Singal, Ashwani K.; Kamath, Patrick S.
Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, initially developed to predict survival following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was subsequently found to be accurate predictor of mortality amongst patents with end-stage liver disease. Since 2002, MELD score using 3 objective variables (serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, and institutional normalized ratio) has been used worldwide for listing and transplanting patients with end-stage liver disease allowing transplanting sicker patients first irrespective of the wait time on the list. MELD score has also been shown to be accurate predictor of survival amongst patients with alcoholic hepatitis, following variceal hemorrhage, infections in cirrhosis, after surgery in patients with cirrhosis including liver resection, trauma, and hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Although, MELD score is closest to the ideal score, there are some limitations including its inaccuracy in predicting survival in 15–20% cases. Over the last decade, many efforts have been made to further improve and refine MELD score. Until, a better score is developed, liver allocation would continue based on the currently used MELD score. PMID:25755471
Clements, Amanda; Greenslade, Lynda
Nurses are seeing more and more patients with liver disease, many of whom are under 65. Most common causes are avoidable and, as liver disease may take up to 30 years to develop, identifying those at risk is key. Patients with liver disease often have a fluctuating course of complications that needs a team approach to care. Improving end-of-life care can also reduce the number of these patients who die in hospital. This article, the first in a two-part series, explores some common complications of liver disease and best practice for nurses treating patients with end-stage liver disease.
Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall
Patients with chronic liver diseases sustain impairment to immune systems, which worsens over time. These defects in their host defense lead to risks of bacterial infections and increased morbidity. Providers should have heightened surveillance for infectious diseases and suspect one with any acute change in status. Patient history may reveal rare infections and allow initiation of early appropriate therapy. There should be a low threshold for obtaining diagnostic cultures and peritoneal fluid samples and discussing possible causes with an infectious diseases consultant or a microbiology laboratory. These maneuvers will maximize therapy in patients at high risk for death due to infectious disease.
Larson, Anne M
Liver disease results in over four million physician visits and over 750,000 hospitalizations per year in the USA. Those with chronic liver disease frequently progress to cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease (ESLD), and death. Patients with ESLD experience numerous complications, including muscle cramps, confusion (hepatic encephalopathy), protein calorie malnutrition, muscle wasting, fluid overload (ascites, edema), bleeding (esophagogastric variceal hemorrhage), infection (spontaneous bacterial peritonitis), fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Despite significant improvements in palliation of these complications, patients still suffer reduced quality of life and must confront the fact that their disease will often inexorably progress to death. Liver transplantation is a valid option in this setting, increasing the duration of survival and palliating many of the symptoms. However, many patients die waiting for an organ or are not candidates for transplantation due to comorbid illness. Others receive a transplant but succumb to complications of the transplant itself. Patients and families must struggle with simultaneously hoping for a cure while facing a life-threatening illness. Ideally, the combination of palliative care with life-sustaining therapy can maximize the patients' quality and quantity of life. If it becomes clear that life-sustaining therapy is no longer an option, these patients are then already in a system to help them with end-of-life care.
Lai, Yan-Hua; Duan, Wei-Dong; Yu, Qiang; Ye, Sheng; Xiao, Nian-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Xin; Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Yang, Zhan-Yu; Dong, Jia-Hong
AIM: To evaluate the outcomes of patients with end-stage biliary disease (ESBD) who underwent liver transplantation, to define the concept of ESBD, the criteria for patient selection and the optimal operation for decision-making. METHODS: Between June 2002 and June 2014, 43 patients with ESBD from two Chinese organ transplantation centres were evaluated for liver transplantation. The causes of liver disease were primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), cholelithiasis (n = 8), congenital biliary atresia (n = 2), graft-related cholangiopathy (n = 18), Caroli’s disease (n = 2), iatrogenic bile duct injury (n = 2), primary sclerosing cholangitis (n = 1), intrahepatic bile duct paucity (n = 1) and Alagille’s syndrome (n = 1). The patients with ESBD were compared with an end-stage liver disease (ESLD) case control group during the same period, and the potential prognostic values of multiple demographic and clinical variables were assessed. The examined variables included recipient age, sex, pre-transplant clinical status, pre-transplant laboratory values, operation condition and postoperative complications, as well as patient and allograft survival rates. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier curves, and the rates were compared using log-rank tests. All variables identified by univariate analysis with P values < 0.100 were subjected to multivariate analysis. A Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to determine the effect of the study variables on outcomes in the study group. RESULTS: Patients in the ESBD group had lower model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)/paediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) scores and a higher frequency of previous abdominal surgery compared to patients in the ESLD group (19.2 ± 6.6 vs 22.0 ± 6.5, P = 0.023 and 1.8 ± 1.3 vs 0.1 ± 0.2, P = 0.000). Moreover, the operation time and the time spent in intensive care were significantly higher in the ESBD group than in the ESLD group (527.4 ± 98.8 vs 443.0 ± 101.0, P = 0
Koutsounas, Ioannis; Kaltsa, Garyfallia; Siakavellas, Spyros I; Bamias, Giorgos
Bacterial translocation (BT) refers to the passage of viable bacteria or bacterial products from the intestinal lumen, through the intestinal epithelium, into the systemic circulation and extraintestinal locations. The three principal mechanisms that are thought to be involved in BT include bacterial overgrowth, disruption of the gut mucosal barrier and an impaired host defence. BT is commonly observed in liver cirrhosis and has been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of the complications of end stage liver disease, including infections as well as hepatic encephalopathy and hepatorenal syndrome. Due to the importance of BT in the natural history of cirrhosis, there is intense interest for the discovery of biomarkers of BT. To date, several such candidates have been proposed, which include bacterial DNA, soluble CD14, lipopolysaccharides endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, calprotectin and procalcitonin. Studies on the association of these markers with BT have demonstrated not only promising data but, oftentimes, contradictory results. As a consequence, currently, there is no optimal marker that may be used in clinical practice as a surrogate for the presence of BT. PMID:26380651
Neto, Joao Seda; Carone, Eduardo; Pugliese, Renata P S; Fonseca, Eduardo A; Porta, Gilda; Miura, Irene; Danesi, Vera B; Guimaraes, Teresa C; Godoy, Andre L; Porta, Adriana; Vincenzi, Rodrigo; Carnevale, Francisco; Kondo, Mario; Chapchap, Paulo
The Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease (PELD) scoring system is a formula developed to provide a continuous numerical assessment of the risk of death in order to allocate livers to children in need of transplantation. The PELD scoring system was introduced in Brazil in July 2006. An important change was made in the system: the final number for listing patients less than 12 years old for transplantation was the calculated PELD score multiplied by 3. The consequences of this allocation policy were analyzed in 2 ways in this research: nationally and in the state of São Paulo (SP State). In the analysis of the national data, a comparison of the pre-PELD era (July 2003 to July 2006) and the post-PELD era (August 2006 to April 2009) showed that the total number of pediatric transplants for children under 12 years of age decreased 7%. Regionally, in SP State, there was a 62% increase in the number of deceased donor liver transplantation procedures for the pediatric population after the introduction of the modified PELD system. There was also a 6.1-fold increase in split liver transplantation as well as a statistically significant decrease in the time on the waiting list (P < 0.001). In conclusion, changing the allocation policy in Brazil in order to benefit pediatric patients on the waiting list had different results according to analyses of national and regional data. A significant increase in deceased donor liver transplantation/split liver transplantation and a shorter time on the waiting list were observed in SP State. The modified PELD scoring system is simple and optimizes the utilization of deceased donor liver grafts in centers performing pediatric transplants. (c) 2010 AASLD
... to the Pediatric End-stage Liver Disease (PELD) scoring system. Again there is a Status 1 category ... urgency categories. The categories were based on a scoring system that in- cluded some laboratory test results ...
Stickel, Felix; Inderbitzin, Daniel; Candinas, Daniel
Patients with end-stage liver disease often reveal significant protein-energy malnutrition, which may deteriorate after listing for transplantation. Since malnutrition affects post-transplant survival, precise assessment must be an integral part of pre- and post-surgical management. While there is wide agreement that aggressive treatment of nutritional deficiencies is required, strong scientific evidence supporting nutritional therapy is sparse. In practice, oral nutritional supplements are preferred over parenteral nutrition, but enteral tube feeding may be necessary to maintain adequate calorie intake. Protein restriction should be avoided and administration of branched-chain amino acids may help yield a sufficient protein supply. Specific problems such as micronutrient deficiency, fluid balance, cholestasis, encephalopathy, and comorbid conditions need attention in order to optimize patient outcome.
Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT. PMID:26605281
Zhang, Qi-Kun; Wang, Meng-Long
Malnutrition is found in almost 100% of patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting transplantation and malnutrition before transplantation leads to higher rates of post-transplant complications and worse graft survival outcomes. Reasons for protein energy malnutrition include several metabolic alterations such as inadequate intake, malabsorption, and overloaded expenditure. And also, stress from surgery, gastrointestinal reperfusion injury, immunosuppressive therapy and corticosteriods use lead to delayed bowl function recovery and disorder of nutrients absorption. In the pretransplant phase, nutritional goals include optimization of nutritional status and treatment of nutrition-related symptoms induced by hepatic decompensation. During the acute post-transplant phase, adequate nutrition is required to help support metabolic demands, replenish lost stores, prevent infection, arrive at a new immunologic balance, and promote overall recovery. In a word, it is extremely important to identify and correct nutritional deficiencies in this population and provide an adequate nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation (LT). This study review focuses on prevalence, nutrition support, evaluation, and management of perioperative nutrition disorder in patients with ESLD undergoing LT.
... the liver loses most or all of its function — liver failure. In addition, people with cirrhosis may develop: Bleeding of the digestive (gastrointestinal) tract due to enlarged veins in the tube that connects the throat and stomach (esophagus), a condition known as esophageal varices Brain and ...
O'Leary, Jacqueline G; Davis, Gary L
Hyponatremia is associated with increased mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease and a greater risk of perioperative mortality with liver transplantation. We performed a retrospective review of our experience with conivaptan as a means of acutely increasing serum sodium in end-stage liver disease patients. The primary group consisted of 15 patients with end-stage liver disease who remained hyponatremic despite discontinuation of diuretics and a 1-L fluid restriction. Twenty milligrams of conivaptan was intravenously administered over 30 minutes, and this was followed by an infusion of 20 mg over 24 hours for 1 to 4 days. A second group of 9 hyponatremic end-stage liver disease patients was treated with 1-L fluid restriction and conivaptan while remaining on diuretics. In the group without diuretics, the mean serum sodium was 124 mmol/L 1 day before and on the day of conivaptan initiation, but the serum sodium rose to a mean of 127.7 mmol/L by day 1 and further increased to 128.6 mmol/L by the second day of the infusion. Despite the continuation of diuretics, the second group of 9 patients also had an increase in serum sodium from the day of conivaptan initiation (125.7 mmol/L) to 2 days after the treatment (130.6 mmol/L). Eleven patients underwent successful liver transplantation, 2 remained on the list for transplantation, and 11 were not candidates for transplantation and either died (7) or were discharged home and lost to follow-up (4). In conclusion, a short course of conivaptan increases serum sodium in patients with end-stage liver disease and may reduce the risk of proceeding to liver transplantation. Further study in a prospective clinical trial is needed to confirm safety and efficacy.
Dyson, Jessica K; Anstee, Quentin M; McPherson, Stuart
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the commonest cause of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs) in the UK with approximately a third of the population being affected. The exact prevalence is not known, but population studies from the USA and China using magnetic resonance spectroscopy estimate that approximately 30% of the general population have steatosis. It is a spectrum of disease ranging from simple steatosis, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), through to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The majority have simple steatosis, but approximately 10–30% develop NASH and the development of NASH cirrhosis is associated with a poor long-term prognosis. Patients with NASH have increased liver-related and cardiovascular mortality. Many patients with NAFLD remain undiagnosed, and recognising those at risk is the first step. Clinicians overly rely on abnormal liver enzymes to identify patients with NAFLD, so patients with significant liver disease can be overlooked, potentially missing opportunities for intervention. Although liver biopsy is the gold standard method for diagnosing and staging NAFLD, the majority of patients can be effectively diagnosed non-invasively with tests that are routinely available in the clinic today. This review discusses a pragmatic approach to diagnosis and staging of NAFLD so that patients at the highest risk of liver-related complications can be identified. PMID:25018867
... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...
Remenieras, Jean-Pierre; Dejobert, Maelle; Bastard, Cécile; Miette, Véronique; Perarnau, Jean-Marc; Patat, Frédéric
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of fat within the Liver. The main objective of this work is (1) to evaluate the feasibility of measuring in vivo in the liver the shear wave phase velocity dispersion cs(ω) between 20 Hz and 90 Hz using vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE); (2) to estimate through the rheological Kelvin-Voigt model the shear elastic μ and shear viscosity η modulus; (3) to correlate the evolution of these viscoelastic parameters on two patients at Tours Hospital with the hepatic fat percentage measured with T1-weighted gradient-echo in-and out-phase MRI sequence. For the first volunteer who has 2% of fat in the liver, we obtained μ = 1233 ± 133 Pa and η = 0.5 ± 0.4 Pa.s. For the patient with 22% of fat, we measure μ = 964 ± 91 Pa and η = 1.77 ± 0.3 Pa.s. In conclusion, this novel method showed to be sensitive in characterizing the visco-elastic properties of fatty liver.
Moreno-Gonzalez, E; Meneu-Diaz, J C; Garcia, I; Perez Cerdá, F; Abradelo, M; Jimenez, C; Loinaz, C; Gomez, R; Gimeno, A; Moreno, A
Combined liver-kidney transplantation is safe (low morbidity and acceptable mortality) and effective in patients with end-stage liver disease. Although refinements in surgical technique have resulted in better patient and allograft outcomes, the negative impact of renal insufficiency on survival in patients undergoing liver transplantation has been widely reported, although some aspects are controversial. Analysis of the clinical characteristics and outcome in the management of patients undergoing combined liver-kidney transplantation. The end points were operative mortality, morbidity, and long-term survival. University Hospital 12 de Octubre. Between May 1986 and December 2001, 820 liver transplantations were performed. There were 16 cases (1.96%) of combined liver-kidney transplantations, which represent the sample of this study. Mean +/- SD follow-up of 42.2 +/- 29 months: 6 patients died (37.5% mortality rate). There were 4 (25%) hospital deaths within 6 months following surgery and 2 after 6 months (4 sepsis, 1 refractory heart failure, and 1 recurrent hepatitis C virus disease). Univariate analysis related to mortality included age, sex, etiology, preoperative creatinine level, United Network for Organ Sharing status, Child-Pugh score, type of hepatectomy (piggyback), intraoperative blood product administration, and the presence of postoperative complications. The only 2 significant factors were the presence of postoperative complications (P = .01) and the United Network for Organ Sharing status (P = .02). Crude survival rate was 62.5%. Actuarial survival rates were 80%, 71%, and 60% at 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. Because end-stage renal disease is not a formal contraindication for liver transplantation, a combined liver-kidney transplantation for adults with end-stage renal disease can be done safely and effectively.
Peetz, Allan; Salim, Ali; Askari, Reza; De Moya, Marc A; Olufajo, Olubode A; Simon, Tracey G; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B
The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is predictive of trauma outcomes. To determine whether a decrease in MELD score is associated with improved mortality in critically ill trauma patients. We performed a retrospective registry study of critically ill trauma patients 18 years or older with chronic liver disease treated between August 3, 1998, and January 5, 2012, at 2 level I trauma centers in Boston, Massachusetts. The consecutive sample included 525 patients (male, 373 [71.0%]; white, 399 [76.0%]; mean [SD] age, 55.0 [12.4] years). Change in MELD score from intensive care unit (ICU) admission to 48 to 72 hours later. Thirty-day all-cause mortality. The mean (SD) MELD score at ICU admission was 19.3 (9.7). The 30-day mortality was 21.9%. The odds of 30-day mortality with a change in MELD score of less than -2, -2 to -1, +1 to +4, and greater than +4 were 0.23 (95% CI, 0.10-0.51), 0.30 (95% CI, 0.10-0.85), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.27-1.20), and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.58-2.96), respectively, relative to a change in MELD score of 0 and adjusted for age, sex, race, Charlson/Deyo Index, sepsis, number of acute organ failures, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision-based injury severity score, and ICU admission MELD score. A decrease in MELD score within 72 hours of ICU admission is associated with improved mortality.
Kaltenborn, Alexander; Salinas, Ricardo; Jäger, Mark D; Lehner, Frank; Sakirow, Larissa; Klempnauer, Jürgen; Schrem, Harald
BACKGROUND The model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is currently used for donor liver allocation in many regions. The objective of this retrospective study was to assess the MELD score and its diverse variants as prognostic models for mortality after liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS An analysis of 454 consecutive adult liver transplants since the introduction of MELD-based donor liver allocation was conducted. Eight different MELD score variants were investigated. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, and overall model correctness of the investigated scores as a predictive model. The Brier score was used for the prediction of model accuracy and calculated as described before. Study endpoints were 90-day mortality and long-term patient mortality. RESULTS A 90-day mortality of 15.4% (n=69) and long-term mortality of 25% (n=112) were observed. All investigated models fail to reach relevant areas under the ROC curve greater than 0.700 for the prediction of mortality after liver transplantation. All calculated Brier scores were greater than 0.25, indicating a significant lack of model discrimination and calibration of the investigated scores. CONCLUSIONS A prognostic model for the prediction of outcome after transplantation still needs to be identified and should allow weighing urgency against utility in liver transplantation.
Lee, C.K.; Bloomfield, C.D.; Levitt, S.H.
Curative treatment for Hodgkin's disease for patients who are pathology-staged IIIA, spleen-positive, consisted of total nodal irradiation (TNI) alone at the University of Minnesota Hospitals prior to 1975. This approach has been modified since 1975 to give low-dose irradiation to the liver in addition to TNI because of the high recurrence rate with TNI alone. Recurrence-free survival improved significantly when the liver was irradiated as compared to results with TNI alone (78% vs. 41% at 5 years, p . 0.004). The 5-year, overall survival was not significantly different in the two groups (90% vs. 80% at 5 years, p . 0.373). Various prognostic factors were examined. Patients who received liver treatment had statistically significant improvement in recurrence-free survival as compared to patients who did not receive liver treatment in the following categories: anatomic substage IIIA1, histologic classification of nodular sclerosis, male gender, age less than 40, number of primary sites, and extent of splenic disease. However, these factors failed to show clinical significance as prognostic factors. We conclude that TNI with low-dose liver irradiation should be used as the primary modality of treatment of Hodgkin's disease, pathology-staged IIIA patients. We conclude that chemotherapy should be reserved for recurrences in view of the excellent current results and the lesser risk from treatment, especially the risk of carcinogenesis.
Mueller, Sebastian; Englert, Stefan; Seitz, Helmut K; Badea, Radu I; Erhardt, Andreas; Bozaari, Bita; Beaugrand, Michel; Lupșor-Platon, Monica
It is well known that inflammation increases liver stiffness (LS) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) independent of fibrosis stage, but no inflammation-adapted cut-off values have been settled so far. An early identification of rapid fibrosers, however, is essential to decide whom to treat first with the novel but expensive antiviral drugs. Liver stiffness, biopsy-proven fibrosis stages F0-F4 (METAVIR or Kleiner score) and routine laboratory parameters were studied in 2068 patients with HCV (n = 1391) and ALD (n = 677). Among the routine parameters for liver damage, AST correlated best with LS (HCV: r = 0.54, P < 0.0001 and ALD: r = 0.34, P < 0.0001). In the absence of elevated transaminases, cut-off values were almost identical between HCV and ALD for F1-2, F3 and F4 (HCV: 5.1, 9.0 and 11.9 kPa vs ALD: 4.9, 8.1 and 10.5 kPa). These cut-off values increased exponentially as a function of median AST level. The impact of AST on LS was higher in lobular-pronounced ALD as compared to portal tract-localized HCV. Most notably, Cohen's weighted Kappa displayed an improved agreement of the novel AST-dependent cut-off values with histological fibrosis stage both for HCV (0.68 vs 0.65) and ALD (0.80 vs 0.76). The novel AST-adapted cut-off values improve non-invasive fibrosis staging in HCV and ALD and may be also applied to other liver diseases. Especially in HCV, they could help to decide whom to treat first with the novel but expensive antiviral drugs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Leidner, Andrew J; Chesson, Harrell W; Xu, Fujie; Ward, John W; Spradling, Philip R; Holmberg, Scott D
New treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be highly effective but are associated with substantial costs that may compel clinicians and patients to consider delaying treatment. This study investigated the cost-effectiveness of these treatments with a focus on patients in early stages of liver disease. We developed a state-transition (or Markov) model to calculate costs incurred and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained following HCV treatment, and we computed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per QALY gained, in 2012 US dollars) for treatment at different stages of liver disease versus delaying treatment until the subsequent liver disease stage. Our analysis did not include the potential treatment benefits associated with reduced non-liver-related mortality or preventing HCV transmission. All parameter values, particularly treatment cost, were varied in sensitivity analyses. The base case scenario represented a 55-year-old patient with genotype 1 HCV infection with a treatment cost of $100,000 and treatment effectiveness of 90%. In this scenario, for a 55-year-old patient with moderate liver fibrosis (Metavir stage F2), the cost-effectiveness of immediately initiating treatment at F2 (versus delaying treatment until F3) was $37,300/QALY. For patients immediately treated at F0 (versus delaying treatment until F1), the threshold of treatment costs that yielded $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY cost-effectiveness ratios were $22,200 and $42,400, respectively. Immediate treatment of HCV-infected patients with moderate and advanced fibrosis appears to be cost-effective, and immediate treatment of patients with minimal or no fibrosis can be cost-effective as well, particularly when lower treatment costs are assumed. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Dhingra, Sadhna; Ward, Stephen C; Thung, Swan N
Liver biopsy evaluation plays a critical role in management of patients with viral hepatitis C. In patients with acute viral hepatitis, a liver biopsy, though uncommonly performed, helps to rule out other non-viral causes of deranged liver function. In chronic viral hepatitis C, it is considered the gold standard in assessment of the degree of necroinflammation and the stage of fibrosis, to help guide treatment and determine prognosis. It also helps rule out any concomitant diseases such as steatohepatitis, hemochromatosis or others. In patients with chronic progressive liver disease with cirrhosis and dominant nodules, a targeted liver biopsy is helpful in differentiating a regenerative nodule from dysplastic nodule or hepatocellular carcinoma. In the setting of transplantation, the liver biopsy helps distinguish recurrent hepatitis C from acute rejection and also is invaluable in the diagnosis of fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis, a rare variant of recurrent hepatitis C. This comprehensive review discusses the entire spectrum of pathologic findings in the course of hepatitis C infection. PMID:26819505
Kim, Sun Moon; George, Bennet; Alcivar-Franco, Diego; Campbell, Charles L; Charnigo, Richard; Delisle, Brian; Hundley, Jonathan; Darrat, Yousef; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Samy-Claude; Bailey, Alison L
To determine the prevalence of QT prolongation in a large series of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients and its association to clinical variables and mortality. The QT interval was measured and corrected for heart rate for each patient, with a prolonged QT cutoff defined as QT > 450 ms for males and QT > 470 ms for females. Multiple clinical variables were evaluated including sex, age, serum sodium, international normalized ratio, creatinine, total bilirubin, beta-blocker use, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na, and etiology of liver disease. Among 406 ESLD patients analyzed, 207 (51.0%) had QT prolongation. The only clinical variable associated with QT prolongation was male gender (OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 2.01-4.60, P < 0.001). During the study period, 187 patients (46.1%) died. QT prolongation was a significant independent predictor of mortality (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.03-2.77, P = 0.039). In addition, mortality was also associated with viral etiology of ESLD, elevated MELD score and its components (P < 0.05 for all). No significant reversibility in the QT interval was seen after liver transplantation. QT prolongation was commonly encountered in an ESLD population, especially in males, and served as a strong independent marker for increased mortality in ESLD patients.
Kim, Sun Moon; George, Bennet; Alcivar-Franco, Diego; Campbell, Charles L; Charnigo, Richard; Delisle, Brian; Hundley, Jonathan; Darrat, Yousef; Morales, Gustavo; Elayi, Samy-Claude; Bailey, Alison L
AIM To determine the prevalence of QT prolongation in a large series of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients and its association to clinical variables and mortality. METHODS The QT interval was measured and corrected for heart rate for each patient, with a prolonged QT cutoff defined as QT > 450 ms for males and QT > 470 ms for females. Multiple clinical variables were evaluated including sex, age, serum sodium, international normalized ratio, creatinine, total bilirubin, beta-blocker use, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD), MELD-Na, and etiology of liver disease. RESULTS Among 406 ESLD patients analyzed, 207 (51.0%) had QT prolongation. The only clinical variable associated with QT prolongation was male gender (OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 2.01-4.60, P < 0.001). During the study period, 187 patients (46.1%) died. QT prolongation was a significant independent predictor of mortality (OR = 1.69, 95%CI: 1.03-2.77, P = 0.039). In addition, mortality was also associated with viral etiology of ESLD, elevated MELD score and its components (P < 0.05 for all). No significant reversibility in the QT interval was seen after liver transplantation. CONCLUSION QT prolongation was commonly encountered in an ESLD population, especially in males, and served as a strong independent marker for increased mortality in ESLD patients. PMID:28515853
Pizanias, Michail; Yip, Vincent; Prassas, Evangellos; Prachalias, Andreas; Quaglia, Alberto; Peddu, Praveen; Heaton, Nigel; Srinivasan, Parthi
The incidence of complications after liver resection is closely related to functional future liver remnant (FLR). The standard approach to augment FLR is surgical or radiological occlusion of the artery or portal vein on the tumor side. Associated liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALLPS) has been introduced as an alternative method to augment FLR. It offers rapid and effective hypertrophy for resecting liver metastases. However, data regarding its application in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a background of chronic liver disease are limited. Here we describe the use of ALPPS procedure to manage a large solitary HCC with a background of chronic liver disease. The rising incidence of HCC has increased the number of surgical resections in patients with advanced stage liver disease not considered for liver transplantation. We reviewed reported experience of ALPPS in established chronic liver disease and current therapeutic modalities for HCC on a background of chronic liver disease in patients with potential liver insufficiency where tumor burden is beyond liver transplant criteria. PMID:27212995
DI Bona, D; Montalto, G; Clemenza, L; Bascone, F; Accardo, P; Bellavia, D; CraxÌ, A; Brai, M
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) is an integral membrane protein of many haematopoietic cells and plays an important role in the clearance of complement-associated immune complexes, favouring their transport to liver and spleen macrophages. A small amount of soluble CR1 (sCR1) is also found in plasma and might originate directly from release of leucocytes and other circulating cells. In previous studies, an increase in serum sCR1 level has been observed in liver cirrhosis and end-stage renal failure. High levels have also been found in patients with some haematologic malignancies. sCR1 serum levels were measured using a specific double sandwich ELISA assay. The present study demonstrates the correlation between mean serum sCR1 concentrations and disease severity in patients with chronic liver disease. In patients with liver cirrhosis, grouped according to the Child–Pugh classification, sCR1 rose as liver function decreased. The presence of neoplastic growth in the liver apparently does not play a role in the increase of sCR1. Serum sCR1 was not elevated in other solid malignancies. Since sCR1 accumulates in liver diseases, evaluation of its serum levels could be useful as a liver function test. PMID:9764610
Di Bona, D; Montalto, G; Clemenza, L; Bascone, F; Accardo, P; Bellavia, D; Craxì, A; Brai, M
Complement receptor type 1 (CR1) is an integral membrane protein of many haematopoietic cells and plays an important role in the clearance of complement-associated immune complexes, favouring their transport to liver and spleen macrophages. A small amount of soluble CR1 (sCR1) is also found in plasma and might originate directly from release of leucocytes and other circulating cells. In previous studies, an increase in serum sCR1 level has been observed in liver cirrhosis and end-stage renal failure. High levels have also been found in patients with some haematologic malignancies. sCR1 serum levels were measured using a specific double sandwich ELISA assay. The present study demonstrates the correlation between mean serum sCR1 concentrations and disease severity in patients with chronic liver disease. In patients with liver cirrhosis, grouped according to the Child-Pugh classification, sCR1 rose as liver function decreased. The presence of neoplastic growth in the liver apparently does not play a role in the increase of sCR1. Serum sCR1 was not elevated in other solid malignancies. Since sCR1 accumulates in liver diseases, evaluation of its serum levels could be useful as a liver function test.
Macken, Lucia; Joshi, Deepak; Messenger, Jenny; Austin, Mark; Tibble, Jeremy; Mason, Louise; Verma, Sumita
Ascites, the commonest complication of cirrhosis, leads to frequent hospitalisations. Refractory ascites confers a median survival of 6 months without liver transplantation. In many, the management remains palliative (large-volume paracentesis). Despite calls for improvement, palliative and end-of-life care is not yet integrated into end-stage liver disease. Long-term abdominal drains are a palliative strategy in malignant ascites, but not end-stage liver disease. A retrospective, single centre, case series review was performed of patients undergoing long-term abdominal drain placement for refractory ascites secondary to end-stage liver disease at a large teaching hospital between August 2011 and March 2013. Case management: Patients with end-stage liver disease and refractory ascites, where liver transplantation was not an option, were considered for long-term abdominal drains. Seven patients underwent successful long-term abdominal drain insertion after multi-professional assessment. Case outcome: Following long-term abdominal drain insertion, mean hospital attendances reduced to 1 (0-4) from 9 (4-21), with none for ascites management. Median survival after long-term abdominal drain insertion was 29 days (8-219). The complication rate was low and none life threatening. Palliative and end-of-life care needs in end-stage liver disease remain under-addressed. Our data suggest that long-term abdominal drains may be a safe and effective palliative intervention in end-stage liver disease. Prospective randomised controlled trials comparing large-volume paracentesis versus long-term abdominal drains in refractory ascites secondary to end-stage liver disease are warranted.
Klose, Johannes; Klose, Michelle A; Metz, Courtney; Lehner, Frank; Manns, Michael P; Klempnauer, Juergen; Hoppe, Nils; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander
Survival after liver transplantation (LTX) has decreased in Germany since the implementation of Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based liver allocation. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is known for its otherwise excellent outcome after LTX. The influence of MELD-based liver allocation and subsequent allocation policy alterations on the outcome of LTX for PSC is analyzed. This is a retrospective observational study including 126 consecutive patients treated with LTX for PSC between January 1, 1999 and August 31, 2012. The PSC cohort was further compared to all other indications for LTX in the study period (n=1420) with a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (SD 3.2). Multivariate risk-adjusted analyses were performed. Alterations of allocation policy have been taken into account systematically. Transplant recipients suffering from PSC are significantly younger (p<0.001), can be discharged earlier (p=0.018), and have lower 3-month mortality than patients with other indications (p=0.044). The observed time on the waiting list is significantly longer for patients with PSC (p<0.001), and there is a trend toward lower match MELD points in the PSC cohort (p=0.052). No improvement in means of short-term mortality could be shown in relation to alterations of allocation policy within the MELD era (p=0.375). Survival rates of the pre-MELD era did not differ significantly from those of the MELD era (p=0.097) in multivariate risk-adjusted analysis. Patients in the MELD era suffered pre-transplant significantly more frequently from dominant bile duct stenosis (p=0.071, p=0.059, p=0.048, respectively; chi2). Progress is stagnating in LTX for PSC. Current liver allocation for PSC patients should be reconsidered.
Vennarecci, Giovanni; Miglioresi, Lucia; Guglielmo, Nicola; Pelle, Fabio; Santoro, Roberto; Andreuccetti, Jacopo; Ceribelli, Cecilia; Stella, Pietro; Angelo, Corrado; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria
We report the first case of a liver transplant in a patient with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and associated hepatitis B virus-hepatitis D virus cirrhosis and its inherent technical issues. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita is an autoimmune multisystem disorder involving skin and mucosa characterized by the appearing of blisters and erosions. The more severe forms may result in nutritional compromise, anemia, osteopenia, dilated cardiomyopathy, laryngeal mucosal involvement, esophageal strictures, bladder, and kidney involvement requiring surgical intervention. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita has become recognized as a multisystem disorder that poses several surgical challenges. This case shows that liver transplant is a feasible procedure in patients affected by epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Patients with epidermolysis bullosa acquisita require a particular pretransplant assessment and a dedicated intra- and postoperative management of every invasive procedure that can traumatize the skin and mucosal epithelium to achieve an uneventful liver transplant. Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita does not represent a contraindication to liver transplant, and immunosuppression after transplant may favor a good systemic control of this immunologic disorder.
Boonchaya-anant, Patchaya; Hardy, Elvin; Borg, Brian B; Burshell, Alan L
Several studies have shown that patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) have lower bone mineral density (BMD) and a higher prevalence of osteoporosis compared to an age-matched population. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are typically associated with increased BMD. We hypothesized that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and underlying insulin resistance may have higher BMD than patients with cirrhosis from other causes. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with ESLD who underwent liver transplant evaluation at Ochsner Clinic Foundation and had a BMD study as part of initial work up and compared BMD values of patients diagnosed with NASH to patients with cirrhosis due to other causes. Patients were categorized into 3 groups based on the etiology of their liver disease as NASH, alcoholic cirrhosis, or viral hepatitis C or B (HCV/HBV). A total of 63 patients met the study inclusion criteria, including 15 with NASH, 17 with alcoholic cirrhosis, and 31 with HCV/HBV. The overall prevalence rates of osteopenia and osteoporosis were 44% and 12%, respectively. BMD values were higher in the NASH group than the HCV/HBV group at lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck (P = .01, .03, and .02, respectively). There were no statistical differences in BMD values between NASH and alcoholic cirrhosis groups at any site. We found a high prevalence of low BMD among patients with ESLD awaiting liver transplantation. NASH patients had higher BMDs than HCV/HBV patients. The effects of NASH and insulin resistance on bone are complex and should be examined further.
Owjimehr, Mehri; Danyali, Habibollah; Helfroush, Mohammad Sadegh; Shakibafard, Alireza
Fatty liver disease is progressive and may not cause any symptoms at early stages. This disease is potentially fatal and can cause liver cancer in severe stages. Therefore, diagnosing and staging fatty liver disease in early stages is necessary. In this paper, a novel method is presented to classify normal and fatty liver, as well as discriminate three stages of fatty liver in ultrasound images. This study is performed with 129 subjects including 28 normal, 47 steatosis, 42 fibrosis, and 12 cirrhosis images. The proposed approach uses back-scan conversion of ultrasound sector images and is based on a hierarchical classification. The proposed algorithm is performed in two parts. The first part selects the optimum regions of interest from the focal zone of the back-scan-converted ultrasound images. In the second part, discrimination between normal and fatty liver is performed and then steatosis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis are classified in a hierarchical basis. The wavelet packet transform and gray-level co-occurrence matrix are used to obtain a number of statistical features. A support vector machine classifier is used to discriminate between normal and fatty liver, and stage fatty cases. The results of the proposed scheme clearly illustrate the efficiency of this system with overall accuracy of 94.91% and also specificity of more than 90%.
Haafiz, Allah B
Due to parallel advances in surgical and acute care disciplines, liver transplantation (LT) has revolutionized the outlook for children with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Contrary to advances in technical aspects of LT and the peri-operative care, pre-transplant management of ESLD remains quite a formidable challenge. Areas covered: This review provides mechanisms based management strategies to address common complications of ESLD including malnutrition, amended metabolic pathways, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and development of ascites. Clinically relevant discussion of each paradigm is followed by an account of high impact therapeutic interventions which can be used as guides for formulating management plans. A tabulated summary of the suggested interventions is also provided. Indeed, execution of a dynamic plan tailored to the evolution of pathophysiologic derangements can further enhance outcomes of pediatric LT. Expert commentary: LT has evolved as a dependable therapeutic option for a variety of fatal pediatric liver diseases. However, relative organ shortage remains a formidable challenge. Similarly, consumer expectations continue to grow for sustained improvement of graft and patient survival after LT. In this environment, the level of sophistication applied to the management ESLD before LT stands out as a major opportunity with lasting impact on the future of pediatric LT.
Tian, Lipeng; Deshmukh, Abhijeet; Prasad, Neha; Jang, Yoon-Young
Alcohol consumption has long been a global problem affecting human health, and has been found to influence both fetal and adult liver functions. However, how alcohol affects human liver development and liver progenitor cells remains largely unknown. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as a model to examine the effects of alcohol, on multi-stage hepatic cells including hepatic progenitors, early and mature hepatocyte-like cells derived from human iPSCs. While alcohol has little effect on endoderm development from iPSCs, it reduces formation of hepatic progenitor cells during early hepatic specification. The proliferative activities of early and mature hepatocyte-like cells are significantly decreased after alcohol exposure. Importantly, at a mature stage of hepatocyte-like cells, alcohol treatment increases two liver progenitor subsets, causes oxidative mitochondrial injury and results in liver disease phenotypes (i.e., steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma associated markers) in a dose dependent manner. Some of the phenotypes were significantly improved by antioxidant treatment. This report suggests that fetal alcohol exposure may impair generation of hepatic progenitors at early stage of hepatic specification and decrease proliferation of fetal hepatocytes; meanwhile alcohol injury in post-natal or mature stage human liver may contribute to disease phenotypes. This human iPSC model of alcohol-induced liver injury can be highly valuable for investigating alcoholic injury in the fetus as well as understanding the pathogenesis and ultimately developing effective treatment for alcoholic liver disease in adults. PMID:27570479
Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram
Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT.
Dulai, Parambir S; Singh, Siddharth; Patel, Janki; Soni, Meera; Prokop, Larry J; Younossi, Zobair; Sebastiani, Giada; Ekstedt, Mattias; Hagstrom, Hannes; Nasr, Patrik; Stal, Per; Wong, Vincent Wai-Sun; Kechagias, Stergios; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Loomba, Rohit
Liver fibrosis is the most important predictor of mortality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Quantitative risk of mortality by fibrosis stage has not been systematically evaluated. We aimed to quantify the fibrosis stage-specific risk of all-cause and liver-related mortality in NAFLD. Through a systematic review and meta-analysis, we identified five adult NAFLD cohort studies reporting fibrosis stage-specific mortality (0-4). Using fibrosis stage 0 as a reference population, fibrosis stage-specific mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause and liver-related mortality were estimated. The study is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Included were 1,495 NAFLD patients with 17,452 patient years of follow-up. Compared to NAFLD patients with no fibrosis (stage 0), NAFLD patients with fibrosis were at an increased risk for all-cause mortality, and this risk increased with increases in the stage of fibrosis: stage 1, MRR = 1.58 (95% CI 1.19-2.11); stage 2, MRR = 2.52 (95% CI 1.85-3.42); stage 3, MRR = 3.48 (95% CI 2.51-4.83); and stage 4, MRR = 6.40 (95% CI 4.11-9.95). The results were more pronounced as the risk of liver-related mortality increased exponentially with each increase in the stage of fibrosis: stage 1, MRR = 1.41 (95% CI 0.17-11.95); stage 2, MRR = 9.57 (95% CI 1.67-54.93); stage 3, MRR = 16.69 (95% CI 2.92-95.36); and stage 4, MRR = 42.30 (95% CI 3.51-510.34). Limitations of the study include an inability to adjust for comorbid conditions or demographics known to impact fibrosis progression in NAFLD and the inclusion of patients with simple steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without fibrosis in the reference comparison group. The risk of liver-related mortality increases exponentially with increase in fibrosis stage; these data have important implications in assessing the utility of each stage and benefits of regression of fibrosis
Tinti, F; Lai, S; Umbro, I; Mordenti, M; Barile, M; Ginanni Corradini, S; Rossi, M; Poli, L; Nofroni, I; Berloco, P B; Mitterhofer, A P
Assessment of renal function in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) awaiting liver transplantation (OLT) is critical. Various conditions may cause renal damage in ESLD. Renal and liver functions are intertwined due to splanchnic hemodynamic relationships; renal failure rarely occurs in patients without advanced decompensated cirrhosis. The recent literature suggests that evaluation of renal function should include an assessment of liver function. The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patient among ESLD candidates for OLT over 1 year. We also correlated renal and hepatic functions. Fifty-two cirrhotic patients Model for End-Stage Liver Disease [MELD] > 10) were enrolled in the study. All patients were evaluated at baseline and every 4 months (T1-T4) thereafter for 1 year. The GFR was calculated by creatinine clearance, and estimated by Cockroft and Gault, Modified Diet Renal Disease (MDRD) 4 and 6 variable and Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulae. Hepatic functions were evaluated by MELD score, albumin, bilirubin, and International Normalized Ratio (INR). We observed not statistically significant increase mean value of MELD score, bilirubin, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and a reduced serum sodium. There were no significant differences among various methods to evaluate GFR at each time over 1 year. We did not observe any association between renal and hepatic function, except at T4 for MELD and GFR estimated with MDRD 4 (P = .009) and 6 (P = .008) parameters or CKD-EPI (P = .036), and MELD and sodium (P = .001). Our results showed that evaluation of renal function in cirrhosis should include an evaluation of hepatic function. In our case, MDRD and CKD-EPI seemed to be the more accurate formulae to evaluate renal function in relation to hepatic function. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sundaram, V; Kaung, A; Rajaram, A; Lu, S C; Tran, T T; Nissen, N N; Klein, A S; Jalan, R; Charlton, M R; Jeon, C Y
Infection is the most common cause of mortality in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). The impact of obesity on infection risk in ESLD is not established. To characterise the impact of obesity on infection risk in ESLD. We evaluated the association between infection and obesity in patients with ESLD. Patients grouped as non-obese, obesity class I-II and obesity class III were studied using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Validated diagnostic code based algorithms were utilised to determine weight category and infections, including bacteraemia, skin/soft tissue infection, urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia/respiratory infection, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Risk factors for infection and mortality were assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Of 115 465 patients identified, 100 957 (87.5%) were non-obese and 14 508 (12.5%) were obese, with 9489 (8.2%) as obesity class I-II and 5019 (4.3%) as obesity class III. 37 117 patients (32.1%) had an infection diagnosis. Infection was most prevalent among obesity class III (44.0%), followed by obesity class I-II (38.9%) and then non-obese (31.9%). In multivariable modelling, class III obesity (OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.32-1.51; P < 0.001), and class I-II obesity (OR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.15; P = 0.026) were associated with infection. Compared to non-obese patients, obese individuals had greater prevalence of bacteraemia, UTI, and skin/soft tissue infection as compared to non-obese patients. Obesity is newly identified to be independently associated with infection in end-stage liver disease. The distribution of infection sites varies based on weight category. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lee, Wei-Chen; Lee, Ching-Song; Wang, Yu-Chao; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wu, Tsung-Han; Lee, Chen-Fang; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Ling; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Chan, Kun-Ming
Abstract Acute flare up of hepatitis B in noncirrhotic liver with rapid liver function deterioration is a critical condition. This flare up of hepatitis B may be subsided under medical treatments, otherwise urgent liver transplantation is needed. However, the necessity of urgent liver transplantation is hard to decide. In this institute, the indications of urgent liver transplantation for acute flare up of hepatitis B in noncirrhotic liver were settled according to the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores: once upon MELD scores ≥35 (criterion 1) or MELD score < 35 at beginning and increased in the subsequent 1 to 2 weeks (criterion 2). This study was to examine whether MELD score criteria for liver transplantation were valid in such an urgent condition. Eighty-three patients having acute flare up of hepatitis B virus with total bilirubin ≥17.5 mg/dL were included in this study. Among 83 patients, 20 patients met criterion 1. Five patients were transplanted and 15 patients died of liver failure with a median survival of 17 days. Fifty-one patients met criterion 2. Nineteen were transplanted, 30 patients died of liver failure with a median survival of 23.5 days, and 2 patients recovered from this critical condition. The other 12 patients did not meet criteria 1 and 2, and urgent liver transplantation was spared although 5 patients needed liver transplantation in subsequent 2 to 3 months. Therefore, the sensitivity of MELD score criteria for urgent liver transplantation was 100% and specificity was 85.7%. In conclusion, determination of urgent liver transplantation for hepatitis B with acute liver failure is crucial. MELD score criteria are valid to make a decision of urgent liver transplantation for hepatitis B patients with acute flare up and liver failure. PMID:27258492
Bruden, Dana J T; McMahon, Brian J; Townshend-Bulson, Lisa; Gounder, Prabhu; Gove, Jim; Plotnik, Julia; Homan, Chriss; Hewitt, Annette; Barbour, Youssef; Spradling, Philip R; Simons, Brenna C; McArdle, Susan; Bruce, Michael
Long-term prospective studies of the outcomes associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are rare and critical for assessing the potential impact of HCV treatment. Using liver biopsy as a starting point, we analyzed the development of end-stage liver disease (ESLD), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death (LRD) according to fibrosis stage among a cohort of American Indian/Alaska Native persons in Alaska. Persons were classified as having no/mild (Ishak = 0,1), moderate (Ishak = 2), or severe (Ishak = 3,4) fibrosis or cirrhosis (Ishak = 5,6). We examined time until development of ESLD, HCC, and LRD and report survival probabilities at 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. Of 407 persons, 39% (n = 150) had no/mild fibrosis, 32% (n = 131) had moderate fibrosis, 22% (n = 88) had severe fibrosis, and 9% (n = 38) had cirrhosis. The average time of follow-up was 7.3 years. Within 5 years of biopsy, 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-6.8) of persons with no/mild fibrosis developed ESLD compared with 7.9% (95% CI, 4.0-15.2), 16.4% (95% CI, 9.6-27.2), and 49.0% (95% CI, 33.0-67.7) with moderate, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively (P < 0.01). The 5-year outcome of HCC was 1.0% (95% CI, 0.1-7.0), 1.0% (95% CI, 0.1-6.6), 1.1% (95% CI, 0.2-7.7), and 13.4% (95% CI, 4.4-36.7) among persons with no/mild fibrosis, moderate fibrosis, severe fibrosis, and cirrhosis, respectively (P < 0.01). Five years after biopsy, 0.0% (95% CI, 0.0-14.8) of persons with no/mild fibrosis had suffered an LRD compared with 1.0% (95% CI, 0.2-7.5) of persons with moderate fibrosis, 4.7% (95% CI, 1.5-14.1) with severe fibrosis, and 16.3% (95% CI, 7.0-35.1) with cirrhosis (P < 0.01). For prevention of HCC, LRD, and ESLD in the short term, HCV therapy should target individuals who have more than mild fibrosis. (Hepatology 2017;66:37-45). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work
Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S
AIM: To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). METHODS: This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. RESULTS: A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. CONCLUSION: Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT. PMID:25320538
Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M; Matthews, Jason D; Ohning, Gordon V; Kovacs, Thomas O; Jutabha, Rome; Ghassemi, Kevin A; Machicado, Gustavo A; Dulai, Gareth S
To describe the prevalence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of end stage liver disease (ESLD) patients with severe epistaxis thought to be severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). This observational single center study included all consecutive patients with ESLD and epistaxis identified from consecutive subjects hospitalized with suspected UGIH and prospectively enrolled in our databases of severe UGIH between 1998 and 2011. A total of 1249 patients were registered for severe UGIH in the data basis, 461 (36.9%) were cirrhotics. Epistaxis rather than UGIH was the bleeding source in 20 patients. All patients had severe coagulopathy. Epistaxis was initially controlled in all cases. Fifteen (75%) subjects required posterior nasal packing and 2 (10%) embolization in addition to correction of coagulopathy. Five (25%) patients died in the hospital, 12 (60%) received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), and 3 (15%) were discharged without OLT. The mortality rate was 63% in patients without OLT. Severe epistaxis in patients with ESLD is (1) a diagnosis of exclusion that requires upper endoscopy to exclude severe UGIH; and (2) associated with a high mortality rate in patients not receiving OLT.
Ruebner, RL; Reese, PP; Denburg, MR; Rand, EB; Abt, PL; Furth, SL
Adult liver transplant (LT) recipients commonly develop advanced kidney disease. However, burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) after pediatric LT has not been well-described. We performed a retrospective cohort study of pediatric LTs in the US from 1990–2010. Multivariable Cox regression models were fit to determine risk factors for ESKD and death. 8976 children received LTs. During median follow-up of 7.8 years, 2005 (22%) subjects died (mortality rate 26.1 cases/1000 person-years); 167 (2%) developed ESKD (incidence rate 2.2 cases/1000 person-years). Risk factors for ESKD included older age at LT (highest risk age>15 vs <5 years, HR=4.94, p<0.001), hepatitis C (HR 2.79, p=0.004), liver re-transplant (HR 2.67, p<0.001), eGFR pre-LT <60 vs ≥60 (HR 2.37, p<0.001), hepatitis B (HR 2.25, p=0.027), black race (HR 1.46, p=0.046), and male sex (HR 1.44, p=0.022). LT recipients with ESKD had increased risk of mortality (HR 2.37, p<0.001). Among pediatric LT recipients, rate of ESKD was lower than among adults and far exceeded by rate of death, however follow-up time in this study may underestimate lifetime burden of ESKD. Although uncommon, ESKD was highly associated with mortality. Pediatric LT recipients should be routinely monitored for kidney disease, particularly those at highest risk of ESKD. PMID:22994862
Malinis, Maricar F.; Chen, Shu; Allore, Heather G.; Quagliarello, Vincent J.
Background Since 2002, the Model of End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has been the basis of the liver transplant (LT) allocation system. Among older adult LT recipients, short-term outcomes in the MELD era were comparable to the pre-MELD era, but long-term outcomes remain unclear. Material/Methods This is a retrospective cohort study using the UNOS data on patients age ≥50 years who underwent primary LT from February 27, 2002 until October 31, 2011. Results A total of 35,686 recipients met inclusion criteria. The cohort was divided into 5-year interval age groups. Five-year over-all survival rates for ages 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 65–69, and 70+ were 72.2%, 71.6%, 69.5%, 65.0%, and 57.5%, respectively. Five-year graft survival rates after adjusting for death as competing risk for ages 50–54, 55–59,60–64, 65–69 and 70+ were 85.8%, 87.3%, 89.6%, 89.1% and 88.9%, respectively. By Cox proportional hazard modeling, age ≥60, increasing MELD, donor age ≥60, hepatitis C, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), dialysis and impaired pre-transplant functional status (FS) were associated with increased 5-year mortality. Using Fine and Gray sub-proportional hazard modeling adjusted for death as competing risk, 5-year graft failure was associated with donor age ≥60, increasing MELD, hepatitis C, HCC, and impaired pre-transplant FS. Conclusions Among older LT recipients in the MELD era, long-term graft survival after adjusting for death as competing risk was improved with increasing age, while over-all survival was worse. Donor age, hepatitis C, and pre-transplant FS represent potentially modifiable risk factors that could influence long-term graft and patient survival. PMID:25256592
Kaltsakas, Georgios; Antoniou, Efstathios; Palamidas, Anastasios F; Gennimata, Sofia-Antiopi; Paraskeva, Panorea; Smyrnis, Anastasios; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Milic-Emili, Joseph; Koulouris, Nickolaos G
AIM: To investigate the prevalence of chronic dyspnea and its relationship to respiratory muscle function in end-stage liver disease. METHODS: Sixty-eight consecutive, ambulatory, Caucasian patients with end-stage liver disease, candidates for liver transplantation, were referred for preoperative respiratory function assessment. Forty of these (29 men) were included in this preliminary study after applying strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Seventeen of 40 patients (42%) had ascites, but none of them was cachectic. Fifteen of 40 patients (38%) had a history of hepatic encephalopathy, though none of them was symptomatic at study time. All patients with a known history and/or presence of co-morbidities were excluded. Chronic dyspnea was rated according to the modified medical research council (mMRC) 6-point scale. Liver disease severity was assessed according to the Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Routine lung function tests, maximum static expiratory (Pemax) and inspiratory (Pimax) mouth pressures were measured. Respiratory muscle strength (RMS) was calculated from Pimax and Pemax values. In addition, arterial blood gases and pattern of breathing (VE: minute ventilation; VT: tidal volume; VT/TI: mean inspiratory flow; TI: duration of inspiration) were measured. RESULTS: Thirty-five (88%) of 40 patients aged (mean ± SD) 52 ± 10 years reported various degrees of chronic dyspnea (mMRC), ranging from 0 to 4, with a mean value of 2.0 ± 1.2. MELD score was 14 ± 6. Pemax, percent of predicted (%pred) was 105 ± 35, Pimax, %pred was 90 ± 29, and RMS, %pred was 97 ± 30. These pressures were below the normal limits in 12 (30%), 15 (38%), and 14 (35%) patients, respectively. Furthermore, comparing the subgroups of ascites to non-ascites patients, all respiratory muscle indices measured were found significantly decreased in ascites patients. Patients with ascites also had a significantly worse MELD score compared to non-ascites ones (P = 0
Krawczyk, Marcin; Zimmermann, Simone; Hess, Georg; Holz, Robert; Dauer, Marc; Raedle, Jochen; Lammert, Frank; Grünhage, Frank
Latest data suggest that placental growth factor (PLGF), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and hepatic growth factor (HGF) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Diagnostic performance of these markers for non-invasive liver fibrosis prediction was evaluated based on liver histology and stiffness. In total 834 patients were recruited. Receiver-operating-characteristics were used to define cut-offs for markers correlating to fibrosis stages. Odds-ratios were calculated for the presence/absence of fibrosis/cirrhosis and confirmed in the sub-group of patients phenotyped by elastography only. Logistic and uni- and multivariate regression analyses were used to test for association of markers with liver fibrosis stages and for independent prediction of liver histology and stiffness. Marker concentrations correlated significantly (P<0.001) with histology and stiffness. Cut-offs for liver fibrosis (≥F2) were PLGF = 20.20 pg/ml, GDF15 = 1582.76 pg/ml and HGF = 2598.00 pg/ml. Logistic regression confirmed an increase of ORs from 3.6 over 33.0 to 108.4 with incremental (1–3) markers positive for increased liver stiffness (≥12.8kPa; all P<0.05). Subgroup analysis revealed associations with advanced fibrosis for HCV (three markers positive: OR = 59.9, CI 23.4–153.4, P<0.001) and non-HCV patients (three markers positive: OR = 144, CI 59–3383, P<0.001). Overall, serum markers identified additional 50% of patients at risk for advanced fibrosis presenting with low elastography results. In conclusion, this novel combination of markers reflects the presence of significant liver fibrosis detected by elastography and histology and may also identify patients at risk presenting with low elastography values. PMID:28301573
Spec, Andrej; Raval, Krunal; Powderly, William G
Background. Cryptococcosis in the setting of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) has been associated with high mortality. We sought to compare the outcome of cryptococcal disease in patients with ESLD to that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and to those patients without HIV or ESLD. Methods. We assembled a retrospective cohort of 232 consecutive cases of cryptococcosis in our institution, from 2002 to 2014, inclusively. We analyzed the cases for comorbidities, type of infection, and survival. Data were analyzed with t tests, Fishers Exact test, and Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Results. Twenty-five (10.8%) patients with cryptococcal infection had concomitant ESLD; of these, 5 (20%) presented with peritonitis. Most (17 of 25, 68%) did not have any other cause of immunocompromise that has been more classically associated with cryptococcosis. Patients with ESLD had a significantly higher mortality than HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative patients without ESLD (HIVNE) (80% vs 13.6% and 22.7%, respectively; P < .001). In addition, fatal outcome in ESLD patients occurred more rapidly than in HIVNE patients, with a median survival of 6 days (vs 17), despite a comparable time to diagnosis (6.2 vs 6.6 days). Conclusions. Cryptococcosis is an important morbidity in patients with ESLD. Patients with ESLD who are infected with Cryptococcus have a high and rapid mortality. This suggests that a high level of vigilance for cryptococcal infection should be kept in patients with ESLD.
