC may be a risk factor for the development of bilateral, diffuse, invasive, and recurrent OSSN that may require exenteration. PMID:28275599

  2. Outcomes and prognostic factors of chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced or metastatic pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Seigo; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Ihara, Shouichi; Yamamoto, Suguru; Komuta, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma has not benefited from improvements in chemotherapy over the past decade, compared with non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Nowadays, treatment strategies differ between squamous and non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancers. This study aimed to investigate the percentage of patients treated with first-, second-, or third-line chemotherapy and the characteristics of patients for whom chemotherapy has been beneficial. Method Data on patients with stage IIIB or IV squamous cell carcinoma diagnosed between June 2007 and March 2015, and on patients who had received first-, second-, or third-line chemotherapy between June 2007 and November 2015 at our hospital, were retrospectively extracted from our institutional medical charts. We also compared patients who were treated with chemotherapy (chemotherapy group) and patients who were not (non-chemotherapy group) using multivariate logistic regression and multivariate Cox hazard analyses, respectively. Results During the study period, 103, 63, and 32 patients received first-, second-, and third-line chemotherapy, respectively. Fifty-one patients did not receive chemotherapy. Factors predicting unlikely chemotherapy included age ≥75 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG)-performance status (PS) ≥2, Charlson comorbidity index ≥2, hemoglobin <12.2 g/dL, red cell distribution width ≥13.9%, and serum sodium <140 mEq/L. Factors predicting survival for each line of chemotherapy included the following: ECOG-PS ≥2 for first-line; ECOG-PS ≥2 and lymphocyte count for second-line; and ECOG-PS ≥2, body mass index <18.5 kg/m2, and hemoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase levels for third-line. Conclusion Approximately 66% of patients received first-line chemotherapy. Of those, 66% and 33% received second- and third-line chemotherapy, respectively. ECOG-PS was always an essential prognostic factor when considering introducing chemotherapy and proceeding with additional

  3. DIRC3 and near NABP1 genetic polymorphisms are associated laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yanxia; Chen, Zhengshuai; Li, Jingjie; Li, Bin; Jin, Tianbo; Cao, Peilong; Shao, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is one of the most common and aggressive malignancies of the upper digestive tract. The present study is a retrospective analysis of data from a prospective longitudinal study. A total of 170 male LSCC patients (average age, 60.75±10.082) at the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine were recruited between January 2002 and April 2013 for this study. We assessed correlations between patient characteristics and survival, and sequenced genomic DNA from patient peripheral blood samples. We found that the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs11903757, with closest proximity to NABP1 and SDPR, and rs966423 in DIRC3, were associated with survival in LSCC patients. Median follow-up was 38 months (range 3–122) and median survival time was 48 months. LSCC patients with total laryngectomy, poor differentiation, T3-T4 stage, N1-N2 stage or III-IV TNM stage had reduced survival. This is the first study to demonstrate that the rs11903757 GT (HR=2.036; 95% CI, 1.071–3.872; p=0.030) and rs966423 TT (HR=11.677; 95% CI, 3.901–34.950; p=0.000) genotypes predict poor patient outcome. These polymorphisms may serve as useful clinical markers to predict patient survival, and to guide individual patient therapeutic decisions. PMID:27793000

  4. Mass spectrometry-based salivary proteomics for the discovery of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jarai, Tamas; Maasz, Gabor; Burian, Andras; Bona, Agnes; Jambor, Eva; Gerlinger, Imre; Mark, Laszlo

    2012-07-01

    The 5-year survival rates for cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are only some 60%, mainly because 20%-40% of the patients develop a local relapse in the same or an adjacent anatomic region, even when the surgical margins are histologically tumour-free. Tumours are often discovered in an advanced stage because of the lack of specific symptoms and the diagnostic difficulties. The more advanced the stage of the tumour, the more invasive the diagnostic and treatment interventions needed. An early molecular diagnosis is therefore of vital importance in order to increase the survival rate. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient rapid and sensitive mass spectrometric method for the detection of differentially expressed proteins as tumour-specific biomarkers in saliva from HNSCC patients. Whole saliva samples were collected from patients with HNSCC and from healthy subjects. The proteins were profiled by using SDS PAGE, MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry and the Mascot database search engine. Several potential tumour markers were identified, including annexin A1, beta- and gamma-actin, cytokeratin 4 and 13, zinc finger proteins and P53 pathway proteins. All of these proteins play a proven role in tumour genesis, and have not been detected previously in saliva. Salivary proteomics is a non-invasive specific method for cancer diagnosis and follow-up treatment. It provides facilities for the readily reproducible and reliable detection of tumours in early stages.

  5. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC): Advances through omics technologies, towards ESCC salivaomics.

    PubMed

    González-Plaza, Juan José; Hulak, Nataša; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Garrido-Sánchez, Lourdes; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Akilzhanova, Ainur

    2015-08-01

    Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the two main subtypes of oesophageal cancer, affecting mainly populations in Asia. Though there have been great efforts to develop methods for a better prognosis, there is still a limitation in the staging of this affection. As a result, ESCC is detected at advances stages, when the interventions on the patient do not have such a positive outcome, leading in many cases to recurrence and to a very low 5-year survival rate, causing high mortality. A way to decrease the number of deaths is the use of biomarkers that can trace the advance of the disease at early stages, when surgical or chemotherapeutic methodologies would have a greater effect on the evolution of the subject. The new high throughput omics technologies offer an unprecedented chance to screen for thousands of molecules at the same time, from which a new set of biomarkers could be developed. One of the most convenient types of samples is saliva, an accessible body fluid that has the advantage of being non-invasive for the patient, being easy to store or to process. This review will focus on the current status of the new omics technologies regarding salivaomics in ESCC, or when not evaluated yet, the achievements in related diseases.

  6. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  7. Expression of laminin-5 and integrins in actinic cheilitis and superficially invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the lip.

    PubMed

    Peixoto da-Silva, Janaína; Lourenço, Silvia; Nico, Marcello; Silva, Filomena H; Martins, Marília Trierveiler; Costa-Neves, Adriana

    2012-10-15

    The progression of carcinogenesis entails the detachment of cells, invasion and migration of neoplastic cells. Alterations in epithelial adhesion and basement membrane proteins might mediate the early stages of carcinogenesis. This study investigated the expression of adhesion molecules and the basement membrane protein laminin-5 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and incipient squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip to understand early photocarcinogenesis. Ln-5γ2 chain as well as α3, β1 subunits of α3β1 heterodimer and β4 subunit of integrin α6β4 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 16 cases of AC and 16 cases of superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SISCC). Most AC cases showed reduced expression of β1, β4 and α3 integrins, and SISCCs lacked β1, β4 and α3 integrins in the invasive front. AC cases were negative for the Ln-5γ2 chain. Five cases of SISCC (31%) showed heterogeneous Ln-5γ2 chain expression in the invasive front of the tumor. Integrin β1, β4 and α3 expression is lost during the early stages of lip carcinogenesis. Expression of Ln-5γ2 in the invasive front in cases and its correlation with tumor progression suggest that it mediates the acquisition of the migrating and invading epithelial cell phenotype.

  8. Effect and mechanism of RUNX3 gene on biological characteristics of human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaxia; Wang, Zhou; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhiping; Shi, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RUNX3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells biological behavior and the relationship between the expression of RUNX3 and MMP-9, TIMP-1, ICAM-1. RUNX3 levels in 90 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma specimens using immunohistochemical staining to examine the correlation between RUNX3 expression and clinical stage of ESCC. Furthermore, the role of RUNX3 in ESCC progression was evaluated in vitro by siRNA-mediated knockdown of RUNX3 or lentivirus-mediated over-expression of RUNX3 in ESCC cell lines. The expression and activities of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and ICAM-1 were analyzed. We found decreased expression of RUNX3 in ESCC tissue to be significantly related to T stage of tumor (p < 0.01). In vitro, knockdown of RUNX3 in Eca9706 cells resulted in promoting cell growth, migration, and invasion. Additionally, MMP-9 and ICAM-1 were upregulated in RUNX3-knockdown cells. Notably, RUNX3 over-expression in Kyse150 cells could significantly decrease MMP-9 and ICAM-1. Tumorigenesis in vivo was significantly determined. The study indicates that low expression of RUNX3 in human ESCC tissue is significantly correlated with progression. Restoration of RUNX3 expression significantly inhibits ESCC cells migration, invasion, and tumorigenesis, which may be caused by RUNX3's interaction with MMP-9 and ICAM-1; RUNX3 may be a potential therapeutic target for ESCC.

  9. Stages and Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Understand Behaviors Aggression | Agitation Confusion | Depression Hallucinations | Suspicion Sleep Issues and Sundowning Repetition | Wandering Get Help 24/ ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage IIA, IIB, and stage II primary peritoneal cancer; the first panel (stage IIA) shows cancer inside both ovaries that ...

  11. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  12. Combined-modality treatment for advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, K.-H.; Lin, C.-Y. |; Kang, C.-J.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T. |; Wang, H.-M. |; Cheng, A.-J. |; Chang, J.T.-C. ||. E-mail: jtchang@adm.cgmh.org.tw

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate prognostic factors in advanced-stage oral tongue cancer treated with postoperative adjuvant therapy and to identify indications for adjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 201 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue managed between January 1995 and November 2002. All had undergone wide excision and neck dissection plus adjuvant radiotherapy or CCRT. Based on postoperative staging, 123 (61.2%) patients had Stage IV and 78 (38.8%) had Stage III disease. All patients were followed for at least 18 months after completion of radiotherapy or until death. The median follow-up was 40.4 months for surviving patients. The median dose of radiotherapy was 64.8 Gy (range, 58.8-72.8 Gy). Cisplatin-based regimens were used for chemotherapy. Results: The 3-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates were 48% and 50.8%, respectively. Stage, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, and extracapsular spread (ECS) significantly affected disease-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, multiple nodal metastases, differentiation, ECS, and CCRT were independent prognostic factors. If ECS was present, only CCRT significantly improved survival (3-year RFS with ECS and with CCRT = 48.2% vs. without CCRT = 15%, p = 0.038). In the presence of other poor prognostic factors, results of the two treatment strategies did not significantly differ. Conclusions: Based on this study, ECS appears to be an absolute indication for adjuvant CCRT. CCRT can not be shown to be statistically better than radiotherapy alone in this retrospective series when ECS is not present.

  13. Expression of Prostanoid EP3 Receptors in Oral Squamous Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ishfaq, Muhammad; Nagi, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To carry out a descriptive analysis of the expression of the EP3 receptors of PGE2 in different histological grades of OSCC and adjacent normal epithelium. Material and Methods. A total of 46 patients presenting with various histological subtypes and grades of OSCC were recruited from Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Nishtar Institute of Dentistry Multan. Microscopically tumour subtyping and histological grading according to Anneroth's grading system were carried out. Immunohistochemical staining with rabbit polyclonal EP3 receptor antibody was performed and sections were scored for intensity and proportion of positive adjacent squamous epithelial and tumour cells. Results. Out of 46 patients n = 28 (60.9%) were well differentiated, n = 15 (32.6%) were moderately differentiated, and only n = 3 (6.5%) were poorly differentiated. All n = 46 cases of OSCC were positive for EP3 receptor antibody, n = 14 (30.4%) cases had strong intensity of anti EP3 antibody staining in tumour tissue, n = 17 (37%) cases showed moderate intensity, and n = 15 (32.6%) cases showed weak intensity. Conclusion. Prostanoid EP3 receptors are widely but variably expressed in OSCC. Most of well differentiated OSCC cases show a moderate to strong expression of EP3 receptors. However, insignificant statistical relation to histological grades of OSCC has been observed. This might be due to small sample size of the study. PMID:25741449

  14. Prevalence trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mexico City’s General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Guerrero, Juan C.; Jacinto-Alemán, Luís F.; Jiménez-Farfán, María D.; Macario-Hernández, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Florentino

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports suggest an increase in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequency. To improve programs in public health, it is necessary to understand the epidemiological conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in gender, age, anatomic zone and OSCC stage from Mexico City’s General Hospital patients from 1990 to 2008. Study design: A retrospective review of all OSCC cases diagnosed by the Pathology Department of the Mexico City General Hospital was performed. Demographic data, in addition to anatomic zone and histological degree of differentiation were obtained. Central tendency, dispersion and prevalence rate per 100,000 individuals were determined. Results: A total of 531 patients were diagnosed with OSCC; 58.4% were men, giving a male:female ratio of 1.4:1, and the mean age was 62.5 ± 14.9 years. The predominant anatomic zone was the tongue (44.7%), followed by the lips (21.2%) and gums (20.5%). The most frequent histological degree was moderately differentiated in 325 cases (61.2%). The rates of OSCC prevalence showed similar patterns in terms across time. A significant correlation (P = 0.007) between anatomic zone and age was observed. Conclusion: According to our results, the prevalence of OSCC does not show important variations; however, a relationship between age and anatomic zone was observed. These data could be used as parameters for the diagnosis of OSCC as well as for the development and dissemination of preventive programs for the early detection of oral cancer. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, prevalence, histology degree and anatomic zone. PMID:23385493

  15. Verrucoid Variant of Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Clinicopathological Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Priya; Krithika, C.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jagdish, Praveena; Janardhanan, Sunitha; Jeevakarunyam, Sathiyajeeva

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is an exophytic, low-grade, well-differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is described as a lesion appearing in the sixth or seventh decade of life that has minimal aggressive potential and, in long-standing cases, has been shown to transform into squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant disorder, and about one-third of the affected population develop oral squamous cell carcinoma. The histopathological diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma is challenging, and the interpretation of early squamous cell carcinoma requires immense experience. Here we present a rare case of a 24-year-old male with OSMF transforming to verrucous carcinoma with invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Even though the case had a straightforward clinical diagnosis, the serial sectioning done for pathological diagnosis disclosed the squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Ectopic decidua and metastatic squamous carcinoma: presentation in a single pelvic lymph node.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C J

    1988-06-01

    The presence of ectopic decidua in pelvic lymph nodes from patients with squamous carcinoma of the cervix makes evaluation for metastatic disease difficult due to the light microscopic similarity between decidua and sheets of squamous epithelial cells. A patient is present in whom decidualized endometriosis was intimately associated with metastatic moderately differentiate squamous carcinoma in a single pelvic lymph node. This phenomenon afforded an excellent opportunity to study the unique morphologic features that distinguish these two entities. A prior report of this kind was not found. In the absence of obvious squamous differentiation (i.e., intercellular bridges, dyskeratosis, and keratin "pearl" formation), as is frequently the case with squamous carcinoma of the cervix, the light microscopic features that are most useful in distinguishing squamous carcinoma from decidua include the presence of well-defined nests of cohesive cells, nuclear hyperchromasia, and cellular pleomorphism.

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of rectum presenting in a man: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Primary squamous cell carcinomas of the colorectum are very uncommon. Until now, to the best of our knowledge, only 114 cases of squamous cell carcinoma in the colorectum exist in the reported literature. Here we report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum in the ethnic Kashmiri population in northern India. Case Presentation The case of a 60-year-old male patient (Asian) with a pure squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum is presented here. The patient underwent a curative surgery with concomitant chemotherapy. Two years after the initial curative resection of the tumor he is still alive. Conclusion The prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is worse than for that of adenocarcinoma, because of the delayed diagnosis. The etiopathogenicity of squamous cell carcinoma of the colorectum is discussed. Surgical resection of the lesion seems to be the treatment of choice. Chemotherapy also helps in improvement of the prognosis. PMID:21118539

  18. Introducing Cytology-Based Theranostics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Patrikidou, Anna; Valeri, Rosalia Maria; Kitikidou, Kyriaki; Destouni, Charikleia; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and reliability of brush cytology in the biomarker expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas within the concept of theranostics, and to correlate this biomarker profile with patient measurable outcomes. Markers representative of prognostic gene expression changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma was selected. These markers were also selected to involve pathways for which commercially available or investigational agents exist for clinical application. A set of 7 markers were analysed by immunocytochemistry on the archival primary tumour material of 99 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. We confirmed the feasibility of the technique for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Furthermore, our results affirm the prognostic significance of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family and the angiogenic pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma, confirming their interest for targeted therapy. Brush cytology appears feasible and applicable for the expression profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma within the concept of theranostics, according to sample availability.

  19. Survival and prognostic factors comparing stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer treated with primary radical hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Srisomboon, Jatupol; Kietpeerakool, Chumnan; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Manopanya, Manatsawee; Siriaree, Sitthicha; Charoenkwan, Kittipat; Cheewakriangkrai, Chalong; Sae-Teng, Charuwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the survival rates of stage IB 1 versus stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients and to evaluate the prognostic factors after treatment primarily with radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy (RHPL). Patients with stage IB cervical cancer undergoing primary RHPL at Chiang Mai University Hospital between January 2002 and December 2009 were evaluated for survival and recurrence. Clinicopathological variables were analyzed to identify the prognostic factors affecting the survival of the patients. During the study period, RHPL was performed on 570 stage IB 1 and 110 stage IB 2 cervical cancer patients. With a median follow-up of 48 months, the 5-year disease-free survivals were 98.1% and 82.8% respectively (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis identified four significant prognostic factors affecting survival including sub-staging, non-squamous cell carcinoma histology, lymph node metastasis and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion. In conclusion, with a primary radical hysterectomy, stage IB 1 cervical cancer patients have a significantly better survival rate than those with stage IB 2. Significant prognostic factors for stage IB cervical cancer include tumor histology, nodal status, and the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion.

  20. Ganetespib Window of Opportunity Study in Head and Neck Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-22

    Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  1. Reduced-Dose Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy With or Without Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Advanced Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-02

    Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Tongue Carcinoma

  2. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Alonso-Alegre, Elisa M; Rodriguez-Alvaro, Alfonso; Martinez-Nevado, Eva; Martinez-de-Merlo, Elena M; Sanchez-Maldonado, Belen

    2013-07-01

    An 8-year-old female adult reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of Madrid for evaluation of a conjunctival mass on the left eye which had been present for about 2 months. A surgical excision was performed and biopsy material submitted for light microscopic evaluation which confirmed the diagnosis of conjuctival squamous cell carcinoma. Nuclear p53 immunolabeling was found in 52% of the neoplastic cells. Follow-up examination at 12 months postsurgery did not reveal recurrence of this neoplasm. Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma has not been reported previously in reindeer and seems to have similar characteristics to the one existing in bovine species.

  3. Focal cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma following radium-223 extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Benjegerdes, Katie E.; Housewright, Chad D.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term sequelae due to extravasation of intravenous radioisotopes resulting in radiation injuries are rarely reported. As the use of radioactive isotopes for the treatment of osteoblastic metastases increases, information regarding the prevention, treatment, and long-term monitoring of suspected extravasation injury will become increasingly important. We present a patient with no previous history of skin cancer who developed an aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma at the site of prior radium-223 extravasation. We recommend that patients who experience extravasation of therapeutic radioisotopes be monitored by dermatologists for long-term sequelae. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma should be recognized as a rare but potential adverse event following cutaneous extravasation of radium-223 and is likely a side effect that is severely underreported. PMID:28127143

  4. Animal models of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Supsavhad, Wachiraphan; Dirksen, Wessel P; Martin, Chelsea K; Rosol, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common oral cancer worldwide. Local bone invasion into the maxilla or mandible and metastasis to regional lymph nodes often result in a poor prognosis, decreased quality of life and shortened survival time for HNSCC patients. Poor response to treatment and clinical outcomes are the major concerns in this aggressive cancer. Multiple animal models have been developed to replicate spontaneous HNSCC and investigate genetic alterations and novel therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of HNSCC as well as the traditional animal models used in HNSCC preclinical research. The value and challenges of each in vivo model are discussed. Similarity between HNSCC in humans and cats and the possibility of using spontaneous feline oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) as a model for HNSCC in translational research are highlighted.

  5. New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma-1 and cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Ali; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh

    2015-01-01

    New York esophageal squamous cell carcinoma 1 (NY-ESO-1) is a known cancer testis gene with exceptional immunogenicity and prevalent expression in many cancer types. These characteristics have made it an appropriate vaccine candidate with the potential application against various malignancies. This article reviews recent knowledge about the NY-ESO-1 biology, function, immunogenicity and expression in cancers as well as and the results of clinical trials with this antigen.

  6. Regulation of glycolysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Glycolysis is highly upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC glycolysis is an important contributor to disease progression and decreases sensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Despite therapeutic advances, the survival rates for HNSCC patients remain low. Understanding glycolysis regulation in HNSCC will facilitate the development of effective therapeutic strategies for this disease. In this review, we will evaluate the regulation of altered HNSCC glycolysis and possible therapeutic approaches by targeting glycolytic pathways.

  7. [Squamous epithelial carcinoma as a complication of lupus vulgaris].

    PubMed

    Betti, R; Tolomio, E; Vergani, R; Crosti, C

    2002-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris represents a type of cutaneous tuberculosis that, if not correctly treated, presents a progressive chronic development whose long-term complications include cutaneous neoplasms. We report on a 55-year-old man presenting a 10-year-old ulcerated and bleeding lupus vulgaris lesion on the left cheek containing a squamous cell carcinoma. Reviewing the literature, we search for possible causes of delay in diagnosis that even now allowed therapy only after discovery of the tumoral complication.

  8. Regulation of glycolysis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dhruv

    2017-01-01

    Glycolysis is highly upregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). HNSCC glycolysis is an important contributor to disease progression and decreases sensitivity to radiation or chemotherapy. Despite therapeutic advances, the survival rates for HNSCC patients remain low. Understanding glycolysis regulation in HNSCC will facilitate the development of effective therapeutic strategies for this disease. In this review, we will evaluate the regulation of altered HNSCC glycolysis and possible therapeutic approaches by targeting glycolytic pathways. PMID:28191478

  9. Review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Deepu George; Rooban, T; Janani, V; Joshua, E; Rao, UK; Ranganathan, K

    2010-01-01

    Malignancies are usually preceded by the presence of various paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which could be the indirect and/or remote effects of the metabolites produced by neoplastic cells. PNS manifested by oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas, which is the most common head and neck malignancy, are highlighted in this review. Knowledge of the clinical spectrum of these syndromes will equip the oral physician for early diagnosis and management of these hidden malignancies, especially of the pharyngeal region. PMID:21731261

  10. Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung in a 64-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ju Sik; Kim, Do Wan; Choi, Yoo Duk; Na, Kook Joo; Song, Sang Yun

    2014-02-01

    Mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma of the lung is an extremely rare benign epithelial tumor showing a mixture of squamous and glandular epithelium. Here, we report a case of mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma that presented as a solitary nodule in the left lower lobe of a 64-year-old woman. Chest computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated mass in the basal segment of the left lower lobe. The patient underwent a lobectomy under the suspicion of lung malignancy. The histopathological diagnosis was mixed squamous cell and glandular papilloma.

  11. Immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Zhen-ge; Ren, Xiao-hua; Wang, Sha-sha; Liang, Xin-hua; Tang, Ya-ling

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models can closely mimic human oral squamous epithelial carcinogenesis, greatly expand the in vivo research possibilities, and play a critical role in the development of diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. With the development of the recent research on the contribution of immunity/inflammation to cancer initiation and progression, mouse models have been divided into two categories, namely, immunocompromised and immunocompetent mouse models. And thus, this paper will review these two kinds of models applied in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to provide a platform to understand the complicated histological, molecular, and genetic changes of oral squamous epithelial tumorigenesis. PMID:26869799

  12. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy.

  13. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy.

    PubMed

    Khan, M H; Naushad, Q N

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity a type of Oral Cancer in young patients is a very rare occurrence particularly during the first decade of life. Oral cancer is predominantly an aggressive neoplasm of middle-aged people where 96% of the patients are more than 40 years of age and it occurs mainly due to the excessive consumption of tobacco and alcohol. In South-East Asia it has a higher rate of occurrence than the rest of the world, partly due to increased consumption of chewing tobacco and various harmful spices, areca nuts and betel quids. These rare varieties of aggressive neoplasm commonly affect tongue and lip. This report describes a case of squamous cell carcinoma in a 10 year old boy who had an exophytic type of granulomatous lesion with some indurated borders which diffusely involved the left side of the hard palate, alveolar mucosa, left maxillary antrum and aggressively emerged within the left orbit by engulfing the left inferior rectus muscle. The purpose of this case report is to provide information that younger group can suffer from oral squamous cell carcinoma though it is very rare and this younger group would appear to have a biologically more aggressive tumor and they require more complex treatment. The role of more aggressive initial therapy must be considered.

  14. The emerging epidemic of melanoma and squamous cell skin cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.G. ); Hoover, R.N. )

    1989-10-20

    Squamous cell skin cancer, though common, remains largely unreported and unstudied, with little known about its incidence and time trends. The authors have used a unique resource--a continuous population-based registry of cases of squamous cell skin cancer within a single prepaid health plant--to describe basic epidemiologic features of this malignancy and compare it with the more widely studied melanoma. Both malignancies are considerably more common in this population than they expected based on previous reports from the general population. From the 1960s to the 1980s, the incidence of squamous cell skin cancer increased 2.6 times in men and 3.1 times in women, while incidence of melanoma rose 3.5-fold and 4.6-fold in men and women, respectively. Skin cancers of both types involving the head and neck or the extremities increased essentially in parallel over these 27 years. Melanomas of the trunk, however, appeared to increase at a faster rate in both sexes. These observations are consistent with the impression that the rising incidence of both malignancies may be attributable to increased voluntary exposure to the sun over an extended period.

  15. Emerging role of sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Rajeev; Vishwakarma, Supriya; Agarwal, Rahul; Panday, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most frequent cancer type, with an annual incidence of approximately half a million people worldwide. It has a high recurrence rate and an extremely low survival rate. This is due to limited availability of effective therapies to reduce the rate of recurrence, resulting in high morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced stages of the disease. HNSCC often develops resistance to chemotherapy and targeted drug therapy. Thus, to overcome the problem of drug resistance, there is a need to explore novel drug targets. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in inflammation, tumor progression, and angiogenesis. S1P is synthesized intracellularly by two sphingosine kinases (SphKs). It can be exported to the extracellular space, where it can activate a family of G-protein-coupled receptors. Alternatively, S1P can act as an intracellular second messenger. SphK1 regulates tumor progression, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance in HNSCC. SphK1 expression is highly elevated in advanced stage HNSCC tumors and correlates with poor survival. In this article, we review current knowledge regarding the role of S1P receptors and enzymes of S1P metabolism in HNSCC carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we summarize the current perspectives on therapeutic approaches for targeting S1P pathway for treating HNSCC. PMID:27330306

  16. Saliva proteome profiling reveals potential salivary biomarkers for detection of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Chu, Hao-Wei; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Kai-Ping; Liu, Hao-Ping

    2015-10-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Discovery of body fluid accessible biomarkers is needed to improve OSCC screening. To this end, we profiled proteomes of saliva from the healthy volunteers, the individuals with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD), and the OSCC patients by means of SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS. In the control, the OPMD, and the OSCC groups, 958, 845, and 1030 salivary proteins were detected, respectively. With spectral counting-based label-free quantification, 22 overexpressed salivary proteins were identified in the OSCC group compared with the healthy controls and the OPMD individuals. Among them, resistin (RETN) was subjected to further validation with an independent cohort using ELISA. The data confirmed that the salivary RETN levels in the OSCC patients were significantly higher than that in the healthy or in the OPMD group. Moreover, the elevated levels of salivary RETN were highly correlated with late-stage primary tumors, advanced overall stage, and lymph-node metastasis. Our results not only reveal that profiling of saliva proteome is feasible for discovery of OSCC biomarkers, but also identify RETN as a potential salivary biomarker for OSCC detection.

