Science.gov

Sample records for standard three-axial tests

  1. Standards for Objective Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tristan, Agustin; Vidal, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    A new book of standards for quality of tests has been published in Spanish, filling a gap on this field. The book includes 64 standards, comments, a companion questionnaire for self-evaluation and a planning schedule; with those tools a non-expert may understand the standards, and easily follow some procedures to design or to improve a test. The…

  2. Polymer-based flexible capacitive sensor for three-axial force measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynska, J. A.; Gijs, M. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a flexible-substrate-based three-axial force sensor, composed of finger-shaped electrode capacitors, whose operation is based on the measurement of a capacitance change induced upon applying a three-axial load. The electrode design supports high sensitivity to shear forces. An overall flexibility of the sensor and elasticity of the capacitor's dielectric is obtained by integrating three polymers in the sensor's technology process, namely polyimide, parylene-C, and polydimethylsiloxane, combined with standard metallization processes. We have theoretically modeled the sensor's capacitance and its three-axial force sensitivity. The unit capacitors have static capacitances in the range of 20 pF. The electro-mechanical characterization of the capacitors reveals in the normal direction a sensitivity Sz = 0.024 kPa-1 for pressures <10 kPa, whereas for higher pressures the measured sensitivity Sz = 6.6 × 10-4 kPa-1. Typical measured shear force sensitivity Sx = 2.8 × 10-4 kPa-1. These values give our transducer high potential for use in skin-like sensing applications.

  3. Standard environmental test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, D R

    1983-12-01

    This guide to uniformity in testing is intended primarily as an aid to persons responsible for designing, developing, and performing environmental tests. It will also be of use to those concerned with production, evaluation, and quality control and assurance. Checklists for preparing the environmental testing portion of product specifications are included, as are copies of Process Standards covering the instrumentation, equipment, and methods for use in environmental testing of Sandia National Laboratories components. Techniques and equipment are constantly improving. This version of SC-4452 reflects current state-of-the-art and practice in environmental testing. Previously existing sections of the document have ben updated and new ones have been added, e.g., Transient Testing on Vibration Machines.

  4. Test-Factor Standardization and Marginal Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kent W.

    1977-01-01

    This article discusses M. Rosenberg's Test-Factor Standardization as a type of marginal standardization. To illustrate this relation, the author utilizes a table on abortion attitudes formerly published by K.W. Smith in his commentary on Rosenberg's work. (Author/GC)

  5. Standard environmental testing practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniel, R.; Gregory, E.; Stoker, J.; Vanbiene, F.; Woodbury, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Manual on procedural requirements for performing certain environmental tests on space flight equipment provides information for test equipment designers, quality control and production engineers. Contents of manual are summarized.

  6. Perils of Standardized Achievement Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haladyna, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that the validity of standardized achievement test-score interpretation and use is problematic; consequently, confidence and trust in such test scores may often be unwarranted. The problem is particularly severe in high-stakes situations. This essay provides a context for understanding standardized achievement testing, then…

  7. UPWT check standard model test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Installation of the check standard model in test section 2 of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). Testing was conducted as part of a Data Quality Control assessment in the Research Facilities Branch/Aerodynamics Aerothermodynamics Acoustics Competency.

  8. Standardized Tests: Their Use & Misuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This article is devoted to explaining the use and misuse of standardized tests in adult literacy programs. Among the topics covered on that subject are why the tests are of such interest among adult educators: because the authority vested in these tests can determine the way programs are developed, what is taught, the climate of teaching and…

  9. Standardized Tests: A Teacher's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasi, MaryJane

    2005-01-01

    This article offers an explanation of standardized tests so that parents may understand the significance of their children's tests scores. Definitions of terms such as "percentile ranking," "norming group" and "criterion-referenced" are given. The author also questions the validity of high-stakes tests as a true measure of student knowledge.

  10. Standardized Testing and School Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of standardized tests to hold schools accountable. The history of testing for accountability is reviewed, and it is shown that currently between-school differences account for less than 10% of the variance in student scores, in part because the progress of individuals is small compared to the spread of achievement…

  11. Testing biodegradability with standardized methods.

    PubMed

    Pagga, U

    1997-12-01

    Laboratory test methods are used by industry laboratories to determine biodegradability, an important parameter for the evaluation of the ecological behaviour of substances. Biodegradability has a key role due to the simple fact that a degradable substance will cause no long term risk in the environment. The great variety of biodegradation processes in the natural environment and in technical plants for treating waste water and solid wastes gave rise to a rather large number of test methods based on different test principles. To guarantee the acceptance of the test results by authorities and customers internationally standardized methods (ISO, OECD) and established quality criteria (GLP, EN 45,000, ISO 9000) are used. PMID:9415981

  12. Design and characterization of a silicon piezoresistive three-axial force sensor for micro-flapping wing MAV applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Truong, Van T.; Lua, Kim B.; Kumar, A. S.; Lim, Tee Tai; Yeo, Khoon Seng; Zhou, Guangya

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the design and electro-mechanical characterizations of a three-axial micro piezoresistive force sensor fabricated by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies. This is the first three-axial MEMS micro force sensor applied to the study of Micro Aerial Vehicle (MAV) aerodynamics. A standard dry etching fabrication process using Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafer is employed to fabricate the multi-axis sensors. Conventional cross-beam structure is employed. There are eight piezoresistors on the beams, and each of the silicon strain gauge size is 15 μm in width, and between 400 and 500 μm in length. The Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis for confirming the piezoresistors attachment locations is performed. The miniaturized force sensor (11×11 mm2) is attached at the wing base of a micro flapping wing system (MAV, 70×30 mm2 ) by a short pillar. The sensor is designed to detect the dynamic drag force and lift force generated by a single wing under a moderate flapping frequency (5~10Hz) simultaneously. The characterizations are experimentally investigated. The sensor should be stiff enough to withstand the high inertial force (200 millinewton) and also has high resolution to detect the minimal force correctly. Measurements show that the resolution is on the order of a millinewton. High linearity and low hysteresis under normal forces and tangential forces are demonstrated by applying forces from 0 to 0.1 N. The micro flapping wing mechanism and the assembly of wing and sensor are also discussed in this paper.

  13. Test 6, Test 7, and Gas Standard Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Horacio, III

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation shows results of analyses on odor, toxic off gassing and gas standards. The topics include: 1) Statistical Analysis Definitions; 2) Odor Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 6; 3) Toxic Off gassing Analysis Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7; and 4) Gas Standard Results NASA Standard 6001 Test 7;

  14. The "New" Social Studies and Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    In this paper, the author reviews a number of criticisms that have been made of the use of standardized tests in the social studies and reviews 11 general, skills, and discipline-oriented standardized tests for social studies. Standardized tests evaluating the results of the new social studies courses are open to criticism on the basis of…

  15. 40 CFR 766.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test standards. 766.10 Section 766.10...-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.10 Test standards. Testing required under subpart B... submission to EPA in response to a test rule promulgated under section 4 of TSCA must adhere to the TSCA...

  16. 49 CFR 384.202 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test standards. 384.202 Section 384.202... COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.202 Test standards. No State shall authorize a person to operate a CMV unless such person passes a knowledge...

  17. Selecting Standardized Tests in Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Mee, Cheryl L; Hallenbeck, Virginia J

    2015-01-01

    Nursing faculty frequently utilize or consider the use of nationally standardized tests to evaluate nursing student performance and their potential to pass the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX)(©) after graduation. There is little literature available to advise and guide nursing faculty in criteria to consider when selecting a standardized testing company to assess student readiness for NCLEX. The intent of this article is to share criteria to consider when evaluating a standardized test or testing program that has been gathered through an informal survey of faculty who are currently using standardized tests.

  18. Emphasis: Use and Misuse of Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudson, Richard L., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    Because of the active interest of English teachers in standardized tests and the increased use of such tests to measure student performance, the emphasis section of this issue of "The English Record" contains articles addressing this subject from several perspectives. A report of a survey on standardized testing in New York State sets the scene,…

  19. 40 CFR 766.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test standards. 766.10 Section 766.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.10 Test standards. Testing required under subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 766.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test standards. 766.10 Section 766.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.10 Test standards. Testing required under subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 766.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test standards. 766.10 Section 766.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.10 Test standards. Testing required under subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 766.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test standards. 766.10 Section 766.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT DIBENZO-PARA-DIOXINS/DIBENZOFURANS General Provisions § 766.10 Test standards. Testing required under subpart...

  3. 49 CFR 384.202 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Test standards. 384.202 Section 384.202... COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE PROGRAM Minimum Standards for Substantial Compliance by States § 384.202 Test... driving skills test for the operation of a CMV in accordance with part 383 of this title....

  4. Environmental Tests Of Cesium Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydnor, Richard L.; Tucker, Thomas K.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Diener, William A.; Maleki, Lutfollah

    1992-01-01

    Report describes environmental tests of cesium-beam frequency standards of United States Naval Observatory. Purpose of tests to determine effects of atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, and pressure on frequencies.

  5. Besting Testing Hysteria: Reasonable Preparation for Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the content of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) and describes similarities between the ITBS and the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) standards. Addresses three NCSS standards and how each may be represented on a standardized test. Provides eight confidence-boosting principles. (CMK)

  6. On Standardized Testing: An ACEI Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solley, Bobbie A.

    2007-01-01

    Following the whirlwind standards movement of the 1980s, the beginning of the 1990s ushered in an overwhelming interest in and use of testing to document students' progress. In 1991, the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) issued its second position paper calling for a moratorium on standardized testing in the early years of…

  7. Standardized Tests, Group Differences, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincher, Cameron

    The paper considers the controversies of standardized tests and group differences as they relate to the formation of public policy. The overlapping or confounding issues of standardized tests and group differences have long since become matters of public policy. Neither separately nor jointly can the issues be resolved within the confines of…

  8. Standardized Testing: Measurement of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Keshia

    2011-01-01

    Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…

  9. 40 CFR 799.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test standards. 799.10 Section 799.10...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.10 Test... requirements of parts 790 and 792 of this chapter unless modified in specific chemical test rules in subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 799.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test standards. 799.10 Section 799.10...) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.10 Test... requirements of parts 790 and 792 of this chapter unless modified in specific chemical test rules in subpart...

  11. New Testing Standard For European Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, P.

    2004-08-01

    Standardization is a key aspect of the production business committed to the optimization of the product development and cost. In the Space field, American industries and Government organizations have developed since several decades Space standards like the MIL series, deriving them from the aircraft and military fields, or the NASA standards. The same happened later in other countries like Russia, Japan and China. In the last years most of those standards were revised to cope with the emerging needs of the market. In Europe, the Space activities were generally managed by a set of ESA standards, the PSS, which covered some aspects of these activities and reflected the up-to-date approaches and common practices. But, in the last years an initiative was also promoted by ESA, National Agencies and Space Organizations, named ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standardization), with the aim to develop a coherent, single set of user-friendly standards for use in all European space activities. European industries supported this initiative, including a deep involvement of Alenia Spazio and, sometime through a suitable revision of the old PSS documents, new standards were defined, as for the "Testing" (ECSS-E-10-03A, now published). The ECSS-E-10-03A provides standard environmental and performance test requirements for space products (systems and their constituents) which are generally applicable to all projects. Scope of this paper is to present the status of the worldwide initiatives in the testing standardization, the major contents of the European ECSS Testing standard and the possibilities for tailoring. Differences in requirement definition with other international testing standards and proposals for further ECSS optimization are presented on the basis of Alenia Spazio experience in supporting the above initiatives.

  12. 76 FR 74078 - Standard Mail Market Test

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... Standard Mail Market Test AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is... that applies to market tests of experimental market dominant products. It seeks the exemption for Every... exemption from the $10,000,000 revenue limitation in any year during the test of an experimental...

  13. Standardized Testing in Alabama and Nationwide. Updated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Standardized testing serves several purposes. Tests provide feedback on a student's performance. They can help teachers understand student achievement relative to class objectives. Tests can also help administrators identify excellent teachers and those who need more professional support. And, likewise, they can help administrators and…

  14. Ethnic Minorities and National Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Thelma L.

    This paper provides a historical review of national standardized testing and its relation to ethnic and racial minorities. In the pre-World War I period, psychological testing was conducted on the large masses of immigrants that were arriving in the U.S., and on black and white army draftees. Generally these tests showed that black draftees and…

  15. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, Radoslav; McLean, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 ± 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  16. Content Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests and Test Curriculum Overlap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald Ross

    Discussions of "test curriculum overlap" that focus on the term "mismatch" tend to be based on several untenable premises. This paper addresses the issue of the degree to which standardized tests should reflect the specific content of a given school curriculum with regard to three points: (1) The idea of matching the content of standardized tests…

  17. Home Language and Performance on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Allyn G.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate the relationship between the language that Mexican-American parents of lower socioeconomic status speak to their children and the children's performance on standardized tests designed to measure intellectual abilities. (AJ)

  18. American History's Problem with Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoog, Ian J.

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at current research concerning how students best learn the discipline of history, commentaries both in favor of and against standardized testing, and basic philosophical beliefs about the discipline. It explains methods of how to incorporate differentiated lessons and performance based assessments to NCLB standards and…

  19. Standardization of Tests of Attention and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan; Rao, Shobini L.; Devi, B. Indira

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to standardize tests of attention and inhibition for adults in the age range of 16–30 years, who had 1–10 years of formal education. The objectives were to develop normative data for the tests of attention and inhibition, to establish the reliability of the tests of attention and inhibition, and to establish the validity of the tests of attention and inhibition. Materials and Methods: The tests studied were figural visual scanning test (FVST), auditory target detection test (ATDT), stop signal test, and go/no-go (GNG) test. The four tests were given to a normal sample of 60 subjects (30 males and 30 females). Reliability of the tests was determined by retesting 20 individuals, (10 subjects from each group) from the sample after an interval of 1 month. The tests were given to a matched clinical sample of patients with unilateral focal lesions, and the results were compared to test discriminant validity. Means, standard deviations, t-test, correlations, and percentiles were used to analyze the data. Results and Conclusion: Results indicated that FVST and ATDT were reliable and valid tests of attention and stop signal test and GNG test were reliable and valid measures of inhibition of motor processes. PMID:27570343

  20. Standardized Tests: Summary of Results 1997-1998. Focus on Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeter, Thomas; Prine, Don

    As part of its academic testing program, the Des Moines Public Schools administer standardized, norm-referenced achievement tests. The Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) is a norm-referenced standardized test battery that is administered to students in grades 3, 4, 6, and 7. In the 1997-98 school year, over 415 (approximately 5%) of the students…

  1. 40 CFR 799.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test standards. 799.10 Section 799.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.10...

  2. 40 CFR 799.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test standards. 799.10 Section 799.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.10...

  3. 40 CFR 799.10 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test standards. 799.10 Section 799.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS General Provisions § 799.10...

  4. The Semiautomated Test System: A Tool for Standardized Performance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, H. Rudy

    For performance tests to be truly standardized, they must be administered in a way that will minimize variation due to operator intervention and errors. Through such technological developments as low-cost digital computers and digital logic modules, automatic test administration without restriction of test content has become possible. A…

  5. Standard photopatch testing with Musk Ambrette.

    PubMed

    Kroon, S

    1983-01-01

    495 patients were standard photopatch tested with Musk Ambrette 5% in petrolatum and in dimethyl phthalate. 4 cases gave positive photopatches; 3 were men and 1 a woman. 2 cases, both men, had current or past relevant reactions to Musk Ambrette presented with typical perfume dermatitis. The other 2 cases had positive reactions to Musk Ambrette of uncertain relevance. Photoallergic reaction to Musk Ambrette is a rare event. Only a few relevant reactions will be missed by excluding it from standard phototesting.

  6. Which Test? Whose Scores? Comparing Standardized Critical Thinking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, after describing one approach for teaching critical thinking (CT) that was in place at Baker University from 1990 to 2008, the author describes their experience assessing CT using three standardized exams and shows why the choice of a standardized CT test can be problematic and the results misleading. These results can be…

  7. 42 CFR 493.1423 - Standard; Testing personnel qualifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Moderate Complexity Testing § 493.1423 Standard; Testing personnel... implementing all standard laboratory procedures; (C) The skills required for performing each test method...

  8. Standardized Testing: How Prepared Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smolin, Andrea; Clayton, Jennifer K.

    2009-01-01

    This case exemplifies the effects of high stakes standardized testing and accountability on education and stakeholders. When schools are pressured for success, educational leaders and teachers often find themselves in circumstances where regulations and procedures are violated, sometimes with noble intent. The case focuses on the ethical and…

  9. Four Tips for Surviving Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anna

    2012-01-01

    As the tenth anniversary of NCLB has come and gone, both new and experienced educators continue to wrestle yearly with the standardized testing culture that has pervaded the educational experience of nearly every American child and teacher. Despite the requests for waivers to exempt certain states from NCLB, the majority of students and their…

  10. Testing and Standards: A Brief Encyclopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Sandra

    This reference guide contains clear and concise explanations of concepts related to educational testing and standards. The book may be read straight through as a primer on educational assessment or may be used as a reference for particular topics. The sections are: (1) Accountability (Consumers, Taxpayers, and Citizens); (2) Authenticity in…

  11. Standards, Testing, and Accountability: Misguided Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, James

    2011-01-01

    There are many factors affecting student achievement. It is misguided and a waste of time and effort to pursue the failed policies of more standards, tests, and accountability. The primary problems relative to student achievement are mainly societal. Rather than more failed policies, what our nation needs is a discussion about national values,…

  12. (De)Grading the Standardized Test: Can Standardized Testing Evaluate Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Nicola E.

    2004-01-01

    Standardized testing is an assessment strategy that evaluates all students and all schools on the same basic skills and, therefore, might reasonably indicate which schools are high performers and which are not. Standardized testing is not a new strategy for providing this proof. The United States has produced reams of articles criticizing…

  13. A STANDARDIZED LANTERN FOR TESTING COLOUR VISION.

    PubMed

    Martin, L C

    1939-01-01

    A Lantern for lesting Colour-Vision is arranged to show test colours in pairs as in the Board of Trade Lantern. It is adapted to use electric light, and is standardized by stringent testing. The paper discusses the experiments and considerations which led to the formulation of the allowable tolerances in the transmission and colour co-ordinate specifications of the filters, the colour temperature of the lamps and so on. The results of tests on normal and colour-defective subjects are described.

  14. Experimentally testing the standard cosmological model

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-11-01

    The standard model of cosmology, the big bang, is now being tested and confirmed to remarkable accuracy. Recent high precision measurements relate to the microwave background; and big bang nucleosynthesis. This paper focuses on the latter since that relates more directly to high energy experiments. In particular, the recent LEP (and SLC) results on the number of neutrinos are discussed as a positive laboratory test of the standard cosmology scenario. Discussion is presented on the improved light element observational data as well as the improved neutron lifetime data. alternate nucleosynthesis scenarios of decaying matter or of quark-hadron induced inhomogeneities are discussed. It is shown that when these scenarios are made to fit the observed abundances accurately, the resulting conclusions on the baryonic density relative to the critical density, {Omega}{sub b}, remain approximately the same as in the standard homogeneous case, thus, adding to the robustness of the standard model conclusion that {Omega}{sub b} {approximately} 0.06. This latter point is the deriving force behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter (assuming {Omega}{sub total} = 1) and the need for dark baryonic matter, since {Omega}{sub visible} < {Omega}{sub b}. Recent accelerator constraints on non-baryonic matter are discussed, showing that any massive cold dark matter candidate must now have a mass M{sub x} {approx gt} 20 GeV and an interaction weaker than the Z{sup 0} coupling to a neutrino. It is also noted that recent hints regarding the solar neutrino experiments coupled with the see-saw model for {nu}-masses may imply that the {nu}{sub {tau}} is a good hot dark matter candidate. 73 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Toward standardization of EAP actuators test procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Diego; Moreno, Luis; Baselga, Juan

    2005-05-01

    Since the field of Electroactive Polymers (EAP) actuators is fairly new there are no standard testing processes for such intelligent materials. This drawback can seriously limit the scope of application of EAP actuators, since the targeted industrial sectors (aerospace, biomedical...) demand high reliability and product assurance. As a first iteration two elements are required to define a test standard for an EAP actuator: a Unit Tester, and a Component Specification. In this paper a EAP Unit Tester architecture is presented along with the required classification of measurements to be included in the EAP actuator Component Specification. The proposed EAP Unit Tester allows on-line monitoring and recording of the following properties of the specimen under test: large deformation, small tip displacement, temperature at the electrodes, weight of the specimen, voltage and current driven into the EAP, load being applied to the actuator, output voltage of the EAP in sensing operation and mode of operation (structure/sensor/actuator/smart). The measurements are taken simultaneously, in real-time. The EAP Unit Tester includes a friendly Graphical User Interface. It uses embedded Excel tools to visualize data. In addition, real-time connectivity with MATLAB allows an easy testing of control algorithms. A novel methodology to measure the properties of EAP specimens versus a variable load is also presented. To this purpose a force signals generator in the range of mN was developed. The device is based on a DC mini-motor. It generates an opposing force to the movement of the EAP actuator. Since the device constantly opposes the EAP actuator movement it has been named Digital Force Generator (DFG). The DFG design allows simultaneous length and velocity measuring versus different load signals. By including such a device in the EAP Unit Tester the most suitable application for the specimen under test can be easily identified (vibration damper, large deformation actuator, large

  16. Standards for reporting fish toxicity tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cope, O.B.

    1961-01-01

    The growing impetus of studies on fish and pesticides focuses attention on the need for standardized reporting procedures. Good methods have been developed for laboratory and field procedures in testing programs and in statistical features of assay experiments; and improvements are being made on methods of collecting and preserving gish, invertebrates, and other materials exposed to economic poisons. On the other had, the reporting of toxicity data in a compete manner has lagged behind, and today's literature is little improved over yesterday's with regard to completeness and susceptibility to interpretation.

  17. Standard Test Methods for Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Standard testing methods for composite laminates reinforced with continuous networks of braided, woven, or stitched fibers have been evaluated. The microstructure of these textile' composite materials differs significantly from that of tape laminates. Consequently, specimen dimensions and loading methods developed for tape type composites may not be applicable to textile composites. To this end, a series of evaluations were made comparing testing practices currently used in the composite industry. Information was gathered from a variety of sources and analyzed to establish a series of recommended test methods for textile composites. The current practices established for laminated composite materials by ASTM and the MIL-HDBK-17 Committee were considered. This document provides recommended test methods for determining both in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Specifically, test methods are suggested for: unnotched tension and compression; open and filled hole tension; open hole compression; bolt bearing; and interlaminar tension. A detailed description of the material architectures evaluated is also provided, as is a recommended instrumentation practice.

  18. Development of a stereo vision measurement system for a 3D three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Mao-Hsiung; Lin, Hao-Ting; Hou, Chien-Lun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a stereo vision 3D position measurement system for a three-axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm is presented. The stereo vision 3D position measurement system aims to measure the 3D trajectories of the end-effector of the robot arm. To track the end-effector of the robot arm, the circle detection algorithm is used to detect the desired target and the SAD algorithm is used to track the moving target and to search the corresponding target location along the conjugate epipolar line in the stereo pair. After camera calibration, both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the stereo rig can be obtained, so images can be rectified according to the camera parameters. Thus, through the epipolar rectification, the stereo matching process is reduced to a horizontal search along the conjugate epipolar line. Finally, 3D trajectories of the end-effector are computed by stereo triangulation. The experimental results show that the stereo vision 3D position measurement system proposed in this paper can successfully track and measure the fifth-order polynomial trajectory and sinusoidal trajectory of the end-effector of the three- axial pneumatic parallel mechanism robot arm.

  19. Revisiting the anticardiolipin test and its standardization.

    PubMed

    Harris, E N; Pierangeli, S S

    2002-01-01

    Although the importance of the anticardiolipin test in diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is widely accepted, there remains much misunderstanding about the strengths and weaknesses of this assay. Several disorders result in formation of low levels of the antibody, hence the anticardiolipin test is not specific when results are low positive. In general, the higher the anticardiolipin level the greater the likelihood of a diagnosis of APS. Hence there have been numerous efforts to enable reproducible measurement of anticardiolipin levels. Standard calibrators were introduced to construct calibration curves from which levels of unknown samples can be derived. Those standard calibrators were made by mixing varying quantities of high positive with normal sera. More recently, calibrators derived from monoclonal anticardiolipin antibodies have been introduced. There are advantages and disadvantages with both types of calibrators. Determination of a precise and reproducible anticardiolipin level is difficult, whatever the calibrators used, because the assay is dependent on several variable components, any of which may fail on any given day. Utilization of a semi-quantitative measure (low, medium, high) may suffice in most clinical settings and would be less subject to error. Validated ELISA kits may offer greater reproducibility, since there is less variability than bench assays set up in very different laboratories. Whether using a kit or a bench assay, meticulous attention to detail offers the best opportunity for precision and reproducibility.

  20. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty... testing was suspended during the time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing...

  1. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty... testing was suspended during the time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing...

  2. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and Subspecialty... testing was suspended during the time frame allotted for testing and reporting proficiency testing...

  3. Standard-E hydrogen monitoring system shop acceptance test procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, T.C.

    1997-10-02

    The purpose of this report is to document that the Standard-E Hydrogen Monitoring Systems (SHMS-E), fabricated by Mid-Columbia Engineering (MCE) for installation on the Waste Tank Farms in the Hanford 200 Areas, are constructed as intended by the design. The ATP performance will verify proper system fabrication.

  4. Standard tests for toughened resin composites, revised edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Several toughened resin systems are evaluated to achieve commonality for certain kinds of tests used to characterize toughened resin composites. Specifications for five tests were standardized; these test standards are described.

  5. Velocity and turbulence distributions in wall subchannels of a road bundle in three axial planes downstream of a spacer grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehme, K.

    1987-03-01

    The velocity, turbulence, and temperature distributions in nuclear fuel element bundles of nuclear reactors were investigated. The mean velocity, the wall shear stresses, and the turbulence were measured in two wall subchannels of a rod bundle of four parallel rods, arranged in a rectangular channel, for three axial planes. A spacer grid was inserted in the rod bundle, for ratios between the distance spacer grid/measuring plane and the hydraulic diameter (LIDh) of 40.4, 32.8 and 16.9. The Reynolds number was 145,000. The results show that the distributions of the velocity and the turbulence are affected by the spacer grid, already for LIDh = 40.4. The effects of the spacer grid increase with decreasing distance to the spacer grid.

  6. Experimental tests of the standard model.

    SciTech Connect

    Nodulman, L.

    1998-11-11

    The title implies an impossibly broad field, as the Standard Model includes the fermion matter states, as well as the forces and fields of SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). For practical purposes, I will confine myself to electroweak unification, as discussed in the lectures of M. Herrero. Quarks and mixing were discussed in the lectures of R. Aleksan, and leptons and mixing were discussed in the lectures of K. Nakamura. I will essentially assume universality, that is flavor independence, rather than discussing tests of it. I will not pursue tests of QED beyond noting the consistency and precision of measurements of {alpha}{sub EM} in various processes including the Lamb shift, the anomalous magnetic moment (g-2) of the electron, and the quantum Hall effect. The fantastic precision and agreement of these predictions and measurements is something that convinces people that there may be something to this science enterprise. Also impressive is the success of the ''Universal Fermi Interaction'' description of beta decay processes, or in more modern parlance, weak charged current interactions. With one coupling constant G{sub F}, most precisely determined in muon decay, a huge number of nuclear instabilities are described. The slightly slow rate for neutron beta decay was one of the initial pieces of evidence for Cabbibo mixing, now generalized so that all charged current decays of any flavor are covered.

  7. Standardized Tests: Whose Standards Are We Talking About?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Rita

    2004-01-01

    The United States is currently involved in a continuing controversy about how best to measure the education of children. President Bush and his Administration have pushed for a bevy of standardized assessments, the results of which would be used to reward high-scoring schools and punish low-scoring ones. State departments of education and school…

  8. A Critique of Recent Relevant Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, M. Irene; Montgomery, Allen A.

    1985-01-01

    Six recently published language tests are examined in terms of theoretical models, choice of subtests, test format, reliability, norming population, and reporting scores. The tests are the Screening Test of Adolescent Language, the Word Test, the Test of Language Development-Intermediate, the Fullerton Language Tests for Adolescents, Clinical…

  9. Voter Perceptions: Common Core State Standards & Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achieve, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Since June 2010, 46 states and Washington DC have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--K-12 standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy developed through a multi-state initiative led by the National Governors Association and the Council of Chief State School Officers. Implementation of the standards is underway in all of…

  10. Tests of non-standard cosmological theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzies-Gow, Dylan R.

    This dissertation investigates some propositions that fall outside the mainstream of the standard big bang cosmology. We begin with partial evidence from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) that the universe may be finite, compactified and flat, or at least nearly flat. The simplest interpretation of a flat universe is that it is infinite and non-compact. However, there are a great variety of ways that infinite universes can be 'wrapped up' and given a compact finite volume, without the need to modify general relativity. Detailed analysis of the CMB could potentially tell us the nature of the compactification, except that there is considerable uncertainty over sources of error. Another approach is to correlate the positions of distant luminous objects. While this cannot probe so broad a set of possibilities, it may be more sensitive for those that it can. In this thesis a new technique is developed that is much more sensitive to the very-nearly flat cases than previous tests of this type. Application to existing catalogs rules out a compact dimension smaller than 90% of the present horizon radius. The test requires that the position of objects is corrected for relativistic aberration. This gives rise to a second piece of work that systemizes corrections for objects and also the microwave background. The final part looks at an unusual explanation for galaxy rotation curves. These are conventionally thought to be the result of a dark matter halo that enshrouds each galaxy. Such dark matter also helps to account for the large quantity dark matter deduced from observations of the CMB. However, it has been suggested that the rotation curves could be a classical general relativistic effect, despite the non-relativistic velocities and densities involved. Such a claim is very unusual and has created considerable contraversy. The chapter presents a conclusive analysis to demonstrate that the suggested model is unphysical by implying an infinite mass for each galaxy.