Jiménez, José Víctor; Carrillo-Pérez, Diego Luis; Rosado-Canto, Rodrigo; García-Juárez, Ignacio; Torre, Aldo; Kershenobich, David; Carrillo-Maravilla, Eduardo
Electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are frequent in patients with end-stage liver disease; the underlying physiopathological mechanisms are often complex and represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the physician. Usually, these disorders do not develop in compensated cirrhotic patients, but with the onset of the classic complications of cirrhosis such as ascites, renal failure, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and variceal bleeding, multiple electrolyte, and acid-base disturbances emerge. Hyponatremia parallels ascites formation and is a well-known trigger of hepatic encephalopathy; its management in this particular population poses a risky challenge due to the high susceptibility of cirrhotic patients to osmotic demyelination. Hypokalemia is common in the setting of cirrhosis: multiple potassium wasting mechanisms both inherent to the disease and resulting from its management make these patients particularly susceptible to potassium depletion even in the setting of normokalemia. Acid-base disturbances range from classical respiratory alkalosis to high anion gap metabolic acidosis, almost comprising the full acid-base spectrum. Because most electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are managed in terms of their underlying trigger factors, a systematic physiopathological approach to their diagnosis and treatment is required.
Barry, Christopher T; Hah, Zaegyoo; Partin, Alexander; Mooney, Robert A; Chuang, Kuang-Hsiang; Augustine, Alicia; Almudevar, Anthony; Cao, Wenqing; Rubens, Deborah J; Parker, Kevin J
The accumulation of fat droplets within the liver is an important marker of liver disease. This study assesses gradations of steatosis in mouse livers using crawling waves, which are interfering patterns of shear waves introduced into the liver by external sources. The crawling waves are detected by Doppler ultrasound imaging techniques, and these are analyzed to estimate the shear wave speed as a function of frequency between 200 and 360 Hz. In a study of 70 mice with progressive increases in steatosis from 0% to >60%, increases in steatosis are found to increase the dispersion, or frequency dependence, of shear wave speed. This finding confirms an earlier, smaller study and points to the potential of a scoring system for steatosis based on shear wave dispersion.
Ling, Ching-Hsien; Chau, Gar-Yang; Hsia, Chen-Yuan; King, Kuang-Liang
Currently, the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system is used in hepatectomy patients for tumor staging of HCC patients. However this can only evaluate the histopathological factor. MELD score is an objective measure for liver function widely used as a severity index for priority on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Here we suggest a modified TNM staging system based on the MELD score and test its relation with post-operative outcome of HCC. We retrospectively collected 922 HCC patients undergoing hepatic resection, with TNM stage I (n=239), stage II (n=375) and stage III (n=308); giving points 0 to 2 for each stage (from I to III). Pre-operative MELD score was calculated and assigned 0 points for MELD <6; 1 for 6-8; 2 for >8. The two scores were added together to form a modified MELD-base TNM stage score and tested the correlation of this new scoring system with outcome after liver resection. The modified MELD-base TNM stage score resulted in score 0 (n=114), score 1 (n=247), score 2 (n=335), score 3 (n=164), and score 4 (n=62). The disease-free survival in each group showed significant difference (p<0.05), the lower the score, the better the outcome. The MELD-based TNM staging system reliably separates patients with HCC into homogeneous groups with respect to post-resectional prognosis. Further prospective validation studies are required to confirm the feasibility of this strategy.
Chen, Bo; Li, You Ping; Yan, Lu Nan; Wen, Tian Fu; Li, Bo
Background The scarcity of grafts available necessitates a system that considers expected posttransplant survival, in addition to pretransplant mortality as estimated by the MELD. So far, however, conventional linear techniques have failed to achieve sufficient accuracy in posttransplant outcome prediction. In this study, we aim to develop a pretransplant predictive model for liver recipients' survival with benign end-stage liver diseases (BESLD) by a nonlinear method based on pretransplant characteristics, and compare its performance with a BESLD-specific prognostic model (MELD) and a general-illness severity model (the sequential organ failure assessment score, or SOFA score). Methodology/Principal Findings With retrospectively collected data on 360 recipients receiving deceased-donor transplantation for BESLD between February 1999 and August 2009 in the west China hospital of Sichuan university, we developed a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network to predict one-year and two-year survival probability after transplantation. The performances of the MLP, SOFA, and MELD were assessed by measuring both calibration ability and discriminative power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow test and receiver operating characteristic analysis, respectively. By the forward stepwise selection, donor age and BMI; serum concentration of HB, Crea, ALB, TB, ALT, INR, Na+; presence of pretransplant diabetes; dialysis prior to transplantation, and microbiologically proven sepsis were identified to be the optimal input features. The MLP, employing 18 input neurons and 12 hidden neurons, yielded high predictive accuracy, with c-statistic of 0.91 (P<0.001) in one-year and 0.88 (P<0.001) in two-year prediction. The performances of SOFA and MELD were fairly poor in prognostic assessment, with c-statistics of 0.70 and 0.66, respectively, in one-year prediction, and 0.67 and 0.65 in two-year prediction. Conclusions/Significance The posttransplant prognosis is a multidimensional nonlinear problem, and the
Goodrich, Nathan P; Schaubel, Douglas E; Smith, Abigail R; Merion, Robert M; Sharma, Pratima
We examined the association of incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) after liver transplantation (LT) and resource utilization using a data linkage between the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients and claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The study cohort consisted of patients aged ≥18 years who underwent deceased donor LT between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2010, with Medicare as primary or secondary insurance and were discharged alive from the index LT hospitalization (n = 7019). The association of ESRD and post-LT hospitalization was assessed by sequential stratification, which entailed prognostic score matching of ESRD-free patients to each LT recipient at ESRD onset. The prognostic score was developed from a model of time to hospitalization and included baseline factors and hospitalization history as predictors. The overall hospitalization rates for LT recipients with and without ESRD were 2.7 and 1.1 per patient-year at risk, respectively. The total number of days hospitalized patient per year was 23 in ESRD and 7 in non-ESRD LT recipients. The adjusted post-LT hospitalization rate was 97% higher after reaching ESRD compared to non-ESRD (hazard ratio, 1.97; P < 0.0001). Hospitalization rates increased significantly for LT recipients after ESRD onset. Early risk factor modification efforts targeting patients who are at high ESRD risk may reduce post-LT ESRD incidence and hence decrease morbidity and cost among LT recipients.
Schreibeis-Baum, Hannah; Pimstone, Neville; Asch, Steven M.; Robinson, Linda; Korlekar, Sheri; Lorenz, Karl; Nwajuaku, Tracy; Rosenfeld, Kenneth
Abstract Background: Palliative care and preparation for liver transplantation are often perceived as conflicting for patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). We sought to improve both simultaneously through a case finding and care coordination quality improvement intervention. Methods: We identified patients with cirrhosis using validated ICD-9 codes and screened them for ESLD by assessing medical records at a VA hospital for either a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) ≥14 or a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between October 2012 and January 2013. A care coordinator followed veterans from the index hospitalization through April 2013 and encouraged treating physicians to submit liver transplant evaluation consults for all veterans with a MELD ≥14 and palliative care consults for all veterans with a MELD ≥20 or inoperable HCC. Results: We compared rates of consultation for 49 hospitalized veterans and compared their outcomes to 61 pre-intervention veterans. Veterans were more likely to be considered for liver transplantation (77.6% versus 31.1%, p<0.001) and receive palliative care consultation during the intervention period, although the latter finding did not reach statistical significance (62.5% versus 47.1%, p=0.38). Conclusions: Active case finding improved consideration for liver transplantation without decreasing palliative care consultation. PMID:25493552
Toshima, T; Ikegami, T; Kimura, K; Harimoto, N; Yamashita, Y; Yoshizumi, T; Soejima, Y; Ikeda, T; Shirabe, K; Maehara, Y
The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has been validated to predict the mortality rate of patients with various chronic liver diseases on the waiting list for liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to assess the value of the postoperative MELD scoring system as an early postoperative predictor of outcome in patients undergoing living donor LT (LDLT). A retrospective analysis of 217 adult-to-adult LDLT patients was performed. The values of the MELD score on various postoperative days (PODs) as predictors of graft loss within 6 months after LDLT were examined by calculating the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves. The 6-months graft survival rates were compared between patients with (n = 22) and without (n = 195) graft loss. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with mortality. The MELD score on POD2 was a predictor of graft loss, with an AUROC c-statistic of 0.779, a specificity of 79.5%, and a sensitivity of 68.2% at optimal cutoff, whereas the preoperative MELD score c-statistic was 0.605 with 44.6% sensitivity. Multivariate analyses for postoperative mortality revealed MELD-POD2 ≥19 (odds ratio, 5.601; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.395-4.508; P = .0009) as an independent predictor of short-term graft loss following LDLT, in addition to preoperative hospitalization status. Later MELD POD scores were also predictive of graft loss. The early postoperative MELD scoring system is feasible as an index for prediction of postoperative mortality following LDLT. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mitchell, Rebecca; McDermid, Jill; Ma, Mang M; Chik, Constance L
AIM: To determine the contributions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), cytokines and liver disease severity to bone mineral density in patients pre-transplantation. METHODS: Serum IGF-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score calculated in 121 adult patients referred to a single centre for liver transplantation. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were assessed via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Demographics, liver disease etiology, medication use and relevant biochemistry were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 117 subjects were included, with low BMD seen in 68.6%, irrespective of disease etiology. In multivariable analysis, low body mass index (BMI), increased bone turnover and low IGF-1 were independent predictors of low spinal bone density. At the hip, BMI, IGF-1 and vitamin D status were predictive. Despite prevalent elevations of TNFα and IL-6, levels did not correlate with degree of bone loss. The MELD score failed to predict low BMD in this pre-transplant population. CONCLUSION: Osteopenia/osteoporosis is common in advanced liver disease. Low serum IGF-1 is weakly predictive but serum cytokine and MELD score fail to predict the severity of bone disease. PMID:21860675
Cruz, Ruy J; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Fontes, Paulo; DiMartini, Andrea
Body mass index (BMI) is a commonly used but likely inexact measure of body composition for patients with end-stage liver disease. For this reason, we examined whether body composition measurements from direct visualization on computed tomography (CT) scans provide new insights in both the degree of malnutrition and the discordant combinations such as obesity with muscle mass loss. This technology is widely used in other medically ill populations but not yet in liver transplantation. We examined actual body composition using abdominal CT scan data and software designed to measure fat and muscle compartments. In 234 liver transplant candidates, we found that BMI was highly and significantly correlated to subcutaneous and visceral fat. However, we additionally found that, even among obese patients, cachexia, as defined by muscle mass, was common, with 56% of those with BMI above 30 being cachexic. We also found that patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, compared with other types of liver diseases, were significantly more likely to have larger amounts of visceral fat while also having less muscle. In an exploratory analysis, muscle mass corrected for height was a significant predictor of posttransplantation survival. Body composition by CT scan data provides a specific method to identify obesity and muscle wasting for end-stage liver disease patients. Whether these data can aid in the prognostication of outcomes and survival requires further investigation.
Cruz, Ruy J.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Myaskovsky, Larissa; Goodpaster, Bret; Fox, Kristen; Fontes, Paulo; DiMartini, Andrea
Body Mass Index is a commonly used but likely inexact measure of body composition for patients with end-stage liver disease. For this reason, we examined whether body composition measurements from direct visualization on computerized tomography (CT) scans provide new insights both into the degree of malnutrition and also discordant combinations such as obesity with muscle mass loss. This technology is widely used in other medically ill populations but not yet in liver transplantation. Methods We examined actual body composition using abdominal CT scan data and software designed to measure fat and muscle compartments. Results In 234 liver transplant candidates we found BMI was highly and significantly correlated to subcutaneous and visceral fat. However we additionally found that even among obese patients, cachexia, as defined by muscle mass, was common with 56% of those with BMIs over 30 being cachexic. We also found that patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, compared to other types of liver diseases, were significantly more likely to have larger amounts of visceral fat while also having less muscle. In an exploratory analysis muscle mass corrected for height was a significant predictor of post-transplant survival. Conclusions Body composition by CT scan data provides a specific method to identify obesity and muscle wasting for end-stage liver disease patients. Whether these data can aid in the prognostication of outcomes and survival requires further investigation. PMID:23348896
Kitahata, Mari M.; Drozd, Daniel R.; Crane, Heidi M.; Van Rompaey, Stephen E.; Althoff, Keri N.; Gange, Stephen J.; Klein, Marina B.; Lucas, Gregory M.; Abraham, Alison G.; Lo Re, Vincent; McReynolds, Justin; Lober, William B.; Mendes, Adell; Modur, Sharada P.; Jing, Yuezhou; Morton, Elizabeth J.; Griffith, Margaret A.; Freeman, Aimee M.; Moore, Richard D.
The burden of HIV disease has shifted from traditional AIDS-defining illnesses to serious non-AIDS-defining comorbid conditions. Research aimed at improving HIV-related comorbid disease outcomes requires well-defined, verified clinical endpoints. We developed methods to ascertain and verify end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and validated screening algorithms within the largest HIV cohort collaboration in North America (NA-ACCORD). Individuals who screened positive among all participants in twelve cohorts enrolled between January 1996 and December 2009 underwent medical record review to verify incident ESRD or ESLD using standardized protocols. We randomly sampled 6% of contributing cohorts to determine the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of ESLD and ESRD screening algorithms in a validation subcohort. Among 43,433 patients screened for ESRD, 822 screened positive of which 620 met clinical criteria for ESRD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 99% specificity, 82% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESRD. Among 41,463 patients screened for ESLD, 2,024 screened positive of which 645 met diagnostic criteria for ESLD. The algorithm had 100% sensitivity, 95% specificity, 27% PPV, and 100% NPV for ESLD. Our methods proved robust for ascertainment of ESRD and ESLD in persons infected with HIV. PMID:25789171
Thrasher, Tyler; Abdelmalek, Manal F
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Treatments target lifestyle modification and improvement of underlying risk factors. Noninvasive biomarkers for diagnosis and staging of NAFLD and safe, cost-effective treatments for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and/or NASH-related cirrhosis are currently under investigation. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.
Avolio, A W; Siciliano, M; Barone, M; Lai, Q; Caracciolo, G L; Barbarino, R; Nicolotti, N; Lirosi, M C; Gasbarrini, A; Agnes, S
Only patients with Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores ≥18 or ≥17 experience a survival benefit (SB) at 12 and 36 months after liver transplantation (OLT). The SB calculation estimates the difference after stratification for risk categories between the survival rate of transplanted versus waiting list patients. The aim of this study was to perform a short- and long-term (60 months) SB analyses of a Italian OLT program. One-hundred seventy-one patients were stratified into four MELD classes (6-14, 15-18, 19-25, 26-40), and two groups: namely, waiting list (WL) and transplanted groups (TX). The median waiting time for transplanted patients was 4.4 months (range, 0-35). SB was expressed as mortality hazard ratio (MHR) as obtained through a Cox regression analysis using as a covariate the status of each patient in the waiting list (WL = 0, reference group) or the TX group (TX = 1). Values over 1 indicated the MHR in favor of the WL with the values below 1 indicating MHR in favor of Tx. In the MELD class 6 to 14, the MHR was above 1 at 3 and 6 months, indicating an SB in favor of WL; subsequently, the MHR dropped below 1, indicating an SB in favor of TX (P < .05). In the MELD class 15 to 18 the MHR was above 1 at 3 months, but below 1 subsequently (P < .05). For MELD classes 19 to 25 and 26 to 40, the MHR was always below 1 (P < .01). According to the SB approach, patients in the MELD class 6 to 14 could safely wait for at least 36 months; patients in the MELD class 15 to 18 should likely remain no longer than 12 months on the waiting list, and all the remaining patients with MELD > 18 should be transplanted as soon as possible. OLT should not be precluded but only postponed for MELD < 19 patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rendon, Julio Cesar; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Restrepo-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Hoyos, Sergio; Navas, Maria-Cristina
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection (OBI) is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease. Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia). Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50) were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot. OBI cases were analyzed by sequencing the viral genome to determine the genotype and mutations; additionally, viral genome integration events were examined by the Alu-PCR technique. In five cases out of 50 patients (10%) the criteria for OBI was confirmed. HBV genotype F (subgenotypes F1 and F3), genotype A and genotype D were characterized in liver samples. Three integration events in chromosomes 5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 affecting Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T, Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2, and the zinc finger 263 genes were identified in two OBI cases. Sequence analysis of the viral genome of the 5 OBI cases showed several punctual missense and nonsense mutations affecting ORFs S, P, Core and X. This is the first characterization of OBI in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia. The OBI cases were identified in patients with HCV infection or cryptogenic cirrhosis. The integration events (5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12) described in this study have not been previously reported. Further studies are required to validate the role of mutations and integration events in OBI pathogenesis.
Rendon, Julio Cesar; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Restrepo-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Hoyos, Sergio
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection (OBI) is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia). Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50) were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot. OBI cases were analyzed by sequencing the viral genome to determine the genotype and mutations; additionally, viral genome integration events were examined by the Alu-PCR technique. Results In five cases out of 50 patients (10%) the criteria for OBI was confirmed. HBV genotype F (subgenotypes F1 and F3), genotype A and genotype D were characterized in liver samples. Three integration events in chromosomes 5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 affecting Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T, Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2, and the zinc finger 263 genes were identified in two OBI cases. Sequence analysis of the viral genome of the 5 OBI cases showed several punctual missense and nonsense mutations affecting ORFs S, P, Core and X. Conclusions This is the first characterization of OBI in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia. The OBI cases were identified in patients with HCV infection or cryptogenic cirrhosis. The integration events (5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12) described in this study have not been previously reported. Further studies are required to validate the role of mutations and integration events in OBI pathogenesis. PMID:28686707
Uchida, Shinjiro; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Honda, Takuya; Shibata, Hidetaka; Haraguchi, Masafumi; Senoo, Takemasa; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) were evaluated and their clinical features were compared with the aim of identifying risk factors for osteoporosis. Seventy-nine patients with ESLD were enrolled in the current study. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and compared with clinical features in patients with ESLD. BMD was identified to be significantly correlated with body mass index (r=0.430; P=0.001) and inversely correlated with total bile acid (r=−0.228; P=0.049) and urine N-telopeptide type I collagen/creatinine ratio (r=−0.280; P=0.024). Patients with osteoporosis were significantly older (osteoporosis vs. no osteoporosis, 63.0 vs. 56.0 years; P<0.05) and had higher values for total bile acid (osteoporosis vs. no osteoporosis, 306.0 vs. 129.1 µmol/l; P<0.05) and corrected calcium [osteoporosis vs. no osteoporosis, 9.85 (8.7–10.7) vs. 9.70 (8.8–10.6) mg/dl; P<0.05]. In multivariate analysis, age (β=−0.015±0.06; P=0.009) and total bile acid (β=−0.001±0.0001; P=0.041) were identified as independent factors for osteoporosis. Finally, the risk score for osteoporosis was defined as follows: Risk score=1.78–0.001 × total bile acid-(0.16 × age). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve risk score for osteoporosis is 0.778. Thus, the risk scores calculated in the present study may be used to predict osteoporosis in patients with ESLD. PMID:27882229
Carey, Elizabeth J; Lai, Jennifer C; Wang, Connie W; Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Lobach, Iryna; Montano-Loza, Aldo J; Dunn, Michael A
Sarcopenia is associated with increased waitlist mortality, but a standard definition is lacking. In this retrospective study, we sought to determine the optimal definition of sarcopenia in end-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients awaiting LT. Included were 396 patients newly listed for LT in 2012 at five North American transplant centers. All CT scans were read by two individuals with inter-observer correlation of 98%. Using image analysis software, the total cross-sectional area (cm(2) ) of abdominal skeletal muscle at L3 was measured. The skeletal muscle index (SMI), which normalizes muscle area to patient height, was then calculated. The primary outcome was waitlist mortality, defined as death on the waitlist or removal from the waitlist for reasons of clinical deterioration. Sex-specific potential cut-off values to define sarcopenia were determined with a grid search guided by log-rank test statistics. Optimal search method identified potential cutoffs to detect survival differences between groups. The overall median SMI was 47.6 cm(2) /m(2) : 50.0 in men and 42.0 in women. At a median of 8.8 months follow-up, mortality was 25% in men and 36% in women. Patients who died had lower SMI than those who survived (45.6 vs 48.5 cm(2) /m(2) , p<0.001) and SMI was associated with waitlist mortality (HR 0.95, p<0.001). Optimal search method yielded SMI cut-offs of 50 cm(2) /m(2) for men and 39 cm(2) /m(2) for women; these cutoff values best combined statistical significance with a sufficient number of events to detect survival differences between groups. In conclusion, we recommend that an SMI < 50 cm(2) /m(2) for men and < 39 cm(2) /m(2) for women be used to define sarcopenia in patients with ESLD awaiting LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Brown, Cristal L; Hammill, Bradley G; Qualls, Laura G; Curtis, Lesley H; Muir, Andrew J
For end-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients, care focuses on managing the life-threatening complications of portal hypertension, causing high resource utilization. To describe the end-of-life trajectory of hospitalized ESLD patients in Medicare. Using a 5% random sample of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries, we performed a retrospective cohort study, identifying hospitalized ESLD and heart failure (HF) patients (2007-2011). Index hospitalization end points included mortality, discharge to hospice, and length of stay. Postdischarge end points included all-cause mortality, rehospitalization, hospice enrollment, and days alive and out of hospital (DAOH). Follow-up was at one and three years after index hospitalization discharge. A reference cohort of decompensated HF patients was used for baseline comparison. At one year, the ESLD cohort (n = 22,311) had 209 DAOH; decompensated HF (n = 85,397) had 252 DAOH. Among ESLD patients, inpatient mortality was 13.5%; all-cause mortality was 64.9%. For these outcomes, rates were higher in those with ESLD than HF. In the ESLD group, rehospitalization rate was 59.1% (slightly lower than the HF group), hospice enrollment rate was 36.1%, and there were higher than expected cancer rates. For hospice-enrolled patients, the median length of time spent in hospice was nine days. The HF cohort had lower hospice enrollment, but more days enrolled. The results of this study show that morbidity and mortality rates associated with end of life in ESLD are substantial. There is an acute need for alternative approaches to manage the care of ESLD patients. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pantel, Haddon Jacob; Stensland, Kristian D; Nelson, Jason; Francone, Todd D; Roberts, Patricia L; Marcello, Peter W; Read, Thomas; Ricciardi, Rocco
We sought to determine the accuracy of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and the Mayo Clinic Postoperative Mortality Risk in Patients with Cirrhosis Calculator in patients with ascites who underwent colorectal surgery. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for patients with ascites who underwent a major colorectal operation. Predicted 90-day mortality rate based on the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and 30-day mortality based on the Mayo Clinic Postoperative Mortality Risk in Patients with Cirrhosis Calculator were compared with observed 30-day mortality. The cohort contained 3137 patients with ascites who underwent a colorectal operation. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease predicted that 252 (8 %) of patients with ascites undergoing colorectal operations would die within 90 days postoperatively, yet we observed 821 deaths (26 % mortality) within 30 days after surgery (p < 0.001). The Mayo Clinic Postoperative Mortality Risk in Patients with Cirrhosis Calculator predicted that 491 (16.6 % mortality) of patients with ascites undergoing colorectal operations would die within 30 days postoperatively, yet we observed 707 (23.9 % mortality) at 30 days (p < 0.01). We concluded that the current risk prediction models significantly under predict mortality in patients with ascites who underwent colorectal surgery.
He, Xiao-Shun; Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Dong-Ping; Han, Ming; Ju, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Yi; Jiao, Xing-Yuan; Yuan, Xiao-Peng; Hu, An-Bin; Guo, Zhi-Yong
In liver transplant patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the disease worsens after transplantation because of longterm use of diabetogenic immunosuppressive drugs, making management of those patients a great challenge. The objective of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a simplified multivisceral transplantation (SMT) procedure for the treatment of patients with end-stage liver disease and concurrent type 2 DM. Forty-four patients who had pretransplant type 2 DM were included. A total of 23 patients received SMT, and 21 patients received orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Patient and graft survivals, complications, diabetic control, and quality of life (QOL) were retrospectively analyzed in both groups. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year cumulative patient and graft survival rates were 91.5%, 75.4%, and 75.4% in the SMT group and were 94.4%, 64.4%, and 64.4% in the OLT group, respectively (P = 0.70). Interestingly, 95.7% (22/23) of patients achieved complete remission from DM after SMT compared with 16.7% (3/18) of patients after OLT. The occurrence of biliary complication was significantly higher in the OLT group than that in the SMT group (23.8% versus 0.0%; P = 0.01). Moreover, better QOL was observed in the SMT group than that in the OLT group. In conclusion, the SMT procedure we described here is a safe and viable option for patients with end-stage live disease and concurrent type 2 DM. This SMT procedure offers excellent transplant outcomes and QOL. Liver Transplantation 23 1161-1170 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.
Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant. Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280
Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...
Bahirwani, Ranjeeta; Forde, Kimberly A.; Mu, Yifei; Lin, Fred; Reese, Peter; Goldberg, David; Abt, Peter; Reddy, K Rajender; Levine, Matthew
Renal dysfunction prior to liver transplantation has a marked impact on post-transplant kidney outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess post-transplant renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) alone. METHODS Retrospective review of 40 OLT recipients with pre-transplant CKD (serum creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dl for at least 3 months) at the University of Pennsylvania from February 2002 to July 2010. Primary outcome was estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) up to 3 years post-transplant. Secondary outcomes included incidence of stage 4 CKD (eGFR < 30 ml/min), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), meeting criteria for kidney transplant listing (eGFR ≤ 20 ml/min), and mortality. RESULTS Median patient age was 56.5 years and 48% patients had pre-transplant diabetes. Median serum creatinine at transplant was 2.7 mg/dl (eGFR 24 ml/min). Median eGFR at 1, 2, and 3 years post-transplant was 35, 34, and 37 ml/min respectively. Twelve patients (30%) required RRT at a median of 1.21 years posttransplant and 16 (40%) achieved an eGFR ≤ 20 ml/min at 1.09 years post-transplant. Mortality was 35% at a median of 1.60 years post-transplant. CONCLUSIONS OLT recipients with pre-transplant CKD have a substantial burden of post-transplant renal dysfunction and high short-term mortality, questioning the rationale for OLT alone in this population. PMID:24382253
Albarmawi, Albader; Czock, David; Gauss, Annika; Ehehalt, Robert; Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Burhenne, Jürgen; Ganten, Tom M; Sauer, Peter; Haefeli, Walter E
Aims Impaired liver function often necessitates drug dose adjustment to avoid excessive drug accumulation and adverse events, but a marker for the extent of the required adjustment is lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Child–Pugh (CP) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores correlate with drug clearance. Methods Midazolam was used as a CYP3A probe and its pharmacokinetics were analyzed in 24 patients with mild to severe liver cirrhosis (n = 4, 10 and 10 with CP class A, B and C, respectively) and six patients without liver disease. Results Both scores correlated well with unbound midazolam clearance (CLu), unbound midazolam fraction and half-life (all P < 0.01), whereas the unbound steady-state volume of distribution was not significantly changed. In patients with severe liver cirrhosis unbound midazolam clearance was only 14% of controls (CP C: CLu = 843 ± 346 l h−1, MELD ≥ 15: CLu = 805 ± 474 l h−1, controls: CLu = 5815 ± 2649 l h−1, P < 0.01). Conclusion The correlation with unbound midazolam clearance suggests that either score predicts the metabolic capacity of CYP3A, the most relevant drug metabolizing enzyme subfamily in humans. PMID:23772874
Pavlov, Chavdar S; Casazza, Giovanni; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Burroughs, Andrew K; Ivashkin, Vladimir T; Gluud, Christian
The presence and progression of hepatic (liver) fibrosis into cirrhosis is a prognostic variable having impact on survival in people with alcoholic liver disease. Liver biopsy, although an invasive method, is the recommended 'reference standard' for diagnosis and staging of hepatic fibrosis in people with liver diseases. Transient elastography is a non-invasive method for assessing and staging hepatic fibrosis. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of transient elastography for diagnosis and staging hepatic fibrosis in people with alcoholic liver disease when compared with liver biopsy. To identify the optimal cut-off values for differentiating the five stages of hepatic fibrosis. The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled and Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies Registers, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), and the Science Citation Index Expanded (last search August 2014). Diagnostic cohort and diagnostic case-control study designs that assessed hepatic fibrosis in participants with alcoholic liver disease with transient elastography and liver biopsy, irrespective of language or publication status. The study participants could be of any sex and ethnic origin, above 16 years old, hospitalised or managed as outpatients. We excluded participants with viral hepatitis, autoimmunity, metabolic diseases, and toxins. We followed the guidelines in the draft Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. Five retrospective and nine prospective cohort studies with 834 participants provided data for the review analyses. Authors of seven of those studies sent us individual participant data. The risk of bias in the included studies was high in all but three studies. We could identify no serious concerns regarding the applicability of the studies in answering the main study question of our review, namely to use transient elastography to diagnose hepatic fibrosis. We could not identify the optimal cut-off values for the fibrosis stages
Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Hoyos, Sergio; Restrepo, Juan-Carlos; Correa, Gonzalo; Jaramillo, Sergio; Norder, Helene; Pujol, Flor Helene; Navas, Maria-Cristina
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the principal risk factor associated to end-stage liver diseases in the world. A study was carried out on end-stage liver disease cases admitted to an important hepatology unit in Medellin, the second largest city in Colombia. From 131 patients recruited in this prospective study, 71% of cases were diagnosed as cirrhosis, 12.2% as HCC, and 16.8% as cirrhosis and HCC. Regarding the risk factors of these patients, alcohol consumption was the most frequent (37.4%), followed by viral etiology (17.6%). Blood and/or hepatic tissue samples from patients with serological markers for HCV or HBV infection were characterized; on the basis of the phylogenetic analysis of HCV 5′ UTR and HBV S gene, isolates belonged to HCV/1 and HBV/F3, respectively. These results confirm the presence of strains associated with poor clinical outcome, in patients with liver disease in Colombia; additionally, HBV basal core promoter double mutant was identified in HCC cases. Here we show the first study of cirrhosis and/or HCC in Colombian and HBV and HCV molecular characterization of these patients. Viral aetiology was not the main risk factor in this cohort but alcohol consumption. PMID:21941645
Patel, Arpan A; Walling, Anne M; Ricks-Oddie, Joni; May, Folasade P; Saab, Sammy; Wenger, Neil
There has been increased attention on ways to improve the quality of end-of-life care for patients with end-stage liver disease; however, there have been few reports of care experiences for patients during terminal hospitalizations. We analyzed data from a large national database to increase our understanding of palliative care for and health care utilization by patients with end-stage liver disease. We performed a cross-sectional, observational study to examine terminal hospitalizations of adults with decompensated cirrhosis using data from the National Inpatient Sample from 2009 through 2013. We collected data on palliative care consultation and total hospital costs, and performed multivariate regression analyses to identify factors associated with palliative care consultation. We also investigated whether consultation was associated with lower costs. Among hospitalized adults with terminal decompensated cirrhosis, 30.3% received palliative care; the mean cost per hospitalization was $48,551 ± $1142. Palliative care consultation increased annually, and was provided to 18.0% of patients in 2009 and to 36.6% of patients in 2013 (P < .05). The mean cost for the terminal hospitalization did not increase significantly ($47,969 in 2009 to $48,956 in 2013, P = .77). African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and liver transplant candidates were less likely to receive palliative care, whereas care in large urban teaching hospitals was associated with a higher odds of receiving consultation. Palliative care was associated with lower procedure burden-after adjusting for other factors, palliative care was associated with a cost reduction of $10,062. Palliative care consultation for patients with end-stage liver disease increased from 2009 through 2013. Palliative care consultation during terminal hospitalizations is associated with lower costs and procedure burden. Future research should evaluate timing and effects of palliative care on quality of end-of-life care in this
Krafcik, Brianna M; Farber, Alik; Eslami, Mohammad H; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; King, Elizabeth G; Siracuse, Jeffrey J
The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score has been traditionally utilized to prioritize for liver transplantation; however, recent literature has shown its value in predicting surgical outcomes for patients with hepatic dysfunction. The benefit of carotid endarterectomy in asymptomatic patients is dependent on low perioperative morbidity. Our objective was to use MELD score to predict outcomes in asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy were identified in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data sets from 2005 to 2012. The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score was calculated using serum bilirubin, creatinine, and the international normalized ratio (INR). Patients were grouped into low (<9), moderate (9-14), and high (15+) MELD classifications. The effect of the MELD score on postoperative morbidity and mortality was assessed by multivariable logistic and gamma regressions and propensity matching. There were 7966 patients with asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy identified. The majority 5556 (70%) had a low MELD score, 1952 (25%) had a moderate MELD score, and 458 (5%) had a high MELD score. High MELD score was independently predictive of postoperative death, increased length of stay, need for transfusion, pulmonary complications, and a statistical trend toward increased cardiac arrest/myocardial infarction. The Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score did not affect postoperative stroke, wound complications, or operative time. High MELD score places asymptomatic patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy at a higher risk of adverse outcomes in the 30 days following surgery. This provides further empirical evidence for risk stratification when considering treatment for these patients. Outcomes of medical management or carotid stenting should be investigated in high-risk patients. © The Author(s) 2016.
The discrepancy between donor supply and organ demand increased the possibility of gender and race mismatch between the donors and recipients. However, the findings of their impact on graft and patient survival are outdated and mixed. To estimate the effects of gender and race mismatch on graft survival and patient survival among adult patients (18 years and older) with end-stage liver disease. A total of 38 768 patients undergoing liver transplant between 2002 and 2011 were identified from United Network for Organ Sharing database. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests, and Cox proportional hazard regressions with backward elimination adopting a marginal approach with a working independence assumption and stratification on recipient hepatitis C virus status were used. Posttransplantation graft survival and patient survival. Both gender mismatch (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.12) and race mismatch (HR 1.08, 95%C: 1.04-1.12) had significantly adverse effects on graft survival and patient survival after controlling for other factors, especially among hepatitis C-positive female recipients with male donors (HR 1.13, 95%CI 1.03-1.24), black recipients with white donors (1.39, 1.29-1.49) or Hispanic donors (HR 1.48, 95%CI 1.27-1.72), and these effects were even worse among hepatitis C-positive recipients. Gender and race mismatch between donors and recipients adversely affected graft survival and patient survival among adult patients with end-stage liver disease, both independently and after the adjustment for other factors. Future research is recommended to explore other factors such as new model for end-stage liver disease sharing policy change and disparities in access to waiting-list or transplantation.
Goldberg, D S; Ruebner, R L; Abt, P L
Since initiation of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based allocation for liver transplantation, the risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has increased. Recent US data have demonstrated comparable, if not superior survival, among recipients of living donor liver transplants (LDLT) when compared to deceased donor liver transplant (DDLT) recipients. However, little is known about the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT. We analyzed linked Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) and US Renal Data System (USRDS) data of first-time liver-alone transplant recipients from February 27, 2002 to March 1, 2011, and restricted the cohort to recipients with a laboratory MELD score ≤25 not on dialysis prior to transplantation, in order to evaluate the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT, and to compare the incidence among LDLT versus DDLT recipients. There were 28 707 DDLT and 1917 LDLT recipients included in the analyses. The 1-, 3- and 5-year unadjusted risk of ESRD was 1.7%, 2.9% and 3.4% in LDLT recipients, compared with 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.8% in DDLT recipients (p > 0.05), respectively. In multivariable competing risk Cox regression models, there was no association between receiving an LDLT and risk of ESRD (sub-hazard ratio: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, p = 0.92). In conclusion, the incidence of ESRD post-LDLT in the United States is low, and there are no significant differences among LDLT and DDLT recipients with MELD scores ≤25 at transplantation.
... Foods Diet Recommendations Pediatric Liver Disease Q&A Life After Diagnosis Support for Chronic Illness Corporate Partnerships Interview ... from doing its job – or from growing back after injury – may put your life in danger. Inflammation In the early stage of ...
Holz, Lauren E; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Heath, William R
Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control. In this review, we discuss immunity to liver-stage malaria. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from animal models of malaria immunity will translate into a more powerful and effective vaccine to reduce this global health problem. PMID:27867517
Holz, Lauren E; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Heath, William R
Despite decades of research and recent clinical trials, an efficacious long-lasting preventative vaccine for malaria remains elusive. This parasite infects mammals via mosquito bites, progressing through several stages including the relatively short asymptomatic liver stage followed by the more persistent cyclic blood stage, the latter of which is responsible for all disease symptoms. As the liver acts as a bottleneck to blood-stage infection, it represents a potential site for parasite and disease control. In this review, we discuss immunity to liver-stage malaria. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from animal models of malaria immunity will translate into a more powerful and effective vaccine to reduce this global health problem.
Mariante-Neto, Guilherme; Brandão, Ajacio Bm
The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) is based on objective variables, including serum creatinine (SCr). This study assesses the influence of skin color on MELD scores calculated using SCr or corrected creatinine (CrC) in female candidates for liver transplantation (LTx). White and black women were eligible. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by means of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula, using SCr. The GFR was then used for reverse calculation of CrC considering each female as male. The MELD scores were calculated using both creatinine values and compared between white and black candidates. SCr-based and CrC-based scores were similar between groups. Calculated GFR was significantly higher in black women than in white women (P < 0.001). Use of CrC yielded 1-point, 2-point, and 3-point increases in the MELD score in 20.2%, 25.7%, and 17.5% of white patients, respectively. None of the black patients had a MELD score increase greater than 1 point. The CrC-based MELD calculation would benefit 63.4% of white females and only 26.1% of black females. Use of CrC for MELD calculation would prioritize white females for liver allocation, but does not seem feasible, as it would not ensure equitable allocation across different ethnicities.
Dutkowski, Philipp; Oberkofler, Christian E; Béchir, Markus; Müllhaupt, Beat; Geier, Andreas; Raptis, Dimitri A; Clavien, Pierre-Alain
We analyzed the first 100 patients who underwent liver transplantation by Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) allocation, and compared the outcome of patients on the waiting list and after orthotopic liver transplantation with the last 100 patients who underwent transplantation prior to the introduction of the MELD system in July 2007. MELD allocation resulted in decreased waiting list mortality (386 versus 242 deaths per 1000 patient-years, P < 0.0001) and the transplantation of sicker recipients (uncorrected median MELD score 13.5 versus 20, P = 0.003). Recipient posttransplant morbidity was significantly higher, mainly caused by increased percentage of renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (13 versus 46%, P < 0.0001). However, kidney function recovered in most cases within 6 months after OLT. Hospital mortality remained similar in both groups (6% versus 9%). Patient 1-year survival was 91% versus 83% (pre-MELD versus MELD era, P = 0.2154), graft 1-year survival was 88% versus 78% (P = 0.1013), respectively. Costs accumulated were significantly higher after introduction of the MELD policy (US $81,967 versus US $127,453, a 55% increase, P = 0.02) with a strong correlation with the individual MELD score (P < 0.0001). The MELD system addresses the goal of fairness well. However, the postoperative course appears more difficult in the MELD era with increased financial burden, but reasonable patient and graft survival. This is the inevitable price to balance justice and utility in liver graft allocation. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Gaglio, Paul; Marfo, Kwaku; Chiodo, Joseph
Hyponatremia is common in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, and is characterized by excessive renal retention of water relative to sodium due to reduced solute-free water clearance. The primary cause is increased release of arginine vasopressin. Hyponatremia is associated with increased mortality in cirrhotic patients, those with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) on transplant waiting lists, and, in some studies, posttransplantation patients. Clinical evidence suggests that adding serum sodium to model for ESLD (MELD) scoring identifies patients in greatest need of liver transplantation by improving waiting list mortality prediction. Hyponatremia is also associated with numerous complications in liver disease patients, including severe ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, infectious complications, renal impairment, increased severity of liver disease in cirrhosis, and increased hospital stay and neurologic/infectious complications posttransplant. Vasopressin receptor antagonists, which act to increase free water excretion (aquaresis) and thereby increase serum sodium concentration, have been evaluated in patients with hypervolemic hyponatremia (including cirrhosis and heart failure) and euvolemic hyponatremia (SIADH). Tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin V(2)-receptor antagonist, is the only oral agent in this class approved for raising sodium levels in hypervolemic and euvolemic hyponatremia. The SALT trials showed that tolvaptan treatment rapidly and effectively resolved hyponatremia in these settings, including cirrhosis, and it has been shown that this agent can be safely and effectively used in long-term treatment. Fluid restriction should be avoided during the first 24 h of treatment to prevent overly rapid correction of hyponatremia, and tolvaptan should not be used in patients who cannot sense/respond to thirst, anuric patients, hypovolemic patients, and/or those requiring urgent intervention to raise serum sodium acutely.
Hassan, Elham A; Abd El-Rehim, Abeer S; Hassany, Sahar M; Ahmed, Asmaa O; Elsherbiny, Nahla M; Mohammed, Mona H
End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is associated with dysregulation of the immune system and increased susceptibility to infections. Although invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a growing public health problem, studies of IFI in ESLD are lacking. The aims of this study were to screen for IFI in ESLD and to assess risk factors and serum interleukin 17 (IL-17) as a marker of the cellular immune response. Both blood and ascitic fluid samples were collected from 46 patients with ESLD for fungal culture and PCR. Serum IL-17 levels were determined. Seven patients had isolated IFI (four had spontaneous fungal peritonitis, two had fungemia, and one had a disseminated fungal infection) and five cases had combined fungal and bacterial infections. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis was attributed to Candida species, while fungemia was caused by Aspergillus species. Patients with IFI had higher serum IL-17 levels and increased mortality compared to patients without IFI. A history of antibiotic use (p = 0.002), higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores (p = 0.04), and hepatorenal syndrome (p = 0.006) were risk factors for IFI. Patients with ESLD had a low frequency of IFI; however, in patients with these infections, delayed diagnosis and treatment may contribute to a high fatality rate. Thus, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for this unusual but lethal entity, as prompt detection and appropriate treatment can improve the outcome. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
You, Nan; Liu, Weihui; Zhong, Xiao; Dou, Kefeng; Tao, Kaishan
Cell therapy is the most promising therapy for end-stage liver diseases (ESLDs). Fetal liver stem/progenitor cells (FLSPCs) have the advantages of a high survival rate, high proliferation, small volume, and high safety, which make them one of the ideal cells for stem cell therapy for liver diseases. During the early phase of our study, we applied a three-step separation method to enrich FLSPCs and obtained a separation efficiency that was similar to the flow cell-sorting method. Additionally, using a fulminant hepatic failure rat model, we demonstrated that FLSPCs can contribute to the recovery of hepatic morphogenesis and function. However, two problems remain to be resolved to explore the therapeutic potential of FLSPCs. First, how can FLSPCs be induced to accurately differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes? Second, how do FLSPCs maintain self-renewal? The Notch signaling plays a critical role in regulating the differentiation and self-renewal of many types of stem cells. Additionally, our previous findings have shown that the Notch signaling plays an important role in FLSPC differentiation into hepatocytes. Therefore, we hypothesized that the Notch signaling may be involved in the differentiation and self-renewal of FLSPCs. We began a study on the regulatory effects and relative molecular mechanisms of the Notch signaling on FLSPCs and found the corresponding interfering target, which may become an index for the clinical application of FLSPCs.
Ruebner, R; Goldberg, D; Abt, PL; Bahirwani, R; Levine, M; Sawinski, D; Bloom, RD; Reese, PP
Guidelines recommend restricting simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplant to candidates with prolonged dialysis or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30 ml/min/1.73m2 for 90 days. However, few studies exist to support the latter recommendation. Using SRTR and Medicare dialysis data, we assembled a cohort of 4997 liver transplant recipients from 2/27/2002–1/1/2008. Serial eGFRs were calculated from serum creatinines submitted with MELD reports. We categorized recipients by eGFR patterns in the 90 days pre-transplant: Group 1 (eGFR always >30), Group 2 (eGFR fluctuated), Group 3 (eGFR always <30) and Group 4 (short-term dialysis). For Group 2, we characterized fluctuations in renal function using time-weighted mean eGFR. Among liver-alone recipients in Group 3, the rate of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by 3 years was 31%, versus <10% for other groups (p<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression, eGFR Group, diabetes (HR 2.65, p<0.001) and black race (HR 1.83, p=0.02) were associated with ESRD. Among liver-alone recipients in Group 2, only diabetics with time-weighted mean eGFR<30 had a substantial ESRD risk (25.6%). In summary, among liver transplant candidates not on prolonged dialysis, SLK should be considered for those whose eGFR is always <30 and diabetic candidates whose weighted mean eGFR is <30 for 90 days. PMID:22759237
Burak, Kelly W.; Meeberg, Glenda A.; Myers, Robert P.; Fick, Gordon H.; Swain, Mark G.; Bain, Vincent G.; Kneteman, Norman M.; Hilsden, Robert J.
Background. Since 2002, the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been used for allocation of liver transplants (LT) in the USA. In Canada, livers were allocated by the CanWAIT algorithm. The aim of this study was to compare the abilities of MELD, Child-Pugh (CP), and CanWAIT status to predict 3-month and 1-year mortality before LT in Canadian patients and to describe the use of MELD in Canada. Methods. Validation of MELD was performed in 320 patients listed for LT in Alberta (1998–2002). In October 2014, a survey of MELD use by Canadian LT centers was conducted. Results. Within 1 year of listing, 47 patients were removed from the waiting list (29 deaths, 18 too ill for LT). Using logistic regression, the MELD and CP were better than the CanWAIT at predicting 3-month (AUROC: 0.79, 0.78, and 0.59; p = 0.0002) and 1-year waitlist mortality (AUROC: 0.70, 0.70, and 0.55; p = 0.0023). Beginning in 2004, MELD began to be adopted by Canadian LT programs but its use was not standardized. Conclusions. Compared with the CanWAIT system, the MELD score was significantly better at predicting LT waitlist mortality. MELD-sodium (MELD-Na) has now been adopted for LT allocation in Canada. PMID:27446823
McCormack, Lucas; Gadano, Adrián; Lendoire, Javrer; Quiñonez, Emilio; Imventarza, Oscar; Andriani, Oscar; Toselli, Lorenzo; Gil, Octavio; Gondolesi, Gabriel; Bisigniano, Liliana; de Santibañes, Eduardo
Background In 2005, the model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-based allocation system was adopted to assess potential liver transplant (LT) recipients in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to revise the activity of the MELD Exception Experts Committee. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 1623 patients were listed for LT. Regulation provides extra-MELD points for amyloidosis, hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) and T2 hepatocellular carcinoma (T2 HCC). Centres could also request priority for other situations. Using a prospective database, we identified patients in whom priority points were requested. Pathology reports of explanted livers were analysed for patients with T2 HCC. Results From 234 out of 1623 (14.4%) requests, the overall approval rate was 60.2% including: 2 amyloidosis, 6 HPS, 111 T2 HCC and 22 non-regulated situations. Of the 111 patients with T2 HCC, 6 died (5.4%), 8 had tumour progression (7.2%), 94 were transplanted (84.2%) and 3 are still waiting. An explants correlation showed that presumed diagnosis of T2HCC was incorrect in 20/94 (22%) and was correct in only 41/94 (43%) cases being T1 HCC in 9 and T3 HCC in 23. Conclusions MELD exceptions are frequently requested in Argentina. Unfortunately, most receiving priority points for T2 HCC benefited by medical error or imaging limitations. An intense review process is urgently needed to maintain equity and justice in the allocation system. PMID:20887320
Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Lin, Juqiang; Lin, Jinyong; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Liu, Nenrong; Chen, Rong
Despite the introduction of high-technology methods of detection and diagnosis, screening of primary liver cancer (PLC) remains imperfect. To diagnosis PLC earlier, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) coupled with cellulose-acetate membrane electrophoresis were introduced to separate human serum albumin and SERS spectra. Three groups (15 normal persons' samples, 17 hepatitis/cirrhosis samples, 15 cases of PLC) of serum albumin were tested. Silver colloid was used to obtain SERS spectra of human serum albumin. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were also employed for statistical analysis. The mean Raman spectra of three groups and the difference spectra of any two suggested that the albumin has changed in liver patients. Compared to normal groups, some Raman peaks have shifted or even disappeared in hepatitis/cirrhosis and PLCs groups. The sensitivity and specificity between PLCs and normal groups is 80% and 93.3%. Among hepatitis/cirrhosis and normal groups, the sensitivity is 88.2% and specificity is also 93.3%. Besides, the sensitivity and specificity between PLCs and hepatitis/cirrhosis groups is 86.7% and 76.5%. All the above data and results indicated that early screening of PLC is potential by SERS in different stages of liver disease before cancer occurs.
Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...
Kumar, Rajneesh; Krishnamoorthy, Thinesh Lee; Tan, Hiang Keat; Lui, Hock Foong; Chow, Wan Cheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterised by a sudden deterioration of underlying chronic liver disease, resulting in increased rates of mortality and liver transplantation. Early prognostication can benefit optimal allocation of resources. ACLF was defined as per the disease criteria of the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver. Inpatient discharge summaries from between January 2001 and April 2013 were reviewed. The primary outcome was mortality or liver transplantation within 60 days from onset of ACLF. Absolute 'model for end-stage liver disease' (MELD) score and change in MELD at Weeks 1, 2 and 4 were reviewed in order to identify the earliest point for prediction of mortality or liver transplantation. Clinical data were collected on 53 subjects who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. At 60 days from presentation, 20 patients (37.7%) died and 4 (7.5%) underwent liver transplantation. Increased MELD of ≥2 after 2 weeks was 75.0% sensitive and 75.9% specific for predicting mortality or liver transplantation. If the MELD score did not increase at 2 weeks, predictive chance of survival was 93.8% over the next 60 days. MELD change at 1 week showed poor sensitivity and specificity. Change at 4 weeks was too late for intervention. Change in MELD score at 2 weeks provides an early opportunity for prognostication in ACLF. A MELD score that does not deteriorate by Week 2 would predict 93.8% chance of survival for the next 60 days. This finding warrants further validation in larger cohort studies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.
Liberal, Rodrigo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina
In paediatrics, there are 2 liver disorders in which liver damage most likely stems from an autoimmune attack: 'classical' autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and the AIH/sclerosing cholangitis overlap syndrome (also known as autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, ASC). The presentation of childhood autoimmune liver disease (AILD) is non-specific and can mimic most other liver disorders. AIH is exquisitely responsive to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted promptly to prevent rapid deterioration and promote remission and long-term survival. Difficult-to-treat or non-responsive patients should be treated with mycophenolate mofetil; if this fails then calcineurin inhibitors can be tried. Persistent failure to respond or lack of adherence to treatment result in end-stage liver disease. These patients, and those with fulminant liver failure at diagnosis, will require liver transplantation. ASC responds to the same immunosuppressive treatment used for AIH when treatment is initiated early. Abnormal liver function tests often resolve within a few months of treatment, although medium- to long-term prognosis is worse than that of AIH because bile duct disease continues to progress despite treatment in approximately 50% of patients. Ursodeoxycholic acid is usually added to conventional treatment regimen in ASC, but whether this actually helps arrest the progression of bile duct disease remains to be established. The pathogenesis of paediatric-onset AILD is not fully understood, although there is mounting evidence that genetic susceptibility, molecular mimicry and impaired immunoregulatory networks contribute to the initiation and perpetuation of the autoimmune attack. Liver damage is thought to be mediated primarily by CD4pos T-cells. While Th1 effector cells are associated with hepatocyte damage in both AIH and ASC, Th17 immune responses predominate in the latter where they correlate with biochemical indices of cholestasis, indicating that IL-17 is involved in the
Brady, Carla W
There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure.
Abe, Satoshi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Takiguchi, Mai; Shimizu, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Iwaya, Shoji; Owada, Takashi; Miyata, Makiko; Sato, Takamasa; Suzuki, Satoshi; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Yamaki, Takayoshi; Sugimoto, Koichi; Kunii, Hiroyuki; Nakazato, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Takeishi, Yasuchika
Liver dysfunction due to heart failure (HF) is often referred to as cardiac or congestive hepatopathy. The composite Model for End-Stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI) is a robust scoring system of liver function, and a high score is associated with poor prognosis in advanced HF patients with a heart transplantation and/or ventricular assist device. However, the impact of MELD-XI on the prognosis of HF patients in general remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 562 patients who were admitted to our hospital for the treatment of decompensated HF. A MELD-XI score was graded, and patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of MELD-XI score: Group L (MELD-XI <10, n = 289) and Group H (MELD-XI ≥10, n = 273). We compared all-cause mortality and echocardiographic findings between the two groups. In the follow-up period (mean 471 days), 104 deaths (62 cardiac deaths and 42 non-cardiac deaths) were observed. The event (cardiac death, non-cardiac death, all-cause death)-free rate was significantly higher in group L than in group H (logrank P<0.05, respectively). In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, a high MELD-XI score was found to be an independent predictor of cardiac deaths and all-cause mortality in HF patients. Regarding echocardiographic parameters, right atrial and ventricular areas, inferior vena cava diameter, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were higher in group H than in group L (P<0.05, respectively). The MELD-XI scoring system, a marker of liver function, can identify high-risk patients with right heart volume overload, higher pulmonary arterial pressure and multiple organ failure associated with HF.
Dutkowski, Philipp; Oberkofler, Christian E; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Puhan, Milo A; Schadde, Erik; Müllhaupt, Beat; Geier, Andreas; Clavien, Pierre A
To design a new score on risk assessment for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) based on both donor and recipient parameters. The balance of waiting list mortality and posttransplant outcome remains a difficult task in the era of the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD). Using the United Network for Organ Sharing database, a risk analysis was performed in adult recipients of OLT in the United States of America between 2002 and 2010 (n = 37,255). Living donor-, partial-, or combined-, and donation after cardiac death liver transplants were excluded. Next, a risk score was calculated (balance of risk score, BAR score) on the basis of logistic regression factors, and validated using our own OLT database (n = 233). Finally, the new score was compared with other prediction systems including donor risk index, survival outcome following liver transplantation, donor-age combined with MELD, and MELD score alone. Six strongest predictors of posttransplant survival were identified: recipient MELD score, cold ischemia time, recipient age, donor age, previous OLT, and life support dependence prior to transplant. The new balance of risk score stratified recipients best in terms of patient survival in the United Network for Organ Sharing data, as in our European population. The BAR system provides a new, simple and reliable tool to detect unfavorable combinations of donor and recipient factors, and is readily available before decision making of accepting or not an organ for a specific recipient. This score may offer great potential for better justice and utility, as it revealed to be superior to recent developed other prediction scores.