  17. Nuclear survivin promoted by acetylation is associated with the aggressive phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuli; Shi, Lei; Yang, Xi; Ye, Dongxia; Wang, Tong; Dong, Cunshan; Guo, Wenzheng; Liao, Yueling; Song, Hongyong; Xu, Dongliang; Hu, Jingzhou; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Deng, Jiong

    2017-04-06

    Defects in apoptotic pathway contribute to development and progression of oral cancer. Survivin, a member of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family, is increased in many types of cancers. However, it is unclear whether increased survivin is associated with oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and what mechanisms may involve in. In this study, we examined survivin expression in OSCC compared to normal oral tissues via immunohistochemical staining. The results showed that, not only total survivin is increased in OSCCs, but also the subcellular location of survivin is changed in OSCCs compared to normal oral tissues. In most of normal oral tissues, survivin staining was either negative, or cytoplasmic positive/nuclear negative; whereas in most of OSCC tissues, survivin staining was nuclear positive. Statistic analysis indicates that nuclear survivin, rather than total or cytoplasmic one, correlates with tumor TNM stage and differentiation grade. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that survivin is in cytoplasm in normal human oral kinotinocyte (HOK) cells; whereas it is in nucleus in OSCC HN6 cells. Importantly, treatment of HOK cells with HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) induces survivin acetylation and promotes its nuclear localization. Moreover, nuclear survivin in OSCC cells was acetylated at K129 in its C-terminal, suggesting that the acetylation is important for nuclear location of survivin. Our study demonstrates that it is nuclear survivin, rather than total or cytoplasmic one, associates with TNM stage and tumor grade of OSCC. Thus, we propose nuclear survivin as a prognostic marker for the progression of OSCC.

  18. Premalignant Lesions of the Anal Canal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Juan Lucas

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) is a rare tumor. However, its incidence has been increasing in men and women over the past 25 years worldwide. Risk factors associated with this cancer are those behaviors that predispose individuals to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and immunosuppression. Anal cancer is generally preceded by high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), which is most prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus-positive men who have sex with men. High-risk patients may benefit from screening. The most common presentation is rectal bleeding, which is present in nearly 50% of patients. Twenty percent of patients have no symptoms at the time of presentation. Clinical staging of anal cancer requires a digital rectal exam and a positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Endorectal/endoanal ultrasound appears to add more-specific staging information when compared with digital rectal examination alone. Treatment of anal cancer prior to the 1970s involved an abdominoperineal resection. However, the current standard of care for localized anal cancer is concurrent chemoradiation therapy, primarily because of its sphincter-saving and colostomy-sparing potential. Studies have addressed alternative chemoradiation regimens to improve the standard protocol of fluorouracil, misogynic, and radiation, but no alternative regimen has proven superior. Surgery is reserved for those patients with residual disease or recurrence. PMID:22942800

  19. The pathological significance of Notch1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Nagata, Masashi; Nakayama, Hideki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Hassan, Wael; Tanaka, Takuji; Shinohara, Masanori; Ito, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be involved in several types of malignant tumors; however, the role and activation mechanism of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological significance of Notch signaling and its activation mechanism in the development and progression of OSCC. In this study, we showed that the expression of Notch1 and intracellular Notch domain (NICD) are upregulated in OSCCs. In addition, Notch1 and NICD were found to be characteristically localized at the invasive tumor front. TNF-α, a major inflammatory cytokine, significantly activated Notch signaling in vitro. In a clinicopathological analysis, Notch1 expression correlated with both the T-stage and the clinical stage. Furthermore, loss of Notch1 expression correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasiveness in an OSCC cell line. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevented cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that altered expression of Notch1 is associated with increased cancer progression and that Notch1 regulates the steps involved in cell metastasis in OSCC. Moreover, inactivating Notch signaling with GSI could therefore be a useful approach for treating patients with OSCC.

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised. PMID:24829858

  1. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and circulating tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Wikner, Johannes; Gröbe, Alexander; Pantel, Klaus; Riethdorf, Sabine

    2014-05-10

    Due to a lack of substantial improvement in the outcome of patients suffering from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) during the past decades, current staging methods need to be revised. This disease is associated with poor survival rates despite considerable advances in diagnosis and treatment. The early detection of metastases is an important indicator of survival, prognosis and relapse. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metastasis is crucial. Exploring alternative measures apart from common procedures is needed to identify new prognostic markers. Similar to previous findings predominantly for other solid tumours, recently published studies demonstrate that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumour cells (DTCs) might serve as prognostic markers and could supplement routine staging in OSCC. Thus, the detection of CTCs/DTCs is a promising tool to determine the individual need for therapeutic intervention. Encouraging results and new approaches point to the future use of targeted therapies for OSCC, an exceedingly heterogeneous subgroup of head and neck cancer. This review focuses on summarising technologies currently used to detect CTCs/DTCs. The translational relevance for OSCC is highlighted. The inherent challenges in detecting CTCs/DTCs will be emphasised.

  2. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma: an analysis of 703 cases in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y K; Huang, H C; Lin, L M; Lin, C C

    1999-03-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the records of 703 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) collected from 1 January 1985 to 31 December 1996 at a teaching hospital in southern Taiwan, to identify the characteristics of patients and factors associated with survival. There was an overwhelming male predominance (male:female = 15:1). The mean age of the patients was 52. The peak age of oral SCC patients declined from 50 to 59 years in the first six years (1985-1990) and 40-49 years in the last six years (1991-1996). The most common site of oral SCC was the buccal mucosa with 263 patients (37.4%). Most patients (346/703 patients; 49.2%) had stage III cancer. The most common site of occurrence of SCC was the buccal mucosa (263/703 patients; 37.4%), both overall and in patients who chewed betel quid alone or in combination with cigarette smoking and/or alcohol consumption; the tongue was the most common site among patients without any oral habits (18/48 patients; 37.5%). Furthermore, the age of occurrence was on average 6-12 years younger among patients who chewed betel quid than in those who did not. Of the 703 patients, 496 received treatment with surgery, chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. Of these, 209 (42.1%) died. The cancer stage significantly influenced mortality: the 5-year survival rate in patients treated from 1985 to 1991 was 72% in those with stage I, 38.9% in those with stage II, 26.7% in those with stage III, and 11.8% in those with stage IV cancer. Six variables were found to significantly affect survival: tumor size, lymph node involvement, surgery, betel quid chewing, staging, and histological differentiation (all p < 0.05, Kaplan-Meier analysis with log rank test). Of these, surgery and cancer stage independently affected survival in a proportional hazards model (both p < 0.0001). Therefore, the early surgical intervention, and the withdrawal from oral habits, especially betel quid chewing, will be advantageous to patients' survival.

  3. Stage IB adenocarcinoma of the cervix: metastatic potential and patterns of dissemination

    SciTech Connect

    Kjorstad, K.E.; Bond, B.

    1984-10-01

    The metastatic potential patterns of dissemination have been investigated in 150 patients with Stage 1B adenocarcinoma of the cervix treated during a 20-year period from 1956 to 1977. All cases with the exception of one were treated with a combination of intracavitary radium implants followed by a radical surgical procedure with pelvic lymph node dissection. It was found that the incidence of pelvic metastases and distant recurrences and the survival rates were the same as in previously published reports for squamous cell carcinomas treated in the same manner. In one respect adenocarcinomas showed a significant difference when compared with squamous cell cancers: The incidence of residual tumor in the hysterectomy specimens after intracavitary treatment was much higher (30% versus 11%). This is considered a strong argument for surgical treatment of patients with early stages of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.

  4. Capecitabine and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-01

    Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... Three-panel drawing of stage IA, IB, and IC; the first panel (stage IA) shows cancer inside ... cancer inside both ovaries. The third panel (stage IC) shows cancer inside both ovaries, and one ovary ...

  6. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; ...

  7. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1200x1305 View Download Large: 2400x2610 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVB Description: Stage IVB cervical cancer; ...

  9. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View / ... 1575x1200 View Download Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; ...

  10. Long-term results of paclitaxel plus cisplatin with concurrent radiotherapy for loco-regional esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Han-Ting; Ai, Da-Shan; Tang, Hua-Rong; Badakhshi, Harun; Fan, Jian-Hong; Deng, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Chen, Yun; Zhang, Zhen; Xia, Yi; Guo, Xiao-Mao; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Zhao, Kuai-Le

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and late toxicities of paclitaxel (PTX) plus cisplatin (DDP) with concurrent radiotherapy for locally advanced esophageal squamous cancer. METHODS Between 2008 and 2011, 76 patients were enrolled in a phase II study on the treatment of loco-regionally advanced esophageal cancer with radiotherapy (68.4 Gy/44 fractions or 61.2 Gy/34 fractions) combined with 4-cycle chemotherapy consisting of DDP (25 mg/m2 per day for 3 d) and PTX (175 mg/m2 for 3 h). The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival, and the secondary endpoints were toxicity and the treatment failure pattern. RESULTS A total of 76 patients were enrolled in this study, of whom 63.2% finished the whole regimen. The 5-year survival rates for the per-protocol population and intent-to-treat population were 25.4% and 26.4%, respectively, and the median survival rates were 23.7 mo and 28.5 mo, respectively. Grade 3 or 4 late toxicity was observed in only one patient (heart failure). In log-rank analysis, the pretreatment stage (stage II + III: 36.1 mo vs stage IV: 14.9 mo) and the completed cycle (1-3 cycles: 16.1 mo vs 4 cycles: 35.5 mo) were significant prognostic factors (P = 0.037 < 0.05 and P = 0.013 < 0.05). CONCLUSION Radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy consisting of PTX and DDP is a safe and effective definitive treatment for loco-regionally advanced esophageal squamous cancer. PMID:28210091

  11. Increased expression of long non-coding RNA XIST predicts favorable prognosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma subsequent to definitive chemoradiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Reiko; Miyagawa, Ryu; Yamashita, Hideomi; Morikawa, Teppei; Okuma, Kae; Fukayama, Masashi; Ohtomo, Kuni; Nakagawa, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The present retrospective study aimed to examine the association between the expression of long non-protein-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and clinical prognosis in the pretreatment formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients that underwent platinum-based chemoradiation therapy. Between 2001 and 2013, 49 consecutive patients with squamous cell cervical carcinoma were selected for the present study (median follow-up period, 44.1 months). The patients possessed an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage of IB1/IIA1 (with pelvic lymph node metastasis), IB2 or IIA2-IVA, and had been treated with definitive chemoradiation therapy. The pretreatment FFPE tumor biopsies of the patients obtained diagnosis were used for analysis. Total RNAs were extracted from the FFPE tumor tissues and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to examine the expression level of lncRNAs. The expression level of X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) demonstrated a significant association with the overall survival rate (P=0.014). The 4-year overall survival rates were 87.1 and 54.4% in the high and low XIST expression groups, respectively. Since the expression of XIST is associated with the overall survival rate, this lncRNA has the potential to become a predictor for the prognosis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma patients that are treated with chemoradiation therapy. Additional studies are required to investigate the underlying mechanisms of XIST that are associated with prognosis. PMID:27899965

  12. Potential impact of human papilloma virus on survival of basaloid squamous carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Jacobi, Christian; Ayx, Isabelle; Fritsche, Kristin; Piontek, Guido; Hoffmann, Dieter; Weirich, Gregor; Knopf, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Basaloid-squamous-carcinomas (BSCC) have been considered as aggressive variants of common squamous-cell-carcinomas (HNSCC). Recent studies demonstrated a different clinical course depending on the tumour site. The aim of the study is to analyze the histopathologic/clinical features of BSCC/HNSCC resolved by the HPV-status. Methods We analysed the histopathologic/clinical features of BSCC (n=59) and HNSCC (n=981), subdivided due to the HPV status. Differences were analysed using Chi square, Fisher exact, and student's t-test. Survival rates were calculated by Kaplan–Meier and log-rank test. Prognostic variables were subsequently evaluated by Cox regression. Results Our cohort was congruent with the literature regarding sex, age, metastases, and a predilection in the oropharynx. HNSCC/BSCC did not show a different disease-specific-survival. After UICC matching, univariate analysis revealed a better survival of UICC stage IVa BSCC compared to HNSCC (69% vs. 42%, p=0.022) that was associated with a better response to radio-chemotherapy (p = 0.009). These results referred to the high prevalence of HPV+ (86%) oropharyngeal BSCC. Subgroup analysis demonstrated a better survival of HPV+ oropharyngeal BSCC than HPV-BSCC (p=0.017). Conclusion The clinical outcome in BSCC depends on the tumour site and HPV-status. Prospective studies have to evaluate the beneficial application of postoperative radio-chemotherapy in HPV+ BSCC. PMID:25739121

  13. Expression of Smad4, TGF-βRII, and p21waf1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, HUI; CHEN, CHENG; LIU, LU; ZHAN, NA; LI, BENHUI

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) possesses one of the worst prognoses out of the digestive carcinomas. Several studies have suggested that transforming growth factor β receptor type II (TGF-βRII), Smad family member 4 (Smad4) and p21 wild-type p53-activated factor 1 (p21waf1) are associated with esophageal SCC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Smad4, TGF-βRII and p21waf1 in esophageal squamous cancer tissue and the pathological significance of the effect. An immunohistochemical method was used to evaluate the expression levels of Smad4, TGF-βRII and p21waf1 in specimens of esophageal SCC lesions obtained from 80 patients. It was found that the expression of Smad4, TGF-βRII and p21waf1 in histologically-classified grade I esophageal SCC, without invasion or lymph node metastasis, was markedly higher compared with grade III esophageal SCC that had invaded into the deep muscular or serous layer and metastasized to the lymph nodes (P<0.05). Analysis of the expression level of Smad4, TGF-βRII and p21waf1, as well as the clinical and pathological characteristics of esophageal SCC, revealed that the three proteins may be associated with the carcinogenesis, biological behavior and prognosis of esophageal SCC, parallel to the pathological stage and cell grade. PMID:26137158

  14. Expression of myeloid zinc finger 1 and the correlation to clinical aspects of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chung-Po; Yang, Li-Chiu; Chen, Chih-Jung; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Shu-Hui; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Lin, Chiao-Wen

    2015-09-01

    The myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1) is a zinc finger transcription factor which regulates myeloid differentiation and oncogenesis. However, little information is available concerning the MZF1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with patients' prognosis. We detected the expression of MZF1 in 274 patients with OSCC using tissue microarrays (TMAs) and evaluated the associations between nuclear MZF1 expression and the clinical parameters of OSCC patients. We found that nuclear MZF1 expression was present in 190/274 (69.3 %) cases, and loss of nuclear expression of MZF1 was associated with more advanced clinical stages (p = 0.011) and larger tumor size (p = 0.002), but not associated with positive lymph node metastasis and distal metastasis. Importantly, tongue squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) patients with negative nuclear MZF1 expression had significantly worse overall survival rates (log-rank test, p = 0.028). In conclusion, our results revealed that the loss of nuclear expression of MZF1 in OSCC samples can predict the progression of OSCC and the survival of OSCC patients in Taiwan.

  15. Evaluation of EGFR as a prognostic and diagnostic marker for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Polanska, Hana; Raudenska, Martina; Hudcová, Kristyna; Gumulec, Jaromir; Svobodova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Fojtu, Michaela; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 90% of all head and neck tumors are squamous cell carcinomas. The overall survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is low (≤50%). A non-invasive marker of disease progression is sorely required. The present study focused on the plasmatic levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in HNSCC patients (N=92) compared with healthy (N=29) and diabetic [type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); N=26] controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antibodies against the extracellular region of EGFR (L25-S645) was performed. No significant changes were observed between diabetic and healthy controls. However, there were significantly higher EGFR plasma levels in HNSCC patients compared with both control groups (P=0.001 and 0.005, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a sensitivity of 76.09%, a specificity of 67.27% and an area under curve of 0.727 for this comparison. No significant association was observed between EGFR plasma levels and tumor stage, tumor grade, lymph node or distant metastasis occurrence, smoking habit or hypertension. However, the presence of human papillomavirus infection and T2DM in HNSCC patients had borderline effect on the plasma EGFR levels. Survival analysis revealed no significant influence of plasmatic EGFR levels on the overall and disease-specific survival of HNSCC patients. In conclusion, EGFR plasma levels appear to be a relatively promising diagnostic, but poor prognostic, HNSCC marker. PMID:27602151

  16. Arenobufagin activates p53 to trigger esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Junhong; Lin, Shaohuan; Peng, Panli; Cai, Changqing; Deng, Jianming; Wang, Mingzhi; Li, Xuejun; Lin, Rongsheng; Lin, Yu; Fang, Ailing; Li, Qiling

    2017-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is often diagnosed at late incurable stage and lacks effective treatment strategy. Bufadienolides are cardiotonic steroids isolated from the skin and parotid venom glands of the toad Bufo bufo gargarizans Cantor with novel anticancer activity. However, there is little information about the effects and action mechanisms of bufadienolides on ESCC cells. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-ESCC activities of bufadienolides, including bufalin (Bu) and arenobufagin (ArBu), were examined and the underlying molecular mechanisms were elucidated. The results showed that ArBu exhibited higher anticancer efficacy than Bu against a panel of five ESCC cells, with IC50 values ranging from 0.8 μM to 3.6 μM. However, ArBu showed lower toxicity toward Het-1A human normal esophageal squamous cells, indicating its great selectivity between cancer and normal cells. Moreover, ArBu effectively induced ESCC cell apoptosis mainly by triggering caspase activation through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Treatment of ESCC cells also significantly activated p53 signaling by enhancing its phosphorylation. Interestingly, transfection of cells with p53 small interfering RNA significantly inhibited the ArBu-induced p53 phosphorylation and the overall apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, ArBu also demonstrated novel in vivo anticancer efficacy by inhibiting the tumor growth through activation of p53 pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrate the p53-targeting therapeutic potential of bufadienolides against ESCC. PMID:28280360

  17. Treatment of mandibular squamous cell carcinoma in cats by use of mandibulectomy and radiotherapy: seven cases (1987-1989).

    PubMed

    Hutson, C A; Willauer, C C; Walder, E J; Stone, J L; Klein, M K

    1992-09-01

    Seven cats with squamous cell carcinoma involving the mandible were treated by surgery and radiotherapy. Surgery consisted of hemimandibulectomy or combined rostral and hemimandibulectomy, gastrostomy tube placement, and submandibular lymph node excisional biopsy. Radiotherapy (orthovoltage or 60Co) commenced 2 weeks after surgery. Histologically, the tumor invaded surgical margins in 6 of 7 cats. Nerve infiltration was histologically identified in 2 cats. All cats had stage-3 disease with radiographic evidence of mandibular bone involvement. Age ranged between 8 and 16 years (median, 10 years). Hypercalcemia (2), feline immunodeficiency virus (2), and hyperthyroidism (1), were detected in cats prior to treatment. Survival after surgery was a median of 14 months (range = 3 to 36 months, mean = 15 months). Six cats were euthanatized because of recurrence of disease at 3, 7, 9, 16, 21, and 36 months. One cat was euthanatized at 14 months because of an unrelated disease. Complications of tongue lagging, drooling after meals, mandibular drift, maxillary ulceration, and alopecia of the jaw developed in a few cats. Radiation at the primary site and regional lymph nodes after surgery of curative intent extended survival in cats with mandibular squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Chromoendoscopy to detect early synchronous second primary esophageal carcinoma in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck?

    PubMed

    Komínek, Pavel; Vítek, Petr; Urban, Ondřej; Zeleník, Karol; Halamka, Magdaléna; Feltl, David; Cvek, Jakub; Matoušek, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the use of flexible esophagoscopy and chromoendoscopy with Lugol's solution in the detection of early esophageal carcinomas (second primary carcinomas) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Methods. All patients with newly diagnosed HNSCC underwent office-based Lugol's chromoendoscopy. After flexible esophagoscopy with white light, 3.0% Lugol's iodine solution was sprayed over the entire esophageal mucosa. Areas with less-intense staining (LVLs) were evaluated and biopsies taken. Results. 132 patients with HNSCC were enrolled in this study. The most frequent primary tumors were oropharyngeal (49/132), tumors of the oral cavity (36/132), and larynx (35/132). The majority of subjects (107/132 patients, 81.1%) had advanced HNSCC carcinomas (stages III and IV). Multiple LVLs were discovered in 24 subjects (18.2%) and no LVLs in 108 (81.8%) subjects. Fifty-five LVL biopsy specimens were obtained and assessed. Squamous cell carcinomas were detected in two patients, peptic esophagitis in 11 patients, gastric heterotopic mucosa in two patients, hyperplasia in two patients, and low- and high-grade dysplasia in three patients. Conclusion. Although only two patients with synchronous primary carcinomas were found among the patients, esophagoscopy should be recommended after detection of HNSCC to exclude secondary esophageal carcinoma or dysplasia.

  19. Serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen in the monitoring of radiotherapy treatment response in carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Ngan, H.Y.; Chan, S.Y.; Wong, L.C.; Choy, D.T.; Ma, H.K. )

    1990-05-01

    In this study, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) was detected in 96 of 157 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the percentage of patients with raised SCC levels increased with the stage of disease (P less than 0.01). The use of serial SCC assays and cervical biopsy histology during the course of radiotherapy to predict tumor response to irradiation was assessed. In patients who were given external irradiation before intracavitary radium, a high SCC level or the presence of viable tumor cells in the biopsy was found to be of no predictive value. However, at completion of radiotherapy, i.e., after intracavitary radium application, patients with persistently high SCC levels had a significantly higher incidence of residual tumor than patients whose SCC levels returned to normal (P less than 0.01). In 60% of patients with a persistently high SCC level, viable tumor was found in the cervical biopsy at the end of radiotherapy. On the other hand, only 5.4% of patients whose SCC level returned to normal had residual tumor.

  20. Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Terayama, Yui; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Ozaki, Kiyokazu

    2016-01-01

    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. We have previously produced an animal model for hyperplastic candidiasis in the rat forestomach. In the present study, we investigate whether impaired DNA methylation and associated protein expression of tumor suppressor and DNA repair genes are involved in the SCC carcinogenesis process using this hyperplastic candidiasis model. Promoter methylation and protein expression were analyzed by methylation specific PCR and immunohistochemical staining, respectively, of 5 areas in the forestomachs of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with hyperplastic candidiasis: normal squamous epithelia, squamous hyperplasia, squamous hyperplasia adjacent to SCC, squamous hyperplasia transitioning to SCC, and SCC. We observed nuclear p16 overexpression despite increases in p16 gene promoter methylation during the carcinogenic process. TIMP3 and RAR-β2 promoter methylation progressed until the precancerous stage but disappeared upon malignant transformation. In comparison, TIMP3 protein expression was suppressed during carcinogenesis and RAR-β2 expression was attenuated in the cytoplasm but enhanced in nuclei. ERCC1 and BRCA1 promoters were not methylated at any stage; however, their protein expression disappeared beginning at hyperplasia and nuclear protein re-expression in SCC was observed only for ERCC1. These results suggest that aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 expression might occur that is inconsistent with the respective gene promoter methylation status, and that this overexpression might serve to promote the inflammatory carcinogenesis caused by C. albicans infection. PMID:27410681

  1. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy With Paclitaxel and Nedaplatin Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix: Preliminary Results of a Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Meiqin; Liu Suping; Wang, Xiang-E.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and consolidation chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients with LASCC (FIGO Stage IIB-IIIB) were treated with pelvic external beam radiotherapy (45 Gy for Stage IIB and 50 Gy for Stage III) and high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (50 Gy for Stage IIB and 35 Gy for Stage III). The cumulative dose at point A was 50 Gy for Stage IIB and 65 Gy for Stage III. Concurrent chemotherapy with paclitaxel (35 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (20 mg/m{sup 2}) was given every week for 6 weeks. Consolidation chemotherapy with paclitaxel (135 mg/m{sup 2}) and nedaplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) was administered every 3 weeks for 4 cycles. Results: All patients completed CCRT, and 28 of 34 patients completed consolidation chemotherapy. The complete response rate was 88% (95% CI, 73-96%). The most common Grade 3 or higher toxicities were leukopenia/neutropenia (10.9% of the cycles). During a median follow up of 23 months (range, 14-30 months), 5 patients had locoregional failure and 1 patient had distant metastasis. The estimated 2-year progression-free survival and overall survival were 82% (95% CI, 68-95%) and 93% (95% CI, 83-100%), respectively. Grade 3 late complications occurred in 3 patients (9%). Conclusions: CCRT with paclitaxel and nedaplatin followed by consolidation chemotherapy is well tolerated and effective in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Further randomized trials of comparing this regimen with the standard treatment are worth while.

  2. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Couture, Émilie L; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-12-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species.

  3. Primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma in a dog treated with surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Pagano, Candace J; Boudreaux, Bonnie B

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old castrated male mixed breed dog was presented for a squamous cell carcinoma of the left frontal sinus. A partial craniectomy was performed and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh was placed over the craniectomy site. The dog recovered well with a good cosmetic outcome. Histopathology confirmed primary frontal sinus squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the breast diagnosis by vacuum-assisted core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gabriella; Zagami, Maria Giovanna; Montesano, Marilena; Primavera, Angelo; Carino, Rita; Battista, Cleonice; Rabitti, Carla; Altomare, Vittorio

    2005-01-01

    Squamous cell breast carcinoma is a rare occurrence. Often the tumor is metastatic from an extramammary primary tumor. In order to determine the nature of the lesion, extensive sampling is necessary. We report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the breast diagnosed by vacuum-assisted core biopsy.