  11. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281... Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1281 Standard: Comparison of test results. (a) If a laboratory performs the... between test results using the different methodologies, instruments, or testing sites. (b) The...

  14. Standardized Testing and the Construction of Governable Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Cameron; Neu, Dean

    2004-01-01

    While debates over standardized testing are ubiquitous, there has been relatively little consideration of how today's standardized testing practices have arisen. The current study provides a chronology of standardized testing within Alberta, Canada. Starting from prior work by Foucault and others on "governmentality", we propose that the movement…

  15. 8 CFR 312.3 - Standardized citizenship testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standardized citizenship testing. 312.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.3 Standardized citizenship testing. (a)(1) An applicant for... application, a standardized citizenship test given by an entity authorized by the Service to conduct such...

  16. 8 CFR 312.3 - Standardized citizenship testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standardized citizenship testing. 312.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR NATURALIZATION § 312.3 Standardized citizenship testing. (a)(1) An applicant for... application, a standardized citizenship test given by an entity authorized by the Service to conduct such...

  17. Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students' Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osadebe, Patrick U.

    2014-01-01

    The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics…

  18. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  19. Comparison of JPL and European Environmental Testing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man, Kin Fung; Forgave, John C.; Hoffman, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    A comparison of JPL and European environmental testing standards is presented. The contents include: 1) JPL Environmental Testing Documents; 2) Focus of the Comparison; 3) Test Policy; 4) Documentation; 5) Programmatics; 6) Functional Testing; 7) Reporting; 8) Dynamics Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; 9) Thermal Test Levels, Durations, & Margins; and 10) EMC Test Levels, Durations, & Margins.

  20. 40 CFR 85.2207 - Onboard diagnostic test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... described in 40 CFR 86.1806. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Onboard diagnostic test standards. 85... Tests § 85.2207 Onboard diagnostic test standards. (a) A vehicle shall fail the OBD test if it is a...

  1. Interpreting Standardized Test Scores: Some Fine Points.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    1980-01-01

    An essential function of the school guidance worker is the translation of test results into plain language and/or concrete recommendations. To do so requires a thorough understanding of the various test scores publishers provide. (Author)

  2. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  3. Standardized Tests: Purpose Is the Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2016-01-01

    "U.S. students are being educated less well these days than they should be," writes W. James Popham. One key contributing factor is that educators often use the wrong tests to make their most important educational decisions. Two recent events have made it a perfect time to change the way we conduct our educational testing: growing…

  4. Errors in Standardized Tests: A Systemic Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Kathleen; Madaus, George

    The nature and extent of human error in educational testing over the past 25 years were studied. In contrast to the random measurement error expected in all tests, the presence of human error is unexpected and brings unknown, often harmful, consequences for students and their schools. Using data from a variety of sources, researchers found 103…

  5. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moxey, Tim

    2005-01-01

    The benefits of standardized testing for a teacher are mentioned for which the teacher has to prepare for the students only for the test and not worry for preparing the students for college, work and life. Standardized testing takes away individualized instruction, does not allow creativity, does not measure true progress or advance critical…

  6. 49 CFR 384.202 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH... driving skills test for the operation of a CMV in accordance with part 383 of this title....

  7. 49 CFR 384.202 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH... driving skills test for the operation of a CMV in accordance with part 383 of this title....

  8. 49 CFR 384.202 - Test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS STATE COMPLIANCE WITH... driving skills test for the operation of a CMV in accordance with part 383 of this title....

  9. Standardization of poliovirus neutralizing antibody tests.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, P; van Steenis, G; van Wezel, A L; Salk, J

    1984-01-01

    Recently the Forum for Advancement of Immunization Research sponsored a Collaborative Study on Poliovirus Antibody Titration. Twenty laboratories from 12 countries participated. There were considerable differences in detail of test performance and test results among laboratories. The sensitivity of the tests varied over a 10-fold range (geometric mean titer from 21 to 288). The average coefficient of variation ranged from 4.5% to 13.5%. Tests performed at the Food and Drug Administration indicated that Hep-2 cells were more suitable than Vero cells for poliovirus titration by cytopathic effect end point or plaque assay. However, the cell lines were equally suitable for polio antibody titration by neutralization of cytopathic effect. A high degree of sensitivity and optimal reproducibility of antibody assay were observed in tests utilizing a medium to low dose of virus and serum-virus incubation overnight at 36 C. On the basis of current experience, a protocol is proposed for a test that provides high sensitivity and reproducibility and is practical for large-scale determinations of poliovirus antibody.

  10. Historical Evolution of NASA Standard Materials Testing with Hypergolic Propellants and Ammonia (NASA Standard 6001 Test 15)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has performed testing of hazardous and reactive aerospace fluids, including hypergolic propellants, with materials since the 1960s with the Apollo program. Amongst other test activities, Test 15 is a NASA standard test for evaluating the reactivity of materials with selected aerospace fluids, in particular hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine, uns-dimethylhydrazine, Aerozine 50, dinitrogen tetroxide oxidizers, and ammonia. This manuscript provides an overview of the history of Test 15 over a timeline ranging from prior to its development and first implementation as a NASA standard test in 1974 to its current refinement. Precursor documents to NASA standard tests, as they are currently known, are reviewed. A related supplementary test, international standardization, and enhancements to Test 15 are also discussed. Because WSTF was instrumental in the development and implementation of Test 15, WSTF experience and practices are referred to in this manuscript.

  11. Student evaluation of a standardized comprehensive testing program.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Stone, Cynthia L

    2008-01-01

    Computer-based, standardized, comprehensive testing is becoming a popular assessment tool in nursing education.This study sought to determine student response and satisfaction regarding such testing at a large state nursing school. Surveys that reviewed the entire testing process were provided to all students taking the computerized testing. Student feedback led to revisions for future testing.

  12. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  13. Standardized Testing: Harmful to Educational Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, D. Monty; Medina, Noe J.

    1989-01-01

    Standarized, multiple-choice tests have become the major criterion for a wide range of school decisions affecting student placement, curriculum format, and teaching style. Improved assessment will not reform education. The more insightful and powerful the assessment tool, the more damage is caused by its misuse. Includes 70 references. (MLH)

  14. Learner Washback Variability in Standardized Exit Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Yi-Ching

    2014-01-01

    In much of the world, the issue of accountability and measurement of educational outcomes is highly controversial. Exit testing is part of the movement to ascertain what students have learned and hold institutions and teachers to account. However, compared to the large number of teacher washback studies, learner washback research is lacking…

  15. Standard test method for size of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covering screen analysis of anthracite is used to determine the percentage of undersize or oversize in ny given commercial size. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Procedure, in case th coal is wet, air-dryit before screening. Determine the undersize first. For broken, egg, and stove sizes, up-end each piece by hand on the screen, to determine whether in any position it passes through the screen. For nut, pea, buckwheat, and rice sizes, shake the screens gently with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so as to avoid breakage ofthe coal, until practically no more coal will pass through the openings. Screen the coal in such increments as will allow the pieces to be in direct contact with the screen openings after the completion of the shaking of each increment.

  16. DOE standard: Quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This standard establishes essential elements for the quality assurance inspection and testing of HEPA filters by US Department of Energy (DOE)-accepted Filter Test Facilities (FTF). The standard specifies HEPA filter quality assurance inspection and testing practices established in DOE-STD-3022-98, DOE HEPA Filter Test Program, and provides a basis for the preparation of written operating procedures for primary FTF functions.

  17. Coping with Standards, Tests, and Accountability: Voices from the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glatthorn, Allan A., Ed.; Fontana, Jean, Ed.

    This book presents the views of teachers, teacher educators, and administrators who write about accountability, testing, and standards programs. The chapters are: (1) "From Policy to Practice: The Research" (Allan A. Glatthorn); (2) "New York's Test-Driven Standards" (Jean Fontana); (3) "Voices from a Native American Classroom in Nebraska"…

  18. Effects of Remediation on High-Stakes Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, William

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the impact of an intervention aimed at improving the standardized test scores for students on the mathematics portions of a high-stakes high school examination. Research shows that the achievement gap between high performing and low performing students on standardized tests continues to grow and that the long-term…

  19. Fire growth experiments: toward a standard room fire test

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, R.B.; Fisher, F.L.

    1980-05-01

    The use of full-scale room fire experiments and the development of a standard room fire test are discussed. A series of room fire experiments with a gas burner ignition source, and gypsum wallboard, glass fiber insulation and plywood linings are described in detail. The results of the experiments are discussed in the context of a standard room fire test.

  20. Preparing Students for Critical-Thinking Applications on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Jacquelyn Kaye

    2010-01-01

    Student performance on critical-thinking applications on standardized tests in a southwestern U.S. state has been low for several years. The purpose of this instrumental case study was to explore how one school district prepared students for critical-thinking applications on standardized tests. The study was informed by cognitivism and…

  1. A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    How did standardized tests become the measure of performance in our public schools? In this compelling work, Mark J. Garrison attempts to answer this question by analyzing the development of standardized testing, from the days of Horace Mann and Alfred Binet to the current scene. Approaching the issue from a sociohistorical perspective, the author…

  2. 42 CFR 493.1283 - Standard: Test records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Test records. 493.1283 Section 493.1283 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing...

  3. Hearing Aid-Related Standards and Test Systems.

    PubMed

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-02-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  4. Hearing Aid–Related Standards and Test Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ravn, Gert; Preves, David

    2015-01-01

    Many documents describe standardized methods and standard equipment requirements in the field of audiology and hearing aids. These standards will ensure a uniform level and a high quality of both the methods and equipment used in audiological work. The standards create the basis for measuring performance in a reproducible manner and independent from how and when and by whom parameters have been measured. This article explains, and focuses on, relevant acoustic and electromagnetic compatibility parameters and describes several test systems available. PMID:27516709

  5. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  6. Standardized Testing for Outcome Assessment: Analysis of the Educational Testing Systems MBA Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    The use of standardized tests for outcome assessment has grown dramatically in recent years. Two driving factors have been the No Child Left Behind legislation, and the increase in outcome assessment measures by accrediting agencies such as AACSB, the international accrediting body for business schools. Despite the growth in usage, little effort…

  7. NIST physical standards for DNA-based medical testing.

    PubMed

    Barker, Peter E; Watson, Michael S; Ticehurst, John R; Colbert, Jennifer C; O'Connell, Catherine D

    2002-01-01

    As DNA and RNA become major targets for clinical laboratory analysis, benchmark reagents will play an increasingly important role in standardization. Reliable national and international nucleic acid standards promote automation and third-party reimbursement for clinical testing. Furthermore, nucleic acid standards provide materials for quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC), and proficiency testing. Standard methods and training initially evolved from consensus guidelines endorsed by professional societies and governmental agencies. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), a nonregulatory agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce, develops and certifies physical and chemical standards in support of national commerce, manufacturing, and science. In its role supporting U.S. science and industry, the NIST responds to specific standards needs, most recently for medically and biologically important analytes. Broad-based consensus developed through interdisciplinary NIST workshops initiated development of NIST-certified DNA standards. Such materials serve the diagnostic community and help manufacturers benchmark a variety of DNA diagnostic testing platforms. Here we summarize the NIST experience and programs for development of national standards for DNA-based medical diagnostic testing.

  8. Thermal stress in a bi-material assembly with a 'piecewise-continuous' bonding layer: theorem of three axial forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhir, E.

    2009-02-01

    We consider a bi-material assembly with a 'piecewise-continuous' bonding layer. The layer is characterized by different elastic constants of its 'pieces' (segments) and is assumed to be thin. Young's moduli of all the 'pieces' of the bonding layer are significantly lower than the moduli of the adherend materials. In such a situation the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the bonding material need not be accounted for. Only the interfacial compliance of the bonding layer is important. This is indeed the case for the majority of electronic, opto-electronic or photonic assemblies. We consider the situation when the assembly is manufactured at an elevated temperature and is subsequently cooled down to a low (say, room) temperature. The objective of the analysis is to develop a simple, easy-to-use and physically meaningful analytical ('mathematical') predictive model for the evaluation of the interfacial shearing stresses that arise at the boundaries of the 'pieces' (segments) of the bonding layer and at the assembly edge. The basic equation is obtained for the thermally induced forces acting in the adherends' cross-sections that correspond to the boundaries between the dissimilar portions of the bonding layer. This equation has the form of the theorem of three (bending) moments in the theory of multi-span beams lying on separate simple supports and could therefore be called the 'theorem of three axial forces'. We show, as an illustration, how this equation could be employed to design a bi-material assembly with an inhomogeneous bonding layer and with low interfacial shearing stresses. Low shearing stresses will certainly result in lower peeling stresses as well. The numerical example is carried out for an assembly with a relatively high-modulus bonding material in its mid-portion (aimed primarily at providing good adhesion and, if necessary, good heat transfer as well) and a low-modulus material in its peripheral portions (aimed primarily at bringing down the

  9. Some Recent Developments in Standardized Foreign Language Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Neale W.

    Emphasized in this speech are the innovative practices in the standardized foreign language testing programs sponsored by the College Entrance Examination Board (CEEB) and the Modern Language Association (MLA). The CEEB projected listening and reading "composite tests" and changes in the French and Latin Advanced Placement Tests are described in…

  10. Eight Ways to Support Students during Standardized Tests. Classroom Tips

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higdon, Julie; Holcomb, Linda Laine

    2012-01-01

    Standardized testing time often creates a nervous atmosphere in classrooms. In past years one of the authors joined a chorus of teachers singing her own woes about the infamous test. She increased her daily caffeine intake, lost sleep, and became a nervous, crazed teacher who had turned her classroom into a test prep center. Her aha moment came…

  11. K-12 Standardized Achievement and Aptitude Testing: The End Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, John B.

    Public policy and measurement community issues related to the use of standardized achievement tests for students in kindergarten through grade 12 are discussed, focusing on students and parents as the end-users of test data. The viewpoints expressed are based on 18 years of experience with test score interpretation. It is suggested that technical…

  12. Detection of Coaching and Answer Copying on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frary, Robert B.; Olson, George H.

    Information on statistical detection of two different kinds of unethical activity associated with standardized testing is presented. The first is advance presentation of specific test items or excessive coaching using items very similar to those on a test. Cluster analysis is recommended for detection of aberrant vectors of percentages correct on…

  13. National Unmanned Aerial System Standardized Performance Testing and Rating (NUSTAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of the NUSTAR Capability is to offer standardized tests and scenario conditions to assess performance of the UAS. The following are goals of the NU-STAR: 1. Create a prototype standardized tests and scenarios that vehicles can be tested against. 2. Identify key performance parameters of all UAS and their standardized measurement strategy. 3. Develop standardized performance reporting method (e.g., consumer report style) to assist prospective buyers. 4. Identify key performance metrics that could be used by judged towards overall safety of the UAS and operations. 5. If vehicle certification standard is made by a regulatory agency, the performance of individual UAS could be compared against the minimum requirement (e.g., sense and avoid detection time, stopping distance, kinetic energy, etc.).

  14. 42 CFR 493.1365 - Standard; PPM testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1365 Standard... using a microscope limited to a brightfield or a phase/contrast microscope. Laboratories...

  15. 42 CFR 493.1365 - Standard; PPM testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1365 Standard... using a microscope limited to a brightfield or a phase/contrast microscope. Laboratories...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1365 - Standard; PPM testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1365 Standard... using a microscope limited to a brightfield or a phase/contrast microscope. Laboratories...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1365 - Standard; PPM testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1365 Standard... using a microscope limited to a brightfield or a phase/contrast microscope. Laboratories...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1365 - Standard; PPM testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Nonwaived Testing Laboratories Performing Provider-Performed Microscopy (ppm) Procedures § 493.1365 Standard... using a microscope limited to a brightfield or a phase/contrast microscope. Laboratories...

  19. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 493.863 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency... for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High...

  20. 42 CFR 493.863 - Standard; Compatibility testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 493.863 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Participation in Proficiency... for Laboratories Performing Tests of Moderate Complexity (including the Subcategory), High...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1495 - Standard; Testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Personnel for Nonwaived... laboratory director and require a degree of skill commensurate with the individual's education, training or... the laboratory's procedures for specimen handling and processing, test analyses, reporting...

  2. Profile Analysis of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test Standardization Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Brian E.; McCallum, R. Steve

    2002-01-01

    A normative typology was developed and applied using multivariate profile analysis of subtest scores of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) standardization sample. The results yielded a seven-profile cluster solution for the Extended Battery, and a six-profile cluster solution for the Standard Battery. Additionally, the results lend…

  3. Standardized Testing: Does it Measure Student Preparation for College & Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Dawn; Cook, Vickie

    2007-01-01

    How can schools effectively prepare students for life after high school? With the accountability standards set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), there are many theories regarding standardized testing. Many schools today are adopting the goal of preparing all students for the college or the workplace. This review of current literature…

  4. Student Performance Standards and Testing Programs: Background Information for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutter, Joel A.; Rice, Elizabeth V.

    This report provides Minnesota legislators with background information on establishing state educational standards and periodic testing to measure student progress. Scientific management, the accountability movement, and the basic education movement were educational trends of the 1970's providing pressure on states to set standards to improve…

  5. Conformance testing for the spatial data transfer standard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lazar, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    The Spatial Data Transfer Standard (SDTS) was approved as Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 173, effective February 1993. Federal agencies and geographic information system vendors currently are developing SDTS encoding and decoding capabilities. A program is being developed to test encoders and decoders for conformance to the requirements of SDTS profiles. A series of test points will specify SDTS requirements that can be tested by software or by nonautomated methods. By certifying SDTS products, the conformance testing program will benefit both vendors and users of the SDTS.

  6. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  7. A standardized test battery for the study of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Eagleman, David M; Kagan, Arielle D; Nelson, Stephanie S; Sagaram, Deepak; Sarma, Anand K

    2007-01-15

    Synesthesia is an unusual condition in which stimulation of one modality evokes sensation or experience in another modality. Although discussed in the literature well over a century ago, synesthesia slipped out of the scientific spotlight for decades because of the difficulty in verifying and quantifying private perceptual experiences. In recent years, the study of synesthesia has enjoyed a renaissance due to the introduction of tests that demonstrate the reality of the condition, its automatic and involuntary nature, and its measurable perceptual consequences. However, while several research groups now study synesthesia, there is no single protocol for comparing, contrasting and pooling synesthetic subjects across these groups. There is no standard battery of tests, no quantifiable scoring system, and no standard phrasing of questions. Additionally, the tests that exist offer no means for data comparison. To remedy this deficit we have devised the Synesthesia Battery. This unified collection of tests is freely accessible online (http://www.synesthete.org). It consists of a questionnaire and several online software programs, and test results are immediately available for use by synesthetes and invited researchers. Performance on the tests is quantified with a standard scoring system. We introduce several novel tests here, and offer the software for running the tests. By presenting standardized procedures for testing and comparing subjects, this endeavor hopes to speed scientific progress in synesthesia research.

  8. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  9. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  10. Searching for Alternatives to Standardized Tests: Whys, Whats, and Whithers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walter; Madaus, George

    1989-01-01

    The continuing interest in standardized testing alternatives suggests that the make-a-better-mousetrap mentality still flourishes in education and employment assessment circles. Some promising new testing technologies might broaden the range of human talents assessed. However, educators must refuse to accept bondage to any single technology, no…

  11. Addressing Standardized Testing through a Novel Assesment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schifter, Catherine C.; Carey, Martha

    2014-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation spawned a plethora of standardized testing services for all the high stakes testing required by the law. We argue that one-size-fits all assessments disadvantage students who are English Language Learners, in the USA, as well as students with limited economic resources, special needs, and not reading on…

  12. Consistency of Standard Setting in an Augmented State Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissitz, Robert W.; Wei, Hua

    2008-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of consistency in standard setting in the context of an augmented state testing program. Information gained from the external NRT scores is used to help make an informed decision on the determination of cut scores on the state test. The consistency of cut scores on the CRT across grades is maintained by forcing…

  13. State Standardized Testing Programs: Their Effects on Teachers and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Tonya R.; Brighton, Catherine M.; Jarvis, Jane M.; Hall, Catherine J.

    2007-01-01

    A driving force in standards-based educational reform was the 1983 release of "A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform" (National Commission of Excellence in Education [NCEE], 1983). The report called for "an end to the minimum competency testing movement and the beginning of a high-stakes testing movement that would raise the…

  14. Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 2014 Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…

  15. Puerto Rican Vocational Students' Experiences Regarding Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segui, Nomara I.

    2016-01-01

    Vocational high school students are not passing state tests and are not meeting adequate yearly progress (AYP) requirements in Puerto Rico. Limited qualitative research has been conducted to examine the experiences of vocational high school students regarding mandated standardized tests. Using a qualitative case study, the experiences of Puerto…

  16. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 11).

    PubMed

    Howe, R A; Andrews, J M

    2012-12-01

    This article highlights key amendments incorporated into version 11 of the BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method, available as Supplementary data at JAC Online (http://jac.oxfordjournals.org/) and on the BSAC web site (http://bsac.org.uk/susceptibility/guidelines-standardized-disc-susceptibility-testing-method/). The basic disc susceptibility testing method remains unchanged, but there have been a number of alterations to the interpretive criteria for certain organism/drug combinations due to continuing harmonization with the EUCAST MIC breakpoints and constant efforts to improve the reliability and clinical applicability of the guidance.

  17. Characterization of IPMC actuators using standard testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, D.; Espinosa, R.; Moreno, L.; Baselga, J.

    2006-03-01

    In response to a clear need, the research community on EAP (Electroactive Polymer) has just started to work on a standard test methodology to characterize EAP actuators. A very general test methodology for EAPs, covering the characterization procedures for extensional and bending actuators was recently presented. In the present work, well known IPMC samples are characterized following such test methodology. Also, additional tests, not covered by the preliminary standard are included. These tests are conducted using the EAP Unit Tester, a test bench specifically designed for the characterization of EAP actuators. Rather than presenting new material's results, the paper focuses on the instrumentation, procedures and form of presenting results. Although the paper is focused on IPMC the method can be extrapolated to other bending actuators.

  18. Introduction of Current JAXA Test Standard and Recent Updating Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qinzhong; Uchikawa, Hideaki; Yanagase, Kenchi

    2012-07-01

    JAXA has been promoting to build up background knowledge of testing in these recent 5 years under the promotion committee, consists of members of different space project managers, R&D research groups and spacecraft prime manufactures. Those outputs are documented each test handbooks. After the establishment of environmental test handbooks, JAXA has started from 2010 to reverse test standard, JERG-2- 002(General Engineering Requirement Guidance), which had been succeed from one of the three former originations, National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The major objectives of this first reverse from the old test standard are, 1) clarification of requirements from engineering guidance and explanation, 2) classifies the baseline requirements and tailoring guideline, 3) deletes the numbers of specific launchers and makes it more general, 4) compatibility with other JAXA design requirements. In this paper, the plan and structure of reversing test standard, the state of art of current reversed JAXA test standard, and discussion issues within the working group, the next future step for the next revision are introduced.

  19. Emerging standards for testing of multisensor mine detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibsdall, Ian M.

    2005-06-01

    The standards relating to testing of metal detectors for demining operations are developing well, including (but not limited to) CEN Working Agreement CWA14747:2003, UNMAS Mine Action Standards and others. However, for developing multisensor mine detectors there is no agreed standard method of testing. ITEP, the International Test and Evaluation Program for Humanitarian Demining, is currently drawing together several nation's experience of testing multisensor mine detectors into a "best practice" document that could be used as the basis for standardised testing. This paper outlines the test methodology used during recent multisensor mine detector tests and discusses the issues that have arisen and lessons learned. In particular, the requirements for suitable targets, careful site preparation, measurement of appropriate environmental factors and methods of maximising useful results with limited resources are highlighted. Most recent tests have used a combined Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), but other sensor systems will be considered. An emerging test methodology is presented, along with an invitation for feedback from other researchers for inclusion into the "best practice" document.

  20. DOE standard: Filter test facility quality program plan

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    This standard was developed primarily for application in US Department of Energy programs. It contains specific direction for HEPA filter testing performed at a DOE-accepted HEPA Filter Test Facility (FTF). Beneficial comments (recommendations, additions, deletions) and any pertinent data that may improve this document should be sent to the Office of Nuclear Safety Policy and Standards (EH-31), US Department of Energy, Washington, DC 20585, by letter or by using the self-addressed Document Improvement Proposal form (DOE F 1300.3) appearing at the end of this document.

  1. Assessing cultural validity in standardized tests in stem education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassant, Lunes

    This quantitative ex post facto study examined how race and gender, as elements of culture, influence the development of common misconceptions among STEM students. Primary data came from a standardized test: the Digital Logic Concept Inventory (DLCI) developed by Drs. Geoffrey L. Herman, Michael C. Louis, and Craig Zilles from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The sample consisted of a cohort of 82 STEM students recruited from three universities in Northern Louisiana. Microsoft Excel and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were used for data computation. Two key concepts, several sub concepts, and 19 misconceptions were tested through 11 items in the DLCI. Statistical analyses based on both the Classical Test Theory (Spearman, 1904) and the Item Response Theory (Lord, 1952) yielded similar results: some misconceptions in the DLCI can reliably be predicted by the Race or the Gender of the test taker. The research is significant because it has shown that some misconceptions in a STEM discipline attracted students with similar ethnic backgrounds differently; thus, leading to the existence of some cultural bias in the standardized test. Therefore the study encourages further research in cultural validity in standardized tests. With culturally valid tests, it will be possible to increase the effectiveness of targeted teaching and learning strategies for STEM students from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To some extent, this dissertation has contributed to understanding, better, the gap between high enrollment rates and low graduation rates among African American students and also among other minority students in STEM disciplines.

  2. Standard Test Data and Peak Fitting for XPS Measurements

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Standard Test Data and Peak Fitting for XPS Measurements (Web, free access)   This web site provides an extensive set of simulated photoelectron spectroscopy data for users to test software for determining the positions and intensities of overlapping peaks. Users download the data, perform their analyses, and then upload their results. A Java program evaluates the results and provides a graphical presentation of the errors in the user's analyses.

  3. Reporting standards for studies of diagnostic test accuracy in dementia

    PubMed Central

    Noel-Storr, Anna H.; McCleery, Jenny M.; Richard, Edo; Ritchie, Craig W.; Flicker, Leon; Cullum, Sarah J.; Davis, Daniel; Quinn, Terence J.; Hyde, Chris; Rutjes, Anne W.S.; Smailagic, Nadja; Marcus, Sue; Black, Sandra; Blennow, Kaj; Brayne, Carol; Fiorivanti, Mario; Johnson, Julene K.; Köpke, Sascha; Schneider, Lon S.; Simmons, Andrew; Mattsson, Niklas; Zetterberg, Henrik; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; Wilcock, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide guidance on standards for reporting studies of diagnostic test accuracy for dementia disorders. Methods: An international consensus process on reporting standards in dementia and cognitive impairment (STARDdem) was established, focusing on studies presenting data from which sensitivity and specificity were reported or could be derived. A working group led the initiative through 4 rounds of consensus work, using a modified Delphi process and culminating in a face-to-face consensus meeting in October 2012. The aim of this process was to agree on how best to supplement the generic standards of the STARD statement to enhance their utility and encourage their use in dementia research. Results: More than 200 comments were received during the wider consultation rounds. The areas at most risk of inadequate reporting were identified and a set of dementia-specific recommendations to supplement the STARD guidance were developed, including better reporting of patient selection, the reference standard used, avoidance of circularity, and reporting of test-retest reliability. Conclusion: STARDdem is an implementation of the STARD statement in which the original checklist is elaborated and supplemented with guidance pertinent to studies of cognitive disorders. Its adoption is expected to increase transparency, enable more effective evaluation of diagnostic tests in Alzheimer disease and dementia, contribute to greater adherence to methodologic standards, and advance the development of Alzheimer biomarkers. PMID:24944261

  4. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  5. Standards Development Activities at White Sands Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. L.; Beeson, H. D.; Saulsberry, R. L.; Julien, H. L.; Woods, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    The development of standards and standard activities at the JSC White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) has been expanded to include the transfer of technology and standards to voluntary consensus organizations in five technical areas of importance to NASA. This effort is in direct response to the National Technology Transfer Act designed to accelerate transfer of technology to industry and promote government-industry partnerships. Technology transfer is especially important for WSTF, whose longterm mission has been to develop and provide vital propellant safety and hazards information to aerospace designers, operations personnel, and safety personnel. Meeting this mission is being accomplished through the preparation of consensus guidelines and standards, propellant hazards analysis protocols, and safety courses for the propellant use of hydrogen, oxygen, and hypergols, as well as the design and inspection of spacecraft pressure vessels and the use of pyrovalves in spacecraft propulsion systems. The overall WSTF technology transfer program is described and the current status of technology transfer activities are summarized.

  6. Excellence in Education versus High-Stakes Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Asa G., III

    2000-01-01

    High-stakes standardized testing cannot be considered a reform tool for increasing student achievement. Teaching quality is critical in student achievement. Teachers can become powerful agents in raising students' academic achievement levels, regardless of common barriers (e.g., poverty and bilingualism). The extreme focus on high-stakes testing…

  7. Opting Out: Parents Creating Contested Spaces to Challenge Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitra, Dana; Mann, Bryan; Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We explore how the opt-out movement has responded to the combination of a stringent federal policy with weak and often variable implementation among the states. Gaps between federal expectations and states' understandings of just how to make NCLB's demands a reality have created policy ambiguity. Parents who oppose standardized testing have…

  8. Educators Questioning Timing of State Tests Reflecting Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    New York is ahead of most states in its work to design detailed curricula and professional development for the common core and to build brand-new tests to reflect them. What's unfolding in the Empire State as a result of that work illustrates the way the common standards can pressure changes in the education landscape, and torque the tensions…

  9. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... following relevant criteria, when available: (1) Patient age. (2) Sex. (3) Diagnosis or pertinent...