Hansen, Lissi; Lyons, Karen S; Dieckmann, Nathan F; Chang, Michael F; Hiatt, Shirin; Solanki, Emma; Lee, Christopher S
Over half a million Americans are affected by cirrhosis, the cause of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Little is known about how symptom burden changes over time in adults with ESLD and their informal caregivers, which limits our ability to develop palliative care interventions that can optimize symptom management and quality of life in different patient-caregiver dyads. The purpose of this article is to describe the background and design of a prospective, longitudinal descriptive study, "Symptom Burden in End-Stage Liver Disease Patient-Caregiver Dyads," which is currently in progress. The study is designed to (i) identify trajectories of change in physical and psychological symptom burden in adults with ESLD; (ii) identify trajectories of change in physical and psychological symptom burden in caregivers of adults with ESLD; and (iii) determine predictors of types of patient-caregiver dyads that would benefit from tailored palliative care interventions. We aim for a final sample of 200 patients and 200 caregivers who will be followed over 12 months. Integrated multilevel and latent growth mixture modeling will be used to identify trajectories of change in symptom burden, linking those changes to clinical events, and quality of life outcomes and characterizing types of patient-caregiver dyads based on patient-, caregiver-, and dyad-level factors. Challenges we have encountered include unexpected attrition of study participants, participants not returning their baseline questionnaires, and hiring and training of research staff. The study will lay the foundation for future research and innovation in ESLD, end-of-life and palliative care, and caregiving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Huang, Po-Chang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Yang, Chun-Ming; Chu, Chin-Chen; Chio, Chung-Ching; Chang, Fu-Lin; Chien, Chih-Chiang
Background and Objectives To determine the incidence rates and mortality of liver abscess in ESRD patients on dialysis. Design, Setting, Participants, & Measurements Using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database, we collected data from all ESRD patients who initiated dialysis between 2000 and 2006. Patients were followed until death, end of dialysis, or December 31, 2008. Predictors of liver abscess and mortality were identified using Cox models. Results Of the 53,249 incident dialysis patients identified, 447 were diagnosed as having liver abscesses during the follow-up period (224/100,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence rate of liver abscess was 0.3%, 1.1%, and 1.5% at 1 year, 5 years, and 7 years, respectively. Elderly patients and patients on peritoneal dialysis had higher incidence rates. The baseline comorbidities of diabetes mellitus, polycystic kidney disease, malignancy, chronic liver disease, biliary tract disease, or alcoholism predicted development of liver abscess. Overall in-hospital mortality was 10.1%. Conclusions The incidence of liver abscess is high among ESRD dialysis patients. In addition to the well known risk factors of liver abscess, two other important risk factors, peritoneal dialysis and polycystic kidney disease, were found to predict liver abscess in ESRD dialysis patients. PMID:24551077
Wagener, Gebhard; Raffel, Brian; Young, Andrew T; Minhaz, Moury; Emond, Jean
Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is a serious complication after liver transplantation (LT). There is no uniform definition of EAD, and most definitions are based on arbitrary laboratory values. The aim of this study was to devise a definition of EAD that maximizes the predictive power for early death and graft failure. In this single-center, retrospective study, the ability of the international normalized ratio (INR), total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), physiological Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, and serum albumin levels within 7 days after LT to predict 90-day mortality or graft loss was compared with 2 previously used definitions of EAD: (1) peak total bilirubin level >10 mg/dL on days 2 to 7 and (2) either a total bilirubin level >10 mg/dL or an INR >1.6 on day 7 or an AST or alanine aminotransferase level >2000 IU/L within the first 7 days. Of 572 enrolled LT patients 38 died or required retransplantation within 90 days. Peak INR, total bilirubin level, AST levels, and MELD scores were predictors of 90-day graft failure. MELD score on postoperative day 5 was the best predictor with an area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.812 (95% CI: 0.739-0.886, P < 0.001). The best cutoff of MELD score on day 5 for predicting 90-day mortality or graft loss was 18.9. A MELD score >18.9 on postoperative day 5 was a better predictor than any other laboratory value or definition of EAD. This study has demonstrated that the MELD score can be a useful tool not only for pretransplant graft allocation but also for postoperative risk stratification. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Parikh, Anup; Washburn, Kenneth W; Matsuoka, Lea; Pandit, Urvashi; Kim, Jennifer E; Almeda, Jose; Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Halff, Glenn; Genyk, Yuri; Holland, Bart; Wilson, Dorian J; Sher, Linda; Koneru, Baburao
Knowledge of risk factors for posttransplant complications is likely to improve patient outcomes. Few large studies of all early postoperative complications after deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) exist. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective, cohort study of 30-day complications, their risk factors, and the impact on outcomes after DDLT. Three centers contributed data for 450 DDLTs performed from January 2005 through December 2009. Data included donor, recipient, transplant, and outcome variables. All 30-day postoperative complications were graded by the Clavien-Dindo system. Complications per patient and severe (≥ grade III) complications were primary outcomes. Death within 30 days, complication occurrence, length of stay (LOS), and graft and patient survival were secondary outcomes. Multivariate associations of risk factors with complications and complications with LOS, graft survival, and patient survival were examined. Mean number of complications/patient was 3.3 ± 3.9. At least 1 complication occurred in 79.3%, and severe complications occurred in 62.8% of recipients. Mean LOS was 16.2 ± 22.9 days. Graft and patient survival rates were 84% and 86%, respectively, at 1 year and 74% and 76%, respectively, at 3 years. Hospitalization, critical care, ventilatory support, and renal replacement therapy before transplant and transfusions during transplant were the significant predictors of complications (not the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score). Both number and severity of complications had a significant impact on LOS and graft and patient survival. Structured reporting of risk-adjusted complications rates after DDLT is likely to improve patient care and transplant center benchmarking. Despite the accomplished reductions in transfusions during DDLT, opportunities exist for further reductions. With increasing transplantation of sicker patients, reduction in complications would require multidisciplinary efforts and institutional commitment
Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...
Yost, Gardner L; Coyle, Laura; Bhat, Geetha; Tatooles, Antone J
High rates of right ventricular failure continue to affect postoperative outcomes in patients implanted with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). Development of right ventricular failure and implantation with right ventricular assist devices is known to be associated with significantly increased mortality. The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is an effective means of evaluating liver dysfunction. We investigated the prognostic utility of postoperative MELD on post-LVAD implantation outcomes. MELD scores, demographic data, and outcomes including length of stay, survival, and postoperative right ventricular failure were collected for 256 patients implanted with continuous flow LVADs. Regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to investigate the relationship between MELD and all outcomes. Increased MELD score was found to be an independent predictor of both right heart failure and necessity for RVAD implantation (OR 1.097, CI 1.040-1.158, p = 0.001; OR 1.121, CI 1.015, p = 0.024, respectively). Patients with RV failure and who underwent RVAD implantation had reduced postoperative survival compared to patients with RV dysfunction (no RV failure = 651.4 ± 609.8 days, RV failure = 392.6 ± 444.8 days, RVAD = 89.3 ± 72.8 days; p < 0.001). In conclusion, MELD can be used to reliably predict postoperative right heart failure and the necessity for RVAD implantation. Those patients with RV failure and RVADs experience significantly increased postoperative mortality compared to those without RV dysfunction.
Wang, Zheng; Peng, Yuanfei; Sun, Qiman; Qu, Xudong; Tang, Min; Dai, Yajie; Tang, Zhaoyou; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian
The degree of hypertrophy of the future liver remnant (FLR) induced by associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) in patients with HCC and chronic liver disease is often limited as compared with patients with a healthy liver. We reported a 53-year-old male who had a huge HCC (14.8×12×9.4cm) arising from a background of hepatitis B liver fibrosis (METAVIR score F3). The ratio of the FLR/standard liver volume (SLV) was 23.8%. After stage I ALPPS, volumetric assessment on postoperative day (POD) 7 and 13 showed insufficient FLR hypertrophy (FLR/SLV: 28.7% and 30.7%, respectively). A postoperative computed tomographic 3D reconstruction and hepatic angiography showed steal of arterial blood from the FLR to the huge tumour in the right liver. Salvage transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE) was performed to block the major arterial blood supply to the tumour on POD 13. The FLR/SLV increased to 42.5% in 7days. Stage II ALPPS consisting of right trisectionectomy was successfully performed. Salvage TAE which blocked the main arterial blood supply to the huge HCC improved the arterial supply with subsequent adequate and fast hypertrophy of the FLR to allow trisectionectomy in stage II ALPPS to be carried out. Salvage TAE after failed stage I ALPPS with inadequate hypertrophy of the FLR allowed trisectionectomy in stage II ALPPS to be carried out in a patient with a huge HCC with chronic liver disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Researchers at the Center for Cancer Research and colleagues from three cancer research centers in Germany have discovered a mechanism whereby precancerous liver cells, found in individuals with chronic liver disease, can prevent neighboring cells from becoming cancerous but can also speed the growth of cells that have already become cancerous. Learn more...
Quach, Thien; Tippens, Melissa; Szlam, Fania; Van Dyke, Rebecca; Levy, Jerrold H; Csete, Marie
Analysis of the effectiveness of antifibrinolytic therapy for liver transplant recipients is hampered by lack of quantitative assays for assessing drug effects. We adapted chemical engineering tools used in polymerization studies to quantify fibrinogen cross-linking by plasma from liver transplant patients obtained before and after epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) therapy. A target fluorescein isothiocyanate-fibrinogen (FITC-fibrinogen) molecule was constructed; it fluoresces in a quantifiable pattern when in solution, and undergoes cross-linking in the presence of plasmin inhibitors. Cross-linking quenches the fluorescent signal, and the quenching is a quantifiable endpoint. Thus fluorescence from this reporter molecule can be used to assess functional improvement in fibrinogen cross-linking as a result of antifibrinolytic therapies, and it is sensitive to picomolar amounts of plasmin inhibitors and activators. Cross-linking of FITC-fibrinogen by patient plasma, before and after EACA therapy, was assessed using fluorescence spectrometry. Fluorescence patterns from FITC-fibrinogen indicated no significant cross-linking of the target fibrinogen as a consequence of EACA in posttreatment plasma. When the fibrinogen-FITC target was assayed without plasma in the presence of EACA at concentrations that bracket therapeutic levels (100 and 400 microg/ml), significant fluorescence quenching (target FITC-fibrinogen cross-linking) was achieved. These results suggest that fibrinogen-FITC fluorescence is sensitive enough to detect EACA activity in clinically relevant ranges, but that EACA given in usual doses is insufficient to promote fibrinogen cross-linking in patients with end-stage liver disease.
Havens, Joaquim M; Columbus, Alexandra B; Olufajo, Olubode A; Askari, Reza; Salim, Ali; Christopher, Kenneth B
Emergency general surgery (EGS) patients have a disproportionate burden of death and complications. Chronic liver disease (CLD) increases the risk of complications following elective surgery. For EGS patients with CLD, long-term outcomes are unknown and risk stratification models do not reflect severity of CLD. To determine whether the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is associated with increased risk of 90-day mortality following intensive care unit (ICU) admission in EGS patients. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients with CLD who underwent an EGS procedure based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) procedure codes and were admitted to a medical or surgical ICU within 48 hours of surgery between January 1, 1998, and September 20, 2012, at 2 academic medical centers. Chronic liver disease was identified using ICD-9 codes. Multivariable logistic regression was performed. The analysis was conducted from July 1, 2015, to January 1, 2016. The primary outcome was all-cause 90-day mortality. A total of 13 552 EGS patients received critical care; of these, 707 (5%) (mean [SD] age at hospital admission, 56.6 [14.2] years; 64% male; 79% white) had CLD and data to determine MELD score at ICU admission. The median MELD score was 14 (interquartile range, 10-20). Overall 90-day mortality was 30.1%. The adjusted odds ratio of 90-day mortality for each 10-point increase in MELD score was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.34-1.98). A decrease in MELD score of more than 3 in the 48 hours following ICU admission was associated with a 2.2-fold decrease in 90-day mortality (odds ratio = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.98). In this study, MELD score was associated with 90-day mortality following EGS in patients with CLD. The MELD score can be used as a prognostic factor in this patient population and should be used in preoperative risk prediction models and when counseling EGS patients on the risks and benefits of operative intervention.
The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical features help to establish an alcoholic etiology. These features and the use of liver biopsy are discussed, and a practical guideline for diagnosis and follow-up is offered. PMID:21267299
Vial, Guillaume; Le Guen, Marie; Lamarche, Frédéric; Detaille, Dominique; Cottet-Rousselle, Cécile; Demaison, Luc; Hininger-Favier, Isabelle; Theurey, Pierre; Crouzier, David; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Fontaine, Éric
The aim of this study was to characterize the early alterations of the liver mitochondrial function in ZDF (fa/fa) rats that develop diabetes compared to that of their lean counterparts ZDF (fa/+). Liver mitochondrial function was examined in 11- and 14-week-old ZDF (fa/fa) and ZDF lean (fa/+) rats. Oxygen consumption, H2O2 release, calcium retention capacity (CRC), membrane potential, membrane fluidity, and fatty acid composition were analyzed. State 3 oxygen consumption with palmitoyl-carnitine increases between 11 and 14 weeks of age in lean but not in diabetic animals. This response was not seen with other substrates, suggesting that the use of fatty acids is impaired in diabetic rats. H2O2 release was lower in 14-week-old ZDF (fa/fa) rats as compared to ZDF lean (fa/+). These changes were not associated with differences in enzymatic activities of the respiratory complexes, suggesting regulatory mechanisms independent of their expression levels. Membrane fluidity and composition analyses show only slight effects linked to diabetes progression. The most salient feature was a reduction in CRC in the presence of CsA, an effect reflecting PTP dysregulation. Our data suggest few changes of mitochondrial function in ZDF fa/fa rats. At the age of 11 weeks, liver mitochondria have mainly a reduced effect of CsA on CRC. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Panchal, Hina J; Durinka, Joel B; Patterson, Jeromy; Karipineni, Farah; Ashburn, Sarah; Siskind, Eric; Ortiz, Jorge
Background The Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) has been used as a prognostic tool since 2002 to predict pre-transplant mortality. Increasing proportions of transplant candidates with higher MELD scores, combined with improvements in transplant outcomes, mandate the need to study surgical outcomes in patients with MELD scores of ≥40. Methods A retrospective longitudinal analysis of United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) data on all liver transplantations performed between February 2002 and June 2011 (n = 33 398) stratified by MELD score (<30, 30–39, ≥40) was conducted. The primary outcomes of interest were short- and longterm graft and patient survival. A Kaplan–Meier product limit method and Cox regression were used. A subanalysis using a futile population was performed to determine futility predictors. Results Of the 33 398 transplant recipients analysed, 74% scored <30, 18% scored 30–39, and 8% scored ≥40 at transplantation. Recipients with MELD scores of ≥40 were more likely to be younger (P < 0.001), non-White and to have shorter waitlist times (P < 0.001). Overall patient survival correlated inversely with increasing MELD score; this trend was consistent for both short-term (30 days and 90 days) and longterm (1, 3 and 5 years) graft and patient survival. In multivariate analysis, increasing age, African-American ethnicity, donor obesity and diabetes were negative predictors of survival. Futility predictors included patient age of >60 years, obesity, peri-transplantation intensive care unit hospitalization with ventilation, and multiple comorbidities. Conclusions Liver transplantation in recipients with MELD scores of ≥40 offers acceptable longterm survival outcomes. Futility predictors indicate the need for prospective follow-up studies to define the population to gain the highest benefit from this precious resource. PMID:26373873
Lee, Noel M; Brady, Carla W
Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy. PMID:19248187
Piscaglia, F; Salvatore, V; Mulazzani, L; Cantisani, V; Schiavone, C
In the last 12 - 18 months nearly all ultrasound manufacturers have arrived to implement ultrasound shear wave elastography modality in their equipment for the assessment of chronic liver disease; the few remaining players are expected to follow in 2016.When all manufacturers rush to a new technology at the same time, it is evident that the clinical demand for this information is of utmost value. Around 1990, there was similar demand for color Doppler ultrasound; high demand for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was evident at the beginning of this century, and around 2010 demand increased for strain elastography. However, some issues regarding the new shear wave ultrasound technologies must be noted to avoid misuse of the resulting information for clinical decisions. As new articles are expected to appear in 2016 reporting the findings of the new technologies from various companies, we felt that the beginning of this year was the right time to present an appraisal of these issues. We likewise expect that in the meantime EFSUMB will release a new update of the existing guidelines 1 2.The first ultrasound elastography method became available 13 years ago in the form of transient elastography with Fibroscan(®) 3. It was the first technique providing non-invasive quantitive information about the stiffness of the liver and hence regarding the amount of fibrosis in chronic liver disease 3. The innovation was enormous, since a non-invasive modality was finally available to provide findings otherwise achievable only by liver biopsy. In fact, prior to ultrasound elastography, a combination of conventional and Doppler ultrasound parameters were utilized to inform the physician about the presence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension 4. However, skilled operators were required, reproducibility and diagnostic accuracy were suboptimal, and it was not possible to differentiate the pre-cirrhotic stages of fibrosis. All these limitations were substantially improved by
Nagiub, M; Stravitz, R T; Grinnan, D; Moskowitz, W
In patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD), the presence of hypoxemia suggests the presence of intrapulmonary oxygen shunting (IPS) and/or transatrial shunting. Early identification of each is imperative to avoid potentially fatal peritransplantation complications and appropriately prioritize patients for liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this work was to compare the sensitivity of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and right heart catheterization (RHC) with intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) for identifying the etiologies of resting hypoxemia in patients with ESLD being evaluated for LT. Records of 28 patients with ESLD and resting hypoxemia who underwent TTE with bubble study and RHC/ICE were reviewed. Patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) were compared with non-PFO patients to determine diagnostic accuracy of TTE with bubble study versus RHC/ICE. TTE with bubble study diagnosed PFO, IPS, and pulmonary hypertension (PH), respectively, with sensitivities of 46%, 41%, and 25% and specificities of 46%, 45%, and 80% compared with RHC/ICE. Although IPS detected by RHC/ICE was more common in patients without a PFO (92%), 5 patients with a PFO (33%) also had IPS (P = .002). Isolated PH was detected exclusively in patients with a PFO (5/15; 33%). TTE with bubble study is neither sensitive nor specific to exclude a PFO in patients with ESLD. RHC/ICE is a safe and accurate diagnostic/interventional modality in this group of patients and is useful to diagnose other comorbidities, such as IPS and PH, that may coexist and contribute to resting hypoxemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C.
Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895
Freire, Maristela Pinheiro; Soares Oshiro, Isabel C V; Bonazzi, Patricia Rodrigues; Guimarães, Thais; Ramos Figueira, Estela Regina; Bacchella, Telésforo; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Carneiro D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Abdala, Edson
In recipients of liver transplantation (LT), surgical site infection (SSIs) are among the most common types of infection occurring in the first 60 days after LT. In 2007, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scoring system was adopted as the basis for prioritizing organ allocation. Patients with higher MELD scores are at higher risk for developing SSIs as well as other health care-associated infections. However, there have been no studies comparing the incidence of SSIs in the pre-MELD era with the incidence in the period since its adoption. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, etiology, epidemiology, and outcomes of post-LT SSIs in those 2 periods and to identify risk factors for SSIs. We evaluated all patients who underwent LT over a 10-year period (2002-2011). SSI cases were identified through active surveillance. The primary outcome measure was an SSI during the first 60 days after LT. Risk factors were analyzed via logistic regression, and 60-day survival rates were evaluated via Cox regression. We evaluated 543 patients who underwent LT 597 times. The SSI rates in the 2002-2006 and 2007-2011 periods were 30% and 24%, respectively (P = 0.21). We identified the following risk factors for SSIs: retransplantation, the transfusion of more than 2 U of blood during LT, dialysis, cold ischemia for >400 minutes, and a cytomegalovirus infection. The overall 60-day survival rate was 79%. Risk factors for 60-day mortality were retransplantation, dialysis, and a longer surgical time. The use of the MELD score modified the incidence and epidemiology of SSIs only during the first year after its adoption. Risks for SSIs were related more to intraoperative conditions and intercurrences after LT than to a patient's status before LT.
Abdel-Razik, Ahmed; Mousa, Nasser; Elhelaly, Rania; Tawfik, Ahmed
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a potential lethal complication in late liver cirrhosis. There is a lack of knowledge of the clinical features and risk factors of PVT. We aimed to investigate the clinical and radiological characteristics, and biochemical markers of cirrhotic patients to determine the high-risk individuals for PVT attending our center. Of 426 cirrhotic patients, only 120 consecutive patients were included. Clinical, biochemical, immunological, Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score, portal vein patency, and flow velocity were measured in all patients at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Variables that could predict the development of PVT within 1 year were identified by multiple logistic regression. Only 95 patients completed the study; PVT was found in 17 (17.9%) patients. PVT was observed mainly in the portal trunk, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus, lower levels of hemoglobin, platelet counts, and portal vein flow velocity as well as increased MELD scores, platelet indices, portal vein diameter, and splenic thickness were associated with PVT patients than in non-PVT patients (all P<0.01). The incidence of PVT was 17.9%. PVT occurred mainly in the portal vein trunk, superior mesenteric vein, and splenic vein. Diabetes mellitus, lower levels of hemoglobin, platelet count and portal vein flow velocity as well as increased MELD score, platelet indices, portal vein diameter, and splenic thickening were associated with PVT. Splenic thickening, marked reduced of mean portal flow velocity, and diabetes mellitus may be risk factors for PVT.
Liver Disease Pulmonary & PH Hypertension Did you know that if you have liver disease, you are at risk for pulmonary hypertension? ... tissue diseases (scleroderma and lupus for example), chronic liver disease, congenital heart disease, or HIV infec- tion. ...
Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, R K; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with pre-existing advanced liver disease (ALD) has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome following the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in ESRD patients with ALD. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed on 16 patients with ALD and ESRD (ESRD-ALD) and 27 control patients with ESRD but without liver disease (ESRD); both groups were started on CAPD during the same period. No major complications were observed in either group in the immediate post-surgical period and, after an average break in period of 11.3 days, the cases and controls were started on regular CAPD. The average duration of follow-up was 8 ± 2.3 months in the ESRD-ALD group compared with 20 ± 1.3 months in the ESRD group. The overall peritonitis rates were 1.26/treatment year in the ESRD-ALD group and 0.63 in the ESRD group. The 6- and 12-month survivals among ESRD-ALD patients were 63.75% and 38.75%, respectively. Patients with ESRD-ALD had significantly lower baseline serum protein and albumin levels at the time of initiation of CAPD. On follow-up, the hemoglobin levels improved in both the groups along with an improvement in the serum protein and albumin levels. Fourteen of the 16 ESRD-ALD patients died at the end of the 3-year follow-up period; deaths were due to terminal liver failure in nine patients and peritonitis in five patients. Patients who died in the ESRD-ALD group had lower serum albumin, lower body mass index (BMI) (median BMI 18.2 vs. 25.6) and higher grades of liver disease [child Pugh grade B (8), grade C (6) vs. grade B (2)] at initiation of CAPD. Our study suggests that CAPD is a safe modality in patients with ESRD-ALD and that it does not carry any major risk for bleeding tendencies, technique failure or worsening of nutritional status. Low serum albumin, lower BMI and higher grade of liver disease at initiation are associated with higher mortality
Preoperative selective desensitization of live donor liver transplant recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease score, and graft liver volume.
Hong, Geun; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Suk-won; Yoo, Tae; Kim, Hyeyoung; Park, Min-Su; Choi, YoungRok; Lee, Kyungbun; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Park, Myoung Hee; Suh, Kyung-Suk
Several studies have suggested that a positive lymphocyte cross-matching (XM) is associated with low graft survival rates and a high prevalence of acute rejection after adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) using a small-for-size graft. However, there is still no consensus on preoperative desensitization. We adopted the desensitization protocol from ABO-incompatible LDLT. We performed desensitization for the selected patients according to the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score, and graft liver volume. We retrospectively evaluated 230 consecutive ALDLT recipients for 5 yr. Eleven recipients (4.8%) showed a positive XM. Among them, five patients with the high titer (> 1:16) by antihuman globulin-augmented method (T-AHG) and one with a low titer but a high MELD score of 36 were selected for desensitization: rituximab injection and plasmapheresis before the transplantation. There were no major side effects of desensitization. Four of the patients showed successful depletion of the T-AHG titer. There was no mortality and hyperacute rejection in lymphocyte XM-positive patients, showing no significant difference in survival outcome between two groups (P=1.000). In conclusion, this desensitization protocol for the selected recipients considering the degree of T lymphocyte cross-match titer, MELD score, and graft liver volume is feasible and safe.
Westbrook, Rachel H; Dusheiko, Geoffrey; Williamson, Catherine
Pregnancy associated liver diseases affect up to 3% of pregnant women and are the most frequent cause of liver dysfunction in pregnancy. When severe, they are associated with significant morbidity and mortality for both mother and infant. A rapid evaluation to distinguish them from non-pregnancy related liver dysfunction is essential, in order to facilitate appropriate management. Liver disease unrelated to pregnancy can present de novo in pregnancy, or pregnancy can occur in women with preexisting liver pathology (Table 1). Research and subsequent advances in medical care have resulted in improved but still not satisfactory maternal and fetal outcomes. In this review we provide an overview of the liver diseases specific to the pregnant state and an update on their pathogenesis, treatment and outcomes. The risks of pregnancy in women with pre-existent liver pathology is detailed and recent advances in our understanding of specific risks and outcomes are discussed.
de Lima, Daniel Carvalho; Ribeiro, Helem Sena; Cristina, Rafaelly; Oliveira, Michelle; Generoso, Simone de Vasconcelos; Lima, Agnaldo Soares; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson
Muscle dysfunction and reduced heart rate variability (HRV) are common in patients with advanced liver disease, and both are related to poor outcomes. Malnutrition is also highly prevalent in these patients, however, the association between the malnutrition and HRV has not yet been assessed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term HRV, functional and nutritional statuses in patients with advanced liver disease. The nutritional and functional statuses were determined by subjective global assessment, handgrip strength (dynamometer, JAMAR) and gait speed during a 6-minute walk text (6MWT), respectively. The cardiac workload index (CWI) was used to evaluate the cardiac response to the 6MWT. The time domain (SD of all normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN]) and very-low, low-, and high-frequency domains of short-term HRV were evaluated with RS800 CX (Polar, Finland) and Cardioseries software (Brazil). The study evaluated 42 patients with liver disease (62% men) and malnutrition was found in 62% of this population. The malnourished participants presented with reduced functional status, 41% decreased SDNN, and 14% greater CWI compared with well-nourished individuals (P < 0.05). Additionally, the CWI was negatively associated to SDNN (r = 0.414; P < 0.05) and gait speed (r = 0.598; P < 0.05), especially in malnourished individuals (r = 0.650; P < 0.05). These data indicate that malnourished patients with liver disease have higher cardiovascular risk related to reduced functional status, which may be associated to poor outcomes during the course of the disease before and after transplant. Another relevant aspect is that the 6MWT associated to HRV could be a useful tool to screen liver disease patients who have a higher risk for cardiovascular complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Guettrot-Imbert, G; Plessier, A; Hillaire, S; Delluc, C; Leroux, G; Le Guern, V; Costedoat-Chalumeau, N
Liver disease can be observed in pregnant women whether or not related to pregnancy. Liver disorders can be revealed by pruritus, vomiting, jaundice or abnormal liver blood tests during pregnancy. These liver manifestations can lead to the diagnosis of liver disease specifically associated to pregnancy as intrahepatic pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, Hyperemesis gravidarum, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and preeclampsia-induced liver injury. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for other liver diseases coincident with pregnancy as viral hepatitis, thrombosis, drug toxicity or gallstone. Finally, pre-existing liver disease must be taken into account given the risk of fœto-maternal transmission risk as well as the risk of decompensation of underlying cirrhosis secondary to the hemodynamic changes caused by pregnancy. The aim of this revue is to perform an update on the various situations that can be observed, the principles of management of these liver diseases, in order to reduce the risk of complications and to ensure the best maternal and fetal prognosis.
Lee, Po-Chu; Lo, Chiao; Ko, Wen-Je; Huang, Sheng-Jean; Lee, Po-Huang
We analyzed one case of end-stage liver disease and discussed whether the palliative care should be considered for this case. The medical record of a 56-year-old woman with alcoholic liver cirrhosis admitted to our hospital due to hypovolemic shock and esophageal varices (EV) was reviewed. The EV with active bleeding were arrested by panendoscopic intervention. However, repeat surgery revealed transmural laceration over the cardia, and immediate surgery and splenectomy were needed. The patient died postoperatively in the surgical intensive care unit due to bleeding tendency and hypovolemic shock. We suggest that palliative care and/or hospice care should have been considered for this patient before the crisis developed and that physicians require education about timely palliative and hospice care for patients with end-stage nonmalignant disease.
Hüsing, Anna; Kabar, Iyad; Schmidt, Hartmut H.; Heinzow, Hauke S.
Worldwide, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a common infection. Due to new antiviral approaches and the approval of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA), HCV therapy has become more comfortable. Nevertheless, there are special patient groups, in whom treatment of HCV is still challenging. Due to only few data available, tolerability and efficacy of DAAs in special patient cohorts still remain unclear. Such special patient cohorts comprise HCV in patients with decompensated liver disease (Child-Pugh Class B or C), patients with chronic kidney disease, and patients on waiting lists to renal/liver transplantation or those with HCV recurrence after liver transplantation. HCV infection in these patient cohorts has been shown to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality and may lead to reduced graft survival after transplantation. Successful eradication of HCV results in a better outcome concerning liver-related complications and in a better clinical outcome of these patients. In this review, we analyze available data and results from recently published literature and provide an overview of current recommendations of HCV-therapy regimen in these special patient cohorts. PMID:26251895
Brand, Jonathan Frieman
Chronic liver disease is a worldwide health problem, and hepatic fibrosis (HF) is one of the hallmarks of the disease. Pathology diagnosis of HF is based on textural change in the liver as a lobular collagen network that develops within portal triads. The scale of collagen lobules is characteristically on order of 1mm, which close to the resolution limit of in vivo Gd-enhanced MRI. In this work the methods to collect training and testing images for a Hotelling observer are covered. An observer based on local texture analysis is trained and tested using wet-tissue phantoms. The technique is used to optimize the MRI sequence based on task performance. The final method developed is a two stage model observer to classify fibrotic and healthy tissue in both phantoms and in vivo MRI images. The first stage observer tests for the presence of local texture. Test statistics from the first observer are used to train the second stage observer to globally sample the local observer results. A decision of the disease class is made for an entire MRI image slice using test statistics collected from the second observer. The techniques are tested on wet-tissue phantoms and in vivo clinical patient data.
Hammami, Rania; Boudabbous, Mouna; Jdidi, Jihen; Trabelsi, Fatma; Mroua, Fakher; Kallel, Rahma; Amouri, Ali; Abid, Dorra; Tahri, Nabil; Abid, Leila; Kammoun, Samir
ABSTRACT Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is associated with poor prognosis and risk of acute heart failure after liver transplantation or interventional procedures. We aimed to assess the relationship between the severity of cardiac impairment and hepatic disease. Eighty patients and eighty controls underwent echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking measures. We assess the correlation between echocardiographic parameters and Child and MELD scores. Systolic parameters function (s wave, p < 0.001) and global longitudinal strain (p < 0.001) as well as diastolic parameters were significantly more impaired in cirrhotic patients compared to controls. There were no differences among the different groups in ‘Child score’ regarding systolic function as well as diastolic function. Paradoxically, the left atrium size correlated positively to both Child (p = 0.01, r = 0.26) and MELD scores (p = 0.02, r = 0.24). Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in decompensated patients as compared to compensated patients(p = 0.02).. We did not identify any association between severity of liver disease and cardiac dysfunction. Therefore, a transthoracic echocardiography should be performed in all cirrhotic patients before interventional and surgical procedures regardless of the severity of liver disease. PMID:28245727
Guerra Montero, Luis; Ortega Álvarez, Félix; Sumire Umeres, Julia; Cok García, Jaime
Wilson disease (WD) is a disorder of copper metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive, which produces toxic copper accumulation mainly in the liver and brain, in general has two ways presentation, liver at early ages and neurological in later ages. We present the case of a female patient of 21 years diagnosed of WD in liver cirrhosis that started with an edematous ascites without any neurological symptoms despite the age. Their laboratory studies showed decrease in serum ceruloplasmin and high cupruria within 24 hours of the disease , characteristic data of WD. Although WD is not a common disease should be suspected in all chronic liver disease of unknown etiology with negative viral markers and autoimmunity with or without neurological manifestations as soon as posible and starting treatment with copper chelating mainly leads to a substantial improvement the prognosis of these patients.
Puche, Mary L; Kay-Valero, Sharon; Michelli, Pedro; Oropeza, Maria D; Loureiro, Carmen L; Devesa, Marisol; Dagher, Lucy; Pujol, Flor H
Globally, about 50% of liver cancer originates as a result of long term infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), and some genotypes and mutations have been associated with an increased severity of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of HBV in patients from Venezuela, with chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to compare the occurrence of mutations in all patient groups. Samples from patients with different pathologies of the liver, associated with HBV infection, were collected. The HBV S region was analyzed for genotype determination and, when available, the whole genome sequence was examined for mutations analysis. Genotype F was the most common genotype (87%). While the HBV subgenotype F3 was the most frequent genotype in the whole group of samples (44%), the subgenotype F2 predominated in HCC patients (56%). Mutations were more common in HCC and cirrhosis cases (p=0.01). The A1762T mutation was significantly associated with the advanced stage of liver disease (p=0.008). Additionally, mutations were more common in early stages of liver disease in HBV subgenotype F2-infected patients, and a significant association between this subgenotype and the emergence of T 1753C, A1762T, A1762T/G1764A (p=0.04) and C1773T (p=0.001) mutations in chronic patients was found, when compared to the HBV subgenotype F3. By comparing F2 with all other HBV subgenotypes, a positive association for the three basal core promoter (BCP) mutants (A1762T, A1762T/G1764A p=0.01, G1764A p=0.04) was found. These results suggest that the HBV subgenotype F2 might be associated to more severe forms of liver disease in comparison with the HBV subgenotype F3.
Carbone, Marco; Neuberger, James M
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) represent the three major autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). PBC, PSC, and AIH are all complex disorders in that they result from the effects of multiple genes in combination with as yet unidentified environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous risk loci for PBC and PSC that host genes involved in innate or acquired immune responses. These loci may provide a clue as to the immune-based pathogenesis of AILD. Moreover, many significant risk loci for PBC and PSC are also risk loci for other autoimmune disorders, such type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting a shared genetic basis and possibly similar molecular pathways for diverse autoimmune conditions. There is no curative treatment for all three disorders, and a significant number of patients eventually progress to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation (LT). LT in this context has a favourable overall outcome with current patient and graft survival exceeding 80% at 5years. Indications are as for other chronic liver disease although recent data suggest that while lethargy improves after transplantation, the effect is modest and variable so lethargy alone is not an indication. In contrast, pruritus rapidly responds. Cholangiocarcinoma, except under rigorous selection criteria, excludes LT because of the high risk of recurrence. All three conditions may recur after transplantation and are associated with a greater risk of both acute cellular and chronic ductopenic rejection. It is possible that a crosstalk between alloimmune and autoimmune response perpetuate each other. An immunological response toward self- or allo-antigens is well recognised after LT in patients transplanted for non-autoimmune indications and sometimes termed "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Whether this is part of the spectrum of rejection or an autoimmune
Longenecker, Joseph C; Estrella, Michelle M; Segev, Dorry L; Atta, Mohamed G
In the context of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), renal dysfunction is used as a criterion for simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation. Changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) the year before and after OLT have not been well defined. In a cohort of 416 OLT patients from 1996 to 2009, estimated GFR (eGFR) was assessed during the 12 months before OLT (period A), at time of OLT (period B), and the 12 months after OLT (period C). Outcomes included progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD), length of stay, and mortality. The overall rate of progression to ESRD over 15 years of follow-up was 0.155/person-year and was strongly associated with eGFR <60 (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.7; P < 0.001), diabetes (HR = 2.6; P < 0.001), and with a combination of the 2 (HR = 5.5; P < 0.0001). Mean eGFR decreased from period A (86 mL/min per 1.73 m) to period B (77; P < 0.001) to period C (71; P < 0.001), with similar decreases in eGFR across subgroups of clinical variables. Patients with eGFR less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m at OLT had acute and large decreases in eGFR from periods A to B, then increases to period C. Length of stay was associated with eGFR at OLT, hepatorenal syndrome, dialysis requirement, model for end-stage liver disease score, and alcoholic liver disease. Twelve-month mortality was strongly associated with time-dependent change in eGFR, hepatorenal syndrome, dialysis requirement, hepatitis C, and model for end-stage liver disease era transplantation but was not associated with eGFR at OLT. Among OLT patients, renal function worsened in all subgroups from before to after OLT, but the association of progression to ESRD was particularly high among patients with both diabetes and eGFR less than 60 at the time of OLT. This suggests that diabetes could be considered as a criterion when making decisions regarding simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation.
Remmler, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Treuner-Kaueroff, Theresa; Bartels, Michael; Seehofer, Daniel; Scholz, Markus; Berg, Thomas; Kaiser, Thorsten
Organ allocation for liver transplantation is based on prognosis, using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) or MELD-Na score. These scores do not consider systemic inflammation and septic complications. Blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to the MELD score, associates with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease, whereas levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) have not been systematically studied. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 474 patients with end-stage liver disease (63.5% male; median age, 56.9 years), evaluated for liver transplantation in Germany, with at least 1 year of follow up. Data were collected on blood levels of CRP, IL6, and white blood cell count (WBC). Findings were analyzed in relation to mortality and compared with patients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores and MELD-Na scores. For survival analysis, the cohort was divided into quartiles of IL6, CRP, and WBC levels, as well as MELD scores. Log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare the groups, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values were calculated. Blood levels of IL6 and MELD scores associated with mortality: none of the patients with levels of IL6 below the first quartile (below 5.3 pg/ml) died within 1 year. In contrast, 67.7% of the patients in the highest quartile of IL6 level (37.0 pg/ml or more) died within 1 year. MELD score also correlated with mortality: among patients with MELD scores below 8.7, 0.9% died within 1 year, whereas in patients with MELD scores of 18.0 or more, 67.4% died within 1 year. The predictive value of level of IL6 (AUROC, 0.940) was higher than level of CRP (AUROC, 0.866) (P=.009) or WBC (AUROC, 0.773) (P<.001) for 90-day mortality. MELD scores associated with 90-day mortality (AUROC, 0.933) (P=.756) as did MELD-Na score (AUROC, 0.946) (P=.771). Level of IL6 associated with 1-year mortality (AUROC, 0.916) to a greater extent
Mar, Javier; Martínez-Baz, Iván; Ibarrondo, Oliver; Juanbeltz, Regina; San Miguel, Ramón; Casado, Itziar; O'Leary, Aisling; Castilla, Jesús
The aim of this study was to describe the natural long-term course of end-stage liver disease associated with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection by measuring survival and complication rates in the era prior to the arrival of new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs. A retrospective population-based cohort study was designed to establish the follow-up of patients hospitalized for a decompensated cirrhotic event or hepatocellular carcinoma using electronic records from hospital discharge databases from 2009 to 2015. Their survival was compared with a sex, age and non-liver mortality excess matched simulation of the general Spanish population. A total of 253 patients were included in the study. Among those with decompensated cirrhosis (n = 151) the hospital admission rate was 1.88 per patient-year with a mortality rate of 0.16 per patient-year. Mean survival was 4.10 years for patients with decompensated cirrhosis, and 1.75 for non-transplanted hepatocellular carcinoma, compared to 18.39 years for the general population. Our results show the complexity and rapid progression of end-stage liver disease associated with HCV infection. The considerable loss of life expectancy associated with the development of decompensated cirrhosis in patients with chronic HCV infection in the absence of viral clearance through treatment is acutely evident.
Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser
Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation.
Soriano, Germán; Sánchez, Elisabet; Guarner, Carlos
Alterations in intestinal microbiota and inflammatory response play a key role in disease progression and development of complications in liver diseases, mainly in cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Probiotics can be useful to delay disease progression and to prevent development of complications due to their ability to modulate intestinal flora, intestinal permeability and inflammatory response. Several studies have shown the efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of minimal hepatic encephalopathy and the prevention of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy. Probiotics have also been observed to prevent postoperative bacterial infections and to improve liver damage in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, more studies are needed in order to confirm the efficacy and safety of probiotics in patients with liver diseases, and to better understanding of the mechanisms implicated in their effects.
Burroughs, A K
Liver disease in pregnancy should be considered in 3 categories: pre-existing disease, disease peculiar to pregnancy and coincident acute liver or gall-stone disease. In addition the time of onset of diagnosis in terms of the trimester of gestation must be verified, as the diseases peculiar to pregancy have a characteristic time of onset. In the last trimester closes obstetric management is required for the constellation of abnormal liver function tests, nausea and/or vomiting and abdominal pain. This may be due to severe pre-eclampsia, HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets) syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy with or without sub-capsular hepatic haematomas, amongst which there is an overlap. Early delivery is curative. A molecular basis consisting of long chain 3-hydroxyl CoA dehydroxegenase deficiency in heterozygote mothers underlies this clinical syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid is now established treatment for intra-hepatic cholestasis of pregnancy and appears to improve foetal outcome. Hepatitis B vaccination and immunoglobulin at birth prevents chronic hepatitis B in children of HBsAg (hepatitis B surface antigen) positive carrier mothers.
Moris, Demetrios; Vernadakis, Spyridon; Papalampros, Alexandros; Vailas, Michail; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Petrou, Athanasios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios
To highlight the potential mechanisms of regeneration in the Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy models (clinical and experimental) that could unlock the myth behind the extraordinary capability of the liver for regeneration, which would help in designing new therapeutic options for the regenerative drive in difficult setup, such as chronic liver diseases. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy has been recently advocated to induce rapid future liver remnant hypertrophy that significantly shortens the time for the second stage hepatectomy. The introduction of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in the surgical armamentarium of therapeutic tools for liver surgeons represented a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery. A comprehensive literature review of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy and its utility in liver regeneration is performed. Liver regeneration after Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy is a combination of portal flow changes and parenchymal transection that generate a systematic response inducing hepatocyte proliferation and remodeling. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy represents a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery because it offers rapid liver regeneration potential that facilitate resection of liver tumors that were previously though unresectable. The jury is still out though in terms of safety, efficacy and oncological outcomes. As far as Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy -induced liver regeneration is concerned, further research on the field should focus on the role of non-parenchymal cells in liver regeneration as well as on the effect of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in liver regeneration in the setup of
Moris, Demetrios; Vernadakis, Spyridon; Papalampros, Alexandros; Vailas, Michail; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Petrou, Athanasios; Dimitroulis, Dimitrios
AIM To highlight the potential mechanisms of regeneration in the Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy models (clinical and experimental) that could unlock the myth behind the extraordinary capability of the liver for regeneration, which would help in designing new therapeutic options for the regenerative drive in difficult setup, such as chronic liver diseases. Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy has been recently advocated to induce rapid future liver remnant hypertrophy that significantly shortens the time for the second stage hepatectomy. The introduction of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in the surgical armamentarium of therapeutic tools for liver surgeons represented a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery. METHODS A comprehensive literature review of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy and its utility in liver regeneration is performed. RESULTS Liver regeneration after Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy is a combination of portal flow changes and parenchymal transection that generate a systematic response inducing hepatocyte proliferation and remodeling. CONCLUSION Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy represents a real breakthrough in the history of liver surgery because it offers rapid liver regeneration potential that facilitate resection of liver tumors that were previously though unresectable. The jury is still out though in terms of safety, efficacy and oncological outcomes. As far as Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy -induced liver regeneration is concerned, further research on the field should focus on the role of non-parenchymal cells in liver regeneration as well as on the effect of Associating Liver Partition and Portal vein ligation for Stage hepatectomy in liver
Pau, Alice K; Penzak, Scott R; Boyd, Sarita D; McLaughlin, Mary; Morse, Caryn G
Current product labels for maraviroc and raltegravir provide no dosing guidance for patients with end-stage liver disease and worsening renal function. We describe a 41-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and rapidly progressive liver failure and vanishing bile duct syndrome at presentation. Despite discontinuation of all potential offending drugs, the patient's liver function continued to deteriorate. To achieve and maintain HIV suppression while awaiting liver transplantation, a regimen consisting of maraviroc, raltegravir, and enfuvirtide was started. These agents were chosen because the patient was not exposed to them before the onset of liver failure. While receiving product label-recommended twice-daily dosing of these drugs, he achieved and maintained HIV suppression. During a complicated and prolonged hospitalization, the patient also developed renal dysfunction. As hepatic metabolism is the primary route of clearance of maraviroc and raltegravir, we predicted that using approved doses of these drugs could result in significant drug accumulation. Since the safety profiles of supratherapeutic concentrations of these agents are not well defined, we chose to use therapeutic drug monitoring to guide further dosing. The reported concentrations showed severely impaired metabolic clearance of both drugs, with markedly prolonged elimination half-lives of 189 hours for maraviroc and 61 hours for raltegravir. Previously reported half-lives for maraviroc and raltegravir in HIV-infected patients with normal hepatic and renal function are 14-18 hours and 9-12 hours, respectively. Based on these results, the dosing intervals were extended from twice/day to twice/week for maraviroc and every 48 hours for raltegravir. Unfortunately, the patient's clinical condition continued to deteriorate, and he eventually died of complications related to end-stage liver disease. This case illustrates the difficulties in managing antiretroviral therapy in
Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro
Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933
Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui
Liver fibrosis is a common pathological process of varied chronic liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis, virus hepatitis, and so on. Accurate evaluation of liver fibrosis is necessary for effective therapy and a five-stage grading system was developed. Currently, experienced pathologists use stained liver biopsies to assess the degree of liver fibrosis. But it is difficult to obtain highly reproducible results because of huge discrepancy among different observers. Polarization imaging technique has the potential of scoring liver fibrosis since it is capable of probing the structural and optical properties of samples. Considering that the Mueller matrix measurement can provide comprehensive microstructural information of the tissues, in this paper, we apply the Mueller matrix microscope to human liver fibrosis slices in different fibrosis stages. We extract the valid regions and adopt the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters for quantitative analysis. We also use the Monte Carlo simulation to analyze the relationship between the microscopic Mueller matrix parameters and the characteristic structural changes during the fibrosis process. The experimental and Monte Carlo simulated results show good consistency. We get a positive correlation between the parameters and the stage of liver fibrosis. The results presented in this paper indicate that the Mueller matrix microscope can provide additional information for the detections and fibrosis scorings of liver tissues and has great potential in liver fibrosis diagnosis.
Krawczyk, Marcin; Bonfrate, Leonilde; Portincasa, Piero
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disorder in the Western world, is a clinico-histopathological entity in which excessive triglyceride accumulation in the liver occurs. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) represents the necroinflammatory form, which can lead to advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH is complex but increased visceral adiposity plus insulin resistance with increased free fatty acids release play an initial key role for the onset and perpetuation of liver steatosis. Further events in the liver include oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant defences, early mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, unbalance of adipose-derived adipokines with a chronic proinflammatory status, and gut-derived microbial adducts. New gene polymorphisms increasing the risk of fatty liver, namely APOC3 and PNPLA3, have been lately identified allowing further insights into the pathogenesis of this condition. In our review pathophysiological, genetic, and essential diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of NAFLD are examined with future trends in this field highlighted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahansaria, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Senthil; Bharathy, Kishore G.S.; Kumar, Sachin; Pamecha, Viniyendra
Dyskeratosis congenita is a multisystem genetic disorder. Although hepatic involvement is reported in about 7% of patients with dyskeratosis congenita, it is not well characterized and often attributed to hemochromatosis from frequent blood transfusions. A few case reports describe cirrhosis and hepatic cell necrosis in affected individuals in autosomal dominant pedigrees. Bone marrow failure and malignancies are the principal causes of death in dyskeratosis congenita. We describe the first case of living donor liver transplantation, in dyskeratosis congenita for decompensated cirrhosis with portal hypertension. The patient also had associated severe hepatopulmonary syndrome, interstitial lung disease, bilateral hip replacement for avascular necrosis of the head of femur, and a past history of bone marrow transplantation for bone marrow failure. PMID:26900277
Osna, Natalia A.; Donohue, Terrence M.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.
Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem. The liver sustains the greatest degree of tissue injury by heavy drinking because it is the primary site of ethanol metabolism. Chronic and excessive alcohol consumption produces a wide spectrum of hepatic lesions, the most characteristic of which are steatosis, hepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Steatosis is the earliest response to heavy drinking and is characterized by the deposition of fat in hepatocytes. Steatosis can progress to steatohepatitis, which is a more severe, inflammatory type of liver injury. This stage of liver disease can lead to the development of fibrosis, during which there is excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The fibrotic response begins with active pericellular fibrosis, which may progress to cirrhosis, characterized by excessive liver scarring, vascular alterations, and eventual liver failure. Among problem drinkers, about 35 percent develop advanced liver disease because a number of disease modifiers exacerbate, slow, or prevent alcoholic liver disease progression. There are still no FDA-approved pharmacological or nutritional therapies for treating patients with alcoholic liver disease. Cessation of drinking (i.e., abstinence) is an integral part of therapy. Liver transplantation remains the life-saving strategy for patients with end-stage alcoholic liver disease.
Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro
Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648
Lenci, Ilaria; Milana, Martina; Angelico, Mario; Baiocchi, Leonardo
For patients on liver transplant waiting lists, hyponatremia is associated with increased mortality before transplant and complications during the early posttransplant period. Conventional therapies, such as fluid restriction or hypertonic saline infusion, are of limited value. We describe 2 patients with high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores (> 30) who were referred to our unit for expedited liver transplant. While on waiting lists, these patients developed severe hyponatremia (< 125 mEq/L) that was refractory to conventional therapies. Low-dose, short-term tolvaptan therapy (15 mg/d for 5 d) was then administered, as a bridge therapy to transplant, resulting in prompt restoration of serum sodium levels without any major clinical event. One patient died a few days later as no suitable grafts were available. The other received a liver transplant, and the outcome was uneventful. In conclusion, our report demonstrates that a short-term, low-dose tolvaptan-based strategy promptly resolves hyponatremia in patients who are on expedited waiting lists for liver transplant, allowing surgery with improved sodium levels and possibly limiting peritransplant complications.