  5. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in an African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris)

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Émilie L.; Langlois, Isabelle; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    A cutaneous mass was surgically excised in a 4-year-old African pygmy hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). A squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed based on histopathological examination and local recurrence following excision is strongly suspected. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first well-documented report of a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in this species. PMID:26663924

  6. Altered expression of SIRT gene family in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chi-Chih; Lin, Pai-Mei; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsu, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Hu, Ming-Luen; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Yang, Ming-Yu

    2013-06-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) include a group of malignant neoplasms that arise from the upper aerodigestive tract and represent the seventh most common cause of cancer-related death. The overall 5-year survival rates have not significantly improved for decades in spite of the advances in the field of oncology and surgery, encouraging further research on factors that might modify disease prognosis. The silent information regulator (SIR) genes (Sirtuins) play key roles in cellular stress and are associated with aging-related diseases including cancer. Currently, seven human sirtuin (SIRT1-7) genes have been identified, but the roles of SIRT genes in HNSCC are still uncertain. Therefore, in this study, we used real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to investigate the expressions of the seven SIRT genes in human HNSCC tissues to assess the changes in cancerous and noncancerous parts and the correlation with different tumor behaviors. Our results demonstrated that the expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, and SIRT7 were significantly downregulated in cancerous tissues compared with noncancerous tissues (all p<0.01). The expression levels of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT5, and SIRT7 showed downregulation in advanced stages in respect to early stages (p<0.05). These results indicate that the downregulation of SIRT genes expression may contribute to the development of cancer and trigger the neoplastic disease to more advanced stages. Our study indicates that SIRT genes expression could help in the diagnosis and represent a prognostic biomarker in HNSCC.

  7. Plasma miRNA-506 as a Prognostic Biomarker for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Ping; Su, Hong-Xin; Zhao, Da; Guan, Quan-Lin

    2016-06-27

    BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are responsible for regulating proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion, and metastasis in tumor cells. miRNA-506 is abnormally expressed in multiple tumors, indicating that it might be oncogenic or tumor-suppressive. However, little is known about the association between miRNA-506 expression and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined the expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma of ESCC patients using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to determine the association between miRNA-506 expression and clinicopathological features of ESCC. ROC curves were produced for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 and the area under curve was calculated to explore its diagnostic value. RESULTS Average miRNA-506 expression levels were remarkably higher in the plasma of ESCC patients than in healthy volunteers (P<0.001). The expression of miRNA-506 in the plasma was closely associated with lymph node status (P=0.004), TNM stage (P=0.031), and tumor length (P<0.001). According to ROC curves, the area under the curve for plasma miRNA-506 was 0.835, indicating statistical significance for ESCC diagnosis by plasma miRNA-506 (P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with high miRNA-506 expression had significantly shorter survival time than those with low miRNA-506 expression. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that T stage, N stage, tumor length, and miRNA-506 expression levels were significantly correlated with prognosis in ESCC patients. CONCLUSIONS miRNA-506 can serve as an important molecular marker for diagnosis and prognostic prediction of ESCC.

  8. Expression of ezrin and moesin related to invasion, metastasis and prognosis of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Liu, M; Zhao, C Y

    2014-09-29

    We examined the expression of ezrin and moesin in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their correlation with patient clinicopathological characteristics and overall survival. Immunohistochemical staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for ezrin and moesin were applied to 60 carcinoma tissues, adjacent normal tissues, and 33 metastatic lymph nodes. Survival functions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. RT-PCR demonstrated that the intensity ratios of ezrin and moesin to β-actin were higher in LSCC than in adjacent normal mucous membrane (P < 0.05). Furthermore, intensity ratios were higher in cervical metastatic lymph nodes than in LSCC (P < 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining showed that ezrin and moesin were well distributed in the cell membrane and cytoplasm. Expression was significantly different between LSCC and adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05); moreover, expression in the cervical metastatic lymph nodes was higher than in LSCC (P < 0.05). Expression of ezrin and moesin was significantly related to clinical stage, T stage, and cervical lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), except that moesin showed no significant relationship with clinical stage (P > 0.05). Patients with negative ezrin and moesin expression had a significantly longer overall survival time compared to patients with moderate and intense ezrin and moesin expression (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). Ezrin and moesin expression is related to LSCC invasion and metastasis, and may be important molecular markers for predicting prognosis and therapeutic targets in LSCC patients.

  9. Associations of ATM Polymorphisms With Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.

  10. Results of radical radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the eyelid

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Koji; Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Shigenobu; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Kuroda, Yuuki; Murakami, Naoya; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the results of radical radiotherapy by electron beams for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the eyelid and to find the possible prognostic factors. Materials and Methods: Records of 38 patients with histologically confirmed SCC of the eyelid who underwent electron beam radiation therapy between 1964 and 2010 in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Median tumor size was 15 mm (range, 3–40 mm). T stage was T1 in three, T2a in six, T2b in 14, and T3a in 15 patients. Four patients had nodal metastasis. Of the 38 patients, 14 had relapsed disease after prior treatment. Median radiation dose was 60.0 Gy (range, 45.0–70.4 Gy). Median follow-up was 72.5 months (range, 2.0–369 months). Results: 5-year local relapse-free, nodal relapse-free, distant metastasis-free and relapse-free rates for all patients were 71.8%, 77.5%, 90.6% and 58.0%, respectively. In seven patients, lymph node metastases occurred in 11 faciocervical regions. The 5-year overall survival was 79.5%. T stage and radiation dose expressed in EQD2 Gy tended to have impacts on local control. Relapsed patients showed unfavorable local relapse-free rate, however this was without statistical significance. Of the 14 patients who died, 12 succumbed to concurrent diseases. Grade 3 or greater severe late morbidities (CTCAE ver4.0) were observed in nine patients. Due to the morbidities, two patients lost their vision. Conclusion: Radical radiotherapy for SCC of the eyelid yielded good results and could be a treatment option. Whether radiation-dose escalation could improve local control in advanced T stages and relapsed patients needs further study. PMID:23750022

  11. AgNORs in hyperplasia, papilloma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L M; do Carmo, M A

    2000-01-01

    Ten inflammatory fibrous hyperplasias, ten papillomas, and nineteen oral squamous cell carcinomas were analyzed by the AgNOR technique to determine if different disturbances of oral epithelia presented different AgNOR counts. The papilloma group showed higher mean AgNOR counts (3.15 +/- 0.58) than the hyperplasia group (1.98 +/- 0.24) and smaller than the well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group (6.56 +/- 1.25) and poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group (7.07 +/- 1.60). The differences among the groups of lesions were statistically significant (P < 0.05) except between the well differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group and the poorly differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma group. Our findings suggest that the cellular proliferation ratio in papillomas is greater than hyperplasias and smaller than carcinomas.

  12. Polypeptide synthesis in columnar and squamous explants of human uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Cowan, M E; Ward, K; Woodman, C B; Skinner, G R

    1982-10-01

    There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants.

  13. Polypeptide synthesis in columnar and squamous explants of human uterine cervix.

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, M. E.; Ward, K.; Woodman, C. B.; Skinner, G. R.

    1982-01-01

    There were quantitative and qualitative differences in the in-vitro synthesis of 3 polypeptides between squamous and columnar epithelial explants of human cervix. One cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 50,000 was synthesized and phosphorylated by squamous but not by columnar explants; a second cross-linked keratin-like polypeptide of mol. wt 52,000, which was present in larger amounts in squamous than columnar explants, was both glycosylated and phosphorylated during in-vitro explantation of squamous tissue; a third polypeptide of mol. wt 25,200 which was keratin-like but not cross-linked, was synthesized in squamous-tissue explants but in only 4% of columnar-tissue explants. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6184064

  14. Synchronous occurrence of squamous-cell carcinoma "transformation" and EGFR exon 20 S768I mutation as a novel mechanism of resistance in EGFR-mutated lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Longo, Lucia; Mengoli, Maria Cecilia; Bertolini, Federica; Bettelli, Stefania; Manfredini, Samantha; Rossi, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of secondary EGFR mutation T790M in exon 20 and histologic "transformation" are common mechanisms underlying resistance to EGFR first- or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). We describe here on a hitherto unreported mechanism of EGFR TKI resistance synchronously combining squamous-cell carcinoma change and occurrence of the EGFR exon 20 S768I secondary mutation in a 43 year-old woman with stage IV adenocarcinoma harbouring EGFR exon 21 L858R mutation. After 8 months of response to gefitinib, the patient experienced EGFR TKI resistance and died of leptomeningeal neoplastic dissemination.

  15. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-12-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required.

  16. Xanthohumol inhibits proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Yin, Shankai; Zheng, Hongliang; Min, Daliu

    2016-01-01

    Xanthohumol is a flavonoid compound that exhibits antioxidant and anticancer effects, and is used to treat atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of xanthohumol on the cell proliferation of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and to understand the mechanism of its action. The effects of xanthohumol on the cell viability and apoptosis rate of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma SCC4 cells were assessed by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. In addition, the expression levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) p53 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as anti-apoptotic markers, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1), were analyzed by western blotting. The results revealed that treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol significantly inhibited the proliferation of SCC4 cells. Furthermore, xanthohumol treatment (40 µM) induced SCC4 cell apoptosis, as indicated by the significant increase in activity and expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, PARP, p53 and AIF. By contrast, the protein expression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 was significantly decreased following treatment with 40 µM xanthohumol. Taken together, the results of the present study indicated that xanthohumol mediates growth suppression and apoptosis induction, which was mediated via the suppression of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 and activation of PARP, p53 and AIF signaling pathways. Therefore, future studies that investigate xanthohumol as a potential therapeutic agent for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma are required. PMID:28105237

  17. Loss of heterozygosity and mutation analysis of the p16 (9p21) and p53 (17p13) genes in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    González, M V; Pello, M F; López-Larrea, C; Suárez, C; Menéndez, M J; Coto, E

    1995-09-01

    We analyzed allelic loss at the p53 gene (17p13) and at chromosome region 9p21 in 35 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at p53 and 9p21 was found in 50 and 75% of informative cases, respectively. LOH at the p53 gene did not increase significantly with tumor stage, but was more frequent in moderately and poorly differentiated tumors than in well-differentiated tumors. LOH plus mutation or homozygous deletion of p53 was limited to advanced stage and poorly differentiated tumors. Allelic loss at 9p21 is frequent in early stage head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and is not significantly associated with LOH at p53. The second exon of the p16/MTS1/CDKN2 gene was found to be homozygously deleted in 1 of 19 cases showing LOH at 9p21, but direct sequencing did not show mutations in the remaining 18 cases. This suggests that p16 plays a limited role in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

  18. Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) association with lymph node metastasis predicts poor survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hung; Lin, Shu-Hui; Chin, Mei-Chung; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Hua, Chun-Hung; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A) is a multifunctional protein aberrantly expressed in various types of cancers. However, its expression pattern and clinical significance in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. In this study, we immunohistochemically investigated the expression pattern of ANP32A in 259 OSCC patients and the results were correlated with clinicopathological factors using Allred, Klein and Immunoreactive scoring (IRS) system. Our data indicated that high expression of ANP32A was significantly associated with N stage and tumor differentiation status in OSCC patients. High ANP32A expression with N2/N3 stage had an increased mortality risk than low ANP32A expressing OSCC patients with N0/N1 stage. Functional studies revealed that knockdown of ANP32A significantly decreased the migration and invasion ability thereby concomitantly increasing E-cadherin and decreasing Slug, Claudin-1 and Vimentin expression in vitro. These results suggest that ANP32A is commonly increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma and ANP32A protein could act as a potential biomarker for prognosis assessment of oral cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:26918356

  19. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  20. Prospective trial of radiotherapy for patients 80 years of age or older with squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Mitsuhiko . E-mail: mkawashi@east.ncc.go.jp; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Toita, Takafumi; Uno, Takashi; Sugiyama, Masato; Tamura, Yoichirio; Hirota, Saeko; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Hashimoto, Mitsumasa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Shikama, Naoto; Kataoka, Masaaki; Akuta, Keizo; Sasaki, Kinro; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Nemoto, Kenji; Ito, Hisao; Kato, Hoichi; Yamada, Shogo; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the safety and efficacy of external beam radiotherapy for elderly patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: A trial testing external beam radiotherapy (66 Gy within 6.5 weeks) as a single-modality treatment was performed for biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma of the thoracic esophagus clinically staged as Stage I and II A (Tz1-Taman, International Union Against Cancer, 1987) in patients aged {>=}80 years. Results: From January 1999 through December 2002, 51 evaluable patients (35 men and 16 women) with a median age of 83 years (range, 80-91 years) were enrolled from 22 institutions. Of the 51 patients, 18 (35%) had Stage Tz1 and 33 (65%) had Stage Tz2-T disease. Radiotherapy could be completed in 47 patients (92%) within 43-58 days (median, 49). The actuarial incidence of Grade 3 or worse cardiopulmonary complications at 3 years was 26%, with 3 early deaths, and correlated significantly with the size of the anteroposterior radiotherapy portals. The median survival time and overall survival rate at 3 years was 30 months and 39% (95% confidence interval, 25-52%), respectively. Conclusion: The results of high-dose radiotherapy in octogenarians are comparable to those in younger patients, but meticulous treatment planning and quality control is required.

  1. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hitoshi; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Imoto, Issei; Tamai, Seiichi; Shiotani, Akihiro; Iwaya, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Masaru; Sekiya, Takao; Matsubara, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of several human malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate CTGF protein expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Surgical specimens from 76 primary HNSCC were obtained with written informed consents and the expression level of CTGF was immunohistochemically evaluated. The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of CTGF in cancer cells was semiquantitatively classified into low and high expression. Among all 76 cases with or without neoadjuvant therapy, low CTGF showed significantly longer (P = 0.0282) overall survival (OS), but not disease-free survival (DFS) than high CTGF. Although low CTGF in patients with stage I, II and III did not result in any significant difference of the OS and DFS, stage IV HNSCC patients with low CTGF showed significantly longer OS (P = 0.032) and DFS (P = 0.0107) than those with high CTGF. These differences in stage IV cases were also confirmed using multivariate analyses. These results suggest that low CTGF in stage IV HNSCC is an independent prognostic factor, despite with or without neoadjuvant therapy.

  2. Obstructive Jaundice from Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung.

    PubMed

    Seth, Abhishek; Palmer, Thomas R; Campbell, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice from metastatic lung cancer is extremely rare. Most reported cases have had small cell cancer of lung or adenocarcinoma of lung as primary malignancy metastasizing to the biliary system. We report the case of a patient presenting with symptoms of obstructive jaundice found to have metastatic involvement of hepatobiliary system from squamous cell cancer (SCC) of lung. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) with biliary stenting is the procedure of choice in such patients. Our case is made unique by the fact that technical difficulties made it difficult for the anesthesiologists to intubate the patient for an ERCP. As a result percutaneous transhepatic cholangiogram (PTC) with internal-external biliary drainage was performed.

  3. Fallacious Carcinoma- Spindle Cell Variant of Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bavle, Radhika M; Govinda, Girish; Muniswamappa, Sudhakara; Venugopal, Reshma

    2016-01-01

    Spindle cell carcinoma is a unique, rare and peculiar biphasic tumour of head and neck which is not frequently observed in the oral cavity. This variant of squamous cell carcinoma although of monophasic epithelial origin, simulates a sarcoma and is an aggressive carcinoma with high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. A correct and timely diagnosis is of paramount importance. Most of the tumours require an Immunohistochemistry (IHC) panel for confirmation or diagnosis. We report a case of spindle cell carcinoma with varied histopathological morphology and clinical presentation in a middle aged female with a brief review of literature. PMID:27630965

  4. Paraneoplastic cutaneous lupus secondary to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tworek, Joseph; Schapiro, Brian; Zolotarevsky, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) in an elderly man does not fit a typical demographic for the disease process. Using the McLean’s criteria we were able to establish a temporal relationship between the patient’s diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and his dermatosis, both of which responded to cytotoxic chemotherapy. The clinical presentation and progression of the clinical illness is supportive of a very unusual and not previously reported paraneoplastic SCLE secondary to esophageal SCC. PMID:26029469

  5. The emerging role of immunotherapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): anti-tumor immunity and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Economopoulou, Panagiota; Perisanidis, Christos; Giotakis, Evaggelos I.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) carries a poor prognosis, with low survival rates for advanced stage tumors and minimal improvement in survival trends through the past decades. It is becoming increasingly clear that HNSCC oncogenesis and evolution is characterized by profound immune defects, as cancer cells evade immunosurveillance due to accumulation of genetic mutations and tumor heterogeneity. Improved understanding of the role of the immune system in cancer has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are being investigated for their potential to provide durable responses. In this review, we will summarize the role of the immune system in HNSCC, the rationale behind immunotherapy strategies and their clinical applications. PMID:27275486

  6. Overexpression of Id-1 is associated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zuoqing; Liu, Shaohua; Zhou, Chengjun; Sumida, Tomoki; Hamakawa, Hiroyuki; Chen, Zhenggang; Liu, Pei; Wei, Fengcai

    2010-03-01

    We analyzed the expression of Id-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) immunohistochemically, and investigated the association of Id-1 expression with tumor angiogenesis and clinical prognosis. Overexpression of Id-1 protein was found in 83 out of 128 cases (64.8%). The expression of Id-1 was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.013), lymph node metastasis (p=0.001), tumor stage (p=0.031) and tumor recurrence (p=0.003). Moreover, Id-1 expression was significantly correlated with intratumoral microvessel density (MVD) (r=0.223, p=0.011). The results suggest that overexpression of Id-1 was correlated with tumor angiogenesis and poor clinical outcome.

  7. Terbinafine inhibits KSR1 and suppresses Raf-MEK-ERK signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Lu, L; Zhong, M; Tan, X X; Liu, C Y; Guo, Y; Yi, X

    2013-01-01

    Terbinafine inhibits the proliferation of many types of cancer cells, but the underlying mechanism remains to be determined. By computer simulation, we found that kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) is a possible target of terbinafine. Treatment of human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) KB cells with either terbinafine or siRNA to knockdown KSR1 reduced proliferation and induced apoptosis, which was accompanied by suppression of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. In vivo, KSR1 expression was significantly associated with the clinical staging of OSCC and the smoking habit of patients. Kaplan Meyer survival analysis demonstrated that the cumulative survival time of patients without KSR1 expression was significantly longer than those with KSR1 overexpression. Our data provide the basis for developing terbinafine to treat OSCC.

  8. Role of CT Perfusion in Monitoring and Prediction of Response to Therapy of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Preda, Lorenzo; Moscatelli, Marco Elvio Manlio; Cossu Rocca, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the technique and clinical applications of CT perfusion (CTp) of head and neck cancer. The most common pathologic type (90%) of head and neck cancer is squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): its diagnostic workup relies on CT and MRI, as they provide an accurate staging for the disease by determining tumour volume, assessing its extension, and detecting of lymph node metastases. Compared with conventional CT and MRI, CTp allows for obtaining measures of tumour vascular physiology and functional behaviour, and it has been demonstrated to be a feasible and useful tool in predicting local outcomes in patients undergoing radiation therapy and chemotherapy and may help monitor both treatments. PMID:25140324

  9. Prognostic relevance of β-catenin expression in T2-3N0M0 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Situ, Dong-Rong; Hu, Yi; Zhu, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Jian; Long, Hao; Rong, Tie-Hua

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of β-catenin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) at stage T2-3N0M0 and its relation with the prognosis of ESCC patients. METHODS: Expression of β-catenin in 227 ESCC specimens was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A reproducible semi-quantitative method which takes both staining percentage and intensity into account was applied in IHC scoring, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to select the cut-off score for high or low IHC reactivity. Then, correlation of β-catenin expression with clinicopathological features and prognosis of ESCC patients was determined. RESULTS: No significant correlation was observed between β-catenin expression and clinicopathological parameters in terms of gender, age, tumor size, tumor grade, tumor location, depth of invasion and pathological stage. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that the up-regulated expression of β-catenin indicated a poorer post-operative survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (P = 0.004), especially of those with T3 lesions (P = 0.014) or with stage IIB diseases (P = 0.007). Multivariate analysis also confirmed that β-catenin was an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival rate of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0 (relative risk = 1.642, 95% CI: 1.159-2.327, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Elevated β-catenin expression level may be an adverse indicator for the prognosis of ESCC patients at stage T2-3N0M0, especially for those with T3 lesions or stage IIB diseases. PMID:21049553

  10. Clinical implication of computed tomography findings in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx and hypopharynx.

    PubMed

    Ryu, In Sun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon; Cho, Kyung-Ja

    2015-10-01

    Accurate tumor staging including involvement of laryngeal cartilage is important to treatment planning. Clinicians rely on imaging findings and determine initial laryngectomy for T4-stage cancer with functionless larynx or extralaryngeal spread (ELS). We examined the accuracy and prognostic value of preoperative CT findings for tumor staging in patients with locally advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Ninety-four consecutive patients with clinically T3-T4-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx or hypopharynx who underwent curative resection of primary tumor were reviewed. Preoperative CT findings were interpreted by a radiologist without pathologic information. Pathologic findings were used as the gold standard for correlating radiographic findings. CT imaging identified 23 (72%) of 32 cases of pathologically documented thyroid cartilage penetration and 24 (73%) of 33 cases of pathologically documented ELS. The positive predictive values for thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS were 70 and 80%, respectively. Pretreatment CT imaging up-staged 6 of 46 pT3 cases and all of 8 pT2 cases, while it down-staged 7 of 40 pT4 cases. The accuracy for clinical staging by CT imaging was 78%. Subglottic extension of the CT image was an independent variable for predicting thyroid cartilage penetration and ELS (P = 0.014). Thyroid cartilage penetration with or without ELS on CT scans is significantly associated with unfavorable DFS outcome of patients (P = 0.020). CT imaging is suboptimal in diagnosing TCP or ELS of advanced laryngeal cancer, but may be useful to predict patient survival by identifying clinically TCP.

  11. Immunohistochemical detection of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) in cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and squamous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Burstein, David E; Idrees, Muhammad T; Li, Gon; Wu, Maoxin; Kalir, Tamara

    2008-04-01

    Premalignant and invasive squamous lesions of the uterine cervix were surveyed for the immunohistochemical detectability of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), believed to be the most potent of a novel group of proteins designated inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). IAPs bind and prevent the activation of apoptosis-mediating caspases. Recent cancer biologic studies have implicated IAPs in therapeutic resistance and tumor aggressiveness. XIAP in particular is considered a highly promising target for drug discovery. Forty-four formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded archival tissue sections were deparaffinized; subjected to citrate-based antigen retrieval; and immunostained with anti-XIAP monoclonal antibody (clone 48, BD Biosciences, San Jose, Calif) diluted 1:250, 4 degrees C x 72 hours; and developed using EnVision-Plus (Dako, Carpinteria, Calif) and diaminobenzidine as chromagen. Particulate or heterogeneous cytoplasmic staining was considered positive. Normal squamous epithelium was XIAP-positive in 7 of 34 cases (20.6%). Preinvasive intraepithelial lesions were positively stained in 54.5% of cases. Nineteen of 22 invasive squamous carcinomas were positive (86.4%). The intensity and extensiveness of XIAP immunostaining varied among individual cases, but trended upward with loss of tumor differentiation: 8 of 9 cases with strong staining were poorly differentiated carcinomas. The present study suggests the characteristic link between poor tumor differentiation and more aggressive clinical behavior could in some malignancies be based upon the concomitant induction of XIAP. Induction of XIAP appears to occur in a subset of intraepithelial lesions; in others, XIAP is detected only upon progression to invasive carcinoma. Detection of enhanced XIAP expression may also pinpoint those lesions that might benefit from pharmacologic disruption of XIAP's actions.

  12. Reduced expression of autophagy markers correlates with high-risk human papillomavirus infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WANG, HUA-YI; YANG, GUI-FANG; HUANG, YAN-HUA; HUANG, QI-WEN; GAO, JUN; ZHAO, XIAN-DA; HUANG, LI-MING; CHEN, HONG-LEI

    2014-01-01

    Infection by an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), in particular HPV16 and 18, is a high risk factor for developing cervical cancer; however, viral infection alone is not sufficient for cancer progression. Autophagy is hypothesized to be an important process during carcinogenesis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between autophagy and high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection in human cervical squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), and to analyze the clinical significance of this association. Quantum dot (QD)-based immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to detect the expression of autophagy markers, Beclin-1 and microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (LC3B) proteins, in 104 cases of cervical cancer (including 80 SCCs and 24 adenocarcinomas) and 20 normal cervical tissues. hrHPV (HPV16/18) infection was detected by QDs based fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervical cancers. The results revealed that the expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were significantly lower in cervical cancer cells when compared with those of normal cervical squamous epithelial cells, and were found to negatively correlate with hrHPV infection. The expression levels of Beclin-1 and LC3B were not associated with age, tumor grade, tumor stage, tumor node metastasis stage or lymph node metastasis. However, a positive correlation was identified between Beclin-1 and LC3B protein expression. In addition, the absence of autophagy in combination with hrHPV infection may accelerate the progression of cervical SCC. In conclusion, decreased expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B may be important in cervical carcinogenesis. The hrHPV-host cell interaction may inhibit autophagy, which may aid virus duplication and infection, as well as cervical cancer development. PMID:25202355

  13. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  14. Tetraspanin CD151 plays a key role in skin squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglin; Yang, Xiuwei H.; Xu, Fenghui; Sharma, Chandan; Wang, Hong-Xing; Knoblich, Konstantin; Rabinovitz, Isaac; Granter, Scott R.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    Here we provide the first evidence that tetraspanin CD151 can support de novo carcinogenesis. During two-stage mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis, CD151 reduces tumor lag time and increases incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression to malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), while supporting both cell survival during tumor initiation and cell proliferation during the promotion phase. In human skin SCC, CD151 expression is selectively elevated compared to other skin cancer types. CD151 support of keratinocyte survival and proliferation may depend on activation of transcription factor STAT3, a regulator of cell proliferation and apoptosis. CD151 also supports PKCα-α6β4 integrin association and PKC-dependent β4 S1424 phosphorylation, while regulating α6β4 distribution. CD151-PKCα effects on integrin β4 phosphorylation and subcellular localization are consistent with epithelial disruption to a less polarized, more invasive state. CD151 ablation, while minimally affecting normal cell and normal mouse functions, markedly sensitized mouse skin and epidermoid cells to chemicals/drugs including DMBA (mutagen) and camptothecin (topoisomerase inhibitor), as well as to agents targeting EGFR, PKC, Jak2/Tyk2, and STAT3. Hence, CD151 ‘co-targeting’ may be therapeutically beneficial. These findings not only support CD151 as a potential tumor target, but also should apply to other cancers utilizing CD151-laminin-binding integrin complexes. PMID:22824799

  15. Id-1 and Id-2 are markers for metastasis and prognosis in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuen, H-F; Chan, Y-P; Chan, K-K; Chu, Y-Y; Wong, M L-Y; Law, S Y-K; Srivastava, G; Wong, Y-C; Wang, X; Chan, K-W

    2007-11-19

    Id protein family consists of four members namely Id-1 to Id-4. Different from other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, they lack the DNA binding domain. Id proteins have been shown to be dysregulated in many different cancer types and their prognostic value has also been demonstrated. Recently, Id-1 has been shown to be upregulated in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the prognostic implications of Id proteins in ESCC have not been reported. We examined the expression of the Id proteins in ESCC cell lines and clinical ESCC specimens and found that Id protein expressions were dysregulated in both the ESCC cell lines and specimens. By correlating the expression levels of Id proteins and the clinicopathological data of our patient cohort, we found that M1 stage tumours had significantly higher nuclear Id-1 expression (P=0.012) while high nuclear Id-1 expression could predict development of distant metastasis within 1 year of oesophagectomy (P=0.005). In addition, high levels of Id-2 expression in both cytoplasmic and nuclear regions predicted longer patient survival (P=0.041). Multivariate analysis showed that high-level expression of Id-2 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear regions and lower level of nuclear Id-1 expression were independent favourable predictors of survival in our ESCC patients. Our results suggest that Id-1 may promote distant metastasis in ESCC, and both Id-1 and Id-2 may be used for prognostication for ESCC patients.