  10. 42 CFR 493.1241 - Standard: Test request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Test request. 493.1241 Section 493.1241 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... results or panic or alert values. (2) The patient's name or unique patient identifier. (3) The sex and...

  11. 42 CFR 493.1281 - Standard: Comparison of test results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Comparison of test results. 493.1281 Section 493.1281 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... following relevant criteria, when available: (1) Patient age. (2) Sex. (3) Diagnosis or pertinent...

  12. STANDARD VERSUS INDIVIDUALIZED HIERARCHIES IN DESENSITIZATION TO REDUCE TEST ANXIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EMERY, JOHN R.; KRUMBOLTZ, JOHN D.

    FIFTY-FOUR TEST-ANXIOUS COLLEGE FRESHMEN FROM STANFORD UNIVERSITY WERE RANDOMLY ASSIGNED TO ONE OF THREE GROUPS--(1) A DESENSITIZATION GROUP WORKING WITH INDIVIDUALIZED ANXIETY HIERARCHIES, (2) A DESENSITIZATION GROUP WORKING WITH A SINGLE STANDARD HIERARCHY, AND (3) A NO-TREATMENT CONTROL GROUP. THE CRITERIA CONSISTED OF SELF-RATINGS OF ANXIETY…

  13. Corporate Schooling Meets Corporate Media: Standards, Testing, and Technophilia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltman, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Educational publishing corporations and media corporations in the United States have been converging, especially through the promotion of standardization, testing, and for-profit educational technologies. Media and technology companies--including News Corp, Apple, and Microsoft--have significantly expanded their presence in public schools to sell…

  14. 42 CFR 493.1283 - Standard: Test records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Test records. 493.1283 Section 493.1283 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system that includes the following: (1) The positive identification of the specimen. (2) The date...

  15. Irving Independent School District: Standardized Test Results, 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving Independent School District, TX.

    The results are presented of district-wide standardized testing in the Irving (Texas) Independent School District for the 1985-86 school year. This was the first year in which the Texas Educational Assessment of Minimum Skills (TEAMS) was implemented. It was administered to students in odd-numbered grades, whereas all other students took the…

  16. Residential wood-combustion-equipment standards and testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Explored are concerns related to proper safety, acceptable practices, and consumer protection as related to woodburning. Issues relating to safety and efficiency testing are discussed and the implications of these programs for the manufacturer, dealer and distributor are related. Also, consumer related problems regarding truth in advertising, product safety, building codes and standards, and insurance implications are dealt with. (LEW)

  17. A Standardized Soil Ecotoxicological Test Using Red Worms (Eisenia fetida).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradise, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a simple, inexpensive test for soil contamination that can be used in a variety of courses to examine the effects of soil toxicity, to practice standardized laboratory procedures, to study experimental design and data analysis, or to investigate earthworm ecology. Presents background information along with details regarding equipment,…

  18. Student Laptop Use and Scores on Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kposowa, Augustine J.; Valdez, Amanda D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between ubiquitous laptop use and academic achievement. It was hypothesized that students with ubiquitous laptops would score on average higher on standardized tests than those without such computers. Methods: Data were obtained from two sources. First, demographic…

  19. Standardization in Cryogenic Insulation Systems Testing and Performance Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    The close relationship between industrial energy use and cryogenics drives the need for optimized thermal insulation systems. Emerging cryofuels usage is enabled by adequate isolation of the liquid hydrogen or liquefied natural gas from the ambient environment. Thermal performance data for the total insulation system, as rendered, are essential for both engineering designs and cost-benefit decisions involving comparisons among alternatives. These data are obtained through rigorous testing with suitable apparatus and repeatable methods. Properly defined terminology, analysis, and reporting are also vital. Advances in cryogenic insulation test apparatus and methods have led to the recent addition of two new technical standards of ASTM International: C1774 - Standard Guide for Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic InsulationSystems and C740 - Standard Guide for Evacuated Reflective Cryogenic Insulation. Among the different techniques described in the new standards is the cylindrical boiloff calorimeter for absolute heat measurement over the full range of vacuum pressure conditions. The details of this apparatus, test method, and data analysis are given. Benchmark thermal performance data, including effective thermal conductivity (ke) and heat flux (q) for the boundary temperatures of 293 K and 77 K, are given for a number of different multilayer insulation (MLI) systems in comparison with data for other commonly-used insulation systems including perlite powder, fiberglass, polyurethane foam, and aerogels.

  20. Fuel economy measurement road test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Standard incorporates driving cycles that produce fuel consumption data relating to urban, suburban, and interstate driving patterns and is intended to be used to determine the relative fuel economy among vehicles and driving patterns under warmed-up conditions on test tracks, suitable roads, or chassis dynamometers. The cycle forms the basis of a cold-start test procedure described in SAE J1256. This document provides uniform testing procedures for measuring the fuel economy of light duty vehicles (motor vehicles designed primarily for transportation of persons or property and rated at 4,500 kg (10,000 lb) or less) on suitable roads.

  1. Requirement for a standard language for test and ground operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medlock, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The basic requirements for a standard test and checkout language applicable to all phases of the space shuttle test and ground operations are determined. The general characteristics outlined here represent the integration of selected ideas and concepts from operational elements within Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that represent diverse disciplines associated with space vehicle testing and launching operations. Special reference is made to two studies conducted in this area for KSC as authorized by the Advanced Development Element of the Office of Manned Space Flight (MSF). Information contained in reports from these studies have contributed significantly to the final selection of language features depicted in this technical report.

  2. Roadmap for Testing and Validation of Electric Vehicle Communication Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-07-12

    Vehicle to grid communication standards are critical to the charge management and interoperability among plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), charging stations and utility providers. The Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ZigBee Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. While interoperability standards development has been in progress for more than two years, no definitive guidelines are available for the automobile manufacturers, charging station manufacturers or utility backhaul network systems. At present, there is a wide range of proprietary communication options developed and supported in the industry. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers, has identified performance requirements and developed a test plan based on possible communication pathways using power line communication (PLC). Though the communication pathways and power line communication technology options are identified, much work needs to be done in developing application software and testing of communication modules before these can be deployed in production vehicles. This paper presents a roadmap and results from testing power line communication modules developed to meet the requirements of SAE J2847/1 standard.

  3. Making OGC standards work - interoperability testing between meteorological web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemen, Stephan; Little, Chris; Voidrot, Marie-Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The Meteorology and Oceanography Domain Working Group (Met Ocean DWG) is a community orientated working group of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The group does not directly revise OGC standards, but rather enables collaboration and communication between groups with meteorological and oceanographic interests. The Met Ocean DWG maintains a list of topics of interest to the meteorological and oceanographic communities for discussion, prioritises activities, defining feedback to the OGC Standards Working Groups (SWG), and performing interoperability experiments. One of the activities of the MetOcean DWG is the definition of Best Practices documents for common OGC standards, such as WMS and WCS. This is necessary since meteorological data has additional complexities in time, elevation and multi models runs including ensembles. To guarantee interoperability in practice it is important to test each other systems and ensure standards are implemented correctly, but also make recommendations to the DWG on the establishment of Best Practices guides. The European Working Group on Operational meteorological Workstations (EGOWS) was founded in 1990 as an informal forum for people working in the development field of operational meteorological workstations. The annual EGOWS meeting offers an excellent platform for exchanging information and furthering co-operation among the experts from NMS's, ECMWF and other institutes in the work with OGC standards. The presentation will give an update of the testing, which was being done during the June 2014 EGOWS meeting in Oslo and what has happen since. The presenter will also give an overview of the online resources to follow the tests and how interested parties can contribute to future interoperability tests.

  4. Standard methods for open hole tension testing of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Sizing effects have been investigated by comparing the open hole failure strengths of each of the four different braided architectures as a function of specimen thickness, hole diameter, and the ratio of specimen width to hole diameter. The data used to make these comparisons was primarily generated by Boeing. Direct comparisons of Boeing's results were made with experiments conducted at West Virginia University whenever possible. Indirect comparisons were made with test results for other 2-D braids and 3-D weaves tested by Boeing and Lockheed. In general, failure strength was found to decrease with increasing plate thickness, increase with decreasing hole size, and decreasing with decreasing width to diameter ratio. The interpretation of the sensitive to each of these geometrical parameters was complicated by scatter in the test data. For open hole tension testing of textile composites, the use of standard testing practices employed by industry, such as ASTM D5766 - Standard Test Method for Open Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates should provide adequate results for material comparisons studies.

  5. Establishing a standardized therapeutic testing protocol for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Kai; Tsai, Ming-Shung; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Li, Hung

    2006-11-01

    Several mice models have been created for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA); however, there is still no standard preclinical testing system for the disease. We previously generated type III-specific SMA model mice, which might be suitable for use as a preclinical therapeutic testing system for SMA. To establish such a system and test its applicability, we first created a testing protocol and then applied it as a means to investigate the use of valproic acid (VPA) as a possible treatment for SMA. These SMA mice revealed tail/ear/foot deformity, muscle atrophy, poorer motor performances, smaller compound muscle action potential and lower spinal motoneuron density at the age of 9 to 12 months in comparison with age-matched wild-type littermate mice. In addition, VPA attenuates motoneuron death, increases spinal SMN protein level and partially normalizes motor function in SMA mice. These results suggest that the testing protocol developed here is well suited for use as a standardized preclinical therapeutic testing system for SMA.

  6. Evaluation of lightweight wheelchairs using ANSI/RESNA testing standards.

    PubMed

    Gebrosky, Benjamin; Pearlman, Jonathan; Cooper, Rory A; Cooper, Rosemarie; Kelleher, Annmarie

    2013-01-01

    Lightweight wheelchairs are characterized by their low cost and limited range of adjustment. Our study evaluated three different folding lightweight wheelchair models using the American National Standards Institute/Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America (ANSI/RESNA) standards to see whether quality had improved since the previous data were reported. On the basis of reports of increasing breakdown rates in the community, we hypothesized that the quality of these wheelchairs had declined. Seven of the nine wheelchairs tested failed to pass the multidrum test durability requirements. An average of 194,502 +/- 172,668 equivalent cycles was completed, which is similar to the previous test results and far below the 400,000 minimum required to pass the ANSI/RESNA requirements. This was also significantly worse than the test results for aluminum ultralight folding wheelchairs. Overall, our results uncovered some disturbing issues with these wheelchairs and suggest that manufacturers should put more effort into this category to improve quality. To improve the durability of lightweight wheelchairs, we suggested that stronger regulations be developed that require wheelchairs to be tested by independent and certified test laboratories. We also proposed a wheelchair rating system based on the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration vehicle crash ratings to assist clinicians and end users when comparing the durability of different wheelchairs.

  7. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  8. STANDARDIZATION OF CEBAF 12 GEV UPGRADE CAVITY TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    Tiffany Bass, G. Davis, Christiana Wilson, Mircea Stirbet

    2012-07-01

    CEBAF 12GeV upgrade project includes 80 new 7-cell cavities to form 10 cryomodules. Each cavity underwent RF qualification at 2.07K using a high power accelerating gradient test and an HOM survey in Jefferson Lab's Vertical Testing Area (VTA) before cavity string assembly. In order to ensure consistently high quality data, updated cavity testing procedures and analysis were implemented and used by a group of VTA operators. For high power tests, a cavity testing procedure was developed and used in conjunction with a LabVIEW program to collect the test data. Additionally while the cavity was at 2.07K, an HOM survey was performed using a network analyzer and a combination of Excel and Mathematica programs. Data analysis was standardized and an online logbook, Pansophy, was used for data storage and mining. The Pansophy system allowed test results to be easily summarized and searchable across all cavity tests. In this presentation, the CEBAF 12GeV upgrade cavity testing procedure, method for data analysis, and results reporting results will be discussed.

  9. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Ankley, G.T.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  10. Test of a Power Transfer Model for Standardized Electrofishing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Dolan, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    Standardization of electrofishing in waters with differing conductivities is critical when monitoring temporal and spatial differences in fish assemblages. We tested a model that can help improve the consistency of electrofishing by allowing control over the amount of power that is transferred to the fish. The primary objective was to verify, under controlled laboratory conditions, whether the model adequately described fish immobilization responses elicited with various electrical settings over a range of water conductivities. We found that the model accurately described empirical observations over conductivities ranging from 12 to 1,030 ??S/cm for DC and various pulsed-DC settings. Because the model requires knowledge of a fish's effective conductivity, an attribute that is likely to vary according to species, size, temperature, and other variables, a second objective was to gather available estimates of the effective conductivity of fish to examine the magnitude of variation and to assess whether in practical applications a standard effective conductivity value for fish may be assumed. We found that applying a standard fish effective conductivity of 115 ??S/cm introduced relatively little error into the estimation of the peak power density required to immobilize fish with electrofishing. However, this standard was derived from few estimates of fish effective conductivity and a limited number of species; more estimates are needed to validate our working standard.

  11. Progress in standardizing and harmonizing thyroid function tests.

    PubMed

    Faix, James D; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormone. Because thyroid hormone synthesis is affected by iodine deficiency on the one hand and by excess iodine intake on the other, thyroid function biomarkers may be useful for assessing iodine status and studying the effects of iodine supplementation. However, reference intervals for some of the most useful thyroid function biomarkers, including serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroglobulin, vary widely due to variability in the commercially available immunoassays for these tests. Recognizing the need for standardization of thyroid function testing, the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine established a working group, later restructured as the Committee for Standardization of Thyroid Function Tests, to examine its feasibility. The committee has established a conventional reference measurement procedure for FT4 and an approach to harmonization of results for TSH. Panels of single-donation human blood specimens that span the measuring interval of the immunoassays were used to assess the performance of commercially available immunoassays and form the basis for their recalibration. Recalibration of the manufacturers' methods for both FT4 and TSH has shown that the variability among immunoassays can be successfully eliminated for euthyroid individuals as well as for patients with thyroid disease. The committee is not investigating the standardization of thyroglobulin at the present time. PMID:27534642

  12. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) Heated Altitude Jettison Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Altitude jettison tests, at a pressure of 20 torr (0.39 psia), were performed on the Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) in a 100-foot diameter vacuum chamber. These jettison tests were part of a series of flight qualification tests which were performed on the new CSS system in preparation for the Helios and Viking missions. The first two tests subjected the CSS to a thermal cycle which simulated aerodynamic heating during ascent flight and the third test was performed at altitude pressure and in ambient temperature conditions. The purpose of the ambient temperature test was to provide base line data by which the separate machanical and thermal factors that influence jettison performance could be evaluated individually. The CSS was successfully jettisoned in each of the three tests. Also, thermal, stress, and structural deflection data were obtained which verified the analytical predictions of CSS response to flight environmental conditions and performance during jettison. In addition, much important information was obtained on critical CSS-to-payload clearance losses due to shell motions prior to and during jettison. The effectiveness of the separation system was successfully demonstrated at maximum flight temperatures.

  13. Testing Conformance to Standards: Notes on the OGC CITE Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we report on the issues and lessons learnt from our recent experience on assessing service compliance to OGC geospatial standards. Official conformity is warranted by the OGC Compliance & Interoperability Testing & Evaluation (CITE) initiative, through a centrally managed repository of tests, typically developed via initiatives funded by external sponsors. In particular, we have been involved in the ESA-led Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility Testbed (HMA-T) project. HMA-T objectives included the definition of specifications (and related compliance tests) for Earth Observation (EO) Product discovery and access. Our activities have focused on the EO and Catalogue of ISO Metadata (CIM) Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) OGC standard. Our main contributions have regarded the definition of Abstract Test Suites (ATS's) for the above specifications, as well as the development of Reference Implementations (RIs) and concrete Executable Test Suites (ETS's). According to the state-of-the-art, we have implemented the ETS's in Compliance Test Language (CTL), an OGC standard dialect of XML, and deployed the scripts onto the open-source Test Evaluation And Measurement (TEAM) Engine, the official OGC compliance test platform. A significant challenge was to accommodate legacy services, that can not support data publishing. Hence, we could not assume the presence of control test data, necessary for exhaustive assessment. To cope with this, we have proposed and experimented tests for assessing the internal coherence of a target service instance. Another issue was to assess the overall behavior of a target service instance. Although quite obvious, this requirement proved to be hard (if unviable) to implement, since the design of the OGC catalogue specification is multi-layered (i.e. comprised of EP, AP, binding and core functionalities) and, according to the current OGC rationale, ATS/ETS at each

  14. Towards a standardized reference point indentation testing procedure.

    PubMed

    Setters, Alexander; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2014-06-01

    We study the reference point indentation (RPI) technique which has a potential to directly measure mechanical properties of bone in patients. More specifically, we tested 6 month swine femoral cortical bone at mid-diaphysis region to investigate the effect of several testing variables on the RPI outputs. They include the force magnitude, preconditioning, variation within a sample and between samples, number of cycles, indentation surface (transverse versus longitudinal, polished versus unpolished), and micro-computed tomography radiation exposure. The force magnitude variation test shows that all RPI parameters increase linearly with the increasing force magnitude except the indentation distance increase which shows a cubic trend with a plateau for force magnitudes between 4N and 8N. Preconditioning does not affect the trends for a force magnitude variation test. The cycle variation test shows that most RPI parameters reach either a maximum or minimum at 15-20 cycles. Transverse surface measurements are more consistent than the longitudinal surface measurements, but a rough surface and periosteum on the longitudinal surface could account for this difference. Exposure to the micro-computed tomography radiation in general does not have effect on the RPI measurements. For the 6 month swine femoral cortical bone, testing using 6N force and 20 cycles with preconditioning on an unpolished longitudinal surface is recommended. This study advances our knowledge on how the RPI testing variables influence the RPI outputs and provides guidance on the RPI measurements. It may also serve as a framework for developing a standardized testing procedure for the RPI technique.

  15. Standard methods for filled hole tension testing of textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of two test specimen geometry parameters, the specimen width and W/D ratio, on filled-hole tensile strength were determined for textile composite materials. Test data generated by Boeing and Lockheed on 2-D and 3-D braids, and 3-D weaves were used to make these evaluations. The investigation indicated that filled-hole tensile-strength showed little sensitivity to either parameter. Test specimen configurations used in open-hole tension tests, such as those suggested by ASTM D5766 - Standard Test Method for Open Hole Tensile Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates or those proposed by MIL-HDBK-17-lD should provide adequate results for material comparisons studies. Comparisons of the materials' open-hole and filled-hole tensile strengths indicated that the latter were generally lower than the former. The 3-D braids were the exception; their filled-hole strengths were unexpected larger than their open-hole strengths. However, these increases were small compared to the scatter in the data. Thus, filled hole tension may be a critical design consideration for textile composite materials.

  16. Standard Methods for Unnotched Tension Testing of Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by researchers at the Boeing Defense & Space Group to investigate the effects of specimen sizing on several braided textile materials. Test results from this and other test programs were compared in an effort to determine what effect, if any, specimen size has on elastic property measurements of unnotched tension test. In general, the unnotched tensile strength of 2-D braids was found to be insensitive to specimen width, length, or thickness effects. The results from this study suggest that standard testing methods used for tape materials may be sufficient for tension testing of textile composite materials. Specifically, the straight sided specimen geometry described in ASTM 3034, and used by Boeing, should provide acceptable results. Further experiments performed at Boeing and by other investigators on other textile architectures suggest similar results. Although specimen size studies were not conducted, failing stresses varied on the same order as those obtained with the 2-D materials. This suggests that the accuracy of the results were consistent with those obtained with the 2-D materials.

  17. Standardized testing tools to support quality educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Holstein, Beth L; Zangrilli, Belen F; Taboas, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Student success or failure in nursing education, and perhaps subsequent professional practice, can be difficult to predict and likely depends on complex relationships between several variables. Identifying and controlling for these variables is a continuing challenge for college faculty and administrators. Many colleges of nursing across the United States now use standardized, external assessment programs to help students prepare for professional licensure examinations (National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses [NCLEX-RN]), as one means of predicting academic success in a particular nursing program, and as a component of continuous quality improvement efforts within a school. This article reviews recent literature related to NCLEX-RN success and discusses several commercially available testing and remediation programs used today. In addition, the authors discuss the ways in which a testing program supports the college's mission and goals and efforts to continuously evaluate and improve the quality of the program.

  18. Standard Methods for Bolt-Bearing Testing of Textile Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, M. A.; Masters, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    The response of three 2-D braided materials to bolt bearing loading was evaluated using data generated by Boeing Defense and Space Group in Philadelphia, PA. Three test methods, stabilized single shear, unstabilized single shear, and double shear, were compared. In general, these textile composites were found to be sensitive to bolt bearing test methods. The stabilized single shear method yielded higher strengths than the unstabilized single shear method in all cases. The double shear test method always produced the highest strengths but these results may be somewhat misleading. It is therefore recommended that standard material comparisons be made using the stabilized single shear test method. The effects of two geometric parameters, W/D and e/D, were also studied. An evaluation of the effect of the specimen width (W) to hole diameter (D) ratio concluded that bolt bearing responses were consistent with open hole tension results. A W/D ratio of 6 or greater should be maintained. The proximity of the hole to the specimen edge significantly affected strength. In all cases, strength was improved by increasing the ratio of the distance from the hole center to the specimen edge (e) to the hole diameter (D) above 2. An e/D ratio of 3 or greater is recommended.

  19. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 10).

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M; Howe, R A

    2011-12-01

    The BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method remains unchanged, but there are considerable changes to the interpretative criteria due to continuing harmonization with the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) MIC breakpoints. There are a number of agents for which interpretative criteria have been removed. These MIC and/or zone diameter breakpoints will be published on the BSAC web site as a 'Legacy' table; they may be used for research or comparative purposes, but are not recommended for clinical management. Notably, testing of staphylococci for susceptibility to glycopeptides by disc diffusion has been removed because this method has been found to be unreliable, particularly for the detection of low-level resistance; low-level vancomycin resistance in staphylococci is increasingly deemed to be of clinical relevance. The tables for anaerobes have been expanded to include MIC breakpoints that have been determined by EUCAST. There are currently no zone diameter breakpoints for these organisms and an MIC method is recommended if susceptibility testing is required.

  20. Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from the Food Science and Technology Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning standards and standard tests for water quality in drinking water sources, reservoirs, and distribution systems. Standards from domestic and international sources are presented. Glossaries and vocabularies that concern water quality analysis, testing, and evaluation are included. Standard test methods for individual elements, selected chemicals, sensory properties, radioactivity, and other chemical and physical properties are described. Discussions for proposed standards on new pollutant materials are briefly considered. (Contains a minimum of 203 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. A description of the test problems in the TRAC-P standard test matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, R.G.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes 15 different test problems in the TRAC-P (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) standard test matrix of 42 test-problem calculations. Their TRACIN input-data files are listed in Appendix A. The description of each test problem includes the nature of what the test problem models and evaluates, the principal models of TRAC-P that the test problem serves to verify or validate, and the TRAC-P features and options that are being involved in its calculation. The test-problem calculations will determine the effect that changes made to a TRAC-P version have on the results. This will help the developers assess the acceptance of those changes to TRAC-P.

  2. Comparison of RFFIT tests with different standard sera and testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-cheng; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Liang, Guo-dong

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining antibody level is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and is used to determine the degree of immunity after vaccination against rabies. To compare the difference in RFFIT results between the laboratories of The National Institute of Infectious Disease in Japan (NIID) and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control (CCDC) as well the influence of the choice of standard serum (STD) for the detection, the two laboratories detection methods were simultaneously manipulated by RFFIT. The reference serums used in NIID and the WHO standard serum used in CCDC were compared in the same RFFIT detection to determine the titer of four sera samples C1, S1, S2 and S4 in parallel, and the titers of the detected sera samples were calculated using the standard formula for neutralizing antibody titer. No significant difference was found in RFFIT methods from the two laboratories and the RFFIT testing procedures of the two laboratories have good consistency. However, different titers were obtained with the tentative internal standard serum (TI-STD) produced by adjusting to 2.0 IU of WHO standard serum in NIID and the WHO STD. The titer determined with the TI-STD was higher than that determined with WHO STD, This difference appears to be significant and requires further investigation.

  3. Comparison of RFFIT tests with different standard sera and testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng-cheng; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Liang, Guo-dong

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining antibody level is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and is used to determine the degree of immunity after vaccination against rabies. To compare the difference in RFFIT results between the laboratories of The National Institute of Infectious Disease in Japan (NIID) and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control (CCDC) as well the influence of the choice of standard serum (STD) for the detection, the two laboratories detection methods were simultaneously manipulated by RFFIT. The reference serums used in NIID and the WHO standard serum used in CCDC were compared in the same RFFIT detection to determine the titer of four sera samples C1, S1, S2 and S4 in parallel, and the titers of the detected sera samples were calculated using the standard formula for neutralizing antibody titer. No significant difference was found in RFFIT methods from the two laboratories and the RFFIT testing procedures of the two laboratories have good consistency. However, different titers were obtained with the tentative internal standard serum (TI-STD) produced by adjusting to 2.0 IU of WHO standard serum in NIID and the WHO STD. The titer determined with the TI-STD was higher than that determined with WHO STD, This difference appears to be significant and requires further investigation. PMID:22684473

  4. Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST Survey of K-12 Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    Discipline-based education research in astronomy is focused on understanding the underlying mental mechanisms used by students when learning astronomy and teachers when teaching astronomy. Systematic surveys of K-12 teacher' knowledge in the domain of astronomy are conducted periodically in order to better focus and improve professional development. These surveys are most often done when doing contemporary needs assessments or when new assessment instruments are readily available. Designed by Stephanie J. Slater of the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research, the 29-item multiple-choice format Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST is a carefully constructed, criterion-referenced instrument constructed upon a solid list of clearly articulated and widely agreed upon learning objectives. The targeted learning concepts tightly align with the consensus learning goals stated by the American Astronomical Society - Chair's Conference on ASTRO 101, the American Association of the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 Benchmarks, and the National Research Council's 1996 National Science Education Standards. Without modification, the TOAST is also aligned with the significantly less ambitious 2013 Next Generation Science Standards created by Achieve, Inc., under the auspices of the National Research Council. This latest survey reveals that K-12 teachers still hold many of the same fundamental misconceptions uncovered by earlier surveys. This includes misconceptions about the size, scale, and structure of the cosmos as well as misconceptions about the nature of physical processes at work in astronomy. This suggests that professional development in astronomy is still needed and that modern curriculum materials are best served if they provide substantial support for implementation.

  5. Standard test method for saponification number of petroleum products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covers the determination of the amount of constituents in petroleum products that will saponify under the conditions of the test. Since compounds of sulfur, phosphorus, the halogens, and certain other elements which are sometimes added to petroleum products also consume alkali and acids, the results obtained indicate the effect of these extraneous materials in addition to the saponifiable material present. Results on products containing such materials, on used internal-combustion-engine crank-case oils, and on used turbine oils must be interpreted in this respect. Summary of method: a known weight of the sample, dissolved in methylethylketone is heated with a known amount of alcoholic potassium hydroxide (KOH). The excess alkali is titrated with standard acid and the saponification number calculated.

  6. What standardized tests ignore when assessing individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tenorio, Marcela; Campos, Ruth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2016-01-01

    In this article we critique the use of traditional standardized tests for the cognitive assessment of children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Limitations stem from the lack of integrating (a) results from research into the psychological functioning of these populations, and (b) the main arguments underlying models of human development. We identify four secondary issues in this discussion: (1) these instruments cannot be used with children who have particularly low cognitive functioning; (2) little or no variance in the scores obtained by individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders, because all are at floor, prevent adequate interpretations; (3) measurements do not provide information useful for the design of intervention strategies; and (4) different cognitive and/or neural processes may underlie behavioural scores ‘in the normal range’. Rethinking traditional assessment methods in favour of technologically-mediated games yields new cognitive assessment possibilities. PMID:26778874

  7. Pilot test of ANSI draft standard N13.29 environmental dosimetry -- Performance criteria for testing

    SciTech Connect

    Klemic, G.; Shebell, P.; Monetti, M.; Raccah, F.; Shobe, J.; Lamperti, P.; Soares, C.; Sengupta, S.

    1998-09-01

    American National Standards Institute Draft N13.29 describes performance tests for environmental radiation dosimetry providers. If approved it would be the first step toward applying the types of performance testing now required in personnel dosimetry to environmental radiation monitoring. The objective of this study was to pilot test the draft standard, before it undergoes final balloting, on a small group of dosimetry providers that were selected to provide a mix of facility types, thermoluminescent dosimeter designs and monitoring program applications. The first phase of the pilot test involved exposing dosimeters to laboratory photon, beta, and x-ray sources at routine and accident dose levels. In the second phase, dosimeters were subjected to ninety days of simulated environmental conditions in an environmental chamber that cycled through extremes of temperature and humidity. Two out of seven participants passed all categories of the laboratory testing phase, and all seven passed the environmental test phase. While some relatively minor deficiencies were uncovered in the course of the pilot test, the results show that draft N13.29 describes useful tests that could be appropriate for environmental dosimetry providers. An appendix to this report contains recommendations that should be addressed by the N13.29 working group before draft N13.29 is submitted for balloting.