Comparison of the Child-Turcotte-Pugh Classification and the Model for End-stage Liver Disease Score as Predictors of the Severity of the Systemic Inflammatory Response in Patients Undergoing Living-donor Liver Transplantation
Hong, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jeong-Eun; Cho, Mi-La; Heo, Yu-Jung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Choi, Jung-Hyun
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification system and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in predicting the severity of the systemic inflammatory response in living-donor liver transplantation patients. Recipients of liver graft were allocated to a recipient group (n = 39) and healthy donors to a donor group (n = 42). The association between the CTP classification, the MELD scores and perioperative cytokine concentrations in the recipient group was evaluated. The pro-inflammatory cytokines measured included interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α; the anti-inflammatory cytokines measured included IL-10 and IL-4. Cytokine concentrations were quantified using sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassays. The IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 concentrations in the recipient group were significantly higher than those in healthy donor group patients. All preoperative cytokine levels, except IL-6, increased in relation to the severity of liver disease, as measured by the CTP classification. Additionally, all cytokine levels, except IL-6, were significantly correlated preoperatively with MELD scores. However, the correlations diminished during the intraoperative period. The CTP classification and the MELD score are equally reliable in predicting the severity of the systemic inflammatory response, but only during the preoperative period. PMID:22022187
Beier, Juliane I.; Arteel, Gavin E.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a leading cause of death from liver disease in the United States. In studies from the Veterans Administration, patients with cirrhosis and superimposed alcoholic hepatitis had greater than 60% mortality over a 4-year period, with most of those deaths occurring in the first month. Thus, the prognosis for this disease is more ominous than for many common types of cancer (eg, breast, prostate, and colon). Moreover, ALD imposes a significant economic burden from lost wages, health care costs, and lost productivity. Unfortunately, there is still no Food and Drug Administration–approved or widely accepted drug therapy for any stage of ALD. Thus, a pressing need exists for a more detailed understanding of mechanisms of liver injury. This article reviews recent advances in mechanisms and therapy related to five major areas of direct relevance to ALD: oxidative stress; gut-liver axis and cytokine signaling; malnutrition; fibrin/clotting; and stellate cell activation/fibrosis. We also review why therapies related to these mechanisms have performed well in experimental animals and in vitro systems, but have not necessarily translated into effective therapy for humans with ALD. PMID:21088999
Mottershead, Marcus; Neuberger, James
Liver transplantation remains an effective treatment for those with end-stage disease and with intractable liver-related symptoms. The shortage of organs for transplantation has resulted in the need for rationing. A variety of approaches to selection and allocation have been developed and vary from country to country. The shortage of donors has meant that new approaches have to be adopted to make maximal use of the available organs; these include splitting grafts, use of extended criteria livers, livers from non-heart-beating donors and from living donors. Post transplantation, most patients will need life-long immunosuppression, although a small proportion can have immunosuppression successfully withdrawn. Newer immunosuppressive drugs and different strategies may allow a more targeted approach with a reduction in side-effects and so improve the patient and graft survival. For autoimmune diseases, transplantation is associated with significant improvement in the quality and length of life. Disease may recur after transplantation and may affect patient and graft survival. PMID:18528936
Liver disease, the most common disease in Taiwan, is not easily discovered in its initial stage; early diagnosis of this leading cause of mortality is therefore highly important. The design of an effective diagnosis model is therefore an important issue in liver disease treatment. This study accordingly employs classification and regression tree (CART) and case-based reasoning (CBR) techniques to structure an intelligent diagnosis model aiming to provide a comprehensive analytic framework to raise the accuracy of liver disease diagnosis. Based on the advice and assistance of doctors and medical specialists of liver conditions, 510 outpatient visitors using ICD-9 (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision) codes at a medical center in Taiwan from 2005 to 2006 were selected as the cases in the data set for liver disease diagnosis. Data on 340 patients was utilized for the development of the model and on 170 patients utilized to perform comparative analysis of the models. This paper accordingly suggests an intelligent model for the diagnosis of liver diseases which integrates CART and CBR. The major steps in applying the model include: (1) adopting CART to diagnose whether a patient suffers from liver disease; (2) for patients diagnosed with liver disease in the first step, employing CBR to diagnose the types of liver diseases. In the first phase, CART is used to extract rules from health examination data to show whether the patient suffers from liver disease. The results indicate that the CART rate of accuracy is 92.94%. In the second phase, CBR is developed to diagnose the type of liver disease, and the new case triggers the CBR system to retrieve the most similar case from the case base in order to support the treatment of liver disease. The new case is supported by a similarity ratio, and the CBR diagnostic accuracy rate is 90.00%. Actual implementation shows that the intelligent diagnosis model is capable of integrating CART and CBR techniques to
Carbone, Marco; Sharp, Stephen J; Flack, Steve; Paximadas, Dimitrios; Spiess, Kelly; Adgey, Carolyn; Griffiths, Laura; Lim, Reyna; Trembling, Paul; Williamson, Kate; Wareham, Nick J; Aldersley, Mark; Bathgate, Andrew; Burroughs, Andrew K; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M; Thorburn, Douglas; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Cordell, Heather J; Alexander, Graeme J; Jones, David E J; Sandford, Richard N; Mells, George F
The biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)--so-called "treatment response"--strongly predicts long-term outcome in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Several long-term prognostic models based solely on the treatment response have been developed that are widely used to risk stratify PBC patients and guide their management. However, they do not take other prognostic variables into account, such as the stage of the liver disease. We sought to improve existing long-term prognostic models of PBC using data from the UK-PBC Research Cohort. We performed Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis of diverse explanatory variables in a derivation cohort of 1,916 UDCA-treated participants. We used nonautomatic backward selection to derive the best-fitting Cox model, from which we derived a multivariable fractional polynomial model. We combined linear predictors and baseline survivor functions in equations to score the risk of a liver transplant or liver-related death occurring within 5, 10, or 15 years. We validated these risk scores in an independent cohort of 1,249 UDCA-treated participants. The best-fitting model consisted of the baseline albumin and platelet count, as well as the bilirubin, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase, after 12 months of UDCA. In the validation cohort, the 5-, 10-, and 15-year risk scores were highly accurate (areas under the curve: >0.90). The prognosis of PBC patients can be accurately evaluated using the UK-PBC risk scores. They may be used to identify high-risk patients for closer monitoring and second-line therapies, as well as low-risk patients who could potentially be followed up in primary care. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Stauber, Rudolf E; Wagner, Doris; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Palma, Stefan; Gurakuqi, Gerald; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Iberer, Florian; Smolle, Karl-Heinz; Haas, Josef; Trauner, Michael
Indocyanine green (ICG) clearance has been proposed as a quantitative liver function test several decades ago. Interest in this method has been renewed following the development of finger pulse densitometry for noninvasive estimation of the ICG plasma disappearance rate (PDR). On the other hand, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), which is based on routine laboratory parameters, is widely used for estimation of short-term survival in cirrhosis, but its prognostic value in critically ill cirrhotic patients is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ICG PDR vs. MELD for estimation of short-term prognosis in cirrhotic patients. Ninety consecutive cirrhotic patients who were admitted for decompensated disease or were being evaluated for liver transplantation were screened. Patients who underwent liver transplantation within the following 90 days and those with hepatocellular carcinoma were excluded. In the remaining 70 patients, routine laboratory parameters and ICG clearance were analysed. Following an injection of ICG 0.25 mg/kg, PDR was measured by finger pulse densitometry. The diagnostic accuracy of ICG PDR and MELD for prediction of 90-day survival was assessed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. ROC curve analysis revealed superior diagnostic accuracy for MELD as compared with ICG PDR in predicting 90-day survival (area under the ROC curve 0.89 vs. 0.71). A MELD cut-off of 22 provided the best discrimination for prediction of 90-day survival. MELD is superior to ICG PDR for estimation of short-term survival in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
Selgas, Rafael; Bajo, M-Auxiliadora; Del Peso, Gloria; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Gonzalez, Elena; Romero, Sara; Olivas, Elena; Hevia, Covadonga
The treatment of cirrhotic patients with ascites and end-stage renal disease is complex, due mainly to decreased effective arterial volume and hemodynamic instability. Peritoneal dialysis as a continuous therapy represents an alternative to hemodialysis-related intolerance. We report on our experience and that of others with cirrhotic patients with ascites treated by peritoneal dialysis. Hemodynamic tolerance was excellent in all patients and solute and water peritoneal transport increased to above the normal range in almost all cases. Morbidity and mortality were related principally to liver disease and other comorbidities. Peritoneal protein losses, initially high, decreased over time, maintaining serum albumin within the low normal range. The incidence of peritonitis was similar or slightly higher than usual in these patients, with peculiar etiology. The experiences with peritoneal dialysis suggest consideration of this treatment as the first choice for cirrhotic patients with ascites and that need to start dialysis.
Liberal, Rodrigo; Grant, Charlotte R
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues. Patients with cirrhosis have higher risks or morbidity and mortality, and that in the decompensated phase, complications of portal hypertension and/or liver dysfunction lead to rapid deterioration. Accurate diagnosis and monitoring of cirrhosis is, therefore of upmost importance. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard technique, but highly promising non-invasive methodology is under development. Liver transplantation (LT) is an effective therapeutic option for the management of end-stage liver disease secondary to AIH, PBC and PSC. LT is indicated for AILD patients who have progressed to end-stage chronic liver disease or developed intractable symptoms or hepatic malignancy; in addition, LT may also be indicated for patients presenting with acute liver disease due to AIH who do not respond to steroids. PMID:27729952
Lucero, Diego; Miksztowicz, Verónica; Gualano, Gisela; Longo, Cristina; Landeira, Graciela; Álvarez, Estela; Zago, Valeria; Brites, Fernando; Berg, Gabriela; Fassio, Eduardo; Schreier, Laura
We evaluated possible changes in VLDLcharacteristics, and metabolic related factors, in MetS-associated NAFLD and accompanying liver fibrosis. We studied 36 MetS patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (MetS+NAFLD) and 24 MetS without ultrasound NAFLD evidence. Further, MetS+NAFLD was sub-divided according to fibrosis stage into, non-to-moderate (F0-F2, n=27) and severe (F3-F4, n=9) fibrosis. We measured: lipid profile, VLDL composition and size (size exclusion-HPLC), CETP and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activities and adiponectin. Additionally, in MetS+NAFLD type IV collagen 7S domain was measured. MetS+NAFLD showed increased VLDL-mass, VLDL particle number, VLDL-triglyceride% and large VLDL-% (p<0.04). CETP activity tended to increase in MetS+NAFLD (p=0.058), while LPL activity was unchanged. Moreover, in MetS+NAFLD, adiponectin was decreased (p<0.001), and negatively correlated with VLDL-mass and VLDL particle number (p<0.05), independently of insulin-resistance. Within MetS+NAFLD group, despite greater insulin-resistance, patients with severe fibrosis showed lower plasma triglycerides, VLDL-mass, VLDL-triglyceride%, large VLDL-% and CETP activity (p<0.05), while type IV collagen was increased (p=0.009) and inversely correlated with large VLDL-% (p=0.045). In MetS, NAFLD is associated with larger and triglyceride over-enriched circulating VLDLs, of greater atherogenicity. However, when NAFLD progresses to severe fibrosis, circulating VLDL features apparently improved, probably due to early alterations in hepatic synthetic function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donaldson, P T
Recent advances in molecular biology, in particular X-ray crystallography of the purified antigens A2 and DR1 and development of PCR-based HLA genotyping techniques, has revolutionized our understanding of immunogenetics and cellular immunology. The application of molecular immunogenetics has refined our understanding of HLA-encoded susceptibility and resistance to both autoimmune and chronic viral liver disease. Recent studies of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) have identified substitutions of specific amino acid residues in the HLA DR beta-polypeptide (AIH and PSC) and DP beta-polypeptide (PBC) which may determine susceptibility to and resistance from disease. Although these models of HLA-encoded susceptibility in PSC and PBC are currently controversial, the model for AIH, based on lysine residue at DR beta 71 has recently been confirmed in an independent series. Data on chronic viral liver disease are less abundant, but a number of interesting observations are beginning to emerge. In the Gambia, resistance to chronic hepatitis B infection has been associated with the HLA DRB1*1302 allele, and in studies of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection DQA1*03 and DQB1*05 have been identified as a possible protective factors. Clarifying these HLA associations is not simply an academic pursuit; in addition to providing useful clues to the pathogenesis of these diseases, HLA associations may be important indicators of prognosis. In AIH, patients with the DRB1*0301-DRB3*0101 haplotype appear to have more severe disease than those with DRB1*0401, while in PSC, DRB3*0101 is associated with early onset of disease and DRB1*0401 may be a marker of more rapid disease progression. To date, our knowledge of immunogenetic susceptibility in liver disease is incomplete and further work is needed.
Fabregat, Isabel; Moreno-Càceres, Joaquim; Sánchez, Aránzazu; Dooley, Steven; Dewidar, Bedair; Giannelli, Gianluigi; Ten Dijke, Peter
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) family signalling pathways play essential roles in the regulation of different cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration or cell death, which are essential for the homeostasis of tissues and organs. Because of the diverse and pleiotropic TGF-β functions, deregulation of its pathways contributes to human disease. In the case of the liver, TGF-β signalling participates in all stages of disease progression, from initial liver injury through inflammation and fibrosis, to cirrhosis and cancer. TGF-β has cytostatic and apoptotic effects in hepatocytes, promoting liver differentiation during embryogenesis and physiological liver regeneration. However, high levels of TGF-β, as a consequence of chronic liver damage, result in activation of stellate cells to myofibroblasts and massive hepatocyte cell death, which contributes to the promotion of liver fibrosis and later cirrhosis. During liver tumorigenesis, TGF-β may behave as a suppressor factor at early stages; however, there is strong evidence that overactivation of TGF-β signalling might contribute to later tumour progression, once cells escape from its cytostatic effects. For these reasons, targeting the TGF-β signalling pathway is being explored to counteract liver disease progression. In this review, we aim to shed light on the state-of-the-art in the signalling pathways induced by TGF-β that are involved in different stages of liver physiology and pathology.
Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier
Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant.
Nalbantoglu, ILKe; Brunt, Elizabeth M
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as abnormal accumulation (> 5%) of hepatic triglyceride without excess alcohol intake, is the most common form of chronic liver disease in adults and children in the United States. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histologic findings including uncomplicated steatosis, steatosis with inflammation and steatohepatitis [nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)]; the latter can advance to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is currently accepted as the hepatic manifestation of the set of cardiovascular risk factors collectively known as metabolic syndrome. In 1999 a system for histologic grading and staging for NASH was proposed; this was revised by the NASH Clinical Research Network in 2005 for the entire spectrum of lesions in NAFLD, including the lesions and patterns of pediatric NAFLD, and for application in clinical research trials. Diagnosis remains distinct from grade and stage. A recent European proposal separates steatosis from activity to derive a numeric diagnosis of NASH. Even though there have been promising advancements in non-invasive testing, these tests are not yet detailed enough to replace the full range of findings provided by liver biopsy evaluation. Limitations of biopsy are acknowledged, but liver biopsy remains the “gold standard” for diagnosis and determination of amounts of necroinflammatory activity, and location of fibrosis, as well as remodeling of the parenchyma in NASH. This review focuses on the specific histologic lesions of NAFLD and NASH, grading and staging, differential diagnoses to be considered, and the continuing role of the liver biopsy in this important liver disease. PMID:25083076
Tam, Joseph; Liu, Jie; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Cinar, Resat; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Kunos, George
Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators of the same cannabinoid (CB) receptors that mediate the effects of marijuana. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of CB receptors, endocannabinoids, and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis and degradation, and it is present in both brain and peripheral tissues, including the liver. The hepatic ECS is activated in various liver diseases and contributes to the underlying pathologies. In patients with cirrhosis of various etiologies, the activation of vascular and cardiac CB(1) receptors by macrophage-derived and platelet-derived endocannabinoids contributes to the vasodilated state and cardiomyopathy, which can be reversed by CB(1) blockade. In mouse models of liver fibrosis, the activation of CB(1) receptors on hepatic stellate cells is fibrogenic, and CB(1) blockade slows the progression of fibrosis. Fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet or chronic alcohol feeding depends on the activation of peripheral receptors, including hepatic CB(1) receptors, which also contribute to insulin resistance and dyslipidemias. Although the documented therapeutic potential of CB(1) blockade is limited by neuropsychiatric side effects, these may be mitigated by using novel, peripherally restricted CB(1) antagonists.
Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S
Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and
Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Duncan, Martin; Zong, Wenjing; Biank, Vincent F; Hageman, Joseph R
A 16-year-old Hispanic girl with an elevated body mass index in an otherwise normal state of health presented for her well-child examination. She had signs of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance including increased waist circumference and acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory results revealed elevated transaminases with otherwise normal hepatic function. Based on the physical examination and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After further evaluation, she eventually underwent a liver biopsy. The biopsy revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with stage 2 fibrosis. This article reviews the definition of NAFLD and NASH, an increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric chronic liver disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The article also outlines the epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of NAFLD, which may help identify and prevent high-risk pediatric patients from progressing to irreversible liver disease. Understanding the diagnostic and treatment options offers the best chance at preventing and reversing the early stages of this disease.
Study of FibroTest and hyaluronic acid biological variation in healthy volunteers and comparison of serum hyaluronic acid biological variation between chronic liver diseases of different etiology and fibrotic stage using confidence intervals.
Istaces, Nicolas; Gulbis, Béatrice
Personalized ranges of liver fibrosis serum biomarkers such as FibroTest or hyaluronic acid could be used for early detection of fibrotic changes in patients with progressive chronic liver disease. Our aim was to generate reliable biological variation estimates for these two biomarkers with confidence intervals for within-subject biological variation and reference change value. Nine fasting healthy volunteers and 66 chronic liver disease patients were included. Biological variation estimates were calculated for FibroTest in healthy volunteers, and for hyaluronic acid in healthy volunteers and chronic liver disease patients stratified by etiology and liver fibrosis stage. In healthy volunteers, within-subject biological coefficient of variation (with 95% confidence intervals) and index of individuality were 20% (16%-28%) and 0.6 for FibroTest and 34% (27%-47%) and 0.79 for hyaluronic acid, respectively. Overall hyaluronic acid within-subject biological coefficient of variation was similar among non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis C with 41% (34%-52%) and 45% (39%-55%), respectively, in contrast to chronic hepatitis B with 170% (140%-215%). Hyaluronic acid within-subject biological coefficients of variation were similar between F0-F1, F2 and F3 liver fibrosis stages in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with 34% (25%-49%), 41% (31%-59%) and 34% (23%-62%), respectively, and in chronic hepatitis C with 34% (27%-47%), 33% (26%-45%) and 38% (27%-65%), respectively. However, corresponding hyaluronic acid indexes of individuality were lower in the higher fibrosis stages. Non-overlapping confidence intervals of biological variation estimates allowed us to detect significant differences regarding hyaluronic acid biological variation between chronic liver disease subgroups. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Review article is dealing with the problems of infectious diseases of the liver. Attention is paid to the basic infectious agents, jaundice accompanying infectious diseases and focal infections of the liver. Specific infections of the liver are supplemented by brief pathological and anatomical characteristics.
Zizzo, Andréanne N; Jimenez-Rivera, Carolina; Kim, Joseph; Schreiber, Richard A; Ling, Simon C; Yap, Jason; Critch, Jeff; Ahmed, Najma; Alvarez, Fernando; Kamath, Binita M
Adult studies of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) have shown that the model of end-stage liver disease is associated with resistance to first-line treatment. Using a multicentre retrospective database, we sought to determine if the paediatric end-stage liver disease (PELD) score would similarly predict treatment resistance in paediatric AIH. One hundred and seventy-one children from 13 Canadian centres who fulfilled the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group (IAIHG) criteria were included and assessed for change to second-line therapy within 24 months of primary treatment onset. Those with PSC overlap at presentation, or missing data on the PELD variables were excluded. PELD was calculated for all remaining patients. Univariate analysis and receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to determine the predictive ability of the PELD score to change to second-line therapy. A total of 103 children were included with median age of 11 years (range 2-17). Mean PELD was -2.51±8.58. Second-line therapy was used within 24 months of diagnosis in 13 patients. Univariate analysis revealed that change to second-line therapy was associated with higher PELD (P=.028) and internal normalized ratio (INR) (P=.011). ROC curves for PELD and its individual components were performed. The strength of association was strongest with INR (AUC 0.72; CI: 0.58-0.86) although the composite PELD score also showed some predictive ability (AUC 0.67; CI: 0.52-0.81). In this paediatric AIH cohort, higher PELD at presentation predicted change to second-line therapy within the first 2 years of follow-up. INR appeared to be the main contributor to that association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.
... liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Weight loss can reduce fat in the liver, inflammation, and fibrosis. No medicines have been approved to treat NAFLD and NASH. Eating, ... Clinical Trials The National Institute ...
Yunhua, Tang; Weiqiang, Ju; Maogen, Chen; Sai, Yang; Zhiheng, Zhang; Dongping, Wang; Zhiyong, Guo; Xiaoshun, He
Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) and early postoperative complications are two important clinical endpoints when evaluating clinical outcomes of liver transplantation (LT). We developed and validated two ICGR15-MELD models in 87 liver transplant recipients for predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT by incorporating the quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) into the MELD score. Eighty seven consecutive patients who underwent LT were collected and divided into a training cohort (n = 61) and an internal validation cohort (n = 26). For predicting EAD after LT, the area under curve (AUC) for ICGR15-MELD score was 0.876, with a sensitivity of 92.0% and a specificity of 75.0%, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone. The recipients with a ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.243 have a higher incidence of EAD than those with a ICGR15-MELD score <0.243 (P <0.001). For predicting early postoperative complications, the AUC of ICGR15-MELD score was 0.832, with a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 71.0%. Those recipients with an ICGR15-MELD score ≥0.098 have a higher incidence of early postoperative complications than those with an ICGR15-MELD score <0.098 (P < 0.001). Finally, application of the two ICGR15-MELD models in the validation cohort still gave good accuracy (AUC, 0.835 and 0.826, respectively) in predicting EAD and early postoperative complications after LT. The combination of quantitative liver function tests (ICGR15) and the preoperative MELD score is a reliable and effective predictor of EAD and early postoperative complications after LT, which is better than MELD score or ICGR15 alone.
Everson, Gregory T; Taylor, Matthew R G
The adult forms of polycystic liver disease are characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance and numerous hepatic cysts, with or without renal involvement. Mutations in two distinct genes predispose to renal and liver cysts (PKD1 and PKD2), and mutations in two different genes yield isolated liver cysts (PRKCSH and SEC63). Mutations at certain loci of PKD1 may predispose to more severe renal cystic disease or cerebral aneurysms. Risk factors for severe hepatic cystic disease include aging, female sex, pregnancy, use of exogenous female steroid hormones, degree of renal cystic disease, or severity of renal dysfunction (in patients with mutations in PKD1 or PKD2). Although liver failure or complications of advanced liver disease is rare, some patients develop massive hepatic cystic disease and become clinically symptomatic. There is no effective medical therapy. Treatment options include cyst aspiration and sclerosis, open or laparoscopic cyst fenestration, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation.
The gut-liver axis involves complex interaction between the intestinal microbiome and the liver parenchyma. Probiotics are live microorganisms that are used in a variety of diseases. With currently only 2 randomized-controlled studies (one with Lactobacillus GG and the other with VSL #3), data are scarce to support the clinical effect of probiotic use in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. There is evidence that probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and thereby reduce the prevalence of total parenteral nutrition-induced chronic liver disease. Probiotics are used with a few reported positive outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis and familial hypercholesterolemia and may be promising in other liver conditions. Probiotics are generally safe and well tolerated in children, premature infants, and in patients after liver transplantation. Large, prospective, randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the benefit of probiotics in children with liver diseases.
Poggio, Paolo Del; Mazzoleni, Marzio
A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254
Mathieu, Cédric; Demarta-Gatsi, Claudia; Porcherie, Adeline; Brega, Sara; Thiberge, Sabine; Ronce, Karine; Smith, Leanna; Peronet, Roger; Amino, Rogerio; Ménard, Robert; Mécheri, Salaheddine
Plasmodium spp., which causes malaria, produces a histamine-releasing factor (HRF), an orthologue of mammalian HRF. Histamine-releasing factor produced by erythrocytic stages of the parasite is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. Here, we show in a rodent model that HRF is not important during the erythrocytic but pre-erythrocytic phase of infection, which mainly consists in the transformation in the liver of the mosquito-injected parasite form into the erythrocyte-infecting form. Development of P. berghei ANKA cl15cy1 liver stages lacking HRF is impaired and associated with an early rise in systemic IL-6, a cytokine that strongly suppresses development of Plasmodium liver stages. The defect is rescued by injection of anti-IL-6 antibodies or infection in IL-6-deficient mice and parasite HRF is sufficient to decrease IL-6 synthesis, indicating a direct role of parasite HRF in reducing host IL-6. The target cells modulated by HRF for IL-6 production at early time points during liver infection are neutrophils. Parasite HRF is thus used to down-regulate a cytokine with anti-parasite activity. Our data also highlight the link between a prolonged transition from liver to blood-stage infection and reduced incidence of experimental cerebral malaria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McCormack, L; Gadano, A; Lendoire, J; Imventarza, O; Andriani, O; Gil, O; Toselli, L; Bisigniano, L; de Santibañes, E
Background In July 2005, Argentina was the first country after the United States to adopt the MELD system. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the impact of this new system on the adult liver waiting list (WL). Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 1773 adult patients were listed for liver transplantation: 150 emergencies and 1623 electives. Elective patients were categorized using the MELD system. A prospective database was used to analyse mortality and probability to be transplanted (PTBT) on the WL. Results The waiting time increased inversely with the MELD score and PTBT positively correlated with MELD score. With scores ≥ 18 the PTBT remained over 50%. However, the largest MELD subgroup with <10 points (n =433) had the lower PTBT (3%). In contrast, patients with T2 hepatocellular carcinoma benefited excessively with the highest PTBT (84.2%) and the lowest mortality rate (5.4%). The WL mortality increased after MELD adoption (10% vs. 14.8% vs. P < 0.01). Patients with <10 MELD points had >fourfold probability of dying on the WL than PTBT (14.3% vs. 3%; P < 0.0001). Conclusions After MELD implementation, WL mortality increased and most patients who died had a low MELD score. A comprehensive revision of the MELD system must be performed to include cultural and socio-economical variables that could affect each country individually. PMID:20815854
Lucero, Catherine; Brown, Robert S.
Determining the degree of fibrosis is an important step in the assessment of disease severity in patients with chronic liver disease. Liver biopsy has been the gold standard for estimating the extent of inflammation and fibrosis, although the procedure has limitations such as sampling error and variability. Noninvasive testing has been shown to be equally predictive in ruling out fibrosis or ruling in advanced fibrosis. Serum biomarkers and imaging-based tests have more limited predictive ability when classifying intermediate stages, but these tools can help identify which patients should receive antiviral treatment sooner and require ongoing cancer surveillance without the need for biopsy. Using a combination of serum markers and imaging tests may also be helpful in providing functional assessment of portal hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:27330502
Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Chang, Hong-Tai; Lee, Chien-Hung
For estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer cases, tamoxifen has been the most important adjuvant hormonal therapy for the purpose of reducing recurrence rates and prolonging disease free survival. However, several side effects have been noticed, and fatty liver is one of the most common side effects among them. Since fatty liver is a common problem in the general population, we wanted to examine the effects of tamoxifen under pre-existing fatty liver conditions and evaluate the prevalence of tamoxifen-related impaired liver function. We recruited breast cancer cases at ages 20-70 years and divided them into tamoxifen or control groups. Personal information was collected, and fasting blood tests and abdominal ultrasound were performed. The changes of fatty liver degree between the initial and follow-up ultrasound were divided into five categories. Of the 406 enrolled participants, 266 were in the tamoxifen group and 140 were in the control group. The tamoxifen group had a higher risk of newly developed fatty liver [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-8.13), lower rate of improved fatty liver (HR = 0.33; 95% CI 0.15-0.75), and higher rate of worsened fatty liver (HR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.02-4.35). The current study suggests that tamoxifen treatment is associated with the risk of fatty liver either by increasing the risk of newly developed fatty liver conditions or worsening previous fatty liver conditions, and even retarding fatty liver improvement. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Frevert, Ute; Nardin, Elizabeth
Advances in our understanding of the molecular and cell biology of the malaria parasite have led to new vaccine development efforts resulting in a pipeline of over 40 candidates undergoing clinical phase I-III trials. Vaccine-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for pre-erythrocytic stage antigens have been found to express cytolytic and multi-cytokine effector functions that support a key role for these T cells within the hepatic environment. However, little is known of the cellular interactions that occur during the effector phase in which the intracellular hepatic stage of the parasite is targeted and destroyed. This review focuses on cell biological aspects of the interaction between malaria-specific effector cells and the various antigen-presenting cells that are known to exist within the liver, including hepatocytes, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells, stellate cells and sinusoidal endothelia. Considering the unique immune properties of the liver, it is conceivable that these different hepatic antigen-presenting cells fulfil distinct but complementary roles during the effector phase against Plasmodium liver stages.
Relationship between model for end-stage liver disease score and 30-day outcomes for patients undergoing elective colorectal resections: an American college of surgeons-national surgical quality improvement program study.
Lange, Erin O; Jensen, Christine C; Melton, Genevieve B; Madoff, Robert D; Kwaan, Mary R
Patients with liver disease face significant risk of complications and death when considering elective colorectal resection for benign or malignant indications. We sought to determine the relationship between Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score and 30-day outcomes in patients undergoing elective colorectal resections. This was a retrospective cohort study. The study included hospitals participating in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Adult patients who underwent elective colorectal resection from 2005 to 2011 were identified from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Patients missing laboratory values necessary to calculate the Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score were excluded (61% of 81,346 patients identified). Differences in patient- and disease-related characteristics by Model of End-Stage Liver Disease categories were assessed with χ analyses. Thirty-day mortality and major morbidity were examined using logistic regression. Of 31,950 patients undergoing elective colorectal resections (14% including proctectomy), most (60%) were performed for colon or rectal cancer; other benign indications included diverticulitis (20%), polyp (10%), and IBD (10%). A total of 58% of patients had a Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score of ≥7. Increasing scores were associated with older age; higher BMI; higher ASA class; lower albumin level; and higher incidence of diabetes mellitus, pulmonary and cardiac disease, hypertension, and dependent functional status. In univariate analysis, patients with higher scores had a greater risk of 30-day mortality (score = 6 (0.69%); 7-11 (1.62%); 11-15 (4.52%); >15, (5.01%); p < 0.0001). After controlling for other comorbidities, Model of End-Stage Liver Disease score remained a significant predictor of 30-day mortality, major complications, and respiratory complications. This was a retrospective analysis of administrative data, limiting some access to clinically relevant data. Consistent with
Tilg, Herbert; Cani, Patrice D; Mayer, Emeran A
The gut microbiota has recently evolved as a new important player in the pathophysiology of many intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. The liver is the organ which is in closest contact with the intestinal tract, and is exposed to a substantial amount of bacterial components and metabolites. Various liver disorders such as alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis have been associated with an altered microbiome. This dysbiosis may influence the degree of hepatic steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis through multiple interactions with the host's immune system and other cell types. Whereas few results from clinical metagenomic studies in liver disease are available, evidence is accumulating that in liver cirrhosis an oral microbiome is overrepresented in the lower intestinal tract, potentially contributing to disease process and severity. A major role for the gut microbiota in liver disorders is also supported by the accumulating evidence that several complications of severe liver disease such as hepatic encephalopathy are efficiently treated by various prebiotics, probiotics and antibiotics. A better understanding of the gut microbiota and its components in liver diseases might provide a more complete picture of these complex disorders and also form the basis for novel therapies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H.
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of alcoholic liver disease based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. PMID:23136133
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Hartmann, Christina; Schuchmann, Marcus; Zimmermann, Tim
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a life-threatening complication following solid organ transplantation. Many posttransplant lymphomas develop from the uncontrolled proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B-cells, whereas EBV-negative PTLDs were increasingly recognized within the past decade. Major risk factors for the development of PTLDs after liver transplantation are immunosuppressive therapy and the type of underlying disease: viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver disease, or alcoholic liver cirrhosis contribute to an increased risk for PTLD. Therapeutic regimens include reduction of immunosuppression, the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab, and chemotherapy, as well as new approaches using interferon-α and anti-interleukin-6 antibodies. Despite the different therapeutic regimens, mortality from PTLD remains high. Therefore, it is of major importance to identify patients at risk at an early stage of the disease. In this review, risk factors for PTLD development after liver transplantation, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and therapy are discussed.
Liver cancer is a major global health problem and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for 75% of all liver carcinoma. HCC occurs more often in men than in women and mostly in people 50 to 60 years old. The disease is more common in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia than in North and South America and Europe. Nevertheless its incidence increased over the past 4 decades in some Western countries. Worldwide, liver carcinoma is the 5th most common cancer and 3rd most common cause of cancer mortality (behind only lung and colorectal cancer) with approximately 680,000 annual deaths. Unlike most of the other malignancies, HCC almost entirely develops in the context of inflammation and organ injury and is related to cirrhosis in about 85% of the cases. Among underlying etiologies of liver cirrhosis, most frequent are viral infection and toxic substances, mostly alcohol. The main HCC risk factor in Eastern Asia and Africa is hepatitis B virus infection. Hepatitis C virus infection is the main risk factor in Western countries. Hereditary hemochromatosis is not a very frequent cause of liver cirrhosis, but these patients are at higher risk for HCC compared with other etiologies of cirrhosis. Aflatoxins, cancer-causing substances made by a type of plant mold, can play a role in some countries in Asia and Africa, and can have a synergistic effect with hepatitis B infection. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Juakiem, Wassem; Torres, Dawn M; Harrison, Stephen A
Nutrition has not been a primary focus of many medical conditions despite its importance in the development and the severity of these diseases. This is certainly the case with nutrition and end-stage liver disease despite the well-established association of nutritional deficiencies and increased rates of complications and mortality in cirrhosis. This review provides an overview of nutrition in chronic liver disease with an emphasis on its pathogenesis as well as ways to assess nutritional status and intervene in an effort to improve nutrition.
Onori, P.; Franchitto, A.; Mancinelli, R.; Carpino, G.; Alvaro, D.; Francis, H.; Alpini, G.; Gaudio, E.
Polycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are genetic disorders with heterogeneous etiologies and a range of phenotypic presentations. PCLD exhibits both autosomal or recessive dominant pattern of inheritance and is characterized by the progressive development of multiple cysts, isolated or associated with polycystic kidney disease, that appear more extensive in women. Cholangiocytes have primary cilia, functionally important organelles (act as mechanosensors) that are involved in both normal developmental and pathological processes. The absence of polycystin-1, 2, and fibrocystin/polyductin, normally localized to primary cilia, represent a potential mechanism leading to cyst formation, associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis, enhanced fluid secretion, abnormal cell–matrix interactions, and alterations in cell polarity. Proliferative and secretive activities of cystic epithelium can be regulated by estrogens either directly or by synergizing growth factors including nerve growth factor, IGF1, FSH and VEGF. The abnormalities of primary cilia and the sensitivity to proliferative effects of estrogens and different growth factors in PCLD cystic epithelium provide the morpho-functional basis for future treatment targets, based on the possible modulation of the formation and progression of hepatic cysts. PMID:20138815
Ju, Cynthia; Colgan, Sean P; Eltzschig, Holger K
Liver disease is a growing global health problem, as deaths from end-stage liver cirrhosis and cancer are rising across the world. At present, pharmacologic approaches to effectively treat or prevent liver disease are extremely limited. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that regulates diverse signaling pathways enabling adaptive cellular responses to perturbations of the tissue microenvironment. HIF activation through hypoxia-dependent and hypoxia-independent signals have been reported in liver disease of diverse etiologies, from ischemia-reperfusion-induced acute liver injury to chronic liver diseases caused by viral infection, excessive alcohol consumption, or metabolic disorders. This review summarizes the evidence for HIF stabilization in liver disease, discusses the mechanistic involvement of HIFs in disease development, and explores the potential of pharmacological HIF modifiers in the treatment of liver disease.
Bozic, Molly A; Subbarao, Girish; Molleston, Jean P
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the pediatric population. Increased recognition of this form of liver disease parallels the dramatic rise in childhood and adolescent obesity over the past 2 decades. Like adults, most children with NAFLD are obese, and comorbidities include insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Unfortunately, pediatric NAFLD is not always a benign condition, with some children progressing to hepatic fibrosis and even cirrhosis in severe cases. The etiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is not yet fully understood; however, hepatic steatosis in the context of insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress may lead to progressive disease. Although physical examination, laboratory evaluation, and radiographic findings provide clues to the potential presence of fatty liver disease, liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis. Lifestyle modification, including slow and steady weight loss, improved dietary habits, and increased daily, aerobic physical activity, remains the first-line approach in treating pediatric fatty liver disease. Antioxidant pharmacologic therapy such as use of vitamin E has shown some benefit in patients with biopsy-proven steatohepatitis. Nutrition plays an essential role not only in the development of fatty liver disease but also potentially in the treatment and prevention of progression to more severe disease.
Huwart, Laurent; Sempoux, Christine; Vicaut, Eric; Salameh, Najat; Annet, Laurence; Danse, Etienne; Peeters, Frank; ter Beek, Leon C; Rahier, Jacques; Sinkus, Ralph; Horsmans, Yves; Van Beers, Bernard E
The purpose of our study was to prospectively compare the success rate and diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance elastography, ultrasound elastography, and aspartate aminotransferase to platelets ratio index (APRI) measurements for the noninvasive staging of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease. We performed a prospective blind comparison of magnetic resonance elastography, ultrasound elastography, and APRI in a consecutive series of patients who underwent liver biopsy for chronic liver disease in a university-based hospital. Histopathologic staging of liver fibrosis according to the METAVIR scoring system served as the reference. A total of 141 patients were assessed. The technical success rate of magnetic resonance elastography was higher than that of ultrasound elastography (133/141 [94%] vs 118/141 [84%]; P = .016). Magnetic and ultrasound elastography, APRI measurements, and histopathologic analysis of liver biopsy specimens were technically successful in 96 patients. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves of magnetic resonance elasticity (0.994 for F >or= 2; 0.985 for F >or= 3; 0.998 for F = 4) were larger (P < .05) than those of ultrasound elasticity, APRI, and the combination of ultrasound elasticity and APRI (0.837, 0.709, and 0.849 for F >or= 2; 0.906, 0.816, and 0.936 for F >or= 3; 0.930, 0.820, and 0.944 for F = 4, respectively). Magnetic resonance elastography has a higher technical success rate than ultrasound elastography and a better diagnostic accuracy than ultrasound elastography and APRI for staging liver fibrosis.
Klein, Marina B; Althoff, Keri N; Jing, Yuezhou; Lau, Bryan; Kitahata, Mari; Lo Re, Vincent; Kirk, Gregory D; Hull, Mark; Kim, H Nina; Sebastiani, Giada; Moodie, Erica E M; Silverberg, Michael J; Sterling, Timothy R; Thorne, Jennifer E; Cescon, Angela; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joe; Gill, M John; Justice, Amy; Peters, Marion G; Goedert, James J; Mayor, Angel; Thio, Chloe L; Cachay, Edward R; Moore, Richard
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients coinfected with hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses are at increased risk of end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Whether modern antiretroviral therapy has reduced ESLD risk is unknown. Twelve clinical cohorts in the United States and Canada participating in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design validated ESLD events from 1996 to 2010. ESLD incidence rates and rate ratios according to hepatitis status adjusted for age, sex, race, cohort, time-updated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA were estimated in calendar periods corresponding to major changes in antiretroviral therapy: early (1996-2000), middle (2001-2005), and modern (2006-2010) eras. Among 34 119 HIV-infected adults followed for 129 818 person-years, 380 incident ESLD outcomes occurred. ESLD incidence (per 1000 person-years) was highest in triply infected (11.57) followed by HBV- (8.72) and HCV- (6.10) coinfected vs 1.27 in HIV-monoinfected patients. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) comparing the modern to the early antiretroviral era were 0.95 (.61-1.47) for HCV, 0.95 (.40-2.26) for HBV, and 1.52 (.46-5.02) for triply infected patients. Use of antiretrovirals dually activity against HBV increased over time. However, in the modern era, 35% of HBV-coinfected patients were not receiving tenofovir. There was little use of HCV therapy. Despite increasing use of antiretrovirals, no clear reduction in ESLD risk was observed over 15 years. Treatment with direct-acting antivirals for HCV and wider use of tenofovir-based regimens for HBV should be prioritized for coinfected patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Perri, Giulia-Anna; Yeung, Herman; Green, Yoel; Bezant, Abby; Lee, Carman; Berall, Anna; Karuza, Jurgis; Khosravani, Houman
Palliative care is often initiated late for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) with pain being a common morbidity that is under-treated throughout the disease trajectory. When admitted to a palliative care unit (PCU), nurses play a pivotal role and must be highly informed to ensure effective pain management. The aim of this study is to determine the baseline level of knowledge and attitudes of PCU nurses regarding pain management in patients with ESLD. A descriptive, cross-sectional self-administered survey design was used for this study. The sample comprised 35 PCU nurses working at a continuing chronic care facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Data on the knowledge and attitudes of the nurses regarding pain management in patients with ESLD, was obtained using a modified version of the "Nurses Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain" (NKASRP) tool. Thirty-one PCU nurses were included for the analysis, giving a response rate of 89%. The mean total percentage score for the nurses on the modified version of the NKASRP was 72%. Only 26% of the nurse participants obtained a passing score of 80% or greater. There were no significant differences in mean total scores by age, gender, years of nursing experience or education level. The findings of this study provide important information about the inadequate knowledge and attitude in nurses regarding pain management for patients with ESLD. It is suggested that targeted educational programs and quality improvement initiatives in pain management for patients with ESLD could improve knowledge and attitudes for PCU nurses.
Abdullah, Zeinab; Knolle, Percy A
Kupffer cells, the largest tissue resident macrophage population, are key for the maintenance of liver integrity and its restoration after injury and infections, as well as the local initiation and resolution of innate and adaptive immunity. These important roles of Kupffer cells were recently identified in healthy and diseased liver revealing diverse functions and phenotypes of hepatic macrophages. High-level phenotypic and genomic analysis revealed that Kupffer cells are not a homogenous population and that the hepatic microenvironment actively shapes both phenotype and function of liver macrophages. Compared to macrophages from other organs, hepatic macrophages bear unique properties that are instrumental for their diverse roles in local immunity as well as liver regeneration. The diverse and, in part, contradictory roles of hepatic macrophages in anti-tumor and inflammatory immune responses as well as regulatory and regenerative processes have been obscured by the lack of appropriate technologies to specifically target or ablate Kupffer cells or monocyte-derived hepatic macrophages. Future studies will need to dissect the exact role of the hepatic macrophages with distinct functional properties linked to their differentiation status and thereby provide insight into the functional plasticity of hepatic macrophages.
Mehta, Shivang S; Fallon, Michael B
Muscle cramps are common in patients with liver disease and adversely influence quality of life. The exact mechanisms by which they occur remain unclear, although a number of pathophysiological events unique to liver disease may contribute. Clinical studies have identified alterations in 3 areas: nerve function, energy metabolism, and plasma volume/electrolytes. Treatments have focused on these particular areas with varied results. This review will focus on the clinical features of muscle cramps in patients with liver disease and review potential mechanisms and current therapies.
Early Liver Failure after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in Patients with Cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score of 12 or Less: Incidence, Outcome, and Prognostic Factors.
Luca, Angelo; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Tuzzolino, Fabio
Purpose To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and prognostic factors of early liver failure (ELF) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in patients with cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or less. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approved this retrospective study, with waiver of written informed consent. Two-hundred sixteen consecutive patients with cirrhosis (140 men, 76 women; mean age, 55.9 years; virus-related cirrhosis, 67.6% [146 of 216 patients]) with baseline MELD score of 12 or less who underwent TIPS placement between September 1999 and July 2012 were followed until last clinical evaluation, liver transplantation, or death. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used, as appropriate. Results Twenty of 216 patients (9.2%) developed ELF within 3 months of TIPS (10 patients died, one required liver transplantation, and nine increased the MELD score to >18). ELF was associated with lower survival, 37% versus 95% at 6 months, and 24% versus 86% at 12 months (P < .001) compared with patients without ELF. ELF occurred in 16 of 95 (16.8%) patients with refractory ascites and in four of 121 (3.3%) patients with other indications for TIPS. Multivariate analysis confirmed MELD scores of 11 or 12 (odds ratio, 3.96 [95% confidence interval: 1.07, 14.67]; P = .040), decreased hemoglobin level (odds ratio, 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.95]; P = .022), and decreased platelet count (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.99, 0.99]; P = .024) as predictors for ELF in patients with refractory ascites. Conclusion ELF is not uncommon in cirrhotic patients with a MELD score of 12 or less who undergo TIPS placement for refractory ascites (especially in patients with MELD of 11 or 12) and decreased hemoglobin level and platelet count. (©) RSNA, 2016.
Hepatic lipid peroxidation and accumulation of aldehyde-adducted proteins occur early in alcohol-mediated injury and are postulated to mediate the subsequent pro-inflammatory and fibrotic responses observed in alcoholic liver disease. To test the significance of lipid peroxidation formation in the ...
Schmidt, S A; Juchems, M S
Perfusion computed tomography (CT) has its main application in the clinical routine diagnosis of neuroradiological problems. Polyphase multi-detector spiral computed tomography is primarily used in liver diagnostics. The use of perfusion CT is also possible for the diagnostics and differentiation of diffuse hepatic diseases. The differentiation between cirrhosis and cirrhosis-like parenchymal changes is possible. It also helps to detect early stages of malignant tumors. However, there are some negative aspects, particularly that of radiation exposure. This paper summarizes the technical basics and possible applications of perfusion CT in cases of diffuse liver disease and weighs up the advantages and disadvantages of the examinations.
Zhang, Jie; Lu, Fanggen; Ouyang, Chunhui; Cheng, Zongyong; Wang, Xuehong; Liu, Xiaowei
To understand the value of Child-Pugh (CP) classification and model of end-stage liver disease (MELD) score for patients with cirrhosis and their prognosis by retrospectively analyzing the two methods in hemorrhage death and non-hemorrhage death in patients with liver cirrhosis. A total of 72 patients who died of cirrhosis (the death group) were analyzed retrospectively, and the initial data in the hospital before death were collected. The initial information of the control group (88 patients) at the same time was also obtained. The death group was divided into two subgroups: esophagus varicosity burst massive hemorrhage death group and non-hemorrhage death group. MELD score and CP score of the death group (22.230±13.451, 10.264±2.028) were significantly higher than those of the control group (15.370±6.201, 9.318±1.644; P<0.05). The MELD score and CP score for the massive bleeding death group were close to those of the control group. There was significant difference between the non-hemorrhage death group and the control group. The ratio of patients with CP grade A and MELD scores<20 died for massive bleeding in the death group was more than 70%, and that of CP grade C and MELD scores ≥ 30 in the death group was higher. ROC surve analysis found the accuracy of short-term predication of survival by MELD score and CP classification was improved after eliminating the risk factors of hemorrage. MELD and CP play a role in evaluating the state and prognosis of patients with cirrhosis. MELD score and CP classification predict the short-term survival efficiently on the premise of excluding the risk factors of esophagus and/or stomach bottom varicosity burst massive bleeding. CP and MELD scores are deficiencies, especially for low MELD score (<20) and CP level A patients. The prognostic accuracy may be improved when combining esophageal gastric fundal varices.
... the intestine. The liver acts as a “processing plant” in the body, taking what we ingest and breaking it down. It then sends some of that material to blood cells throughout the body. The rest is filtered out ...
Schnitzer, Mireille E; Moodie, Erica EM; van der Laan, Mark J; Platt, Robert W; Klein, Marina B
Summary Despite modern effective HIV treatment, hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection is associated with a high risk of progression to end-stage liver disease (ESLD) which has emerged as the primary cause of death in this population. Clinical interest lies in determining the impact of clearance of HCV on risk for ESLD. In this case study, we examine whether HCV clearance affects risk of ESLD using data from the multicenter Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study. Complications in this survival analysis arise from the time-dependent nature of the data, the presence of baseline confounders, loss to follow-up, and confounders that change over time, all of which can obscure the causal effect of interest. Additional challenges included non-censoring variable missingness and event sparsity. In order to efficiently estimate the ESLD-free survival probabilities under a specific history of HCV clearance, we demonstrate the doubly-robust and semiparametric efficient method of Targeted Maximum Likelihood Estimation (TMLE). Marginal structural models (MSM) can be used to model the effect of viral clearance (expressed as a hazard ratio) on ESLD-free survival and we demonstrate a way to estimate the parameters of a logistic model for the hazard function with TMLE. We show the theoretical derivation of the efficient influence curves for the parameters of two different MSMs and how they can be used to produce variance approximations for parameter estimates. Finally, the data analysis evaluating the impact of HCV on ESLD was undertaken using multiple imputations to account for the non-monotone missing data. PMID:24571372
Yu, Jian-Wu; Sun, Li-Jie; Zhao, Yong-Hua; Li, Shu-Chen
We used the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scoring system to predict the 3-month prognosis of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) after plasma exchange (PE) and lamivudine treatment, and studied the predictive factors on the prognosis of patients. A total of 280 patients treated with lamivudine were randomly divided into PE and control groups. The relationship between mortality and influential factors of patients was studied by univariate and multivariate analysis. The mortality (49.4%) of patients in the PE group with a MELD score from 30 to 40 was lower than that (86.1%) of the control group (chi(2) = 24.546, P < 0.01). The total bilirubin (TBIL) rebound rate of the dead group was significantly higher than that of the survival group (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis showed that mortality was significantly related to age (P = 0.003), treatment method (P = 0.000), TBIL (P = 0.010), MELD score (P = 0.001), international normalised ratio (P = 0.014), pretreatment HBV-DNA load (P = 0.000), decline of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA load during therapy (P = 0.013), encephalopathy (P = 0.019), and hepatorenal syndrome (P = 0.026). In multivariate analysis, MELD scores of 30-40, treatment method (P = 0.003), pretreatment HBV-DNA load (P = 0.009), decline of HBV-DNA load during therapy (P = 0.016), and encephalopathy (P = 0.015) were independent predictors of mortality; for MELD scores above 40, only the MELD score (P = 0.012) was an independent predictive. PE significantly decreased the mortality of patients with a MELD score of 30-40. For ACLF patients with a MELD score of 30-40, a low viral load pretreatment and quick decline of HBV-DNA load are good predictors for the survival with PE and lamivudine treatment.
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa, António; Cortez-Pinto, Helena; Campos, Carlos; Rocha, Nuno B F; Machado, Sérgio
The liver is the organ by which the majority of substances are metabolized, including psychotropic drugs. There are several pharmacokinetic changes in end-stage liver disease that can interfere with the metabolization of psychotropic drugs. This fact is particularly true in drugs with extensive first-pass metabolism, highly protein bound drugs and drugs depending on phase I hepatic metabolic reactions. Psychopharmacological agents are also associated with a risk of hepatotoxicity. The evidence is insufficient for definite conclusions regarding the prevalence and severity of psychiatric drug-induced liver injury. High-risk psychotropics are not advised when there is pre-existing liver disease, and after starting a psychotropic agent in a patient with hepatic impairment, frequent liver function/lesion monitoring is advised. The authors carefully review the pharmacokinetic disturbances induced by end-stage liver disease and the potential of psychopharmacological agents for liver toxicity. PMID:28217372
Sullivan, David J.; Liu, Yi; Mott, Bryan T.; Kaludov, Nikola; Martinov, Martin N.
Without quantum theory any understanding of molecular interactions is incomplete. In principal, chemistry, and even biology, can be fully derived from non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In practice, conventional quantum chemical calculations are computationally too intensive and time consuming to be useful for drug discovery on more than a limited basis. A previously described, original, quantum-based computational process for drug discovery and design bridges this gap between theory and practice, and allows the application of quantum methods to large-scale in silico identification of active compounds. Here, we show the results of this quantum-similarity approach applied to the discovery of novel liver-stage antimalarials. Testing of only five of the model-predicted compounds in vitro and in vivo hepatic stage drug inhibition assays with P. berghei identified four novel chemical structures representing three separate quantum classes of liver-stage antimalarials. All four compounds inhibited liver-stage Plasmodium as a single oral dose in the quantitative PCR mouse liver-stage sporozoites-challenge model. One of the newly identified compounds, cethromycin [ABT-773], a macrolide-quinoline hybrid, is a drug with an extensive (over 5,000 people) safety profile warranting its exploitation as a new weapon for the current effort of malaria eradication. The results of our molecular modeling exceed current state-of-the-art computational methods. Drug discovery through quantum similarity is data-driven, agnostic to any particular target or disease process that can evaluate multiple phenotypic, target-specific, or co-crystal structural data. This allows the incorporation of additional pharmacological requirements, as well as rapid exploration of novel chemical spaces for therapeutic applications. PMID:25951139
Bush, Haley; Golabi, Pegah; Younossi, Zobair M.
With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It has also been shown that NAFLD is not only a liver disease, but is also associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations, including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and low bone mineral density. Although the data is scarce in the pediatric population, some studies have suggested that long-term mortality and the requirement of liver transplantation will continue to increase in patients with NAFLD. More studies are needed to better understand the natural history of NAFLD, especially in the pediatric age group. PMID:28598410
The liver plays a key role in hemostasis as the site of synthesis of many of the proteins involved in the coagulation, antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems that interact to both establish hemostasis, and preventing thrombosis. The common laboratory tests, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), evolved from studies of plasma clotting in test tubes. Such studies laid the basis for the coagulation cascade model of hemostasis. However, thought has evolved to place a greater emphasis on the active roles of cells in localizing and regulating hemostasis. The PT and aPTT do not reflect the roles of cellular elements in hemostasis, nor do they reflect the crucial roles of antithrombotic and fibrinolytic systems. Thus, though the PT may indeed reflect the synthetic capacity of the liver, it does not accurately reflect the risk of bleeding or thrombosis in patients with liver failure.
Jiang, Zhenghui Gordon; Robson, Simon C.; Yao, Zemin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an escalating health problem worldwide, covers a spectrum of pathologies characterized by fatty accumulation in hepatocytes in early stages, with potential progression to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and failure. A close, yet poorly understood link exists between NAFLD and dyslipidemia, a constellation of abnormalities in plasma lipoproteins including triglyceride-rich very low density lipoproteins. Apolipoproteins are a group of primarily liver-derived proteins found in serum lipoproteins; they not only play an extracellular role in lipid transport between vital organs through circulation, but also play an important intracellular role in hepatic lipoprotein assembly and secretion. The liver functions as the central hub for lipoprotein metabolism, as it dictates lipoprotein production and to a significant extent modulates lipoprotein clearance. Lipoprotein metabolism is an integral component of hepatocellular lipid homeostasis and is implicated in the pathogenesis, potential diagnosis, and treatment of NAFLD. PMID:23554788
Chen, H-M; Hu, R-H; Shih, F-Jong; Shih, F-J
This study aimed to explore the dilemmas of Taiwanese overseas liver transplant recipient families (OLTRF) across three overseas liver transplant (OLT) stages in Taiwan and Mainland China. An exploratory qualitative method was employed using a purposive sample of OLTRF, who received guided face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Data were subjected to content analysis. Nineteen OLTRF (15 female, 4 male) aged between 29 and 71 years (mean 55.1) for 19 patients with end-stage liver diseases were interviewed. OLT stages including predeparture stage (first stage), stay in China stage (second stage), and reentry to Taiwan stage (third stage). Ten kinds of dilemmas were encountered: (1) unable to get transplantation immediately (first to second stages); (2) dilemma of choosing overseas transplantation (first to second stages); (3) uncertainty about the transplantation outcomes (second to third stages); (4) care pressure (second to third stages); (5) poor diet adaptation (second to third stages); (6) lack of trust in the medical care quality (second stage); (7) worry about not fulfilling family responsibilities (second stage); (8) lack of information (all stages); (9) financial pressure (all stages); and (10) frustration when seeking medical care (all stages). Taiwanese OLTRF's perspectives of their dilemmas through the OLT process were first revealed in this study. Both Western and Eastern health professionals might be empowered by better understanding of OLTRF's living experiences and concerns during the stages of overseas liver transplantation. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kadian, Monil; Kakkar, Rajesh; Dhar, Minakshi; Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan
The Maddrey Discriminant Function (mDF) score and the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score are standard prognostic scores for predicting disease severity and mortality in alcoholic hepatitis (AH).This prospective study compared the MELD score and the mDF score as predictors of short-term outcome in AH. The admission MELD score and the mDF score were assessed in 47 patients with a diagnosis of AH in the Himalayan Institute Hospital, Dehradun, India and the concordance (C) statistics of the two scores for 28-day mortality were determined and compared. Both the MELD score and the mDF score on day 1 were significantly higher in non-survivors than in survivors (P = 0.0001 each). The C-statistic for 28-day mortality for the MELD score was 0.91 (P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-0.97) and for the mDF score 0.90 (P < 0.0001, 95% CI 0.78-0.97). There was no significant difference between the C-statistics of the two scores (P = 0.83, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.09). For predicting 28-day mortality, the optimal MELD score of > 19 (sensitivity 91.6% and specificity 85.7%) corresponded to the mDF score of > 52.8 (sensitivity 91.6% and specificity 82.8%). Both the MELD score and the mDF score at admission were strong and equally good predictors of 28-day mortality in patients with AH, but the optimal mDF score corresponding to optimal MELD score was higher than the conventional one. Thus, MELD score may be used as an alternative to mDF score for predicting short-term mortality in AH with an advantage. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Neuman, Manuela G; Nanau, Radu M; Cohen, Lawrence B
Unhealthy diet and lack of physical exercise are responsible for fat accumulation in the liver, which may lead to liver disease. Histologically, the severity of the disease has two stages: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD is defined by the presence of steatosis with no evidence of cellular injury such as hepatocyte ballooning. NASH is a distinct entity from NAFLD, and is characterized by the presence of inflammation with hepatocytes damage, with or without fibrosis. While several therapeutic strategies have been proposed to improve this condition, the present review aims to discuss nonmedicinal interventions used to reduce liver involvement or to prevent the disease altogether. The authors investigated dietary patterns and vitamin deficiencies associated with NAFLD, and their role in enhancing disease severity. Additionally, they reviewed the role of exercise and the use of interventions, such as as intragastric balloon and bariatric surgery, for improving disease progression. The authors propose monitoring disease progression or repair by following changes in cytoadipokine levels. PMID:26076224
The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations
Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Hoppe, Uta C.; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian
Purpose MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for prognostic relevance. Methods A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male) admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e.g. myocardial infarction (n = 2034), sepsis (n = 694) and heart failure (n = 688). We divided our patients in two cohorts basing on their MELD-XI score and evaluated the MELD-XI score for its prognostic relevance regarding short-term and long-term survival. Optimal cut-offs were calculated by means of the Youden-Index. Results Patients with a MELD-XI score >12 had pronounced laboratory signs of organ failure and more comorbidities. MELD-XI >12 was associated with an increase in short-term (27% vs 6%; HR 4.82, 95%CI 3.93–5.93; p<0.001) and long-term (HR 3.69, 95%CI 3.20–4.25; p<0.001) mortality. In a univariate Cox regression analysis for all patients MELD-XI was associated with increased long-term mortality (changes per score point: HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05–1.07; p<0.001) and remained to be associated with increased mortality after correction in a multivariate regression analysis for renal failure, liver failure, lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, oxygenation and white blood count (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03–1.06; p<0.001). Optimal cut-off for the overall cohort was 11 and varied remarkably depending on the admission diagnosis: myocardial infarction (9), pulmonary embolism (9), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (17) and pneumonia (17). We performed ROC-analysis and compared the AUC: SAPS2 (0.78, 95%CI 0.76–0.80; p<0.0001) and APACHE (0.76, 95%CI 0.74–0.78; p<0.003) score were superior to MELD-XI (0.71, 95%CI 0.68–0.73) for prediction of mortality. Conclusions The easily
Wernly, Bernhard; Lichtenauer, Michael; Franz, Marcus; Kabisch, Bjoern; Muessig, Johanna; Masyuk, Maryna; Hoppe, Uta C; Kelm, Malte; Jung, Christian
MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) for prognostic relevance. A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male) admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e.g. myocardial infarction (n = 2034), sepsis (n = 694) and heart failure (n = 688). We divided our patients in two cohorts basing on their MELD-XI score and evaluated the MELD-XI score for its prognostic relevance regarding short-term and long-term survival. Optimal cut-offs were calculated by means of the Youden-Index. Patients with a MELD-XI score >12 had pronounced laboratory signs of organ failure and more comorbidities. MELD-XI >12 was associated with an increase in short-term (27% vs 6%; HR 4.82, 95%CI 3.93-5.93; p<0.001) and long-term (HR 3.69, 95%CI 3.20-4.25; p<0.001) mortality. In a univariate Cox regression analysis for all patients MELD-XI was associated with increased long-term mortality (changes per score point: HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05-1.07; p<0.001) and remained to be associated with increased mortality after correction in a multivariate regression analysis for renal failure, liver failure, lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, oxygenation and white blood count (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03-1.06; p<0.001). Optimal cut-off for the overall cohort was 11 and varied remarkably depending on the admission diagnosis: myocardial infarction (9), pulmonary embolism (9), cardiopulmonary resuscitation (17) and pneumonia (17). We performed ROC-analysis and compared the AUC: SAPS2 (0.78, 95%CI 0.76-0.80; p<0.0001) and APACHE (0.76, 95%CI 0.74-0.78; p<0.003) score were superior to MELD-XI (0.71, 95%CI 0.68-0.73) for prediction of mortality. The easily calculable MELD-XI score is a robust and reliable
Longley, Rhea J.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Spencer, Alexandra J.