  16. Overexpression of Sirtuin-1 is associated with poor clinical outcome in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    He, Zhenyue; Yi, Jun; Jin, Li; Pan, Banzhou; Chen, Longbang; Song, Haizhu

    2016-06-01

    Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), one member of the mammalian sirtuin family, has been suggested to play an essential role in the development and progression of many tumors. However, the relationship between expression of SIRT1 and prognosis of esophageal cancer is still unknown. This study aimed to investigate SIRT1 expression and its possible prognostic value in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 86 patients with ESCC were enrolled in our study group. Clinical data and matched tissues were collected. Western blotting and real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) were carried out to explore the expression of SIRT1 in four human ESCC cell lines, one human normal epithelial cell line, and clinical ESCC tissues. Expression levels of SIRT1 protein in tissues of specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Survival analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation of SIRT1 expression with clinical features and prognosis of ESCC patients. Basal expression levels of SIRT1 protein in ESCC tumor tissues and cell lines were higher than those in the control groups. IHC analysis showed that expression levels of SIRT1 protein significantly correlated with TNM stage and lymph node status of ESCC patients. Moreover, upregulated SIRT1 expression was associated with poor clinical prognosis. High SIRT1 expression in ESCC could serve as an independent predictive biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis in ESCC patients.

  17. C-reactive protein/albumin ratio as prognostic score in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have examined histopathological factors and various prognostic scores related to inflammation to predict outcomes. Here, we examined the prognostic value of the C-reactive protein/albumin (CRP/alb) ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 40 patients with OSCC. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we focused on the correlation of the CRP/alb ratio with clinicopathological characteristics and with overall survival. We then compared five inflammation-based prognostic scores, CRP/alb ratio, modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results The optimal cut-off value for the CRP/alb ratio was 0.085. The group with a high CRP/alb ratio had a high TNM clinical stage (P=0.002) and larger primary tumors (P=0.029), with statistically significant differences in lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In addition, when the CRP/alb ratio was high, multivariate analysis showed a lower survival rate (P=0.002; hazard ratio=6.078), and the ROC curve showed more outstanding discriminatory ability regarding overall survival compared to other inflammation-based prognostic scores. Conclusion The CRP/alb ratio can be an independent prognostic factor when predicting prognosis in OSCC and has good prognostic ability. PMID:27847731

  18. Cross-species identification of genomic drivers of squamous cell carcinoma development across preneoplastic intermediates

    PubMed Central

    Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Coarfa, Cristian; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Nguyen, Tri; Joseph, Aaron; Chilukuri, Suneel; Charpiot, Elizabeth; Adelmann, Charles H.; Ching, Grace; Nguyen, Tran N.; Nicholas, Courtney; Thomas, Valencia D.; Migden, Michael; MacFarlane, Deborah; Thompson, Erika; Shen, Jianjun; Takata, Yoko; McNiece, Kayla; Polansky, Maxim A.; Abbas, Hussein A.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Gower, Adam; Spira, Avrum; Covington, Kyle R.; Xiao, Weimin; Gunaratne, Preethi; Pickering, Curtis; Frederick, Mitchell; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Shen, Li; Yao, Hui; Su, Xiaoping; Rapini, Ronald P.; Wheeler, David A.; Hawk, Ernest T.; Flores, Elsa R.; Tsai, Kenneth Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cuSCC) comprises 15–20% of all skin cancers, accounting for over 700,000 cases in USA annually. Most cuSCC arise in association with a distinct precancerous lesion, the actinic keratosis (AK). To identify potential targets for molecularly targeted chemoprevention, here we perform integrated cross-species genomic analysis of cuSCC development through the preneoplastic AK stage using matched human samples and a solar ultraviolet radiation-driven Hairless mouse model. We identify the major transcriptional drivers of this progression sequence, showing that the key genomic changes in cuSCC development occur in the normal skin to AK transition. Our data validate the use of this ultraviolet radiation-driven mouse cuSCC model for cross-species analysis and demonstrate that cuSCC bears deep molecular similarities to multiple carcinogen-driven SCCs from diverse sites, suggesting that cuSCC may serve as an effective, accessible model for multiple SCC types and that common treatment and prevention strategies may be feasible. PMID:27574101

  19. Immunosuppression Induced by Chronic Inflammation and the Progression to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yujuan; Liu, Nan; Guan, Xiaobing; Wu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an aggressive, invasive malignancy of epithelial origin. The progression from premalignant lesions—oral leukoplakia (OLK) and oral lichen planus (OLP)—to OSCC involves complex inflammatory processes that have not been elucidated. We investigated the roles of inflammatory mediators and infiltrating immunocytes in the pathogenic progression of OLK and OLP to OSCC. The occurrence of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and proinflammatory cytokines were investigated in OLK, OLP, and OSCC tissues. Immunohistochemical staining of CD4, FOXP3, CD68, TGF-β1, IL-10, IL-4, IFN-γ, and MCP-1 showed that the occurrence of Tregs and TAMs increased in parallel with disease progression in OLK and OSCC. IL-10 gradually increased during the early stages of OLK and in OSCC. Infiltrating IL-4+ macrophages were seen with increasing frequency in OLK tissue during the progression of oral dysplasia. Fewer TGF-β1+ macrophages were seen in OSCC than in OLK and OLP. The expression of IFN-γ decreased gradually with the OLK development and had the lowest expression in OSCC. MCP-1 expression did not change significantly during the development of OSCC. The results suggested that the immunosuppression induced by chronic inflammation promotes tumorigenesis in OSCC, rather than initiating it. PMID:28053372

  20. [Minimally invasive brush-biopsy: innovative method for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Remmerbach, Torsten W; Hemprich, Alexander; Böcking, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective and blinded study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cytopathology of oral brush biopsies taken from suspicious oral lesions. In addition we checked slide based DNA image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for earliest detection of oral cancer using brush biopsies. Therefore the nuclear DNA contents were measured after Feulgen re-staining using a TV image analysis system. DNA aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA stemlines or cells with DNA content greater 9c were observed. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells thus was 91.3%, specificity for the detection of non-neoplastic cells was 95.1%, positive predictive value 94.4% and negative predictive value 92.3%. The adjuvant DNA image cytometry reached a sensitivity of 97.8%, the specificity and the positive predictive value were 100% and negative predictive value was 98.1%, respectively. Smears from oral brush biopsies of all visible oral lesions are an easily practicable, cheap, minimal invasive, painless and safe screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas in all stages. We conclude that DNA image cytometry is a very sensitive and highly specific, objective and reproducible adjuvant tool for identification of neoplastic cells in oral smears.

  1. Differential expression profiling of microRNAs and their potential involvement in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zang, Wenqiao; Wang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yuwen; Xuan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Tao; Li, Min; Ma, Yunyun; Li, Ping; Chen, Xudong; Dong, Ziming; Zhao, Guoqiang

    2014-04-01

    MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNAs approximately 18-24 nucleotides in length that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional and/or translational level by binding to complimentary sequences in the 3'-untranslated regions of target mRNAs. Growing evidence has indicated the important roles for different miRNA species in the development of different cancers. Therefore, miRNAs have the potential to become new biological markers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to be applied in the diagnosis, prognosis, and targeted treatment of ESCC. In this study, we performed a miRNA microarray to analyze the miRNA expression profile in ESCC compared to normal tissues. Then, we made a preliminary analysis of the biological function for the most differentially expressed miRNAs and their potentially target genes regulated. Some microarray results were validated by performing quantitative RT-PCR. The study provided evidence that linked the biological role of miRNAs to ESCC and showed that miRNAs could undertake a variety of mechanisms. Additionally, we also found that altered miR-429 and miR-451 expression levels were associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases and the differentiation status and TNM stage in ESCC. The study of miRNAs may lead to finding novel methods to diagnose, treat, and prevent ESCC.

  2. Intraoperative optical assessment of photodynamic therapy response of superficial oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbach, Daniel J.; Rigual, Nestor; Arshad, Hassan; Tracy, Erin C.; Cooper, Michelle T.; Shafirstein, Gal; Wilding, Gregory; Merzianu, Mihai; Baumann, Heinz; Henderson, Barbara W.; Sunar, Ulas

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) measurements could assess clinical response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In addition, the correlation between parameters measured with DOS and the crosslinking of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a molecular marker for PDT-induced photoreaction, was investigated. Thirteen patients with early stage HNSCC received the photosensitizer 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) and DOS measurements were performed before and after PDT in the operating room (OR). In addition, biopsies were acquired after PDT to assess the STAT3 crosslinking. Parameters measured with DOS, including blood volume fraction, blood oxygen saturation (StO2), HPPH concentration (cHPPH), HPPH fluorescence, and blood flow index (BFI), were compared to the pathologic response and the STAT3 crosslinking. The best individual predictor of pathological response was a change in cHPPH (sensitivity=60%, specificity=100%), while discrimination analysis using a two-parameter classifier (change in cHPPH and change in StO2) classified pathological response with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. BFI showed the best correlation with the crosslinking of STAT3. These results indicate that DOS-derived parameters can assess the clinical response in the OR, allowing for earlier reintervention if needed.

  3. Two Cases of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising in Immunosuppressed Patients with Chronic Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kuma, Yuki; Ito, Takamichi; Nagae, Konosuke; Mizote, Yukihiro; Nakahara, Takeshi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yamada, Yuichi; Okura, Masae; Oda, Yoshinao; Yamashita, Toshiharu; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are linked to a large subset of numerous malignant tumors, including mucosal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); however, its involvement in cutaneous SCC has not fully been elucidated. Cutaneous SCC is the second most common type of skin cancer and is increasing in frequency every year. Since we have no satisfactory treatment for advanced SCC, it is important to provide a definitive diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention at an early stage. Here, we present two cases of SCC arising in immunosuppressed patients. In these cases, we suspected the association between SCC and HPV infection histopathologically and succeeded in proving the presence of high-risk type HPV by PCR analysis (HPV 14 in case 1 and HPV 23 and 38 in case 2). Although it is unclear whether HPV actually induced SCC in our cases, our cases showed rapid progression comparing to typical courses of actinic keratosis (AK)/SCC. SCC and AK are common diseases; in daily practice, dermatologists examine many patients with immunosuppression of various causes. We should apply increased oncological vigilance to these patients to prevent an aggressive course of SCC/AK. PMID:26351427

  4. Evaluation of serum sialic acid, fucose levels and their ratio in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chinnannavar, Sangamesh Ningappa; Ashok, Lingappa; Vidya, Kodige Chandrashekhar; Setty, Sunil Mysore Kantharaja; Narasimha, Guru Eraiah; Garg, Ranjana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Detection of cancer at the early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, minimally invasive methods like serum evaluation are used for screening large populations. Thus, this study aimed to estimate serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio in oral cancer patients and in healthy control group to evaluate their role in diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 healthy controls (group I) and 52 squamous cell carcinoma patients (group II). Estimation of serum levels of sialic acid and fucose and their ratio was performed. This was correlated histopathologically with the grades of carcinoma. Statistical analysis was done by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and unpaired “t” test. Results: Results showed that serum levels of sialic acid and fucose were significantly higher in oral cancer patients compared to normal healthy controls (P < 0.001). The sialic acid to fucose ratio was significantly lower in cancer patients than in normal controls (P < 0.01). However, comparison with histological grading, habits, gender, and age group did not show any significant result. Conclusion: The mean serum sialic acid and fucose levels showed an increasing trend from controls to malignant group and their corresponding ratio showed decreasing trend from controls to malignant group. The ratio of sialic acid to fucose can be a useful diagnostic aid for oral cancer patients. PMID:26759796

  5. Surgical management of squamous cell vulvar cancer without clitoris, urethra or anus involvement.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Alpaslan; Kaban, Işık; Afşar, Selim

    2017-05-01

    Vulvar cancers, which constitute 5% of all gynecologic cancers, are the fourth most common female genital cancers, preceded by uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers. The treatment methods employed for vulvar cancers have changed over the years, with previously applied radical surgical approaches, such as en bloc resection, being gradually suspended in favor of treatment approaches that require dissection of less tissue. While the removal of less tissue, which today's approaches have focused on, prevents morbidity, this method seems to result in higher risks of recurrence. It is therefore important that the balance between preventing the recurrence of the disease and forefending against postoperative complications and vulvar deformity be properly understood. As a working assumption, if patients with vulvar cancer are diagnosed at an early stage, properly evaluated and administered appropriate treatment, the most positive results can be obtained. This paper aims to highlight this assumption and demonstrate, through the provision of actual data, how to plan the treatment approach for patients who are diagnosed early. Statements extracted from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Guidelines Version 1.2016 Sub-Committees on vulvar squamous cell carcinoma and articles by the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) regarding Vulvar Cancer Recommendations were used to obtain updated information.

  6. Involvement of the FGFR4 Arg388 allele in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Streit, Sylvia; Bange, Johannes; Fichtner, Alexander; Ihrler, Stephan; Issing, Wolfgang; Ullrich, Axel

    2004-08-20

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) have been implicated in various forms of human hyperproliferative disorders such as cancers of the cervix and bladder. We investigated the expression pattern of FGFR4 and the clinical significance of the recently identified Gly/Arg polymorphism (388) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx. Sections from 104 paraffin-embedded tumors were analyzed by a restriction fragment length polymorphism-based method to determine the FGFR4 genotypes. Protein expression was investigated immunohistochemically and graded into a low, intermediate, or high degree of staining. FGFR4 expression was scored as high in 17, as intermediate in 59 and as low in 28 cases. The FGFR4 Arg388 allele was found in 59 tumors, 46 of them having heterozygous and 13 homozygous genotypes. High expression of the FGFR4 Arg388 allele was significantly associated with reduced overall survival (p = 0.032) and with an advanced tumor stage (p = 0.023), whereas expression of the FGFR4 Gly388 had no impact on disease progression. Our findings indicate that high expression of FGFR4 in connection with the Arg388 allele is associated with poor clinical outcome and support the significance of FGFR4 as a diagnostic marker and a target for therapeutic intervention in human HNSCC.

  7. Tyrosine kinase domain mutations of EGFR gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vatte, Chittibabu; Al Amri, Ali M; Cyrus, Cyril; Chathoth, Shahanas; Acharya, Sadananda; Hashim, Tariq Mohammad; Al Ali, Zhara; Alshreadah, Saleh Tawfeeq; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Al-Ali, Amein K

    2017-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a commonly altered gene that is identified in various cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Therefore, EGFR is a promising molecular marker targeted by monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors targeting the tyrosine kinase (TK) domain. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum of mutations in exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene in HNSCC patients. Materials and methods This retrospective study included 47 confirmed HNSCC cases. Mutations in the TK domain, exons 18, 19, 20, and 21 of the EGFR gene, were detected by Scorpion® chemistry and ARMS® technologies on Rotor-Gene Q real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results The tumors exhibited EGFR-TK domain mutations in 57% of cases. Four cases of T790M mutations were reported for the first time among HNSCC patients. Out of the total mutations, L861Q (exon 21), exon 20 insertions and deletions of exon 19 accounted for the majority of mutations (21%, 19%, and 17%, respectively). EGFR mutation status was correlated with the higher grade (P=0.026) and advanced stage (P=0.034) of HNSCC tumors. Conclusion Higher frequency of EGFR-TK domain mutations together with the presence of the T790M mutation suggests that identification of these mutations might streamline the therapy and provide a better prognosis in HNSCC cases. PMID:28352186

  8. Reduction of AZGP1 predicts poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Hong; Wu, Yufeng; Qin, Yanru; Wang, Haiying; Wang, Lili; Guan, Xinyuan; Luo, Suxia; Wang, Qiming

    2017-01-01

    Background As a key regulator in lipid mobilization, AZGP1 has been reported to play a significant role in various cancers. This study was carried out to investigate the role of AZGP1 in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients in Northern China. Materials and methods Through the application of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining, AZGP1 expression in ESCC tissues from Northern China was examined. Results Decreased expression of AZGP1 was observed in ~60% ESCC patients. AZGP1 downregulation was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.035), advanced clinical stage (P=0.018), poor prognosis for 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS; P<0.001), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS; P=0.016), and metastasis-free survival (MeFS; P=0.014). In addition, Cox multivariate analysis revealed that AZGP1 downregulation remained to be an independent prognosticator for shorter DSS (P=0.001), LRFS (P=0.011), and MeFS (P=0.004). Conclusion AZGP1 might be a candidate tumor suppressor and a potential novel prognostic biomarker for ESCC patients in Northern China. PMID:28053542

  9. Inflammasome Activation Is Critical to the Protective Immune Response during Chemically Induced Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gasparoto, Thais Helena; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; de Freitas, Luisa Thomazini; Pinheiro, Claudia Ramos; Hori, Juliana Issa; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Cavassani, Karen Angélica; Schillaci, Roxana; da Silva, João Santana; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Campanelli, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation affects most stages of tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, malignant differentiation, invasion and metastasis. Inflammasomes have been described as involved with persistent inflammation and are known to exert both pro and antitumour effects. We evaluated the influence of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase (CASP)-1 in the antitumor immune response using a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. Absence of ASC and CASP-1 resulted in an earlier incidence and increased number of papilloma. Loss of inflammassome function in mice resulted in decreased presence of natural killer (NK), dendritic (DC), CD4+, CD8+ and CD45RB+ T cells in the tumor lesions as well as in lymph nodes (LN) compared with WT mice. Increased percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells was associated with association with inflammasome loss of function. Moreover, significant differences were also found with neutrophils and macrophage infiltrating the lesions. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), but not elastase (ELA), activity oscillated among the groups during the SCC development. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Interferon (IFN)-γ were decreased in the tumor microenvironment in the absence of inflammasome proteins. These observations suggest a link between inflammasome function and SCC tumorigenesis, indicating an important role for inflammasome activation in the control of SCC development. PMID:25268644

  10. Inflammasome activation is critical to the protective immune response during chemically induced squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gasparoto, Thais Helena; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; de Freitas, Luisa Thomazini; Pinheiro, Claudia Ramos; Hori, Juliana Issa; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Cavassani, Karen Angélica; Schillaci, Roxana; da Silva, João Santana; Zamboni, Dario Simões; Campanelli, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation affects most stages of tumorigenesis, including initiation, promotion, malignant differentiation, invasion and metastasis. Inflammasomes have been described as involved with persistent inflammation and are known to exert both pro and antitumour effects. We evaluated the influence of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase (CASP)-1 in the antitumor immune response using a multistage model of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) development. Absence of ASC and CASP-1 resulted in an earlier incidence and increased number of papilloma. Loss of inflammassome function in mice resulted in decreased presence of natural killer (NK), dendritic (DC), CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD45RB(+) T cells in the tumor lesions as well as in lymph nodes (LN) compared with WT mice. Increased percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells was associated with association with inflammasome loss of function. Moreover, significant differences were also found with neutrophils and macrophage infiltrating the lesions. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), but not elastase (ELA), activity oscillated among the groups during the SCC development. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α and Interferon (IFN)-γ were decreased in the tumor microenvironment in the absence of inflammasome proteins. These observations suggest a link between inflammasome function and SCC tumorigenesis, indicating an important role for inflammasome activation in the control of SCC development.

  11. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Glucose Transporter Type 1 in Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Karuza Maria Alves; Feitosa, Sthefane Gomes; Lima, Ana Thayssa Tomaz; Luna, Ealber Carvalho Macedo; Cavalcante, Roberta Barroso; de Lima, Kenio Costa; Chaves, Filipe Nobre; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral cavity and some of these have been documented in association or preceded by oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). Aggressive cancers with fast growth have demonstrated overexpression of some glucose transporters (GLUTs). Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of the glucose transporter, GLUT-1, in OEDs and OSCCs, seeking to better elucidate the biological behavior of neoplasias. Fifteen cases were selected this research of both lesions. Five areas were analyzed from each case by counting the percentage of positive cells at 400x magnification. Immunoreactivity of GLUT-1 was observed in 100% of the samples ranging from 54.2% to 86.2% for the OSCC and 73.9% to 97.4% for the OED. Statistical test revealed that there was greater overexpression of GLUT-1 in OED than the OSCC (p=0.01). It is believed the high expression of GLUT-1 may reflect the involvement of GLUT-1 in early stages of oral carcinogenesis.

  12. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas Do Not Express EGFRvIII

    SciTech Connect

    Melchers, Lieuwe J.; Clausen, Martijn J.A.M.; Mastik, Mirjam F.; Slagter-Menkema, Lorian; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Roodenburg, Jan L.N.; Schuuring, Ed

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence of EGFRvIII, a specific variant of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), in 3 well-defined cohorts of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemistry for the specific detection of EGFRvIII using the L8A4 antibody was optimized on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using glioblastoma tissue. It was compared with EGFR and EGFRvIII RNA expression using a specific reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction also optimized for formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Tissue microarrays including 531 HNSCCs of various stages with complete clinicopathologic and follow-up data were tested for the presence of EGFRvIII. Results: None of the 531 cases showed EGFRvIII protein expression. Using an immunohistochemistry protocol reported by others revealed cytoplasmic staining in 8% of cases. Reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction for the EGFRvIII transcript of the 28 highest cytoplasmic staining cases, as well as 69 negative cases, did not show expression in any of the tested cases, suggesting aspecific staining by a nonoptimal protocol. Conclusions: The EGFRvIII mutation is not present in HNSCC. Therefore, EGFRvIII does not influence treatment response in HNSCC and is not a usable clinical prognostic marker.

  13. KiSS-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Shin, Wui-Jung; Cho, Young-Ah; Kang, Kyung-Rim; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Hong, Seong-Doo; Lee, Jae-Il; Hong, Sam-Pyo; Yoon, Hye-Jung

    2016-04-01

    Downregulated expression of KiSS-1 has been correlated with tumor progression, metastasis, and patient prognosis in various human malignancies. However, there is no information regarding the expression of KiSS-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our aims were to examine KiSS-1 expression in OSCC tissue samples and cell lines and to determine its prognostic significance. KiSS-1 expression was significantly lower in lymph node (LN) metastases than in primary tumor tissues. Five of six OSCC cell lines showed absence or relatively low expression of KiSS-1. Correlations between KiSS-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were statistically assessed. There were significant correlations between KiSS-1 expression and LN metastasis (p = 0.007), TNM stage (p = 0.024), and local recurrence (p = 0.012). In the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, negative KiSS-1 expression significantly correlated with poorer overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) (p = 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). Multivariate analysis using Cox regression modeling revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both OS and DFS (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively). Our findings suggested that KiSS-1 downregulation may play a role in tumor progression and metastasis of OSCC and may be a reliable biomarker for predicting clinical outcome in OSCC.

  14. [A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Anal Canal with a Perianal Abscess].

    PubMed

    Adikrisna, Rama; Udagawa, Masaru; Sugita, Yuusuke; Ishii, Takeshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Yabata, Eiichi

    2015-11-01

    A 72-year-old female patient was referred to our department because she felt pain at the anus with pus discharge. Physical examination revealed a tumor on the left side of the anus, and a subcutaneous induration near the tumor. Abdominal CT scan revealed an irregularly shaped tumor with abscess formation. There were no enlarged lymph nodes or distant metastasis. Anal canal carcinoma (cStage Ⅱ) with a complication of perianal abscess was suspected, so we performed surgical incision and drainage. A biopsy of the tumor led to the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. However, because surgical drainage alone was not effective for treatment of the abscess, colostomy of the sigmoid colon was carried out 14 days after admission. After chemoradiation therapy (5-FU 800 mg/m2/day on days 1-4 and 29-32, mitomycin C [MMC] 10 mg/m2 on days 1 and 29, and radiation with a total dose 54 Gy), the tumor disappeared completely, considered to be a complete response. Twenty months after chemoradiation, there were no signs of recurrence.

  15. The non-coding landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zou, Angela E; Zheng, Hao; Saad, Maarouf A; Rahimy, Mehran; Ku, Jonjei; Kuo, Selena Z; Honda, Thomas K; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Xuan, Yinan; Korrapati, Avinaash; Yu, Vicky; Singh, Pranav; Grandis, Jennifer R; King, Charles C; Lippman, Scott M; Wang, Xiao Qi; Hinton, Andrew; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2016-08-09

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive disease marked by frequent recurrence and metastasis and stagnant survival rates. To enhance molecular knowledge of HNSCC and define a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) landscape of the disease, we profiled the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) using RNA-sequencing data from 422 HNSCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). 307 non-coding transcripts differentially expressed in HNSCC were significantly correlated with patient survival, and associated with mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, CASP8, PRDM9, and FBXW7 and copy number variations in chromosomes 3, 5, 7, and 18. We also observed widespread ncRNA correlation to concurrent TP53 and chromosome 3p loss, a compelling predictor of poor prognosis in HNSCCs. Three selected ncRNAs were additionally associated with tumor stage, HPV status, and other clinical characteristics, and modulation of their expression in vitro reveals differential regulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and apoptotic response. This comprehensive characterization of the HNSCC non-coding transcriptome introduces new layers of understanding for the disease, and nominates a novel panel of transcripts with potential utility as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets.