  8. Standardized ability tests and testing. Major issues and the validity of current criticisms of tests are discussed.

    PubMed

    Goslin, D A

    1968-02-23

    At the outset a distinction was made between criticisms directed at the validity of tests and criticisms not affected by the validity of the tests. It was noted further that all criticisms of tests must take into consideration the type of test and the use to which the test is put. Criticisms of the validity of tests involved the following issues: (i) tests may be unfair to certain groups and individuals, including the extremely gifted, the culturally disadvantaged, and those who lack experience in taking tests; (ii) tests are not perfect predictors of subsequent performance; (iii) tests may be used in overly rigid ways; (iv) tests may not measure inherent qualities of individuals; and (v) tests may contribute to their own predictive validity by serving as self-fulfilling prophecies. Criticisms that are more or less independent of test validity included the effects of tests on (i) thinking patterns of those tested frequently; (ii) school curricula; (iii) self-image, motivation, and aspirations; (iv) groups using tests as a criterion for selection or allocation, or both; and (v) privacy. Several concluding remarks are in order: 1) This paper has focused almost entirely on criticisms of tests. However, the positive value of standardized tests should not be ignored. Here we must keep in mind what possible alternative measures would be used if standardized tests were abandoned. 2) We must begin thinking about tests in a much broader perspective- one that includes consideration of the social effects of tests as well as their validity and reliability. 3) Finally, an effort should be made to develop rational and systematic policies on the use of tests with the culturally disadvantaged, the dissemination of test results, and the problem of invasion of privacy. Such policies can be formulated only if we are willing to take a long hard look at the role we want testing to play in the society. Standardized tests currently are a cornerstone in the edifice of stratification in

  9. Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test - Test Plan and Standard Operating Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.

    2010-01-01

    Refractory metal heat pipes developed during this project shall be subjected to various operating conditions to evaluate life-limiting corrosion factors. To accomplish this objective, various parameters shall be investigated, including the effect of temperature and mass fluence on long-term corrosion rate. The test series will begin with a performance test of one module to evaluate its performance and to establish the temperature and power settings for the remaining modules. The performance test will be followed by round-the-clock testing of 16 heat pipes. All heat pipes shall be nondestructively inspected at 6-month intervals. At longer intervals, specific modules will be destructively evaluated. Both the nondestructive and destructive evaluations shall be coordinated with Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the processing, setup, and testing of the heat pipes, standard operating procedures shall be developed. Initial procedures are listed here and, as hardware is developed, will be updated, incorporating findings and lessons learned.

  10. Standard Hydrogen Test Protocols for the NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-12-01

    This brochure summarizes the test protocols used in the NREL Hydrogen Sensor Test Laboratory for the quantitative assessment of critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Researchers at the NREL Hydrogen Safety Sensor Test Laboratory developed a variety of test protocols to quantitatively assess critical analytical performance specifications for hydrogen sensors. Many are similar to, but typically more rigorous than, the test procedures mandated by ISO Standard 26142 (Hydrogen Detector for Stationary Applications). Specific protocols were developed for linear range, short-term stability, and the impact of fluctuations in temperature (T), pressure (P), relative humidity (RH), and chemical environment. Specialized tests (e.g., oxygen requirement) may also be performed. Hydrogen safety sensors selected for evaluation are subjected to a thorough regimen of test protocols, as described. Sensor testing is performed at NREL on custom-built sensor test fixtures. Environmental parameters such as T, P, RH, and gas composition are rigorously controlled and monitored. The NREL evaluations are performed on commercial hydrogen detectors, on emerging sensing technologies, and for end users to validate sensor performance for specific application needs. Test results and data are shared with the manufacturer or client via summary reports, teleconference phone calls, and, when appropriate, site visits to manufacturer facilities. Client representatives may also monitor NREL's operation while their technologies are being tested. Manufacturers may use test data to illustrate the analytical capability of their technologies and, more importantly, to guide future developments. NREL uses the data to assess technology gaps and deployment considerations. Per NREL Sensor Testing Laboratory policy, test results are treated as proprietary and are not shared with other manufacturers or other entities without permission. The data may be used by NREL in open publications

  11. The fabrication, testing and delivery of boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pless, W. M.; Lewis, W. H.

    1971-01-01

    A description is given of the boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy nondestructive test standards which were fabricated, tested and delivered to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Detailed design drawings of the standards are included to show the general structures and the types and location of simulated defects built into the panels. The panels were laminates with plies laid up in the 0 deg, + or - 45 deg, and 90 deg orientations and containing either titanium substrates or interlayered titanium perforated shims. Panel thickness was incrementally stepped from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 12.7 mm (0.500 in.) for the graphite/epoxy standards, and from 2.36 mm (0.093 in.) to 6.35 mm (0.25 in.) for the boron/epoxy standards except for the panels with interlayered shims which were 2.9 mm (0.113 in.) maximum thickness. The panel internal conditions included defect free regions, resin variations, density/porosity variations, cure variations, delaminations/disbonds at substrate bondlines and between layers, inclusions, and interlayered shims. Ultrasonic pulse echo C-scan and low-kilovoltage X-ray techniques were used to evaluate and verify the internal conditions of the panels.

  12. Standardized Testing Program for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Michael A.; Page, Richard A.

    2012-07-30

    In the US and abroad, major research and development initiatives toward establishing a hydrogen-based transportation infrastructure have been undertaken, encompassing key technological challenges in hydrogen production and delivery, fuel cells, and hydrogen storage. However, the principal obstacle to the implementation of a safe, low-pressure hydrogen fueling system for fuel-cell powered vehicles remains storage under conditions of near-ambient temperature and moderate pressure. The choices for viable hydrogen storage systems at the present time are limited to compressed gas storage tanks, cryogenic liquid hydrogen storage tanks, chemical hydrogen storage, and hydrogen absorbed or adsorbed in a solid-state material (a.k.a. solid-state storage). Solid-state hydrogen storage may offer overriding benefits in terms of storage capacity, kinetics and, most importantly, safety.The fervor among the research community to develop novel storage materials had, in many instances, the unfortunate consequence of making erroneous, if not wild, claims on the reported storage capacities achievable in such materials, to the extent that the potential viability of emerging materials was difficult to assess. This problem led to a widespread need to establish a capability to accurately and independently assess the storage behavior of a wide array of different classes of solid-state storage materials, employing qualified methods, thus allowing development efforts to focus on those materials that showed the most promise. However, standard guidelines, dedicated facilities, or certification programs specifically aimed at testing and assessing the performance, safety, and life cycle of these emergent materials had not been established. To address the stated need, the Testing Laboratory for Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Technologies was commissioned as a national-level focal point for evaluating new materials emerging from the designated Materials Centers of Excellence (MCoE) according to

  13. Coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    1994-08-30

    A coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method which iudes a rotary spindle having an upper phase plate and an axis of rotation, a kinematic ball mount attached to the phase plate concentric with the axis of rotation of the phase plate, a groove mounted at the circumference of the phase plate, and an arm assembly which rests in the groove. The arm assembly has a small sphere at one end and a large sphere at the other end. The small sphere may be a coordinate measuring machine probe tip and may have variable diameters. The large sphere is secured in the kinematic ball mount and the arm is held in the groove. The kinematic ball mount includes at least three mounting spheres and the groove is an angular locating groove including at least two locking spheres. The arm may have a hollow inner core and an outer layer. The rotary spindle may be a ratio reducer. The device is used to evaluate the measuring performance of a coordinate measuring machine for periodic recertification, including 2 and 3 dimensional accuracy, squareness, straightness, and angular accuracy.

  14. Coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, L.F.

    1994-08-30

    A coordinate measuring machine test standard apparatus and method are disclosed which includes a rotary spindle having an upper phase plate and an axis of rotation, a kinematic ball mount attached to the phase plate concentric with the axis of rotation of the phase plate, a groove mounted at the circumference of the phase plate, and an arm assembly which rests in the groove. The arm assembly has a small sphere at one end and a large sphere at the other end. The small sphere may be a coordinate measuring machine probe tip and may have variable diameters. The large sphere is secured in the kinematic ball mount and the arm is held in the groove. The kinematic ball mount includes at least three mounting spheres and the groove is an angular locating groove including at least two locking spheres. The arm may have a hollow inner core and an outer layer. The rotary spindle may be a ratio reducer. The device is used to evaluate the measuring performance of a coordinate measuring machine for periodic recertification, including 2 and 3 dimensional accuracy, squareness, straightness, and angular accuracy. 5 figs.

  15. Assessment of and standardization for quantitative nondestructive test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuschaefer, R. W.; Beal, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Present capabilities and limitations of nondestructive testing (NDT) as applied to aerospace structures during design, development, production, and operational phases are assessed. It will help determine what useful structural quantitative and qualitative data may be provided from raw materials to vehicle refurbishment. This assessment considers metal alloys systems and bonded composites presently applied in active NASA programs or strong contenders for future use. Quantitative and qualitative data has been summarized from recent literature, and in-house information, and presented along with a description of those structures or standards where the information was obtained. Examples, in tabular form, of NDT technique capabilities and limitations have been provided. NDT techniques discussed and assessed were radiography, ultrasonics, penetrants, thermal, acoustic, and electromagnetic. Quantitative data is sparse; therefore, obtaining statistically reliable flaw detection data must be strongly emphasized. The new requirements for reusable space vehicles have resulted in highly efficient design concepts operating in severe environments. This increases the need for quantitative NDT evaluation of selected structural components, the end item structure, and during refurbishment operations.

  16. National Educational Standards and Testing: A Response to the Recommendations of the National Council on Education Standards and Testing. Congressional Testimony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel M.; And Others

    In January 1992, the National Council on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST) issued a report "Raising Standards for American Education," which called for the establishment of a national system of educational standards and assessments as a basis for comprehensive reform of U.S. education. This statement is a facsimile of the written testimony…

  17. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system testing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu; Moreau, Dennis R.; Yan, Lin

    1984-01-01

    A set of system testing standards to be used in the development of all C software within the NASA/PC Research and Development Project is established. Testing will be considered in two phases: the program testing phase and the system testing phase. The objective of these standards is to provide guidelines for the planning and conduct of program and software system testing.

  18. Reading Results: A Critical Look at Standardized Testing and the Linguistic Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Joanie

    2008-01-01

    A critical look into assessing the Standardized Test and Reporting (STAR) test data among English language learners gives educators a chance to examine the cultural biases present within the standardized test movement started by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. In particular, The STAR test results seem to reflect that the test is geared…

  19. 29 CFR 1630.10 - Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... business necessity. (b) Qualification standards and tests related to uncorrected vision. Notwithstanding..., or other selection criteria based on an individual's uncorrected vision unless the standard, test, or... application of a qualification standard, test, or other criterion based on uncorrected vision need not be...

  20. 29 CFR 1630.10 - Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... business necessity. (b) Qualification standards and tests related to uncorrected vision. Notwithstanding..., or other selection criteria based on an individual's uncorrected vision unless the standard, test, or... application of a qualification standard, test, or other criterion based on uncorrected vision need not be...

  1. 29 CFR 1630.10 - Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... business necessity. (b) Qualification standards and tests related to uncorrected vision. Notwithstanding..., or other selection criteria based on an individual's uncorrected vision unless the standard, test, or... application of a qualification standard, test, or other criterion based on uncorrected vision need not be...

  2. 29 CFR 1630.10 - Qualification standards, tests, and other selection criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... business necessity. (b) Qualification standards and tests related to uncorrected vision. Notwithstanding..., or other selection criteria based on an individual's uncorrected vision unless the standard, test, or... application of a qualification standard, test, or other criterion based on uncorrected vision need not be...

  3. Standardized Tests: Let's Force Some Sanity On Them--Or Get Rid Of Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bost, William A.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests ways of bringing "sanity" to standardized testing. For instance, no standardized test should ever be administered for purposes of establishing scholastic pecking orders, and the agency that administers a standardized test must determine the relationship between measured ability and measured achievement. (Author/IRT)

  4. Behaviour of ceria nanoparticles in standardized test media - influence on the results of ecotoxicological tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manier, Nicolas; Garaud, Maël; Delalain, Patrice; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier; Pandard, Pascal

    2011-07-01

    The main objectives of this work were to establish the behaviour of a ceria nanopowder in different ecotoxicological media commonly used in standardized aquatic ecotoxicity tests and consequently to assess the acute and chronic ecotoxicity in two micro-invertebrates: Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia and in a freshwater green algae: Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Different approaches to disperse the ceria nanoparticles (i.e. stirring, use of probe sonication, addition of humic acids) were tested and the influence on the biological endpoints was investigated. Despite the agglomeration phenomena observed in all the tested media, the results obtained indicated higher stability in the lower ionic strength media with addition of humic acid (2 mg.L-1 TOC). No acute toxicity were observed with D. magna, whatever the dispersal method performed and the nCeO2 concentration tested (up to 1000 mg.L-1), as no acute toxicity was recorded with C. dubia following exposure to the stirring suspensions. On contrary, acute toxicity was recorded in C. dubia with EC50 values comprise between 11.9 and 25.3 mg.L-1 using the probe sonicated suspension with or without humic acids addition. Significant chronic effect on the reproduction capability was also recorded in C. dubia. The estimated EC10 values were comprised between 2.1 and 2.9 mg.L-1. Focusing on P. subcapitata, despite the different agglomerate size recorded in the tested media at the end of the exposure periods, results obtained were similar. Adverse effect on algal growth around 5 mg.L-1 were reported (mean EC10 = 4 ± 1.8 mg.L-1). Those results suggested the needed for standardized testing protocol concerning the aqueous media used or the sample preparation for laboratory testing.

  5. Science standardized achievement tests: The relationship between publishers, textbook completion, admission standards and science test scores of seventh through ninth grade students in FACCS schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nix, Sharon J.

    Scaled scores from the Stanford Achievement Test Series, Tenth Edition were examined in this causal-comparative study to determine if science publishers in Florida Association of Christian Colleges and Schools (FACCS), textbook completion rates, and admission standards affect standardized test scores. Administrators from 34 schools in FACCS participated in the study by returning an original eleven-question survey instrument to help ascertain what differences or relationships affect standardized test scores. Nine Mann-Whitney tests, one for each grade level in seventh through ninth, did not reveal a significant difference on hypotheses 1a-3c. Publishers (BJ U Press, A.C.E., Glencoe, Prentice Hall), standardized tests, entrance exams, GPA, and ability index factors were reviewed in the study. The results of this study might prompt administrators to consider factors other than publisher usage, textbook completion, and admission standards when attempting to close achievement gaps.

  6. 42 CFR 493.1425 - Standard; Testing personnel responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from the laboratory's established performance specifications. Laboratories Performing High Complexity... responsibilities. The testing personnel are responsible for specimen processing, test performance, and for... procedures whenever test systems are not within the laboratory's established acceptable levels of...

  7. Framework for a Comparative Accelerated Testing Standard for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Yamamichi, M.; Sample, T.; Miller, D.; Meakin, D.; Monokroussos, C.; TamizhMani, M.; Kempe, M.; Jordan, D.; Bosco, N.; Hacke, P.; Bermudez, V.; Kondo, M.

    2013-08-01

    As the photovoltaic industry has grown, the interest in comparative accelerated testing has also grown. Private test labs offer testing services that apply greater stress than the standard qualification tests as tools for differentiating products and for gaining increased confidence in long-term PV investments. While the value of a single international standard for comparative accelerated testing is widely acknowledged, the development of a consensus is difficult. This paper strives to identify a technical basis for a comparative standard.

  8. Drinking water quality standards and standard tests: Worldwide. (Latest citations from Food Science & Technology Abstracts (FSTA)). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the laws, regulations, standards, and testing methods for drinking water from domestic and international sources. Citations discuss quality standardization and control. Topics include safety codes for drinking water systems and installations, contaminated water and toxicity analyses, biological and chemical standards, diseases derived from drinking water, plastic materials for water packaging, and natural mineral drinking water. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  9. Fluid composition impacts standardized testing protocols in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene knee wear testing.

    PubMed

    Schwenke, T; Kaddick, C; Schneider, E; Wimmer, M A

    2005-11-01

    Wear of total knee replacements is determined gravimetrically in simulator studies. A mix of bovine serum, distilled water, and additives is intended to replicate the lubrication conditions in vivo. Weight gain due to fluid absorption during testing is corrected using a load soak station. In this study, three sets of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene tibial plateau were tested against highly polished titanium condyles. Test 1 was performed in two different institutions on the same simulator according to the standard ISO 14243-1, using two testing lubricants. Test 2 and test 3 repeated both previous test sections. The wear and load soak rates changed significantly with the lubricant. The wear rate decreased from 16.9 to 7.9 mg weight loss per million cycles when switching from fluid A to fluid B. The weight gain of the load soak specimen submersed in fluid A was 6.1 mg after 5 x 10(6) cycles, compared with 31.6 mg for the implant in fluid B after the same time period. Both lubricants were mixed in accordance with ISO 14243 (Implants for surgery - wear of total knee-joint prostheses), suggesting that calf serum should be diluted to 25 +/- 2 per cent with deionized water and a protein mass concentration of not less than 17 g/l. The main differences were the type and amount of additives that chemically stabilize the lubricant throughout the test. The results suggest that wear rates can only be compared if exactly the same testing conditions are applied. An agreement on detailed lubricant specifications is desirable.

  10. Standardization of carbon-phenolic composite test methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual volatiles, filler content, and resin flow test procedures for carbon-phenolic prepreg materials. The residual volatile test procedure was rewritten with tighter procedure control which was then evaluated by round robin testing by four laboratories on the same rolls of prepreg. Results indicated that the residual volatiles test was too operator and equipment dependent to be reliable, and it was recommended that the test be discontinued. The resin flow test procedures were rewritten with tighter procedure control, and it is now considered to be an acceptable test. It was recommended that the filler content determination be made prior to prepregging.

  11. Rubidium frequency standard test program for NAVSTAR GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koide, F.; Dederich, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Test data of the RFS Program in the Production phase and computer automation are presented, as an essential element in the evaluation of the RFS performance in a simulated spacecraft environment. Typical production test data will be discussed for stabilities from 1 to 100,000 seconds averaging time and simulated time error accumulation test. Also, design considerations in developing the RFS test systems for the acceptance test in production are discussed.

  12. Standardized methods for in-place filter testing

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, M.; Fretthold, J.K.; Slawski, J.

    1997-08-01

    The conference minutes of a US DOE meeting held on in-place filter testing are presented. The purpose of the conference was to transfer technical in-place testing knowledge throughout the DOE complex. Major items discussed included purchase requisitions, in-place testing, instrumentation, and in-place test personnel qualifications and training. Future actions identified by conference attendees centered on establishing complex-wide DOE policies on training, inspection and testing, and filter specifications.

  13. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  14. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  15. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  16. Validity Considerations in the Assessment of LEP Students Using Standardized Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abedi, Jamal

    Validity and reliability issues in standardized testing of students of limited English proficiency (LEP) were studied. Existing data from four different school sites were obtained for LEP and non-LEP students for three different standardized tests, the Stanford Achievement Tests (Ninth edition), the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills, and the Language…

  17. The Fractured Marketplace for Standardized Testing. Evaluation in Education and Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Walter M.; And Others

    Although standardized testing is increasingly prominent in the United States, the testing industry has not received much attention. The industry and the market for standardized tests are examined, emphasizing the fragmented nature of the market. After an introduction, Chapter 2 describes the testing marketplace, and Chapter 3 reviews evidence on…

  18. Standard Transistor Array (STAR). Volume 2: Test pattern generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Testing of large scale integrated logic circuits is considered from the point-of-view of automatic test pattern generation. A logic simulator based approach for automatic test pattern generation is taken and is described. The logic model and the timing model used in the simulator are also described. Two methods are presented for generating test patterns from the output of the simulator. Recommendations for future study are also presented.

  19. 42 CFR 493.1291 - Standard: Test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... information maintained as part of the patient's chart or medical record must be readily available to the... permits ready identification and timely accessibility. (k) When errors in the reported patient test... ordering the test and, if applicable, the individual using the test results of reporting errors. (2)...

  20. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assure test accuracy. (1) Initial tests (i.e., those occurring for the first time in a test cycle) shall... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... be tightened if necessary. (ii) The system shall be pressurized to 14 ±0.5 inches of water...

  1. Standardized Testing in a Less-than-Perfect World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashworth, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    Testing has almost completely lost its identity as a device to increase access to college for the underprivileged. Testing today is seen as a device to deny access. Intelligence is randomly distributed among the rich and the poor, and testing helps remove privilege as a guarantee of success and advancement. (MLW)

  2. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  3. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  4. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  5. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  6. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  7. Comparison of Differences in Dialect Speech among Black College Students Grouped by Standard English Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muehl, Siegmar; Muehl, Lois

    1976-01-01

    Black students that were grouped for English ability by their standardized test scores translated a standard English text into black dialect. Analytical data show group differences in dialect facility that correlate to standard English ability, suggesting that language development affects both dialect performance and standard English learning. (RL)

  8. Cognitive fatigue influences students’ performance on standardized tests

    PubMed Central

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009/10 and 2012/13, we examine how the time of the test affects performance. Test time is determined by the weekly class schedule and computer availability at the school. We find that, for every hour later in the day, test performance decreases by 0.9% of an SD (95% CI, 0.7–1.0%). However, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test performance by 1.7% of an SD (95% CI, 1.2–2.2%). These findings have two important policy implications: First, cognitive fatigue should be taken into consideration when deciding on the length of the school day and the frequency and duration of breaks throughout the day. Second, school accountability systems should control for the influence of external factors on test scores. PMID:26884183

  9. Guidelines for Selecting a Standard Setting Panel for Licensure Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses panels for standard setting and presents 10 guidelines for the selection of panel members for such studies. Panel members should themselves hold the license for which they are producing a cutting score, and they must be familiar with the requirements of the profession and the characteristics of the candidates. (SLD)

  10. New ASTM Standards for Nondestructive Testing of Aerospace Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2010-01-01

    Problem: Lack of consensus standards containing procedural detail for NDE of polymer matrix composite materials: I. Flat panel composites. II. Composite components with more complex geometries a) Pressure vessels: 1) composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). 2) composite pressure vessels (CPVs). III. Sandwich core constructions. Metal and brittle matrix composites are a possible subject of future effort.

  11. School Reform, Standards Testing and English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguardia, Armando; Goldman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports findings from interviews conducted in two states in the American Northwest, Oregon and Washington, to explore how standards-based educational reform affects English language learners (ELLs) and the educational professionals who serve them. This paper focuses on two sets of multifaceted tensions: (1) organizational tensions that…

  12. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant...

  13. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant...

  14. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant...

  15. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant...

  16. 40 CFR 82.38 - Approved independent standards testing organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Recycling Program Manager, Stratospheric Protection Division (6205J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency... following: (1) That the organization has the capacity to accurately test whether refrigerant...

  17. [Pay attention to physical test and drafting product standards of the centrifuge apparatus].

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Jia, Yufei; Li, Haixin; Song, Jinzi

    2010-03-01

    Compare and analyze the standards related to centrifuge apparatus and make corresponding suggestions in allusion to the problems existed in the test method and physical performance during product standard drafting process.

  18. Standardized Testing: Policy Implications for Employment in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasik, Katherine Ann; Simpson, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Within the purview of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, legislation has specifically addressed testing practices. Reviews the historical perspective of employment testing, nonuniformity of lower court interpretations of Title VII, and Supreme Court decisions; and presents recommendations for administrators and legislators. (MLF)

  19. 40 CFR 80.165 - Certification test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, a document must be... generic certification option in § 80.163(a)(1)(iii) are contained in § 80.176. (a) Fuel injector deposit control testing. The required test fuel must produce no more than 5% flow restriction in any one...

  20. Construct Validation of the Fairy Tale Test--Standardization Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulacoglou, Carina

    2002-01-01

    Studied the construct validity of the Fairy Tale Test (C. Coulacoglu, 1993), a personality projective test for children, in a sample of 800 Greek children aged 8, 10, and 12. Factor analysis led to identification of eight primary factors, and correlations with other measures provide construct validity evidence. (SLD)

  1. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  2. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static ultimate load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A series of tests were conducted on the jettisonable metallic shroud used on the Titan/Centaur launch vehicle to verify its structural capabilities and to evaluate its structural interaction with the Centaur stage. A flight configured shroud and the interfacing Titan/Centaur structural assemblies were subjected to tests consisting of combinations of applied axial and shear loads to design ultimate values, including a set of tests on thermal conditions and two dynamic response tests to verify the analytical stiffness model. The strength capabilities were demonstrated at ultimate (125 percent of design limit) loads. It was also verified that the spring rate of the flight configured shroud-to-Centaur forward structural deflections of the specimen became nonlinear, as expected, above limit load values. This test series qualification program verified that the Titan/Centaur shroud and the Centaur and Titan interface components are qualified structurally at design ultimate loads.

  3. Steps toward More Effective Implementation of the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koretz, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The goal of the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is to improve testing practices, but their impact on practice appears spotty. Self-regulation clearly fails in some instances. The establishment of an external agency to oversee testing practices and adherence to the Standards would face substantial hurdles, and the ambiguity of…

  4. Developing District Made Criterion Referenced Tests: A Standard of Excellence for Effective Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; And Others

    Research on the lack of correlation between standardized tests and school district goals has suggested that district goals might be better met by supplementing standardized tests with district-made criterion-referenced testing systems. This article reports on the development of such a system, the Academic Learning Progress Assessment System…

  5. 42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing... for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1236 Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. (a) The laboratory must review and evaluate the results obtained on...

  6. 42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing... for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1236 Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. (a) The laboratory must review and evaluate the results obtained on...

  7. 42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing... for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1236 Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. (a) The laboratory must review and evaluate the results obtained on...

  8. 42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing... for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1236 Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. (a) The laboratory must review and evaluate the results obtained on...

  9. Using geodetic VLBI to test Standard-Model Extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, Aurélien; Lambert, Sébastien; Le Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    The modeling of the relativistic delay in geodetic techniques is primordial to get accurate geodetic products. And geodetic techniques can also be used to measure the relativistic delay and get constraints on parameters describing the relativity theory. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In terms of light deflexion by a massive body like the Sun, one can expect a dependence in the elongation angle different from GR. In this communication, we use geodetic VLBI observations of quasars made in the frame of the permanent geodetic VLBI monitoring program to constrain the first SME coefficient. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints on both GR and SME parameters.

  10. Impact of a standardized test package on exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN outcomes.

    PubMed

    Homard, Catherine M

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this ex post facto correlational study was to compare exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN(®) pass rates of baccalaureate nursing students who differed in level of participation in a standardized test package. Three cohort groups emerged as a standardized test package was introduced: (a) students who did not participate in a standardized test package; (b) students with two semesters of a standardized test package; and (c) students with four semesters of a standardized test package. Benner's novice-to-expert theory framed the study in the belief that students best acquire knowledge and skills through practice and reflection. Students participating in four semesters of a standardized test package demonstrated higher exit examination scores and NCLEX-RN pass rates compared with students who did not participate in this package. This study's results could inform nurse educators about strategies to facilitate nursing student success on exit examinations and the NCLEX-RN.

  11. Standardization Tests of NACA No. 1 Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Elliott G

    1925-01-01

    The tests described in this report were made in the 5-foot atmospheric wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, at Langley Field. The primary objective of collecting data on the characteristics of this tunnel for comparison with those of others throughout the world, in order that, in the future, the results of tests made in all the principle laboratories may be interpreted, compared, and coordinated on a basis of scientifically established relationships, a process hitherto impossible due to the lack of comparable data. The work includes tests of a disk, spheres, cylinders, and airfoils, explorations of the test section for static pressure and velocity distribution, and determination of the variations of air flow direction throughout the operating range of the tunnel. (author)

  12. Guidelines for Standardized Testing of Broadband Seismometers and Accelerometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutt, Charles R.; Evans, John R.; Followill, Fred; Nigbor, Robert L.; Wielandt, Erhard

    2010-01-01

    Testing and specification of seismic and earthquake-engineering sensors and recorders has been marked by significant variations in procedures and selected parameters. These variations cause difficulty in comparing such specifications and test results. In July 1989, and again in May 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey hosted international pub-lic/private workshops with the goal of defining widely accepted guidelines for the testing of seismological inertial sensors, seismometers, and accelerometers. The Proceedings of the 2005 workshop have been published and include as appendix 6 the report of the 1989 workshop. This document represents a collation and rationalization of a single set of formal guidelines for testing and specifying broadband seismometers and accelerometers.

  13. Centaur Standard Shroud (CSS) static limit load structural tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, C.

    1975-01-01

    The structural capabilities of the jettisonable metal shroud were tested and the interaction of the shroud with the Centaur stage was evaluated. A flight-configured shroud and the assemblies of the associated Centaur stage were tested for applied axial and shear loads to flight limit values. The tests included various thermal, pressure, and load conditions to verify localized strength capabilities, to evaluate subsystem performance, and to determine the aging effect on insulation system properties. The tests series verified the strength capabilities of the shroud and of all associated flight assembles. Shroud deflections were shown to remain within allowable limits so long as load sharing members were connected between the shroud and the Centaur stage.

  14. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  15. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  16. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a)...

  17. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a)...

  18. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a)...

  19. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a)...

  20. 45 CFR 170.455 - Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CERTIFICATION CRITERIA AND CERTIFICATION PROGRAMS FOR HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Temporary Certification Program for HIT § 170.455 Testing and certification to newer versions of certain standards. (a)...

  1. Test of a new standard for fluorine determination with PIGE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zschau, H.-E.; Plier, F.; Vogt, J.; Otto, G.; Duschner, H.; Arends, J.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.; Klabes, R.; Salomonovic, R.; Hulek, Z.; Setvak, M.