The development of a highly efficacious and durable vaccine for malaria remains a top priority for global health researchers. Despite the huge rise in recognition of malaria as a global health problem and the concurrent rise in funding over the past 10–15 years, malaria continues to remain a widespread burden. The evidence of increasing resistance to anti-malarial drugs and insecticides is a growing concern. Hence, an efficacious and durable preventative vaccine for malaria is urgently needed. Vaccines are one of the most cost-effective tools and have successfully been used in the prevention and control of many diseases, however, the development of a vaccine for the Plasmodium parasite has proved difficult. Given the early success of whole sporozoite mosquito-bite delivered vaccination strategies, we know that a vaccine for malaria is an achievable goal, with sub-unit vaccines holding great promise as they are simple and cheap to both manufacture and deploy. However a major difficulty in development of sub-unit vaccines lies within choosing the appropriate antigenic target from the 5000 or so genes expressed by the parasite. Given the liver-stage of malaria represents a bottle-neck in the parasite’s life cycle, there is widespread agreement that a multi-component sub-unit malaria vaccine should preferably contain a liver-stage target. In this article we review progress in identifying and screening Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage targets for use in a malaria vaccine. PMID:26441899
Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Vaughan, Ashley M; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E; Adams, John H; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H I
Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites-hypnozoites. The lack of tractable P. vivax animal models constitutes an obstacle in examining P. vivax liver stage infection and drug efficacy. To overcome this obstacle, we have used human liver-chimeric (huHep) FRG KO mice as a model for P. vivax infection. FRG KO huHep mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, liver stage development, and hypnozoite formation. We show complete P. vivax liver stage development, including maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites as well as the formation and persistence of hypnozoites. Prophylaxis or treatment with the antimalarial primaquine can prevent and eliminate liver stage infection, respectively. Thus, P. vivax-infected FRG KO huHep mice are a model to investigate liver stage development and dormancy and may facilitate the discovery of drugs targeting relapsing malaria.
Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Vaughan, Ashley M.; Kangwanrangsan, Niwat; Roobsoong, Wanlapa; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Yimamnuaychok, Narathatai; Rezakhani, Nastaran; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Singh, Naresh; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Baldwin, Michael; Lindner, Scott E.; Adams, John H.; Prachumsri, Jetsumon; Kappe, Stefan H.I.
Plasmodium vivax malaria is characterized by periodic relapses of symptomatic blood stage parasite infections likely initiated by activation of dormant liver stage parasites -hypnozoites. The lack of tractable animal models for P. vivax constitutes a severe obstacle to investigate this unique aspect of its biology and to test drug efficacy against liver stages. We show that the FRG KO huHep liver-humanized mice support P. vivax sporozoite infection, development of liver stages, and the formation of small non-replicating hypnozoites. Cellular characterization of P. vivax liver stage development in vivo demonstrates complete maturation into infectious exo-erythrocytic merozoites and continuing persistence of hypnozoites. Primaquine prophylaxis or treatment prevents and eliminates liver stage infection. Thus, the P. vivax/FRG KO huHep mouse infection model constitutes an important new tool to investigate the biology of liver stage development and dormancy and might aid in the discovery of new drugs for the prevention of relapsing malaria. PMID:25800544
Medici, Valentina; Halsted, Charles H
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is typically associated with folate deficiency, which is the result of reduced dietary folate intake, intestinal malabsorption, reduced liver uptake and storage, and increased urinary folate excretion. Folate deficiency favors the progression of liver disease through mechanisms that include its effects on methionine metabolism with consequences for DNA synthesis and stability and the epigenetic regulation of gene expression involved in pathways of liver injury. This paper reviews the pathogenesis of ALD with particular focus on ethanol-induced alterations in methionine metabolism, which may act in synergy with folate deficiency to decrease antioxidant defense as well as DNA stability while regulating epigenetic mechanisms of relevant gene expressions. We also review the current evidence available on potential treatments of ALD based on correcting abnormalities in methionine metabolism and the methylation regulation of relevant gene expressions. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Dong Joon
Liver fibrosis is a common histological change of chronic liver injury and it is closely related with portal hypertension which is hemodynamic complication of chronic liver disease. Currently, liver fibrosis has been known as a reversible dynamic process in previous literatures. Although liver biopsy is a gold standard for assessing the stage of liver fibrosis, it may not completely represent the stage of liver fibrosis because of sampling error or semi-quantative measurement. Recent evidences suggested that histologic, clinical, hemodynamic, and biologic features are closely associated in patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement has been known as a modality to evaluate the portal pressure. The HVPG measurement has been used clinically for fibrosis diagnosis, risk stratification, preoperative screening for liver resection, monitoring the efficacy of medical treatments, and assessing the prognosis of liver fibrosis. Therefore, the HVPG measurement can be used to monitor areas the chronic liver disease but also other important areas of chronic liver disease. PMID:25848485
Della Corte, Claudia; Mazzotta, Anna Rita; Nobili, Valerio
The purpose of this short review is to summarize recent developments in the understanding of pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), focusing on novel findings in pathogenetic mechanisms and the therapeutic armamentarium. As a result of the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, NAFLD has rapidly become the most common cause of chronic hepatopathies in children. Lifestyle modification and diet remain the mainstay of treatment of pediatric obesity and NAFLD, but with disappointing results because of the difficulty in obtaining sustained long-term results. Considering the risk of progression of liver damage to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease, in the last decades scientific research in this field has been directed to the identification of pathogenetic mechanisms and possible therapeutic strategies for NAFLD. We describe the therapeutic options for the management of pediatric NAFLD, focusing on emerging alternative strategies, including surgical approaches and new drugs directed against novel potential molecular targets.
Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana
Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114
Muriel, Pablo; Arauz, Jonathan
Coffee consumption is worldwide spread with few side effects. Interestingly, coffee intake has been inversely related to the serum enzyme activities gamma-glutamyltransferase, and alanine aminotransferase in studies performed in various countries. In addition, epidemiological results, taken together, indicate that coffee consumption is inversely related with hepatic cirrhosis; however, they cannot demonstrate a causative role of coffee with prevention of liver injury. Animal models and cell culture studies indicate that kahweol, diterpenes and cafestol (some coffee compounds) can function as blocking agents by modulating multiple enzymes involved in carcinogenic detoxification; these molecules also alter the xenotoxic metabolism by inducing the enzymes glutathione-S-transferase and inhibiting N-acetyltransferase. Drinking coffee has been associated with reduced risk of hepatic injury and cirrhosis, a major pathogenic step in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, thus, the benefit that produces coffee consumption on hepatic cancer may be attributed to its inverse relation with cirrhosis, although allowance for clinical history of cirrhosis did not completely account for the inverse association. Therefore, it seems to be a continuum of the beneficial effect of coffee consumption on liver enzymes, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. At present, it seems reasonable to propose experiments with animal models of liver damage and to test the effect of coffee, and/or isolated compounds of this beverage, not only to evaluate the possible causative role of coffee but also its action mechanism. Clinical prospective double blind studies are also needed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Testino, Gianni; Patussi, Valentino; Scafato, Emanuele
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common diagnosis among patients undergoing liver transplantation (LT) in Europe and in the United States. The outcome of patients transplanted for ALD is at least as good as that for most other diagnoses and better than that for hepatitis C virus. In case of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH) non-responders to medical therapy, the reason for denying LT is that it requires abstinence from alcohol for six months before consideration for a transplant. A strict application of a period of abstinence as a policy for transplant eligibility is unfair to non-responder patients, as most of them will have died prior to the end of the six-month sober period. In our opinion, in severe AAH subjects with a good social support, with the frequency of self-help groups (alcoholics anonymous or association of clubs of alcoholics in treatment), with the frequency of Alcohol Unit and without severe psychotic or personality disorders, the lack of pre-LT abstinence alone should not be a barrier against being listed.
Sookoian, Silvia; Pirola, Carlos J.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease whose prevalence has reached global epidemic proportions. Although the disease is relatively benign in the early stages, when severe clinical forms, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma, occur, they result in worsening the long-term prognosis. A growing body of evidence indicates that NAFLD develops from a complex process in which many factors, including genetic susceptibility and environmental insults, are involved. In this review, we focused on the genetic component of NAFLD, with special emphasis on the role of genetics in the disease pathogenesis and natural history. Insights into the topic of the genetic susceptibility in lean individuals with NAFLD and the potential use of genetic tests in identifying individuals at risk are also discussed. PMID:28268262
Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, B; Nadziakiewicz, P; Zakliczynski, M; Szczurek, W; Chraponski, J; Zembala, M; Gasior, M
The evaluation of prognosis and determination of a long-term treatment strategy is an important element of management in patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic value of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and its modifications, MELD and serum sodium (MELD-Na) and MELD excluding the international normalized ratio (MELD-XI), as well as other independent risk factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. We analyzed retrospectively 143 patients with advanced HF, evaluated for heart transplant between 2009 and 2011. Patients using warfarin were excluded from the study. The long-term follow-up data were obtained during follow-up visits and/or phone contact with the patients or their families. The age of the patients was 54 (48-59) years and 88.1% of patients were male. Mortality rate during the follow-up period was 49%. The MELD scores (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P < .001), as well as serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP; HR, 1.01; P < .01) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP; HR, 1.01; P < .05) levels, were independent risk factors for death. Receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that a MELD cutoff of 10 (area under the curve [AUC], 0.756; P < .0001], MELD-XI cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.720; P < .0001), MELD-Na cutoff of 13.0 (AUC, 0.813; P < .0001), hs-CRP cutoff of 4.02 (AUC, 0.686; P < .001), and NT-proBNP cutoff of 1055 (AUC, 0.722; P < .001) were the best predictive values as predictors of death. MELD, MELD-Na, and MELD-XI scores are prognostic factors for death during a 4-year follow-up. A high MELD score is an independent prognostic factor for death. NT-proBNP and hs-CRP serum concentrations are other independent factors influencing death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
D'Agnolo, Hedwig M A; Casteleijn, Niek F; Gevers, Tom J G; de Fijter, Hans; van Gastel, Maartje D A; Messchendorp, Annemarie L; Peters, Dorien J M; Salih, Mahdi; Soonawala, Darius; Spithoven, Edwin M; Visser, Folkert W; Wetzels, Jack F M; Zietse, Robert; Gansevoort, Ron T; Drenth, Joost P H
There is an ongoing debate if and how kidney and liver volume are associated with pain and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients. Since both kidney and liver volume could interact, we investigated whether combined total kidney and liver volume had stronger associations with ADPKD-related pain and GI symptoms than the volumes of the organs separately. We used baseline data from the DIPAK-1 study, which included ADPKD patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) between 30 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. MR imaging was performed to measure height-adjusted total kidney volume (hTKV), height-adjusted total liver volume (hTLV) and the combination of both (height-adjusted total kidney liver volume [hTKLV]). Three hundred nine ADPKD patients were included with a mean age of 48 ± 7 years, 53% female, eGFR 50 ± 11 mL/min/1.73 m2 and median hTKV, hTLV and hTKLV of 1,095 (758-1,669), 1,173 (994-1,523) and 2,496 (1,972-3,352) mL/m, respectively. ADPKD-related pain and GI symptoms were present in, respectively, 27.5 and 61.2% of patients. Gender was no effect modifier in the association between kidney and/or liver volume, and symptom burden, indicating that all models could be tested in the overall study population. hTKLV and hTLV were significantly associated with pain and GI symptoms, whereas hTKV was not. Model testing revealed that the associations of pain and GI symptoms with hTKLV were significantly stronger than with hTKV (p = 0.04 and p = 0.04, respectively) but not when compared to hTLV (p = 0.2 and p = 0.5, respectively). This study indicates that combined kidney and liver volume was associated with the presence and severity of pain and GI symptoms in ADPKD, with a more prominent role for hTLV than for hTKV. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mikolasevic, Ivana; Milic, Sandra; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Grgic, Ivana; Jakopcic, Ivan; Stimac, Davor; Wensveen, Felix; Orlic, Lidija
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common comorbidities associated with overweight and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Importantly, NAFLD is one of its most dangerous complications because it can lead to severe liver pathologies, including fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatic cellular carcinoma. Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity, NAFLD has become the most common cause of chronic liver disease and therefore is a major global health problem. Currently, NAFLD is predominantly regarded as a hepatic manifestation of MetS. However, accumulating evidence indicates that the effects of NAFLD extend beyond the liver and are negatively associated with a range of chronic diseases, most notably cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is becoming increasingly clear that these diseases are the result of the same underlying pathophysiological processes associated with MetS, such as insulin resistance, chronic systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia. As a result, they have been shown to be independent reciprocal risk factors. In addition, recent data have shown that NAFLD actively contributes to aggravation of the pathophysiology of CVD, T2DM, and CKD, as well as several other pathologies. Thus, NAFLD is a direct cause of many chronic diseases associated with MetS, and better detection and treatment of fatty liver disease is therefore urgently needed. As non-invasive screening methods for liver disease become increasingly available, detection and treatment of NAFLD in patients with MetS should therefore be considered by both (sub-) specialists and primary care physicians. PMID:27920470
Alonso, José Castellote
Hepatic hydrothorax is the paradigmatic pleural effusion in liver cirrhosis. It is defined as a pleural effusion in a patient with portal hypertension and no cardiopulmonary disease. The estimated prevalence of this complication in patients with liver cirrhosis is 5 to 6%. Its pathophysiology involves movement of ascitic fluid from the peritoneal cavity into the pleural space through diaphragmatic defects. Thoracentesis and pleural fluid analysis are necessary for diagnosis. Initial management consists of sodium restriction, diuretics, and therapeutic thoracentesis. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt may provide a bridge prior to liver transplantation. Spontaneous bacterial empyema is the infection of a preexisting hydrothorax. The more frequent bacteria involved are ENTEROBACTERIACEAE and gram-positive cocci. Antibiotic therapy is the cornerstone of therapy. This article reviews etiology, clinical manifestations, and therapy of these two complications of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension.
Prince, M; Hudson, M
Since liver transplantation was first performed in 1968 by Starzl et al, advances in case selection, liver surgery, anaesthetics, and immunotherapy have significantly increased the indications for and success of this operation. Liver transplantation is now a standard therapy for many end stage liver disorders as well as acute liver failure. However, while demand for cadaveric organ grafts has increased, in recent years the supply of organs has fallen. This review addresses current controversies resulting from this mismatch. In particular, methods for increasing graft availability and difficulties arising from transplantation in the context of alcohol related cirrhosis, primary liver tumours, and hepatitis C are reviewed. Together these three indications accounted for 42% of liver transplants performed for chronic liver disease in the UK in 2000. Ethical frameworks for making decisions on patients' suitability for liver transplantation have been developed in both the USA and the UK and these are also reviewed. PMID:11884694
Douglass, Alyse N; Kain, Heather S; Abdullahi, Marian; Arang, Nadia; Austin, Laura S; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Billman, Zachary P; Hume, Jen C C; Murphy, Sean C; Kappe, Stefan H I; Kaushansky, Alexis
Eliminating malaria parasites during the asymptomatic but obligate liver stages (LSs) of infection would stop disease and subsequent transmission. Unfortunately, only a single licensed drug that targets all LSs, Primaquine, is available. Targeting host proteins might significantly expand the repertoire of prophylactic drugs against malaria. Here, we demonstrate that both Bcl-2 inhibitors and P53 agonists dramatically reduce LS burden in a mouse malaria model in vitro and in vivo by altering the activity of key hepatocyte factors on which the parasite relies. Bcl-2 inhibitors act primarily by inducing apoptosis in infected hepatocytes, whereas P53 agonists eliminate parasites in an apoptosis-independent fashion. In combination, Bcl-2 inhibitors and P53 agonists act synergistically to delay, and in some cases completely prevent, the onset of blood stage disease. Both families of drugs are highly effective at doses that do not cause substantial hepatocyte cell death in vitro or liver damage in vivo. P53 agonists and Bcl-2 inhibitors were also effective when administered to humanized mice infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Our data demonstrate that host-based prophylaxis could be developed into an effective intervention strategy that eliminates LS parasites before the onset of clinical disease and thus opens a new avenue to prevent malaria. PMID:25648263
Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T.; Schnabl, Bernd
Alcoholic liver disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with alcoholic liver disease have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental alcoholic liver disease. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship and consequences for alcoholic liver disease. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota. PMID:25872593
Lake, April D.; Novak, Petr; Fisher, Craig D.; Jackson, Jonathan P.; Hardwick, Rhiannon N.; Billheimer, D. Dean; Klimecki, Walter T.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by a series of pathological changes that range from simple fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The objective of this study is to describe changes in global gene expression associated with the progression of human NAFLD. This study is focused on the expression levels of genes responsible for the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of drugs. Differential gene expression between three clinically defined pathological groups—normal, steatosis, and NASH—was analyzed. Genome-wide mRNA levels in samples of human liver tissue were assayed with Affymetrix GeneChip Human 1.0ST arrays. A total of 11,633 genes exhibited altered expression out of 33,252 genes at a 5% false discovery rate. Most gene expression changes occurred in the progression from steatosis to NASH. Principal component analysis revealed that hepatic disease status was the major determinant of differential ADME gene expression rather than age or sex of sample donors. Among the 515 drug transporters and 258 drug-metabolizing enzymes (DMEs) examined, uptake transporters but not efflux transporters or DMEs were significantly over-represented in the number of genes down-regulated. These results suggest that uptake transporter genes are coordinately targeted for down-regulation at the global level during the pathological development of NASH and that these patients may have decreased drug uptake capacity. This coordinated regulation of uptake transporter genes is indicative of a hepatoprotective mechanism acting to prevent accumulation of toxic intermediates in disease-compromised hepatocytes. PMID:21737566
With prevalence of 10–20% in adults in developed countries, gallstone disease (GSD) is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal tract disorders in the world. In addition to gallstone disease, chronic liver disease (CLD) is also an important global public health problem. The reported frequency of gallstone in chronic liver disease tends to be higher. The prevalence of gallstone disease might be related to age, gender, etiology, and severity of liver disease in patients with chronic liver disease. In this review, the aim was to identify the epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment strategies of gallstone disease in chronic liver disease patients. PMID:28251162
Koretz, Ronald L; Avenell, Alison; Lipman, Timothy O
Weight loss and muscle wasting are commonly found in patients with end-stage liver disease. Since there is an association between malnutrition and poor clinical outcome, such patients (or those at risk of becoming malnourished) are often given parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or oral nutritional supplements. These interventions have costs and adverse effects, so it is important to prove that their use results in improved morbidity or mortality, or both. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, and oral nutritional supplements on the mortality and morbidity of patients with underlying liver disease. The following computerised databases were searched: the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded (January 2012). In addition, reference lists of identified trials and review articles and Clinicaltrials.gov were searched. Trials identified in a previous systematic handsearch of Index Medicus were also considered. Handsearches of a number of medical journals, including abstracts from annual meetings, were done. Experts in the field and manufacturers of nutrient formulations were contacted for potential references. Randomised clinical trials (parallel or cross-over design) comparing groups of patients with any underlying liver disease who received, or did not receive, enteral or parenteral nutrition or oral nutritional supplements were identified without restriction on date, language, or publication status. Six categories of trials were separately considered: medical or surgical patients receiving parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition, or supplements. The following data were sought in each report: date of publication; geographical location; inclusion and exclusion criteria; the type of nutritional support and constitution of the nutrient formulation; duration of
Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich
The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardised definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice.
Rust, Christian; Beuers, Ulrich
The three major immune disorders of the liver are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Variant forms of these diseases are generally called overlap syndromes, although there has been no standardized definition. Patients with overlap syndromes present with both hepatitic and cholestatic serum liver tests and have histological features of AIH and PBC or PSC. The AIH-PBC overlap syndrome is the most common form, affecting almost 10% of adults with AIH or PBC. Single cases of AIH and autoimmune cholangitis (AMA-negative PBC) overlap syndrome have also been reported. The AIH-PSC overlap syndrome is predominantly found in children, adolescents and young adults with AIH or PSC. Interestingly, transitions from one autoimmune to another have also been reported in a minority of patients, especially transitions from PBC to AIH-PBC overlap syndrome. Overlap syndromes show a progressive course towards liver cirrhosis and liver failure without treatment. Therapy for overlap syndromes is empiric, since controlled trials are not available in these rare disorders. Anticholestatic therapy with ursodeoxycholic acid is usually combined with immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroids and/or azathioprine in both AIH-PBC and AIH-PSC overlap syndromes. In end-stage disease, liver transplantation is the treatment of choice. PMID:18528934
Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina
The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD. PMID:22312450
Mantry, P S; Mehta, A; Graydon, R
Rifaximin is a non-absorbable antibiotic which is approved for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in the United States. Our goal was to retrospectively assess this in patients with very advanced liver disease with our center data. Between 2003 and 2010, we examined a total of 286 consecutive patients from our center who were on a combination of rifaximin and lactulose, who had been evaluated or listed as eligible for a liver transplant. Patients who received less than 3 months of rifaximin and lactulose were excluded. Patients who had incomplete data; specifically, a lack of MELD score upon hospital admission were excluded from this analysis. The retrospective chart review was approved by the institutional review board. We observed a total of 723 hospitalizations among the patients. Of the 723 hospitalizations, 218 were due to portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE), whereas 505 were due to other causes. We observed that patients with a MELD < 20 had an average of 2.5 hospitalizations per 6 month period, and that those with a MELD > 20 had an average of 1.6 hospitalizations per 6 month period for HE. At the same time, patients who had a MELD score < 20 had 3.29 hospitalizations for HE unrelated causes and those whose MELD was >20 had 3.73 hospitalizations for causes not related to HE. In this cohort 65% of all hospitalizations from HE were in patients whose MELD was < 20, and 35% of all hospitalizations were for patients with a MELD > 20. In our experience, HE related hospitalizations were lower in patients whose MELD > 20 who were on a combination of rifaximin and lactulose compared to patients with MELD < 20. In contrast, patients whose MELD > 20 had greater hospitalizations for non HE events which may be an expected result owing to the overall increased severity of their liver disease. The limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and single center experience. In conclusion, administration of rifaximin appears to significantly reduce
De Leeuw, Kathleen; Woestenburg, Annemie; Verbeelen, Dierik
The majority of patients with end-stage renal disease have hyperphosphataemia, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Lanthanum carbonate has been introduced as a new treatment modality to lower serum phosphorus. But there has been ongoing concern about lanthanum accumulation in tissues, especially in liver. We describe the case of a woman with pre-existing liver disease, who presented with acute liver failure after introduction of lanthanum carbonate to her treatment. The condition was fully reversible after stopping lanthanum carbonate. PMID:28657006
Grimm, Joshua C; Magruder, J Trent; Do, Nhue; Spinner, Joseph A; Dungan, Samuel P; Kilic, Arman; Patel, Nishant; Nelson, Kristin L; Jacobs, Marshall L; Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca A
We sought to determine the ability of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease eXcluding INR (MELD-XI) to predict short-term and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing orthotopic heart transplant. The United Network for Organ Sharing Database was queried for all pediatric patients (aged 1 to 18 years) undergoing orthotopic heart transplant from 2000 to 2012. The logarithmic relationship between the serum creatinine and bilirubin was used to calculate the MELD-XI score. Lowess smoothing plots were referenced, and a score threshold of 12.2 was used to stratify patients into low (75%) and high (25%) MELD-XI cohorts. Patient-specific characteristics, intraoperative variables, and postoperative outcomes were compared between the two cohorts. Differences in survival at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years between the MELD-XI cohorts were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine the risk-adjusted effect of a high MELD-XI score on death. After patients with missing MELD-XI scores were excluded, 2,939 patients met the inclusion criteria. Unconditional 30-day (93.1% vs 98.0%, p < 0.001), 1-year (85.9% vs 92.9%, p < 0.001), and 5-year (71.2% vs 79.5%, p < 0.001) survivals were significantly worse in the high-score cohort. However, 1-year survival excluding 90-day deaths (94.9% vs 95.8%, p = 0.29) and 5-year survival excluding 1-year deaths (82.8% vs 85.6%, p = 0.09) were statistically equivalent. When modeled as a categoric variable, a high MELD-XI score was an independent predictor of death at 30 days (hazard ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.84 to 4.45; p < 0.001), 1 year (hazard ratio, 1.88; 95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 2.48, p < 0.001), and 5 years (hazard ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.77; p < 0.001). For every 1-point increase in the MELD-XI score, mortality increased 11% at 30 days, 7% at 1 year, and 4% at 5 years (p < 0.001). The MELD-XI was not predictive of conditional mortality at 1
Segura Grau, A; Valero López, I; Díaz Rodríguez, N; Segura Cabral, J M
Liver ultrasound is frequently used as a first-line technique for the detection and characterization of the most common liver lesions, especially those incidentally found focal liver lesions, and for monitoring of chronic liver diseases. Ultrasound is not only used in the Bmode, but also with Doppler and, more recently, contrast-enhanced ultrasound. It is mainly used in the diagnosis of diffuse liver diseases, such as steatosis or cirrhosis. This article presents a practical approach for diagnosis workup, in which the different characteristics of the main focal liver lesions and diffuse liver diseases are reviewed.
Björklund, Jessica; Laursen, Tea Lund; Kazankov, Konstantin; Thomsen, Karen Louise; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Stenbøg, Elisabeth; Grønbæk, Henning
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by liver fat accumulation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with inflammation and fibrosis, which may lead to cirrhosis also in childhood. NAFLD/NASH in children are related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and incidence and prevalence are expected to increase. Children having liver steatosis and elevated liver enzymes are most often asymptomatic, and a liver biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis and staging. The treatment should focus on lifestyle changes, as pharmacological therapy needs further evaluation.
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Wilson, Andrew A.; Ying, Lei; Liesa, Marc; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Mills, Jason A.; Shen, Steven S.; Jean, Jyhchang; Lonza, Geordie C.; Liberti, Derek C.; Lang, Alex H.; Nazaire, Jean; Gower, Adam C.; Müeller, Franz-Josef; Mehta, Pankaj; Ordóñez, Adriana; Lomas, David A.; Vallier, Ludovic; Murphy, George J.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Spira, Avrum; Shirihai, Orian S.; Ramirez, Maria I.; Gadue, Paul; Kotton, Darrell N.
Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an inexhaustible source of cells for modeling disease and testing drugs. Here we develop a bioinformatic approach to detect differences between the genomic programs of iPSCs derived from diseased versus normal human cohorts as they emerge during in vitro directed differentiation. Using iPSCs generated from a cohort carrying mutations (PiZZ) in the gene responsible for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, we find that the global transcriptomes of PiZZ iPSCs diverge from normal controls upon differentiation to hepatic cells. Expression of 135 genes distinguishes PiZZ iPSC-hepatic cells, providing potential clues to liver disease pathogenesis. The disease-specific cells display intracellular accumulation of mutant AAT protein, resulting in increased autophagic flux. Furthermore, we detect beneficial responses to the drug carbamazepine, which further augments autophagic flux, but adverse responses to known hepatotoxic drugs. Our findings support the utility of iPSCs as tools for drug development or prediction of toxicity. PMID:25843048
The author discusses the role of “natural” hepatotoxic substances, derived from plants and fungi, in the etiology of liver disease, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. The hazards involved in even the occasional use of natural hepatotoxins and the difficulty in tracing the causative factors of chronic diseases are illustrated by the example of the pyrrolizidine (Senecio) alkaloids. The ingestion by rats of a single dose of these alkaloids can induce chronic liver lesions and even hepatoma which, however, may not become apparent for 1½-2½ years. It is suggested that, however varied the chemical structures of the various hepatocarcinogens, they may all affect an essential cell constituent (e.g., a “mitotic hormone”), possibly of a steroidal nature, each substance interfering with a particular stage of its biosynthesis. “Natural” toxic factors may also be responsible for some other chronic diseases, especially those which are mainly encountered in, or restricted to, certain pastoral communities. In view of the greater susceptibility of the suckling young and the foetus than of adults to hepatotoxins, it would appear more promising to attempt to trace the causative agents of liver disease in children than in adults, in whom disease takes much longer to develop. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 9FIG. 10 PMID:14107756
Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina
Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential.
Torruellas, Cara; French, Samuel W; Medici, Valentina
Alcohol is a hepatotoxin that is commonly consumed worldwide and is associated with a spectrum of liver injury including simple steatosis or fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a general term used to refer to this spectrum of alcohol-related liver injuries. Excessive or harmful alcohol use is ranked as one of the top five risk factors for death and disability globally and results in 2.5 million deaths and 69.4 million annual disability adjusted life years. All patients who present with clinical features of hepatitis or chronic liver disease or who have elevated serum elevated transaminase levels should be screened for an alcohol use disorder. The diagnosis of ALD can generally be made based on history, clinical and laboratory findings. However, the diagnosis of ALD can be clinically challenging as there is no single diagnostic test that confirms the diagnosis and patients may not be forthcoming about their degree of alcohol consumption. In addition, clinical findings may be absent or minimal in early ALD characterized by hepatic steatosis. Typical laboratory findings in ALD include transaminase levels with aspartate aminotransferase greater than alanine aminotransferase as well as increased mean corpuscular volume, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, and IgA to IgG ratio. In unclear cases, the diagnosis can be supported by imaging and liver biopsy. The histological features of ALD can ultimately define the diagnosis according to the typical presence and distribution of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and Mallory-Denk bodies. Because of the potential reversible nature of ALD with sobriety, regular screening of the general population and early diagnosis are essential. PMID:25206273
Jansen, Peter L M; Ghallab, Ahmed; Vartak, Nachiket; Reif, Raymond; Schaap, Frank G; Hampe, Jochen; Hengstler, Jan G
In this review we develop the argument that cholestatic liver diseases, particularly primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), evolve over time with anatomically an ascending course of the disease process. The first and early lesions are in "downstream" bile ducts. This eventually leads to cholestasis, and this causes bile salt (BS)-mediated toxic injury of the "upstream" liver parenchyma. BS are toxic in high concentration. These concentrations are present in the canalicular network, bile ducts, and gallbladder. Leakage of bile from this network and ducts could be an important driver of toxicity. The liver has a great capacity to adapt to cholestasis, and this may contribute to a variable symptom-poor interval that is often observed. Current trials with drugs that target BS toxicity are effective in only about 50%-60% of primary biliary cholangitis patients, with no effective therapy in PSC. This motivated us to develop and propose a new view on the pathophysiology of primary biliary cholangitis and PSC in the hope that these new drugs can be used more effectively. These views may lead to better stratification of these diseases and to recommendations on a more "tailored" use of the new therapeutic agents that are currently tested in clinical trials. Apical sodium-dependent BS transporter inhibitors that reduce intestinal BS absorption lower the BS load and are best used in cholestatic patients. The effectiveness of BS synthesis-suppressing drugs, such as farnesoid X receptor agonists, is greatest when optimal adaptation is not yet established. By the time cytochrome P450 7A1 expression is reduced these drugs may be less effective. Anti-inflammatory agents are probably most effective in early disease, while drugs that antagonize BS toxicity, such as ursodeoxycholic acid and nor-ursodeoxycholic acid, may be effective at all disease stages. Endoscopic stenting in PSC should be reserved for situations of intercurrent cholestasis and
Berlakovich, Gabriela A
Transplantation for the treatment of alcoholic cirrhosis is more controversially discussed than it is for any other indication. The crucial aspect in this setting is abstinence before and after liver transplantation. We established pre-transplant selection criteria for potential transplant candidates. Provided that the underlying disease can be treated, there is no reason to withhold liver transplantation in a patient suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team, including an addiction specialist, is considered to be the gold standard. However, several centers demand a specified period of abstinence - usually 6 mo- irrespective of the specialist's assessment. The 6-mo rule is viewed critically because liver transplantation was found to clearly benefit selected patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis; the benefit was similar to that achieved for other acute indications. However, the discussion may well be an academic one because the waiting time for liver transplantation exceeds six months at the majority of centers. The actual challenge in liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis may well be the need for lifelong post-transplant follow-up rather than the patient's pre-transplant evaluation. A small number of recipients experience a relapse of alcoholism; these patients are at risk for organ damage and graft-related death. Post-transplant surveillance protocols should demonstrate alcohol relapse at an early stage, thus permitting the initiation of adequate treatment. Patients with alcoholic cirrhosis are at high risk of developing head and neck, esophageal, or lung cancer. The higher risk of malignancies should be considered in the routine assessment of patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis. Tumor surveillance protocols for liver transplant recipients, currently being developed, should become a part of standard care; these will improve survival by permitting diagnosis at an early stage. In conclusion, the key
Hartleb, Marek; Gutkowski, Krzysztof
Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as an abrupt increase in the serum creatinine level by at least 0.3 mg/dL, occurs in about 20% of patients hospitalized for decompensating liver cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to developing AKI because of the progressive vasodilatory state, reduced effective blood volume and stimulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. The most common causes of AKI in cirrhosis are pre-renal azotemia, hepatorenal syndrome and acute tubular necrosis. Differential diagnosis is based on analysis of circumstances of AKI development, natriuresis, urine osmolality, response to withdrawal of diuretics and volume repletion, and rarely on renal biopsy. Chronic glomerulonephritis and obstructive uropathy are rare causes of azotemia in cirrhotic patients. AKI is one of the last events in the natural history of chronic liver disease, therefore, such patients should have an expedited referral for liver transplantation. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is initiated by progressive portal hypertension, and may be prematurely triggered by bacterial infections, nonbacterial systemic inflammatory reactions, excessive diuresis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea or nephrotoxic agents. Each type of renal disease has a specific treatment approach ranging from repletion of the vascular system to renal replacement therapy. The treatment of choice in type 1 hepatorenal syndrome is a combination of vasoconstrictor with albumin infusion, which is effective in about 50% of patients. The second-line treatment of HRS involves a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, renal vasoprotection or systems of artificial liver support. PMID:22791939
Bissonnette, Julien; Durand, François; de Raucourt, Emmanuelle; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Plessier, Aurélie; Valla, Dominique; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel
Vascular disorders of the liver frequently affect women of childbearing age. Pregnancy and the postpartum are prothrombotic states. Pregnancy seems to be a trigger for Budd–Chiari syndrome in patients with an underlying prothrombotic disorder. Whether pregnancy is a risk factor for other vascular liver disorders is unknown. In women with a known vascular liver disorder and a desire for pregnancy, stabilisation of the liver disease, including the use of a portal decompressive procedure when indicated, should be reached prior to conception. The presence of esophageal varices should be screened and adequate prophylaxis of bleeding applied in a manner similar to what is recommended for patients with cirrhosis. Most women likely benefit from anticoagulation during pregnancy and the postpartum. Labor and delivery are best managed by a multidisciplinary team with experience in this situation. Assisted vaginal delivery is the preferred mode of delivery. Although the risk of miscarriage and premature birth is heightened, current management of these diseases makes it very likely to see the birth of a live baby when pregnancy reaches 20 weeks of gestation. PMID:25941432
Savale, Laurent; Sattler, Caroline; Sitbon, Olivier
Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) is defined by the combination of portal hypertension and precapillary pulmonary hypertension (mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg, PCWP < 15 mmHg and PVR > 3 Wood units). PoPH is characterised by pathobiological mechanisms that are similar to other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Prevalence of PoPH is estimated at 0.5-5% among patients with portal hypertension with or without cirrhosis. Treatment strategies most commonly employed for PoPH patients are based on recommendations for idiopathic PAH management. Indeed, the choice of specific PAH treatment must take account the severity of the underlying liver disease. Prognosis of PoPH patients is dependent on both the severity of PAH and of the underlying liver disease. PoPH may be a contraindication for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) if mean pulmonary arterial pressure is > 35 mmHg associated with severe right ventricular dysfunction or high level of pulmonary vascular resistance (> 3-4 Wood units). Bridge therapy with specific PAH therapies should be considered in those patients in an attempt to improve pulmonary hemodynamic and thereby allow OLT with acceptable risk. Recent data suggest that stabilize, improve or cure PoPH seems to be possible by combining specific PAH therapies and liver transplantation in selected patients. Clinical and experimental evidences suggest that IFN therapy may be a possible risk factor for PAH.
Chen, Hong; Shen, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Wang; Fan, Tie-Yan; Li, Jun; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Liu, Jie
To investigate the expression of P450 enzyme genes by using end-stage liver disease samples and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers. The end-stage liver disease samples [n = 93, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), peri-HCC tissue, hepatitis B virus cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and severe cirrhosis] and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers (n = 35) from The Institute of Organ Transplantation in Beijing, China. Total RNA was extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. For cytochrome P450 enzymes 1 (CYP1) family, the expression of CYP1A2 was decreased 90% in HCC, 80% in alcoholic cirrhosis, and 65% in severe cirrhosis. For CYP2 family, the expression of CAR was decreased 50% in HCC, but increased 50% in peri-HCC tissues. Similar decreases (about 50%) of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 were observed in HCC, as compared to peri-HCC tissues and normal livers. CYP2C19 were decreased in all end-stage liver diseases and CYP2E1 also decreased in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe cirrhosis. For CYP3 family, the expression of PXR was decreased 60% in HCC, together with decreases in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. In contrast, the expression of CYP3A7 was slightly increased in HBV cirrhosis. The expression of CYP4A11 was decreased 85% in HCC, 7% in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe liver cirrhosis, along with decreases in PPARα. The 93 end-stage livers had much higher inter-individual variations in gene expression than 35 normal livers. The expression of CYP enzyme genes and corresponding nuclear receptors was generally decreased in end-stage liver diseases, and significant differences in gene expression were evident between peri-HCC and HCC.
Chen, Hong; Shen, Zhong-Yang; Xu, Wang; Fan, Tie-Yan; Li, Jun; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Liu, Jie
AIM: To investigate the expression of P450 enzyme genes by using end-stage liver disease samples and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers. METHODS: The end-stage liver disease samples [n = 93, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), peri-HCC tissue, hepatitis B virus cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis, and severe cirrhosis] and trimmed normal Chinese donor livers (n = 35) from The Institute of Organ Transplantation in Beijing, China. Total RNA was extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: For cytochrome P450 enzymes 1 (CYP1) family, the expression of CYP1A2 was decreased 90% in HCC, 80% in alcoholic cirrhosis, and 65% in severe cirrhosis. For CYP2 family, the expression of CAR was decreased 50% in HCC, but increased 50% in peri-HCC tissues. Similar decreases (about 50%) of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 were observed in HCC, as compared to peri-HCC tissues and normal livers. CYP2C19 were decreased in all end-stage liver diseases and CYP2E1 also decreased in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe cirrhosis. For CYP3 family, the expression of PXR was decreased 60% in HCC, together with decreases in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP3A7. In contrast, the expression of CYP3A7 was slightly increased in HBV cirrhosis. The expression of CYP4A11 was decreased 85% in HCC, 7% in alcoholic cirrhosis and severe liver cirrhosis, along with decreases in PPARα. The 93 end-stage livers had much higher inter-individual variations in gene expression than 35 normal livers. CONCLUSION: The expression of CYP enzyme genes and corresponding nuclear receptors was generally decreased in end-stage liver diseases, and significant differences in gene expression were evident between peri-HCC and HCC. PMID:25024626
Carbone, Marco; Neuberger, James
End-stage liver disease due to hepatitis C (HCV) and cirrhosis from alcohol (ALD) are the commonest indications for liver transplantation in the western countries. Up to one third of HCV-infected transplant candidates have a history of significant alcohol intake prior to transplantation. However, there are few data available about the possible interaction between alcohol and HCV in the post-transplant setting. Patients with both HCV and alcohol are more likely to die on the waiting list than those with ALD and HCV alone. However, after transplantation, non-risk adjusted graft and patient survival of patients with HCV + ALD are comparable to those of patients with HCV cirrhosis or ALD cirrhosis alone. In the short and medium term HCV recurrence after transplant in patients with HCV + ALD cirrhosis does not seem more aggressive than that in patients with HCV cirrhosis alone. A relapse in alcohol consumption in patients with HCV + ALD cirrhosis does not have a major impact on graft survival. The evidence shows that, as is currently practiced, HCV + ALD as an appropriate indication for liver transplantation. However, these data are based on retrospective analyses with relatively short follow-up so the conclusions must be treated with caution. PMID:21209701
McClain, Craig J.; Barve, Shirish S.; Barve, Ashutosh; Marsano, Luis
Malnutrition, both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and deficiencies in individual nutrients, is a frequent complication of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Severity of malnutrition correlates with severity of ALD. Malnutrition also occurs in patients with cirrhosis due to etiologies other than alcohol. The mechanisms for malnutrition are multifactorial, and malnutrition frequently worsens in the hospital due to fasting for procedures and metabolic complications of liver disease, such as hepatic encephalopathy. Aggressive nutritional support is indicated in inpatients with ALD, and patients often need to be fed through an enteral feeding tube to achieve protein and calorie goals. Enteral nutritional support clearly improves nutrition status and may improve clinical outcome. Moreover, late-night snacks in outpatient cirrhotics improve nutritional status and lean body mass. Thus, with no FDA-approved therapy for ALD, careful nutritional intervention should be considered as frontline therapy. PMID:21284673
Yadav, Anitha; Carey, Elizabeth J
Osteoporosis is a common skeletal complication seen in patients with chronic liver disease. Osteoporosis is usually asymptomatic and, if untreated, can result in fractures and impaired quality of life. For this review, we performed a systematic search of the PubMed database, and all recent peer-reviewed articles regarding the prevalence, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis in chronic liver disease were included. The prevalence of osteoporosis varies between 11% and 58% in patients with chronic liver disease and in transplant recipients. The etiology of osteoporosis is multifactorial and only partially understood. Various factors linked to the pathogenesis of bone loss are vitamin D, calcium, insulin growth factor-1, receptor activation of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), bilirubin, fibronectin, leptin, proinflammatory cytokines, and genetic polymorphisms. Management of osteoporosis involves early diagnosis, identifying and minimizing risk factors, general supportive care, nutrition therapy, and pharmacotherapy. Osteoporosis is diagnosed based on the bone mineral density (BMD) assessment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Measurement of BMD should be considered in all patients with advanced liver disease and in transplant recipients. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteoporosis. Specific agents used for treatment of osteoporosis include bisphosphonates, calcitonin, hormonal therapy, and raloxifene. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of therapy for osteoporosis prevention and treatment. Prolonged suppression of bone remodeling resulting in atypical fractures has emerged as a significant complication with long-term use of bisphosphonates. Newer treatment agents and better fracture prevention strategies are necessary to prevent and treat osteoporosis.
Bémeur, Chantal; Desjardins, Paul; Butterworth, Roger F.
Malnutrition is common in patients with end-stage liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy, and is considered a significant prognostic factor affecting quality of life, outcome, and survival. The liver plays a crucial role in the regulation of nutrition by trafficking the metabolism of nutrients, their distribution and appropriate use by the body. Nutritional consequences with the potential to cause nervous system dysfunction occur in liver failure, and many factors contribute to malnutrition in hepatic failure. Among them are inadequate dietary intake, malabsorption, increased protein losses, hypermetabolism, insulin resistance, gastrointestinal bleeding, ascites, inflammation/infection, and hyponatremia. Patients at risk of malnutrition are relatively difficult to identify since liver disease may interfere with biomarkers of malnutrition. The supplementation of the diet with amino acids, antioxidants, vitamins as well as probiotics in addition to meeting energy and protein requirements may improve nutritional status, liver function, and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with end-stage liver failure. PMID:21234351
Suarez, Catherine; Volkmann, Katrin; Gomes, Ana Rita; Billker, Oliver; Blackman, Michael J
Transmission of the malaria parasite to its vertebrate host involves an obligatory exoerythrocytic stage in which extensive asexual replication of the parasite takes place in infected hepatocytes. The resulting liver schizont undergoes segmentation to produce thousands of daughter merozoites. These are released to initiate the blood stage life cycle, which causes all the pathology associated with the disease. Whilst elements of liver stage merozoite biology are similar to those in the much better-studied blood stage merozoites, little is known of the molecular players involved in liver stage merozoite production. To facilitate the study of liver stage biology we developed a strategy for the rapid production of complex conditional alleles by recombinase mediated engineering in Escherichia coli, which we used in combination with existing Plasmodium berghei deleter lines expressing Flp recombinase to study subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1), a conserved Plasmodium serine protease previously implicated in blood stage merozoite maturation and egress. We demonstrate that SUB1 is not required for the early stages of intrahepatic growth, but is essential for complete development of the liver stage schizont and for production of hepatic merozoites. Our results indicate that inhibitors of SUB1 could be used in prophylactic approaches to control or block the clinically silent pre-erythrocytic stage of the malaria parasite life cycle.
Ng, Shengyong; March, Sandra; Galstian, Ani; Gural, Nil; Stevens, Kelly R.; Mota, Maria M.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.
The malaria liver stage is an attractive target for antimalarial development, and preclinical malaria models are essential for testing such candidates. Given ethical concerns and costs associated with non‐human primate models, humanized mouse models containing chimeric human livers offer a valuable alternative as small animal models of liver stage human malaria. The best available human liver chimeric mice rely on cellular transplantation into mice with genetically engineered liver injury, but these systems involve a long and variable humanization process, are expensive, and require the use of breeding-challenged mouse strains which are not widely accessible. We previously incorporated primary human hepatocytes into engineered polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based nanoporous human ectopic artificial livers (HEALs), implanted them in mice without liver injury, and rapidly generated human liver chimeric mice in a reproducible and scalable fashion. By re-designing the PEG scaffold to be macroporous, we demonstrate the facile fabrication of implantable porous HEALs that support liver stage human malaria (P. falciparum) infection in vitro, and also after implantation in mice with normal liver function, 60% of the time. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a tissue engineering strategy towards the development of scalable preclinical models of liver stage malaria infection for future applications. PMID:28361899
Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo
The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world’s third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the “necrosis-fibrosis” sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25356028
Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Angrisani, Debora; Sanduzzi Zamparelli, Marco; Nardone, Gerardo
The harmful use of alcohol is a worldwide problem. It has been estimated that alcohol abuse represents the world's third largest risk factor for disease and disability; it is a causal factor of 60 types of diseases and injuries and a concurrent cause of at least 200 others. Liver is the main organ responsible for metabolizing ethanol, thus it has been considered for long time the major victim of the harmful use of alcohol. Ethanol and its bioactive products, acetaldehyde-acetate, fatty acid ethanol esters, ethanol-protein adducts, have been regarded as hepatotoxins that directly and indirectly exert their toxic effect on the liver. A similar mechanism has been postulated for the alcohol-related pancreatic damage. Alcohol and its metabolites directly injure acinar cells and elicit stellate cells to produce and deposit extracellular matrix thus triggering the "necrosis-fibrosis" sequence that finally leads to atrophy and fibrosis, morphological hallmarks of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Even if less attention has been paid to the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, ethanol produces harmful effects by inducing: (1) direct damaging of the mucosa of the esophagus and stomach; (2) modification of the sphincterial pressure and impairment of motility; and (3) alteration of gastric acid output. In the intestine, ethanol can damage the intestinal mucosa directly or indirectly by altering the resident microflora and impairing the mucosal immune system. Notably, disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier of the small and large intestine contribute to liver damage. This review summarizes the most clinically relevant alcohol-related diseases of the digestive tract focusing on the pathogenic mechanisms by which ethanol damages liver, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract.
Wilkins, Thad; Tadkod, Altaf; Hepburn, Iryna; Schade, Robert R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (hepatic steatosis). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is characterized by steatosis, liver cell injury, and inflammation. The mechanism of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is unknown but involves the development of insulin resistance, steatosis, inflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with physical inactivity, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Screening is not recommended in the general population. The diagnosis is usually made after an incidental discovery of unexplained elevation of liver enzyme levels or when steatosis is noted on imaging (e.g., ultrasonography). Patients are often asymptomatic and the physical examination is often unremarkable. No single laboratory test is diagnostic, but tests of liver function, tests for metabolic syndrome, and tests to exclude other causes of abnormal liver enzyme levels are routinely performed. Imaging studies, such as ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, can assess hepatic fat, measure liver and spleen size, and exclude other diseases. Liver biopsy remains the criterion standard for the diagnosis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Noninvasive tests are available and may reduce the need for liver biopsy. A healthy diet, weight loss, and exercise are first-line therapeutic measures to reduce insulin resistance. There is insufficient evidence to support bariatric surgery, metformin, thiazolidinediones, bile acids, or antioxidant supplements for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The long-term prognosis is not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or liver disease.
Acar, S; Gencdal, G; Tokac, M; Eren, E; Alkara, U; Tellioglu, G; Dinckan, A; Akyildiz, M
Polycystic liver disease is characterized by multiple cystic lesions on the liver. It is an uncommon autosomal dominant disease. The cysts' diameters range from 20 to 30 cm to small microscopic nodules. Generally, more than half of the liver parenchyma is covered. The mass effect of the liver created by the large cysts can cause life-threatening symptoms such as weight loss, reduction of oral intake, and malnutrition. Liver transplantation is the best treatment option in symptomatic patients. We present a patient who had polycystic liver and kidney disease, and we performed liver transplantation because of his life-threatening symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peces, R; González, P; Venegas, J L
Polycystic liver disease is characterized by the presence of multiple bile duct-derived epithelial cysts scattered in the liver parenchyma. The natural history and clinical manifestations of polycystic liver disease are based on the disease as it manifests in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The occurrence of polycystic liver disease independently from polycystic kidney disease has been known for a long time. More recently, a gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease has been identified on chromosome 19p 13.2-13.1. Isolated polycystic liver disease is underdiagnosed and genetically distinct from polycystic liver disease associated with ADPKD but with similar pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. We report here two men with polycystic liver disease no associated with ADPKD. Ultrasound and computed tomography imaging were effective in documenting the underlying lesions non-invasively.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease in the Western world, with a prevalence of 20%. In a subgroup of patients, inflammation, ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and a varying degree of fibrosis may develop, a condition named non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Advanced liver fibrosis (stage F3) and cirrhosis (stage F4) are histologic features that most accurately predict increased mortality in both liver-related and cardiovascular diseases. Patients with advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis are at risk for complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and esophageal varices and should therefore be included in surveillance programs. However, liver disease and fibrosis are often unrecognized in patients with NAFLD, possibly leading to a delayed diagnosis of complications. The early diagnosis of advanced fibrosis in NAFLD is therefore crucial, and it can be accomplished using serum biomarkers (e.g., the NAFLD Fibrosis Score, Fib-4 Index or BARD) or non-invasive imaging techniques (transient elastography or acoustic radiation force impulse imaging). The screening of risk groups, such as patients with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus, for NAFLD development with these non-invasive methods may detect advanced fibrosis at an early stage. Additionally, patients with a low risk for advanced fibrosis can be identified, and the need for liver biopsies can be minimized. This review focuses on the diagnostic challenge and prognostic impact of advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD.
Sherman, Kenneth E.; Thomas, David L.; Chung, Raymond T.