  16. Histopathological grading systems analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas of young patients

    PubMed Central

    Frare, Juliana-Cristina; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Ayroza-Rangel, Ana-Lucia-Carrinho; Bueno, Alexandre-Galvão; de Morais, Carlos-Floriano; Nagai, Hildebrando-Massahiro; Kunz, Reno

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the clinicopathological profile of young patients (≤ 40 years) with oral SCC and correlate with a control group (≥ 50 years) by means of histopathological grading systems. Material and Methods 14 young patients and 14 control patients were selected with similar clinical stage and tumor location. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient records and histological sections were evaluated according to four histopathological grading systems. Associations between categories of demographic and clinical data were performed through Chi-square test and Exact Fisher test. The survival analyzes were performed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The comparison between groups showed a greater association of treatment modalities in younger patients (p=0.022), they had a higher incidence of local recurrence and regional metastasis (p=0.018) and lower disease-free survival in 5 years (p=0.069). There was no difference in 5-year overall survival among the studied groups. There was no difference in histological grading between studied groups according to the four used systems. Conclusions This study showed that, despite tumors had similar histological grade and more therapeutic modalities were used in the young group, tumors in young patients had a higher incidence of recurrence/metastasis, showing tendency to a more aggressive behavior. Key words:Squamous cell carcinoma, tumors histological grading, young. PMID:26946200

  17. Radiation therapy for feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma using a hypofractionated protocol.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Simone C S; Carvalho, Luis Alfredo V; Canary, Paulo Cesar; Reisner, Marcio; Corgozinho, Katia B; Souza, Heloisa J M; Ferreira, Ana Maria R

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of a hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Twenty-five histologically confirmed SCCs in 15 cats were treated with four fractions of 7.6-10Gy each, with 1 week intervals. The equipment used was a linear accelerator Clinac 2100 delivering electron beam of 4 or 6MeV, and a bolus of 5 or 10mm was used in all lesions. Of the lesions, 44% were staged as T4, 16% as T3, 8% as T2 and 32% as T1. Of the irradiated lesions, 40% had complete response, 12% had partial response and 48% had no response (NR) to the treatment. For T1 tumors, 62.5% had complete remission. Mean overall survival time was 224 days. Owners requested euthanasia of cats having NR to the treatment. Mean disease free time was 271 days. Side effects observed were skin erythema, epilation, ulceration and conjunctivitis, which were graded according to Veterinary Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (VRTOG) toxicity criteria. Response rates found in this study (52%) were lower when compared to other protocols, probably due to technique differences, such as fractionation schedule, bolus thickness and energy penetration depth. However, the hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial SCC. Modifications of this protocol are being planned with the objective of improving the cure rates in the future.

  18. Docetaxel in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    PubMed Central

    Rapidis, Alexander; Sarlis, Nicholas; Lefebvre, Jean-Louis; Kies, Merrill

    2008-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) presents at a locally advanced (LA) stage in many patients. Chemotherapy has been successfully integrated into first-line treatment programs, either during or prior to radiotherapy (RT) – the cornerstone modality for local disease control of inoperable disease or when organ preservation is desired. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) provides an absolute survival benefit when compared with other types of locoregional therapy that exclude chemotherapy. Nonetheless, distant metastases still represent the most common cause of treatment failure. Consequently, adding induction chemotherapy (ICT) to definitive non-surgical local therapies with a curative intent has been vigorously explored in LA SCCHN. Recently, it has been shown that ICT using the combination of the taxane docetaxel with cisplatin–5-fluorouracil provides significant survival benefit over cisplatin–5-FU, when used before either definitive RT (TAX323 trial) or carboplatin-based CCRT (TAX324 trial). Docetaxel is also being investigated in metastatic or recurrent (M/R) disease, with promising initial results. It is very likely that the future management strategies of SCCHN will incorporate biologic agents as an add-on to docetaxel-containing schemas, administered either as ICT prior to CCRT in the LA setting or for the management of M/R disease. PMID:19209269

  19. The non-coding landscape of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Angela E.; Zheng, Hao; Saad, Maarouf A.; Rahimy, Mehran; Ku, Jonjei; Kuo, Selena Z.; Honda, Thomas K.; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Xuan, Yinan; Korrapati, Avinaash; Yu, Vicky; Singh, Pranav; Grandis, Jennifer R.; King, Charles C.; Lippman, Scott M.; Wang, Xiao Qi; Hinton, Andrew; Ongkeko, Weg M.

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive disease marked by frequent recurrence and metastasis and stagnant survival rates. To enhance molecular knowledge of HNSCC and define a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) landscape of the disease, we profiled the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), microRNA (miRNA), and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) using RNA-sequencing data from 422 HNSCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). 307 non-coding transcripts differentially expressed in HNSCC were significantly correlated with patient survival, and associated with mutations in TP53, CDKN2A, CASP8, PRDM9, and FBXW7 and copy number variations in chromosomes 3, 5, 7, and 18. We also observed widespread ncRNA correlation to concurrent TP53 and chromosome 3p loss, a compelling predictor of poor prognosis in HNSCCs. Three selected ncRNAs were additionally associated with tumor stage, HPV status, and other clinical characteristics, and modulation of their expression in vitro reveals differential regulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition and apoptotic response. This comprehensive characterization of the HNSCC non-coding transcriptome introduces new layers of understanding for the disease, and nominates a novel panel of transcripts with potential utility as prognostic markers or therapeutic targets. PMID:27323410

  20. Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) Detection: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Sannam Khan, Rabia; Khurshid, Zohaib; Akhbar, Shazia; Faraz Moin, Syed

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer refers to malignancies that have higher morbidity and mortality rates due to the late stage diagnosis and no early detection of a reliable diagnostic marker, while oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is amongst the world’s top ten most common cancers. Diagnosis of cancer requires highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools which can support untraceable hidden sites of OSCC, yet to be unleashed, for which plenty of biomarkers are identified; the most recommended biomarker detection medium for OSCC includes biological fluids, such as blood and saliva. Saliva holds a promising future in the search for new clinical biomarkers that are easily accessible, less complex, accurate, and cost effective as well as being a non-invasive technique to follow, by analysing the malignant cells’ molecular pathology obtained from saliva through proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches. However, protein biomarkers provide an immense potential for developing novel marker-based assays for oral cancer, hence this current review offers an overall focus on the discovery of a panel of candidates as salivary protein biomarkers, as well as the proteomic tools used for their identification and their significance in early oral cancer detection. PMID:28248250

  1. LAMP3 and TP53 overexpression predicts poor outcome in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiaoxia; You, Yiwen; Huang, Jianfei; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Huijun; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomal associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3) is a newly identified tumor-specific and hypoxia-induced protein. It is a downstream target gene of tumor suppressor TP53 and its expression has been associated with hypoxia-induced metastasis and poor overall survival in cervical, breast and gastrointestinal cancers. However, little is known of LAMP3 protein expression in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and its prognostic value. We determined protein expression of LAMP3 and TP53 in LSCC tissues (n=117) by immunohistochemistry analysis on tissue microarray (TMA), their expression was correlated with patients' clinical parameters and overall survival. LAMP3 and TP53 protein expression was significantly higher in cancerous tissues compared to adjacent normal surgical margin tissues. Both high LAMP3 and high TP53 protein expression was significantly associated with tumor stage and size. Significant correlation between LAMP3 and TP53 expression was observed. Patients with high LAMP3 or high TP53 expression had a poor overall survival. Our data suggest that both epithelial LAMP3 expression and TP53 expression are independent prognostic markers for LSCC.

  2. Upregulated expression of ADAM12 is associated with progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Erika; Shiiba, Masashi; Shinozuka, Keiji; Saito, Kengo; Kouzu, Yukinao; Koike, Hirofumi; Kasamatsu, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2012-05-01

    ADAMs are a disintegrin and metalloproteinase family of membrane-associated metalloproteinases characterized by their multidomain structure, and have been reported to be associated with various malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to identify crucial members of the ADAM family in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and to reveal their biological function and clinical significance. To clarify whether ADAM family genes are involved in OSCC, changes in the expression profile were investigated by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis and immunohistochemical analysis. Functional analysis was performed by comparing cellular proliferation of siADAM-transfected cell lines and parental cell lines. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis identified significantly upregulated expression of ADAM12 in OSCC-derived cell lines. This was validated in OSCC samples using real-time qRT-PCR and immuno-histochemical staining. ADAM12 expression was correlated with TNM classification; significantly greater expression of ADAM12 was observed in tumors with higher T classification and more advanced stages. Moreover, siADAM12-transfected cells showed both a suppressed proliferation rate and increased transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 expression. Our data indicate that ADAM12 is overexpressed in OSCC and might accelerate cellular proliferation. Its function may be associated with TGF-β signaling. This study suggests that controlling the expression or activity of ADAM12 could be a useful strategy in the development of an effective cure for OSCC.

  3. Integrative radiogenomic profiling of squamous cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abazeed, Mohamed E.; Adams, Drew J.; Hurov, Kristen E.; Tamayo, Pablo; Creighton, Chad J.; Sonkin, Dmitriy; Giacomelli, Andrew O.; Du, Charles; Fries, Daniel F.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Mesirov, Jill P.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy is one of the mainstays of anti-cancer treatment, but the relationship between the radiosensitivity of cancer cells and their genomic characteristics is still not well-defined. Here we report the development of a high-throughput platform for measuring radiation survival in vitro and its validation by comparison to conventional clonogenic radiation survival analysis. We combined results from this high-throughput assay with genomic parameters in cell lines from squamous cell lung carcinoma, which is standardly treated by radiation therapy, to identify parameters that predict radiation sensitivity. We showed that activation of NFE2L2, a frequent event in lung squamous cancers, confers radiation resistance. An expression-based, in silico screen nominated inhibitors of PI3K as NFE2L2 antagonists. We showed that the selective PI3K inhibitor, NVP-BKM120, both decreased NRF2 protein levels and sensitized NFE2L2 or KEAP1 mutant cells to radiation. We then combined results from this high-throughput assay with single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) of gene expression data. The resulting analysis identified pathways implicated in cell survival, genotoxic stress, detoxification, and innate and adaptive immunity as key correlates of radiation sensitivity. The integrative, high-throughput methods shown here for large-scale profiling of radiation survival and genomic features of solid-tumor derived cell lines should facilitate tumor radiogenomics and the discovery of genotype-selective radiation sensitizers and protective agents. PMID:23980093

  4. Metastasized squamous cell carcinoma developed on lupus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Pătraşcu, V; Georgescu, Claudia Valentina; Tănase, Loredana Elena; Mogoantă, S S

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is the most frequent cutaneous tuberculosis, representing more than 55% of the tuberculoses with this location. Malignization can occur after a long latency (10-30 years), in 1-2% of the cases, and it is mainly in squamous cell carcinoma. The histological exam is highly important in the observation of neoplasic transformations. The authors present a 59-years-old female patient, from the rural environment, working as a farmer, with lupus vulgaris developing since her first childhood years. It started at the age of 2 years, at the right ear lobule, after the empiric perforation for earrings. The evolution was progressive, eccentric, interesting the pinna and the right cheek in the meanwhile. At the first examination, in 2002, a diffuse mass of red-yellowish infiltration was found at the level of the right ear and the right cheek. In the following two years, an ulcero-vegetating tumor developed at the level of the right ear lobule, accompanied by the presence of a right retromandibular adenopathy, of about 1 cm, which was proved by the histopathologic exam to be a squamous cell carcinoma developed from a lupus vulgaris. After scraping out the right retromandibular ganglion, detected by palpation, a histological exam showed ganglion metastasis.

  5. Unbalanced acetylcholinesterase activity in larynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Castillo-González, Ana Cristina; Pelegrín-Hernández, Juan Pablo; Nieto-Cerón, Susana; Madrona, Antonio Piñero; Noguera, José Antonio; López-Moreno, María Fuensanta; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; Vidal, Cecilio J; Hellín-Meseguer, Diego; Cabezas-Herrera, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that a non-neuronal cholinergic system is expressed aberrantly in airways. A proliferative effect is exerted directly by cholinergic agonists through the activation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors. In cancer, particularly those related with smoking, the mechanism through which tumour cells respond to aberrantly activated cholinergic signalling is a key question. Fifty paired pieces of larynx squamous cell carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were compared in terms of their acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE). The AChE activity in non-cancerous tissues (0.248 ± 0.030 milliunits per milligram of wet tissue; mU/mg) demonstrates that upper respiratory tissues express sufficient AChE activity for controlling the level of acetylcholine (ACh). In larynx carcinomas, the AChE activity decreased to 0.157 ± 0.024 mU/mg (p=0.009). Larynx cancer patients exhibiting low ACh-degrading enzymatic activity had a significantly shorter overall survival (p=0.031). Differences in the mRNA levels of alternatively spliced AChE isoforms and molecular compositions were noted between glottic and supraglottic cancers. Our results suggest that the low AChE activity observed in larynx squamous cell carcinoma may be useful for predicting the outcome of patients.

  6. Oral papillary squamous cell carcinoma in twelve dogs.

    PubMed

    Nemec, A; Murphy, B G; Jordan, R C; Kass, P H; Verstraete, F J M

    2014-01-01

    Papillary squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) is a distinct histological subtype of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), described in both dogs and man. In dogs, PSCC has long been considered a malignant oral tumour of very young animals, but it has recently been reported to occur in adult dogs as well. The aim of this study was to describe the major clinicopathological characteristics of canine oral PSCC (COPSCC). Twelve dogs diagnosed with COPSCC were included in this retrospective study (1990-2012). The majority (75%) of the dogs were >6 years of age (median age 9 years). All tumours were derived from the gingiva of dentate jaws, with 66.7% affecting the rostral aspects of the jaws. The gross appearance of the lesions varied, with one having an intraosseous component only. The majority (91.7%) of the tumours were advanced lesions (T2 and T3), but no local or distant metastases were noted. Microscopically, two patterns were seen: (1) invasion of bone forming a cup-shaped indentation in the bone or a deeply cavitating cyst within the bone (cavitating pattern), (2) histologically malignant growth, but lack of apparent bone invasion (non-cavitating pattern). The microscopical appearance corresponded to imaging findings in a majority of cases, with cavitating forms presenting with a cyst-like pattern of bone loss or an expansile mass on imaging and non-cavitating forms showing an infiltrative pattern of bone destruction on imaging. These features suggest two distinct biological behaviours of COPSCC.

  7. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  8. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  9. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Lung squamous cell carcinoma (lung SqCC) is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in lung SqCC have not been comprehensively characterized and no molecularly targeted agents have been developed specifically for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we profiled 178 lung SqCCs to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. Lung SqCC is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumor. We found statistically recurrent mutations in 18 genes in including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations were seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2/KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, PI3K/AKT in 47%, and CDKN2A/RB1 in 72% of tumors. We identified a potential therapeutic target in the majority of tumors, offering new avenues of investigation for lung SqCC treatment. PMID:22960745

  10. Cellular systems for studying human oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vyomesh; Iglesias-Bartolome, Ramiro; Siegele, Bradford; Marsh, Christina A; Leelahavanichkul, Kantima; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2011-01-01

    The human oral squamous epithelium plays an important role in maintaining a barrier function against mechanical, physical, and pathological injury. However, the self-renewing cells residing on the basement membrane of the epithelium can give rise to oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), now the sixth most common cancer in the developed world, which is still associated with poor prognosis. This is due, in part, to the limited availability of well-defined culture systems for studying oral epithelial cell biology, which could advance our understanding of the molecular basis of OSCC. Here, we describe methods to successfully isolate large cultures of human oral epithelial cells and fibroblasts from small pieces of donor tissues for use in techniques such as three-dimensional cultures and animal grafts to validate genes suspected of playing a role in OSCC development and progression. Finally, the use of isolated oral epithelial cells in generating iPS cells is discussed which holds promise in the field of oral regenerative medicine.

  11. Multiple mutations of lung squamous cell carcinoma shared common mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Gu, Biao; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancers which is the cause of 80% of all lung cancer deaths. The genes that highly mutated in patients with LUSC and their roles played in the tumorigenesis remains unknown. Data of patients with Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) were retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially expressed genes were identified between control and cancer samples. Patients and controls can be separated by mRNA expression level showing that the between-group variance and totally 1265 genes were differentially expressed between controls and patients. Top genes whose mutations highly occurred in patients with LUSC were identified, most of these genes were shown to be related with tumorigenesis in previous studies. All of the genes mostly mutated were independently correlated with expression levels of all genes. These mutations did not show the trend of co-occurrence. However, the influenced gene of these mutations had overlaps. After studying the intersection of these genes, a group of shared genes were identified. The shared pathways enriched which played critical role in LUSC were identified based on these shared genes. Different mutations had contribution to the progression of LUSC. Though these genes involved different specific mechanisms, most of them may share a common mechanism which is critical for LUSC. The results may suggest a neglected mechanism and also indicate a potential target for therapies. PMID:27835590

  12. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Thotakura, Vijaya; Balboni, Tracy A.; Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J.; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  13. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  14. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be a rough ...

  15. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  16. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  17. Stages of Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Serosal (outer) layer. Between these layers is supporting connective tissue . Primary gallbladder cancer starts in the inner layer ... has spread beyond the muscle layer to the connective tissue around the muscle. Stage IIIA In stage IIIA , ...

  18. Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage II endometrial cancer. Cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix, but has not spread outside ... uterus. In stage II , cancer has spread into connective tissue of the cervix , but has not spread outside ...

  19. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas, common hepatic artery, and portal vein. Also shown ... and superior mesenteric artery. Stage III pancreatic cancer. Cancer ... near the pancreas. These include the superior mesenteric artery, celiac axis, ...

  20. Characterization of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck using methods of spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Mattfeldt, T; Fleischer, F

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, 53 cases of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck were characterized by a quantitative histological texture analysis based on principles of spatial statistics. A planar tessellation of the epithelial tumour component was generated by a skeletonization algorithm. The size distribution of the virtual cells of this planar tessellation, and the size distribution of the profiles of the tumour cell nuclei were estimated in terms of area and boundary length. The intensity, the reduced second moment function (K-function) and the pair correlation function of the point process of the centroids of the profiles of the tumour cell nuclei were also estimated. For both purposes, it is necessary to correct for edge effects, which we consider in this paper in some detail. Specifically, the point patterns of the tumour cell nuclei were considered as realizations of a point process, where the points exist only in the epithelial tumour component (the permitted phase) and not in the stroma (the forbidden phase). The methods allow to characterize each individual tumour by a series of summary statistics. The total set of cases was then partitioned into two groups: 19 cases without lymph node metastases (pN0), and 34 nodal positive cases (pN1 or pN2). Statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the intensities, the mean K-functions and the mean pair correlation functions of the tumour cell nucleus profiles of the two groups. However, there were some significant differences between the sizes of the virtual cells and of the nucleus profiles of the nodal negative cases as compared to the nodal positive cases. In a logistic regression analysis, one of the quantitative nuclear size variables (mean nuclear area) was found to be a significant predictor of lymph node metastasis, in addition to tumour stage. The study shows the potential of methods of spatial statistics for objective quantitative grading of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and

  1. HPV type 16 in conjunctival and junctional papilloma, dysplasia, and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Saegusa, M; Takano, Y; Hashimura, M; Okayasu, I; Shiga, J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To clarify the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the development of papilloma, dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell epithelioma arising from the eyelids, including the tunica conjunctiva palpebrum (conjunctiva), its junction to epidemis of eyelid skin (junction), and eyelid skin. METHODS--Sixteen cases of papilloma, four of dysplasia, four of squamous cell carcinoma, and 12 of basal cell epithelioma were examined using formalin fixed and paraffin embedded samples. Detection of HPV-DNA was performed by PCR-RFLP and in situ hybridisation (ISH) methods. RESULTS--HPV-16 was detected in 12/16 papillomas (75%), 2/4 dysplasias (50%), and 1/4 squamous cell carcinomas (25%) but in none of the basal cell epitheliomas. No other HPV subtypes were found. ISH assay showed positive signals in only two cases of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma. The mean age of HPV-16 positive dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma cases (81.7 years) was significantly higher than that of HPV-16 positive papilloma cases (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS--Based on the presence of HPV-16 in both benign and malignant lesions and the age distribution, it seems likely that HPV-16 alone may be incapable of causing development of conjunctival and junctional dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma, and that any correlation between the papilloma-squamous cell carcinoma sequence and HPV infection may be due to rare events. Images PMID:8567996

  2. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View / ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 ...

  3. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  5. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  6. Comparison between 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography for measuring gross tumor volume in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Randall, Elissa K; Kraft, Susan L; Larue, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most refractory feline malignancies. Most patients succumb due to failure in local tumor control. 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET) is increasingly being used for veterinary oncology staging as it highlights areas with higher glucose metabolism. The goal of the current prospective study was to compare gross tumor volume measurements using (18) F-FDG PET vs. those using computed tomography (CT) for stereotactic radiation therapy planning in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twelve cats with confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent pretreatment (18) F-FDG PET/CT. Gross tumor volumes based on contrast-enhanced CT and (18) F-FDG PET were measured and compared among cats. Mean PET gross tumor volume was significantly smaller than mean CT gross tumor volume in the mandibular/maxillary squamous cell carcinoma group (n = 8, P = 0.002) and for the total number of patients (n = 12, P = 0.006), but not in the lingual/laryngeal group (n = 4, P = 0.57). Mismatch fraction analysis revealed that most of the lingual/laryngeal patients had a large region of high-(18) F-FDG activity outside of the CT gross tumor volume. This mismatch fraction was significantly greater in the lingual/laryngeal group than the mandibular/maxillary group (P = 0.028). The effect of poor spatial resolution of PET imaging was greater when the absolute tumor volume was small. Findings from this study indicated that (18) F-FDG PET warrants further investigation as a supplemental imaging modality in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma because it detected regions of possible primary tumor that were not detected on CT images.

  7. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  8. Immune-checkpoint status in penile squamous cell carcinoma: a North American cohort.

    PubMed

    Cocks, Margaret; Taheri, Diana; Ball, Mark W; Bezerra, Stephania M; Del Carmen Rodriguez, Maria; Ricardo, Bernardo F P; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Sharma, Rajni B; Meeker, Alan; Chaux, Alcides; Burnett, Arthur L; Netto, George J

    2017-01-01

    Penile squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is primarily treated by surgical resection. Locally advanced and metastatic diseases require a multidisciplinary treatment approach. However, mortality and morbidity remain high, and novel molecular and immunotherapeutic targets are actively being sought. We investigated the expression of immune-checkpoint markers in penile cancers. Fifty-three invasive penile SCCs diagnosed between 1985 and 2013 were retrieved from our surgical pathology archives. Representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival blocks were used for the construction of 2 high-density tissue microarrays. Tissue microarrays were stained with immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, FOXP3, CD8, and Ki-67. PD-L1 was investigated using rabbit monoclonal anti-PD-L1 antibody (Cell Signaling, Boston, MA; E1L3N, 1:100). Overall, 21 (40%) of 53 penile SCCs had positive PD-L1 expression. PD-L1 was expressed by a significant proportion of advanced penile SCC. Forty-four percent (15/34) of stage pT2 or more SCC and 38% (6/16) of tumors with lymph node metastasis were positive for PD-L1. PD-L1 expression did not correlate with patient age, tumor location, histologic subtype, tumor stage, anatomic depth of invasion, or tumor grade. FOXP3 expression in tumoral immune cells was found in 26 (49%) of 53 cases. FOXP3 expression in stromal immune cells correlated with tumor thickness (P = .0086). The ratio of CD8/FOXP3 was greater than 1 in 62% of cases in tumor-infiltrating immune cells and 34% of cases in stromal immune cells. Our current study is the largest to assess expression of PD-L1 in a clinically well-annotated North American cohort of penile SCC. Our findings support a rationale for targeting immune-checkpoint inhibitor pathways in advanced penile SCC.

  9. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: surgical treatment and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, A; Danesi, G; Zanoletti, E

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal and temporal bone treated with surgery alone or surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy. It was designed as a retrospective investigation with complete long-term follow-up covering the years from 1983 to 2008. The setting was a tertiary referral centre. Forty-one consecutive cases underwent surgery involving en bloc lateral or subtotal temporal bone resection, parotidectomy and neck dissection plus radiotherapy in advanced cases. The Pittsburgh staging system was adopted. No cases were lost to follow-up, which ranged from 2 to 220 months, while for survivors ranged from 60 to 220 months and included clinical examinations and imaging. Outcome was expressed as NED (no evidence of disease), DOC (dead of other causes), DOD (dead of disease), AWD (alive with disease), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). Results were expressed with raw data and Kaplan Meyer curves. Patients with T1 and T2 disease had a DFS of 67% and a DSS of 92%. For T3 and T4 cases, the DFS was 41% and DSS was 48%. All treatment failures were due to local recurrences. The cases classified as T4 because the lesion extended from the cartilage canal to the periauricular soft tissues, or from the anterior wall to the parotid space, had a better outcome than the other T4 cases: this different prognosis suggests the need to stage tumours differently. Nodal disease coincided with a worse outcome due to local recurrence.