    1992-05-01

    The flourine concentration of chemically enriched hydroxylapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) was measured by means of PIGE using the nuclear reactions 19F(p,p'γ)19F and 19F(p, αγ)16O. The experiments were done in two runs with 1.68 and 2.15 MeV proton incidence. The results determined with inelastic scattering are in good agreements in the two runs. The samples are suiotable as new fluorine standards in teh ppm region to study the fluorine content in tooth enamel.

  2. Teacher Licensure Test Validation and Performance Standard Studies: A Two-State Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Harry L.

    Comparative data and results of validation and standard-setting studies are presented for five subject-matter tests for teacher certification in two states. The five tests evaluated were available from the Educational Testing Service (ETS): one National Teacher Examination specialty area test (special education); and four tests from a consortium…

  3. A Standard Platform for Testing and Comparison of MDAO Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Justin S.; Moore, Kenneth T.; Hearn, Tristan A.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    The Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) community has developed a multitude of algorithms and techniques, called architectures, for performing optimizations on complex engineering systems which involve coupling between multiple discipline analyses. These architectures seek to efficiently handle optimizations with computationally expensive analyses including multiple disciplines. We propose a new testing procedure that can provide a quantitative and qualitative means of comparison among architectures. The proposed test procedure is implemented within the open source framework, OpenMDAO, and comparative results are presented for five well-known architectures: MDF, IDF, CO, BLISS, and BLISS-2000. We also demonstrate how using open source soft- ware development methods can allow the MDAO community to submit new problems and architectures to keep the test suite relevant.

  4. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invalid test condition, unsafe conditions, fast pass/fail algorithms, or, in the case of the on-board... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... using approved fast pass or fast fail algorithms and multiple pass/fail algorithms may be used...

  5. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invalid test condition, unsafe conditions, fast pass/fail algorithms, or, in the case of the on-board... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... using approved fast pass or fast fail algorithms and multiple pass/fail algorithms may be used...

  6. Analysis of Individual "Test Of Astronomy STandards" (TOAST) Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon Price; Stork, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of valid and reliable strategies to efficiently determine the knowledge landscape of introductory astronomy college students is an effort of great interest to the astronomy education community. This study examines individual item response rates from a widely used conceptual understanding survey, the Test Of Astronomy Standards…

  7. 42 CFR 493.1291 - Standard: Test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... information maintained as part of the patient's chart or medical record must be readily available to the... laboratory in a manner that permits ready identification and timely accessibility. (k) When errors in the... errors. (2) Issue corrected reports promptly to the authorized person ordering the test and,...

  8. 40 CFR 80.165 - Certification test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... no more than 5% flow restriction in any one injector when tested in accordance with ASTM D 5598-94... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies...) At the option of the certifier, fuel injector flow may be measured at intervals during the...

  9. [The pretransfusion bedside agglutination test is not a "Gold Standard"].

    PubMed

    Levy, G

    2008-11-01

    ABO-incompatible transfusions remain frequent in Europe despite the technological progresses in relation with the potential number of human errors during the control procedures of the transfusion chain. The agglutination bedside-test is only one step of this chain and the amelioration of the security will be achieved by its replacement by an electronical check.

  10. Parent Attitudes towards Home Preparation for Standardized Testing in Jamaica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrisingh, Allison E.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the lived experiences of parents who used stress-reducing interventions with children during home preparation for the Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) in Kingston, Jamaica. Eight Grade Six parents with children who participated in the 2010 GSAT were interviewed. Only parents with a Grade Six child…

  11. Heuristics and NCLB Standardized Tests: A Convenient Lie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 requires public schools in the United States to test students in grades 3-8. The author argues that this mandate has been supported by the public, in part, because of the "availability heuristic," a phenomenon which occurs when people assess the probability of an event by the ease with which instances or…

  12. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  13. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  14. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  15. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  16. 16 CFR 432.3 - Standard test conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES POWER OUTPUT CLAIMS FOR... performing the tests necessary to make the disclosures required under § 432.2 of this part: (a) The power... event the latter figure would control), RMS, using a sinusoidal wave containing less than 2...

  17. 40 CFR 51.357 - Test procedures and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forth in 40 CFR 86.094-17(e)(1): “Control of Air Pollution From New Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle... invalid test condition, unsafe conditions, fast pass/fail algorithms, or, in the case of the on-board... with the procedures contained in appendix B to this subpart. (8) Emission control device...

  18. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  19. Standard test method for vinyl chloride in workplace atmospheres (charcoal tube method). ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-22 on Sampling and Analysis of Atmospheres and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D22.04 on Workplace Atmospheres. Current edition approved May 10, 1998. Published July 1998. Originally published as D 4766-88. Last previous edition D 4766-88(1993). Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  20. Testing the Standard Model with the Primordial Inflation Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10A{-3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  1. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY... storage of reagents and specimens, accurate and reliable test system operation, and test result reporting...) Temperature. (3) Humidity. (4) Protection of equipment and instruments from fluctuations and interruptions...

  2. Standardization of a neuromotor test battery: the CATSYS system.

    PubMed

    Després, C; Lamoureux, D; Beuter, A

    2000-10-01

    Interindividual and intraindividual variability in neuromotor behaviors is expected and normal. Early changes in neuromotor behaviors associated with neurodegenerative disorders or neurotoxic effects are often subtle and fluctuating in their characteristics. Therefore, their detection at an early stage is particularly difficult without precise recording instruments. The CATSYS system developed by Danish Product Development (DPD) is a portable device recording four measures of neuromotor control including tremor, reaction time, hand coordination and postural sway. The aim of this study is to develop a set of normative data. One hundred and fifty healthy men and women were divided into five age groups: (1) 20 to 29 years (n=30); (2) 30 to 39 years (n=30); (3) 40 to 49 years (n=30); (4) 50 to 59 years (n=30); (5) 60 to 70 years (n=30). All participants were free of neurological deficits at the time of testing and they were tested individually for approximately 30 min. Hand coordination was measured with prono-supination and finger-tapping movements executed at constant and accelerated rhythms. Reaction time was assessed in both hands using a hand held switch activated by the thumb. Postural tremor was quantified in both hands during 24.6 sec. by asking the subject to hold a stylus horizontally at 10 cm in front of his/her navel. The stylus contained a biaxial accelerometer. Postural sway was tested by asking the subject to stand on a force platform for 75 sec. under four conditions: (1) eyes open; (2) eyes closed; (3) eyes open standing on a foam pad; and (4) eyes closed standing on a foam pad. ANOVAs and multiple comparison tests were performed and the results were examined taking into account age, gender and experimental condition effects. PMID:11130276

  3. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. (a)...

  4. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. (a)...

  5. 75 FR 67093 - Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary Permit for Market Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Iceberg Water Deviating From Identity Standard; Temporary.... standard of identity for bottled water. The purpose of the temporary permit is to allow the applicant to... facilitate market testing of foods deviating from the requirements of the standards of identity issued...

  6. Performance Standards and Evaluation in IR Test Collections: Vector-Space and Other Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that computed the low performance standards for queries in 17 test collections. Predicted by the hypergeometric distribution, the standards represent the highest level of retrieval effectiveness attributable to chance. Operational levels of performance for vector-space and other retrieval models were compared to the standards.…

  7. This Test Is Unfair: African American and Latino High School Students' Perceptions of Standardized College Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, MaryBeth; McDonough, Patricia M.; Bauer, Constance J.; Gibson, Carolyn; Kanyi, Kamau T.; Toliver, Rita

    This qualitative study focused on African American and Latino high school students perceptions of standardized admission tests, including the Scholastic Assessment Tests (I and II) and the ACT Assessment. Students enrolled in college preparatory classes were interviewed about these tests individually and in focus groups in fall 1998 in their…

  8. Polymer standards for testing Fourier transform infrared spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowie, Bryan T.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1998-06-01

    An ideal sample for monitoring the photometric accuracy of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometers should be a self-supporting solid that is stable over a period of several years. Ideally, the spectrum of this sample should also have no interference fringes and the bands of interest should be stable over a wide temperature range. Two differently processed isotactic polypropylene samples, one stress-relieved and the other extruded, mounted between two BaF2˙ windows were investigated for this purpose. The 841-cm-1 band of polypropylene has been investigated as a possible wavenumber and photometric standard, because it is sharp, is not overlapped by neighboring bands and absorbs in an atmospheric window. When measured at 2 cm-1 resolution, the band centers (as calculated by their center of mass) are 841.68 cm-1 and 840.08 cm-1 for the stress-relieved and extruded polymer respectively. When the sample temperature changes from 10 °C to 50 °C, the band shifts by 0.03 cm-1 and 0.014 cm-1 for the stress-relieved and extruded polymer respectively. The full width at half height (FWHH) of the band increases by 0.33 cm-1 for both films when the temperature is increased from 10 °C to 50 °C. Conversely, the absorbance decreases by 0.085 and 0.058 for the stress-relieved and extruded film respectively when the temperature is increased from 10 °C to 50 °C. The percent deviation of the band area is 4.69 and 2.96 for the stress-relieved and extruded polymer respectively. Another possible issue to be concerned with when using a polymer as a standard is the effect of dichroism. The intensity of the 841-cm-1 band of the stress relieved polymer varies by 4.5% when the orientation of incident polarized radiation is varied by 90° about an axis normal to the plane of the polymer sample. When two layers of the polymer are overlaid such that the backbone chains of each layer are oriented orthogonally, the intensity of the analogous band for the extruded polymer changes by

  9. Ultrasonic transverse velocity calibration of standard blocks for use in non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. E. R.; Braz, D. S.; Maggi, L. E.; Costa Felix, R. P. B.

    2015-01-01

    Standard blocks are employed in the verification of the equipment used in Ultrasound Non-Destructive Testing. To assure the metrology reliability of all the measurement process, it is necessary to calibrate or certify these Standard blocks. In this work, the transverse wave velocity and main dimensions were assessed according to the specifications ISO Standards. For transverse wave velocity measurement, a 5 MHz transverse wave transducer, a waveform generator, an oscilloscope and a computer with a program developed in LabVIEWTM were used. Concerning the transverse wave velocity calibration, only two Standard blocks of the 4 tested is in accordance with the standard.

  10. Replacement of the International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and the Use of the Standard in the Flocculation Test

    PubMed Central

    Spaun, J.; Lyng, J.

    1970-01-01

    Since 1935 the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin has been defined as the activity contained in a certain weight of the first International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. As stocks of this standard had become depleted, 11 laboratories in 8 countries were requested to participate in a collaborative assay of a preparation proposed as a replacement. The assay results were analysed and presented to the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization in 1969 which established the preparation studied as the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin and defined the International Unit for Tetanus Antitoxin as the activity contained in 0.03384 mg of the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin. This definition would ensure the continuity of the size of this international unit. The analysis of the collaborative studies also showed that the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has suitable properties for use in the flocculation test for the determination of the antigen content of tetanus toxoids in Lf values. The designation Lf-equivalent is described and the problems relating to the use of this term for the expression of results of in vitro assays are analysed in relation to the use of international units for expressing results of in vivo assays. As the second International Standard for Tetanus Antitoxin has an in vivo/in vitro ratio of 1.4, the Lf-equivalent of this antitoxin is 1.4 times less than its unitage. PMID:5310949

  11. [The dynamic circulatory reaction of pilots to the standard test].

    PubMed

    Doroshev, V G; Vonarshenko, A P; Kirillova, Z A

    1994-05-01

    The examination of cardiovascular system in pilots in the process of their training has shown that the Valsalva test can execute the function of a slight or strong irritant with further changes in hemodynamics, particularly in the frequency of systoles and arterial pressure. These changes are accompanied by the shifts of cardiac volume per minute from hypo to hyper reaction. A correlation was disclosed between the reaction in the frequency of systoles and cardiac volume per minute which can be studied from the point of view of adaptation of blood circulation system to the factors of physical loads.

  12. Standard test method for solidification-point of petroleum wax

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Scope: describes a procedure for rapidly determining the solidification point of petroleum wax. A 50-mg sample of wax is placed in a test tube at ambient temperature and heated above the solidification point of the wax sample. A thermocouple probe, attached to a recorder, is inserted into the wax sample, which is allowed to cool at room temperature. The thermocouple response of the cooling wax traces a curve on the chart paper of the recorder. The first significant change in the slope of the curve is the solidifiation point.

  13. Standardization of radon measurements. 2. Accuracy and proficiency testing

    SciTech Connect

    Matuszek, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of in situ environmental radon measurement techniques is reviewed and new data for charcoal canister, alpha-track (track-etch) and electret detectors are presented. Deficiencies reported at the 1987 meeting in Wurenlingen, Federal Republic of Germany, for measurements using charcoal detectors are confirmed by the new results. Accuracy and precision of the alpha-track measurements laboratory were better than in 1987. Electret detectors appear to provide a convenient, accurate, and precise system for the measurement of radon concentration. The need for a comprehensive, blind proficiency-testing programs is discussed.

  14. Using Standardized Testing Results To Establish Standards for the Improvement of Student Academic Performance in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costello, Ronald W.

    The annual student performance information released in Indiana reports information on many different criteria and treats the data as if all comparisons should be the same. However, Indiana needs to set performance expectations that require all, not just some, students to improve. The Indiana Statewide Test of Educational Proficiencies Plus…

  15. Establishing Standards on Tests Used for Certification of Education Personnel: Validity Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Richard M.

    The "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (1985) and the "Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures" (1978) provide no clear guidance on choosing methods for setting standards on teacher certification tests, although they require that practices be well-documented and produce reasonable results, and that the implications…

  16. High-Stakes Testing and Discursive Control: The Triple Bind for Non-Standard Student Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne W.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of high-stakes, standardized testing on the curriculum are discouraging the teaching of multicultural, anti-racist content. Test-influenced educational environments contribute to the reproduction of racial and cultural inequality in education. Using the lens of sociolinguistics, the author asserts that high-stakes, standardized tests…

  17. The Use and Misuse of Standardized Testing: A Whiteheadian Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffert, Franz

    2005-01-01

    First an overview is given about the actual national and international situation concerning standardized testing. Then two major reasons are presented why accountability systems based on standardized testing have become so widespread: (a) the missing validity and reliability of teachers' assessment of students' achievement, and (b) the important…

  18. Alignment between High School Biology Curriculum Standard and the Standardised Tests of Four Provinces in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Qun; Liu, Enshan

    2012-01-01

    With the development and implementation of new curriculum standards, the field tests of education reform in senior high schools began in 2004 in four pilot provinces in mainland China. After five years of the reform, it is necessary to know how and to what extent the curriculum standard guides test classroom instruction. The present study was…

  19. Do School-Based Tutoring Programs Significantly Improve Student Performance on Standardized Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Terri; Henderson, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study used a pre-post, nonequivalent control group design to examine the impact of an in-district, after-school tutoring program on eighth grade students' standardized test scores in language arts and mathematics. Students who had scored in the near-passing range on either the language arts or mathematics aspect of a standardized test at the…

  20. 42 CFR 493.1236 - Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard: Evaluation of proficiency testing performance. 493.1236 Section 493.1236 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... for Nonwaived Testing General Laboratory Systems § 493.1236 Standard: Evaluation of...

  1. Commercial versus Internally Developed Standardized Tests: Lessons from a Small Regional School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjicharalambous, Costas

    2014-01-01

    The author compares the efficacy of commercially available and internally developed standardized tests and evaluates their strengths and weakness in assessing student learning outcomes. The author shares the experience of a regional school in developing a standardized test to assess business knowledge. Data from a sample of 268 students were used…

  2. How Standardized Tests Shape--and Limit--Student Learning. A Policy Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The term "standardized" tests is often heard along with "high-stakes." Standardized tests are administered, scored, and interpreted in a consistent way, so that the performances of large groups of students can be compared. They are not in themselves high-stakes, but they are often used for high-stakes purposes such as…

  3. Report of the Commission on the Use of Standardized Tests in Undergraduate Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for College Admission Counseling, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Standardized admission tests have become an increasingly important factor in undergraduate admission. At the same time, reforms in elementary and secondary education at both the state and federal level have elevated the importance of standardized tests as a tool to measure educational outcomes. Nevertheless, long-standing concerns with…

  4. Political Judgement, Freedom of Thought, and Standardized Testing: A Critical Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuler, Matthew Edward

    2012-01-01

    The practice of "standardized" testing has been embedded in United States federal education policy since at least the passage of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. The roots of standardized testing in American education, grounded in Kantian "Modern Thought," can be traced to the U.S. Military Academy at…

  5. Standardized Tests and Other Criteria in Admissions Decisions: A Classroom Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlow, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    This exercise aims to provide a hands-on, role-playing activity that requires students to evaluate the strengths and limitations of standardized tests in making admission decisions. Small groups pretend to be an admissions committee and review fictitious student applications containing both standardized test scores and other information admissions…

  6. Effects of an Online Instructional Application on Reading and Mathematics Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Trey; Pearson, Carolyn; Curda, L. K.; Pilcher, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Standardized tests have become commonly used tools for accountability in public education in the United States. In Florida, the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) is used to measure student achievement on grade-specific standards and benchmarks. Various agencies have developed computer-based and web-based software applications to improve…

  7. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    This revision updates Sandia`s working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling infrastructure. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  8. Standard testing procedures for optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    This document will establish a working standard for testing optical fiber and unshielded twisted pair cables included in the Lab-wide telecommunications cabling system. The purpose of these standard testing procedures is to deliver to all Sandians a reliable, low-maintenance, state-of-the-art, ubiquitous telecommunications cabling infrastructure capable of satisfying all current and future telecommunication needs.

  9. Testing warning messages on smokers’ cigarette packages: A standardized protocol

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Noel T.; Hall, Marissa G.; Lee, Joseph G. L.; Peebles, Kathryn; Noar, Seth M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Lab experiments on cigarette warnings typically use a brief one-time exposure that is not paired with the cigarette packs smokers use every day, leaving open the question of how repeated warning exposure over several weeks may affect smokers. This proof of principle study sought to develop a new protocol for testing cigarette warnings that better reflects real-world exposure by presenting them on cigarette smokers’ own packs. Methods We tested a cigarette pack labeling protocol with 76 US smokers ages 18 and older. We applied graphic warnings to the front and back of smokers’ cigarette packs. Results Most smokers reported that at least 75% of the packs of cigarettes they smoked during the study had our warnings. Nearly all said they would participate in the study again. Using cigarette packs with the study warnings increased quit intentions (p<.05). Conclusion Our findings suggest a feasible pack labeling protocol with six steps: (1) schedule appointments at brief intervals; (2) determine typical cigarette consumption; (3) ask smokers to bring a supply of cigarette packs to study appointments; (4) apply labels to smokers’ cigarette packs; (5) provide participation incentives at the end of appointments; and (6) refer smokers to cessation services at end of the study. When used in randomized controlled trials in settings with real-world message exposure over time, this protocol may help identify the true impact of warnings and thus better inform tobacco product labeling policy. PMID:25564282

  10. Estimating the Cost of Standardized Student Testing in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Richard P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes and contrasts different methods of estimating costs of standardized testing. Using a cost-accounting approach, compares gross and marginal costs and considers testing objects (test materials and services, personnel and student time, and administrative/building overhead). Social marginal costs of replacing existing tests with a national…

  11. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  12. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  13. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Quality System for Nonwaived Testing Analytic Systems § 493.1252 Standard: Test systems, equipment... electrical current that adversely affect patient test results and test reports. (c) Reagents, solutions... proper use. (d) Reagents, solutions, culture media, control materials, calibration materials, and...

  14. Helping Students Do Their Best on Standardized Achievement Tests. Bulletin No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Unified School District, CA. Research and Evaluation Branch.

    The Research and Evaluation Branch of the Los Angeles Unified School District presents a bulletin to help prepare students to do their best on achievement tests. The bulletin is divided into five sections. After an introduction, section 2, "Characteristics of Today's Standardized Achievement Tests" discusses test content, test format, answer…

  15. Standard guide for conducting static toxicity tests with Lemna gibba G3. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1991-06-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology. Current edition approved Apr. 15, 1991. Published June 1991. Reapproved 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  16. Standard guide for acute toxicity test with the rotifer Brachionus. ASTM standard

    SciTech Connect

    1991-06-01

    This guide is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E-47 on Biological Effects and Environmental Fate and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E47.01 on Aquatic Toxicology. Current edition approved Sep. 15, 1991. Published November 1991. Reapproved 1998. Copyright American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 100 Barr Harbor Drive, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428, USA. This document is available from NTIS under license from ASTM.

  17. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 7).

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M

    2008-08-01

    The changes that have been made to the previous version of the recommendations (version 6) are as follows: medium and incubation condition for testing Acinetobacter spp. (Tables 1 and 6); use of cefoxitin as an indicator antibiotic for detecting methicillin/oxacillin/cefoxitin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci (Tables 1, 6 and 11); MIC breakpoint for co-trimoxazole based on the trimethoprim concentration in a 1:19 combination with sulfamethoxazole (Tables 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16 and 19); advice on the use of azithromycin for the treatment of infections with Salmonella typhi (footnote to Table 7); amendment to the recommendation for cefuroxime for the treatment of infections with Proteus mirabilis (footnote Table 7); MIC and zone diameter breakpoints for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia only (Table 10); MIC breakpoints for daptomycin (Tables 11 and 15); clarification for staphylococci that the neomycin zone diameter breakpoints are for topical use only and differentiate the isolates outside the 'wild-type' population in Table 11; clarification for beta-haemolytic streptococci that the linezolid zone diameter breakpoints relate to an MIC breakpoint of 2 mg/L as no data for the intermediate category are currently available (Table 15); clarification that strains with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones give no zone of inhibition with a 30 microg nalidixic acid disc (Tables 16 and 21); erythromycin is no longer used for therapy of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, but may be tested for epidemiological purposes (Table 17); clarification that the ciprofloxacin zone diameter breakpoint for Neisseria meningitidis relates to the MIC breakpoint of 0.03 mg/L as no data for the intermediate category are currently available; clarification that the ciprofloxacin zone diameter breakpoints for Campylobacter spp. relate to an MIC breakpoint of 0.5 mg/L as no data for the intermediate category are currently available; clarification that for ciprofloxacin and vancomycin zone

  18. Resistive shorts characterization in CMOS standard cells for test pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgus, Andrzej; Potrykus, Bartosz

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents an extended method of CMOS standard cells characterization for defect based voltage testing. Resistance of a short defect is taken into account while considering faulty behavior caused by this defect and finding the test vectors that detect this fault. Finally, all of found vectors are validated to check their effectiveness in fault covering and the optimal test sequence for all detectable faults is constructed. Experimental results for cells from industrial standard cell library are presented.

  19. BSAC standardized disc susceptibility testing method (version 8).

    PubMed

    Andrews, J M

    2009-09-01

    azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin and telithromycin (Table 15); clarithromycin and erythromycin MIC and zone diameter BPs for Moraxella catarrhalis (Table 16); azithromycin MIC BPs for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Table 17); chloramphenicol and rifampicin MIC BPs for Neisseria meningitidis (Table 18); azithromycin MIC BPs for Haemophilus influenzae (Table 19); MIC BPs for metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Clostridium perfringens (Tables 23-25, respectively); susceptibility testing of Listeria spp. (Appendix 3); the acceptable range for ATCC 25923 to a 10 microg tobramycin disc (Table 26).

  20. Result of standard patch test in patients suspected of having allergic contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Puvabanditsin, Porntip

    2005-09-01

    Contact dermatitis is a common skin disease. Disease was diagnosed by a history of contact substance together with geographic distribution of lesion. Up till now, standard patch test is one of the most reliable test to identify and confirm causative agent of allergic contact dermatitis. To determine the rate of positive standard patch test and to identify the common allergen of contact dermatitis in Thailand, we performed the standard patch test in 129 patients, suspected having allergic contact dermatitis at Department of Dermatology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand from June 1, 2003 to September 1, 2004. The rate of positive standard patch test is 59.7% (n = 77/129). The most 3 common positive allergens were nickel sulfate (18.60%), cobalt chloride (17.05%) and fragrance mix (14.73%), respectively. The chance of positive standard patch test significantly correlated with sex (woman), initial diagnosis as contact dermatitis and history of house-worker (p = 0.017, p = 0.005 and p = 0.023, respectively). Whereas, there were no significant correlation between the chance of positive standard patch test and age of patient, location of lesion, history of recurrence, history of atopy, history of drug and food allergy. In addition, history of metal allergy significantly correlated with the chance of positive nickel sulfate or cobalt chloride in standard patch test (p = 0.017). In conclusion, this study demonstrated the prevalence of causative allergen of contact dermatitis in Thai patients using that standard patch test. Moreover, our data shown that the chance positive standard patch test was greater in patient, who were women or initial diagnosed as contact dermatitis or had history of houseworker or history of metal allergy.

  1. [Discussion on testing of flow rate of infusion device about industry standard].

    PubMed

    Hua, Songhe

    2014-07-01

    Carried on the exploration testing of flow rate of infusion device about industry standard YY 0451-2010. Engaged in flow rate experiments adopting different method that are provided by new and old industry standard for samples of the same type. Compared with the result of the dangerous coefficient by calculating the test data, the old standard can be more sensitive to reflect the situation of product flow rate, so it can be applied to conventional control of the products. The method which provided by the new industry standard is suitable for evaluating periodicity the level of product contaminated. PMID:25330614

  2. Environmental testing of block 3 solar cell modules. Part 1: Qualification testing of standard production modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.

    1979-01-01

    Qualification tests of solar cell modules are described. These modules continue to show improvement over earlier type modules tested. Cell cracking and delamination are less prevalent, and interconnect problems and electrical degradation from environmental testing are now rare.

  3. The Test-Taking Behaviors, Knowledge and Perceptions of Adult Basic Education Students on a Standardized Reading Comprehension Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schierloh, Jane M.

    A qualitative study investigated the test-taking behaviors, knowledge, and perceptions of 20 urban, adult basic education students reading at third to fifth grade equivalency levels. The entire reading comprehension subtest of the Test of Adult Basic Education, levels E and M, was administered under standardized conditions. A combination of…

  4. 76 FR 13621 - Opportunity to Partner; Testing of Patient Litters and Patient Restraints to Proposed Test Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... existing products or new products entirely based on the results of phase 1 testing. The cost of product... change--that is, the cost of redesigning and manufacturing to meet the proposed new test standards. In... existing product line (e.g.; entry level, mid level, and high end products). These costs may include:...

  5. Development of Proposed Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storage Devices. NBS Technical Note 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, James E.; And Others

    A study has been made at the National Bureau of Standards of the different techniques that are or could be used for testing solar collectors and thermal storage devices that are used in solar heating and cooling systems. This report reviews the various testing methods and outlines a recommended test procedure, including apparatus and…

  6. High-Stakes Standardized Testing & Marginalized Youth: An Examination of the Impact on Those Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of high-stakes, large-scale, standardized literacy testing on youth who have failed the Ontario Secondary School Literacy Test. Interviews with youth indicate that the unintended impact of high-stakes testing is more problematic than policy makers and educators may realize. In contrast to literacy policy's aims to…

  7. Postcolonial Technologies of Power: Standardized Testing and Representing Diverse Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viruru, Radhika

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the construction of standardized testing not only as a cultural product, but as an imperialistic product. She conducts both a postcolonial discussion of the critique of testing and examines the ways that children of color are represented in the content. Recognizing first that the increased use of tests is part…

  8. Standard Setting in Specific-Purpose Language Testing: What Can a Qualitative Study Add?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manias, Elizabeth; McNamara, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the views of nursing and medical domain experts in considering the standards for a specific-purpose English language screening test, the Occupational English Test (OET), for professional registration for immigrant health professionals. Since individuals who score performances in the test setting are often language experts…

  9. Flammability, Offgassing, and Compatibility Requirements and Test Procedures. Interim NASA Technical Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This Interim Standard establishes requirements for evaluation, testing, and selection of materials that are intended for use in space vehicles, associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE), and facilities used during assembly, test, and flight operations. Included are requirements, criteria, and test methods for evaluating the flammability, offgassing, and compatibility of materials.

  10. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  11. Effects of Student Self-Corrective Measures on Learning and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poplin, Beth D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether students who graded and corrected their own test papers improved their learning and standardized test scores on the North Carolina end-of-course test in United States History. Four preexisting, intact classrooms of 11th grade United States History students in two different high schools formed the basis of this…

  12. Student science achievement and the integration of Indigenous knowledge on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Juliann; Abrams, Eleanor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we examine how American Indian students in Montana performed on standardized state science assessments when a small number of test items based upon traditional science knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All", were included. Montana is the first state in the US to mandate the use of a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to incorporate this curriculum into a portion of the standardized assessment items. This study compares White and American Indian student test scores on these particular test items to determine how White and American Indian students perform on culturally relevant test items compared to traditional standard science test items. The connections between student achievement on adapted culturally relevant science test items versus traditional items brings valuable insights to the fields of science education, research on student assessments, and Indigenous studies.

  13. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  14. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  15. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  16. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  17. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters... locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a...

  18. Standard Practice for Dosimetry of Proton Beams for use in Radiation Effects Testing of Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, Margaret A.; Blackmore, Ewart; Cascio, Ethan W.; Castaneda, Carlos; von Przewoski, Barbara; Eisen, Harvey

    2008-07-25

    Representatives of facilities that routinely deliver protons for radiation effect testing are collaborating to establish a set of standard best practices for proton dosimetry. These best practices will be submitted to the ASTM International for adoption.

  19. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards...