Liver disease continues to represent a critical mediator of morbidity and mortality in those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The frequent presence and overlap of concomitant injurious processes, including hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infections, hepatoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapeutic agents, alcohol, and other toxins, in the setting of immunosuppression lead to rapid fibrotic progression and early development of end-stage liver disease. This conference summary describes the proceedings of a state-of-the-art gathering of international experts designed to highlight the status of current research in epidemiology, natural history, pathogenesis, and treatment of HIV and liver disease. PMID:21898501
Chen, H-M; Shih, F-Jong; Pan, Y-J; Shih, F J; Wang, S-S
This study explored the needs and expectations of Taiwanese overseas liver transplant recipients' families (OLTRFs) across three liver transplantation stages. An exploratory qualitative method was applied to a purposive sample of OLTRFs who received guided face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Data were subjected to content analysis. Nineteen OLTRF members (15 females, 4 males) aged between 29 and 71 years (mean, 55.1 years) for 19 patients who had end-stage liver diseases were interviewed regarding overseas liver transplantation (OLT) across three stages: pre-departure (first stage), stay in mainland China (second stage), and re-entry into Taiwan (third stage). Five types of needs across OLT stages were reported: (a) knowing precise operation schedule in advance (first to second stages); (b) sharing the caring burdens (second to third stages); (c) knowing the updated health status if possible (all stages); (d) obtaining timely psychological support (all stages); and (e) effective communications between health professionals in Taiwan and mainland China to ensure the caring quality (all stages). Furthermore, five expectations were reported: (a) more donor sources (first stage); (b) comprehensive caring strategies for OLT (first stage); (c) a comprehensive consultation system and timely assistance channels for OLT recipients and their families (second to third stages); (d) a legal and accessible therapy process (all stages); and (e) the cooperation with foreign countries and allowed experience sharing for better quality of patient care (all stages). Most ethnic Chinese believe that family is an integrated system; moreover, there is close attachment between OLT recipients and their families. The needs and expectations of the recipients' family across three transplantation stages were first reported in this project. With this knowledge, the health providers of related countries are empowered by a better understanding of the family's needs and expectations of these
Sebastiani, Giada; Ghali, Peter; Wong, Philip; Klein, Marina B; Deschenes, Marc; Myers, Robert P
OBJECTIVE: To determine practices among physicians in Canada for the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic liver diseases. METHODS: Hepatologists, gastroenterologists, infectious diseases specialists, members of the Canadian Gastroenterology Association and/or the Canadian HIV Trials Network who manage patients with liver diseases were invited to participate in a web-based, national survey. RESULTS: Of the 237 physicians invited, 104 (43.9%) completed the survey. Routine assessment of liver fibrosis was requested by the surveyed physicians mostly for chronic hepatitis C (76.5%), followed by autoimmune/cholestatic liver disease (59.6%) and chronic hepatitis B (52.9%). Liver biopsy was the main diagnostic tool for 46.2% of the respondents, Fibroscan (Echosens, France) for 39.4% and Fibrotest (LabCorp, USA) for 7.7%. Etiology-specific differences were observed: noninvasive methods were mostly used for hepatitis C (63% versus 37% liver biopsy) and hepatitis B (62.9% versus 37.1% liver biopsy). For 42.7% of respondents, the use of noninvasive methods reduced the need for liver biopsy by >50%. Physicians’ characteristics associated with higher use of noninvasive methods were older age and being based at a university hospital or in private practice versus community hospital. Physicians’ main concerns regarding noninvasive fibrosis assessment methods were access/availability (42.3%), lack of guidelines for clinical use (26.9%) and cost/lack of reimbursement (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Physicians who manage patients with chronic liver diseases in Canada require routine assessment of liver fibrosis stage. Although biopsy remains the primary diagnostic tool for almost one-half of respondents, noninvasive methods, particularly Fibroscan, have significantly reduced the need for liver biopsy in Canada. Limitations in access to and availability of the noninvasive methods represent a significant barrier. Finally, there is a need for clinical guidelines and a better
Viglino, Damien; Jullian-Desayes, Ingrid; Minoves, Mélanie; Aron-Wisnewsky, Judith; Leroy, Vincent; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Tamisier, Renaud; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Pépin, Jean-Louis
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is independently linked to cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. Low-grade inflammation, oxidative stress and ectopic fat, common features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), might contribute to the development of NAFLD.We aimed to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD and to evaluate the relationship between various types of liver damage and COPD severity, comorbidities and circulating inflammatory cytokines. Validated noninvasive tests (FibroMax: SteatoTest, NashTest and FibroTest) were used to assess steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver fibrosis. Patients underwent an objective assessment of COPD comorbidities, including sleep studies. Biological parameters included a complete lipid profile and inflammatory markers.In COPD patients the prevalence of steatosis, NASH and fibrosis were 41.4%, 36.9% and 61.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, SteatoTest and FibroTest were significantly associated with sex, body mass index (BMI), untreated sleep apnoea and insulin resistance, and, in addition, COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage for SteatoTest. Patients with steatosis had higher tumour necrosis factor-α levels and those with NASH or a combination of liver damage types had raised leptin levels after adjustment for age, sex and BMI.We concluded that NAFLD is highly prevalent in COPD and might contribute to cardiometabolic comorbidities. Copyright ©ERS 2017.
Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard
Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral health', 'periodontal disease', 'mouth disease', 'gingivitis', and 'periodontitis'. Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%-79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed.
Ioannou, George N
Cholelithiasis and fatty liver disease share some important risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. We sought to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis or a history of cholecystectomy were more likely to have elevated serum liver enzymes or to develop cirrhosis. We used cohort data from the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), to determine whether persons with a self-reported history of cholecystectomy at baseline (n=466) had a higher incidence of hospitalization or death due to cirrhosis than persons without a history of cholecystectomy (n=8,691) during up to 21 years of follow-up. We also used cross-sectional data from the third NHANES conducted between the years 1988 and 1994 to determine whether persons with cholelithiasis (n=833) or previous cholecystectomy (n=709), as determined by ultrasonography, were more likely to have elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) than persons without cholecystectomy or cholelithiasis (n=8,027). Persons with previous cholecystectomy were two times more likely to be hospitalized for or die of cirrhosis (adjusted hazard ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.0) and were more likely to have elevated serum ALT (adjusted odds ratio 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) or GGT (adjusted odds ratio 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6) than persons without cholecystectomy. We did not identify an independent association between cholelithiasis and serum ALT or GGT levels. Cholecystectomy is a predictor of the development cirrhosis and is associated with elevated serum liver enzymes. Cholelithiasis is not independently associated with serum liver enzyme levels; whether cholelithiasis is associated with the development of cirrhosis remains to be determined.
Hadzic, Nedim; Hierro, Loreto
Autoimmune liver disease is the second commonest cause of chronic liver disease in teenagers. There are several forms including autoimmune hepatitis, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and various overlap syndromes, classified on the basis of different serum antibody profiles, histological features and appearances on cholangiography. Treatment with immunosupressants is usually effective, but often required medium to long-term, raising concerns about side effects and adherence to therapy. For a minority of children presenting in acute liver failure or with difficult-to-treat disease liver transplantation is a possible option, although risk of recurrence in the grafted liver remains lifelong.
Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases. PMID:28321390
Utiyama, Shirley R R; Zenatti, Katiane B; Nóbrega, Heloisa A J; Soares, Juliana Z C; Skare, Thelma L; Matsubara, Caroline; Muzzilo, Dominique A; Nisihara, Renato M
Autoimmune liver diseases (ALDs) are known to be associated with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) and their autoantibodies. We aimed to study the prevalence of SARDs and related autoantibodies, as well as their prognostic implications in a group of patients with ALDs. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty patients with ALDs (38.3% with autoimmune hepatitis; 11.7% with primary biliary cirrhosis; 25% with primary sclerosing cholangitis and 25% with overlap syndrome) were studied for the presence of SARDs and their autoantibodies. There was autoimmune rheumatic disease in 20% of the studied sample. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were the commonest (11.6% and 5%, respectively). Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were present in 35% of the patients, followed by anti-Ro (20.0%); anti-nucleosome (18.3%); rheumatoid factor (10%) anti-CCP (8.3%); anti-RNP (8.3%); anti-ds-DNA (6.6%); anti-La (3.3%); anti-Sm (3.3%), anti-ribosomal P (3.3%). Anti-Ro (p = 0.0004), anti-La (p = 0.03), anti-RNP (p = 0.04) and anti-Sm (p = 0.03) were commonly found in patients with SARD, but not anti-DNA, anti-nucleosome and anti-ribosomal P. No differences were found in liver function tests regarding to the presence of autoantibodies. There was a high prevalence of SARD and their autoantibodies in ALD patients. Anti-Ro, anti-La, anti-RNP and anti-Sm positivity points to an association with systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. The presence of autoantibodies was not related to liver function tests.
Cotrim, Helma P; Parise, Edison R; Figueiredo-Mendes, Cláudio; Galizzi-Filho, João; Porta, Gilda; Oliveira, Claudia P
The prevalence of obesity-related metabolic syndrome has rapidly increased in Brazil, resulting in a high frequency of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, that didn't receive much attention in the past. However, it has received increased attention since this disease was identified to progress to end-stage liver diseases, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have not been established in Brazil. The Brazilian Society of Hepatology held an event with specialists' members from all over Brazil with the purpose of producing guideline for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease based on a systematic approach that reflects evidence-based medicine and expert opinions. The guideline discussed the following subjects: 1-Concepts and recommendations; 2-Diagnosis; 3-Non-medical treatment; 4-Medical treatment; 5-Pediatrics - Diagnosis; 6-Pediatrics - Non-medical treatment; 7-Pediatrics - Medical treatment; 8-Surgical treatment.
Introduction This prospective cohort study aimed to assess the influence of stem cell therapy (SCT) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by using the SF-36 v2 and to elucidate the influence of objective clinical variables on subjective HRQOL. Methods The study included 100 chronic liver disease patients (50 received SCT, and 50 received supportive medical treatment (SMT)). Both groups completed a modified SF-36 v2 form before therapy and at 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month intervals. Fifty healthy Egyptian volunteers were enrolled in the study and completed the SF-36 v2 form once. Results Both SCT and SMT groups showed significantly lower pretherapy SF 36 v2 scores compared with healthy volunteers. In SCT-treated patients, limited complications were encountered (SF-36 v2 scores showed significant improvement in all domains throughout the follow-up period) compared with the deterioration shown by SMT patients after therapy. A significant association was detected between SF-36 v2 scores and laboratory data in SCT patients during the first month after therapy. The grade of ascites improved during the follow-up in SCT compared with SMT patients. The mean survival time was 277.56 days (95% CI, 246.217 to 308.903) for SMT and 359.300 days (95% CI, 353.022 to 365.578) for SCT patients (log rank, 0.00). Stem cell-treated patients showed no malignancies. Conclusions SCT positively affects health-related quality of life in cirrhosis patients. The survival rate was significantly improved after SCT. PMID:23206927
Background Young age at portoenterostomy has been linked to improved outcome in biliary atresia, but pre-existing biological factors may influence the rate of disease progression. In this study, we aimed to determine whether molecular profiling of the liver identifies stages of disease at diagnosis. Methods We examined liver biopsies from 47 infants with biliary atresia enrolled in a prospective observational study. Biopsies were scored for inflammation and fibrosis, used for gene expression profiles, and tested for association with indicators of disease severity, response to surgery, and survival at 2 years. Results Fourteen of 47 livers displayed predominant histological features of inflammation (N = 9) or fibrosis (N = 5), with the remainder showing similar levels of both simultaneously. By differential profiling of gene expression, the 14 livers had a unique molecular signature containing 150 gene probes. Applying prediction analysis models, the probes classified 29 of the remaining 33 livers into inflammation or fibrosis. Molecular classification into the two groups was validated by the findings of increased hepatic population of lymphocyte subsets or tissue accumulation of matrix substrates. The groups had no association with traditional markers of liver injury or function, response to surgery, or complications of cirrhosis. However, infants with an inflammation signature were younger, while those with a fibrosis signature had decreased transplant-free survival. Conclusions Molecular profiling at diagnosis of biliary atresia uncovers a signature of inflammation or fibrosis in most livers. This signature may relate to staging of disease at diagnosis and has implications to clinical outcomes. PMID:20465800
Charlotte, Fréderic; Le Naour, Gilles; Bernhardt, Carole; Poynard, Thierry; Ratziu, Vlad
In nonalcoholic fatty liver disease the amount of fibrosis for individual histologic stages is unknown. To better understand the fibrotic potential of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, we compared the amount of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease versus chronic hepatitis C virus patients. The area of fibrosis for equivalent fibrosis stages was measured by micromorphometry in 70 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and 70 matched, untreated, chronic hepatitis C virus controls. The area of fibrosis correlated with Brunt stage (r = 0.71; P < .001) in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and METAVIR stage (r = 0.58; P < .001) in chronic hepatitis C virus. Mean area of fibrosis was similar in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis C virus patients (7.77% versus 7.70%). Although chronic hepatitis C virus patients displayed higher area of fibrosis in early disease (no or mild fibrosis), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic hepatitis C virus patients had similar area of fibrosis in more advanced disease (7.83% versus 8.06%, respectively; P = .86 for bridging fibrosis; and 16.62% versus 12.98%, respectively; P = .29 for cirrhosis). The area of fibrosis was similar in Brunt stage 3 nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and METAVIR stage 2 chronic hepatitis C virus, the usual threshold for initiating therapy. The area of steatosis declined with increasing fibrosis stages confirming the early loss of liver fat with progressive fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Fibrosis is as abundant in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as in chronic hepatitis C virus, especially in the advanced stages of the disease. The fibrotic potential of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is as severe as that of chronic hepatitis C virus.
Essential facts Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an excess of fat in the liver that is not the result of excessive alcohol consumption or other secondary causes, such as hepatitis C. According to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, fatty liver - steatosis - affects between 20% and 30% of the population and its prevalence is increasing.
Chassaing, Benoit; Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Gewirtz, Andrew T.
Accumulating evidence indicates that the gut microbiota, long appreciated to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation, is also playing a key role in chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. Such studies have yielded a general central hypothesis whereby microbiota products activate the innate immune system to drive pro-inflammatory gene expression thus promoting chronic inflammatory disease of the liver. This article reviews the background supporting this hypothesis, outlines how it can potentially explain classic and newly emerging epidemiological chronic inflammatory liver disease, and discusses potential therapeutic means to manipulate the microbiota so as to prevent and/or treat liver disease. PMID:23703735
Targher, Giovanni; Chonchol, Michel B; Byrne, Christopher D
The possible link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) recently has attracted considerable scientific interest. Accumulating clinical evidence indicates that the presence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated significantly with CKD (defined as decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and/or proteinuria) and that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease predicts the development and progression of CKD, independently of traditional cardiorenal risk factors. Experimental evidence also suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease itself may exacerbate systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, cause atherogenic dyslipidemia, and release a variety of proinflammatory, procoagulant, pro-oxidant, and profibrogenic mediators that play important roles in the development and progression of CKD. However, despite the growing evidence linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with CKD, it has not been definitively established whether a causal association exists. The clinical implication for these findings is that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may benefit from more intensive surveillance or early treatment interventions to decrease the risk of CKD. In this review, we discuss the evidence linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with CKD and the putative mechanisms by which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease contributes to kidney damage. We also briefly discuss current treatment options for this increasingly prevalent disease that is likely to have an important future impact on the global burden of disease.
Goessling, Wolfram; Sadler, Kirsten C.
As the incidence of hepatobiliary diseases increases, we must improve our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiological factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of liver disease. Animal models help us identify disease mechanisms that might be targeted therapeutically. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have traditionally been used to study embryonic development but are also important to the study of liver disease. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly; all of their digestive organs are mature in larvae by 5 days of age. At this stage, they can develop hepatobiliary diseases caused by developmental defects or toxin- or ethanol-induced injury and manifest premalignant changes within weeks. Zebrafish are similar to humans in hepatic cellular composition, function, signaling, and response to injury as well as the cellular processes that mediate liver diseases. Genes are highly conserved between humans and zebrafish, making them a useful system to study the basic mechanisms of liver disease. We can perform genetic screens to identify novel genes involved in specific disease processes and chemical screens to identify pathways and compounds that act on specific processes. We review how studies of zebrafish have advanced our understanding of inherited and acquired liver diseases as well as liver cancer and regeneration. PMID:26319012
Goessling, Wolfram; Sadler, Kirsten C
As the incidence of hepatobiliary diseases increases, we must improve our understanding of the molecular, cellular, and physiological factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of liver disease. Animal models help us identify disease mechanisms that might be targeted therapeutically. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have traditionally been used to study embryonic development but are also important to the study of liver disease. Zebrafish embryos develop rapidly; all of their digestive organs are mature in larvae by 5 days of age. At this stage, they can develop hepatobiliary diseases caused by developmental defects or toxin- or ethanol-induced injury and manifest premalignant changes within weeks. Zebrafish are similar to humans in hepatic cellular composition, function, signaling, and response to injury as well as the cellular processes that mediate liver diseases. Genes are highly conserved between humans and zebrafish, making them a useful system to study the basic mechanisms of liver disease. We can perform genetic screens to identify novel genes involved in specific disease processes and chemical screens to identify pathways and compounds that act on specific processes. We review how studies of zebrafish have advanced our understanding of inherited and acquired liver diseases as well as liver cancer and regeneration.
Efstathiadou, Zoe A; Kita, Marina D; Polyzos, Stergios A
Thyroid hormones are crucial for hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a very common and potentially serious disease of modern society, shares common clinical features with hypothyroidism, such as obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Furthermore, in certain studies, increased prevalence of hypothyroidism was observed in patients with NAFLD. However, whether there is a linear relationship between thyroid hormone levels and NAFLD incidence and severity, including values within or in proximity to the reference range remains a contradictory subject in the literature. On the other hand, attempts to treat NAFLD with thyromimetic drugs remain at an early stage. In this review, data derived from observational studies along with evidence on possible treatment with thyroid hormone analogues are presented.
Bhatia, Sangeeta N; Underhill, Gregory H; Zaret, Kenneth S; Fox, Ira J
Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver's structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near- and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation.
Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio
The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation.
Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio
The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation. PMID:27973438
Lombardi, Rosa; Buzzetti, Elena; Roccarina, Davide; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel A
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) consists of a broad spectrum of disorders, ranging from simple steatosis to alcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Fatty liver develops in more than 90% of heavy drinkers, however only 30%-35% of them develop more advanced forms of ALD. Therefore, even if the current “gold standard” for the assessment of the stage of alcohol-related liver injury is histology, liver biopsy is not reasonable in all patients who present with ALD. Currently, although several non-invasive fibrosis markers have been suggested as alternatives to liver biopsy in patients with ALD, none has been sufficiently validated. As described in other liver disease, the diagnostic accuracy of such tests in ALD is acceptable for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis or cirrhosis but not for lesser fibrosis stages. Existing data suggest that the use of non-invasive tests could be tailored to first tier screening of patients at risk, in order to diagnose early patients with progressive liver disease and offer targeted interventions for the prevention of decompensation. We review these tests and critically appraise the existing evidence. PMID:26494961
Augustin, Salvador; Graupera, Isabel; Caballeria, Juan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) consists of an excessive depositing of fat in the liver, which can end up by causing inflammation, fibrosis and also cirrhosis with the corresponding complications including liver cancer. NAFLD has become the most common liver disease worldwide. The incidence has increased in parallel with the obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome epidemic, thus resulting in becoming one of the main indications for liver transplant. The diagnosis has principally been through histology but with the development of non-invasive methods, these have helped in simplifying the management of these patients in clinical practice. The only therapeutic strategies currently available are focused on weight loss (lifestyle changes or bariatric surgery). There is still no approved pharmacological option for the treatment of NAFLD, however there are a number of molecular studies in advanced stages of development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Calzadilla Bertot, Luis; Adams, Leon Anton
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease in the world, paralleling the epidemic of obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). NAFLD exhibits a histological spectrum, ranging from "bland steatosis" to the more aggressive necro-inflammatory form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may accumulate fibrosis to result in cirrhosis. Emerging data suggests fibrosis, rather than NASH per se, to be the most important histological predictor of liver and non-liver related death. Nevertheless, only a small proportion of individuals develop cirrhosis, however the large proportion of the population affected by NAFLD has led to predictions that NAFLD will become a leading cause of end stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and indication for liver transplantation. HCC may arise in non-cirrhotic liver in the setting of NAFLD and is associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and male gender. The MetS and its components also play a key role in the histological progression of NAFLD, however other genetic and environmental factors may also influence the natural history. The importance of NAFLD in terms of overall survival extends beyond the liver where cardiovascular disease and malignancy represents additional important causes of death.
There is worldwide epidemic of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a clinical entity related to metabolic syndrome. Majority of the patients are obese but the disease can affect non-obese individuals as well. Metabolic factors and genetics play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disorder. The spectrum of disorders included in NAFLD are benign macrovesicular hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the disease remains asymptomatic most of the time, it can slowly progress to end stage liver disease. It will be the most common indication of liver transplantation in the future. It is diagnosed by abnormal liver chemistry, imaging studies and liver biopsy. As there are risks of potential complications during liver biopsy, many patients do not opt for liver biopsy. There are some noninvasive scoring systems to find out whether patients have advanced hepatic fibrosis. At the present time, there are limited treatment options which include lifestyle modification to loose weight, vitamin E and thioglitazones. Different therapeutic agents are being investigated for optimal management of this entity. There are some studies done on incretin based therapies in patients with NAFLD. Other potential agents will be silent information regulator protein Sirtuin and antifibrotic monoclonal antibody Simtuzumab against lysyl oxidase like molecule 2. But they are still in the investigational phase. PMID:26085906
To test the significance of lipid peroxidation in the development of alcoholic liver injury, an ethanol (EtOH) liquid diet was fed to male wild type 129/SvJ mice, and glutathione S-transferase A4-4 null (GSTA4-/-) mice for 40 d. GSTA4-/- mice were also crossed with peroxisome proliferator-activated ...
Objectives: Studies suggest that periodontal disease, a source of subclinical and persistent infection, may be associated with various systemic conditions, including liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to examine the literature and determine the relationship between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. Methods: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including ‘liver cirrhosis’, ‘end-stage liver disease’, ‘liver diseases’, ‘oral health’, ‘periodontal disease’, ‘mouth disease’, ‘gingivitis’, and ‘periodontitis’. Results: Thirteen studies published between 1981 and 2014 were found to include data on oral health and periodontal disease in cirrhotic patients. Studies indicated an increased incidence of periodontal disease in patients with liver cirrhosis, measured with several different periodontal indices. The reported prevalence of periodontal disease in cirrhosis patients ranged from 25.0% to 68.75% in four studies and apical periodontitis was found in 49%–79% of the patients. One study found that mortality was lower among patients who underwent dental treatment versus non-treated patients. Another study suggested an association between periodontal disease and the progression of liver cirrhosis, but data are sparse and conflicting as to whether periodontal disease is correlated to cirrhosis aetiology and severity. Conclusion: Despite the clinical reality of periodontal disease in liver cirrhosis patients, there are few published studies. Before clinical implications can be addressed, more data on the prevalence of and correlation between periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis aetiology, duration, and progression are needed. PMID:26770799
De Cruz, Sharon; Espiritu, Joseph Roland D; Zeidler, Michelle; Wang, Tisha S
Sleep-related complaints and disturbances are increasingly recognized in the setting of chronic liver disease and have recently been shown to be an important prognostic factor in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. This article reviews the literature surrounding sleep disturbances and disorders in a variety of types of chronic liver disease. This includes the association of sleep disturbances with hepatitis C and antiviral therapy, primary biliary cirrhosis, and Wilson disease as well as the circadian rhythm abnormalities present in cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The association between chronic liver disease, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and sleep-disordered breathing is also reviewed in detail. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Leevy, Carroll M; Moroianu, Serban A
Development of ethanol-induced fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis has been attributed in part to nutritional deficiencies for many years. Special attention must be focused on treating alcohol-induced liver disease while providing replacement of deficient amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. Avoidance of alcohol intake is required to eliminate progressive liver disease in alcoholics. This is best achieved by using educational and social programs to convince patients and their caretakers of the great necessity to eliminate alcohol intake.
that immune responses elicited against sporozoites or asexual stage antigens being considered as vaccine candidates may also act against this...sporozoite vaccine . Because both liver merozoites and blood-stage merozoites invade erythrocytes, antigenic studies of liver merozoites could...identify shared antigens. This knowledge would also be important for vaccine studies directed against merozoites of either stage. Investigating liver
Han, Pengyu; Sun, Dianxing; Yang, Jie
Periodontitis is an oral disease that is highly prevalent worldwide, with a prevalence of 30–50% of the population in developed countries, but only ~10% present with severe forms. It is also estimated that periodontitis results in worldwide productivity losses amounting to ~54 billion USD yearly. In addition to the damage it causes to oral health, periodontitis also affects other types of disease. Numerous studies have confirmed the association between periodontitis and systemic diseases, such as diabetes, respiratory disease, osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence also indicated that periodontitis may participate in the progression of liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as affecting liver transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are currently no reviews elaborating upon the possible links between periodontitis and liver diseases. Therefore, the current review summarizes the human trials and animal experiments that have been conducted to investigate the correlation between periodontitis and liver diseases. Furthermore, in the present review, certain mechanisms that have been postulated to be responsible for the role of periodontitis in liver diseases (such as bacteria, pro-inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress) are considered. The aim of the review is to introduce the hypothesis that periodontitis may be important in the progression of liver disease, thus providing dentists and physicians with an improved understanding of this issue. PMID:27588170
Herrmann, Ulrike; Dockter, Gerd; Lammert, Frank
Liver disease is increasingly common in cystic fibrosis (CF). As new therapeutic options emerge, life expectancy increases and common hepatobiliary manifestations impact on quality of life and survival of CF patients. Hepatobiliary abnormalities in CF vary in nature and range from defects attributable to the underlying CFTR gene defect to those related to systemic disease and malnutrition. Today complications of liver disease represent the third most frequent cause of disease-related death in patients with CF. Here we review molecular and clinical genetics of CF, including genetic modifiers of CF-associated liver disease, and provide practical recommendations for genetic testing, diagnosis and treatment of hepatobiliary manifestations in CF.
Takeda, Tadashi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Nakayama, Yuji; Nakaya, Mika; Kimura, Megumi; Yamashita, Mariko; Sawada, Ayumi; Abo, Koji; Takeda, Setsuko; Sakaguchi, Hiroki; Shiomi, Susumu; Asai, Hitoshi; Seki, Shuichi
AIM:To evaluate the method of noninvasive transient elastography for assessment of histological stage of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). METHODS: Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with CHC were included in this study. Liver biopsy was performed under ultrasonography on 217 of the patients, excluding twenty with clear clinical evidence of liver cirrhosis. Fifty subjects without liver disease were enrolled as a control group (stage 0). Twenty-five patients with sustained virological response (SVR) to interferon (IFN) therapy were also enrolled. These patients underwent liver biopsy before IFN therapy. Examination of liver stiffness (LS) was performed by elastography. RESULTS: Medians (50% levels) of LS were 4.1 (3.5-4.9), 6.3 (4.8-8.5), 8.8 (6.8-12.0), 14.6 (10.5-18.6), and 22.2 (15.4-28.0), respectively, in the fibrosis stages 0-4 (P < 0.001). LS was significantly correlated with four serum fibrosis markers. LS values in patients with SVR were 3.8 (3.5-5.6), 5.2 (4.4-6.8), 6.8 (6.1-7.6), and 6.1 (3.6-7.9), respectively, in the fibrosis stages 1-4. In all stages, LS for patients with SVR was significantly lower than that for patients who did not undergo IFN therapy. LS was significantly correlated with serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid, type IV collagen, type IV collagen 7S, and type III procollagen N peptide. CONCLUSION: LS correlated well with the histological stage of fibrosis. Changes in liver fibrosis stage may thus be estimated noninvasively using transient elastography. PMID:17203518
Fabila, D. A.; Hernández, L. F.; de la Rosa, J.; Stolik, S.; Arroyo-Camarena, U. D.; López-Vancell, M. D.; Escobedo, G.
Liver fibrosis is the decisive step towards the development of cirrhosis; its early detection affects crucially the diagnosis of liver disease, its prognosis and therapeutic decision making. Nowadays, several techniques are employed to this task. However, they have the limitation in estimating different stages of the pathology. In this paper we present a preliminary study to evaluate if optical spectroscopy can be employed as an auxiliary tool of diagnosis of biopsies of human liver tissue to differentiate the fibrosis stages. Ex vivo fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired from biopsies using a portable fiber-optic system. Empirical discrimination algorithms based on fluorescence intensity ratio at 500 nm and 680 nm as well as diffuse reflectance intensity at 650 nm were developed. Sensitivity and specificity of around 80% and 85% were respectively achieved. The obtained results show that combined use of fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy could represent a novel and useful tool in the early evaluation of liver fibrosis.
DiStefano, Johanna K; Gerhard, Glenn S
Liver biopsy is currently recognized as the most accurate method for diagnosing and staging nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, this procedure is typically performed when disease has progressed to clinically significant stages, thereby limiting early diagnosis of patients who are at high risk for development of liver- and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, have been associated with histological features of NAFLD and are readily detected in the circulation. As such, miRNAs are emerging as potentially useful noninvasive markers with which to follow the progression of NAFLD. In this article, we present the evidence linking circulating miRNAs with NAFLD and discuss the potential value of circulating miRNA profiles in the development of improved methods for NAFLD diagnosis and clinical monitoring of disease progression.
Gerhard, Glenn S.
Summary Liver biopsy is currently recognized as the most accurate method for diagnosing and staging nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, this procedure is typically performed when disease has progressed to clinically significant stages, thereby limiting early diagnosis of patients who are at high risk for development of liver- and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs), short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression, have been associated with histological features of NAFLD and are readily detected in the circulation. As such, miRNAs are emerging as potentially useful noninvasive markers with which to follow the progression of NAFLD. In this article, we present the evidence linking circulating miRNAs with NAFLD and discuss the potential value of circulating miRNA profiles in the development of improved methods for NAFLD diagnosis and clinical monitoring of disease progression. PMID:26606259
Gedik, Ender; Bıçakçıoğlu, Murat; Otan, Emrah; İlksen Toprak, Hüseyin; Işık, Burak; Aydın, Cemalettin; Kayaalp, Cüneyt; Yılmaz, Sezai
The main goal of 2-stage liver transplant is to provide time to obtain a new liver source. We describe our experience of 3 patients with 3 different clinical conditions. A 57-year-old man was retransplanted successfully with this technique due to hepatic artery thrombosis. However, a 38-year-old woman with fulminant toxic hepatitis and a 5-year-old-boy with abdominal trauma had poor outcome. This technique could serve as a rescue therapy for liver transplant patients who have toxic liver syndrome or abdominal trauma. These patients required intensive support during long anhepatic states. The transplant team should decide early whether to use this technique before irreversible conditions develop.
Potze, Wilma; Porte, Robert J; Lisman, Ton
Liver disease is characterized by changes in all phases of hemostasis. These hemostatic alterations were long considered to predispose patients with liver disease towards a bleeding tendency, as they are associated with prolonged conventional coagulation tests. However, these patients may also suffer from thrombotic complications, and we now know that the hemostatic system in patient with liver disease is, in fact, in a rebalanced state. In this review we discuss the concept of rebalanced hemostasis and its implications for clinical management of patients with liver disease. For instance, there is no evidence that the use of prophylactic blood product transfusion prior to invasive procedures reduces bleeding risk. Clinicians should also be aware of the possibility of thrombosis occurring in patients with a liver disease, and regular thrombosis prophylaxis should not be withheld in these patients.
Zeman, Marilyn V; Hirschfield, Gideon M
Confirming whether a patient has autoimmune liver disease is challenging, given its varied presentation and complex definitions. In the continued absence of pathognomonic serum markers, diagnosis requires evaluation of laboratory investigations and, frequently, a liver biopsy - all of which need to be interpreted in the correct clinical context, with an emphasis on exclusion of viral infections, drug toxicity and metabolic disease. However, clear diagnosis is important for appropriate and timely therapy. Autoantibodies remain important tools for clinicians, and were the first proposed serological markers to aid in differentiating viral from chronic autoimmune hepatitis. Their presence is occasionally considered to be synonymous with autoimmune liver disease - a misinterpretation of their clinical significance. The present article summarizes the serum autoantibodies currently investigated in clinical and research practice, along with a description of their value in adult chronic liver diseases, with an emphasis on their appropriate use in the diagnosis and management of patients with autoimmune liver disease.
Stasi, Cristina; Milani, Stefano
Transient elastography and the acoustic radiation force impulse techniques may play a pivotal role in the study of liver fibrosis. Some studies have shown that elastography can detect both the progression and regression of fibrosis. Similarly, research results have been analysed and direct and indirect serum markers of hepatic fibrosis have shown high diagnostic accuracy for advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis. The prognosis of different stages of cirrhosis is well established and various staging systems have been proposed, largely based on clinical data. However, it is still unknown if either non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis or elastography may contribute to a more accurate staging of liver cirrhosis, in terms of prognosis and fibrosis regression after effective therapy. In fact, not enough studies have shown both the fibrosis regression in different cirrhosis stages and the point beyond which the prognosis does not change - even in the event of fibrosis regression. Therefore, future studies are needed to validate non-invasive methods in predicting the different phases of liver cirrhosis. PMID:28127192
Chacko, Kristina R; Reinus, John
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an important cause of liver disease that is often associated with the metabolic syndrome. There is a growing awareness that extrahepatic complications occur in individuals with NAFLD, especially an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Development of diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, colorectal cancer, and endocrinopathies has been linked to NAFLD. This article reviews the extrahepatic complications affecting individuals with NAFLD and the pathogenesis underlying their development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smathers, Rebecca L.; Galligan, James J.; Shearn, Colin T.; Fritz, Kristofer S.; Mercer, Kelly; Ronis, Martin; Orlicky, David J.; Davidson, Nicholas O.; Petersen, Dennis R.
Chronic ethanol consumption is a prominent cause of liver disease worldwide. Dysregulation of an important lipid uptake and trafficking gene, liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), may contribute to alterations in lipid homeostasis during early-stage alcoholic liver. We have reported the detrimental effects of ethanol on the expression of L-FABP and hypothesize this may deleteriously impact metabolic networks regulating fatty acids. Male wild-type (WT) and L-FABP−/− mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for six weeks. To assess the response to chronic ethanol ingestion, standard biochemical indicators for alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and oxidative stress were measured. Ethanol ingestion resulted in attenuation of hepatic triglyceride accumulation and elevation of cholesterol in L-FABP−/− mice. Lipidomics analysis validated multiple alterations in hepatic lipids resulting from ethanol treatment. Increased immunohistochemical staining for the reactive aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malondialdehyde were observed in WT mice ingesting ethanol; however, L-FABP−/− mice displayed prominent protein adducts in liver sections evaluated from pair-fed and ethanol-fed mice. Likewise, alterations in glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), 8-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyl content all indicated L-FABP−/− mice exhibit high sustained oxidative stress in the liver. These data establish that L-FABP is an indirect antioxidant protein essential for sequestering FFA and that its impairment could contribute to in the pathogenesis of ALD. PMID:23359610
Giunta, Mariangela; Conte, Dario; Fraquelli, Mirella
The development of liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (PH), one of its major complications, are structural and functional alterations of the liver, occurring in many patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). Actually the progressive deposition of hepatic fibrosis has a key role in the prognosis of CLD patients. The subsequent development of PH leads to its major complications, such as ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding and decompensation. Liver biopsy is still considered the reference standard for the assessment of hepatic fibrosis, whereas the measurement of hepatic vein pressure gradient is the standard to ascertain the presence of PH and upper endoscopy is the method of choice to detect the presence of oesophageal varices. However, several non-invasive tests, including elastographic techniques, are currently used to evaluate the severity of liver disease and predict its prognosis. More recently, the measurement of the spleen stiffness has become particularly attractive to assess, considering the relevant role accomplished by the spleen in splanchnic circulation in the course of liver cirrhosis and in the PH. Moreover, spleen stiffness as compared with liver stiffness better represents the dynamic changes occurring in the advanced stages of cirrhosis and shows higher diagnostic performance in detecting esophageal varices. The aim of this review is to provide an exhaustive overview of the actual role of spleen stiffness measurement as assessed by several elastographic techniques in evaluating both liver disease severity and the development of cirrhosis complications, such as PH and to highlight its potential and possible limitations. PMID:27672283
Gual, Philippe; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Lotersztajn, Sophie
Within recycling damaged cell components, autophagy maintains cell homeostasis. Thus, it has been anticipated that autophagy would play an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic liver diseases. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the most prevalent chronic liver diseases in Western countries, sharing common histopathologic features and a common disease progression. In this review, we discuss the role of autophagy at different stages of NAFLD and ALD as well as in liver regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Afzal, Shaista; Masroor, Imrana; Beg, Madiha
Noninvasive approaches for assessment of liver histology include routine laboratory tests and radiological evaluation. The purpose of our study was to determine the utility of a simplified scoring system based on routinely evaluated ultrasound features for the evaluation of chronic liver disease and correlate it with the histological findings. For this cross-sectional analytical study the data was collected prospectively by nonprobability purposive sampling technique. The ultrasound variables/parameters and their assigned scoring system that was a modified version adopted from published literature were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the liver morphological score and combined score of liver morphology and sizes was determined using stage and grade as reference standard. Our results show a high sensitivity and PPV of liver morphological sonographic evaluation for the staging and grading of CLD respectively thus supporting it as a screening diagnostic strategy. Of the three liver morphology variables, specificity of liver surface evaluation was highest for the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. The simplified ultrasound scoring system evaluated in our study is clinically relevant and reproducible for differentiating patients with CLD with mild or no fibrosis from moderate to severe fibrosis.
Afzal, Shaista; Masroor, Imrana; Beg, Madiha
Noninvasive approaches for assessment of liver histology include routine laboratory tests and radiological evaluation. The purpose of our study was to determine the utility of a simplified scoring system based on routinely evaluated ultrasound features for the evaluation of chronic liver disease and correlate it with the histological findings. For this cross-sectional analytical study the data was collected prospectively by nonprobability purposive sampling technique. The ultrasound variables/parameters and their assigned scoring system that was a modified version adopted from published literature were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the liver morphological score and combined score of liver morphology and sizes was determined using stage and grade as reference standard. Our results show a high sensitivity and PPV of liver morphological sonographic evaluation for the staging and grading of CLD respectively thus supporting it as a screening diagnostic strategy. Of the three liver morphology variables, specificity of liver surface evaluation was highest for the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. The simplified ultrasound scoring system evaluated in our study is clinically relevant and reproducible for differentiating patients with CLD with mild or no fibrosis from moderate to severe fibrosis. PMID:26464843
Feldstein, Ariel E; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N
In this article, several aspects of childhood obesity are discussed, including epidemiology, associated metabolic complications, management strategies, and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver, resulting in nonalcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. The current evidence is summarized supporting pharmacologic, behavioral, and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children.
Heath, Ryan D; Brahmbhatt, Mihir; Tahan, Asli C; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel
Coffee has long been recognized as having hepatoprotective properties, however, the extent of any beneficial effect is still being elucidated. Coffee appears to reduce risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, reduce advancement of fibrotic disease in a variety of chronic liver diseases, and perhaps reduce ability of hepatitis C virus to replicate. This review aims to catalog the evidence for coffee as universally beneficial across a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, as well as spotlight opportunities for future investigation into coffee and liver disease. PMID:28596816
Montaño Loza, Aldo J; Angulo, Paul
Autoantibodies are a nonpathogenic manifestation of immune reactivity that may occur in acute and chronic liver diseases. Autoantibodies are the consequence rather than the cause of liver injury, and they can be used as diagnostic tools rather than etiologic markers. Conventional autoantibodies used in the categorization of liver disease are antinuclear antibodies, smooth muscle antibodies, antibodies to liver/kidney microsome type 1, antimitochondrial antibodies, and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. However, the final diagnosis and the treatment strategies do not depend solely on the serological markers. Autoantibodies titles vary overtime and their behavior does not correlate with disease activity. Over-interpretation is the major pitfall in the clinical application of the serological results. Recognition and characterization of new autoantibodies is expected to improve the diagnostic precision, provide diagnostic parameters, and elucidate target autoantigens for the management of liver diseases.
Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto; Bartolome, Sonja D; Huchon, Gérard; Krowka, Michael J
This review is devoted to the distinct associations of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and chronic liver disorders with chronic airway diseases, namely chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma, and other chronic respiratory disorders in the adult population. While there is strong evidence for the association of chronic airway diseases with IBD, the data are much weaker for the interplay between lung and liver multimorbidities. The association of IBD, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, with pulmonary disorders is underlined by their heterogeneous respiratory manifestations and impact on chronic airway diseases. The potential relationship between the two most prevalent liver-induced pulmonary vascular entities, i.e. portopulmonary hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome, and also between liver disease and other chronic respiratory diseases is also approached. Abnormal lung function tests in liver diseases are described and the role of increased serum bilirubin levels on chronic respiratory problems are considered. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Gual, Philippe; Gilgenkrantz, Hélène; Lotersztajn, Sophie
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the leading causes of cirrhosis and increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver-related death. ALD and NAFLD share common pathogenic features extending from isolated steatosis to steatohepatitis and steatofibrosis, which can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiological mechanisms of the progression of NAFLD and ALD are complex and still unclear. Important links between the regulation of autophagy (macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy) and chronic liver diseases have been reported. Autophagy may protect against steatosis and progression to steatohepatitis by limiting hepatocyte injury and reducing M1 polarization, as well as promoting liver regeneration. Its role in fibrosis and hepatocarcinogenesis is more complex. It has pro- and antifibrogenic properties depending on the hepatic cell type concerned, and beneficial and deleterious effects on hepatocarcinogenesis at initiating and late phases, respectively. This review summarizes the latest advances on the role of autophagy in different stages of fatty liver disease progression and describes its divergent and cell-specific effects during chronic liver injury.
Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B.; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Lavine, Joel E.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as the leading cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents in the United States. A two- to three-fold rise in the rates of obesity and overweight in children over the last 2 decades is probably responsible for the epidemic of NAFLD. Emerging data suggest that children with NASH progress to cirrhosis which may ultimately increase liver-related mortality. More worrisome is the recognition that cardiovascular risk and morbidity in children and adolescents is associated with fatty liver. Pediatric fatty liver disease often displays a histologic pattern distinct from that found in adults. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of NASH. Non-invasive biomarkers are needed to identify individuals with progressive liver injury. Targeted therapies to improve liver histology and metabolic abnormalities associated with fatty liver are needed. Currently, randomized-controlled trials are underway in the pediatric population to define pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD. Public health awareness and intervention are needed to promote healthy diet, exercise, and lifestyle modifications to prevent and reduce the burden of disease in the community. PMID:19637286
Baik, Su Jung; Kim, Tae Hun; Yoo, Kwon; Moon, Il Hwan; Choi, Ju Young; Chung, Kyu Won; Song, Dong Eun
Background/Aims Hepatic innervation in liver diseases is not fully understood. We here evaluated S100B expression as a marker of hepatic nerves in patients with various chronic liver diseases, topographically and semi-quantitatively. Methods Liver specimens were obtained from 70 subjects (three controls, and 32 chronic hepatitis B, 14 chronic hepatitis C, 14 liver cirrhosis, and seven hepatocellular carcinoma patients). The hepatic nerve density was calculated based on immunohistochemical staining of S100B protein in the portal tracts and hepatic lobules. S100B mRNA levels were semi-quantitatively assessed as the S100B/glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA ratio. Results The densities of the hepatic nerves in portal tracts of chronic liver diseases were not significantly different from those of normal controls but the hepatic nerve densities in lobular areas of liver cirrhosis were significantly decreased (p = 0.025). Compared to the control, the S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio was significantly decreased in chronic liver diseases (p = 0.006) and most decreased in chronic hepatitis C patients (p = 0.023). In chronic liver diseases, The S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio tended to decrease as the fibrosis score > 0 (p = 0.453) but the overall correlation between the S100B/GAPDH mRNA ratio and fibrosis score was not statistically significant (r = 0.061, p = 0.657). Conclusions Hepatic innervation is decreased in cirrhotic regenerating nodules compared to the control group and seems to decrease in early stages of fibrosis progression. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between changes of hepatic innervation and chronic liver disease progression. PMID:27255110
Beben, Tomasz; Rifkin, Dena E.
It is important to accurately assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of patients with liver disease in order to deliver care and allocate organs for transplantation in a way that improves outcomes. The most commonly used methods to estimate GFR in this population are based on creatinine, which is biased by these patients’ low creatinine production and potentially by elevated serum bilirubin and decreased albumin levels. None of the creatinine based estimated GFR (eGFR) equations have been specifically modified for a population with liver disease, and even measurement of a 24 hour creatinine clearance has limitations. In liver disease, all creatinine based estimates of GFR overestimate gold standard measured GFR (mGFR), and the degree of overestimation is highest at lower mGFR values and in more severe liver disease. Cystatin C based eGFR has shown promise in general population studies by demonstrating less bias than creatinine based eGFR and improved association with clinically important outcomes, but results in the liver disease population have been mixed and further studies are necessary. Ultimately, specific eGFR equations for liver disease or novel methods for estimating GFR may be necessary. However, for now, the limitations of currently available methods need to be appreciated to understand renal function in liver disease. PMID:26311594
Dogra, Sunil; Jindal, Rashmi
Skin functions as a window to our overall health and a number of systemic diseases result in various cutaneous changes. Knowledge of these manifestations helps in suspecting an underlying systemic illness. Cutaneous abnormalities are quite common in patients with liver diseases and this article aims to focus on these dermatoses. Cutaneous manifestations seen in patients with liver disease though common are nonspecific. They can also be seen in patients without liver diseases and generally do not indicate about a specific underlying hepatic disorder. The presence of a constellation of signs and symptoms is more useful in pointing toward an underlying hepatobiliary condition. The commonest symptom in patients with liver disease is pruritus which is often protracted and disabling. Other common features include spider angiomas, palmar erythema, paper money skin, xanthelasmas, pigmentary changes, and nutritional deficiencies. In this article, first the common cutaneous manifestations that may be associated with liver disorders are discussed and then common liver diseases with their specific cutaneous findings are discussed. Cutaneous abnormalities may be the first clue to the underlying liver disease. Identifying them is crucial for early diagnosis and better management. PMID:25755383
Gevers, Tom J G; Drenth, Joost P H
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is arbitrarily defined as a liver that contains >20 cysts. The condition is associated with two genetically distinct diseases: as a primary phenotype in isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) and as an extrarenal manifestation in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Processes involved in hepatic cystogenesis include ductal plate malformation with concomitant abnormal fluid secretion, altered cell-matrix interaction and cholangiocyte hyperproliferation. PLD is usually a benign disease, but can cause debilitating abdominal symptoms in some patients. The main risk factors for growth of liver cysts are female sex, exogenous oestrogen use and multiple pregnancies. Ultrasonography is very useful for achieving a correct diagnosis of a polycystic liver and to differentiate between ADPKD and PCLD. Current radiological and surgical therapies for symptomatic patients include aspiration-sclerotherapy, fenestration, segmental hepatic resection and liver transplantation. Medical therapies that interact with regulatory mechanisms controlling expansion and growth of liver cysts are under investigation. Somatostatin analogues are promising; several clinical trials have shown that these drugs can reduce the volume of polycystic livers. The purpose of this Review is to provide an update on the diagnosis and management of PLD with a focus on literature published in the past 4 years.
Pickhardt, Perry J; Malecki, Kyle; Hunt, Oliver F; Beaumont, Claire; Kloke, John; Ziemlewicz, Timothy J; Lubner, Meghan G
To investigate hepatosplenic volumetry at MDCT for non-invasive prediction of hepatic fibrosis. Hepatosplenic volume analysis in 624 patients (mean age, 48.8 years; 311 M/313 F) at MDCT was performed using dedicated software and compared against pathological fibrosis stage (F0 = 374; F1 = 48; F2 = 40; F3 = 65; F4 = 97). The liver segmental volume ratio (LSVR) was defined by Couinaud segments I-III over segments IV-VIII. All pre-cirrhotic fibrosis stages (METAVIR F1-F3) were based on liver biopsy within 1 year of MDCT. LSVR and total splenic volumes increased with stage of fibrosis, with mean(±SD) values of: F0: 0.26 ± 0.06 and 215.1 ± 88.5 mm(3); F1: 0.25 ± 0.08 and 294.8 ± 153.4 mm(3); F2: 0.331 ± 0.12 and 291.6 ± 197.1 mm(3); F3: 0.39 ± 0.15 and 509.6 ± 402.6 mm(3); F4: 0.56 ± 0.30 and 790.7 ± 450.3 mm(3), respectively. Total hepatic volumes showed poor discrimination (F0: 1674 ± 320 mm(3); F4: 1631 ± 691 mm(3)). For discriminating advanced fibrosis (≥F3), the ROC AUC values for LSVR, total liver volume, splenic volume and LSVR/spleen combined were 0.863, 0.506, 0.890 and 0.947, respectively. Relative changes in segmental liver volumes and total splenic volume allow for non-invasive staging of hepatic fibrosis, whereas total liver volume is a poor predictor. Unlike liver biopsy or elastography, these CT volumetric biomarkers can be obtained retrospectively on routine scans obtained for other indications. • Regional changes in hepatic volume (LSVR) correlate well with degree of fibrosis. • Total liver volume is a very poor predictor of underlying fibrosis. • Total splenic volume is associated with the degree of hepatic fibrosis. • Hepatosplenic volume assessment is comparable to elastography for staging fibrosis. • Unlike elastography, volumetric analysis can be performed retrospectively.
Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Underhill, Gregory H.; Zaret, Kenneth S.; Fox, Ira J.
Despite the tremendous hurdles presented by the complexity of the liver’s structure and function, advances in liver physiology, stem cell biology and reprogramming, and the engineering of tissues and devices are accelerating the development of cell-based therapies for treating liver disease and liver failure. This State of the Art Review discusses both the near and long-term prospects for such cell-based therapies and the unique challenges for clinical translation. PMID:25031271
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been amongst the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and liver-related death worldwide for decades. Early discoveries in alcoholic liver disease identified increased levels of bacterial endotoxin in the portal circulation suggesting a role for gut-derived “toxins” in ALD. Indeed, alcohol consumption can disrupt the intestinal epithelial barrier and result in increased gut permeability that is increasingly recognized as a major factor in ALD. Bacterial endotoxin, LPS, is a prototypic microbe-derived inflammatory signal that contributes to inflammation in ALD through activation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Recent studies also demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with alterations in the gut microbiome and the dysbalance of pathogenic and commensal organisms in the intestinal microbiome may contribute to the abnormal gut-liver axis in ALD. Indeed, bacterial decontamination improves ALD both in human and animal models. This short review summarizes recent findings and highlights emerging trends in the gut-liver axis relevant to ALD. PMID:25447847
Jung, E M; Wiggermann, P; Stroszczynski, C; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D-A
The current improvements in modern high resolution ultrasound technology, like Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI), Speckle Reduction Imaging (SRI), partial color coding of B-mode (Color Coded Imaging), and also the advent of ultrasound based elastography as well as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) offer fundamentally new ways to characterize diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. Besides metabolic disease, disorders of liver fat distribution, infectious and malignant diseases can cause diffuse alterations of the liver parenchyma. In case of liver fibrosis, only a combination of different ultrasound techniques including CEUS, allows the differentiation between benign dysplastic and malignant lesions. Ultrasound elastography allows assessing the extent of the fibrosis. This article focuses on the different ultrasound based diagnostic possibilities in case of diffuse liver disease.
Ngu, Jing Hieng; Goh, George Boon Bee; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy
The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing rapidly with the obesity and diabetes mellitus epidemics. It is rapidly becoming the most common cause of liver disease worldwide. NAFLD can progress to serious complications such as cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. Therefore, it is important to recognise this condition so that early intervention can be implemented. Lifestyle modifications and strict control of metabolic risk factors are the mainstay of treatment. As disease progression is slow in the majority of NAFLD patients, most can be managed well by primary care physicians. NAFLD patients with advanced liver fibrosis should be referred to specialist care for further assessment. PMID:27439352
Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website.
Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun
Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis. PMID:28107385
Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has emerged a major challenge because of it prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, complex pathogenesis, and lack of approved therapies. As the burden of hepatitis C abates over the next decade, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will become the major form of chronic liver disease in adults and children and could become the leading indication for liver transplantation. This overview briefly summarizes the most recent data on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ongoing clinical trials are focused on an array of disease mechanisms and reviewed here are how these treatments fit into the current paradigm of substrate overload lipotoxic liver injury. Many of the approaches are directed at downstream events such as inflammation, injury and fibrogenesis. Addressing more proximal processes such as dysfunctional satiety mechanisms and inappropriately parsimonious energy dissipation are potential therapeutic opportunities that if successfully understood and exploited would not only address fatty liver disease but also the other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia.
Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Sacci, John B; De La Vega, Patricia; Camargo, Nelly; VanBuskirk, Kelly; Krzych, Urszula; Cao, Jun; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Cowman, Alan F; Kappe, Stefan H I
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects humans and first targets the liver where liver-stage parasites undergo pre-erythrocytic replication. Liver-stage antigen-1 (LSA-1) is currently the only identified P. falciparum protein for which expression is restricted to liver stages. Yet, the importance of LSA-1 for liver-stage parasite development remains unknown. Here we deleted LSA-1 in the NF54 strain of P. falciparum and analysed the lsa-1(-) parasites throughout their life cycle. lsa-1(-) sporozoites had normal gliding motility and invasion into hepatocytes. Six days after infection of a hepatocytic cell line, lsa-1(-) parasites exhibited a moderate phenotype with an ~50% reduction of late liver-stage forms when compared with wild type. Strikingly, lsa-1(-) parasites growing in SCID/Alb-uPA mice with humanized livers showed a severe defect in late liver-stage differentiation and exo-erythrocytic merozoite formation 7 days after infection, a time point when wild-type parasites develop into mature merozoites. The lsa-1(-) parasites also showed aberrant liver-stage expression of key parasite proteins apical membrane antigen-1 and circumsporozoite protein. Our data show that LSA-1 plays a critical role during late liver-stage schizogony and is thus important in the parasite transition from the liver to blood. LSA-1 is the first P. falciparum protein identified to be required for this transitional stage of the parasite life cycle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done.