  10. Methylation and expression of PTPN22 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chunyu; Wei, Qing; Zhou, Daizhan; Zhao, Kuaile

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a fatal disease contributed by both genetic and epigenetic factors. The epigenetic alteration of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22 (PTPN22) and its clinical significance in ESCC were still not yet clarified. A quantitative methylation study of PTPN22 and its expression were conducted in 121 and 31 paired tumor and adjacent normal tissue (ANT), respectively. Moreover, the association between PTPN22 methylation and clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. We found that the methylation level of PTPN22 was significantly elevated in tumor tissues (66.3%) relative to ANT (62.1%) (p=0.005). The methylation level of non-smoking ANT (59.1%) was significant lower than smoking ESCC tissue (65.8%) (p=0.03); similarly, the methylation levels in ANT with no lymph node invasion (57.6%) were significant lower than tumor tissues with lymph node invasion (67.5%) (p=0.001). PTPN22 expression in ESCC was lower than normal tissues, however the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.55). Lower expression was more frequently occurred in N1-3 and III stage patients, while higher expression was more likely to occur in N0 and I-II stage patients. Lower expression of PTPN22 was associated with poor overall survival (p=0.04). Taken together, PTPN22 was hypermethylationed in ESCC. Hypermethylation was associated with lymph node invasion. The PTPN22 expression may act as a prognostic biomarker to identify patients at risk of high grade. PMID:27613842

  11. Expense and benefit of neoadjuvant treatment in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Heise, Joachim W; Heep, Hansjörg; Frieling, Thomas; Sarbia, Mario; Hartmann, Karl A; Röher, Hans-Dietrich

    2001-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of neoadjuvant treatment (NT) prior to resection of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCCE) in terms of prolonged survival has not been proven by randomized trials. Facing considerable financial expenses and with concerns regarding the consumption of the patient's remaining survival time, this study aims to provide rationales for pretreating resection candidates. Methods From March 1986 to March 1999, patients undergoing resection for SCCE were documented prospectively. Since 1989, NT was offered to patients with mainly upper and middle third T3 or T4 tumors or T2 N1 stage who were fit for esophagectomy. Until 1993, NT consisted of chemotherapy. Since that time chemoradiation has also been applied. The parameters for expense and benefit of NT are costs, pretreatment time required, postoperative morbidity and mortality, clinical and histopathological response, and actuarial survival. Results Two hundred and three patients were treated, 170 by surgery alone and 33 by NT + surgery. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 52% to 30% and 12% to 6%, respectively (p = n.s.). The response to NT was detected in 23 patients (70%). In 11 instances (33%), the primary tumor lesion was histopathologically eradicated. Survival following NT + surgery was significantly prolonged in node-positive patients with a median survival of 12 months to 19 months (p = 0.0193). The average pretreatment time was 113 ± 43 days, and reimbursement for NT to the hospital amounted to Euro 9.834. Conclusions NT did not increase morbidity and mortality. Expenses for pretreatment, particularly time and costs, are considerable. However, taking into account that the results are derived from a non-randomized study, patients with regionally advanced tumor stages seem to benefit, as seen by their prolonged survival. PMID:11737874

  12. A novel serum microRNA signature to screen esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zebo; Zhang, Lan; Zhu, Danxia; Shan, Xia; Zhou, Xin; Qi, Lian-Wen; Wu, Lirong; Zhu, Jun; Cheng, Wenfang; Zhang, Huo; Chen, Yan; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Tongshan; Liu, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as promising diagnostic biomarkers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We performed miRNA expression profiling using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based Exiqon panels from three ESCC pools and one normal control (NC) pool samples. Using qRT-PCR, identified serum miRNAs were further confirmed in training (32 ESCC vs. 32 NCs) and testing stages (108 ESCC vs. 96 NCs). Consequently, five serum miRNAs (miR-20b-5p, miR-28-3p, miR-192-5p, miR-223-3p, and miR-296-5p) were significantly overexpressed in ESCC compared with NCs. The diagnostic value of the 5-miRNA signature was validated by an external cohort (60 ESCC vs. 60 NCs). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of the 5-miRNA signature were 0.753, 0.763, and 0.966 for the training, testing, and the external validation stages, respectively. The expression levels of the miRNAs were also determined in tissues, arterial serum, and exosomes. MiR-20b-5p, miR-28-3p, and miR-192-5p were significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues, while miR-296-5p was overexpressed in ESCC serum exosomes. In conclusion, we identified a 5-miRNA signature in serum for the detection of ESCC.

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Boesen, P V; Laszewski, M J; Robinson, R A; Dawson, D E

    1991-09-01

    Inverted papillomas of the oral cavity are rare lesions. Although in the seven oral cases previously reported the lesions were benign, approximately 10% to 15% of inverted papillomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses develop or are associated with squamous cell carcinoma. This report presents a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in an inverted papilloma of the buccal mucosa. Histologically, this lesion demonstrated the morphologic features of inverted papilloma in the superficial portion, and squamous carcinoma in deeper sections. This case suggests that although rare, inverted papillomas of the oral cavity should be considered potentially malignant or capable of harboring a malignancy.

  14. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  15. The immunohistochemical expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and Proliferating cell nuclear antigen in laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Izumaru, S; Sakamoto, K; Miyajima, Y; Nakashima, T

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of the expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in human laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas. Forty-eight patients (25 supraglottic, 23 glottic) who had undergone operations between 1998 and 2003 were included in this study. The Envision immunohistochemistry method was utilized to stain these tissue specimens. The results showed that the immunostaining of p21WAF1/Cip1 do not show any correlation with differentiation, N stage, metastasis, survival, recurrence or the laryngeal site of involvement. A significant inverse correlation was detected between p21WAF1/Cip1 and the T stage. In contrast, the percentage of PCNA labelled cells showed a significant correlation with the T stage, but not with other clinicopathological parameters. There were differences in the expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 and PCNA between the supraglottic and the glottic carcinomas. In conclusion, our findings suggest that p21WAF1/Cip1 and PCNA may play an important role in the progression of carcinoma of the supraglottic larynx.

  16. Circulating Tumour Cells as an Independent Prognostic Factor in Patients with Advanced Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Su, Po-Jung; Wu, Min-Hsien; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lee, Chia-Lin; Huang, Wen-Kuan; Wu, Chiao-En; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Chao, Yin-Kai; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Chiu, Tzu-Keng; Lin, Nina Ming-Jung; Ye, Siou-Ru; Lee, Jane Ying-Chieh; Hsieh, Chia-Hsun

    2016-01-01

    The role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in advanced oesophageal cancer (EC) patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) remains uncertain. A negative selection protocol plus flow cytometry was validated to efficiently identify CTCs. The CTC number was calculated and analysed for survival impact. The protocol’s efficacy in CTC identification was validated with a recovery rate of 44.6 ± 9.1% and a coefficient of variation of 20.4%. Fifty-seven patients and 20 healthy donors were enrolled. Initial staging, first response to CRT, and surgery after CRT were prognostic for overall survival, with P values of <0.0001, <0.0001, and <0.0001, respectively. The CTC number of EC patients is significantly higher (P = 0.04) than that of healthy donors. Multivariate analysis for disease-specific progression-free survival showed that surgery after response to CCRT, initial stage, and CTC number (≥21.0 cells/mL) played independent prognostic roles. For overall survival, surgery after CCRT, performance status, initial stage, and CTC number were significant independent prognostic factors. In conclusion, a negative selection plus flow cytometry protocol efficiently detected CTCs. The CTC number before CCRT was an independent prognostic factor in patients with unresectable oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Further large-scale prospective studies for validation are warranted. PMID:27530152

  17. Overexpression and amplification of glutathione S-transferase pi gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Pavelic, Z P; Li, Y; Gleich, L; Gartside, P S; Pavelic, L; Gluckman, J L; Stambrook, P J

    1997-01-01

    Human glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) may serve as a useful tumor marker because of the high frequency with which it is found in elevated levels in several tumor types. To determine whether GST-pi is useful as an indicator for cancers of the head and neck, expression of GST-pi mRNA was investigated by Northern analysis in this tumor type. Overexpression of GST-pi mRNA was detected in 9 of 36 (25%) primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). When Southern blot analysis was used to examine the relationship between overexpression and amplification of the GST-pi gene, only 3 of 36 tumors (8%) showed GST-pi gene amplification. Thus, gene amplification is not critical to GST-pi mRNA overexpression in HNSCCs. Moderately and poorly differentiated HNSCCs tended to manifest elevated GST-pi mRNA compared with well differentiated tumors (30% for moderately and poorly differentiated tumors versus none of the well differentiated tumors examined). However, there was no significant correlation between GST-% mRNA overexpression and clinical stage, T stage (tumor size), N stage (neck nodal status), pathological nodes, or patient survival.

  18. Initiation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in a murine 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and alcohol carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Osei-Sarfo, Kwame; Urvalek, Alison M; Tang, Xiao-Han; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2015-03-20

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are very common, aggressive tumors, and are often associated with alcohol and tobacco abuse. Because ESCCs exhibit high recurrence rates and are diagnosed at late stages, identification of prognostic and drug targets for prevention and treatment is critical. We used the 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) murine model of oral carcinogenesis and the Meadows-Cook model of alcohol abuse to assess changes in the expression of molecular markers during the initial stages of ESCC. Combining these two models, which mimic chronic alcohol and tobacco abuse in humans, we detected increased cellular proliferation (EGFR and Ki67 expression), increased canonical Wnt signaling and downstream elements (β-catenin, FoxM1, and S100a4 protein levels), changes in cellular adhesive properties (reduced E-cadherin in the basal layer of the esophageal epithelium), and increased levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and p38. Additionally, we found that treatment with ethanol alone increased the numbers of epithelial cells expressing solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter, member 1) (SLC2A1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), and increased the phosphorylation of p38. Thus, we identified both 4-NQO- and ethanol-specific targets in the initial stages of esophageal carcinogenesis, which should lead to the development of potential markers and therapeutic targets for human ESCC.

  19. Induction chemotherapy with cis-platinum and 5-fluorouracil for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Thyss, A.; Schneider, M.; Santini, J.; Caldani, C.; Vallicioni, J.; Chauvel, P.; Demard, F.

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (T3, T4, NO-N3; 17% stage II, 54% stage III, 27% stage IV) were given three courses of chemotherapy before any local treatment. The regimen consisted of cis-platinum 100 mg m-2 on day 1 and 5-fluorouracil 1000 mg m-2 on days 2-6; drugs were administered by continuous infusion. The toxicity of this protocol was acceptable, as 82% of the patients were able to receive the initially scheduled drug dose. The overall response rate of 86.5% included a 35% rate of complete lesion regression. The effect of this regimen on primary tumours was especially remarkable--87.5% responses, including 47.5% complete responses. Results for lymph node metastases were not as good--66% responses, including 33% complete responses. The best results were obtained for tumours of the oropharynx and hypopharynx; oral cavity lesions were the most refractory. For those patients who were subsequently operated on, histological examination of the surgical specimen either confirmed sterilization or demonstrated the persistence of small disease foci. After local treatment, which consisted of radiotherapy alone for 69% of patients, the lesion control rate was 80%. At 18 months follow-up, the survival rate for patients who achieved a complete response with chemotherapy was significantly better than that for patients with a response of less than 50%. PMID:3801272

  20. The Current Role of Staging Laparoscopy in Oesophagogastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, RJ; Kennedy, R; Clements, WDB; Carey, PD; Kennedy, JA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oesophagogastric cancers are known to spread rapidly to locoregional lymph nodes and by transcoelomic spread to the peritoneal cavity. Staging laparoscopy combined with peritoneal cytology can detect advanced disease that may not be apparent on other staging investigations. The aim of this study was to determine the current value of staging laparoscopy and peritoneal cytology in light of the ubiquitous use of computed tomography in all oesophagogastric cancers and the addition of positron emission tomography in oesophageal cancer. Methods All patients undergoing staging laparoscopy for distal oesophageal or gastric cancer between March 2007 and August 2013 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Demographic details, preoperative staging, staging laparoscopy findings, cytology and histopathology results were analysed. Results A total of 317 patients were identified: 159 (50.1%) had gastric adenocarcinoma, 136 (43.0%) oesophageal adenocarcinoma and 22 (6.9%) oesophageal squamous carcinoma. Staging laparoscopy revealed macroscopic metastases in 36 patients (22.6%) with gastric adenocarcinoma and 16 patients (11.8%) with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Positive peritoneal cytology in the absence of macroscopic peritoneal metastases was identified in a further five patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and six patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. There was no significant difference in survival between patients with macroscopic peritoneal disease and those with positive peritoneal cytology (p=0.219). Conclusions Staging laparoscopy and peritoneal cytology should be performed routinely in the staging of distal oesophageal and gastric cancers where other investigations indicate resectability. Currently, in our opinion, patients with positive peritoneal cytology should not be treated with curative intent. PMID:25723693

  1. Parenteral Nutrition for Patients Treated for Locally Advanced Inoperable Tumors of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-10

    Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx Stage IV; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage III; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stage IV; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage III; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity Stage IV; Locally Advanced Malignant Neoplasm

  2. Nuclear morphometry in canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas and squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Martano, M; Damiano, S; Restucci, B; Paciello, O; Russo, V; Maiolino, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether morphometrical analysis can be of diagnostic value for canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. We calculated, by means of an automated image analyser, some morphometric nuclear parameters, in particular: mean nuclear area (MNA), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP), maximum and minimum diameters (MDx and MDm) coefficient of variation of the nuclear area (NACV), largest to smallest dimension ratio (LS ratio), and form factor (FF), in 8 canine acanthomatous ameloblastomas, and we compared these morphometric data to those of 13 squamous cell carcinomas of canine gingiva. The results indicated a progressive increase of the MNA, NACV, MNP and MDm proceeding from acanthomatous ameloblastomas (MNA: 42.11+/-8.74; NACV: 28,36+/-7,23; MNP: 24.18+/- 2.68; MDm: 5.69+/-0.49) to squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49,69+/-9,10; NACV: 30,89+/-7,75; MNP: 25.63+/-2.54; MDm: 6.64+/-0.73). On the contrary, the LS ratio and the FF resulted greater in acanthomatous ameloblastomas (LS ratio: 1,63+/-0,12; FF: 1,13+/-0,002) than in SCCs (LS ratio: 1,40+/-0,12; FF:0.91+/-0.38). Moreover, the MNA, MNP,MDx and MDm resulted similar (MNA: p=0.89; MNP: p=0,65; MDm: p=0,16; MDx: p=0,13) in a subset of four acanthomatous ameloblastomas with cellular atypia (MNA:49,01+/-6,88; MNP: 26,28+/-1,99; MDm: 6.08+/-0.41; MDx: 10.18+/-0.88) and in squamous cell carcinomas (MNA:49.69+/-9,10; MNP: 25.63+/-2.54; MDm: 6.64+/-0.73; MDx: 9.26+/-1.05). While the NACV values resulted higher in typical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (29,99+/-6,06) than in atypical acanthomatous ameloblastoma (26,74+/-8,84) and similar to those of the SCCs (30,89+/-7,75). These results seem to confirm that acanthomatous ameloblastoma is a malignant or potentially malignant lesion and emphasizes that nuclear morphometry analysis can be an useful diagnostic and prognostic method in canine oral pathology.

  3. Three stage rocket vehicle with parallel staging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, W. R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A three stage rocket vehicle has a large forward propellant tank and a small aft propellant tank axially aligned. Secured to the rear end of the aft propellant tank is an engine mount structure carrying rocket engines. Offset and secured to the propellant tanks is a payload structure. The propellants from the large forward tank are fed into the aft propellant tank. This arrangement enables the vehicle to parallel stage its use of engines and components and results in significant payload capability. The design and components fully utilize existing space shuttle elements and tooling.

  4. Aberrant promoter methylation of SH3GL2 gene in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and HPV infection status

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; He, Yinghui; Han, Xue; Zhang, Shitai; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Yang; Song, Zixuan; Ouyang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study attempted to examine the methylation status of SH3GL2 gene in different types of human vulvar lesions and its correlation with clinicopathological parameters. Methods: Immunohistochemical analysis was used to identify the expression status of SH3GL2 in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC), vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and benign vulvar squamous epithelium tissues. Bisulfite genomic sequencing method was used to detect methylation status of the SH3GL2 gene. Clinicopathological correlation of the alterations was analysed by the chi-square tests. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis showed expression of SH3GL2 in VSCC was significantly downregulated than that in VIN and normal vulvar tissues. In accordance with higher frequency of methylation status in SH3GL2, statistical analysis showed methylation status of SH3GL2 was closely related to tumor TNM stage (P=0.003), but not related to age, tumor volume, tumor differentiation, lymph node metastasis and VIN grade. High-methylation status of SH3GL2 showed significant association with HPV infection status. Conclusions: Our results indicated that the methylation status of SH3GL2 gene was associated with the TNM staging and HPV infection status of VSCC, suggesting that it might play a synergistic role in the development of VSCC. PMID:26823912

  5. Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César; González-Arriagada, Wilfredo A; Loyola-Brambilla, Marco; de Almeida, Oslei Paes; Coletta, Ricardo Della; Venegas, Bernardo

    2014-01-01

    In oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC and OPSCC) exist an association between clinical and histopathological parameters with cell proliferation, basal lamina, connective tissue degradation and surrounding stroma markers. We evaluated these associations in Chilean patients. A convenience sample of 37 cases of OCSCC (n=16) and OPSCC (n=21) was analyzed clinically (TNM, clinical stage) and histologically (WHO grade of differentiation, pattern of tumor invasion). We assessed the expression of p53, Ki67, HOXA1, HOXB7, type IV collagen (ColIV) and carcinoma-associated fibroblast (α-SMA-positive cells). Additionally we conducted a univariate/bivariate analysis to assess the relationship of these variables with survival rates. Males were mostly affected (56.2% OCSCC, 76.2% OPSCC). Patients were mainly diagnosed at III/IV clinical stages (68.8% OCSCC, 90.5% OPSCC) with a predominantly infiltrative pattern invasion (62.9% OCSCC, 57.1% OPSCC). Significant association between regional lymph nodes (N) and clinical stage with OCSCC-HOXB7 expression (Chi-Square test P < 0.05) was observed. In OPSCC a statistically significant association exists between p53, Ki67 with gender (Chi-Square test P < 0.05). In OCSCC and OPSCC was statistically significant association between ki67 with HOXA1, HOXB7, and between these last two antigens (Pearson's Correlation test P < 0.05). Furthermore OPSCC-p53 showed significant correlation when it was compared with α-SMA (Kendall's Tau-c test P < 0.05). Only OCSCC-pattern invasion and OPSCC-primary tumor (T) pattern resulted associated with survival at the end of the follow up period (Chi-Square Likelihood Ratio, P < 0.05). Clinical, histological and immunohistochemical features are similar to seen in other countries. Cancer proliferation markers were associated strongly from each other. Our sample highlights prognostic value of T and pattern of invasion, but the conclusions may be limited and should be considered with caution

  6. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  7. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  8. Granuloma inguinale mimicking as squamous cell carcinoma of penis

    PubMed Central

    Pilani, Abhishek; Vora, Rita; Anjaneyan, Gopikrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Granuloma inguinale (GI) is an acquired chronic, slowly progressive, mildly contagious disease of venereal origin, characterized by granulomatous ulceration of the genitalia and neighboring sites, with little or no tendency to spontaneous healing caused by Klebsiella (Calymmatobacterium) granulomatis. A 55-year-old male presented with fissured, foul smelling, fungating growth over prepuce with phimosis mimicking squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) without lymphadenopathy. It started with painless papulonodular showed pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, infiltration in dermis, acanthosis and vacuolated macrophages suggestive of GI and not showing any histopathological features of SCC. Patient was successfully treated by giving cotrimoxazole twice a day for 21 days. Here, we presented a case of GI mimicking SCC of penis, which was diagnosed on basis of histopathology and treated with excision followed by medical therapy with cotrimoxazole. PMID:24958990

  9. NOTCH1 mutations occur early during cutaneous squamous cell carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    South, Andrew P; Purdie, Karin J; Watt, Stephen A; Haldenby, Sam; den Breems, Nicoline; Dimon, Michelle; Arron, Sarah T; Kluk, Michael J; Aster, Jon C; McHugh, Angela; Xue, Dylan J; Dayal, Jasbani HS; Robinson, Kim S; Rizvi, SM Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous SCC (cSCC) is the most frequent skin cancer with metastatic potential and can manifest rapidly as a common side effect in patients receiving systemic kinase inhibitors. Here we use massively parallel exome and targeted level sequencing 132 sporadic cSCC, 39 squamoproliferative lesions and cSCC arising in patients receiving the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, as well as 10 normal skin samples to identify significant NOTCH1 mutation as an early event in squamous cell carcinogenesis. Bisected vemurafenib induced lesions revealed surprising heterogeneity with different activating HRAS and NOTCH1 mutations identified in two halves of the same cSCC suggesting polyclonal origin. Immunohistochemical analysis using an antibody specific to nuclear NOTCH1 correlates with mutation status in sporadic cSCC and regions of NOTCH1 loss or down-regulation are frequently observed in normal looking skin. Our data indicate that NOTCH1 acts as a gatekeeper in human cSCC. PMID:24662767

  10. Developments in the pathology of penile squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Velazquez, Elsa F; Algaba, Ferran; Ayala, Gustavo; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2010-08-01

    Most penile cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) originating in the epithelium covering glans, coronal sulcus, and foreskin. Several histologic subtypes have been described, each with distinctive clinicopathologic and outcome features. The most common subtype is the usual SCC, representing one half to two thirds of penile carcinomas. Penile verruciform tumors encompass verrucous, warty (condylomatous), and papillary, not otherwise specified, carcinomas. As a group, verruciform tumors are low grade, with low metastatic and mortality rates. In contrast, basaloid and sarcomatoid carcinomas are among the most aggressive penile tumors. Other SCC variants, such as carcinoma cuniculatum and pseudohyperplastic, adenosquamous and acantholytic carcinomas, are rare. The most relevant clinicopathologic and outcome features are outlined for each of these SCC subtypes, and an algorithm that might aid the pathologist in the histologic classification is presented. In addition, recommendations for handling penile cancer specimens, frozen section specimens, and pathology reports are provided.

  11. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Gargi K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology's role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis. PMID:27800176

  12. Descriptive epidemiology of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Celić, Dijana; Lipozencić, Jasna; Toncić, Ruzica Jurakić; Pasić, Aida; Rados, Jaka; Puizina-Ivić, Neira

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) incidence in Croatia in the 2003-2005 period. The cases of SCC were retrospectively studied. Data were collected from University Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and National Cancer Registry. In the study period, there were 1,860 cases of SCC (934 men and 926 women). The crude incidence rate for the Croatian population of 100,000 was 14.6 for men and 13.4 for women. The age-standardized incidence rate (adjusted for the world standard population) was 8.9 for men and 5.2 for women. The head was almost exclusive localization of SCC in both sexes. The highest SCC incidence was recorded in Zadar County. These results will serve for the SCC trend monitoring in Croatia and Europe in the forthcoming years.

  13. Current Management of Advanced Resectable Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ow, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The oral cavity is the most common site of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, a disease which results in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though the primary modality of treatment for patients with oral cavity cancer remains surgical resection, many patients present with advanced disease and are thus treated using a multi-disciplinary approach. Patients with extracapsular spread of lymphatic metastasis and surgical margins that remain positive have been found to be at high risk for local-regional recurrence and death from disease, and are most often recommended to receive both post-operative radiation as well as systemic chemotherapy. The basis for this approach, as well as scientific developments that underly future trials of novels treatments for patients with high-risk oral cavity cancer are reviewed. PMID:21461056

  14. Multimodal confocal mosaicing microscopy: an emphasis on squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nathaniel W.; Sensibaugh, Jordan; Ardeshiri, Ardaland; Blanchard, Adam; Jacques, Steven; Gareau, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Our previous study reported a sensitivity of 96.6% and a specificity of 89.2% in rapidly detecting Basal Cell Carcinomas (BCCs) when nuclei were stained with acridine orange. Squamous Cell Carcinomas (SCCs) and infiltrative BCCs remain difficult to detect. More complete screening can be achieved utilizing both acridine orange for nuclei staining and eosin for cytoplasmic contrast, using two lasers to excite the two stains independently. Nuclear fluorescence is achieved by staining with acridine orange (0.5mM, 60 s), and cytoplasmic fluorescence is achieved by staining with eosin working solution (30 s). This work shows good morphological contrast of SCC and infiltrative BCC with eosin, acridine orange, and reflectance, and presents a means for rapid SCC and infiltrative BCC detection in fresh skin excisions using multimodal confocal microscopy. In addition, digital staining is shown to effectively simulate hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology with confocal mosaics.

  15. Genetic Susceptibility to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Lacko, Martin; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J.M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Boedeker, Carsten C.; Suárez, Carlos; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio; Takes, Robert P.

    2014-05-01

    Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence is growing. Although environmental carcinogens and carcinogenic viruses are the main etiologic factors, genetic predisposition obviously plays a risk-modulating role, given that not all individuals exposed to these carcinogens experience the disease. This review highlights some aspects of genetic susceptibility to HNSCC: among others, genetic polymorphisms in biotransformation enzymes, DNA repair pathway, apoptotic pathway, human papillomavirus-related pathways, mitochondrial polymorphisms, and polymorphism related to the bilirubin-metabolized pathway. Furthermore, epigenetic variations, familial forms of HNSCC, functional assays for HNSCC risk assessment, and the implications and perspectives of research on genetic susceptibility in HNSCC are discussed.

  16. Verrucous Squamous Cell Cancer in the Esophagus: An Obscure Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Egeland, Charlotte; Achiam, Michael P.; Federspiel, Birgitte; Svendsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    Verrucous carcinoma is a rare, slow-growing type of squamous cell cancer. Fewer than 50 patients with verrucous carcinoma in the esophagus have been described worldwide. In 2014, two male patients were diagnosed with verrucous carcinoma in the distal part of the esophagus. The endoscopic examinations showed a similar wart-like, white, irregular mucosa in both cases. The diagnosis was difficult to make since all biopsies taken from the affected area showed no malignancy. This cancer type has a relatively good prognosis when the diagnosis is finally obtained. Both our patients presented with dysphagia, weight loss, and an endoscopically malignant tumor, but surgery was not performed until after 9 and 10 months, respectively, and then in order to get a diagnosis. At the last follow-up, both patients were without any recurrence of the disease. PMID:27721734

  17. Donovanosis and squamous cell carcinoma: The relationship conundrum!

    PubMed

    Arora, Amanjot K; Kumaran, Muthu S; Narang, Tarun; Saikia, Uma N; Handa, Sanjeev

    2017-03-01

    Donovanosis is a rare, chronic and indolent sexually transmitted infection caused by Klebsiella granulomatis. The ulcers in donovanosis rarely undergo malignant transformation, which is usually seen in longstanding ulcers. We present a case of a 32-year-old male who presented with a two-month history of rapidly progressive, large, foul-smelling ulcers over the groin, distal penile shaft and scrotum. Crushed tissue smears from ulcers revealed basophilic intracellular and extracellular Donovan bodies. Fine needle aspiration cytology from inguinal lymph nodes and biopsy from the ulcers revealed well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The current case aims to alert clinicians that donovanosis is a rare but possible cause of cutaneous malignancy. Nonetheless, the pathogenesis of malignant transformation in donovanosis needs further research.

  18. Effects of cyclooxygenase-2 on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Yong-Dong; Li, Peng; Tu, Jun; Niu, Ying-Lin; Xu, Cai-Min; Zhang, Shu-Tian

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the relationship between the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 gene and the proliferation and apoptosis of esophageal squamous carcinoma EC109 cells. METHODS: The techniques of RNA interference (RNAi) and cell transfection, as well as the levels of oncogenicity in nude mice, were used to study the role of COX-2 in the esophageal squamous carcinoma cell (ESCC) line EC109. Following RNAi and transfection, Western blotting analysis was used to determine the expression of the COX-2 protein. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay was used to evaluate cell growth, and flow cytometry was used to detect cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Western blotting analysis demonstrated that COX-2 expression was significantly reduced in EC109 cells treated with COX-2-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) but was increased in EC109 cells transfected with COX-2. Furthermore, COX-2 siRNA treatment inhibited cell proliferation (P < 0.01) and induced apoptosis in EC109 cells, as determined by an MTT assay and by flow cytometry, respectively. In contrast, transfected COX-2 led to increased cell proliferation (P < 0.05) and decreased apoptosis in EC109 cells. In addition, combination treatment of cells with COX-2 siRNA and aspirin had a synergistic effect (P < 0.01). For experiments measuring tumorigenicity, xenograft tumors of a greater volume and weight were found in the COX-2 group compared with other groups (P < 0.05). A large dose of aspirin inhibited tumor growth in nude mice effectively (P < 0.05), and the rate of tumor suppression was 51.8% in the high-dose aspirin group. CONCLUSION: COX-2 plays a very critical role in ESCC carcinogenesis, and COX-2 siRNA combined with aspirin has the potential to be an anticancer therapy for the treatment of ESCC. PMID:22147962

  19. Two Canine Papillomaviruses Associated With Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Two Related Basenji Dogs.