  20. To Dream the Impossible Dream: Four Approaches to National Standards and Tests for America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E., Jr.; Julian, Liam; Petrilli, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Education policy leaders from across the political spectrum identified and evaluated four models that national standards and testing could take. These models are: (1) "The Whole Enchilada," the most direct and aggressive approach in which the federal government creates and enforces national standards and assessments, replacing the current 50…

  1. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  2. 40 CFR 201.28 - Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance with the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance with the standard. 201.28 Section 201.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  3. 40 CFR 201.28 - Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance with the standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing by railroad to determine probable compliance with the standard. 201.28 Section 201.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  4. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 5 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 80,000 students in grade 5 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  5. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 3 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 83,000 students in grade 3 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  6. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 8 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 79,000 students in grade 8 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  7. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. End of Course Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that students were required to answer as part of the SOL End-of-Course assessments. These questions are…

  8. Performance Standards and Evaluations in IR Test Collections: Cluster-Based Retrieval Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, W. M., Jr.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a study that computed low performance standards for the group of queries in 13 information retrieval (IR) test collections. Derived from the random graph hypothesis, these standards represent the highest levels of retrieval effectiveness that can be obtained from meaningless clustering structures. (Author/LRW)

  9. Predictors of successful physical readiness testing under the new standard: OPNAV Instruction 6110.1F.

    PubMed

    Zajdowicz, Margan J; McKenzie, Robin T

    2003-05-01

    A new physical readiness testing (PRT) instruction, OPNAV Instruction 6110.1F, specifying tougher standards compared with the previous standard was issued in May 2000. The purpose of this research was to describe differences in PRT results under the old and new standards, to describe body mass index (BMI) results, to compare BMI results with body composition assessment results, and to elucidate predictors of successful PRT results under the new standards. Using a retrospective cohort design, cross-sectional analysis was performed on data from 1,564 active duty subjects at the Naval Medical Center Portsmouth. Whereas, under the old standards, the distribution of PRT results was skewed toward high scores, the distribution of scores was normal under the new standards. BMI results demonstrated a problem with obesity in the cohort and correlated poorly with body composition assessment. Predictors of successful PRT were normal/underweight BMI, body composition within standards, officer rank, and age > or = 30 years.

  10. Considerations for a Standardized Test for Potential-Induced Degradation of Crystalline Silicon PV Modules (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01

    Over the past decade, there have been observations of module degradation and power loss because of the stress that system voltage bias exerts. This results in part from qualification tests and standards note adequately evaluating for the durability of modules to the long-term effects of high voltage bias that they experience in fielded arrays. This talk deals with factors for consideration, progress, and information still needed for a standardized test for degradation due to system voltage stress.

  11. Not All Tests Are Created Equal: Parental Rights and Standardized Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason; Winn, Russell; Currier, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    This case focuses on one parent's request to have his daughter exempted from district-mandated computer tests (called STAR Enterprise tests). These tests are administered several times per year as a formative assessment to gauge student achievement in the areas of reading and math. The parent was concerned that the district was spending too…

  12. 40 CFR 790.55 - Modification of test standards or schedules during conduct of test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to modify the test schedule for the mandatory testing conditions or requirements (i.e., “shall... § 790.5(b), or by phone with written confirmation to follow within 10 working days. Applications must... to provide guidance or to clarify a non-mandatory testing requirement (i.e., “should statements”)...

  13. Student science achievement and the integration of indigenous knowledge in the classroom and on standardized tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Juliann

    In science education, there has been little research focused on indigenous students' achievement on science standardized tests when indigenous knowledge is integrated into the test questions. However, there has been an increased amount of research investigating the impact of culturally relevant curriculum adaptations on indigenous students' achievement in standardized assessments (Aikenhead, 1997, 2001b; Barnhardt, 2005b). This dissertation examines the achievement gap that is present between American Indian and White students in Montana. I use data from Montana eighth-grade standardized state science tests to determine whether incorporating indigenous material into classrooms and on state standardized science tests supported these initiatives and whether expected outcomes, such as a decrease in the achievement gap and in increase in Native student test scores, are being generated. Using a quantitative methodology, this study focuses on how American Indian students in Montana perform on standardized state science assessments when knowledge from a cultural curriculum, "Indian Education for All," has been included on the tests. Montana is the first state in the United States to use a culturally relevant curriculum in all schools and to create standardized test items based on this curriculum. This study compares White and American Indian students' test scores on these particular test items and overall test scores to determine the effectiveness of the culturally relevant educational initiatives implemented by Montana's Office of Public Instruction in terms of student achievement on state standardized tests. Results of this study uncover the persistence of an achievement gap, with Native students still underperforming when compared to their majority counterparts. American Indian students continue to score at the "nearing proficiency" level, which is one level lower than White students are scoring, at the proficient level. When scores are investigated for items written

  14. Toxicity testing of dispersed oil requires adherence to standardized protocols to assess potential real world effects.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Gina; Clark, James; Aurand, Don

    2013-06-01

    Recently, several researchers have attempted to address Deepwater Horizon incident environmental fate and effects issues using laboratory testing and extrapolation procedures that are not fully reliable measures for environmental assessments. The 2013 Rico-Martínez et al. publication utilized laboratory testing approaches that severely limit our ability to reliably extrapolate such results to meaningful real-world assessments. The authors did not adopt key methodological elements of oil and dispersed oil toxicity standards. Further, they drew real-world conclusions from static exposure tests without reporting actual exposure concentrations. Without this information, it is not possible to compare their results to other research or real spill events that measured and reported exposure concentrations. The 1990s' Chemical Response to Oil Spills: Ecological Effects Research Forum program was established to standardize and conduct exposure characterization in oil and dispersed oil aquatic toxicity testing (Aurand and Coelho, 2005). This commentary raises awareness regarding the necessity of standardized test protocols.

  15. Development of standard test methods for evaluating defibrillation recovery characteristics of disposable ECG electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E; Lyon, P C

    1979-01-01

    A clinically relevant test for the measurement of defibrillation overload recovery of prefilled disposable ECG electrodes was developed and is proposed for use in an ECG electrode standard under development by AAMI. Defibrillation overload voltages and currents, as well as electrode polarization recovery voltages, were first measured in animal tests on 12 types of electrodes to allow correlation with various bench tests using a capacitor discharge at 10, 200, or 1000 V. Current overloads absorbed by the electrodes under worst conditions in animal tests were in the range of 2 percent of the defibrillation current flowing through the chest. These overloads were absorbed by most Ag-AgCl electrodes without excessive polarization. However, stainless steel, brass, and tin electrodes tended to polarize to levels that would saturate many ECG monitors. A standard bench test using a 200-V 10-muF capacitor was recommended for inclusion in the AAMI standard to determine whether electrodes are acceptable for use during defibrillation.

  16. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  17. A comparison of the standard category test with a new computer version.

    PubMed

    Silk-Eglit, Graham M; Gunner, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The Halstead Category Test is a popular measure of abstraction, concept formation, and logical analysis skills. Due to its large apparatus, however, ease of administration of the standard Category Test is limited. For this reason, a number of computer versions of the Category Test have been developed to facilitate its administration. The current study evaluated the equivalence of a new computer version to the standard Category Test in a sample of undergraduate students. Analyses revealed that the two versions did not differ significantly on subtest error scores, total error scores, or Neuropsychological Deficit Scale scores. Results of the current study support the equivalence of this new computer version to the standard version of the Category Test.

  18. Test Standard Developed for Determining the Slow Crack Growth of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    1998-01-01

    The service life of structural ceramic components is often limited by the process of slow crack growth. Therefore, it is important to develop an appropriate testing methodology for accurately determining the slow crack growth design parameters necessary for component life prediction. In addition, an appropriate test methodology can be used to determine the influences of component processing variables and composition on the slow crack growth and strength behavior of newly developed materials, thus allowing the component process to be tailored and optimized to specific needs. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, work to develop a standard test method to determine the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics was initiated by the authors in early 1994 in the C 28 (Advanced Ceramics) committee of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). After about 2 years of required balloting, the draft written by the authors was approved and established as a new ASTM test standard: ASTM C 1368-97, Standard Test Method for Determination of Slow Crack Growth Parameters of Advanced Ceramics by Constant Stress-Rate Flexural Testing at Ambient Temperature. Briefly, the test method uses constant stress-rate testing to determine strengths as a function of stress rate at ambient temperature. Strengths are measured in a routine manner at four or more stress rates by applying constant displacement or loading rates. The slow crack growth parameters required for design are then estimated from a relationship between strength and stress rate. This new standard will be published in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15.01, in 1998. Currently, a companion draft ASTM standard for determination of the slow crack growth parameters of advanced ceramics at elevated temperatures is being prepared by the authors and will be presented to the committee by the middle of 1998. Consequently, Lewis will maintain an active leadership role in advanced ceramics standardization within ASTM

  19. Standardization Efforts for Mechanical Testing and Design of Advanced Ceramic Materials and Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Jenkins, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced aerospace systems occasionally require the use of very brittle materials such as sapphire and ultra-high temperature ceramics. Although great progress has been made in the development of methods and standards for machining, testing and design of component from these materials, additional development and dissemination of standard practices is needed. ASTM Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics and ISO TC 206 have taken a lead role in the standardization of testing for ceramics, and recent efforts and needs in standards development by Committee C28 on Advanced Ceramics will be summarized. In some cases, the engineers, etc. involved are unaware of the latest developments, and traditional approaches applicable to other material systems are applied. Two examples of flight hardware failures that might have been prevented via education and standardization will be presented.

  20. PV Standards Work: Photovoltaic System and Component Certification, Test Facility Accreditation, and Solar Photovoltaic Energy Systems International Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.; Chalmers, S.; Barikmo, H. O.

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses efforts led by two companies (PowerMark Corporation and Sunset Technologies Inc.) to support both U.S. domestic and international photovoltaic (PV) system and component certification and test facility accreditation programs and the operation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Committee 82 (TC-82) Photovoltaic Energy Systems. International and national PV certification/accreditation programs are successfully facilitating entry of only the highest quality PV products into the marketplace. Standards also continue to be a cornerstone for assuring global PV product conformity assessment, reducing non-tariff trade barriers, and ultimately improving PV products while lowering cost.

  1. The Challenges of Meeting the "Standards": A Perspective from the Test Publishing Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, William G.

    2006-01-01

    Some of the challenges that test publishers face in constructing educational assessments that meet high technical quality as prescribed in the "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (AERA, APA, NCME, 1999) are examined. Federal educational initiatives are used to illustrate demands on technical quality that challenge the efforts of…

  2. Health Behaviors and Standardized Test Scores: The Impact of School Health Climate on Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Whitney D.; Daly, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Research has found that many characteristics are related to performance on standardized tests. Many of these are not necessarily "academic" attributes. One area of this research is on the connection between physical health or lifestyles and test performance. The research that exists in this area is often disconnected with each other and…

  3. Staff Report on the Federal Trade Commission Investigation of Coaching for Standardized Admission Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Trade Commission, Boston, MA.

    Whether coaching for standardized admission tests such as the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is effective was investigated. The Bureau of Consumer Protection of the Federal Trade Commission evaluated the effectiveness of two commercial coaching schools that offered preparation courses for the SAT. The researchers concluded that one of the two…

  4. Standardized Testing: One Size Fits All? A WisKids Count Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Council on Children and Families Inc., Madison.

    This report from the WisKids Count project, instead of being the usual annual data book about an array of issues affecting children, is a collection of essays that take a critical look at the practice of standardized testing and the status of testing in Wisconsin. In the 2002-2001 school year, more than 250,000 Wisconsin children in public schools…

  5. Why Is There Still No Study of Cultural Equivalence in Standardized Cognitive Ability Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Satiani, Anmol; Henze, Kevin T.; Mascher, Jackquelyn; Helms, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate how the culturalist perspective on investigating racial group differences in standardized cognitive ability tests has advanced, a content analysis of 28 studies citing J. E. Helms (1992) identified 7 general themes. Overall, researchers cited J. E. Helms (1992) as support for their own hypotheses but did not directly test the…

  6. Achievement Gap Projection for Standardized Testing through Logistic Regression within a Large Arizona School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellermeyer, Steven Bruce

    2011-01-01

    In the last few decades high-stakes testing has become more political than educational. The Districts within Arizona are bound by the mandates of both AZ LEARNS and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. At the time of this writing, both legislative mandates relied on the Arizona Instrument for Measuring Standards (AIMS) as State Tests for gauging…

  7. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  8. Background Knowledge and Its Effect on Standardized Reading Comprehension Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awabdy, Graziella Whipple

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between background knowledge and reading comprehension performance on standardized reading tests (the California STAR Test) was conducted with sixth, seventh, and eighth-grade ethnic minority children from low-income backgrounds (N = 68). Predictor variables examined included perceived background knowledge…

  9. Stress and Anxiety Surrounding Forthcoming Standard Assessment Tests in English Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, Dave W.; Connors, Liz; Woods, Kevin; Nicholson, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    The Standard Assessment Tests (SATs) taken by pupils in their final year of primary schooling in England have been widely criticised for placing children under too pressure and contributing to an increase in test-related stress and anxiety. In this exploratory study we set out to explore the experiences of forthcoming SATs in a small sample of…

  10. The Relationship between English Language Learners' Language Proficiency and Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakkar, Darshan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally theorized that English Language Learner (ELL) students do not succeed on state standardized tests because ELL students lack the cognitive academic language skills necessary to function on the large scale content assessments. The purpose of this dissertation was to test that theory. Through the use of quantitative methodology, ELL…

  11. Fairness Issues in a Standardized English Test for Nonnative Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puspawati, Indah

    2014-01-01

    For nonnative English speakers, taking a standardized English proficiency test seems inevitable, because the scores achieved play an important role in such life events as admission to a school, gaining a scholarship, or securing a job. Considering their importance, it is imperative that such tests be not only valid and reliable, but also fair.…

  12. Molecular diagnostics: harmonization through reference materials, documentary standards and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Marcia J; Madej, Roberta M; Minor, Philip; Kalman, Lisa V

    2011-09-01

    There is a great need for harmonization in nucleic acid testing for infectious disease and clinical genetics. The proliferation of assay methods, the number of targets for molecular diagnostics and the absence of standard reference materials contribute to variability in test results among laboratories. This article provides a comprehensive overview of reference materials, related documentary standards and proficiency testing programs. The article explores the relationships among these resources and provides necessary information for people practicing in this area that is not taught in formal courses and frequently is obtained on an ad hoc basis. The aim of this article is to provide helpful tools for molecular diagnostic laboratories.

  13. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: ashing procedures and alkali metal content of carbon fiber and fabrics; SPIP product identification code; SPIP initiative to adopt a water-soluble rayon yarn lubricant/size for weaving; fabric oxidation mass loss test; shelf life limit for prepregs, industry standard; silicon contamination update; resin, filler, and fabric content in prepreg; carbon assay testing calibration; thiokol rayon specifications; and SPIP low conductivity PAN program.

  14. Development of a standardized battery of performance tests for the assessment of noise stress effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theologus, G. C.; Wheaton, G. R.; Mirabella, A.; Brahlek, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A set of 36 relatively independent categories of human performance were identified. These categories encompass human performance in the cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor areas, and include diagnostic measures and sensitive performance metrics. Then a prototype standardized test battery was constructed, and research was conducted to obtain information on the sensitivity of the tests to stress, the sensitivity of selected categories of performance degradation, the time course of stress effects on each of the selected tests, and the learning curves associated with each test. A research project utilizing a three factor partially repeated analysis of covariance design was conducted in which 60 male subjects were exposed to variations in noise level and quality during performance testing. Effects of randomly intermittent noise on performance of the reaction time tests were observed, but most of the other performance tests showed consistent stability. The results of 14 analyses of covariance of the data taken from the performance of the 60 subjects on the prototype standardized test battery provided information which will enable the final development and test of a standardized test battery and the associated development of differential sensitivity metrics and diagnostic classificatory system.

  15. Using Standardized Tests to Inventory Consonant and Vowel Production: A Comparison of 11 Tests of Articulation and Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Hitchcock, Elaine R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This report considered the validity of making conclusions about a child's phonetic inventory (the sounds a child can and cannot produce spontaneously without a prior model or other stimulation) based on the data from standardized single-word tests of articulation or phonology. Method: We evaluated the opportunities for production of…

  16. Learning Outcome Testing Program: Standardized Classroom Testing in West Virginia through Item Banking, Test Generation, and Curricular Management Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, John A.

    1990-01-01

    The Learning Outcome Testing Program of the West Virginia Department of Education is designed to provide public school teachers/administrators with test questions matching learning outcomes. The approach, software selection, results of pilot tests with teachers in 13 sites, and development of test items for item banks are described. (SLD)

  17. 78 FR 52128 - Cotton Classing, Testing and Standards: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Cotton Classing, Testing and Standards: Notice of Request for an Extension and... approved information collection entitled Cotton Classing, Testing, and Standards. DATES: Comments received... Promotion Staff, Cotton and Tobacco Programs, AMS, USDA, 100 Riverside Parkway, Suite 101,...

  18. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity. PMID:24702346

  19. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.

  20. Performance testing of HEPA filters: Progress towards a European standard procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Dyment, J.

    1997-08-01

    Proposals for a future European testing procedure for {open_quotes}High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters (HEPA and ULPA){close_quotes} are being developed by CEN (Comite Europeen de Normalisation). The new standard will be given the status of national standard in participating countries, conflicting national standards being withdrawn. The standard will comprise 5 parts covering the grouping and classification of HEPA and ULPA filters according to their efficiency, fundamental principles of testing, marking etc (in part 1). Part 2 will cover aerosol production, measurement principles, counting equipment and statistics. Parts 3-5 will cover testing flat sheet media, leak testing of filter elements and the efficiency testing of filter elements respectively. The efficiency test methods allow the use of either homogeneous monodisperse or polydisperse aerosols for the determination of particulate filtration efficiencies as a function of particle size. The particle size at which maximum penetration occurs is first determined in flat sheet media tests; tests on filter elements (constructed using the same filter medium) may be carried out using either a homogeneous monodisperse aerosol of the size at which maximum penetration occurs (MPPS) or a polydisperse aerosol whose median size is close to the MPPS. Tests with monodisperse aerosols may be conducted using condensation nucleus counting equipment; tests using polydisperse test aerosols require the use of optical sizing particle counters. When determining the efficiency of filter elements the downstream aerosol concentrations may be determined from air samples obtained using either an overall method (single point sampling after mixing) or a scan method. The scan method also allows {open_quotes}local{close_quotes} efficiency values to be determined. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Blueprints for the 2003 California History-Social Science Standards Tests for Grades 8, 10, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Beginning in 2003, there will be no standardized or norm-referenced test in history-social science for California students. That test is being replaced by assessments at grades 8, 10, and 11 based on California History-Social Science (H-SS) Content Standards. The H-SS standards tests at grades 10 and 11 count for 20% of the Academic Performance…

  2. Model Validation and Testing: The Methodological Foundation of ASHRAE Standard 140; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2006-07-01

    Ideally, whole-building energy simulation programs model all aspects of a building that influence energy use and thermal and visual comfort for the occupants. An essential component of the development of such computer simulation models is a rigorous program of validation and testing. This paper describes a methodology to evaluate the accuracy of whole-building energy simulation programs. The methodology is also used to identify and diagnose differences in simulation predictions that may be caused by algorithmic differences, modeling limitations, coding errors, or input errors. The methodology has been adopted by ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 (ANSI/ASHRAE 2001, 2004), Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs. A summary of the method is included in the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals (ASHRAE 2005). This paper describes the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140 method of test and its methodological basis. Also discussed are possible future enhancements to Standard 140 and related research recommendations.

  3. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic tests allowing for imperfect reference standards.

    PubMed

    Menten, J; Boelaert, M; Lesaffre, E

    2013-12-30

    There is an increasing interest in meta-analyses of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases. To avoid spectrum bias, these meta-analyses should focus on phase IV studies performed in the target population. For many infectious diseases, these target populations attend primary health care centers in resource-constrained settings where it is difficult to perform gold standard diagnostic tests. As a consequence, phase IV diagnostic studies often use imperfect reference standards, which may result in biased meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of novel RDTs. We extend the standard bivariate model for the meta-analysis of diagnostic studies to correct for differing and imperfect reference standards in the primary studies and to accommodate data from studies that try to overcome the absence of a true gold standard through the use of latent class analysis. Using Bayesian methods, improved estimates of sensitivity and specificity are possible, especially when prior information is available on the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test. In this analysis, the deviance information criterion can be used to detect conflicts between the prior information and observed data. When applying the model to a dataset of the diagnostic accuracy of an RDT for visceral leishmaniasis, the standard meta-analytic methods appeared to underestimate the specificity of the RDT. PMID:24003003

  4. Bayesian meta-analysis of diagnostic tests allowing for imperfect reference standards.

    PubMed

    Menten, J; Boelaert, M; Lesaffre, E

    2013-12-30

    There is an increasing interest in meta-analyses of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases. To avoid spectrum bias, these meta-analyses should focus on phase IV studies performed in the target population. For many infectious diseases, these target populations attend primary health care centers in resource-constrained settings where it is difficult to perform gold standard diagnostic tests. As a consequence, phase IV diagnostic studies often use imperfect reference standards, which may result in biased meta-analyses of the diagnostic accuracy of novel RDTs. We extend the standard bivariate model for the meta-analysis of diagnostic studies to correct for differing and imperfect reference standards in the primary studies and to accommodate data from studies that try to overcome the absence of a true gold standard through the use of latent class analysis. Using Bayesian methods, improved estimates of sensitivity and specificity are possible, especially when prior information is available on the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test. In this analysis, the deviance information criterion can be used to detect conflicts between the prior information and observed data. When applying the model to a dataset of the diagnostic accuracy of an RDT for visceral leishmaniasis, the standard meta-analytic methods appeared to underestimate the specificity of the RDT.

  5. Standardization of shape memory alloy test methods toward certification of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, D. J.; Mabe, J. H.; Benafan, O.; Coda, A.; Conduit, B.; Padan, R.; Van Doren, B.

    2015-08-01

    The response of shape memory alloy (SMA) components employed as actuators has enabled a number of adaptable aero-structural solutions. However, there are currently no industry or government-accepted standardized test methods for SMA materials when used as actuators and their transition to commercialization and production has been hindered. This brief fast track communication introduces to the community a recently initiated collaborative and pre-competitive SMA specification and standardization effort that is expected to deliver the first ever regulatory agency-accepted material specification and test standards for SMA as employed as actuators for commercial and military aviation applications. In the first phase of this effort, described herein, the team is working to review past efforts and deliver a set of agreed-upon properties to be included in future material certification specifications as well as the associated experiments needed to obtain them in a consistent manner. Essential for the success of this project is the participation and input from a number of organizations and individuals, including engineers and designers working in materials and processing development, application design, SMA component fabrication, and testing at the material, component, and system level. Going forward, strong consensus among this diverse body of participants and the SMA research community at large is needed to advance standardization concepts for universal adoption by the greater aerospace community and especially regulatory bodies. It is expected that the development and release of public standards will be done in collaboration with an established standards development organization.

  6. Development and standardization of single and double dichotic digit tests in the Malay language.

    PubMed

    Mukari, Siti Z; Keith, Robert W; Tharpe, Anne M; Johnson, Cheryl D

    2006-06-01

    Single and double dichotic digit tests in Malay language were developed and standardized as an initial attempt to incorporate tests of auditory processing within the scope of audiology practice in Malaysia. Normative data under free recall, directed right-ear first, and directed left-ear first listening conditions were determined using 120 Malay children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old with normal hearing and normal academic performance. Test-retest reliability was assessed in 15 of the study subjects. In general, the double dichotic digit test produced greater differences in scores between age groups, and a greater right-ear advantage than the single dichotic digit test. In addition, the double dichotic digit test also had higher test-retest reliability. These findings suggest the double dichotic digit test is more clinically applicable. PMID:16777781

  7. Termite-Susceptible Species of Wood for Inclusion as a Reference in Indonesian Standardized Laboratory Testing.

    PubMed

    Arinana; Tsunoda, Kunio; Herliyana, Elis N; Hadi, Yusuf S

    2012-03-28

    Standardized laboratory testing of wood and wood-based products against subterranean termites in Indonesia (SNI 01.7207-2006) (SNI) has no requirement for the inclusion of a comparative reference species of wood (reference control). This is considered a weakness of the Indonesian standard. Consequently, a study was undertaken to identify a suitable Indonesian species of community wood that could be used as a reference control. Four candidate species of community woods: Acacia mangium, Hevea brasiliensis, Paraserianthes falcataria and Pinus merkusii were selected for testing their susceptibility to feeding by Coptotermes formosanus. Two testing methods (SNI and the Japanese standard method JIS K 1571-2004) were used to compare the susceptibility of each species of wood. Included in the study was Cryptomeria japonica, the reference control specified in the Japanese standard. The results of the study indicated that P. merkusii is a suitable reference species of wood for inclusion in laboratory tests against subterranean termites, conducted in accordance with the Indonesian standard (SNI 01.7207-2006).

  8. Decision support for acute problems: the role of the standardized patient in usability testing.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jeffrey A; Rose, Alan F; Palchuk, Matvey B; Chang, Frank; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Chan, Joseph C; Middleton, Blackford

    2006-12-01

    For applications that require clinician use while interacting with patients, usability testing with standardized patients has the potential to approximate actual patient care in a controlled setting. We used hypothetical scenarios and a standardized patient to collect quantitative and qualitative results in testing an early prototype of a new application, the Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Smart Form. The standardized patient fit well into the usability testing sessions. Clinicians had a positive response to the standardized patients and behaved as they normally would during a clinical encounter. Positive findings of the ARI Smart Form included that users thought it had impressive functionality and the potential to save time. Criticism focused on the visual design, which could be streamlined, and navigation, which was difficult in some areas. Based on these results, we are modifying the ARI Smart Form in preparation for use in actual patient care. Standardized patients should be considered for usability testing, especially if an application is to be used during the patient interview.

  9. Uranium Enrichment Standards of the Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, J.

    2012-05-23

    The Y-12 National Security Complex has recently fabricated and characterized a new series of metallic uranium standards for use in the Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC). Ten uranium metal disks with enrichments varying from 0.2 to 93.2% {sup 235}U were designed to provide researchers access to a wide variety of measurement scenarios in a single testing venue. Special care was taken in the selection of the enrichments in order to closely bracket the definitions of reactor fuel at 4% {sup 235}U and that of highly enriched uranium (HEU) at 20% {sup 235}U. Each standard is well characterized using analytical chemistry as well as a series of gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. Gamma-ray spectra of these standards are being archived in a reference library for use by customers of the NDSTC. A software database tool has been created that allows for easier access and comparison of various spectra. Information provided through the database includes: raw count data (including background spectra), regions of interest (ROIs), and full width half maximum calculations. Input is being sought from the user community on future needs including enhancements to the spectral database and additional Uranium standards, shielding configurations and detector types. A related presentation are planned for the INMM 53rd Annual Meeting (Hull, et al.), which describe new uranium chemical compound standards and testing opportunities at Y-12 Nuclear Detection and Sensor Testing Center (NDSTC).

  10. Electric Vehicle Communication Standards Testing and Validation Phase I: SAE J2847/1

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2011-09-21

    Executive Summary Vehicle to grid communication standards are critical to the charge management and interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee / HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. While the standard development is in progress for more than two years, no definitive guidelines are available for the automobile manufacturers, charging station manufacturers and utility backhaul network systems. At present, there is a wide range of proprietary communication options developed and supported in the industry. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified performance requirements and test plan based on possible communication pathways using power line communication over the control pilot and mains. Though the communication pathways and power line communication technology options are identified, much work needs to be done in developing application software and testing of communication modules before these can be deployed in production vehicles. This report presents a test plan and results from initial testing of two power line communication modules developed to meet the requirements of SAE J2847/1 standard.

  11. Department of Energy standard for the performance testing of personnel dosimetry systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    This standard is intended to be used in the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry systems. It is based on the American National Standards Institute's (ANSI) ''Criteria for Testing Personnel Dosimetry Performance,'' ANSI N13.11-1983, recommendations made to DOE in ''Guidelines for the Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters,'' Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL)-4515 and comments received during peer review by DOE and DOE contractor personnel. The recommendations contained in PNL-4515 were based on an evaluation of ANSI N13.11 conducted for the Office of Nuclear Safety, DOE, by PNL. Parts of ANSI N13.11 that did not require modification were used essentially intact in this standard to maintain consistency with nationally recognized standards. Modifications to this standard have resulted from several DOE/DOE contractor reviews and a pilot testing session. An initial peer review by selected DOE and DOE contractor representatives on technical content was conducted in 1983. A review by DOE field offices, program offices, and contractors was conducted in mid-1984. A pilot performance testing session sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety was conducted in early 1985 by the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Idaho Falls. Results of the pilot test were reviewed in late 1985 by a DOE and DOE contractor committee. 11 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Minimum Competency Testing: An Analysis of Student Outcomes for Those Not Mastering Mandated Testing Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Edward D., Jr.; Hayes-Wallace, Lamarian

    The effects of failing to pass a high school exit exam were examined for the Georgia Basic Skills Test (GBST). Data were collected on a random sample of students who were tenth graders in 1983 and in 1984. The following issues were studied: (1) impact of failure on self esteem, as measured by the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale (P-H);…

  13. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization.

  14. Alignment between the Physics Content Standard and the Standardized Test: A Comparison among the United States-New York State, Singapore, and China-Jiangsu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Baohui; Liang, Ling L.; Fulmer, Gavin; Kim, Beaumie; Yuan, Haiquan

    2009-01-01

    Alignment between content standards and standardized tests is a significant issue to society, science pedagogy, and test validation. To better understand the issues related to alignment, this study compares the alignment in physics among three education systems: Jiangsu (China), New York State (United States), and Singapore. The same coding…

  15. Implementing a standardized testing program: preparing students for the NCLEX-RN.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Phyllis; Koehn, Mary L

    2006-01-01

    The undergraduate nursing faculty of a large Midwestern university initiated a program of standardized computerized testing for two purposes: to provide students experience with standardized computerized testing prior to taking the National Council Licensure Exam for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) and to increase the students' NCLEX-RN passing rate. This article chronicles the process of implementing a comprehensive testing program developed by the Assessment Technologies Institute (Overland Park, KS). Although the first class of students to have taken the entire testing package has just graduated, midprogram results have demonstrated potential as key indicators for identifying at-risk students. The trends in scores on standardized computerized tests, grades in prerequisite science courses, and grades in medical-surgical courses are used to identify students who are at risk for failure in the program and on the NCLEX-RN. Faculty advisors meet with these students to develop individual plans of study and to provide additional resources. The testing process is going on smoothly, and faculty members are learning to use the extensive information on students' test scores to further assist them in passing the NCLEX-RN.