Ronis, Martin J J; Mercer, Kelly E; Gannon, Brenda; Engi, Bridgette; Zimniak, Piotr; Shearn, Colin T; Orlicky, David J; Albano, Emanuele; Badger, Thomas M; Petersen, Dennis R
To test the significance of lipid peroxidation in the development of alcoholic liver injury, an ethanol (EtOH) liquid diet was fed to male 129/SvJ mice (wild-type, WT) and glutathione S-transferase A4-4-null (GSTA4-/-) mice for 40 days. GSTA4-/- mice were crossed with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-null mice (PPAR-α-/-), and the effects of EtOH in the resulting double knockout (dKO) mice were compared with the other strains. EtOH increased lipid peroxidation in all except WT mice (P < 0.05). Increased steatosis and mRNA expression of the inflammatory markers CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were observed in EtOH GSTA4-/- compared with EtOH WT mice (P < 0.05). EtOH PPAR-α-/- mice had increased steatosis, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and hepatic CD3+ T cell populations and elevated mRNA encoding CD14, CXCL2, TNF-α, IL-6, CD138, transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFR-β), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-13, α-SMA, and collagen type 1 compared with EtOH WT mice. EtOH-fed dKO mice displayed elevation of periportal hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal adducts and serum antibodies against malondialdehyde adducts compared with EtOH feeding of GSTA4-/-, PPAR-α-/-, and WT mice (P < 0.05). ALT was higher in EtOH dKO mice compared with all other groups (P < 0.001). EtOH-fed dKO mice displayed elevated mRNAs for TNF-α and CD14, histological evidence of fibrosis, and increased PDGFR, MMP-9, and MMP-13 mRNAs compared with the EtOH GSTA4-/- or EtOH PPAR-α-/- genotype (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate the central role lipid peroxidation plays in mediating progression of alcohol-induced necroinflammatory liver injury, stellate cell activation, matrix remodeling, and fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Limongi, Vivian; Dos Santos, Daniele Costa; de Oliveira da Silva, Aurea Maria; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Stucchi, Raquel Silveira Bello
AIM: To increase inspiratory muscle strength and improve the quality of life of candidates for liver transplantation. METHODS: Twenty-three candidates for liver transplantation participated in the control group and 14 made up the intervention group. The control group consisted of 18 men and 5 women, body mass index (BMI) 27.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) 18.2 ± 6.1. The intervention group consisted of 11 men and 3 women, BMI 28.6 ± 5.4 kg/m2 and MELD 18 ± 4.5. The presence or absence of ascites was identified in the first patient evaluation and after three months. We evaluated maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure, spirometry, root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm and rectus abdominis, and the quality of life. The exercises were performed daily by patients at home for three months and were supervised at distance monthly. The manual consisted of diaphragmatic breathing exercises, diaphragmatic isometric exercise, Threshold IMT®, lifting upper limbs with a bat and strengthening the abdomen. RESULTS: There was significant difference (P = 0.01) between the first (initial) and the third month (final) MIP in the control group and in the intervention group, but there was no difference (P = 0.45) between the groups. The RMS of the diaphragm was lower (P = 0.001) and the functional capacity was higher (P = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control. The general health and mental health domains received higher scores after three months in the control group (P = 0.01) and the intervention group (P = 0.004), but there was no significant difference between them. The comparison between the presence of initial ascites with the presence of ascites was performed after three months in the control group (P = 0.083) and intervention group (P = 0.31). There was no significant difference, in relation to the presence of ascites after three months between groups (P = 0.21). In the intervention group, patients with
Limongi, Vivian; Dos Santos, Daniele Costa; de Oliveira da Silva, Aurea Maria; Boin, Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira; Stucchi, Raquel Silveira Bello
To increase inspiratory muscle strength and improve the quality of life of candidates for liver transplantation. Twenty-three candidates for liver transplantation participated in the control group and 14 made up the intervention group. The control group consisted of 18 men and 5 women, body mass index (BMI) 27.3 ± 4.5 kg/m(2) and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) 18.2 ± 6.1. The intervention group consisted of 11 men and 3 women, BMI 28.6 ± 5.4 kg/m(2) and MELD 18 ± 4.5. The presence or absence of ascites was identified in the first patient evaluation and after three months. We evaluated maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure, spirometry, root mean square (RMS) of diaphragm and rectus abdominis, and the quality of life. The exercises were performed daily by patients at home for three months and were supervised at distance monthly. The manual consisted of diaphragmatic breathing exercises, diaphragmatic isometric exercise, Threshold IMT(®), lifting upper limbs with a bat and strengthening the abdomen. There was significant difference (P = 0.01) between the first (initial) and the third month (final) MIP in the control group and in the intervention group, but there was no difference (P = 0.45) between the groups. The RMS of the diaphragm was lower (P = 0.001) and the functional capacity was higher (P = 0.006) in the intervention group compared to the control. The general health and mental health domains received higher scores after three months in the control group (P = 0.01) and the intervention group (P = 0.004), but there was no significant difference between them. The comparison between the presence of initial ascites with the presence of ascites was performed after three months in the control group (P = 0.083) and intervention group (P = 0.31). There was no significant difference, in relation to the presence of ascites after three months between groups (P = 0.21). In the intervention group, patients with ascites at the end
Hartmann, Phillipp; Seebauer, Caroline T; Schnabl, Bernd
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Alcoholic fatty liver disease can progress to steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Patients with alcohol abuse show quantitative and qualitative changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, patients with ALD have increased intestinal permeability and elevated systemic levels of gut-derived microbial products. Maintaining eubiosis, stabilizing the mucosal gut barrier, or preventing cellular responses to microbial products protect from experimental ALD. Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation appear fundamental for the pathogenesis of ALD. This review highlights causes for intestinal dysbiosis and pathological bacterial translocation, their relationship, and consequences for ALD. We also discuss how the liver affects the intestinal microbiota.
Our view on liver macrophages in the context of health and disease has been reformed by the recognition of a remarkable heterogeneity of phagocytes in the liver. Liver macrophages consist of ontogenically distinct populations termed Kupffer cells and monocyte-derived macrophages. Kupffer cells are self-renewing, resident and principally non-migratory phagocytes, serving as sentinels for liver homeostasis. Liver injury triggers Kupffer cell activation, leading to inflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. This fosters the infiltration of monocytes into the liver, which give rise to large numbers of inflammatory monocyte-derived macrophages. Liver macrophages are very plastic and adapt their phenotype according to signals derived from the hepatic microenvironment (e.g. danger signals, fatty acids, phagocytosis of cellular debris), which explains their manifold and even opposing functions during disease. These central functions include the perpetuation of inflammation and hepatocyte injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells with subsequent fibrogenesis, and support of tumor development by angiogenesis and T cell suppression. If liver injury ceases, specific molecular signals trigger hepatic macrophages to switch their phenotype towards reparative phagocytes that promote tissue repair and regression of fibrosis. Novel strategies to treat liver disease aim at targeting macrophages. These interventions modulate Kupffer cell activation (e.g. via gut-liver axis or inflammasome formation), monocyte recruitment (e.g. via inhibiting chemokine pathways like CCR2 or CCL2) or macrophage polarization and differentiation (e.g. by nanoparticles). Evidence from mouse models and early clinical studies in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis support the notion that pathogenic macrophage subsets can be successfully translated into novel treatment options for patients with liver disease. Macrophages (Greek for "big eaters") are a frequent non-parenchymal cell
VanWagner, Lisa B; Rinella, Mary E
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with an increased prevalence of metabolic, macro- and microvascular complications. The primary causes of mortality in NAFLD are cardiovascular disease (CVD), malignancy and liver disease. NAFLD is a multisystem disease that affects a variety of extra-hepatic organ systems. The main focus of this review is to summarize the reported extra-hepatic associations, which include CVD, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoporosis, psoriasis, colorectal cancer, iron overload and various endocrinopathies (e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid dysfunction, and polycystic ovarian syndrome). Due to the systemic manifestations of NAFLD patients require a multidisciplinary assessment and may benefit from more rigorous surveillance and early treatment interventions to decrease mortality related to malignancy or cardiometabolic diseases.
Seki, Ekihiro; Brenner, David A.; Friedman, Scott; Cohen, Jessica I.; Nagy, Laura; Szabo, Gyongyi; Zakhari, Samir
Excessive alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. Alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress are important mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. However, emerging evidence suggests that activation of innate immunity involving TLR4 and complement also plays an important role in initiating alcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis, but the role of adaptive immunity in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease remains obscure. Activation of a TLR4-mediated MyD88-independent (TRIF/IRF-3) signaling pathway in Kupffer cells contributes to alcoholic steatohepatitis, whereas activation of TLR4 signaling in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis. Alcohol consumption activates the complement system in the liver by yet unidentified mechanisms, leading to alcoholic steatohepatitis. In contrast to activation of TLR4 and complement, alcohol consumption can inhibit natural killer cells, another important innate immunity component, contributing to alcohol-mediated acceleration of viral infection and liver fibrosis in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Understanding of the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease may help us identify novel therapeutic targets to treat this disease. PMID:21252049
Most of primary and secondary parasitic liver diseases, at present can be property treated with drugs. Venezuelan pharmaceutic market has some peculiarities that have determined the disappearance from the market of many drugs such as emetine, thiabendazole, quinacrine and niclosamide. Diloxanide never appeared. Venezuela has no commercial international treatises that protect international patents in the pharmaceutical area. In addition, government regulation of cost of drugs is very strict. This is particularly true with old drugs (such as emetine or quinacrine) which had such a low price that is non-commercial for the maker of the drug, usually a large transnational, and is withdrawn from the market. Flexibility of prices is quite easy for new antibiotics which are very expensive. Frequently small national companies import the drug from Italy and Japan which sell the drug independently from international treats. Such companies frequently produce the drug for the government social system, but are unreliable and also frequently they withdraw the drug a variable period of time. The government, through the Ministry of Public Health administer free treatment with drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and leprosy. The severe economic crisis of the country has severely impaired the preventive programs and there is an increase of malaria due to gold mining in the south of the country and falciparum chloroquine resistance and an increase of schistosomiasis in a previous free area. Also administration of drugs for malaria has been severely impaired, mainly for economic reasons. The establishment of a National Government Laboratory is an old (as far as 1946) political goal, but has remained in the political intention.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Leidner, Andrew J; Chesson, Harrell W; Spradling, Philip R; Holmberg, Scott D
Most cost-effectiveness analyses of hepatitis C (HCV) therapy focus on the benefits of reducing liver-related morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to assess how cost-effectiveness estimates of HCV therapy can vary depending on assumptions regarding the potential impact of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We adapted a state-transition model to include potential effects of HCV therapy on non-hepatic mortality. We assumed successful treatment could reduce non-hepatic mortality by as little as 0 % to as much as 100 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment and comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment. Comparing immediate treatment versus delayed treatment, when we included a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by HCV treatment fell by 76 % (from US$314,100 to US$76,900) for patients with no fibrosis and by 43 % (from US$62,500 to US$35,800) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Comparing immediate treatment versus non-treatment, assuming a 44 % reduction in non-hepatic mortality following successful HCV treatment, the incremental cost per QALY gained by HCV treatment fell by 64 % (from US$186,700 to US$67,300) for patients with no fibrosis and by 27 % (from US$35,000 to US$25,500) for patients with moderate fibrosis. Including reductions in non-hepatic mortality from HCV treatment can have substantial effects on the estimated cost-effectiveness of treatment.
Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio
Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required.
Iruzubieta, Paula; Terán, Álvaro; Crespo, Javier; Fábrega, Emilio
Vitamin D is an important secosteroid hormone with known effect on calcium homeostasis, but recently there is increasing recognition that vitamin D also is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Vitamin D deficiency has been frequently reported in many causes of chronic liver disease and has been associated with the development and evolution of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus infection. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and CHC is not completely known, but it seems that the involvement of vitamin D in the activation and regulation of both innate and adaptive immune systems and its antiproliferative effect may explain its importance in these liver diseases. Published studies provide evidence for routine screening for hypovitaminosis D in patients with liver disease. Further prospectives studies demonstrating the impact of vitamin D replacement in NAFLD and CHC are required. PMID:25544877
Feldstein, Ariel E.; Patton-Ku, Dana; Boutelle, Kerri N.
Synopsis The prevalence of childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the US and many other parts of the world. With obesity comes a variety of adverse health outcomes and metabolic complications. The liver in particular seems to be significantly impacted by fat deposition in the presence of obesity. In this article we discuss several aspects of childhood obesity from epidemiology and associated metabolic complications, to management strategies and therapy with particular attention to the impact of obesity on the liver resulting in non-alcoholic or metabolic fatty liver disease. The deleterious effects of obesity on the liver and health overall can be significantly impacted by a culture that fosters sustained nutritional improvement and regular physical activity. Here we summarize the current evidence supporting pharmacologic, behavioral and dietary interventions for the management of obesity and fatty liver disease in children. PMID:24274876
Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Celedon, Manuel A.; Lavine, Joel E.; Salem, Rany; Campbell, Nzali; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shiehmorteza, Masoud; Yokoo, Takeshi; Chavez, Alyssa; Middleton, Michael S.; Sirlin, Claude B.
Background & Aims Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States. The etiology is believed to be multi-factorial with a substantial genetic component; however, the heritability of NAFLD is undetermined. Therefore, a familial aggregation study was performed to test the hypothesis that NAFLD is highly heritable. Methods Overweight children with biopsy-proven NAFLD and overweight children without NAFLD served as probands. Family members were studied including magnetic resonance imaging to quantify liver fat fraction. Fatty liver was defined as a liver fat fraction ≥ 5%. Etiologies for fatty liver other than NAFLD were excluded. Narrow-sense heritability estimates for fatty liver (dichotomous) and fat fraction (continuous) were calculated using variance components analysis adjusted for covariate effects. Results Fatty liver was present in 17% of siblings and 37% of parents of overweight children without NAFLD. Fatty liver was significantly more common in siblings (59%) and parents (78%) of children with NAFLD. Liver fat fraction was correlated with body mass index (BMI), although the correlation was significantly stronger for families of children with NAFLD than those without NAFLD. Adjusted for age, sex, race, and BMI, heritability of fatty liver was 1.000 and of liver fat fraction 0.386. Conclusion Family members of children with NAFLD should be considered at high risk for NAFLD. These data suggest that familial factors are a major determinant of whether an individual has NAFLD. Studies examining the complex relations between genes and environment in the development and progression of NAFLD are warranted. PMID:19208353
Khodadoostan, Mahsa; Zamanidoost, Maryam; Shavakhi, Ahmad; Sanei, Hosein; Shahbazi, Masood; Ahmadian, Mehdi
Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), defined as excessive liver fat deposition and one of end-stage liver disease causes. Increased ferritin levels are associated with insulin resistance and a higher hepatic iron and fat content. Hyperferritinemia has been associated with severity of liver damage in NAFLD. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of phlebotomy on liver enzymes and histology in such patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two eligible patients who had NAFLD and after 6 months of lifestyle modification still had NAFLD, and whose ferritin serum was above 250 mg/dl, were enrolled in this clinical trial study. After written informed consent was obtained, each patient's blood serum was taken for aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P), complete blood count (CBC), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), iron, and ferritin. Then the patients underwent liver biopsy. After that patients underwent phlebotomy, giving 350 cc blood monthly. Before every phlebotomy, hemoglobin and ferritin were checked. If they were in the goal range, phlebotomy was discontinued and the patient underwent liver biopsy. A serum sample was taken for testing at the beginning of the study. The results before and after phlebotomy were compared. The maximum duration of the study was 6 months. Results: Thirty-two patients (26 males and 6 females) were enrolled, and the mean average age was 33.7 ± 6.74 years. Phlebotomy improved liver enzymes and histology of liver significantly (P < 0.001) and induced reduction of ferritin. Conclusion: Phlebotomy is effective for the improvement of liver enzymes and histology in patients with NAFLD and hyperferritinemia. PMID:28299304
Rinella, Mary E
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its subtype nonalcoholic steatohepatitis affect approximately 30% and 5%, respectively, of the US population. In patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, half of deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and malignancy, yet awareness of this remains low. Cirrhosis, the third leading cause of death in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is predicted to become the most common indication for liver transplantation. To illustrate how to identify patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at greatest risk of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cirrhosis; to discuss the role and limitations of current diagnostics and liver biopsy to diagnose nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; and to provide an outline for the management of patients across the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PubMed was queried for published articles through February 28, 2015, using the search terms NAFLD and cirrhosis, mortality, biomarkers, and treatment. A total of 88 references were selected, including 16 randomized clinical trials, 44 cohort or case-control studies, 6 population-based studies, and 7 meta-analyses. Sixty-six percent of patients older than 50 years with diabetes or obesity are thought to have nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with advanced fibrosis. Even though the ability to identify the nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subtype within those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease still requires liver biopsy, biomarkers to detect advanced fibrosis are increasingly reliable. Lifestyle modification is the foundation of treatment for patients with nonalcoholic steatosis. Available treatments with proven benefit include vitamin E, pioglitazone, and obeticholic acid; however, the effect size is modest (<50%) and none is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The association between nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease is clear, though causality remains to be proven in well-controlled prospective studies. The
Purpose of review Interactions of the gut microbiome with the host are important in health and disease. Microbial translocation releases bacterial products that play a key role in progression of chronic liver disease by promoting hepatic injury and inflammation. Although this has long been recognized, we are just beginning to understand the circumstances under which the gut becomes leaky and to discover bacterial metabolites that promote liver disease. In this review we will summarize recent findings from the last two years. Recent findings Chronic liver disease is associated with an altered microbiome with both qualitative (dysbiosis) and quantitative (overgrowth) differences. This can be viewed as a loss of the symbiotic relationship between the microflora and the host. An imbalanced intestinal homeostasis results in a breach of the gut barrier and subsequent microbial translocation. However, the contribution of the intestinal microflora is beyond simple microbial translocation as pathogenic factor. Bacterial metabolites resulting from an imbalanced homeostasis and dysbiosis play also a crucial role in liver disease. Summary A combination between an initiating liver insult and a disturbance of the gut – host symbiosis synergize in progression of liver disease. PMID:23493073
Irvine, Katharine M; Wockner, Leesa F; Shanker, Mihir; Fagan, Kevin J; Horsfall, Leigh U; Fletcher, Linda M; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Pretorius, Carel J; Miller, Gregory C; Clouston, Andrew D; Lampe, Guy; Powell, Elizabeth E
Current tools for risk stratification of chronic liver disease subjects are limited. We aimed to determine whether the serum-based ELF (Enhanced Liver Fibrosis) test predicted liver-related clinical outcomes, or progression to advanced liver disease, and to compare the performance of ELF to liver biopsy and non-invasive algorithms. Three hundred patients with ELF scores assayed at the time of liver biopsy were followed up (median 6.1 years) for liver-related clinical outcomes (n = 16) and clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (n = 18), by review of medical records and clinical data. Fourteen of 73 (19.2%) patients with ELF score indicative of advanced fibrosis (≥9.8, the manufacturer's cut-off) had a liver-related clinical outcome, compared to only two of 227 (<1%) patients with ELF score <9.8. In contrast, the simple scores APRI and FIB-4 would only have predicted subsequent decompensation in six and four patients respectively. A unit increase in ELF score was associated with a 2.53-fold increased risk of a liver-related event (adjusted for age and stage of fibrosis). In patients without advanced fibrosis on biopsy at recruitment, 55% (10/18) with an ELF score ≥9.8 showed clear evidence of progression to advanced fibrosis (after an average 6 years), whereas only 3.5% of those with an ELF score <9.8 (8/207) progressed (average 14 years). In these subjects, a unit increase in ELF score was associated with a 4.34-fold increased risk of progression. The ELF score is a valuable tool for risk stratification of patients with chronic liver disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Onyekwere, C A; Ogbera, A O; Samaila, A A; Balogun, B O; Abdulkareem, F B
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is defined as the accumulation of fat>5% of liver weight is increasingly becoming an important cause of chronic liver disease. This article tries to chronicle advances that have occurred in the understanding of the pathogenesis, pathology as well as the management of this disease. We have done a Medline search on published work on the subject and reviewed major conference proceedings in the preceding years. The Pathogenesis involves a multi-hit process in which increased accumulation of triglycerides in face of insulin resistance results in increased susceptibility to inflammatory damage mediated by increased expression of inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress and gut derived endotoxemia. An interplay of multiple metabolic genetic expression and environmental factors however determine which patient with NAFLD will progress from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and liver cirrhosis. The minimum criteria for diagnosis of NASH are steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation; fibrosis is not required. The NASH Clinical Research Network (CRN), histological scoring system is used to grade and stage the disease for standardization. The management of NAFLD consists of treating liver disease as well as associated metabolic co-morbidities such as obesity, hyperlipidaemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patient education is important as their insight and commitment is pivotal, and lifestyle modification is the first line of treatment. Improvement in liver histology in non-diabetic NASH patients has been reported with use of Vitamin E. Other liver-related therapies under investigations include pentoxyfiylins, Caspar inhibitors, Resveratrol as well as probiotics. The prognosis (both overall and liver-related mortality) for simple steatosis is not different from that of the general population however.
Karoli, Yogesh; Fatima, Jalees; Manhar, Mohammad
Introduction Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It involves haemodynamic and metabolic complications. Hepatic Osteodystrophy is a metabolic bone disease that may occur in individuals with chronic liver disease. It can significantly affect morbidity and quality of life of these patients. Fractures are also associated with an excess mortality. It has been an under recognized and inadequately studied complication among Indian population. An early diagnosis is essential to correct reversible risk factors which predispose to bone mass loss. Aim To assess the prevalence of metabolic bone disease and identify the risk factors associated with hepatic osteodystrophy in patients with cirrhosis. Materials and Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional, hospital based study conducted at a medical college hospital. All patients more than 20-year-old, diagnosed with chronic liver disease/Cirrhosis were enrolled. They were subjected to haematological, biochemical investigations, evaluation of Vitamin D and other hormonal parameters. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was estimated by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). Results A total of 72 patients with mean age 50.04±11.24 years were included in the study. Amongst causes of chronic liver disease were alcoholic liver disease 22 (30.6%), CLD due to hepatitis B 24 (33.3%) and chronic hepatitis C 26 (36.1%). Twenty one (29.2%) patients had normal BMD while 51 (70.8%) had a low BMD. Out of these 51 patients, 36 (70.6%) were diagnosed of osteopenia and 15 (29.4%) others were found to have osteoporosis. Vitamin D levels and severity of liver disease had correlation with low BMD. Conclusion Low BMD is highly prevalent in patients with chronic liver disease of variable aetiologies. We advocate more randomised and prospective studies to be conducted on homogeneous groups with chronic liver disease in its various stages. In view of numerous therapeutic options available both for liver
Chen, Guanliang; Ni, Yinhua; Nagata, Naoto; Xu, Liang; Ota, Tsuguhito
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.
Chen, Guanliang; Ni, Yinhua; Nagata, Naoto; Xu, Liang; Ota, Tsuguhito
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin. PMID:27563875
Beaton, Melanie D
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of liver disease in western society. It is a cause of end-stage liver disease, with increased mortality secondary to cirrhosis and its complications. It is also recognized that cardiovascular disease is a significant cause of death in these patients. Significant work evaluating various treatments has been performed in recent years; however, to date, no ideal therapy exists. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of management. The present article reviews the current status of various treatment modalities evaluated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Vogl, T J; Steiner, S; Hammerstingl, R; Schwarz, S; Kraft, E; Weinzierl, M; Felix, R
To show that Wilson's disease is one likely cause of multiple low-intensity nodules of the liver we obtained MR images in 16 patients with clinically and histopathologically confirmed Wilson's disease. Corresponding to morphological changes MRI enabled the subdivision of the patients into two groups. Using a T2-weighted spin-echo sequence (TR/TE = 2000/45-90) liver parenchyma showed multiple tiny low-intensity-nodules surrounded by high-intensity septa in 10 out of 16 patients. 5 patients had also low-intensity nodules in T1-weighted images (TR/TE = 600/20). In patients of this group histopathology revealed liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and fibrosis (n = 2). Common feature of this patient group was marked inflammatory cell infiltration into fibrous septa, increase of copper concentration in liver parenchyma and distinct pathological changes of laboratory data. In the remaining 6 patients no pathological change of liver morphology was demonstrated by MRI corresponding to slight histopathological changes of parenchyma and normal laboratory data. As low-intensity nodules surrounded by high intensity septa can be demonstrated in patients with marked inflammatory infiltration of liver parenchyma MRI may help to define Wilson patients with poorer prognosis. In patients with low-intensity nodules of the liver and unknown cause of liver cirrhosis laboratory data and histopathology should be checked when searching for disorders of copper metabolism.
Close, John M.; Eghtesad, Bijan
Sialadenosis (sialosis) has been associated most often with alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, but a number of nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, and bulimia have also been reported to result in sialadenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients in the study group consisted of 300 candidates for liver transplantation. Types of liver disease in subjects with clinical evidence of sialadenosis were compared with diagnoses in cases who had no manifestations of sialadenosis. The data were analyzed for significant association. Sialadenosis was found in 28 of the 300 subjects (9.3%). Among these 28 cases, 11 (39.3%) had alcoholic cirrhosis. The remaining 17 (60.7%) had eight other types of liver disease. There was no significant association between sialadenosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.389). These findings suggest that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis may lead to the development of sialadenosis. Advanced liver disease is accompanied by multiple nutritional deficiencies which may be exacerbated by alcohol. Similar metabolic abnormalities may occur in patients with diabetes or bulimia. Malnutrition has been associated with autonomic neuropathy, the pathogenic mechanism that has been proposed for sialadenosis. PMID:19644542
Guggenheimer, James; Close, John M; Eghtesad, Bijan
Sialadenosis (sialosis) has been associated most often with alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic cirrhosis, but a number of nutritional deficiencies, diabetes, and bulimia have also been reported to result in sialadenosis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sialadenosis in patients with advanced liver disease. Patients in the study group consisted of 300 candidates for liver transplantation. Types of liver disease in subjects with clinical evidence of sialadenosis were compared with diagnoses in cases who had no manifestations of sialadenosis. The data were analyzed for significant association. Sialadenosis was found in 28 of the 300 subjects (9.3%). Among these 28 cases, 11 (39.3%) had alcoholic cirrhosis. The remaining 17 (60.7%) had eight other types of liver disease. There was no significant association between sialadenosis and alcoholic cirrhosis (P = 0.389). These findings suggest that both alcoholic and non-alcoholic cirrhosis may lead to the development of sialadenosis. Advanced liver disease is accompanied by multiple nutritional deficiencies which may be exacerbated by alcohol. Similar metabolic abnormalities may occur in patients with diabetes or bulimia. Malnutrition has been associated with autonomic neuropathy, the pathogenic mechanism that has been proposed for sialadenosis.
Fotbolcu, Hakan; Zorlu, Elçin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease. NAFLD includes a wide spectrum of liver conditions ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and advanced hepatic fibrosis. NAFLD has been recognized as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome linked with insulin resistance. NAFLD should be considered not only a liver specific disease but also an early mediator of systemic diseases. Therefore, NAFLD is usually associated with cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD is highly prevalent in the general population and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The underlying mechanisms and pathogenesis of NAFLD with regard to other medical disorders are not yet fully understood. This review focuses on pathogenesis of NAFLD and its relation with other systemic diseases.
Gudowska, Monika; Gruszewska, Ewa; Panasiuk, Anatol; Cylwik, Bogdan; Flisiak, Robert; Świderska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Chrostek, Lech
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liver diseases of different etiologies and clinical severity of liver cirrhosis on the serum level of hyaluronic acid. The results were compared with noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis: APRI, GAPRI, HAPRI, FIB-4 and Forn's index. Serum samples were obtained from 20 healthy volunteers and patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis (AC)-57 patients, non-alcoholic cirrhosis (NAC)-30 and toxic hepatitis (HT)-22. Cirrhotic patients were classified according to Child-Pugh score. Hyaluronic acid concentration was measured by the immunochemical method. Non-patented indicators were calculated using special formulas. The mean serum hyaluronic acid concentration was significantly higher in AC, NAC and HT group in comparison with the control group. There were significant differences in the serum hyaluronic acid levels between liver diseases, and in AC they were significantly higher than those in NAC and HT group. The serum hyaluronic acid level differs significantly due to the severity of cirrhosis and was the highest in Child-Pugh class C. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values and the area under the ROC curve for hyaluronic acid and all non-patented algorithms were high and similar to each other. We conclude that the concentration of hyaluronic acid changes in liver diseases and is affected by the severity of liver cirrhosis. Serum hyaluronic acid should be considered as a good marker for noninvasive diagnosis of liver damage, but the combination of markers is more useful.
Marin, Jose J G; Bujanda, Luis; Banales, Jesus M
To highlight the increasing evidence supporting the concept that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the cause and pathogenesis of cholestatic liver disorders. miRNAs play a key role in maintaining bile acid homeostasis and modulating pathological processes associated to liver cholestasis, such as proliferation, apoptosis, fibrosis and cancer. Changes in the expression level of specific miRNAs have been reported in serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells or liver tissue from patients suffering from chronic cholestatic liver diseases, such as primary biliary cirrhosis. Although our understanding regarding the role of miRNAs in the development and progression of cholestatic liver diseases is still limited, in the present review, we have revised and discussed the recent information that has emerged on the role of miRNAs in the secretory function of the liver under physiological and pathological conditions. This has led to suggest their potential usefulness as biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of cholestatic liver diseases, as well as tools for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.
Castellino, R.A.; Hoppe, R.T.; Blank, N.; Young, S.W.; Neumann, C.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Kaplan, H.S.
One hundred twenty-one patients with newly diagnosed, previously untreated Hodgkin disease underwent abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic (CT) scanning and bipedal lymphography. These studies were followed by staging laparotomy, which included biopsy of the liver, retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymph nodes, and splenectomy. Correlation of the results of the imaging studies with the histopathologic diagnoses revealed a small - but significant - increased accuracy of lymphography compared with CT in assessing the retroperitoneal lymph nodes. The theoretical advantages of CT scanning in detecting lymphomatous deposits in lymph nodes about the celiac axis and the mesentery, or in the liver and spleen, were not confirmed.
Pessoa, M G; Terrault, N A; Ferrell, L D; Kim, J P; Kolberg, J; Detmer, J; Collins, M L; Yun, A J; Viele, M; Lake, J R; Roberts, J P; Ascher, N L; Wright, T L
To examine the prevalence of hepatitis G virus (HGV) in end-stage liver disease of unknown cause and the role of HGV infection in posttransplantation hepatitis, we studied 46 patients undergoing liver transplantation (mean age, 50 years; M:F, 18:28) with cryptogenic cirrhosis. HGV RNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and was quantified by a branched DNA (bDNA) assay. The prevalence of HGV RNA was determined in samples collected before and after liver transplantation and was found to be 22% and 67%, respectively. We evaluated the prevalence of posttransplantation hepatitis in 25 patients, 16 of whom were HGV-positive and 9 were HGV-negative. The proportion of patients with hepatitis was not significantly different in the two groups (38% in HGV-positive and 22% in HGV-negative patients). The median histological scores were significantly higher in liver biopsies from patients with HGV infection than in those without HGV infection (2 [range, 0-14] and 1 [range, 0-3]; P = .01), but the histological scores were low overall. The duration of follow-up was similar in the two groups. HGV RNA levels were not correlated with the severity of liver disease based on histological score (r = -.08). Graft survival and patient survival were not significantly different. We concluded that liver disease was frequent (32%) after transplantation in patients with a pretransplantation diagnosis of cryptogenic cirrhosis, although the disease was generally mild. Although HGV RNA was demonstrable in the majority (67%) of patients after transplantation, there was no relationship between the presence of HGV RNA and the presence of posttransplantation liver disease. The finding of posttransplantation hepatitis in the absence of known viruses (A-G), suggests that other, as-yet-unidentified viruses may be important.
French, Samuel W.
Epigenetic mechanisms play an extensive role in the development of liver cancer (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as in liver disease associated with other conditions. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in the methylation and/or acetylation pattern of certain DNA regions or of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, contribute to the reversion of normal liver cells into progenitor and stem cells that can develop into HCC. Chronic exposure to beverage alcohol (i.e., ethanol) can induce all of these epigenetic changes. Thus, ethanol metabolism results in the formation of compounds that can cause changes in DNA methylation and interfere with other components of the normal processes regulating DNA methylation. Alcohol exposure also can alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation patterns through a variety of mechanisms and signaling pathways. Alcohol also acts indirectly on another molecule called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is a key component in a crucial regulatory pathway in the cells and whose dysregulation is involved in the development of HCC. Finally, alcohol use regulates an epigenetic mechanism involving small molecules called miRNAs that control transcriptional events and the expression of genes important to ALD. PMID:24313165
French, Samuel W
Epigenetic mechanisms play an extensive role in the development of liver cancer (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) as well as in liver disease associated with other conditions. For example, epigenetic mechanisms, such as changes in the methylation and/or acetylation pattern of certain DNA regions or of the histone proteins around which the DNA is wrapped, contribute to the reversion of normal liver cells into progenitor and stem cells that can develop into HCC. Chronic exposure to beverage alcohol (i.e., ethanol) can induce all of these epigenetic changes. Thus, ethanol metabolism results in the formation of compounds that can cause changes in DNA methylation and interfere with other components of the normal processes regulating DNA methylation. Alcohol exposure also can alter histone acetylation/deacetylation and methylation patterns through a variety of mechanisms and signaling pathways. Alcohol also acts indirectly on another molecule called toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is a key component in a crucial regulatory pathway in the cells and whose dysregulation is involved in the development of HCC. Finally, alcohol use regulates an epigenetic mechanism involving small molecules called miRNAs that control transcriptional events and the expression of genes important to ALD.
Llorente, Cristina; Schnabl, Bernd
The leaky gut hypothesis links translocating microbial products with the onset and progression of liver disease, and for a long time was considered one of its major contributors. However, a more detailed picture of the intestinal microbiota contributing to liver disease started to evolve. The gut is colonized by trillions of microbes that aid in digestion, modulate immune response, and generate a variety of products that result from microbial metabolic activities. These products together with host-bacteria interactions influence both normal physiology and disease susceptibility. A disruption of the symbiosis between microbiota and host is known as dysbiosis and can have profound effects on health. Qualitative changes such as increased proportions of harmful bacteria and reduced levels of beneficial bacteria, and also quantitative changes in the total amount of bacteria (overgrowth) have been associated with liver disease. Understanding the link between the pathophysiology of liver diseases and compositional and functional changes of the microbiota will help in the design of innovative therapies. In this review, we focus on factors resulting in dysbiosis, and discuss how dysbiosis can disrupt intestinal homeostasis and contribute to liver disease.
Rau, Monika; Weiss, Johannes; Geier, Andreas
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in Europe and in the USA with rising prevalence. Patients with a metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia) are patients at risk with the highest prevalence for NAFLD. Progression from a non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in 5-20% of patients with the potential to develop a liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. NASH patients and NAFLD patients with higher fibrosis should be identified because they are at risk of a higher mortality. A specific treatment for NASH is not available at the moment. Therefore, the treatment of risk factors and metabolic syndrome has high priority.
Jiang, Zhenghui G.; Tapper, Elliot B.; Connelly, Margery A.; Pimentel, Carolina F. M. G.; Feldbrügge, Linda; Kim, Misung; Krawczyk, Sarah; Afdhal, Nezam; Robson, Simon C.; Herman, Mark A.; Otvos, James D.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Lai, Michelle
Background & Aims A major challenge in the management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is to identify patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and early liver fibrosis. The progression of NAFLD is accompanied by distinctive changes in very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), a lipoprotein particle produced exclusively in the liver. Herein, we sought to determine the characteristics of VLDL profiles associated with NASH and liver fibrosis. Methods We evaluated VLDL profiles of 128 patients from a single centre NAFLD registry, and examined VLDL size, total and subclass VLDL concentrations in relation to NAFLD activity score (NAS), steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis as determined by liver biopsy. Results A near linear relationship was observed between mean VLDL particle size and NAFLD activity score (NAS). In multivariate models, VLDL particle size was significantly associated with both NAS and NASH, after adjustment for BMI and diabetes. A decrease in small VLDL particle concentration was associated with more advanced liver fibrosis. In receiver operative characteristic analyses, mean VLDL size performed similarly to cytokeratin 18 in predicting NASH, whereas small VLDL particle concentration had similar performance to NAFLD fibrosis score in predicting stage 2 or above liver fibrosis. Conclusions The increase in mean VLDL size in NASH and decrease in small VLDL particle concentration in liver fibrosis likely reflect changes in the number and state of hepatocytes associated with NASH and fibrosis. In addition to its value in risk stratification of cardiovascular diseases, circulating VLDL profile may provide information for the staging of NAFLD disease severity. PMID:26815314
Brumbaugh, David E; Friedman, Jacob E
Obese pregnant women may transmit their metabolic phenotype to offspring, leading to a cycle of obesity and diabetes over generations. Early childhood obesity predicts nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic human liver disease. The fetus may be vulnerable to steatosis because immature fetal adipose depots are not available to buffer the excess transplacental lipid delivery in maternal obesity. In animal models, in utero high-fat diet exposure results in an increase in the accumulation of liver triglycerides in offspring and increased hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis, perhaps priming the liver for later development of NAFLD. Innate immune dysfunction and necroinflammatory changes have been observed in postnatal offspring liver of animals born to high-fat-fed dams. Postweaning, livers of offspring exposed to maternal high-fat feeding in utero share pathophysiologic features with human NAFLD, including increased de novo lipogenesis and decreased free fatty acid oxidation. Human studies using magnetic resonance imaging have shown that maternal BMI predicts infant intrahepatocellular lipid storage, as seen in animal models. The generational transfer of NAFLD may occur via epigenetic changes in offspring liver. Transmission of microbiota from mother to infant may impact energy retention and immune function that contribute to a predisposition to NAFLD.
Ben Ari, Ziv
In the recent decade the subject of general hepatology has undergone significant upgrading. Several breakthrough discoveries have lead to substantial improvement in the antiviral treatment of viral hepatitis, the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma and the development of noninvasive diagnosis of the severity of liver disease. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD] is now established as one of the most common causes of chronic liver disease in the Western world. NAFLD can progress to cirrhosis and its associated complications. This issue of "Harefuah" is dedicated to the current knowledge and challenges in liver disease and transplantation and to novel discoveries in this field. Two new important guidelines of the Israeli Association for the Study of the Liver are published in this issue, the first deals with the management of ascites and its complications and the second relates to the innovative antiviral treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. An extensive review on this latter subject is also included, summarizing the major breakthroughs in this field: the development of the new direct acting antiviraL agents and the role of IL28B polymorphism in the response to treatment. One article argues the concept of the high hepatitis B virus (HBV) vertical transmission in an Arab cohort in Israel, while another paper provides data on a significantly improved response rate to antiviral therapy in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. Increased serum level of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 level, an independent predictor of coronary heart disease, was detected in patients with nonalcohoLic fatty liver disease [NAFLD] in another article. The issue also provides encouraging data showing that following two decades of liver transplantation in Israel, the survival rate has improved. Several additional articles in the issue shed further light on recent discoveries in the field of hepatology.
Tilg, Herbert; Moschen, Alexander R; Szabo, Gyongyi
Both alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are characterized by massive lipid accumulation in the liver accompanied by inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in a substantial subgroup of patients. At several stages in these diseases, mediators of the immune system, such as cytokines or inflammasomes, are crucially involved. In ALD, chronic ethanol exposure sensitizes Kupffer cells to activation by lipopolysaccharides through Toll-like receptors, e.g., Toll-like receptor 4. This sensitization enhances the production of various proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, thereby contributing to hepatocyte dysfunction, necrosis, and apoptosis and the generation of extracellular matrix proteins leading to fibrosis/cirrhosis. Indeed, neutralization of IL-1 by IL-1 receptor antagonist has recently been shown to potently prevent liver injury in murine models of ALD. As IL-1 is clearly linked to key clinical symptoms of acute alcoholic hepatitis such as fever, neutrophilia, and wasting, interfering with the IL-1 pathway might be an attractive treatment strategy in the future. An important role for IL-1-type cytokines and certain inflammasomes has also been demonstrated in murine models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. IL-1-type cytokines can regulate hepatic steatosis; the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome is critically involved in metabolic dysregulation. IL-1 cytokine family members and various inflammasomes mediate different aspects of both ALD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (Hepatology 2016;64:955-965). © 2016 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Raszeja-Wyszomirska, Joanna; Lawniczak, Małgorzata; Marlicz, Wojciech; Miezyńska-Kurtycz, Joanna; Milkiewicz, Piotr
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology--from steatosis alone, through the necroinflammatory disorder of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis and liver cancer. NAFLD/NASH is mostly related with visceral adiposity, obesity, type 2 diabetes melitus (DM t.2) and metabolic syndrome. Pathogenetic concepts of NAFLD include overnutrition and underactivity, insulin resistance (IR) and genetic factor. The prevalence of NAFLD has been estimated to be 17-33% in some countries, NASH may be present in about 1/3 of such cases, while 20-25% of NASH cases could progress to cirrhosis. NAFLD is now recognized as one of the most frequent reason of liver tests elevation without clinical symptoms. Insulin resistance is considering as having a central role in NAFLD pathogenesis. In hepatocytes, IR is related to hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia, formation of advanced glycation end-products, increased free fatty acids and their metabolites, oxidative stress and altered profiles of adipocytokines. Early stages of fatty liver are clinically silent and include elevation of ALT and GGTP, hyperechogenic liver in USG and/or hepatomegaly. Among clinical symptoms, abdominal discomfort is relatively common as well as chronic fatigue. NAFLD/NASH is not a benign disease, progressive liver biopsy have shown histological progression of fibrosis in 32%, the estimated rate of cirrhosis development is 20% and a liver--related death is 12% over 10 years. No treatment has scientifically proved to ameliorate NAFLD or to avoid its progression. The various therapeutic alternatives are aimed at interfering with the risk factors involved in the pathogenesis of the disorder in order to prevent the progression to end-stage liver disease. The most important therapeutic measure is increasing insulin sensitivity by an attempt to change a lifestyle mostly by dieting and physical activity in order to loose weight. The most used agent is metformin, the others
Mackavey, Carole L; Hanks, Robert
Coagulopathy-related bleeding events are a major concern in the management of acute and chronic liver disease. The liver attempts to maintain a balance between procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, and providers struggle with poor prognostic indicators to manage bleeding and critical complications. Subtle changes in patient presentation that may require extensive provider-directed interventions, such as blood transfusions, intravenous fluid management, mitigating possible sepsis, and evaluating appropriate pharmacologic treatment, are discussed.
Sookoian, Silvia; Flichman, Diego; Scian, Romina; Rohr, Cristian; Dopazo, Hernán; Gianotti, Tomas Fernández; Martino, Julio San; Castaño, Gustavo O; Pirola, Carlos J
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, a decreased liver mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and impaired energy metabolism. To understand the clinical implications of mtDNA diversity in the biology of NAFLD, we applied deep-coverage whole sequencing of the liver mitochondrial genomes. We used a multistage study design, including a discovery phase, a phenotype-oriented study to assess the mutational burden in patients with steatohepatitis at different stages of liver fibrosis, and a replication study to validate findings in loci of interest. We also assessed the potential protein-level impact of the observed mutations. To determine whether the observed changes are tissue-specific, we compared the liver and the corresponding peripheral blood entire mitochondrial genomes. The nuclear genes POLG and POLG2 (mitochondrial DNA polymerase-γ) were also sequenced. We observed that the liver mtDNA of patients with NAFLD harbours complex genomes with a significantly higher mutational (1.28-fold) rate and degree of heteroplasmy than in controls. The analysis of liver mitochondrial genomes of patients with different degrees of fibrosis revealed that the disease severity is associated with an overall 1.4-fold increase in mutation rate, including mutations in genes of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) chain. Significant differences in gene and protein expression patterns were observed in association with the cumulative number of OXPHOS polymorphic sites. We observed a high degree of homology (∼98%) between the blood and liver mitochondrial genomes. A missense POLG p.Gln1236His variant was associated with liver mtDNA copy number. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that OXPHOS genes contain the highest number of hotspot positions associated with a more severe phenotype. The variability of the mitochondrial genomes probably originates from a common germline source; hence, it may explain a fraction of the 'missing heritability
Goldberg, David S.; Fallon, Michael B.
Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk of extra-hepatic complications related to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, as well organ-specific complications of certain liver diseases. These complications can compromise quality-of-life, while also increasing morbidity and mortality pre- and post-liver transplantation. Patients with chronic liver disease are at risk for pulmonary complications of hepaotpulmonary syndrome and portopulmonary syndrome; the major cardiac complication falls under the general concept of the cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, which can affect systolic and diastolic function, as well as cardiac conduction. In addition, patients with certain diseases are at risk of lung and/or cardiac complications that are specific to the primary disease (i.e., emphysema in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency) or occur with increased incidence in certain conditions (i.e., ischemic heart disease associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. This section will focus on the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, treatment options, and role of transplantation for lung and heart diseases secondary to liver disease, while also highlighting select liver diseases that directly affect the lungs and hearts. PMID:25934564
Chiang, Dian J; McCullough, Arthur J
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a major cause of chronic liver diseases and liver failure. Population-based prospective studies and patient cohort studies have demonstrated that obesity and the metabolic syndrome exacerbate progression of ALD and increase hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence and mortality. Emerging evidence also suggests a synergism between alcohol and obesity in mortality and HCC incidence. Recognition of these increased risks and detection of early-stage liver disease may offer the opportunity to address these modifiable risk factors and prevent disease progression in these patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen; Dina, Ion; Petrisor, Ana; Tribus, Laura; Negreanu, Lucian; Carstoiu, Catalin
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes a spectrum of diseases that have insulin resistance in common and are associated with metabolic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD ranges from simple liver steatosis, which follows a benign course, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more severe entity, with necroinflammation and fibrosis, which can progress to cryptogenic cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for evaluating the degree of hepatic necroinflammation and fibrosis; however, several noninvasive investigations, such as serum biomarkers, have been developed to establish the diagnosis and also to evaluate treatment response. These markers are currently neither available in all centers nor validated in extensive studies. Examples include high-sensitivity C reactive protein and plasma pentraxin 3, which are associated with extensive liver fibrosis in NASH. Interleukin-6 correlates with inflammation, and cytokeratin-18 represents a marker of hepatocyte apoptosis (prominent in NASH and absent in simple steatosis). Tissue polypeptide specific antigen seems to have a clinical utility in the follow-up of obese patients with NASH. PMID:20939106
Kharb, Sandeep; Garg, M. K.; Puri, Pankaj; Brar, Karninder S.; Pandit, Aditi; Srivastava, Sharad
Introduction: Liver is involved with the synthesis of carrier proteins and metabolism of various hormones and liver diseases may, therefore, be associated with various endocrine disturbances. This study was conducted to assess thyroid and gonadal function in subjects with acute hepatitis (AH), chronic liver disease (CLD), and those who had undergone liver transplantation (LT). Materials and Methods: Patients with AH, CLD with Child-Pugh stage A (CLD-1) and Child-Pugh stage B or C (CLD-2), and LT seen at our tertiary level hospital were assessed clinically, biochemically, and for thyroid and gonadal functions besides 25 healthy controls. Results: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism were present in 14 (16%) and 24 (28%) patients with liver diseases respectively. Among thyroid dysfunction, the commonest was sick euthyroid syndrome six (7%), followed by subclinical hypothyroidism in three patients (3.5%), subclinical hyperthyroidism and thyrotoxicosis in two patients each (2.3%) and overt hypothyroidism in one patient. Among patients with LT and AH groups, the only abnormality was significantly lower total T3 compared with healthy controls. The CLD2 group had significantly lower levels of all thyroid hormones compared with controls and CLD1 group. Hypogonadism was commonest in patients with CLD-2 (14; 50%) followed by LT (3; 33%), CLD-1 (4; 20%), and AH (3; 14%). Hypogonadism was predicted by older age, lower levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol, and triglycerides and higher levels of plasma glucose, serum bilirubin, aspartate transaminases, and international normalized ratio. Gonadal functions showed recovery following LT. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction and hypogonadism form an important part of the spectrum of acute and CLD, and patients with LT. Deterioration of synthetic functions of liver disease predicts presence of hypogonadism. PMID:25593833
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world comprising a spectrum of liver damage from fatty liver infiltration to end-stage liver disease, in patients without significant alcohol consumption. Increased prevalence of NAFLD has been reported in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), one of the most common endocrinopathies in premenopausal women, which has been redefined as a reproductive and metabolic disorder after the recognition of the important role of insulin resistance in the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Obesity, in particular central adiposity and insulin resistance are considered as the main factors related to NAFLD in PCOS. Moreover, existing data support that androgen excess, which is the main feature of PCOS and is interrelated to insulin resistance, may be an additional contributing factor to the development of NAFLD. Although the natural history of NAFLD remains unclear and hepatic steatosis seems to be a relatively benign condition in most patients, limited data imply that advanced stage of liver disease is possibly more frequent in obese PCOS patients with NAFLD. PCOS patients, particularly obese patients with features of the metabolic syndrome, should be submitted to screening for NAFLD comprising assessment of serum aminotransferase levels and of hepatic steatosis by abdominal ultrasound. Lifestyle modifications including diet, weight loss and exercise are the most appropriate initial therapeutic interventions for PCOS patients with NAFLD. When pharmacologic therapy is considered, metformin may be used, although currently there is no medical therapy of proven benefit for NAFLD. Long-term follow up studies are needed to clarify clinical implications and guide appropriate diagnostic evaluation, follow-up protocol and optimal treatment for PCOS patients with NAFLD. PMID:25024594
Bojórquez-Ramos, María del Carmen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common cause of liver disease in children and adolescents in the United States of America (USA) and probably in the entire western hemisphere, due to the increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Steatosis can progress to inflammation, fibrosis and even cirrhosis, which increases the morbidity and mortality associated to liver disease. In every overweight and obese child a thorough analysis should be performed including liver function tests and liver ultrasound, in order to establish a timely diagnosis. The liver biopsy is the most specific study to rule out other potentially treatable entities. It is necessary to count on non-invasive methods to detect children with NAFLD and identify those in risk of progression. Biomarkers related to inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis have been reported. The main goal of the treatment is to modify the life style, starting with a healthy diet and an increase of physical activity. Regarding pharmacological treatment, there is evidence of histological improvement with vitamin E use, as opposed to metformin, but more conclusive studies regarding this subject are needed.
Lee, June Sung
Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration.
Singal, Ashwani K; Chaha, Khushdeep S; Rasheed, Khalid; Anand, Bhupinderjit S
Alcoholic cirrhosis remains the second most common indication for liver transplantation. A comprehensive medical and psychosocial evaluation is needed when making a decision to place such patients on the transplant list. Most transplant centers worldwide need a minimum of 6 mo of alcohol abstinence for listing these patients. Patients with alcohol dependence are at high risk for relapse to alcohol use after transplantation (recidivism). These patients need to be identified and require alcohol rehabilitation treatment before transplantation. Recidivism to the level of harmful drinking is reported in about 15%-20% cases. Although, recurrent cirrhosis and graft loss from recidivism is rare, occurring in less than 5% of all alcoholic cirrhosis-related transplants, harmful drinking in the post-transplant period does impact the long-term outcome. The development of metabolic syndrome with cardiovascular events and de novo malignancy are important contributors to non liver-related mortality amongst transplants for alcoholic liver disease. Surveillance protocols for earlier detection of de novo malignancy are needed to improve the long-term outcome. The need for a minimum of 6 mo of abstinence before listing makes transplant a nonviable option for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to corticosteroids. Emerging data from retrospective and prospective studies has challenged the 6 mo rule, and beneficial effects of liver transplantation have been reported in select patients with a first episode of severe alcoholic hepatitis who are unresponsive to steroids. PMID:24106395
Telles-Correia, Diogo; Mega, Inês
In Europe, 30% to 50% of liver transplantations are currently due to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). In the United States, this percentage is 17.2%. Post-transplant survival and other predictors of clinical course do not differ significantly from those in other types of transplanted patients, as long as there is no relapse of drinking. However, 20%-25% of these patients lapse or relapse to heavy drinking post-operatively, which has been associated with an increased risk of liver damage and mortality. It is therefore crucial to design specific selection and follow-up strategies aimed at this particular type of patient. Several good and poor prognosis factors that could help to predict a relapse have been suggested, among them the duration of abstinence, social support, a family history of alcoholism, abuse diagnosis versus alcohol dependence, non-acceptance of diagnosis related to alcohol use, presence of severe mental illness, non-adherence in a broad sense, number of years of alcoholism, and daily quantity of alcohol consumption. In this article, we discuss these and other, more controversial factors in selecting ALD patients for liver transplantation. Abstinence should be the main goal after transplantation in an ALD patient. In this article, we review the several definitions of post-transplant relapse, its monitoring and the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26494959
Munoz, L E; De Villiers, D; Markham, D; Whaley, K; Thomas, H C
Patients with HBsAg positive chronic active liver disease (CALD) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) exhibit increased C3d concentrations and changes in the serum concentrations of the complement components consistent with activation of the classical and alternative pathways. In these patients the concentrations of the regulatory proteins, C3b inactivator (C3bINA) and beta IH globulin, are normal. Patients with HBsAg negative CALD and alcohol induced liver disease (ALD) exhibit no evidence of an increased level of complement system activation. In these patients diminished serum concentrations of complement components appear to be related to diminished hepatic synthetic function. C4 synthesis may be specifically reduced in autoimmune chronic active liver disease. PMID:7083631
Kesar, Vivek; Odin, Joseph A
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that play an important role in host defence by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP). Recent studies indicate that TLR signalling plays an important role in progression of chronic liver diseases. Ongoing clinical trials suggest that therapeutic manipulation of TLR pathways may offer novel means of reversing chronic liver diseases. Upon activation by their respective ligands, TLRs initiate an intracellular pro-inflammatory/anti-inflammatory signalling cascade via recruitment of various adaptor proteins. TLR associated signalling pathways are tightly regulated to keep a check on inappropriate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and interferons thereby preventing various autoimmune and inflammatory processes. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge of hepatic distribution, signalling pathways and therapeutic modulation of TLRs in chronic liver diseases. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Parisi, Giuseppe Fabio; Di Dio, Giovanna; Franzonello, Chiara; Gennaro, Alessia; Rotolo, Novella; Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore
Context Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most widespread autosomal recessive genetic disorder that limits life expectation amongst the Caucasian population. As the median survival has increased related to early multidisciplinary intervention, other manifestations of CF have emergedespecially for the broad spectrum of hepatobiliary involvement. The present study reviews the existing literature on liver disease in cystic fibrosis and describes the key issues for an adequate clinical evaluation and management of patients, with a focus on the pathogenetic, clinical and diagnostic-therapeutic aspects of liver disease in CF. Evidence Acquisition A literature search of electronic databases was undertaken for relevant studies published from 1990 about liver disease in cystic fibrosis. The databases searched were: EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane Library. Results CF is due to mutations in the gene on chromosome 7 that encodes an amino acidic polypeptide named CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator). The hepatic manifestations include particular changes referring to the basic CFTR defect, iatrogenic lesions or consequences of the multisystem disease. Even though hepatobiliary disease is the most common non-pulmonary cause ofmortalityin CF (the third after pulmonary disease and transplant complications), only about the 33%ofCF patients presents clinically significant hepatobiliary disease. Conclusions Liver disease will have a growing impact on survival and quality of life of cystic fibrosis patients because a longer life expectancy and for this it is important its early recognition and a correct clinical management aimed atdelaying the onset of complications. This review could represent an opportunity to encourage researchers to better investigate genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the development of cystic fibrosis liver disease, especially for non-CFTR genetic polymorphisms, and detect predisposed individuals. Therapeutic trials are needed to find strategies of
de Caestecker, J S; Jazrawi, R P; Petroni, M L; Northfield, T C
The hydrophilic bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid has recently been shown to reduce biochemical markers of both cholestasis and hepatocellular damage in patients with chronic liver diseases. The most compelling evidence available is for chronic cholestatic liver diseases, in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and cholestasis associated with cystic fibrosis. The effects may be less beneficial in patients with advanced liver disease from these conditions. Data from placebo controlled trials are now available in support of earlier uncontrolled observations, but it is not yet clear whether short term benefit results in an improvement in longterm prognosis. The mechanism of action of the compound seems to reside in its displacement of toxic hydrophobic bile acids from both the bile acid pool and hepatocellular membranes. There may be an independent effect on bile flow, which could be of particular importance in cystic fibrosis, and possibly an effect on the immune system. Ursodeoxycholic acid should now be regarded as occupying a central place in the medical management of chronic cholestatic liver diseases, in particular primary biliary cirrhosis, because it improves cholestasis and reduces hepatocellular damage and it is not toxic. Research should now be targeted on whether treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, initiated early in cholestatic liver conditions, improves the long-term outcome. PMID:1916492
Ciocca, Mirta; Ramonet, Margarita; Álvarez, Fernando
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is considered one of the most common causes of liver disease in adults and children, consistent with the increased prevalence of obesity in both populations worldwide. It is a multifactorial condition involving a broad spectrum of liver diseases than range from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, and characterized by histological findings of inflammation and fibrosis. Its pathogenesis and progression are not fully understood yet, and a more complete understanding of liver disease may aid in developing new therapies and noninvasive diagnostic tools. Liver biopsy remains the gold standard for disease staging. Although lifestyle and diet modifications are the keys in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease treatment, the development of new drugs may be promising for patients failing first-line therapy. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.