    PubMed

    Luff, J; Rowland, P; Mader, M; Orr, C; Yuan, H

    2016-11-01

    Papillomaviruses (PV) are associated with benign mucosal and cutaneous epithelial proliferations. In dogs, PV-associated pigmented plaques and papillomas can undergo malignant transformation, but this is rare, and most cases of canine squamous cell carcinoma do not arise from PV-induced precursor lesions. We describe herein the progression of pigmented plaques to invasive and metastatic squamous cell carcinoma associated with 2 canine papillomaviruses (CPV) in 2 related Basenji dogs. Immunohistochemistry for PV antigen revealed strong nuclear immunoreactivity within keratinocytes from pigmented plaques from both dogs, consistent with a productive viral infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate primers for the L1 gene revealed PV DNA sequences from 2 different CPVs. In situ hybridization for CPV revealed strong hybridization signals within the pigmented plaques and neoplastic squamous epithelial cells from both dogs. We report here progression of PV-associated pigmented plaques to metastatic squamous cell carcinoma within 2 Basenji dogs associated with 2 different CPVs.

  20. Collision of desmoplastic-neurotropic melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma on the lip.

    PubMed

    Falanga, Vincent; Chartier, Molly; Butmarc, Janet; Tibbetts, Lance

    2008-05-01

    We report on a case of the collision of a desmoplastic-neurotropic melanoma and a squamous cell carcinoma on the lip. A 46-year-old male developed a multifocal infiltrative squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip, which also showed sparse melanocyte atypia within the epidermis and an extensive spindle cell proliferation within the dermis, subcutaneous tissues and nerves. An immunohistochemical panel showed that the spindle cells were melanocytes, not derived from the squamous cell carcinoma. Double labeling with AE1/AE3 and S100 showed striking localized proximity of the spindle-cell melanocytic and keratinocyte components in some areas of this tumor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the collision of a squamous cell carcinoma and desmoplastic-neurotropic melanoma.

  1. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid arising in Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sosa, Sergio; Rios-Luna, Nina Paola; Tamayo, Bricia del Rosario; Simpson, Karen; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is a rare thyroid neoplasm that has been described exclusively in adults. We report what appears to be the first example of a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland arising in a background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in an adolescent female. The tumor was well demarcated, confined to the right thyroid lobe, and did not metastasize, although follow up has been limited. The squamous cell carcinoma was well to moderately differentiated, and the stroma contained an abundant inflammatory infiltrate rich in lymphocytes and eosinophils. The lack of goblet cells, extracellular mucin, and extensive stromal sclerosis excluded the diagnosis of sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia. Immunohistochemical staining revealed focal expression of cytokeratin 7 and diffuse labeling with cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The squamous cell carcinoma overexpressed p53 protein and showed increased proliferative activity, as evidenced by the high MIB-1 labeling index. In contrast, the tumor did not show immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin or thyroid transcription factor 1.

  2. [Inveterate squamous cell carcinoma of the upper eyelid: a case report].

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, S; Marcasciano, M; Pacitti, F; Toscani, M; Tarallo, M; Fino, P; Scuderi, G L

    2013-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant tumor of epithelium that shows squamous cell differentiation. It is the second most common cancer of the skin and usually occurs in areas exposed to the sun but it can rarely arise within the conjunctival epithelium with a deep component. We describe a woman with a history of chronic blepharoconjunctivitis unresponsive to topical medications. Examination disclosed a hyperaemic translucent patch with blurred margins of the upper palpebral conjunctiva. Tarsoconjunctival biopsy revealed intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma. Management consisted of complete tumor excision with removal of the entire posterior lamella of the left upper eyelid and reconstruction. Histopathologic analysis confirmed primary squamous cell carcinoma arising from conjunctival epithelium, involving the underlying tarsus. Patients with unexplained chronic unilateral blepharoconjunctivitis or papillary hypertrophy of the palpebral conjunctiva should be considered for biopsy to rule out neoplasia, even when there is no sign of an evident mass.

  3. CUTANEOUS SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A PANTHER CHAMELEON (FURCIFER PARDALIS) AND TREATMENT WITH CARBOPLATIN IMPLANTABLE BEADS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, James G; Naples, Lisa M; Chu, Caroline; Kinsel, Michael J; Flower, Jennifer E; Van Bonn, William G

    2016-09-01

    A 3-yr-old male panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis) presented with bilateral raised crusted skin lesions along the lateral body wall that were found to be carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma. Similar lesions later developed on the caudal body wall and tail. A subcutaneous implantable carboplatin bead was placed in the first squamous cell carcinoma lesion identified. Additional new lesions sampled were also found to be squamous cell carcinomas, and viral polymerase chain reaction was negative for papillomaviruses and herpesviruses. Significant skin loss would have resulted from excision of all the lesions, so treatment with only carboplatin beads was used. No adverse effects were observed. Lesions not excised that were treated with beads decreased in size. This is the first description of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treatment with carboplatin implantable beads in a panther chameleon.

  4. Expression of p27 and PTEN and clinical characteristics in early laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and their correlation with recurrence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Quan; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Meng; Sun, Yu-Man; Liu, Hong-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor of otolaryngeal region. At present, effective treatment of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma still depends on surgery and radiotherapy. In recent years, application of CO2 laser resection in the treatment of stage T1 glottic carcinoma can remove the tumor completely and reduce the injury of laryngeal tissues. But recurrence still happened in some postoperative patients. Here, we selected 131 patients to compare the therapeutic effects of CO2 laser resection and traditional split laryngeal surgery on the early laryngeal cancer, examined the expression of p27 and PTEN by immunohistochemistry in early laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma tissues in correlation to clinical outcome. After two years follow-up 14/85 (16.5%) of CO2 laser treatment group presented with local recurrence (recurrent group), while that of split laryngeal surgery group was 6/46 (13.0%). There was no statistical significance in recurrence rate between the two groups (P>0.05). 10 of all the 111 (9.0%) non-recurrent patients did not follow the doctor's advice to quit smoking after the operation, while 12 in the 20 (60.0%) recurrent patients did not; the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.01). The positive rates of p27 were 80.2% (105/131) and 43.5% (57/131), and that of PTEN were 83.2% (109/131) and 48.9% (64/131) in the cancer adjacent tissues (negative surgical margin tissues) and in laryngeal carcinoma tissues, respectively (P<0.001). The expression rates of p27 and PTEN in laryngeal carcinoma tissues of the recurrent group were 20.0% (4/20), 10.0% (2/20) and that in non recurrent group were 47.7% (53/111) and 55.9% (62/111), respectively, with a significant difference (P<0.001). In addition, the expression of p27 and PTEN in tumor resected marginal tissues of the recurrence group was 50.0% (10/20), 40.0% (8/20) and that in non recurrence group was 85.6% (95/111) and 91.0% (101/111), respectively; the

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and plasma levels of BCL11A contribute to the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Duo; Zhou, Liang; Tao, Lei; Lu, Li-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective We investigated the association between B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11A (BCL11A) rs11886868 and rs4671393 polymorphism, plasma BCL11A concentration, and the hazard of developing laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Participants and method In this research, 330 LSCC patients, 310 healthy controls, and 155 vocal leukoplakia patients were genotyped for the BCL11A (rs11886868 C/T and rs4671393 A/G) genotypes by pyrosequencing; the BCL11A concentration was measured using ELISA. Results LSCC Patients had a notably higher occurrence of CT at rs11886868 (OR = 2.64, P = 0.025) than the control group; they also had higher GG at rs4671393 (OR = 2.53, P = 0.018). Advanced (III and IV) stage LSCC patients had a notably greater frequency of CT at rs11886868 than those with initial (I and II) stage LSCC (OR = 2.71, P = 0.044 vs. OR = 2.58, P = 0.051). Additionally, there was a 1.59 fold increase in susceptibility for initial stage LSCC related to the G allele (AG/GG) at rs4671393 (P = 0.005); while for patients of advanced stage LSCC the OR was 1.73 (P = 0.002). Moreover, the OR of lymph node metastasis patients at rs4671393 G alleles was 2.41 (P < 0.01); it was 1.38 (P = 0.035) in patients without lymph metastasis. Patients with high incidences of the rs4671393 variation genotype had high plasma BCL11A levels. Conclusions BCL11A rs11886868 and rs4671393 genotype variations and correspondingly high BCL11A plasma levels are related to LSCC, besides, differences in plasma levels and genotype distribution may be related to lymph node metastasis status and the stage of LSCC. PMID:28225775

  6. Surgical treatment of primary disease for penile squamous cell carcinoma: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Gu, Wei-Jie; Wang, Hong-Kai; Gu, Cheng-Yuan; Ye, Ding-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend penile sparing surgery (PSS) for selected penile cancer cases. The present study described the use of PSS in a population-based cohort, and also examined the role of PSS on penile cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were used to identify individuals that were diagnosed with penile squamous cell carcinoma between 1998 and 2009 and treated with surgery. Patients were sorted into two groups: Local tumor excision (LTE) and partial/total penectomy (PE). Factors associated with the receipt of LTE and PCSM following LTE were examined. In addition, PCSM was compared between LTE and PE following propensity score matching. Of the 1,292 eligible patients, 24.2% underwent LTE. For stage T1 disease, the rates of LTE increased moderately from 29 to 40% over the last decade. Following multivariate analyses, young age, African descent, a tumor size of <3 cm and stage T1 disease were identified to positively influence the receipt of LTE. With a median follow-up period of 55 months, the four-year PCSM rate was 9.8% in patients treated with LTE. Older age, a tumor size of 3-4 cm and regional/distant disease (SEER stage) were significant predictors of PCSM. Furthermore, in matched cohorts with stage T1 disease, the four-year PCSM rates were 8.9 and 10.0% for patients that received LTE or PE, respectively (P=0.93). In conclusion, underuse of PSS is pronounced in the general community with significant age and ethnicity disparities. The current population-based study provides evidence supporting the oncological safety of PSS compared with PE in early-stage disease.

  7. Radiation Therapy and Docetaxel in Treating Patients With HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  8. Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: Literature Review Focusing on the Radiographic Features and Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Mardones, Nilson do Rosário; Gamba, Thiago de Oliveira; Flores, Isadora Luana; de Almeida, Solange Maria; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro

    2015-01-01

    Since its first publication in 1975, the squamous odontogenic tumor remains the rarest odontogenic lesion, with around 50 cases in the English-language literature in which the microscopic characteristics are frequently very well demonstrated. However, articles which discuss the radiographic aspects are scarce, especially with emphasis on the differential diagnosis. The present treatise proposes an assessment of jaw lesions with the same radiographic characteristics of the squamous odontogenic tumor to clarify the main findings for dental clinicians during routine diagnosis. PMID:26140060

  9. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Induced Head & Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comprehensive Retrospect

    PubMed Central

    Nishat, Roquaiya; Ramachandra, Sujatha; Kumar, Harish; Bandyopadhyay, Alokenath

    2015-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma accounts for the sixth most common malignancy occurring worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the two well established risk factors. In the recent years, substantial evidence has been obtained that Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers are on the rise. This article provides an insight into the structure of HPV genome, molecular pathogenesis, detection methods and clinical implications of HPV positive Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PMID:26266234

  10. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate: a case report of a rare clinical entity

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Tithi; Podder, Tarun; Lepera, Pamela A; Walker, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate is a unique and rare clinicopathological entity with fewer than 100 cases reported in the literature. Because of its rarity, the optimal management is not well known. Here, we report a case of primary squamous cell carcinoma of the prostate which was treated with definitive concurrent chemo-radiotherapy with excellent outcome along with a brief review of the literature. PMID:28031893

  11. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Hida, Toyoaki; Nishio, Makoto; Nogami, Naoyuki; Ohe, Yuichiro; Nokihara, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hiroshi; Satouchi, Miyako; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Takenoyama, Mitsuhiro; Isobe, Hiroshi; Fujita, Shiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Minato, Koichi; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Maemondo, Makoto; Takeda, Koji; Saka, Hideo; Goto, Koichi; Atagi, Shinji; Hirashima, Tomonori; Sumiyoshi, Naoki; Tamura, Tomohide

    2017-03-07

    Limited treatment options are available for stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nivolumab, a programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor antibody, has been shown to be effective for the treatment of NSCLC. This study investigated the effectiveness and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous NSCLC that progressed after platinum-containing chemotherapy. In this multicenter phase II study, patients were treated with nivolumab (3mg/kg, intravenously) every 2 weeks until progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity was seen. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) assessed by independent radiology review committee (IRC) and secondary endpoints included a study site-assessed ORR, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response, time to response, best overall response (BOR), and safety. The study included 35 patients from 17 sites in Japan. Patients had IRC-assessed ORR of 25.7% (95% CI 14.2, 42.1) and the study site-assessed ORR was 20.0% (95% CI 10.0, 35.9). The median OS, median time to response and median PFS were 16.3 (95% CI 12.4-25.4), 2.7 (range 1.2-5.5) and 4.2 (95% CI 1.4-7.1) months, respectively. The IRC-assessed BOR was partial response, stable disease, and progressive disease for 25.7%, 28.6%, and 45.7% of patients, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 24 patients (68.6%), most of which resolved with appropriate treatment including steroid therapy or ‎discontinuation of nivolumab. Nivolumab was effective and well tolerated in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent squamous NSCLC that progressed after platinum-containing chemotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. miR-203 and miR-205 expression patterns identify subgroups of prognosis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cañueto, J; Cardeñoso-Álvarez, E; García-Hernández, J L; Galindo-Villardón, P; Vicente-Galindo, P; Vicente-Villardón, J L; Alonso-López, D; De Las Rivas, J; Valero, J; Moyano-Sáez, E; Fernández-López, E; Mao, J H; Castellanos-Martín, A; Román-Curto, C; Pérez-Losada, J

    2016-12-11

    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is the second most widespread cancer in humans and its incidence is rising. These tumours can evolve as poor-prognosis diseases, and therefore it is important to identify new markers to better predict its clinical evolution. Here, we identified the expression pattern of miRNAs at different stages of skin cancer progression in a panel of murine skin cancer cell lines. We determined that miR-203 and miR-205 are differentially expressed in this panel, and evaluated their potential use as biomarkers of prognosis in human tumours. MiR-205 was expressed in tumours with pathological features recognized as indicators of poor prognosis such as desmoplasia, perineural invasion and infiltrative growth pattern. MiR-205 was mainly expressed in undifferentiated areas and in the invasion front, and was associated with both local recurrence and the development of general clinical events of poor evolution. MiR-205 expression was an independent variable selected to predict events of poor clinical evolution using the multinomial logistic regression model described in this study. In contrast, miR-203 was mainly expressed in tumours exhibiting the characteristics associated with a good prognosis, was mainly present in well-differentiated zones, and rarely expressed in the invasion front. Therefore, the expression and associations of miR-205 and miR-203 were mostly mutually exclusive. Finally, using a logistic biplot we identified three clusters of patients with differential prognosis based on miR-203 and miR-205 expression, and pathological tumour features. This work highlights the utility of miRNA-205 and miRNA-203 as prognostic markers in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Screening and identification of distant metastasis-related differentially expressed genes in human squamous cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhou, Fachen; Xiong, Hai; Du, Sha; Ma, Jianwei; Okai, Issac; Wang, Jian; Suo, Jing; Hao, Lihong; Song, Yang; Hu, Jun; Shao, Shujuan

    2012-05-01

    Distant metastasis is one of the leading causes of lung cancer death. Detecting the early-stage molecular alternations in primary tumors, such as gene expression differences, provides a "prognostic" value to the precaution of tumor metastasis. The aim of this article is to screen and identify the metastasis-related genes in human squamous cell lung carcinoma. Primary tumor tissues of nine patients with subsequent metastasis and eight patients without metastasis were selected to perform the gene microarray experiment. GO and pathway analyses were used to determine the differentially expressed genes. Two identified genes were further validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (real-time qRT-PCR). Two hundred and thirty-eight differentially expressed genes were detected in gene chip experiment, including 51 up-regulated genes and 187 down-regulated genes. These genes were involved in several cellular processes, including cell adhesion, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis. GO analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes participated in a wide ranging of metastasis-related processes, including extracellular region and regulation of liquid surface tension. In addition, pathway analysis demonstrated that the differentially expressed genes were enriched in pathways related to cell cycle and Wnt signaling. Real-time qRT-PCR validation experiment of LCN2 and PDZK1IP1 showed a consistent up-regulation in the metastasis group. The metastasis of human squamous cell lung carcinoma is a complex process that is regulated by multiple gene alternations on the expression levels. The 238 differentially expressed genes identified in this study presumably contain a core set of genes involved in tumor metastasis. The real-time qRT-PCR results of PDZK1IP1 and LCN2 validated the reliability of this gene microarray experiment.

  14. Ron tyrosine kinase receptor synergises with EGFR to confer adverse features in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Keller, J; Nimnual, A S; Shroyer, K R; Joy, C; Ischenko, I; Chandler, C S; Dong, L M; Hayman, M J; Chan, E L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although EGFR inhibitors have shown some success in the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), the results are not dramatic. Additional molecular targets are urgently needed. We previously showed that the loss of Ron receptor activity significantly slowed squamous tumour growth and progression in a murine model. Based on these data, we hypothesised that Ron expression confers an aggressive phenotype in HNSCCs. Methods: We prospectively collected and evaluated 154 snap-frozen, primary HNSCCs for Ron and EGFR expression/phosphorylation. Biomarker correlation with clinical, pathological and outcome data was performed. The biological responses of HNSCC cell lines to Ron knockdown, its activation and the biochemical interaction between Ron and EGFR were examined. Results: We discovered that 64.3% (99 out of 154) HNSCCs expressed Ron. The carcinomas expressed exclusively mature functional Ron, whereas the adjacent nonmalignant epithelium expressed predominantly nonfunctional Ron precursor. There was no significant association between Ron and sex, tumour differentiation, perineural/vascular invasion or staging. However, patients with Ron+HNSCC were significantly older and more likely to have oropharyngeal tumours. Ron+HNSCC also had significantly higher EGFR expression and correlated strongly with phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR). Newly diagnosed HNSCC with either Ron/pEGFR or both had lower disease-free survival than those without Ron and pEGFR. Knocking down Ron in SCC9 cells significantly blunted their migratory response to not only the Ron ligand, MSP, but also EGF. Stimulation of Ron in SCC9 cells significantly augmented the growth effect of EGF; the synergistic effect of both growth factors in SCC9 cells was dependent on Ron expression. Activated Ron also interacted with and transactivated EGFR. Conclusion: Ron synergises with EGFR to confer certain adverse features in HNSCCs. PMID:23799848

  15. Health-Related Quality-of-Life Outcomes Following IMRT Versus Conventional Radiotherapy for Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min Karnell, Lucy H.; Funk, Gerry F.; Lu Heming; Dornfeld, Ken; Buatti, John M.

    2007-12-01

    Purpose: To compare health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Patients and Methods: Patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were extracted from the database of an ongoing longitudinal Outcome Assessment Project. Eligible criteria included (1) treated with definitive radiation, and (2) provided 12-month posttreatment HRQOL data. Excluded were 7 patients who received IMRT before October 1, 2002, during this institution's developmental phase of the IMRT technique. The HRQOL outcomes of patients treated with IMRT were compared with those of patients who received CRT. Results: Twenty-six patients treated using IMRT and 27 patients treated using CRT were included. Patients in the IMRT group were older and had more advanced-stage diseases and more patients received concurrent chemotherapy. However, the IMRT group had higher mean Head and Neck Cancer Inventory scores (which represent better outcomes) for each of the four head-and-neck cancer-specific domains, including eating, speech, aesthetics, and social disruption, at 12 months after treatment. A significantly greater percentage of patients in the CRT group had restricted diets compared with those in the IMRT group (48.0% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.032). At 3 months after treatment, both groups had significant decreases from pretreatment eating scores. However, the IMRT group had a significant improvement during the first year, but the CRT group had only small improvement. Conclusions: Proper delivery of IMRT can improve HRQOL for patients with oropharyngeal cancer compared with CRT.

  16. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    PubMed Central

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma resulting from chronic osteomyelitis: a retrospective study of 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinghu; Cui, Haomin; Dong, Jinlei; He, Yu; Zhou, Dongsheng; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a severe malignant tumor but was rare in the chronic osteomyelitis. The purpose of this study was to present the results from a retrospective study the cases of squamous cell carcinoma arising from chronic osteomyelitis. Material and methods: Between 1974 and 2010, eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma after chronic osteomyelitis were treated. The patients had an average age of 55 years (range 45 to 66 years), with a male predominance (6 men and 2 woman). We analyzed the time up to cancerization, localization and histopathological types of the carcinoma, and types and results of the treatment. Results: The mean delay between the initial injury and the diagnosis of malignant transformation was 28 years (range 8 to 50 years). The carcinoma resulted from tibia osteomyelitis in six cases, femur in one case and ankle in one case. The pathological examination showed two cases of a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with bone invasion and six cases of invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Curative amputation was performed in all patients but one who refused. No recurrence or metastasis occurred during follow-up time. Conclusion: Amputation appears to be an effective treatment method in squamous carcinoma secondary to chronic osteomyelitis. PMID:26617726

  18. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Predictor of Outcome in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients With Nodal Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla-Dave, Amita; Lee, Nancy Y.; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Thaler, Howard T.; Stambuk, Hilda E.; Fury, Matthew G.; Patel, Snehal G.; Moreira, Andre L.; Sherman, Eric; Karimi, Sasan; Wang, Ya; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin P.; Pfister, David G.; and others

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) can provide information regarding tumor perfusion and permeability and has shown prognostic value in certain tumors types. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of pretreatment DCE-MRI in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with nodal disease undergoing chemoradiation therapy or surgery. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma and neck nodal metastases were eligible for the study. Pretreatment DCE-MRI was performed on a 1.5T MRI. Clinical follow-up was a minimum of 12 months. DCE-MRI data were analyzed using the Tofts model. DCE-MRI parameters were related to treatment outcome (progression-free survival [PFS] and overall survival [OS]). Patients were grouped as no evidence of disease (NED), alive with disease (AWD), dead with disease (DOD), or dead of other causes (DOC). Prognostic significance was assessed using the log-rank test for single variables and Cox proportional hazards regression for combinations of variables. Results: At last clinical follow-up, for Stage III, all 12 patients were NED. For Stage IV, 43 patients were NED, 4 were AWD, 11 were DOD, and 4 were DOC. K{sup trans} is volume transfer constant. In a stepwise Cox regression, skewness of K{sup trans} (volume transfer constant) was the strongest predictor for Stage IV patients (PFS and OS: p <0.001). Conclusion: Our study shows that skewness of K{sup trans} was the strongest predictor of PFS and OS in Stage IV HNSCC patients with nodal disease. This study suggests an important role for pretreatment DCE-MRI parameter K{sup trans} as a predictor of outcome in these patients.

  19. "High Stage" Organizing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, William R.

    Although a psychological theory of stages of transformation in human development currently exists, organizational researchers have yet to elaborate and test any theory of organizational transformation of comparable elegance. According to the organizational stage theory being developed since 1974 by William Torbert, bureaucratic organization, which…

  20. Distant Metastases in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Min; Lu Minggen; Savvides, Panayiotis S.; Rezaee, Rod; Zender, Chad A.; Lavertu, Pierre; Buatti, John M.; Machtay, Mitchell

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the pattern and risk factors for distant metastases in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) after curative treatment with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective study of 284 HNSCC patients treated in a single institution with IMRT. Sites included were oropharynx (125), oral cavity (70), larynx (55), hypopharynx (17), and unknown primary (17). American Joint Committee on Cancer stage distribution includes I (3), II (19), III (42), and IV (203). There were 224 males and 60 females with a median age of 57. One hundred eighty-six patients were treated with definitive IMRT and 98 postoperative IMRT. One hundred forty-nine patients also received concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 22.8 months (range, 0.07-77.3 months) and 29.5 months (4.23-77.3 months) for living patients. The 3-year local recurrence-free survival, regional recurrence-free survival, locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 94.6%, 96.4%, 92.5%, 84.1%, and 68.95%, respectively. There were 45 patients with distant metastasis. In multivariate analysis, distant metastasis was strongly associated with N stage (p = 0.046), T stage (p < 0.0001), and pretreatment maximum standardized uptake value of the lymph node (p = 0.006), but not associated with age, gender, disease sites, pretreatment standardized uptake value of the primary tumor, or locoregional control. The freedom from distant metastasis at 3 years was 98.1% for no factors, 88.6% for one factor, 68.3% for two factors, and 41.7% for three factors (p < 0.0001 by log-rank test). Conclusion: With advanced radiation techniques and concurrent chemotherapy, the failure pattern has changed with more patients failing distantly. The majority of patients with distant metastases had no local or regional failures, indicating that these patients might have microscopic distant

  1. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum: An update and implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Glen R; Kong, Cherng H; Warrier, Satish K; Lynch, Andrew C; Heriot, Alexander G; Ngan, Samuel Y

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To provide an update on the aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, staging and management of rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to the preferred reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive search of Ovid MEDLINE was performed with the reference list of selected articles reviewed to ensure all relevant publications were captured. The search strategy was limited to the English language, spanning from 1946 to 2015. A qualitative analysis was undertaken examining patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, staging, treatment and outcome. The quantitaive analysis was limited to data extracted on treatment and outcomes including radiological, clinical and pathological complete response where available. The narrative and quantitative review were synthesised in concert. RESULTS: The search identified 487 articles in total with 79 included in the qualitative review. The quantitative analysis involved 63 articles, consisting of 43 case reports and 20 case series with a total of 142 individual cases. The underlying pathogenesis of rectal SCC while unclear, continues to be defined, with increasing evidence of a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and a possible role for human papilloma virus in this progression. The presentation is similar to rectal adenocarcinoma, with a diagnosis confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. Many presumed rectal SCC’s are in fact an extension of an anal SCC, and cytokeratin markers are a useful adjunct in this distinction. Staging is most accurately reflected by the tumour-node-metastasis classification for rectal adenocarcinoma. It involves examining locoregional disease by way of magnetic resonance imaging and/or endorectal ultrasound, with systemic spread excluded by way of computed tomography. Positron emission tomography is integral in the workup to exclude an external site of primary SCC with metastasis to the rectum. While the

  2. The prognostic value of tumor length to resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangwei; Wang, Yang; Li, Cheng; Helmersson, Jing; Jiang, Yuanzhu; Ma, Guoyuan; Wang, Guanghui; Dong, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background The current TNM classification system does not consider tumor length for patients with esophageal carcinoma (EC). This study explored the effect of tumor length, in addition to tumor depth and lymph node involvement, on survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods A total of 498 ESCC patients who underwent surgical resection as the primary treatment were selected in the retrospective study. Pathological details were collected, which included tumor type, TNM stage, differentiation. Other collected information were: the types of esophageal resection, ABO blood group, family history and demographic and lifestyle factors. A time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and a regression tree for survival were used to identify the cut-off point of tumor length, which was 3 cm. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to identify the prognostic factors to ESCC. Results & Discussion The 1-, 3-, 5-year overall survival rates were found to be 82.5%, 55.6%, and 35.1%, respectively. Patients who had larger tumor length (>3 cm) had a higher risk for death than the rest patients. From the univariate Cox proportional hazards regression model, the overall survival rate was significantly influenced by the depth of the tumor and lymph node involvement (either as dummy or continuous variables), Sex, and tumor length. Using these four variables in the multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, we found that the overall survival was significantly influenced by all variables except Sex. Therefore, in addition to the depth of the tumor and lymph node involvement (as either dummy or continuous variables), the tumor length is also an independent prognostic factor for ESCC. The overall survival rate was higher in a group with smaller tumor length (≤3 cm) than those patients with larger tumor length (>3 cm), no matter what the tumor stage was. Conclusion The tumor length was found

  3. Effects of docetaxel plus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy on microvessel density and apoptosis expression in local advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhai, X J; Cheng, H R; Long, H L; Mao, W K; Cao, L; Xiao, B R; Li, R Q

    2015-05-22

    We examined the effects of weekly single-agent docetaxel plus three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) on apoptotic index (AI) and microvessel density (MVD) in local advanced non-small-cell lung squamous cancer patients and analyzed the correlation of MVD, AI, and 50% tumor shrinkage time (T0.5) The molecular mechanism of docetaxel radiosensitization was investigated. Sixty untreated patients with stage IIIA or IIIB lung squamous cancer were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups: observation (N = 30; 3D-CRT + docetaxel + adjuvant chemotherapy) and control (N = 30; 3D-CRT + adjuvant chemotherapy). From day 1 radiotherapy, the observation group received intravenous docetaxel (36 mg/m(2)) once weekly for 6 weeks. Post-radiotherapy, chemotherapy of docetaxel combined with cisplatin lasted 4-6 cycles in both groups. Before radiotherapy and within 24 h after radiotherapy (20 Gy), bronchoscopic biopsy was performed twice at the same site. To analyze the MVD of tumor specimens with immunohistochemical staining . The AI of lung cancer cells was assessed with TUNEL assay, T0.5 values were calculated. The observation group had significantly lower MVD than the control group (P < 0.05). AI significantly increased before and after treatment in the observation group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The decreased MVD values negatively correlated with T0.5 values (r = -0.624, P < 0.05), whereas the increased AI values did not correlate with the T0.5 values. Docetaxel radiosensitization may occur by decrease in MVD and increase in AI values. Weekly single-agent docetaxel plus 3D-CRT can improve prognosis and quality of life in local advanced non-small-cell lung squamous cancer patients.