  16. A comparative appraisal of two equivalence tests for multiple standardized effects.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2016-04-01

    Equivalence testing is recommended as a better alternative to the traditional difference-based methods for demonstrating the comparability of two or more treatment effects. Although equivalent tests of two groups are widely discussed, the natural extensions for assessing equivalence between several groups have not been well examined. This article provides a detailed and schematic comparison of the ANOVA F and the studentized range tests for evaluating the comparability of several standardized effects. Power and sample size appraisals of the two grossly distinct approaches are conducted in terms of a constraint on the range of the standardized means when the standard deviation of the standardized means is fixed. Although neither method is uniformly more powerful, the studentized range test has a clear advantage in sample size requirements necessary to achieve a given power when the underlying effect configurations are close to the priori minimum difference for determining equivalence. For actual application of equivalence tests and advance planning of equivalence studies, both SAS and R computer codes are available as supplementary files to implement the calculations of critical values, p-values, power levels, and sample sizes.

  17. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  18. Correlation between strength properties in standard test specimens and molded phenolic parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, P S; Thomason, R H

    1946-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of 10 selected types of phenolic molding materials. The materials were studied to see in what ways and to what extent their properties satisfy some assumptions on which the theory of strength of materials is based: namely, (a) isotropy, (b) linear stress-strain relationship for small strains, and (c) homogeneity. The effect of changing the dimensions of tensile and flexural specimens and the span-depth ratio in flexural tests were studied. The strengths of molded boxes and flexural specimens cut from the boxes were compared with results of tests on standard test specimens molded from the respective materials. The nonuniformity of a material, which is indicated by the coefficient of variation, affects the results of tests made with specimens of different sizes and tests with different methods of loading. The strength values were found to depend on the relationship between size and shape of the molded specimen and size and shape of the fillers. The most significant variations observed within a diversified group of materials were found to depend on the orientation of fibrous fillers. Of secondary importance was the dependence of the variability of test results on the pieces of filler incorporated into the molding powder as well as on the size of the piece. Static breaking strength tests on boxes molded from six representative phenolic materials correlated well with falling-ball impact tests on specimens cut from molded flat sheets. Good correlation was obtained with Izod impact tests on standard test specimens prepared from the molding materials. The static breaking strengths of the boxes do not correlate with the results of tensile or flexural tests on standard specimens.

  19. A statistical model for assessing performance standards for quantitative and semiquantitative disinfectant test methods.

    PubMed

    Parker, Albert E; Hamilton, Martin A; Tomasino, Stephen F

    2014-01-01

    A performance standard for a disinfectant test method can be evaluated by quantifying the (Type I) pass-error rate for ineffective products and the (Type II) fail-error rate for highly effective products. This paper shows how to calculate these error rates for test methods where the log reduction in a microbial population is used as a measure of antimicrobial efficacy. The calculations can be used to assess performance standards that may require multiple tests of multiple microbes at multiple laboratories. Notably, the error rates account for among-laboratory variance of the log reductions estimated from a multilaboratory data set and the correlation among tests of different microbes conducted in the same laboratory. Performance standards that require that a disinfectant product pass all tests or multiple tests on average, are considered. The proposed statistical methodology is flexible and allows for a different acceptable outcome for each microbe tested, since, for example, variability may be different for different microbes. The approach can also be applied to semiquantitative methods for which product efficacy is reported as the number of positive carriers out of a treated set and the density of the microbes on control carriers is quantified, thereby allowing a log reduction to be calculated. Therefore, using the approach described in this paper, the error rates can also be calculated for semiquantitative method performance standards specified solely in terms of the maximum allowable number of positive carriers per test. The calculations are demonstrated in a case study of the current performance standard for the semiquantitative AOAC Use-Dilution Methods for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (964.02) and Staphylococcus aureus (955.15), which allow up to one positive carrier out of a set of 60 inoculated and treated carriers in each test. A simulation study was also conducted to verify the validity of the model's assumptions and accuracy. Our approach, easily implemented

  20. An investigation of predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes among nursing content standardized tests.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Yei-Jin

    2013-12-01

    In order to meet increased demands for qualified registered nurses and prevent negative effects from graduates' failure on the National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse, it is important to promote students' success in the exam. The purpose of this study was to investigate effective predictors of NCLEX-RN outcomes on the first attempt among nursing content standardized tests (adult medical-surgical, fundamentals for nursing, pharmacology, maternal-newborn, nursing care of children, mental health, community health, and leadership and management) conducted throughout the nursing program. NCLEX-RN outcomes and individual adjusted scores on the standardized tests of 151 graduates from the traditional baccalaureate nursing program of a public university located in the Midwest from May 2010 to December 2011 were analyzed by a t-test and logistic regression. The participants included 118 graduates who passed and 33 graduates who failed the NCLEX-RN on the first attempt. Significant statistical differences were found between the two groups with NCLEX-RN success and failure in the individual adjusted scores on all of the standardized tests except the fundamental for nursing (p=.62) and nursing care of children (p=.759) standardized tests. In addition, logistic regression indicated that the overall regression models were significant in predicting both NCLEX-RN success and failure. Adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were central to the prediction of both NCLEX-RN success and failure; however, a much lower percentage of NCLEX-RN failure than success was classified. It can be concluded that the adult medical-surgical, pharmacology, and community health standardized tests were effective in predicting NCLEX-RN success and not effective in predicting NCLEX-RN failure on the first attempt. The NCLEX-RN success predictors can be utilized to identify students at risk and provide early remediation. After early remediation is

  1. [Standardization of neutralization tests using the COBL cell line and comparison with the particle agglutination test for measles serology].

    PubMed

    Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Yalçinkaya, Tülay; Ozkaya, Etem; Kurtoğlu, Demet; Gözalan, Ayşegül; Miyamura, Kikuko

    2002-04-01

    The aim of the present study was the detection and comparison of measles antibody titers with particle agglutination (PA) and neutralization (Nt) methods, in the sera samples of 364 subjects from different age groups. PA method was performed with a commercial test kit (Serodiameasles, Fujirebio Com. Japan), and Nt test which was standardized in this study, by using COBL (cord blood) cell lines, has been started to use in our laboratory as a reference method. As a result, antibody titers detected by PA were in parallel to the titers which detected by Nt test, and it was concluded that the differences in antibody titers would arise from the differences of test principles and viral antigens.

  2. New Standards for the Validation of EMC Test Sites particularly above 1 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battermann, S.; Trautnitz, F. W.; Garbe, H.

    2005-05-01

    Standards for the validation of alternative test sites with conducting groundplane exist for the frequency range 30-1000 MHz since the end of the eighties. Recently the procedure for fully anechoic rooms (FAR) has been included in CISPR 16 after more than 10 years intensive discussion in standards committees (CENELEC, 2002; CISPR, 2004). But there are no standards available for the validation of alternative test sites above 1 GHz. The responsible working group (WG1) in CISPR/A has drawn up the 7th common draft (CD). A CDV will be published in spring 2005. The German standards committee VDE AK 767.4.1 participates in the drafting of the standard. All suggested measurement procedures proposed in the last CDs have been investigated by measurements and theoretical analysis. This contribution describes the basic ideas and problems of the validation procedure of the test site. Furthermore measurement results and numerical calculations will be presented especially for the use of omni-directional antennas.

  3. Standardized Mental Status Testing on the Sideline After Sport-Related Concussion.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Michael

    2001-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effects of concussion on mental status are often difficult to assess on routine clinical examination. I investigated the efficacy of standardized mental status testing on the sport sideline to detect abnormalities that result from concussion and provide an objective measure of postinjury cognitive recovery. DESIGN AND SETTING: All subjects underwent a standardized preseason baseline mental status evaluation. Standardized testing of injured and uninjured control subjects was repeated on the sideline immediately after concussion and 48 hours after injury. SUBJECTS: Sixty-three high school and collegiate football players with concussion and 55 uninjured control subjects were studied. MEASUREMENTS: The Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) was administered to evaluate neurocognitive functioning and neurologic status. RESULTS: Immediately after concussion, injured subjects performed significantly below preinjury baseline and below uninjured controls on the SAC. Measurable deficits in orientation, concentration, and memory were evident immediately after concussion. A decline in SAC score at time of injury was 95% sensitive and 76% specific in accurately classifying injured and uninjured subjects on the sideline. Injured subjects demonstrated significant improvements in SAC score 48 hours after injury. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized mental status testing can be a valuable tool to assist the sports medicine clinician in detecting the immediate effects of concussion on mental status, tracking resolution of immediate postconcussive mental status abnormalities, and making more informed decisions on return to play after injury.

  4. Talent Search Qualifying: Comparisons between Talent Search Students Qualifying via Scores on Standardized Tests and via Parent Nomination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seon-Young; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences between students who qualified for talent search testing via scores on standardized tests and via parent nomination in their performances on the SAT or ACT and some demographic characteristics. Overall, the standardized testing group earned higher scores on the off-level tests than the parent nominated group. Asian…

  5. A Brief Look at: Test Scores and the Standard Error of Measurement. E&R Report No. 10.13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdzkom, David; Sumner, Brian; McMillen, Brad

    2010-01-01

    In the context of standardized testing, the standard error of measurement (SEM) is a measure of the factors other than the student's actual knowledge of the tested material that may affect the student's test score. Such factors may include distractions in the testing environment, fatigue, hunger, or even luck. This means that a student's observed…

  6. Comparison tests of cellular glass insulation for the development of cryogenic insulation standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demko, J. A.; Fesmire, J. E.; Dookie, J.; Bickley, J.; Kraft, S.

    2015-12-01

    Standards for thermal insulation used in applications between ambient and low temperatures, below 100 K, require test data under relevant conditions and by different laboratories to develop data sets for the proper comparisons of materials. This critically important technology is needed to provide reliable data and methodologies for industrial energy efficiency and energy conservation. Under ASTM International's Committee C16 on Thermal Insulation, two standards have been issued on cryogenic thermal insulation systems. Thermal conductivity data sets have been taken using identical flat-plate boiloff calorimeter instruments independently operated at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Thermal Energy Laboratory of LeTourneau University (LETU). Precision specimens of cellular glass insulation were produced for both laboratories to provide the necessary comparisons to validate the thermal measurements and test methodologies. Additional specimens of commercial cellular glass pipe insulation were tested at LETU to compare with the flat plate results. The test data are discussed in relation to the experimental approach, test methods, and manner of reporting the thermal performance data. This initial Inter-Laboratory Study (ILS) of insulation materials for sub-ambient temperature applications provides a foundation for further ILS work to produce standard data sets for several key commercial materials.

  7. Interpretive standards for disk susceptibility tests with Sch 21420 and amikacin.

    PubMed Central

    Barry, A L; Thornsberry, C; Jones, R N; Gerlach, E H

    1980-01-01

    Disk susceptibility tests with two structurally related aminoglycosides (amikacin and Sch 21420) were evaluated. Tests with 10- and 30-micrograms amikacin disks confirmed previous recommendations for interpretive zone standards; 30-micrograms disks are preferred. Tests with 10-, 20-, and 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disks led to similar conclusions. The 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disks are recommended, with zone standards of less than or equal to 14 mm for the resistant category (minimal inhibitory concentration, greater than or equal to 32 micrograms/ml) and greater than or equal to 17 mm for the susceptible category (minimal inhibitory concentration, less than or equal to 16 micrograms/ml). If a minimal inhibitory concentration breakpoint of less than or equal to 8 micrograms/ml is preferred for defining the susceptible category, somewhat different zone standards may be used (less than or equal to 15 mm and greater than or equal to 19mm). Further evaluation documented the fact that tests with 30-micrograms amikacin disks predicted resistance or susceptibility to Sch 21420 almost as well as did a 30-micrograms Sch 21420 disk. Thus, the class concept of disk testing was judged to applicable, and routine testing with Sch 21420 may not be required. PMID:7447420

  8. Development of standard test methods for unmanned and manned industrial vehicles used near humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Norcross, Richard; Falco, Joe; Marvel, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been researching human-robot-vehicle collaborative environments for automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and manned forklifts. Safety of AGVs and manned vehicles with automated functions (e.g., forklifts that slow/stop automatically in hazardous situations) are the focus of the American National Standards Institute/Industrial Truck Safety Development Foundation (ANSI/ITSDF) B56.5 safety standard. Recently, the NIST Mobile Autonomous Vehicle Obstacle Detection/Avoidance (MAVODA) Project began researching test methods to detect humans or other obstacles entering the vehicle's path. This causes potential safety hazards in manufacturing facilities where both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight conditions are prevalent. The test methods described in this paper address both of these conditions. These methods will provide the B56.5 committee with the measurement science basis for sensing systems - both non-contact and contact - that may be used in manufacturing facilities.

  9. The Introduction of Standardized External Testing in Ukraine: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalchuk, Serhiy; Koroliuk, Svitlana

    2012-01-01

    Standardized external testing (SET) began to be implemented in Ukraine in 2008 as an instrument for combating corruption in higher education and ensuring fair university admission. This article examines the conditions and processes that led to the introduction of SET, overviews its implementation over three years (2008-10), analyzes SET and…

  10. 75 FR 4323 - Additional Quantitative Fit-testing Protocols for the Respiratory Protection Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... performed particle counts on samples collected during the Study. Table 1 provides the exercise and sampling... revised PortaCount quantitative fit-testing protocols are not sufficiently accurate or reliable to include...) to Appendix A of ] its Respiratory Protection Standard (see 69 FR 46986). OSHA also published...

  11. The Construction of "Illiterate" and "Literate" Youth: The Effects of High-Stakes Standardized Literacy Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Laura-Lee

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized literacy testing is not neutral and continues to build upon the legacy of dominant power relations in the state in its ability to sort, select and rank students and ultimately produce and name some youth as illiterate in contrast to an ideal white, male, literate citizen. I trace the effects of high-stakes standardized…

  12. On the reliability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum research: Do we need standardized testing methods?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. nivium (Fon) is a pathogen highly variable in aggressiveness that requires a standardized testing method to more accurately define isolate aggressiveness (races) and to identify resistant watermelon lines. Isolates of Fon vary in aggressiveness from weakly to highly aggres...

  13. The Relationship between Computer Use and Standardized Test Scores: Does Gender Play a Role?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, and especially in the past ten years, computer use in schools has increased dramatically; however there has been little research examining the effects of technology use on student achievement, specifically defined by standardized test scores. There is also concern as to how technology use differs by gender and if that…

  14. National Education Standards and Tests: Big Expense, Little Value. WebMemo. No. 3157

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Lindsey M.

    2011-01-01

    The federal Race to the Top (RTTT) competitive grant program awarded $4.35 billion among select states, giving preference on grant applications to those states that agreed to adopt national education standards and tests. Moreover, the Obama Administration has suggested making federal Title I funding contingent upon adoption of national…

  15. An Evaluation of an Innovation: Standardized Test Scores Were Not Valid Indicators of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslick, JoAnn; Walker, Carole

    An overview is provided of the evaluation of the Lighthouse Project, an education enhancement project that began in one urban and two suburban districts. Its methodology was the context for showing how the focus on the results of a standardized achievement test in mathematics inhibited the implementation of mathematics reform in the elementary…

  16. Motivation for Reading and Middle School Students' Performance on Standardized Testing in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mucherah, Winnie; Yoder, Alyssa

    2008-01-01

    This study examined middle school students' reading motivation and its relations to their performance on a standardized test (ISTEP+) in reading. Participants included 388 sixth- and eighth-grade students from two public middle schools. There were 229 females and 159 males. Participants responded to the Reading Motivation Questionnaire after they…

  17. The Development and Validation of the Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    The Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST) is a comprehensive assessment instrument designed to measure students' general astronomy content knowledge. Built upon the research embedded within a generation of astronomy assessments designed to measure single concepts, the TOAST is appropriate to measure across an entire astronomy course. The TOAST's…

  18. Meritocracy 2.0: High-Stakes, Standardized Testing as a Racial Project of Neoliberal Multiculturalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes, standardized testing is regularly used within in accountability narratives as a tool for achieving racial equality in schools. Using the frameworks of "racial projects" and "neoliberal multiculturalism," and drawing on historical and empirical research, this article argues that not only does high-stakes,…

  19. 40 CFR 80.9 - Rounding a test result for determining conformance with a fuels standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compliance with the fuel standards of 40 CFR part 80, a test result will be rounded to the nearest unit of... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy may be obtained from the... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030 or go to:...

  20. Quantum Theory, the Uncertainty Principle, and the Alchemy of Standardized Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassermann, Selma

    2001-01-01

    Argues that reliance on the outcome of quantitative standardized tests to assess student performance is misplaced quest for certainty in an uncertain world. Reviews and lauds Canadian teacher-devised qualitative diagnostic tool, "Profiles of Student Behaviors," composed of 20 behavioral patterns in student knowledge, attitude, and skill. (PKP)

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...

  3. End of Course Grades and Standardized Test Scores: Are Grades Predictive of Student Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Christine R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which end-of-course grades are predictive of Virginia Standards of Learning test scores in nine high school content areas. It also analyzed the impact of the variables school cluster attended, gender, ethnicity, disability status, Limited English Proficiency status, and socioeconomic status on the relationship…

  4. 40 CFR 80.9 - Rounding a test result for determining conformance with a fuels standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the fuel standards of 40 CFR part 80, a test result will be rounded to the nearest unit of... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. A copy may be obtained from the.../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html....

  5. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  6. 76 FR 39018 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    .... to 4:30 p.m. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Corrections In the final rule published on May 9, 2011 (FR Doc. 2011-10510, 76 FR 26854), the following corrections are made: 0 a. On page 26893, in the third... rule amends the commercial driver's license (CDL) knowledge and skills testing standards...

  7. At Admissions Conference, Talk of Standardized Tests, Early Decisions, and Swag

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.; Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    At the annual conference of the National Association for College Admission Counseling (Nacac), admissions deans and high-school counselors gathered in September 2007 to grapple with questions such as: (1) Rethinking the role of standardized tests in admissions (many attendees predict that psychometric giants ACT and SAT, will not always dominate…

  8. Neutron Spin Structure Studies and Low-Energy Tests of the Standard Model at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Kees de

    2008-10-13

    The most recent results on the spin structure of the neutron from Hall A are presented and discussed. Then, an overview is given of various experiments planned with the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab to provide sensitive tests of the Standard Model at relatively low energies.

  9. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  10. Development of Abbreviated Nine-Item Forms of the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilker, Warren B.; Hansen, John A.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Richard, Jan; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2012-01-01

    The Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM) is a 60-item test for measuring abstract reasoning, considered a nonverbal estimate of fluid intelligence, and often included in clinical assessment batteries and research on patients with cognitive deficits. The goal was to develop and apply a predictive model approach to reduce the number of items…

  11. 42 CFR 493.1252 - Standard: Test systems, equipment, instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., reagents, materials, and supplies. 493.1252 Section 493.1252 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY..., instruments, reagents, materials, and supplies. (a) Test systems must be selected by the laboratory....

  12. Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...

  14. Cultivating Assessment Literacy: Standards Evaluation through Language-Test Specification Reverse Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, F. Scott

    2010-01-01

    The promulgation of ESL learning standards by government agencies and professional organizations is intended to improve second-language (L2) proficiency and academic achievement. However, mandates have been criticized on various grounds, including difficulty of defining domains to be tested as well as vagueness of articulation. Arising from the…

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED ACHIEVEMENT TEST FOR SMALL GASOLINE ENGINE INSTRUCTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EBBERT, J. MARVIN

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO DEVELOP A STANDARDIZED, MULTIPLE-CHOICE ACHIEVEMENT TEST ON THE OPERATION, CARE, AND MAINTENANCE OF SMALL GASOLINE ENGINES. OBJECTIVES AND A UNIT OUTLINE WERE DEVELOPED WITH THE COOPERATION OF 75 INDIANA VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS. A PANEL SUGGESTED MODIFICATIONS, AND THE REFINED OBJECTIVES AND OUTLINE WERE…

  16. The Effect of Four Intervention Programs on Standardized Test Scores by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryder, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study involved the analysis, by gender, of the effect of four intervention programs at an Arizona middle school as seen on Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS) test scores. These four intervention programs included: Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID), a planner stamping system, a World…

  17. 76 FR 70062 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Parts 160, 180, and 199 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards Correction In rule document 2011-25035, appearing...

  18. Relying on High-Stakes Standardized Tests to Evaluate Schools and Teachers: A Bad Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the use of standardized tests as the primary means to evaluate schools and teachers in the United States has contributed to severe dilemmas, including misleading information on what students know, lower-level instruction, cheating, less collaboration, unfair treatment of teachers, and biased teaching. This article…

  19. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  20. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pursuant to each request or certificate issued. (d) When a laboratory test service is provided for AMS by a..., analysis, and other services. 91.37 Section 91.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...

  1. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pursuant to each request or certificate issued. (d) When a laboratory test service is provided for AMS by a..., analysis, and other services. 91.37 Section 91.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...

  2. 7 CFR 91.37 - Standard hourly fee rate for laboratory testing, analysis, and other services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pursuant to each request or certificate issued. (d) When a laboratory test service is provided for AMS by a..., analysis, and other services. 91.37 Section 91.37 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT...

  3. California Standards Test Scores and Attendance Rates in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there were any statistically significant differences in the Mathematics California Standard Test scores and attendance rates for African American and Latina high school girls who participated in an afterschool program. Method: A quasi-experimental design was conducted with…

  4. Chaos and Complexities Theories. Superposition and Standardized Testing: Are We Coming or Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of using the principle of "superposition of states" (commonly illustrated by Schrodinger's Cat experiment) to understand the process of using standardized testing to measure a student's learning. Comparisons from literature, neuroscience, and Schema Theory will be used to expound upon the…

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...

  6. Environmental stability of chemically amplified resists: proposing an industry standard methodology for testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Kim R.; Kishkovich, Oleg P.

    2000-06-01

    The authors propose the establishment of a new industry standard methodology for testing the environmental stability of chemically amplified chemical resists. Preparatory to making this proposal, they developed a pertinent test apparatus and test procedure that might be used uniformly as an industry-wide best practice. To demonstrate and validate their proposed methodology, the authors subjected two different 193 nm chemically amplified photoresists to test conditions in the 'torture chamber,' simulating actual lithographic environmental scenarios. Depending on the variables of each test run (e.g., different resists, different resist thicknesses, different pollutants, different concentrations, and different humidity levels), a variety of defects were noted and described quantitatively. Of the three contaminants tested, ammonia had the strongest effect. The thin resists were more strongly affected by the contamination.

  7. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    The nation`s first, and the world`s largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 {plus_minus} 2{degree}C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples.

  8. Standard-B auto grab sampler hydrogen monitoring system, Acceptance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lott, D.T.

    1995-05-18

    Project W-369, Watch List Tank Hydrogen Monitors, installed a Standard-C Hydrogen Monitoring System (SHMS) on the Flammable gas waste tank AN-104. General Support Projects (8K510) was support by Test Engineering (7CH30) in the performance of the Acceptance Test Procedures (ATP) to qualify the SHMS cabinets on the waste tank. The ATP`s performance was controlled by Tank Farm work package. This completed ATP is transmitted by EDT-601748 as an Acceptance Test Report (ATR) in accordance with WHC-6-1, EP 4.2 and EP 1.12.

  9. Standard and modified electrode engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Tixier, J.S. ); Winkelman, R.G. )

    1992-09-01

    This report describes engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) electrode tests conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).(a) The purpose of these tests was to establish baseline data to serve as a foundation on which to improve the design of standard graphite rod electrodes, which are currently used in all applications. Changes in electrode design are proposed as one method to increase ISV melt depths that typically reach about 5 m. Melt depths of 10 m are needed to remediate some contaminated soil sites within the DOE complex. To establish baseline data, we performed a thermal distribution analysis and tested three electrode designs: (1) the standard graphite rod electrodes, (2) a modified design referred to as the composite graphite/molybdenum electrode, and (3) a second modified design, the dilated-tip graphite electrode. In total we performed six tests, two of each design. Within the scope of these tests, there were four specific objectives. Our first objective was to determine the influence of electrode design on monolith mass and shape. Our second objective was to determine the correlation between the actual test results and the results of the numerical heat distribution analysis using the TEMPEST code. Our third objective was to qualitatively evaluate the melt resistance and the electrode contact resistance that resulted from the three electrode designs. Finally, our fourth objective was to verify the reproducibility of the engineering-scale test results.

  10. Characterization of New Glass Coated Foam Glass Insulating Tiles by Standard Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrella, Andrea; Smeacetto, Federico; Salvo, Milena; Ferraris, Monica

    2012-11-01

    This article describes attempts to characterize by standardized tests of tile materials used in the construction area the performance-based properties of foamed glass samples with novel glass coatings. New glass coated foam glass (Foamglas®) insulating tiles have been tested by several standard tests (UNI Iso, ASTM) to define their suitability for energy saving buildings: impact tests, thermal shock resistance, wear resistance, water absorption, frost resistance, resistance to stains. Except for impact tests, glass coated foam glass (Foamglas®) satisfied all the requirements above, resulting to be thermal shock resistant, according to Uni Iso 10545-9 (Al spheres); effective to reduce the pristine Foamglas® surface water absorption, according to Uni En 1609:1999 and 12087:1999; frost resistant, according to Uni Iso 10545-12 and class 5 towards olive oil, according to Uni Iso 10545-14. Wear tests and hot water corrosion behavior tests have been done on the proposed coating and on a commercial soda-lime glass: the glass coated foam glass resulted to be suitable where corrosion and wear resistance are not a concern.

  11. Where to Now for Standardization of Anti-Rubella Virus IgG Testing.

    PubMed

    Dimech, Wayne

    2016-07-01

    The lack of standardization of rubella IgG testing continues to be a problem 20 years since the standard was introduced. The situation is complex and poorly understood. As demonstrated by an article in this issue (E. Bouthry, M. Furione, D. Huzly, A. Ogee-Nwankwo, L. Hao, A. Adebayo, J. Icenogle, A. Sarasini, M. Grazia Revello, L. Grangeot-Keros, and C. Vauloup-Fellous, J Clin Microbiol 54:1720-1725, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00383-16), the problem remains. The situation is far from being resolved, but at least the process for change has started. PMID:27170018

  12. Revision of Standard Method of Test for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John L., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this grant is to revise ASTM Standard Method of Test E-399 for Plane Strain Fracture Toughness of Metallic Materials based on users' experience, and to harmonize the Method with international standards in the interest of U. S. competitive participation in the global marketplace. Rewriting and reformatting the Method are well along. Research laboratories here and abroad have been engaged in developing technical bases for the Method's novel revision items. Close liaison is being maintained with experts in the field here and abroad to ensure consensus agreement on all substantive matters in anticipation of an eventual circulation of the document for ASTM worldwide approval.

  13. Standardized Tests and Our Children: A Guide to Testing Reform = Los Examenes Estandarizados y Nuestros Ninos: Guia para la Reforma de Examenes Estandarizados.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Fair and Open Testing (FairTest), Cambridge, MA.

    English and Spanish versions of a guide to testing reform are presented. The guide explains alternatives to standardized testing for educational assessment and shows how these new methods of evaluation will improve education. Standardized tests are used for an increasing number of purposes in the school system, but there is no proof that their use…

  14. Field-testing the WHO child growth standards in four countries.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Adelheid W; de Onis, Mercedes; Caroli, Margherita; Shah, Uzma; Sguassero, Yanina; Redondo, Nora; Carroli, Berenise

    2007-01-01

    In April 2006 the WHO released a set of growth standards for children from birth to the age of 5 y. Prior to their release, the standards were field-tested in 4 countries. The main objective was to compare children's length/height-for-age and weight-for-length/height based on the new standards with clinician assessments of the same children. The study sampled children <5-y-old attending well-child clinics in 2 affluent populations (Argentina and Italy) and 2 less-affluent ones (Maldives and Pakistan). Length/height and weight were measured by doctors and epidemiologists who also recorded a clinical assessment of each child's length/height in relation to age and weight relative to length/height. Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status were generated based on the WHO standards. As expected, Pakistan and the Maldives had higher rates of stunting, wasting, and underweight than Italy and Argentina, and the reverse was true for overweight and obesity. Where stunting was prevalent, the children classified as short were a mean <-2 SD for height-for-age. In all sites, the children classified as thin were indeed wasted (<-2 SD for weight-for-height) and a positive association in trend was evident between weight-for-height and the line-up of groups from thin to obese. The overall concordance between clinical assessments and the WHO standards-based indicators attested to the clinical soundness of the standards.

  15. Evaluating Material Flammability in Microgravity and Martian Gravity Compared to the NASA Standard Normal Gravity Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oslon, Sandra. L.; Ferkul, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Drop tower tests are conducted at Martian gravity to determine the flammability of three materials compared to previous tests in other normal gravity and reduced gravity environments. The comparison is made with consideration of a modified NASA standard test protocol. Material flammability limits in the different gravity and flow environments are tabulated to determine the factor of safety associated with normal gravity flammability screening. Previous testing at microgravity and Lunar gravity indicated that some materials burned to lower oxygen concentrations in low gravity than in normal gravity, although the low g extinction limit criteria are not the same as 1g due to time constraints in drop testing. Similarly, the data presented in this paper for Martian gravity suggest that there is a gravity level below Earth s at which materials burn more readily than on Earth. If proven for more materials, this may indicate the need to include a factor of safety on 1g flammability limits.