Rossi, Ana P; Vella, John P
After transplantation of nonrenal solid organs, an acute decline in kidney function develops in the majority of patients. In addition, a significant number of nonrenal solid organ transplant recipients develop chronic kidney disease, and some develop end-stage renal disease, requiring renal replacement therapy. The incidence varies depending on the transplanted organ. Acute kidney injury after nonrenal solid organ transplantation is associated with prolonged length of stay, cost, increased risk of death, de novo chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease. This overview focuses on the risk factors for posttransplant acute kidney injury after liver and heart transplantation, integrating discussion of proteinuria and chronic kidney disease with emphasis on pathogenesis, histopathology, and management including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibition and costimulatory blockade.
Abd El-Kader, Shehab M; El-Den Ashmawy, Eman M Salah
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the most frequent chronic liver disease that occurs across all age groups and is recognized to occur in 14%-30% of the general population, representing a serious and growing clinical problem due to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight. Histologically, it resembles alcoholic liver injury but occurs in patients who deny significant alcohol consumption. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of conditions, ranging from benign hepatocellular steatosis to inflammatory nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The majority of hepatocellular lipids are stored as triglycerides, but other lipid metabolites, such as free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids, may also be present and play a role in disease progression. NAFLD is associated with obesity and insulin resistance and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and visceral adiposity. Confirmation of the diagnosis of NAFLD can usually be achieved by imaging studies; however, staging the disease requires a liver biopsy. Current treatment relies on weight loss and exercise, although various insulin-sensitizing agents, antioxidants and medications appear promising. The aim of this review is to highlight the current information regarding epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of NAFLD as well as new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of this disease. PMID:25937862
Forones, N M; Queiroz, L A; Ferraz, M L; Parise, E R
AFP is an oncofetal protein found in increased levels in hepatocellular carcinoma, liver metastasis and other benign liver diseases. PURPOSE--To know the behaviour of this protein in each of these clinical situations would undoubtedly help us to discriminate between hepatocellular carcinoma and benign diseases. PATIENTS--A hundred forty nine patients were divided into 4 groups: 1. acute hepatitis (AH) n = 24, 2. chronic liver disease, viral or alcoholic (CLD) n = 81, 3. hepatic metastasis (HM) n = 29, 4. hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) n = 15. AFP assays were done by ELISA (Abbott Diagnostica, ref. value: 15ng/mL). RESULTS--The results observed were as follows: AFP < 15ng/mL: AH 75%, CLD 86.4%, HM 79.3%, HCC 6.6%, AFP > 15 e < 100ng/mL: AH 25%, CLD 8.6%, HM 20.6%, HCC 20%, AFP > 100ng/mL: AH zero, CLD 4.9%, HM zero, HCC 49%. It is clear that depending on the cut off level, there is a decrease of sensibility which is paralleled by an increase in specificity. CONCLUSIONS--AFP levels are increased in benign liver diseases (AH, CLD) and HM, how ever levels above 100ng/mL occur much more frequently in HCC. In our sample, 93.3% of the HCC showed high levels of AFP, probably because most of the patients had advanced clinical stages of the disease.
Moy, Libia; Levine, Jeremiah
AIH is characterized by chronic inflammation of the liver, interface hepatitis, hypergammaglobulinemia, and production of autoantibodies. Based on the nature of the serum autoantibodies, two types of AIH are recognized: type 1 (AIH-1), positive for ANA and/or anti-smooth muscle antibody, and type 2 (AIH-2), defined by the positivity for anti-liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibody or for anti-liver cytosol type 1 antibody. AIH demonstrates a female preponderance with the female-to-male ratio of 4:1 in AIH-1 and 10:1 in AIH-2. Several genes confer susceptibility to AIH and influence clinical manifestation, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Most are located within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, which is involved in the presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells and thus in the initiation of adaptive immune responses. The strongest associations are found within the HLA-DRB1 locus. In patients with increased genetic susceptibility to AIH, immune responses to liver autoantigens could be triggered by molecular mimicry. Because of molecular mimicry, different environmental agents, drugs, and viruses might produce AIH. In AIH, T cells are numerically and functionally impaired, permitting the perpetuation of effector immune responses with ensuing persistent liver destruction. AIH is rare but highly treatable inflammatory condition of the liver. Subclinical and asymptomatic disease is common. AIH therefore needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of all patients with elevated liver enzymes. Clinical response to immunosuppressive therapy is characteristic and supports the diagnosis.
Smyk, Daniel S; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Invernizzi, Pietro; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Lenzi, Marco
The development of autoimmune disease is based on the interaction of genetic susceptibility and environmental causes. Environmental factors include infectious and non-infectious agents, with some of these factors being implicated in several autoimmune diseases. Vitamin D is now believed to play a role in the development (or prevention) of several autoimmune diseases, based on its immunomodulatory properties. As well, the increasing incidence of autoimmune disease as one moves away from the equator, may be due to the lack of sunlight, which is crucial for the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels. A deficiency in vitamin D levels or vitamin D receptors is commonly indicated in autoimmune diseases, with multiple sclerosis (MS) being one of the best-studied and well-known examples. However, the role of vitamin D in other autoimmune diseases is not well defined, including autoimmune liver diseases such as primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. This review will examine the role of vitamin D as an immunomodulator, followed by a comparison of vitamin D in MS versus autoimmune liver disease. From this comparison, it will become clear that vitamin D likely plays a role in the development of autoimmune liver disease, but this area requires further investigation.
Delvin, Edgard; Patey, Natasha; Dubois, Josée; Henderson, Melanie; Lévy, Émile
Summary The rapidly increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and its associated co-morbidities such as hypertriglyceridemia, hyper-insulinemia, hypertension, early atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are major public health concerns in many countries. Therefore the trends in child and adolescent obesity should be closely monitored over time, as in the near future, we may anticipate a major increase of young adults with the stigmata of the metabolic syndrome, and of the related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), that may lead to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. PMID:28356817
Golding, Peter L.
Renal tubular acidosis of the gradient or classic type, thought to be due to a disorder of the distal tubule, has been found to occur in 32% of 117 patients with chronic liver disease. Whilst the cause of this disorder is probably multifactorial, immunological mechanisms are considered to play a major role. The presence of this disorder might well be a cause, rather than the result of, the various electrolyte abnormalities seen in patients with chronic liver disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 6 PMID:1234340
Hepatorenal fibrocystic diseases (HRFCDs) are among the most common inherited human disorders. The discovery that proteins defective in the autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases (ADPKD and ARPKD) localize to the primary cilia and the recognition of the role these organelles play in the pathogenesis of HRFCDs led to the term “ciliopathies.” While ADPKD and ARPKD are the most common ciliopathies associated with both liver and kidney disease, variable degrees of renal and/or hepatic involvement occur in many other ciliopathies, including Joubert, Bardet–Biedl, Meckel–Gruber, and oral–facial–digital syndromes. The ductal plate malformation (DPM), a developmental abnormality of the portobiliary system, is the basis of the liver disease in ciliopathies that manifest congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF), Caroli syndrome (CS), and polycystic liver disease (PLD). Hepatocellular function remains relatively preserved in ciliopathy-associated liver diseases. The major morbidity associated with CHF is portal hypertension (PH), often leading to esophageal varices and hypersplenism. In addition, CD predisposes to recurrent cholangitis. PLD is not typically associated with PH, but may result in complications due to mass effects. The kidney pathology in ciliopathies ranges from non-functional cystic dysplastic kidneys to an isolated urinary concentration defect; the disorders contributing to this pathology, in addition to ADPKD and ARPKD, include nephronophithisis (NPHP), glomerulocystic kidney disease and medullary sponge kidneys. Decreased urinary concentration ability, resulting in polyuria and polydypsia, is the first and most common renal symptom in ciliopathies. While the majority of ADPKD, ARPKD, and NPHP patients require renal transplantation, the frequency and rate of progression to renal failure varies considerably in other ciliopathies. This review focuses on the kidney and liver disease found in the different ciliopathies. PMID:19876928
Berk, P D; Martin, J F; Young, R S; Creech, J; Selikoff, I J; Falk, H; Watanabe, P; Popper, H; Thomas, L
Although polyvinyl chloride has been produced from vinyl chlride monomer for more than 40 years, recognition of toxicity among vinyl chloride polymerization workers is more recent. In the mid 1960s, workers involved in cleaning polymerization tanks were found to have acro-osteolysis. In 1974, the same population of workers was found to be at risk for an unusual type of hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcoma of the liver. We describe two cases of vinyl chloride-associated liver injury, one of hepatic fibrosis and one of angiosarcoma. Histologic features of these lesions are similar to the hepatic fibrosis and angiosarcomas resulting from chronic exposure to inorganic arsenicals. Preliminary studies suggest that the toxicity of vinyl chloride may result from formation, during high-dose exposure, of active metabolites by mixed function oxidases of the liver. Epidemiologic studies indicate an increased incidence not only of liver disease, but also of cancers of the brain, lung, and possibly other organs.
Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Meng, Xiao; Li, Ya; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin
Liver injuries and diseases are serious health problems worldwide. Various factors, such as chemical pollutants, drugs, and alcohol, could induce liver injuries. Liver diseases involve a wide range of liver pathologies, including hepatic steatosis, fatty liver, hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinoma. Despite all the studies performed up to now, therapy choices for liver injuries and diseases are very few. Therefore, the search for a new treatment that could safely and effectively block or reverse liver injuries and diseases remains a priority. Melatonin is a well-known natural antioxidant, and has many bioactivities. There are numerous studies investigating the effects of melatonin on liver injuries and diseases, and melatonin could regulate various molecular pathways, such as inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis, and autophagy in different pathophysiological situations. Melatonin could be used for preventing and treating liver injuries and diseases. Herein, we conduct a review summarizing the potential roles of melatonin in liver injuries and diseases, paying special attention to the mechanisms of action.
Gitto, Stefano; Villa, Erica
Liver transplant is the unique curative therapy for patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease, with or without hepatocellular carcinoma. Increase of body weight, onset of insulin resistance and drug-induced alterations of metabolism are reported in liver transplant recipients. In this context, post-transplant diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and arterial hypertension can be often diagnosed. Multifactorial illnesses occurring in the post-transplant period represent significant causes of morbidity and mortality. This is especially true for metabolic syndrome. Non-alcoholic steatosis and steatohepatitis are hepatic manifestations of metabolic syndrome and after liver transplant both recurrent and de novo steatosis can be found. Usually, post-transplant steatosis shows an indolent outcome with few cases of fibrosis progression. However, in the post-transplant setting, both metabolic syndrome and steatosis might play a key role in the stratification of morbidity and mortality risk, being commonly associated with cardiovascular disease. The single components of metabolic syndrome can be treated with targeted drugs while lifestyle intervention is the only reasonable therapeutic approach for transplant patients with non-alcoholic steatosis or steatohepatitis.
Wen, Yankai; Jeong, Seogsong; Xia, Qiang; Kong, Xiaoni
Osteopontin (OPN), a multifunctional protein, is involved in numerous pathological conditions including inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis in various tissues. Extensive studies have elucidated the critical role of OPN in cell signaling such as regulation of cell proliferation, migration, inflammation, fibrosis and tumor progression. In the liver, OPN interacts with integrins, CD44, vimentin and MyD88 signaling, thereby induces infiltration, migration, invasion and metastasis of cells. OPN is highlighted as a chemoattractant for macrophages and neutrophils during injury in inflammatory liver diseases. OPN activates hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to exert an enhancer in fibrogenesis. The role of OPN in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has also generated significant interests, especially with regards to its role as a diagnostic and prognostic factor. Interestingly, OPN acts an opposing role in liver repair under different pathological conditions. This review summarizes the current understanding of OPN in liver diseases. Further understanding of the pathophysiological role of OPN in cellular interactions and molecular mechanisms associated with hepatic inflammation, fibrosis and cancer may contribute to the development of novel strategies for clinical diagnosis, monitoring and therapy of liver diseases. PMID:27570486
Frith, James; Jones, David; Newton, Julia L
The prevalence of chronic liver disease is increasing in the elderly population. With a mostly asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, these diseases may easily go undiagnosed. Abnormal liver function tests of unknown cause are a common reason for referral to secondary care. Investigating the older person with abnormal liver function is important; even with mild abnormalities, the same vigilance should be applied to an older person as in a young person. Liver biopsy is safe but often overlooked in this age group and may provide useful information to diagnose, direct therapy and prognosticate. Treatment options are similar for all age groups, with a few subtle differences, although further evidence is frequently required for the older population. Morbidity and age-adjusted mortality are often more severe in older people, and therefore early diagnosis and intervention is important. Presented here are the most common chronic liver diseases that geriatricians are likely to encounter in clinical practise. Their epidemiology, clinical features, investigation, treatment and mortality are described with a particular focus on the elderly population.
Chronic hepatitis B and C together with alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases represent the major causes of progressive liver disease that can eventually evolve into cirrhosis and its end-stage complications, including decompensation, bleeding and liver cancer. Formation and accumulation of fibrosis in the liver is the common pathway that leads to an evolutive liver disease. Precise definition of liver fibrosis stage is essential for management of the patient in clinical practice since the presence of bridging fibrosis represents a strong indication for antiviral therapy for chronic viral hepatitis, while cirrhosis requires a specific follow-up including screening for esophageal varices and hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver biopsy has always represented the standard of reference for assessment of hepatic fibrosis but it has some limitations being invasive, costly and prone to sampling errors. Recently, blood markers and instrumental methods have been proposed for the non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. However, there are still some doubts as to their implementation in clinical practice and a real consensus on how and when to use them is not still available. This is due to an unsatisfactory accuracy for some of them, and to an incomplete validation for others. Some studies suggest that performance of non-invasive methods for liver fibrosis assessment may increase when they are combined. Combination algorithms of non-invasive methods for assessing liver fibrosis may represent a rational and reliable approach to implement non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis in clinical practice and to reduce rather than abolish liver biopsies.
Singal, Ashwani K.; Jampana, Sarat C.; Weinman, Steven A.
Oxidative stress is commonly associated with a number of liver diseases and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hemochromatosis and Wilson’s disease. Antioxidant therapy has thus been considered to have the possibility of beneficial effects in the management of these liver diseases. In spite of this promise, antioxidants have produced mixed results in a number of clinical trials of efficacy. This review summarizes the results of clinical trials of antioxidants as sole or adjuvant therapy of chronic hepatitis C, alcoholic liver disease and NASH. Overall, the most promising results to date are for vitamin E therapy of NASH but some encouraging results have been obtained with antioxidant therapy of acute alcoholic hepatitis as well. In spite of evidence for small reductions of serum ALT, there is as yet no convincing evidence that antioxidant therapy itself is beneficial to patients with chronic hepatitis C. Problems such as small sample size, short follow up duration, inadequate end points, failure to demonstrate tissue delivery and antioxidant efficacy, and heterogeneous nature of the “antioxidant” compounds used have complicated interpretation of results of the clinical studies. These limitations and their implications for future trial design are discussed. PMID:22093324
Vascular radiology of the liver has increased in scope and function in recent years due mainly to the application of new techniques. It is now possible to examine not only the inferior vena cava and the portal venous system, but also the hepatic veins and the coeliac axis and superior mesenteric artery. Hepatic vein occlusion, portal vein patency and collateral veins, as well as space-occupying lesions, can now be diagnosed with a fair degree of accuracy. These techniques have also helped in the understanding of the altered haemodynamics of portal hypertension and can be used for treatment by intra-arterial perfusion of chemotherapeutic substances. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14 PMID:5460928
Gaglio, Paul J; Gaglio, Paul J
Cirrhosis caused by alcohol-associated liver disease is a common indication for liver transplantation worldwide. Patients with alcohol-associated liver disease who undergo liver transplantation face multiple challenging comorbid medical issues that enhance the potential for perioperative and postoperative complications. Awareness of these issues and appropriate therapeutic intervention may minimize the negative effect of these complications on posttransplantation survival. This article reviews important posttransplantation problems in patients transplanted for alcohol-associated liver disease.
Buchman, Alan L; Naini, Bita V; Spilker, Bert
Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), formerly known as parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease has often been listed in textbooks as an example of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the etiology, pathophysiology, epidemiology, histology, and progression differ substantially between the conditions defined as NAFLD and the disease, IFALD. Therefore, IFALD should not be defined or considered as a type or a cause of nonalcoholic fatty liver or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, but rather as a distinct disease.
Kukuk, Guido M; Schaefer, Stephanie G; Fimmers, Rolf; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; Ezziddin, Samer; Spengler, Ulrich; Schild, Hans H; Willinek, Winfried A
To evaluate hepatobiliary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA in relation to various liver function tests in patients with liver disorders. Fifty-one patients with liver disease underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI. Based on region-of-interest (ROI) analysis, liver signal intensity was calculated using the spleen as reference tissue. Liver-spleen contrast ratio (LSCR) and relative liver enhancement (RLE) were calculated. Serum levels of total bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), serum albumin level (AL), prothrombin time (PT), creatinine (CR) as well as international normalised ratio (INR) and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score were tested for correlation with LSCR and RLE. Pre-contrast LSCR values correlated with total bilirubin (r = -0.39; p = 0.005), GGT (r = -0.37; p = 0.009), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), ALT (r = -0.29; p = 0.046), PT (r = 0.52; p < 0.001), GLDH (r = -0.55; p = 0.044), INR (r = -0.42; p = 0.003), and MELD Score (r = -0.53; p < 0.001). After administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA bilirubin (r = -0.45; p = 0.001), GGT (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), PT (r = 0.54; p < 0.001), AST (r = -0.46; p = 0.002), ALT (r = -0.31; p = 0.030), INR (r = -0.45; p = 0.001) and MELD Score (r = -0.56; p < 0.001) significantly correlated with LSCR. RLE correlated with bilirubin (r = -0.40; p = 0.004), AST (r = -0.38; p = 0.013), PT (r = 0.42; p = 0.003), GGT (r = -0.33; p = 0.020), INR (r = -0.36; p = 0.011) and MELD Score (r = -0.43; p = 0.003). Liver-spleen contrast ratio and relative liver enhancement using Gd-EOB-DTPA correlate with a number of routinely used biochemical liver function tests, suggesting that hepatobiliary MRI may serve as a
Williams, C. N.; Sidorov, J. J.
Intestinal function was studied in 26 patients with seven types of acute and chronic liver disease, documented by liver biopsy. Steatorrhea, defined by a stool fat higher than 6 g. per day, was present in 18 of 23 consecutive patients studied, an incidence of 78.3%. Two patients with infectious hepatitis associated with steatorrhea studied previously were added and the 20 cases were analyzed. The malabsorption found was confined to fat and fat-soluble vitamins; stool excretion varied from 6.1 to 22 g. per day in the seven groups studied. No histological abnormality was seen on jejunal biopsy, serum vitamin B12, D-xylose and Schilling tests were normal, and no radiological findings associated with malabsorption were detected in the small bowel. It is concluded that steatorrhea is a common finding in a wide variety of acute and chronic liver diseases and cannot be attributed to a primary defect of the small bowel. PMID:5150072
Gangireddy, V G R; Kanneganti, P C; Sridhar, S; Talla, S; Coleman, T
Thrombocytopenia (defined as a platelet count <150×10(9)) is a well-known complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and has been observed in 76% to 85% of patients. Significant thrombocytopenia (platelet count <50×10(9) to 75×10(9)) occurs in approximately 13% of patients with cirrhosis. Thrombocytopenia can negatively impact the care of patients with severe liver disease by potentially interfering with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Multiple factors can contribute to the development of thrombocytopenia including splenic platelet sequestration, immunological processes, bone marrow suppression by chronic viral infection, and reduced levels or activity of the hematopoietic growth factor thrombopoietin. The present review focuses on the etiologies and management options for severe thrombocytopenia in the setting of advanced liver disease.
Li, Fengyuan; Duan, Kangmin; Wang, Cuiling; McClain, Craig; Feng, Wenke
Despite extensive research, alcohol remains one of the most common causes of liver disease in the United States. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders, including steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis. Although many agents and approaches have been tested in patients with ALD and in animals with experimental ALD in the past, there is still no FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved therapy for any stage of ALD. With the increasing recognition of the importance of gut microbiota in the onset and development of a variety of diseases, the potential use of probiotics in ALD is receiving increasing investigative and clinical attention. In this review, we summarize recent studies on probiotic intervention in the prevention and treatment of ALD in experimental animal models and patients. Potential mechanisms underlying the probiotic function are also discussed. PMID:26839540
Malhotra, Neel; Beaton, Melanie D
There is no single pharmacologic therapy that has been approved to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the general population. The backbone of therapy currently includes intensive lifestyle modification with established targets for diet and weight loss. The use of unsweetened, unfiltered coffee along with limiting high fructose corn syrup have emerged as beneficial dietary recommendations. The use of empiric oral hypoglycemic agents and vitamin E, however, has not been widely accepted. Developing bariatric surgical techniques are promising, but additional studies with long-term follow up are needed before it can be widely recommended. Finally, liver transplantation is an increasingly frequent consideration once complications of end-stage disease have developed. The future treatment of those with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease will likely involve a personalized approach. The importance of the gut microbiome in mediating hepatocyte inflammation and intestinal permeability is emerging and may offer avenues for novel treatment. The study of anti-fibrotic agents such as pentoxifylline and FXR agonists hold promise and new pathways, such as hepatocyte cannabinoid receptor antagonists are being studied. With the incidence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome increasing throughout the developed world, the future will continue to focus on finding novel agents and new applications of existing therapies to help prevent and to mediate the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:26730275
Vaughan, Ashley M.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Grompe, Markus; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Bial, John; Ploss, Alexander; Kappe, Stefan H.I.
Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most lethal form of human malaria, replicates in the host liver during the initial stage of infection. However, in vivo malaria liver-stage (LS) studies in humans are virtually impossible, and in vitro models of LS development do not reconstitute relevant parasite growth conditions. To overcome these obstacles, we have adopted a robust mouse model for the study of P. falciparum LS in vivo: the immunocompromised and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase–deficient mouse (Fah–/–, Rag2–/–, Il2rg–/–, termed the FRG mouse) engrafted with human hepatocytes (FRG huHep). FRG huHep mice supported vigorous, quantifiable P. falciparum LS development that culminated in complete maturation of LS at approximately 7 days after infection, providing a relevant model for LS development in humans. The infections allowed observations of previously unknown expression of proteins in LS, including P. falciparum translocon of exported proteins 150 (PTEX150) and exported protein-2 (EXP-2), components of a known parasite protein export machinery. LS schizonts exhibited exoerythrocytic merozoite formation and merosome release. Furthermore, FRG mice backcrossed to the NOD background and repopulated with huHeps and human red blood cells supported reproducible transition from LS infection to blood-stage infection. Thus, these mice constitute reliable models to study human LS directly in vivo and demonstrate utility for studies of LS–to–blood-stage transition of a human malaria parasite. PMID:22996664
Pareja, Eugenia; Cortés, Miriam; Martínez, Amparo; Vila, Juan José; López, Rafael; Montalvá, Eva; Calzado, Angeles; Mir, José
Liver transplantation has been remarkably effective in the treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. However, disparity between solid-organ supply and increased demand is the greatest limitation, resulting in longer waiting times and increase in mortality of transplant recipients. This situation creates the need to seek alternatives to orthotopic liver transplantation.Hepatocyte transplantation or liver cell transplantation has been proposed as the best method to support patients. The procedure consists of transplanting individual cells to a recipient organ in sufficient quantity to survive and restore the function. The capacity of hepatic regeneration is the biological basis of hepatocyte transplantation. This therapeutic option is an experimental procedure in some patients with inborn errors of metabolism, fulminant hepatic failure and acute and chronic liver failure, as a bridge to orthotopic liver transplantation. In the Hospital La Fe of Valencia, we performed the first hepatocyte transplantation in Spain creating a new research work on transplant program. Copyright 2009 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Alkhouri, Naim; Zein, Nizar N
Enthusiastic physicians and medical researchers are investigating the role of three-dimensional printing in medicine. The purpose of the current review is to provide a concise summary of the role of three-dimensional printing technology as it relates to the field of pediatric hepatology and liver transplantation. Our group and others have recently demonstrated the feasibility of printing three-dimensional livers with identical anatomical and geometrical landmarks to the native liver to facilitate presurgical planning of complex liver surgeries. Medical educators are exploring the use of three-dimensional printed organs in anatomy classes and surgical residencies. Moreover, mini-livers are being developed by regenerative medicine scientist as a way to test new drugs and, eventually, whole livers will be grown in the laboratory to replace organs with end-stage disease solving the organ shortage problem. From presurgical planning to medical education to ultimately the bioprinting of whole organs for transplantation, three-dimensional printing will change medicine as we know in the next few years.
Berardis, S; Sokal, E
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a multifactorial condition that encompasses a wide spectrum of liver abnormalities ranging from simple liver steatosis to steatohepatitis (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), which may be associated with fibrosis and progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. NAFLD has recently become the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children and adolescents. NAFLD prevalence, alongside obesity, continues to increase among pediatric patients. Obesity is believed to represent a major risk factor for NAFLD, which is considered to be the liver presentation of the metabolic syndrome. Although the pathogenesis of NAFLD is not fully understood, the notion that multiple factors affect disease development and progression is widely accepted. Both genetic background and environmental factors contribute to NAFLD development. A more complete understanding of the pathogenesis may aid in developing non-invasive diagnostic tools and identifying new therapeutic targets. Liver biopsy currently remains the gold standard for NAFLD diagnosis and staging. Although lifestyle and diet modifications are key in NAFLD treatment, the development of new pharmacological therapies is crucial for patients who are unresponsive to first-line therapy. Pediatric NAFLD is an increasing public health issue that remains underdiagnosed. A large-scale screening in the high-risk population, especially among the overweight pediatric patients, should be considered, including measurement of serum transaminases and liver ultrasound. It is crucial to treat this condition as soon as possible in order to avoid the progression to end-stage liver disease.
Rubio-Tapia, Alberto; Abdulkarim, Ahmad S.; Wiesner, Russell H.; Moore, S. Breanndan; Krause, Patricia K.; Murray, Joseph A.
Background/aims Celiac disease (CD) is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hepatitis. We investigated the following: (i) the prevalence of tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGAs) and endomysial antibodies (EMAs) in end-stage autoimmune liver disease (ESALD), (ii) the correlation among auto-antibodies and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype, and (iii) the effect of liver transplantation on antibody kinetics. Methods Pretransplantation sera from 488 patients (310 with ESALD, and 178 with non-autoimmune disease) were tested for tTGAs. Positive samples were also tested for EMAs, and retested 6–12 and ≥24 months post-transplantation. Results were correlated with the HLA type of the recipient. Results Serological evidence of CD was found in 3% (ESALD) vs. 0.6% (non-autoimmune) of the patients (five-fold increased risk in ESALD). The prevalence of tTGAs (14.2 vs. 5.4%, P = 0.0001) and EMAs (4.3 vs. 0.78%, P = 0.01) was significantly higher in patients with the HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes. tTGAs and EMAs normalized in 94 and 100%, respectively, without gluten exclusion post-transplantation. Post-transplantation, of the five patients with symptoms of ‘classical’ CD, three improved. Intestinal lymphoma was diagnosed in another two cases with clinically ‘silent’ CD. Conclusions Patients with ESALD, especially those who are HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 positive had a high prevalence of CD-associated antibodies. Both tTGAs and EMAs decreased post-transplantation without gluten withdrawal. Immunosuppression may improve symptoms of CD, but might not prevent progression to intestinal lymphoma. PMID:18339073
Ferrell, Jessica M.; Chiang, John Y.L.
Mounting research evidence demonstrates a significant negative impact of circadian disruption on human health. Shift work, chronic jet lag and sleep disturbances are associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently result in obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Here, these associations are reviewed with respect to liver metabolism and disease. PMID:26579436
Ferrell, Jessica M; Chiang, John Y L
Mounting research evidence demonstrates a significant negative impact of circadian disruption on human health. Shift work, chronic jet lag and sleep disturbances are associated with increased incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently result in obesity, type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia. Here, these associations are reviewed with respect to liver metabolism and disease.
Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are considered as putative autoimmune diseases of the liver. Whereas strong evidence that bacterial infection may trigger PBC exists, the etiologies for PSC and AIH remain unknown. Although there have been significant discoveries of genetic polymorphisms that may underlie the susceptibility to these liver diseases, their associations with environmental triggers and the subsequent implications have been difficult to elucidate. While single nucleotide polymorphisms within the negative costimulatory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) have been suggested as genetic susceptibility factors for all three disorders, we discuss the implications of CTLA-4 susceptibility alleles mainly in the context of PBC, where Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, has recently been specifically associated with the pathogenesis of this devastating liver disease. Ultimately, the discovery of infectious triggers of PBC may expand the concept of genetic susceptibility in immune-mediated liver diseases from the concept of aberrant immune responses against self-antigens to insufficient and/or inappropriate immunological defense mechanisms allowing microbes to cross natural barriers, establish infection and damage respective target organs. PMID:21307981
Lee, Seung Soo; Park, Seong Ho
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent cause of chronic liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver cirrhosis. Although liver biopsy is still the gold standard for the diagnosis of NAFLD, especially for the diagnosis of NASH, imaging methods have been increasingly accepted as noninvasive alternatives to liver biopsy. Ultrasonography is a well-established and cost-effective imaging technique for the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis, especially for screening a large population at risk of NAFLD. Ultrasonography has a reasonable accuracy in detecting moderate-to-severe hepatic steatosis although it is less accurate for detecting mild hepatic steatosis, operator-dependent, and rather qualitative. Computed tomography is not appropriate for general population assessment of hepatic steatosis given its inaccuracy in detecting mild hepatic steatosis and potential radiation hazard. However, computed tomography may be effective in specific clinical situations, such as evaluation of donor candidates for hepatic transplantation. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging are now regarded as the most accurate practical methods of measuring liver fat in clinical practice, especially for longitudinal follow-up of patients with NAFLD. Ultrasound elastography and magnetic resonance elastography are increasingly used to evaluate the degree of liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD and to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. This article will review current imaging methods used to evaluate hepatic steatosis, including the diagnostic accuracy, limitations, and practical applicability of each method. It will also briefly describe the potential role of elastography techniques in the evaluation of patients with NAFLD. PMID:24966609
Arduini, Alessandro; Serviddio, Gaetano; Tormos, Ana M; Monsalve, Maria; Sastre, Juan
Cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by blockade of bile flow from the liver to the intestine, and accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids in the liver and plasma. As a consequence an inflammatory response evolves associated with increased apoptosis, oxidative stress, and eventually fibrosis. Cholestasis is associated with profound metabolic changes, alterations in the mitochondrial function, decreased fatty acid oxidation, and increased glycolisis. Mitochondria play a central role in the development of this liver disease because they mediate death receptor signaling - triggered by inflammatory cytokines or bile acids - and contribute to oxidative damage, metabolic disorder, and onset of fibrosis. During the pathogenesis of biliary cirrhosis mitochondria's need for renewal is hampered by a blunted mitochondrial biogenesis. Lack of stimulation of mitochondrial renewal helps to explain mitochondrial impairment in long-term cholestasis. The marked depletion of mitochondrial DNA and occurrence of mitochondrial DNA deletions are probably relevant contributors to the progression of this severe disease. All these findings certainly support the consideration of long-term cholestasis as a secondary mitochondrial hepatopathy.
Rastogi, Sanjeev; Rastogi, Ranjana
Ayurvedic medicines are often considered effective for treating chronic and lifestyle-related diseases only and have not been thoroughly evaluated for treating acute or terminal illnesses. A prospective evaluation of Ayurvedic intervention was proposed for a patient who had metastatic liver disease with abnormal liver functions. The reason given for this was that no other conventional therapies were feasible in this case, and the family and caregivers were not willing to opt for any other intervention. A diagnosed patient with metastatic liver disease that included abnormal liver functions and symptomatic presentation was treated with Ayurvedic therapies and was observed for 10 days for any possible changes. A substantial clinical and biochemical improvement was observed in this patient after 10 days of treatment. This improvement was noted to be consistent at a 1-week follow-up after the patient was discharged from the hospital. This case offers an opportunity to reconsider whether or not the toxic potentials of heavy metals used in Ayurvedic agents outweigh the possible benefits for treating patients with well-defined, incurable clinical conditions.
Bower, Guy; Athanasiou, Thanos; Isla, Alberto M; Harling, Leanne; Li, Jia V; Holmes, Elaine; Efthimiou, Evangelos; Darzi, Ara; Ashrafian, Hutan
The rising prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the increasing global pandemic of obesity. These conditions cluster with type II diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome to result in obesity-associated liver disease. The benefits of bariatric procedures on diabetes and the metabolic syndrome have been recognized for some time, and there is now mounting evidence to suggest that bariatric procedures improve liver histology and contribute to the beneficial resolution of NAFLD in obese patients. These beneficial effects derive from a number of weight-dependent and weight-independent mechanisms including surgical BRAVE actions (bile flow changes, restriction of stomach size, anatomical gastrointestinal rearrangement, vagal manipulation, enteric hormonal modulation) and subsequent effects such as reduced lipid intake, adipocytokine secretion, modulation of gut flora, improvements in insulin resistance and reduced inflammation. Here, we review the clinical investigations on bariatric procedures for NAFLD, in addition to the mounting mechanistic data supporting these findings. Elucidating the mechanisms by which bariatric procedures may resolve NAFLD can help enhance surgical approaches for metabolic hepatic dysfunction and also contribute toward developing the next generation of therapies aimed at reducing the burden of obesity-associated liver disease.
Moreno Villares, J M
Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is an important problem in patients who require longterm parenteral nutrition as well as in preterm infants. Prevalence varies according to different series. Clinical presentation is different in adults and infants. Although since its first descriptions several hypothesis have been elucidated, the aetiology is not quite clear. It is possible that different factors could be involved. PNALD risk factors can be classified in three groups: 1) those derived from the lack of enteral nutrition stimulus; 2) parenteral nutrition components acting as toxic or the lack of specific nutrients and 3) those due to the underlying disease. If PNALD appears in short-term PN and it presents only as a mild elevation of liver enzymes, there is no need to treat. On the contrary, when direct bilirubin is > 2 mg/dL and lasts longer, there is a need to consider different causes and to minimize risk factors. We review the different approaches to manage PNALD, including optimizing enteral nutrition, modify parenteral solutions, use of specific nutrients -taurine, choline, etc.- or the use of drugs (mainly ursodeoxicolic acid). If liver disease progresses to cirrhosis a liver transplant must be considered.
Protheroe, S M
Protein energy malnutrition leading to growth failure is an inevitable consequence of chronic liver disease in 60% of children. Malnutrition should be anticipated by serial anthropometric assessment and prevented by early intervention with nutritional support. Both morbidity and mortality postliver transplantation have been related to the degree of pretransplant malnutrition, and thus nutritional status is an important risk factor for survival postliver transplantation. As survival following pediatric liver transplantation improves, with most centers reporting 1 y survival rates of 90-95% and 5 y survival rates of 80-85%, attention has focused on achieving nutritional rehabilitation, normal psychosocial development, and normal quality of life. An understanding of the etiology of protein malnutrition in liver disease is essential when planning therapeutic strategies. Considerable research progress has been made exploring the pathophysiology of malnutrition, including long-chain fat malabsorption with essential fatty acid deficiency, abnormal energy metabolism, substrate utilization, and nitrogen metabolism in liver disease. Effective strategies are emerging and future advances include docosahexaenioc acid, branched chain amino acids, and structured lipids. The key to success is a multidisciplinary approach to nutritional intervention, including pediatric dietitian, liaison nurse, feeding psychologist, and clinician.
Woods, Conor P; Hazlehurst, Jonathon M; Tomlinson, Jeremy W
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the global obesity and metabolic disease epidemic and is rapidly becoming the leading cause of liver cirrhosis and indication for liver transplantation worldwide. The hallmark pathological finding in NAFLD is excess lipid accumulation within hepatocytes, but it is a spectrum of disease ranging from benign hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis through to fibrosis, cirrhosis and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The exact pathophysiology remains unclear with a multi-hit hypothesis generally accepted as being required for inflammation and fibrosis to develop after initial steatosis. Glucocorticoids have been implicated in the pathogenesis of NAFLD across all stages. They have a diverse array of metabolic functions that have the potential to drive NAFLD acting on both liver and adipose tissue. In the fasting state, they are able to mobilize lipid, increasing fatty acid delivery and in the fed state can promote lipid accumulation. Their action is controlled at multiple levels and in this review will outline the evidence base for the role of GCs in the pathogenesis of NAFLD from cell systems, rodent models and clinical studies and describe interventional strategies that have been employed to modulate glucocorticoid action as a potential therapeutic strategy.
Hazeldine, Simon; Hydes, Theresa; Sheron, Nick
It takes upwards of ten years for alcohol-related liver disease to progress from fatty liver through fibrosis to cirrhosis to acute on chronic liver failure. This process is silent and symptom free and can easily be missed in primary care, usually presenting with advanced cirrhosis. At this late stage, management consists of expert supportive care, with prompt identification and treatment of bleeding, sepsis and renal problems, as well as support to change behaviour and stop harmful alcohol consumption. There are opportunities to improve care by bringing liver care everywhere up to the standards of the best liver units, as detailed in the Lancet Commission report. We also need a fundamental rethink of the technologies and approaches used in primary care to detect and intervene in liver disease at a much earlier stage. However, the most effective and cost-effective measure would be a proper evidence-based alcohol strategy.
Ferrer, Jennifer R.; Chokechanachaisakul, Attasit; Wertheim, Jason A.
The current standard of care for end stage liver disease is orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Through improvement in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and general medical care, liver transplantation has become an effective treatment over the course of the last half-century. Unfortunately, due to the limited availability of donor organs, there is a finite limit to the number of patients who will benefit from this therapy. This review will discuss current research in experimental cellular therapies for acute, chronic, and metabolic liver failure that may be appropriate when liver transplantation is not an immediate option. PMID:26317066
Fukui, Aiko; Kawabe, Naoto; Hashimoto, Senju; Murao, Michihito; Nakano, Takuji; Shimazaki, Hiroaki; Kan, Toshiki; Nakaoka, Kazunori; Ohki, Masashi; Takagawa, Yuka; Takamura, Tomoki; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Kentaro
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E treatment on liver stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: Thirty-eight NAFLD patients were administered vitamin E for > 1 year. The doses of vitamin E were 150, 300, or 600 mg; three times per day after each meal. Responses were assessed by liver enzyme levels [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranferease (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP)], noninvasive scoring systems of hepatic fibrosis-4 [FIB-4 index and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet index (APRI)], and liver stiffness [velocity of shear wave (Vs)] measured by acoustic radiation force impulse elastography. Vs measurements were performed at baseline and 12 mo after baseline. The patients were genotyped for the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) polymorphisms and then divided into either the CC/CG or GG group to examine each group’s responses to vitamin E treatment. RESULTS: We found marked differences in the platelet count, serum albumin levels, alkaline phosphatase levels, FIB-4 index, APRI, and Vs at baseline depending on the PNPLA3 polymorphism. AST, ALT, and γ-GTP levels (all P < 0.001); FIB-4 index (P = 0.035); APRI (P < 0.001); and Vs (P < 0.001) significantly decreased from baseline to 12 mo in the analysis of all patients. In the subset analyses of PNPLA3 genotypes, AST levels (P = 0.011), ALT levels (P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.005), APRI (P = 0.036), and Vs (P = 0.029) in genotype GG patients significantly improved, and AST and ALT levels (both P < 0.001), γ-GTP levels (P = 0.003), FIB-4 index (P = 0.017), and APRI (P < 0.001) in genotype CC/CG patients. CONCLUSION: One year of vitamin E treatment improved noninvasive fibrosis scores and liver stiffness in NAFLD patients. The responses were similar between different PNPLA3 genotypes. PMID:26644818
Santos-Laso, A; Izquierdo-Sánchez, L; Lee-Law, P Y; Perugorria, M J; Marzioni, M; Marin, J J G; Bujanda, L; Banales, J M
Polycystic liver diseases (PLDs) include a heterogeneous group of congenital disorders inherited as dominant or recessive genetic traits; they are manifested alone or in association with polycystic kidney disease. Ductal plate malformation during embryogenesis and the loss of heterozygosity linked to second-hit mutations may promote the dilatation and/or development of a large number (> 20) of biliary cysts, which are the main cause of morbidity in these patients. Surgical procedures aimed to eliminate symptomatic cysts show short-term beneficial effects, but are not able to block the disease progression. Therefore, liver transplantation is the only curative option. Intense studies on the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PLDs have resulted in different clinical trials, some of them with promising outcomes. Here the authors summarize the key aspects of PLD etiology, pathogenesis, and therapy, highlighting the most recent advances and future research directions.
Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed.
Tsutsui, Hiroko; Cai, Xianbin; Hayashi, Shuhei
The gene encoding IL-1 was sequenced more than 30 years ago, and many related cytokines, such as IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, IL-38, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-36Ra, have since been identified. IL-1 is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in various inflammatory diseases. Other IL-1 family ligands are critical for the development of diverse diseases, including inflammatory and allergic diseases. Only IL-1Ra possesses the leader peptide required for secretion from cells, and many ligands require posttranslational processing for activation. Some require inflammasome-mediated processing for activation and release, whereas others serve as alarmins and are released following cell membrane rupture, for example, by pyroptosis or necroptosis. Thus, each ligand has the proper molecular process to exert its own biological functions. In this review, we will give a brief introduction to the IL-1 family cytokines and discuss their pivotal roles in the development of various liver diseases in association with immune responses. For example, an excess of IL-33 causes liver fibrosis in mice via activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce type 2 cytokines, resulting in cell conversion into pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages. Finally, we will discuss the importance of IL-1 family cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular networks in the development of acute and chronic liver diseases. PMID:26549942
Marino, Laura; Jornayvaz, François R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the industrialized world. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, becoming a substantial public health burden. NAFLD includes a broad spectrum of disorders, from simple conditions such as steatosis to severe manifestations such as fibrosis and cirrhosis. The relationship of NAFLD with metabolic alterations such as type 2 diabetes is well described and related to insulin resistance, with NAFLD being recognized as the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome. However, NAFLD may also coincide with endocrine diseases such as polycystic ovary syndrome, hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency or hypercortisolism. It is therefore essential to remember, when discovering altered liver enzymes or hepatic steatosis on radiological exams, that endocrine diseases can cause NAFLD. Indeed, the overall prognosis of NAFLD may be modified by treatment of the underlying endocrine pathology. In this review, we will discuss endocrine diseases that can cause NALFD. Underlying pathophysiological mechanisms will be presented and specific treatments will be reviewed. PMID:26494962
Tsutsui, Hiroko; Cai, Xianbin; Hayashi, Shuhei
The gene encoding IL-1 was sequenced more than 30 years ago, and many related cytokines, such as IL-18, IL-33, IL-36, IL-37, IL-38, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and IL-36Ra, have since been identified. IL-1 is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and is involved in various inflammatory diseases. Other IL-1 family ligands are critical for the development of diverse diseases, including inflammatory and allergic diseases. Only IL-1Ra possesses the leader peptide required for secretion from cells, and many ligands require posttranslational processing for activation. Some require inflammasome-mediated processing for activation and release, whereas others serve as alarmins and are released following cell membrane rupture, for example, by pyroptosis or necroptosis. Thus, each ligand has the proper molecular process to exert its own biological functions. In this review, we will give a brief introduction to the IL-1 family cytokines and discuss their pivotal roles in the development of various liver diseases in association with immune responses. For example, an excess of IL-33 causes liver fibrosis in mice via activation and expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells to produce type 2 cytokines, resulting in cell conversion into pro-fibrotic M2 macrophages. Finally, we will discuss the importance of IL-1 family cytokine-mediated molecular and cellular networks in the development of acute and chronic liver diseases.
Neuman, Manuela G.; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M.; Melzer, Ehud; Mell, Haim; Opris, Mihai; Cohen, Lawrence; Malnick, Stephen
The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical and translational research. It focuses on the role of the immune system and the signaling pathways of cytokines in the pathogenesis of ALD. An additional factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of ALD is lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which plays a central role in the induction of steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in the liver. LPS derived from the intestinal microbiota enters the portal circulation, and is recognized by macrophages (Kupffer cells) and hepatocytes. In individuals with ALD, excessive levels of LPS in the liver affect immune, parenchymal, and non-immune cells, which in turn release various inflammatory cytokines and recruit neutrophils and other inflammatory cells. In this review, we elucidate the mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to the activation of Kupffer cells and the inflammatory cascade. The role of the stellate cells in fibrogenesis is also discussed. PMID:26343741
Siebler, Juergen; Galle, Peter R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause for elevated liver enzymes in the developed nations. Beyond prevention programs which are of particular interest because of the increasing number of overweight children, treatment should be focussed on the most important risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. As a consequence of elucidating the pathomechanisms of NAFLD, the number of potential therapeutic options increased. However, many studies investigating the therapeutic effect show shortcomings in at least one of the following points: lack of a serial liver biopsy, short term of treatment and limited number of included patients. The second generation insulin sensitizer pioglitazone and rosiglitazone show the most promising improvements in NAFLD, but weight gain and potential hepatotoxicity calls for attention. In conclusion, a general recommendation for the application of specific drugs cannot be given. Besides controlled clinical trials, weight reduction and physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in obese patients should be the priority objective. PMID:16610015
Jaijyan, Dabbu Kumar; Singh, Himanshu; Singh, Agam Prasad
The liver stages of the malaria parasite are clinically silent and constitute ideal targets for causal prophylactic drugs and vaccines. Cellular and molecular events responsible for liver stage development are poorly characterized. Here, we show that sporozoite, liver stage tryptophan-rich protein (SLTRiP) forms large multimers. Mice immunized with a purified recombinant SLTRiP protein gave high antibody titers in both inbred and outbred mice. Immunized mice showed highly significant levels of protection upon challenge with sporozoites and exhibited 10,000-fold fewer parasite 18S-rRNA copy numbers in their livers. The protection offered by immunization with SLTRiP came mainly from T-cells, and antibodies had little role to play despite their high titers. Immunofluorescence assays showed that SLTRiP is expressed in the sporozoite and early to late liver stages of malaria parasites. SLTRiP protein is exported to the cytosol of infected host cells during the early hours of parasite infection. Parasites deficient in SLTRiP were moderately defective in liver stage parasite development. A transcriptome profile of SLTRiP-deficient parasite-infected hepatocytes highlighted that SLTRiP interferes with multiple pathways in the host cell. We have demonstrated a role for SLTRiP in sporozoites and the liver stage of malaria parasites. PMID:25960542
Jaijyan, Dabbu Kumar; Singh, Himanshu; Singh, Agam Prasad
The liver stages of the malaria parasite are clinically silent and constitute ideal targets for causal prophylactic drugs and vaccines. Cellular and molecular events responsible for liver stage development are poorly characterized. Here, we show that sporozoite, liver stage tryptophan-rich protein (SLTRiP) forms large multimers. Mice immunized with a purified recombinant SLTRiP protein gave high antibody titers in both inbred and outbred mice. Immunized mice showed highly significant levels of protection upon challenge with sporozoites and exhibited 10,000-fold fewer parasite 18S-rRNA copy numbers in their livers. The protection offered by immunization with SLTRiP came mainly from T-cells, and antibodies had little role to play despite their high titers. Immunofluorescence assays showed that SLTRiP is expressed in the sporozoite and early to late liver stages of malaria parasites. SLTRiP protein is exported to the cytosol of infected host cells during the early hours of parasite infection. Parasites deficient in SLTRiP were moderately defective in liver stage parasite development. A transcriptome profile of SLTRiP-deficient parasite-infected hepatocytes highlighted that SLTRiP interferes with multiple pathways in the host cell. We have demonstrated a role for SLTRiP in sporozoites and the liver stage of malaria parasites.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations. PMID:25469013
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disorder that is increasing in prevalence with the worldwide epidemic of obesity. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The term NAFLD describes a spectrum of liver pathology ranges from simple steatosis to steatosis with inflammation nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis. Metabolic syndrome and NAFLD also predict hepatocellular carcinoma. Many genetic and environmental factors have been suggested to contribute to the development of obesity and NAFLD, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Intestinal ecosystem contains trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, Archaea, yeasts and viruses. Several studies support the relationship between the intestinal microbial changes and obesity and also its complications, including insulin resistance and NAFLD. Given that the gut and liver are connected by the portal venous system, it makes the liver more vulnerable to translocation of bacteria, bacterial products, endotoxins or secreted cytokines. Altered intestinal microbiota (dysbiosis) may stimulate hepatic fat deposition through several mechanisms: regulation of gut permeability, increasing low-grade inflammation, modulation of dietary choline metabolism, regulation of bile acid metabolism and producing endogenous ethanol. Regulation of intestinal microbial ecosystem by diet modifications or by using probiotics and prebiotics as a treatment for obesity and its complications might be the issue of further investigations.
Nobili, Valerio; Giorgio, Valentina; Liccardo, Daniela; Bedogni, Giorgio; Morino, Giuseppe; Alisi, Anna; Cianfarani, Stefano
To investigate the association between plasma vitamin D (VD) levels and histological liver damage in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this cross-sectional study, carried out in a tertiary care center for obesity, 73 consecutive overweight and obese children with persistently elevated serum aminotransferase levels and diffusely hyperechogenic liver on ultrasonography were selected for liver biopsy. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis were histologically diagnosed using NAFLD Clinical Research Network (CRN) criteria. The plasma levels of 25-OH-VD were measured by HPLC. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between 25-OH-VD levels and the predictors of interest after correction for age, gender, waist circumference, BMI, and other potential confounders. The children (64% males) were aged 8-18 years, and their median BMI was 2.45 SDS. Both parathyroid hormone levels and BMD were within the normal range. All cases of fibrosis were detected in children with NASH. On multivariable linear regression with correction for age, gender, and BMI, 25-OH-VD levels were found to be 9 (95% CI 12-6) ng/ml lower in children with NASH than in those without NASH (P<0.001) and 9 (12-6) ng/ml lower in children with stage 1 fibrosis than in those with stage 0 fibrosis and 9 (13-6) ng/ml lower in children with stage 2 than in those with stage 0 fibrosis (P<0.001 for both). VD levels are inversely associated with NASH and fibrosis in children with NAFLD.
Bartlett, Jaclyn R.; Friedman, Kenneth J.; Ling, Simon C.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Bell, Scott C.; Bourke, Billy; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Castellani, Carlo; Cipolli, Marco; Colombo, Carla; Colombo, John L.; Debray, Dominique; Fernandez, Adriana; Lacaille, Florence; Macek, Milan; Rowland, Marion; Salvatore, Francesco; Taylor, Christopher J.; Wainwright, Claire; Wilschanski, Michael; Zemková, Dana; Hannah, William B.; Phillips, M. James; Corey, Mary; Zielenski, Julian; Dorfman, Ruslan; Wang, Yunfei; Zou, Fei; Silverman, Lawrence M.; Drumm, Mitchell L.; Wright, Fred A.; Lange, Ethan M.; Durie, Peter R.; Knowles, Michael R.
Context A subset (~3–5%) of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) develops severe liver disease (CFLD) with portal hypertension. Objective To assess whether any of 9 polymorphisms in 5 candidate genes (SERPINA1, ACE, GSTP1, MBL2, and TGFB1) are associated with severe liver disease in CF patients. Design, Setting, and Participants A 2-stage design was used in this case–control study. CFLD subjects were enrolled from 63 U.S., 32 Canadian, and 18 CF centers outside of North America, with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) as the coordinating site. In the initial study, we studied 124 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/1999–12/2004) and 843 CF controls (patients without CFLD) by genotyping 9 polymorphisms in 5 genes previously implicated as modifiers of liver disease in CF. In the second stage, the SERPINA1 Z allele and TGFB1 codon 10 genotype were tested in an additional 136 CFLD patients (enrolled 1/2005–2/2007) and 1088 CF controls. Main Outcome Measures We compared differences in distribution of genotypes in CF patients with severe liver disease versus CF patients without CFLD. Results The initial study showed CFLD to be associated with the SERPINA1 (also known as α1-antiprotease and α1-antitrypsin) Z allele (P value=3.3×10−6; odds ratio (OR) 4.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.31–9.61), and with transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFB1) codon 10 CC genotype (P=2.8×10−3; OR 1.53, CI 1.16–2.03). In the replication study, CFLD was associated with the SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.4×10−3; OR 3.42, CI 1.54–7.59), but not with TGFB1 codon 10. A combined analysis of the initial and replication studies by logistic regression showed CFLD to be associated with SERPINA1 Z allele (P=1.5×10−8; OR 5.04, CI 2.88–8.83). Conclusion The SERPINA1 Z allele is a risk factor for liver disease in CF. Patients who carry the Z allele are at greater odds (OR ~5) to develop severe liver disease with portal hypertension. PMID:19738092