  4. The upregulated α-catulin expression was involved in head-neck squamous cell carcinogenesis by promoting proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Yang, Xue-Feng; Huang, Ke-Qiang; Ren, Li; Zhao, Shuang; Gou, Wen-Feng; Shen, Dao-Fu; Sun, Hong-Zhi; Takano, Yasuo; Zheng, Hua-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Rho signaling component, α-catulin, is a cytoskeletal linker protein and plays an important role in apoptotic and senescence resistance, cytoskeletal reorganization, mobility, invasion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells. Here, we transfected α-catulin-expressing plasmid into head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell and examined the phenotypes and relevant molecules. α-catulin expression was detected on tissue microarray containing squamous epithelium, dysplasia, and cancer of head and neck by immunohistochemistry. It was found that α-catulin overexpression resulted in faster growth, migration and invasion, lower apoptosis, G2/M progression, and EMT than the mock and control (P < 0.05). α-catulin overexpression increased the expression of Cyclin E1, cdc2, survivin, Bcl-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, and N-cadherin but decreased the expression of Caspase-3 and E-cadherin by real-time PCR (P < 0.05). α-catulin expression was stronger in primary cancers than those in normal squamous epithelium and dysplasia (P < 0.05), but not correlated with aggressive behaviors or adverse prognosis of HNSCC patients (P > 0.05). Multivariate survival analysis showed that distant metastasis and TNM staging were independent prognostic factors for overall survival of the HNSCC patients (P < 0.05). These data indicated that upregulated expression of α-catulin protein might have impact on the tumorigenesis of HNSCC possibly by reducing apoptosis, enhancing proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, invasion, and EMT. It might be regarded as a potential marker for head and neck carcinogenesis or a target of gene therapy for HNSCCs.

  5. Management of Stage II glottic cancer. [Cobalt 60

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, B.,; Mohammed, A.; Calhoun, D.L.

    1981-08-01

    A detailed retrospective analysis was done of 55 patients with Stage II (TsNqMq) glottic cancer, treated at the University of Louisville Radiation Center from October 1953 to December 1975. Ninety-one percent of the patients were male. Eight-five percent of the patients had squamous cell carcinoma. The five year adjusted survival rate was 81% with a standard error of 5%. Twenty-seven percent of the patients had local failure and 58% of them were salvaged by further surgery. The median time to recurrence was eleven months. There was no case of laryngeal necrosis, and good function of the larynx was achieved in the majority of the patients. Eight second cancers were diagnosed during the continued follow-up of these patients. A brief review of the literature is included.

  6. Socioeconomic factors and survival in patients with non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Chen, Yu-Pei; Liu, Xu; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Rui; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Li, Wen-Fei; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2017-04-06

    The effect of socioeconomic factors on receipt of definitive treatment and survival outcomes in non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. Eligible patients (n = 37,995) were identified from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database between 2007 and 2012. Socioeconomic factors (i.e., median household income, education level, unemployment rate, insurance status, marital status and residence) were included in univariate/multivariate Cox regression analysis; validated factors were used to generate nomograms for cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS), and a prognostic score model for risk stratification. Low- and high-risk groups were compared for all cancer subsites. Impact of race/ethnicity on survival was investigated in each risk group. Marital status, median household income and insurance status were included in the nomograms for CSS and OS, which had higher c-indexes than the 6th edition TNM staging system (all P-values < 0.001). Based on three disadvantageous socioeconomic factors (i.e., unmarried status, uninsured status, median household income < US $65,394), the prognostic score model generated four risk subgroups with scores of 0, 1, 2 or 3, which had significantly separated CSS/OS curves (all P-values < 0.001). Low-risk patients (score 0-1) were more likely to receive definitive treatment and obtain better CSS/OS than high-risk patients (score 2-3). Chinese and non-Hispanic black patients with high-risk socioeconomic status had best and poorest CSS/OS, respectively. Therefore, marital status, median household income and insurance status have significance for predicting survival outcomes. Low-risk socioeconomic status and Chinese race/ethnicity confer protective effects in HNSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in Norway 1963-2011: increasing incidence and stable mortality.

    PubMed

    Robsahm, Trude E; Helsing, Per; Veierød, Marit B

    2015-03-01

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rapidly increasing in white populations, causing high morbidity and health-care costs. Few studies, however, have described the trends for SCC, as population-based data with a long follow-up are limited. In Norway we have this opportunity and we aimed to describe SCC incidence, mortality and survival rates, according to sex, age, stage, primary anatomical location, and geographical region, for the period 1963-2011, for estimation of future health-care needs. Data were retrieved from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Age-adjusted SCC incidence and mortality rates and 5-year relative survival (in percent) were calculated for 5-year calendar periods. A joinpoint regression model identified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates over the 50-year period. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased ninefold in females and sixfold in males from 1963 to 2011, with APCs of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.5, 7.3) and 3.3% (95% CI 1.3, 5.3) in females and males, respectively. SCC incidence rose in all age groups, anatomical locations (except ears in females), and geographical regions, though restricted to localized tumors. Most striking increase was seen in the age group 70-79, in face and head locations and among residents in southern Norway. SCC mortality and survival rates remained relatively stable. Our findings underline an increasing need for SCC treatment in Norway, especially considering the aging population. The findings also call for the creation of particular guidelines for primary prevention of SCC.

  8. The Potential Prognostic Value of Connexin 43 Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Dános, Kornél; Brauswetter, Diána; Birtalan, Ede; Pató, Anna; Bencsik, Gabriella; Krenács, Tibor; Peták, István; Tamás, László

    2016-08-01

    Gap juctions are transmembrane communication channels known to be involved in the control of cell proliferation by mediating the exchange of ions and small molecules between cells. Gap junctions are composed of connexon hemichannels made up of 6 connexin proteins, which abnormal expression and functions have been linked to tumor progression and poorer prognosis. Here, we studied the prognostic impact of the most prevalent connexin isotype, connexin 43 (Cx43) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Tissue microarrays made from tumor samples of 90 HNSCC patients were immunostained for Cx43 and cell cycle regulation-related biomarkers including p53, Ki67, p16, aurora A, geminin, and p21 proteins. Scoring and histopathologic evaluation were performed in digital slides. A 4-tier scoring distinguishing the percentage of positively stained tumor cells was used including score 1: <5%, score 2: 6% to 20%, score 3: 21% to 60%, and score 4: >60%. For statistics, Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests, Cox-regression, and Pearson χ/Fisher exact tests were used.A significant positive correlation was found between Cx43 expression and disease-specific survival of patients (P=0.004). The rate of p21 protein-positive tumor cells also proved to be a significant positive prognostic marker (P=0.014). Cx43 levels also showed a significant positive correlation with p53 expression (P=0.036). However, there was no statistical association between Cx43 levels and the rest of the markers tested neither with T, N, or M stage.In conclusion, our data suggest that reduced Cx43 expression and low p21 protein levels may have a significant negative impact on HNSCC prognosis.

  9. Prognostic role of PGE2 receptor EP2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kuang-Tai; Wang, Hao-Wei; Chou, Teh-Ying; Hsu, Wen-Hu; Hsu, Han-Shui; Lin, Chi-Hung; Wang, Liang-Shun

    2009-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) product, has been shown to affect numerous tumorigenic processes. PGE2 acts through G-protein-coupled receptors designated as EPs. Recently it has been documented that PGE2 promotes colon cancer cell growth via EP2. However, the expression and the prognostic role of EP2 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remained unknown. From January 1995 to January 2001, tissue samples from 226 patients with ESCC who underwent esophagectomies at our institutions were collected and made into tissue core arrays for study. EP2 expression was examined by immunohistochemical staining and confirmed by Western blot. The clinicopathologic data were then analyzed. EP2 overexpression was observed in 43.4% (98/226) of ESCC. Overexpression of EP2 correlated positively with depth of tumor invasion (T status) (P = 0.016) and was associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.047). In patients without regional or distant lymph node metastasis (N0 or M0), EP2 overexpression was associated with worse overall survival (P = 0.033 and P = 0.003, respectively). Using Cox regression analysis, T status, N status, and M status were the independent factors of overall survival, but EP2 expression was not. However, when focusing on patients with T1-3N0M0 status, EP2 expression became an independent factor of overall survival (P = 0.048). Our results show that EP2 overexpression was associated with worse prognosis, and correlated positively with T status in ESCC. Meanwhile, among those patients at earlier stages, EP2 overexpression significantly disclosed patients at high risks for poor prognosis.

  10. Prediction of Neck Dissection Requirement After Definitive Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Thariat, Juliette; Ahamad, Anesa; Williams, Michelle D.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ginsberg, Lawrence E.; Rosenthal, David I.; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Weber, Randal S.; Garden, Adam S.

    2012-03-01

    Background: This analysis was undertaken to assess the need for planned neck dissection in patients with a complete response (CR) of involved nodes after irradiation and to determine the benefit of a neck dissection in those with less than CR by tumor site. Methods: Our cohort included 880 patients with T1-4, N1-3M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx who received treatment between 1994 and 2004. Survival curves were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier Method, comparisons of rates with the log-rank test and prognostic factors by Cox's proportional hazard model. Results: Nodal CR occurred in 377 (43%) patients, of whom 365 patients did not undergo nodal dissection. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate of patients with CR was 92%. Two hundred sixty-eight of the remaining patients (53%) underwent neck dissections. The 5-year actuarial regional control rate for patients without a CR was 84%. Those who had a neck dissection fared better with 5-year actuarial regional control rates of 90% and 76% for those operated and those not operated (p < 0.001). Variables associated with poorer regional control rates included higher T and N stage, non-oropharynx cancers, non-CR, both clinical and pathological. Conclusions: With 92% 5-year neck control rate without neck dissection after CR, there is little justification for systematic neck dissection. The addition of a neck dissection resulted in higher neck control after partial response though patients with viable tumor on pathology specimens had poorer outcomes. The identification of that subgroup that benefits from additional treatment remains a challenge.

  11. Prognostic factors for salvage endoscopic resection for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Shinya; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kodaira, Takeshi; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hara, Kazuo; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Goto, Hidemi; Yamao, Kenji; Niwa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic resection is one treatment option for residual or locally recurrent esophageal cancer after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. However, little is known about the clinical benefit of salvage endoscopic resection for these lesions. Therefore, the effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were investigated. Patients and methods: A total of 37 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) who underwent salvage endoscopic resection after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone were reviewed. The method of salvage endoscopic resection was endoscopic mucosal resection using a cap (EMR-C), strip biopsy, or endoscopic submucosal dissection. The effectiveness and prognostic factors of salvage endoscopic resection were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 37 patients with 49 lesions underwent salvage endoscopic resection. Baseline clinical stages were I in 23 patients, II in 3 patients, III in 9 patients, and IV in 2 patients. The number of locoregional recurrences and residual lesions were 35 and 14, respectively. The curative en bloc resection rate was 53.1 % (26/49). The total incidence of complications was 18.9 % (7/37); all were successfully managed conservatively. The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 72.9 % and 53.3 %, respectively, with a median follow-up period of 54 months. Baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 were significant factors for good prognosis in terms of overall survival on univariate analysis. Conclusions: Salvage endoscopic resection, especially EMR-C, is a safe and feasible procedure to control residual or recurrent superficial esophageal SCC after definitive chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. The present results showed that baseline clinical T1 – 2 and N0 before chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy were significant prognostic factors. PMID:27540571

  12. miRNAs Signature in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastasis: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Head and neck cancers include epithelial tumors arising in the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, paranasal sinuses, and nasal cavity. Metastasis is a hallmark of cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in cell proliferation, development, differentiation and metastasis. It is believed that miRNA alterations correlate with initiation and progression of cancer cell proliferation or inhibition of tumorigenesis. Moreover, miRNAs have different roles in development, progression, and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Altered expression of miRNAs could be novel molecular biomarkers for the definite diagnosis of cancer, metastatic site, cancer stage, and its progression. Purpose The purpose of this review was to provide a comprehensive literature review of the role of miRNAs in head and neck cancer metastasis. Search strategy A relevant English literature search in PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar was performed. The keywords ‘miRNA’, ‘head and neck’, and ‘cancer’ were searched in title and abstract of publications; limited from 1990 to 2015. The inclusion criterion was the role of miRNAs in cancer metastasis. The exclusion criterion was the other functions of miRNAs in cancers. Out of 15221 articles, the full texts of 442 articles were retrieved and only 133 articles met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion Despite the advances in cancer treatment, the mortality rate of HNSCC is still high. The potential application of miRNAs for cancer therapy has been demonstrated in many studies; miRNAs function as either tumor suppressor or oncogene. The recognition of metastamir and their targets may lead to better understanding of HNSCC oncogenesis, and consequently, development of new therapeutic strategies which is a necessity in cancer treatment. Development of therapeutic agents based on miRNAs is a promising target. PMID:27284551

  13. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  14. Comparison of subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma from high and low incidence geographical regions.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Lezcano, Cecilia; Cubilla, Antonio L; Tamboli, Pheroze; Ro, Jae; Ayala, Alberto

    2010-08-01

    There is a worldwide geographical variation in the incidence of penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC); some subtypes are HPV-related (warty, basaloid) while others (keratinizing variants) are not. The aims of this study were to compare the distribution of different histological subtypes of PSCC from regions of low (Paraguay, 144 cases) and high (USA, 157 cases) incidence and to identify and compare tumors with and without warty and/or basaloid morphology. The distribution of subtypes in the Paraguayan and the American series was: usual, 49.3 and 46.5%; verrucous, 8.3 and 7.6%; papillary NOS, 7.6 and 5.7%; warty, 6.9 and 8.3%; basaloid, 4.2 and 7.0%; sarcomatoid, 0.7 and 0.6%; adenosquamous, 3.5 and 0.6%; and mixed, 19.4 and 23.6%, respectively. The distribution of mixed PSCC was: warty-basaloid, 50.0 and 59.5%; usual-verrucous, 21.4 and 21.6%; usual-warty, 14.3 and 8.1%; usual-basaloid, 7.1 and 0.0%; usual-papillary, 3.6 and 5.4%; and others, 3.6 and 5.4%, respectively. In conclusion, we found no geographical difference in the incidence of histological subtypes (p = 0.6501), mixed PSCC (p = 0.5937) or HPV-related tumors (p = 0.2505). Geographical variation may be the result of staging variation at clinical presentation or of pathological diagnosis. The identification of similar histological subtypes in both series validates this classification approach for penile cancer. The tendency for typical SCC to mix with verrucous and papillary carcinomas and of the basaloid to preferentially mix with benign condyloma and condylomatous (warty) carcinomas would support the hypothesis of the existence of an etiologically different dual population of penile tumors.

  15. Human papilloma virus genotypes in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Rojas-García, Aurora Elizabeth; Barrón-Vivanco, Briscia Socorro; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; León, David Cantú-De; Hernández, Yael Yvette Bernal; Jáuregui-Martínez, Armando; Medina-Díaz, Irma Martha

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Mexico cervical cancer (CC) is the most common cause of death from neoplasia in women. Study aimed to analyze the current distribution of Human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women from Nayarit, Mexico, with Squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and Cervical cancer (CC). Methodology Between January 2011 and July 2013, cervical samples were collected from female residents of the Mexican state of Nayarit and were analyzed by means of a LINEAR ARRAY® HPV genotyping test. Data analyses were performed using Stata ver. 8.0 statistical software. Results Of the samples analyzed, 91.2%, HPV DNA was detected. Of these positive samples, 82% were High-risk (HR) viral types. The most prevalent HPV genotypes identified were 16, 58, 31, 18, and 70. Forty two percent of participants had a single infection, while 23 and 26% of participants were infected with two or more HPV genotypes, respectively. HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype identified and was frequently present as a co-infection with HPV types 18, 51, 52, 59, 66, or 70. Conclusion Women <20 years of age were most often infected with HPV, and the HPV Quadrivalent vaccine (types 16, 18, 6, and 11), currently available in Mexico, no confers protection against a subset of the HPV genotypes identified in the present study (58, 31, 70, and 35). Thus, it is important evaluate the geographical distribution of specific HPV genotypes in all health of center across Mexico in order to implement a successful vaccination program and to diagnose CC in its early stages. PMID:27610056

  16. Postoperative radiation in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and target volume delineation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingming; Li, Minghuan; Kong, Li; Yu, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the sixth leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and patients who are treated with surgery alone, without neoadjuvant therapies, experience frequent relapses. Whether postoperative therapies could reduce the recurrence or improve overall survival is still controversial for these patients. The purpose of our review is to figure out the value of postoperative adjuvant therapy and address the disputes about target volume delineation according to published data. Based on the evidence of increased morbidity and disadvantages on patient survival caused by postoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT) alone provided by studies in the early 1990s, the use of postoperative adjuvant therapies in cases of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma has diminished substantially and has been replaced gradually by neoadjuvant chemoradiation. With advances in surgery and RT, accumulating evidence has recently rekindled interest in the delivery of postoperative RT or chemoradiotherapy in patients with stage T3/T4 or N1 (lymph node positive) carcinomas after radical surgery. However, due to complications with the standard radiation field, a nonconforming modified field has been adopted in most studies. Therefore, we analyze different field applications and provide suggestions on the optimization of the radiation field based on the major sites of relapse and the surgical non-clearance area. For upper and middle thoracic esophageal carcinomas, the bilateral supraclavicular and superior mediastinal areas remain common sites of recurrence and should be encompassed within the clinical target volume. In contrast, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding lower thoracic esophageal carcinomas; the “standard” clinical target volume is still recommended. Further studies of larger sample sizes should focus on different recurrence patterns, categorized by tumor locations, refined classifications, and differing molecular biology, to provide more information on the

  17. Prognostic and diagnostic potential of miR-146a in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Guan, Shanghui; Liu, Fang; Chen, Xuan; Han, Lihui; Wang, Ding; Nesa, Effat Un; Wang, Xintong; Bao, Cihang; Wang, Nana; Cheng, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that dysregulated microRNA-146a (miR-146a) is involved in tumour genesis and cancer progression. We aimed to evaluate its expression level and the potential for the diagnosis and prognosis in oesophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Methods: We examined miR-146a expression in 62 pairs of ESCC cancerous and matched paracancerous tissue, 115 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples and serum samples from 154 ESCC patients and 154 healthy volunteers using quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR). Kaplan–Meier method, Cox regression and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were applied to analyse its prognostic and diagnostic value. Results: MicroRNA-146a expression level was significantly decreased in ESCC tissue compared with paracancerous tissue (P<0.001). Its regulation level was negatively associated with T factor and TNM stage. Kaplan–Meier curve revealed that its downregulation level predicted worse overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Both univariate and multivariate analyses identified miR-146a expression as independent prognostic factor for OS and PFS. Serum miR-146a was significantly reduced in ESCC patients than in healthy controls (P<0.001). Area under the curve ROC value, sensitivity and specificity for this marker were 0.863±0.033, 85.7% and 68.6% in the Discovery Group, and 0.891±0.027, 82.1% and 83.3% in the Validation Group. Conclusions: MicroRNA-146a is significantly reduced in cancerous tissue and serum samples of ESCC patients. It is an ideal biomarker for the prognosis and diagnosis of ESCC. PMID:26794279

  18. Local control of squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue: an experience of different modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kondo, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Dokiya, T.; Inuyama, Y.; Murakami, Y.; Nagai, T.; Asanami, S.; Fukutake, K.

    1986-05-01

    From 1966 through 1983, 163 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the mobile tongue were treated. Fifty-two patients were staged as T1N0, 77 as T2N0, 14 as T2N+, 8 as T3N0, 7 as T3N+, and 5 as T4. The follow-ups were complete. Treatment modalities varied considerably during that period, because of increasing difficulty to use radioactive sources by regulations. All T3N+ and T4 patients died shortly after treatment. Five year absolute survivals for the T1N0, T2N0, T2N+, and T3N0 patients were 87%, 60%, 27% and 63%, respectively. Local recurrence free survivals at 5 years for the T1N0, T2N0, T2N+, and T3N0 patients were 72, 48, 58, and 88%, respectively. Local recurrence free survivals seemed to be better with Ra-226 needling +/- external irradiation (EXT) than other modalities. Because many patients with local recurrence were salvaged, ultimate local-disease-free survivals should also be considered. They were 96 and 70% at 5 years for the T1N0 patients treated with Ra-226 +/- EXT, and with surgery +/- EXT, respectively; the corresponding figures for the T2N0 patients were 83 and 64%. For these reasons, Ra-226 needling may be preferable to other modalities as initial treatment. Although cervical failures did not develop after 2 years of treatment, late local recurrences were rather common, even after 5 years. Long-term follow-up is mandatory for the management of the patients, and analyzing and comparing the results.

  19. Analysis of Fifty Hotspot Mutations of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Never-smokers

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the major risk factor for lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although a small number of lung SCCs occurs in never-smokers. The purpose of this study was to compare 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCCs between never-smokers and smokers. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients newly diagnosed with lung SCC between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2013 in the Seoul National University Hospital. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples were used for analysis of hotspot mutations. Fifty cancer-related genes in never-smokers were compared to those in ever-smokers. Of 379 lung SCC patients, 19 (5.0%) were never-smokers. The median age of these 19 patients was 67 years (interquartile range 57–73 years), and 10 of these patients were women (52.5%). The incidence rates of stage I, II, III, and IV disease in this group were 26.4%, 5.3%, 31.6%, and 36.8%, respectively, and sequencing was performed successfully in 14 cases. In the 26 lung SCC tumor samples (12 from never-smokers and 14 from ever-smokers) sequenced using personal genome machine, the most common mutations were in TP53 (75.0%), RAS (66.7%), and STK11 (33.3%), but mutations were also found in EGFR, KIT, and PTEN. The distribution of hotspot mutations in never-smokers was similar to that in ever-smokers. There was no significant difference in overall survival between the 2 groups. The 50 hotspot mutations of lung SCC in never-smokers were similar to those of ever-smokers. PMID:28145643

  20. Clinical significance in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of pathogenic somatic mitochondrial mutations.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chih-Hsiung; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chen, I-How; Wang, Hung-Ming; Hsieh, Ling-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Somatic mutations affecting the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been frequently observed in human cancers and proposed as important oncological biomarkers. However, the clinical significance of mtDNA mutations in cancer remains unclear. This study was therefore performed to explore the possible clinical use in assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) of pathogenic mtDNA mutations. The entire mitochondrial genome of 300 OSCC with their matched control DNAs was screened by direct sequencing and criteria were set to define a pathogenic somatic mutation. The patients' TP53 R72P genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The relationships between pathogenic somatic mutations, clinicopathogical features, TP53 R72P genotype and clinical prognosis were analyzed. Overall, 645 somatic mtDNA mutations were identified and 91 of these mutations were defined as pathogenic. About one quarter (74/300) of the OSCC tumor samples contained pathogenic mutations. Individuals with the TP53 R allele had a higher frequency of pathogenic somatic mutation than those with the PP genotype. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that TP53 R allele patients with pathogenic somatic mutations demonstrated a significant association with a poorer disease-free survival than other individuals (HR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.57; p = 0.009) and this phenomenon still existed after adjusting for mtDNA haplogroup, tumor stage with treatment regimens, differentiation and age at diagnosis (HR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.40; p = 0.03). Subgroup analyses showed that this phenomenon was limited to patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy after surgery. The results strongly indicated that pathogenic mtDNA mutations are a potential prognostic marker for OSCCs. Furthermore, functional mitochondria may play an active role in cancer development and the patient's response to radiotherapy/chemo-radiotherapy.