  16. The test technology of electrical safety performances based on IEC international standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Zhaohui; Li, Dong; Wang, Yanlin

    2008-10-01

    The test technology of electrical safety performance based on IEC international standards is put forward in the paper, including mainly four test parameters: leakage current, high-voltage withstand, insulation resistance and ground resistance. The definitions, the types, the testing purposes and methods of these parameters are also proposed. Based on the technology, we construct a system for data collection, processing and controlling with a PC, a high-performance microcomputer ADμC842 and a FPGA, and adopts a VI technology to develop an integrated testing system for electrical safety performance. The system can be applied to both the certification testing of products and quality control in manufacturing and provides an authenticating measure for the domestic electrical equipments to enter international markets.

  17. Electric Vehicle Communications Standards Testing and Validation - Phase II: SAE J2931/1

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Richard M.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2013-01-15

    Vehicle to grid communication standards enable interoperability among vehicles, charging stations and utility providers and provide the capability to implement charge management. Several standards initiatives by the Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE), International Standards Organization and International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), and ZigBee/HomePlug Alliance are developing requirements for communication messages and protocols. Recent work by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in collaboration with SAE and automobile manufacturers has identified vehicle to grid communication performance requirements and developed a test plan as part of SAE J2931/1 committee work. This laboratory test plan was approved by the SAE J2931/1 committee and included test configurations, test methods, and performance requirements to verify reliability, robustness, repeatability, maximum communication distance, and authentication features of power line carrier (PLC) communication modules at the internet protocol layer level. The goal of the testing effort was to select a communication technology that would enable automobile manufacturers to begin the development and implementation process. The EPRI/Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) testing teams divided the testing so that results for each test could be presented by two teams, performing the tests independently. The PNNL team performed narrowband PLC testing including the Texas Instruments (TI) Concerto, Ariane Controls AC-CPM1, and the MAXIM Tahoe 2 evaluation boards. The scope of testing was limited to measuring the vendor systems communication performance between Electric Vehicle Support Equipment (EVSE) and plug-in electric vehicles (PEV). The testing scope did not address PEV’s CAN bus to PLC or PLC to EVSE (Wi-Fi, cellular, PLC Mains, etc.) communication integration. In particular, no evaluation was performed to delineate the effort needed to translate the IPv6

  18. Achieving Innovation and Affordability Through Standardization of Materials Development and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, M. H.; Zook, L. M.; Raley, R. E.; Chapman, C.

    2011-01-01

    The successful expansion of development, innovation, and production within the aeronautics industry during the 20th century was facilitated by collaboration of government agencies with the commercial aviation companies. One of the initial products conceived from the collaboration was the ANC-5 Bulletin, first published in 1937. The ANC-5 Bulletin had intended to standardize the requirements of various government agencies in the design of aircraft structure. The national space policy shift in priority for NASA with an emphasis on transferring the travel to low earth orbit to commercial space providers highlights an opportunity and a need for the national and global space industries. The same collaboration and standardization that is documented and maintained by the industry within MIL-HDBK-5 (MMPDS-01) and MIL-HBDK-17 (nonmetallic mechanical properties) can also be exploited to standardize the thermal performance properties, processing methods, test methods, and analytical methods for use in aircraft and spacecraft design and associated propulsion systems. In addition to the definition of thermal performance description and standardization, the standardization for test methods and analysis for extreme environments (high temperature, cryogenics, deep space radiation, etc) would also be highly valuable to the industry. Its subsequent revisions and conversion to MIL-HDBK-5 and then MMPDS-01 established and then expanded to contain standardized mechanical property design values and other related design information for metallic materials used in aircraft, missiles, and space vehicles. It also includes guidance on standardization of composition, processing, and analytical methods for presentation and inclusion into the handbook. This standardization enabled an expansion of the technologies to provide efficiency and reliability to the consumers. It can be established that many individual programs within the government agencies have been overcome with development costs

  19. Correlating Aftershock Hypocenters With On-fault Main Shock Properties: Introducing Non-standard Statistical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, J.; Schorlemmer, D.; Wiemer, S.; Mai, P. M.

    2005-12-01

    Quantitatively correlating properties of finite-fault source models with hypocenters of aftershocks may provide new insight in the relationship between either slip or static stress change distributions and aftershock occurrence. We present advanced non-standard statistical test approaches to evaluate the test hypotheses (1) if aftershocks are preferentially located in areas of low slip and (2) if aftershocks are located in increased shear stress against the null hypothesis: aftershocks are located randomly on the fault plane. By using multiple test approaches, we investigate possible pitfalls and the information content of statistical testing. To perform the tests, we use earthquakes for which multiple finite-fault source models and earthquake catalogs of varying accuracy exist. The aftershock hypocenters are projected onto the main-shock rupture plane and uncertainties are accounted for by simulating hypocenter locations in the given error bounds. For the statistical tests, we retain the spatial clustering of earthquakes as the most important observed features of seismicity and synthesize random slip distributions with different approaches: first, using standard statistical methods that randomize the obtained finite-fault source model values and second, using a random spatial field model. We then determine the number of aftershocks in low-slip or increased shear-stress regions for simulated slip distributions, and compare those to the measurements obtained for finite-source slip inversions. We apply the tests to prominent earthquakes in California and Japan and find statistical significant evidence that aftershocks are preferentially located in low-slip regions. The tests, however, show a lower significance for the correlation with the shear-stress distribution, but are in general agreement with the expectations of the asperity model. Tests using the hypocenters of relocated catalogs show higher significances.

  20. Current practices and challenges in the standardization and harmonization of clinical laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Vesper, Hubert W; Myers, Gary L; Miller, W Greg

    2016-09-01

    Effective patient care, clinical research, and public health efforts require comparability of laboratory results independent of time, place, and measurement procedure. Comparability is achieved by establishing metrological traceability, which ensures that measurement procedures measure the same quantity and that the calibration of measurement procedures is traceable to a common reference system consisting of reference methods and materials. Whereas standardization ensures traceability to the International System of Units, harmonization ensures traceability to a reference system agreed on by convention. This article provides an overview of standardization and harmonization with an emphasis on commutability as an important variable that affects testing accuracy. Commutability of reference materials is required to ensure that traceability is established appropriately and that laboratory results are comparable. The use of noncommutable reference materials leads to inaccurate results. Whereas procedures and protocols for standardizing measurements are established and have been successfully applied in efforts such as the Hormones Standardization Program of the CDC, harmonization activities require new, more complex procedures and approaches. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, together with its domestic and international partners, formed the International Consortium for Harmonization of Clinical Laboratory Results to coordinate harmonization efforts. Reference systems, as well as procedures and protocols to establish traceability of clinical laboratory tests, have been established and continue to be developed by national and international groups and organizations. Serum tests of thyroid function, including those for the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, are among the clinical procedures for which standardization efforts are well under way. Approaches to the harmonization of measurement procedures for serum concentrations of thyroid

  1. Radiated radiofrequency immunity testing of automated external defibrillators - modifications of applicable standards are needed

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We studied the worst-case radiated radiofrequency (RF) susceptibility of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) based on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of a current standard for cardiac defibrillators, IEC 60601-2-4. Square wave modulation was used to mimic cardiac physiological frequencies of 1 - 3 Hz. Deviations from the IEC standard were a lower frequency limit of 30 MHz to explore frequencies where the patient-connected leads could resonate. Also testing up to 20 V/m was performed. We tested AEDs with ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib) and normal sinus rhythm signals on the patient leads to enable testing for false negatives (inappropriate "no shock advised" by the AED). Methods We performed radiated exposures in a 10 meter anechoic chamber using two broadband antennas to generate E fields in the 30 - 2500 MHz frequency range at 1% frequency steps. An AED patient simulator was housed in a shielded box and delivered normal and fibrillation waveforms to the AED's patient leads. We developed a technique to screen ECG waveforms stored in each AED for electromagnetic interference at all frequencies without waiting for the long cycle times between analyses (normally 20 to over 200 s). Results Five of the seven AEDs tested were susceptible to RF interference, primarily at frequencies below 80 MHz. Some induced errors could cause AEDs to malfunction and effectively inhibit operator prompts to deliver a shock to a patient experiencing lethal fibrillation. Failures occurred in some AEDs exposed to E fields between 3 V/m and 20 V/m, in the 38 - 50 MHz range. These occurred when the patient simulator was delivering a V-Fib waveform to the AED. Also, we found it is not possible to test modern battery-only-operated AEDs for EMI using a patient simulator if the IEC 60601-2-4 defibrillator standard's simulated patient load is used. Conclusions AEDs experienced potentially life-threatening false-negative failures from radiated RF, primarily

  2. Bridging the Gap of Standardized Animals Models for Blast Neurotrauma: Methodology for Appropriate Experimental Testing.

    PubMed

    VandeVord, Pamela J; Leonardi, Alessandra Dal Cengio; Ritzel, David

    2016-01-01

    Recent military combat has heightened awareness to the complexity of blast-related traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). Experiments using animal, cadaver, or biofidelic physical models remain the primary measures to investigate injury biomechanics as well as validate computational simulations, medical diagnostics and therapies, or protection technologies. However, blast injury research has seen a range of irregular and inconsistent experimental methods for simulating blast insults generating results which may be misleading, cannot be cross-correlated between laboratories, or referenced to any standard for exposure. Both the US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command and the National Institutes of Health have noted that there is a lack of standardized preclinical models of TBI. It is recommended that the blast injury research community converge on a consistent set of experimental procedures and reporting of blast test conditions. This chapter describes the blast conditions which can be recreated within a laboratory setting and methodology for testing in vivo models within the appropriate environment.

  3. Development & Maintenance of Testing Standards for Solar Energy Systems - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, Jim; Nelson, Les; Still, Stephen

    2009-09-09

    This is the final report covering a June 2004 through May 2009 grant to support the certification of solar thermal collectors and systems. The Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC) has developed and maintained minimum standards and performance tests for solar water heating components and systems since 1980. The objective of this project was to continue the SRCC certification program and implement enhancements to the standards and test methods used to determine product durability and calculate performance ratings. This objective was met by supporting the operation of the certification programs and by performing five additional technical tasks that addressed specific areas that were identified for enhancement. Statistics on certifications and lists of issues that were addressed are reported.

  4. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work.

  5. Recommendation for modifying current cytotoxicity testing standards for biodegradable magnesium-based materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiali; Witte, Frank; Xi, Tingfei; Zheng, Yufeng; Yang, Ke; Yang, Yuansheng; Zhao, Dewei; Meng, Jian; Li, Yangde; Li, Weirong; Chan, Kaiming; Qin, Ling

    2015-07-01

    As one of the most promising medical metal implants, magnesium (Mg) or its alloys have shown significant advantages over other candidates attributed to not only their excellent biodegradability and suitable mechanical properties but also their osteopromotive effects for bone applications. Prior to approval mandated by the governmental regulatory body, the access to the medical market for Mg-based implants requires a series of testing for assurance of their safety and efficacy via preclinical evaluations and clinical tests including phase 1 and 2 evaluations, and phase 3 of multi-center randomized double blind and placebo-controlled clinical trials. However, as the most widely used protocols for biosafety evaluation of medical devices, current ISO 10993 standards should be carefully reevaluated when directly applying them to predict potential health risks of degradable Mg based biomaterials via cytotoxicity tests due to the huge gap between in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, instead of a direct adoption, modification of current ISO standards for in vitro cytotoxicity test is desirable and justified. The differences in sensitivities of cells to in vitro and in vivo Mg ions and the capability of in vivo circulation system to dilute local degradation products were fully considered to propose modification of current ISO standards. This paper recommended a minimal 6 times to a maximal 10 times dilution of extracts for in vitro cytotoxicity test specified in ISO 10993 part 5 for pure Mg developed as potential orthopedic implants based on literature review and our specifically designed in vitro and in vivo tests presented in the study. Our work may contribute to the progress of biodegradable metals involved translational work. PMID:25890098

  6. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  7. Proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95, bioaccumulation testing utilizing Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Roper, J.; Simmers, J.; Lee, C.; Tatem, H.

    1995-12-31

    A detailed description of the method developed at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) to determine sediment toxicity utilizing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida. This method has been used successfully in evaluating the target contaminants; metals, PAHs, and PCBs. This procedure is currently a proposed annex to the ASTM Standard Guide E1676-95: Conducting a Laboratory Soil Toxicity Test With The Lumbricid Earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

  8. Improving Hispanic students' performance on science standardized tests: Successful practices from four elementary campuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Yvonne Lynne

    This qualitative, descriptive multiple case study took place in a Southwest Texas city bordering Mexico. The study examined specific resources and practices used in four different exemplary-rated elementary school campuses, with standardized test data reflecting 93% or more of their 5th-grade Hispanic student population passing the state mandated standardized science test. The sample for this study included one principal, one assistant principal, and three 5th-grade teachers from each campus. In total, the sample participants consisted of four principals, four assistant principals, and 12 5th-grade teachers. Data collection involved conducting in-depth, semi-structured interviews guided by five literature-based, researcher-generated questions. Fifth grade teachers and administrators reflected and reported upon their pedagogy for best practices in helping Hispanic students achieve success. Analysis of the data revealed eight themes: (a) successful schools have committed teachers, an environment conducive to learning, and incorporate best practices that work for all students; (b) curriculum alignment is very important; (c) teachers have access to a variety of resources; (d) teacher collaboration and planning is very important; (e) science camps, science reviews, and hands-on centers are effective in preparing students for the standardized test; (f) the most effective instructional practices include high emphasis on vocabulary, hands-on and differentiated instruction, and the 5E Model; (g) teachers see value in self-contained, dual-language classes; and (h) professional development and performance feedback are important to educators. The results of this study provide educational leaders with specific science instructional resources, practices, and interventions proven effective for the 5 th-grade Hispanic student population in passing the science state standardized test.

  9. Hardware-in-the-loop test facility for the standard missile-3 kinetic warhead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchan, Robert M.

    2005-05-01

    The Guidance System Evaluation Laboratory of The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory developed a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation facility in 2000 for the test and evaluation of the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) kinetic warhead. We continue to expand on this architecture to facilitate the test of the tactically deployed SM-3 system. An overview and philosophy of the HWIL facility is described. Each of the key test equipment devices is described, along with an upgrade path that provides more accuracy and reliability, as well as increased test capability. The key components are the body dynamics simulation control computer, a scene rendering computer, a resistive-array IR scene projector, and support optics.

  10. Advanced friction simulation of standardized friction tests: a numerical and experimental demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, J.; Wiebenga, J. H.; Hörning, M.; Dietrich, F.; Dane, C.

    2016-08-01

    For the characterization of friction conditions under sheet metal forming process conditions, different friction test set-ups are being used in industry. However, different friction tests and test set-ups are known to result in scattering friction results. In this work, the TriboForm software is utilized to numerically model the frictional behavior. The simulated coefficients of friction are experimentally validated using friction results from a standardized strip drawing friction test set-up. The experimental and simulation results of the friction behavior show a good overall agreement. This demonstrates that the TriboForm software enables simulating friction conditions for varying tribology conditions, i.e. resulting in a generally applicable approach for friction characterization under industrial sheet metal forming process conditions.

  11. Binary pseudorandom test standard to determine the modulation transfer function of optical microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Ian; Anderson, Erik H.; Artemiev, Nikolay A.; Babin, Sergey; Cabrini, Stefano; Calafiore, Guiseppe; Chan, Elaine R.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Peroz, Christophe; Takacs, Peter Z.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports on the development of a binary pseudo-random test sample optimized to calibrate the MTF of optical microscopes. The sample consists of a number of 1-D and 2-D patterns, with different minimum sizes of spatial artifacts from 300 nm to 2 microns. We describe the mathematical background, fabrication process, data acquisition and analysis procedure to return spatial frequency based instrument calibration. We show that the developed samples satisfy the characteristics of a test standard: functionality, ease of specification and fabrication, reproducibility, and low sensitivity to manufacturing error.

  12. Standard wool fabric as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Standard wool fabric is investigated as a potential reference material. A screening test method for relative toxicity exposes four albino male rats enclosed in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to pyrolysis effluents produced by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample under a variety of test conditions (200-800 C with a 40 C/min heating rate). It is found that for fabrics containing 86-100% wool, animal response remains virtually unchanged, although a 100% wool fabric is preferred as it eliminates local composition differences as a source of variation.

  13. Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu

    2013-08-01

    We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data.

  14. Vehicle to Grid Communication Standards Development, Testing and Validation - Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Pratt, Richard M.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2011-09-01

    In the US, more than 10,000 electric vehicles (EV) have been delivered to consumers during the first three quarters of 2011. A large majority of these vehicles are battery electric, often requiring 220 volt charging. Though the vehicle manufacturers and charging station manufacturers have provided consumers options for charging preferences, there are no existing communications between consumers and the utilities to manage the charging demand. There is also wide variation between manufacturers in their approach to support vehicle charging. There are in-vehicle networks, charging station networks, utility networks each using either cellular, Wi-Fi, ZigBee or other proprietary communication technology with no standards currently available for interoperability. The current situation of ad-hoc solutions is a major barrier to the wide adoption of electric vehicles. SAE, the International Standards Organization/International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC), ANSI, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and several industrial organizations are working towards the development of interoperability standards. PNNL has participated in the development and testing of these standards in an effort to accelerate the adoption and development of communication modules.

  15. Is the European standard series suitable for patch testing in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia?

    PubMed

    el-Rab, M O; al-Sheikh, O A

    1995-11-01

    Due to the lack of a regional patch test series in our geographical area, the suitability of the European standard series was evaluated by patch testing dermatitis patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Of 240 consecutive patients with various forms of dermatitis, 136 (57%) showed 1 or more positive patch tests, women, 74 (54%), slightly outnumbering men, 62 (46%). Positive reactions were found to 21 of the 22 items in the test series. Sensitization was most common to nickel sulfate (51 = 37.5%), potassium dichromate (48 = 35%) and cobalt chloride (43 = 32%) The frequency of sensitization to nickel was higher in women (41 = 30%) while that to dichromate was higher in men (39 = 29%). Less reactions were found to fragrance mix (21 = 15%), formaldehyde (15 = 11%) and neomycin sulfate (15 = 11%). Sensitization to other allergens ranged between 10 and 1%. Less than 1% of patients (0.7%) reacted to benzocaine and none to primin. The frequency of occurrence of multiple sensitivities is also presented. We conclude that the European standard series is suitable for patch testing dermatitis patients in our region, with the exception of benzocaine and primin. The addition of 3 allergens that could be of local relevance is discussed.

  16. The "Last Mile" in Standards-Based Reform: Conducting a Match Study Linking Teacher-Certification Tests to Student Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    States have invested significant resources in developing student academic standards. Mr. Murphy argues that, for these standards to be effective, teacher preparation and certification must be aligned with them. He proposes "match studies" as a way to ensure this alignment. (Contains 3 endnotes.)

  17. Direct disk diffusion test using European Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing breakpoints provides reliable results compared with the standard method.

    PubMed

    Stokkou, Sofia; Geginat, Gernot; Schlüter, Dirk; Tammer, Ina

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis represents a life-threatening infection requiring the immediate start of antibacterial treatment to reduce morbidity. Thus, laboratories use direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) to rapidly generate preliminary results from positive blood cultures. As the direct AST has not yet been published to be evaluated with EUCAST breakpoints, the purpose of the study was to investigate the reliability of the direct agar diffusion test to correctly produce AST results from positive monobacterial blood cultures compared with the VITEK2-based definitive AST, when current EUCAST breakpoints were used. A total of 428 isolates from unselected monobacterial routine blood cultures and 110 challenge strains were included. Direct agar diffusion-based and standard VITEK2-based AST of 2803 bacterium-drug combinations yielded a total clinical category agreement of 95.47% with 1.28% very major errors and 3.42% combined major and minor errors. On the species level, very major errors were observed in the species-drug combinations Enterococcus spp.-high-level gentamicin (10.87%) and Staphylococcus spp.-rifampicin (5%), only. No very major errors occurred with Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In most species-drug combinations, the direct agar diffusion test using EUCAST breakpoints precisely predicted the result of the definitive antibiotic susceptibility test and, thus, it can be used to optimize empiric antibiotic therapy until definitive results are available. PMID:25883798

  18. Formulation of a candidate glass for use as an acceptance test standard material

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Strachan, D.M.; Wolf, S.F.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, the authors discuss the formulation of a glass that will be used in a laboratory testing program designed to measure the precision of test methods identified in the privatization contracts for the immobilization of Hanford low-activity wastes. Tests will be conducted with that glass to measure the reproducibility of tests and analyses that must be performed by glass producers as a part of the product acceptance procedure. Test results will be used to determine if the contractually required tests and analyses are adequate for evaluating the acceptability of likely immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) products. They will also be used to evaluate if the glass designed for use in these tests can be used as an analytical standard test material for verifying results reported by vendors for tests withg ILAW products. The results of those tests and analyses will be presented in a separate report. The purpose of this report is to document the strategy used to formulate the glass to be used in the testing program. The low-activity waste reference glass LRM that will be used in the testing program was formulated to be compositionally similar to ILAW products to be made with wastes from Hanford. Since the ILAW product compositions have not been disclosed by the vendors participating in the Hanford privatization project, the composition of LRM was formulated based on simulated Hanford waste stream and amounts of added glass forming chemicals typical for vitrified waste forms. The major components are 54 mass % SiO{sub 2}, 20 mass % Na{sub 2}O, 10 mass % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 8 mass % B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and 1.5 mass % K{sub 2}O. Small amounts of other chemicals not present in Hanford wastes were also included in the glass, since they may be included as chemical additives in ILAW products. This was done so that the use of LRM as a composition standard could be evaluated. Radionuclides were not included in LRM because a nonradioactive material was desired.

  19. Validation of Proposed Metrics for Two-Body Abrasion Scratch Test Analysis Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Klaus, David M.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate a set of standardized metrics proposed for characterizing a surface that has been scratched from a two-body abrasion test. This is achieved by defining a new abrasion region termed Zone of Interaction (ZOI). The ZOI describes the full surface profile of all peaks and valleys, rather than just measuring a scratch width as currently defined by the ASTM G 171 Standard. The ZOI has been found to be at least twice the size of a standard width measurement, in some cases considerably greater, indicating that at least half of the disturbed surface area would be neglected without this insight. The ZOI is used to calculate a more robust data set of volume measurements that can be used to computationally reconstruct a resultant profile for detailed analysis. Documenting additional changes to various surface roughness parameters also allows key material attributes of importance to ultimate design applications to be quantified, such as depth of penetration and final abraded surface roughness. Data are presented to show that different combinations of scratch tips and abraded materials can actually yield the same scratch width, but result in different volume displacement or removal measurements and therefore, the ZOI method is more discriminating than the ASTM method scratch width. Furthermore, by investigating the use of custom scratch tips for our specific needs, the usefulness of having an abrasion metric that can measure the displaced volume in this standardized manner, and not just by scratch width alone, is reinforced. This benefit is made apparent when a tip creates an intricate contour having multiple peaks and valleys within a single scratch. This work lays the foundation for updating scratch measurement standards to improve modeling and characterization of three-body abrasion test results.

  20. Lyral has been included in the patch test standard series in Germany.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Brasch, Jochen; Schnuch, Axel; Lessmann, Holger; Pirker, Claudia; Frosch, Peter J

    2002-05-01

    Lyral 5% pet. was tested in 3245 consecutive patch test patients in 20 departments of dermatology in order (i) to check the diagnostic quality of this patch test preparation, (ii) to examine concomitant reactions to Lyral and fragrance mix (FM), and (iii) to assess the frequency of contact allergy to Lyral in an unselected patch test population of German dermatological clinics. 62 patients reacted to Lyral, i.e. 1.9%. One third of the positive reactions were + + and + + +. The reaction index was 0.27. Thus, the test preparation can be regarded a good diagnostic tool. Lyral and fragrance mix (FM) were tested in parallel in 3185 patients. Of these, 300 (9.4%) reacted to FM, and 59 (1.9%) to Lyral. In 40 patients, positive reactions to both occurred, which is 13.3% of those reacting to FM, and 67.8% of those reacting to Lyral. So the concordance of positive test reactions to Lyral and FM was only slight. Based on these results, the German Contact Dermatitis Research Group (DKG) decided to add Lyral 5% pet. to the standard series.

  1. Effect of methyl tert-butyl ether in standard tests for mutagenicity and environmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vosahlikova, Miluse; Cajthaml, Tomas; Demnerova, Katerina; Pazlarova, Jarmila

    2006-12-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic compound that is used as a technological solution to problems created by air pollution from vehicle emissions. An important source of MTBE in the environment is leakage from underground storage tanks at gasoline stations or accidents during gasoline transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of MTBE leakage for the environment using the Microtox (Vibrio fischeri) toxicity test, Lactuca sativa seed germination test, and Ames bacterial mutagenicity test with Salmonella typhimurium his(-) strains TA98, TA100, YG1041, and YG1042, using both standard plate and preincubation protocols. The result of Microtox expressed as EC(50) was 33 mg (MTBE)/L. The effect of all tested MTBE concentration (0.05, 0.50, and 1.00% v/v) on Lactuca sativa roots elongation was negative and proved its toxicity. The highest tested concentration of MTBE that could be tested in Ames test was 3 mg (MTBE)/plate, because of cytotoxicity. No mutagenic response was observed at this or lower concentrations in any of the four strains used. PMID:17091504

  2. Extending the statistical analysis and graphical presentation of toxicity test results using standardized effect sizes.

    PubMed

    Festing, Michael F W

    2014-12-01

    The results of repeat-dose toxicity tests are usually presented as tables of means and standard deviations (SDs), with an indication of statistical significance for each biomarker. Interpretation is based mainly on the pattern of statistical significance rather than the magnitude of any response. Multiple statistical testing of many biomarkers leads to false-positive results and, with the exception of growth data, few graphical methods for showing the results are available. By converting means and SDs to standardized effect sizes, a range of graphical techniques including dot plots, line plots, box plots, and quantile-quantile plots become available to show the patterns of response. A bootstrap statistical test involving all biomarkers is proposed to compare the magnitudes of the response between treated groups. These methods are proposed as an extension rather than an alternative to current statistical analyses. They can be applied to published work retrospectively, as all that is required is tables of means and SDs. The methods are illustrated using published articles, where the results range from strong positive to completely negative responses to the test substances.

  3. Deriving In-Use PHEV Fuel Economy Predictions from Standardized Test Cycle Results

    SciTech Connect

    John Smart; Richard "Barney" Carlson; Jeff Gonder; Aaron Brooker

    2009-09-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have potential to reduce or eliminate the U.S. dependence on foreign oil. Quantifying the amount of petroleum each uses, however, is challenging. To estimate in-use fuel economy for conventional vehicles the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts chassis dynamometer tests on standard historic drive cycles and then adjusts the resulting “raw” fuel economy measurements downward. Various publications, such as the forthcoming update to the SAE J1711 recommended practice for PHEV fuel economy testing, address the challenges of applying standard test procedures to PHEVs. This paper explores the issue of how to apply an adjustment method to such “raw” PHEV dynamometer test results in order to more closely estimate the in-use fuel and electricity consumption characteristics of these vehicles. The paper discusses two possible adjustment methods, and evaluates one method by applying it to dynamometer data and comparing the result to in-use fleet data (on an aftermarket conversion PHEV). The paper will also present the methodologies used to collect the data needed for this comparison.

  4. Canadian multicenter laboratory study for standardized second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meenu; Thibert, Louise; Chedore, Pamela; Shandro, Cary; Jamieson, Frances; Tyrrell, Gregory; Christianson, Sara; Soualhine, Hafid; Wolfe, Joyce

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a standardized protocol for second-line antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Bactec MGIT 960 system in Canadian laboratories. Four Canadian public health laboratories compared the susceptibility testing results of 9 second-line antimicrobials between the Bactec 460 and Bactec MGIT 960 systems. Based on the data generated, we have established that the Bactec MGIT 960 system provides results comparable to those obtained with the previous Bactec 460 method. The critical concentrations established for the testing of the antimicrobials used are as follows: amikacin, 1 μg/ml; capreomycin, 2.5 μg/ml; ethionamide, 5 μg/ml; kanamycin, 2.5 μg/ml; linezolid, 1 μg/ml; moxifloxacin, 0.25 μg/ml; ofloxacin, 2 μg/ml; p-aminosalicylic acid, 4 μg/ml; rifabutin, 0.5 μg/ml.

  5. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment.

    PubMed

    HALL, L B

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on "use" tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated.THE AUTHOR OUTLINES SUGGESTED TECHNIQUES TO BE FOLLOWED AND STANDARDS TO BE ADOPTED IN TESTING THE PERFORMANCE OF COMPRESSION SPRAYERS AND ALLIED EQUIPMENT, WITH REFERENCE TO THE FOLLOWING FEATURES: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern.

  6. Suggested techniques, equipment, and standards for the testing of hand insecticide-spraying equipment

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Lawrence B.

    1955-01-01

    The new demands placed upon application equipment by the introduction of modern insecticides have revealed the deficiencies of this equipment when required for continuous use on a large scale. If adequate equipment is to be produced, specifications must be based not only on basic materials tests but also on “use” tests, in which the conditions of field use are simulated. The author outlines suggested techniques to be followed and standards to be adopted in testing the performance of compression sprayers and allied equipment, with reference to the following features: compression-sprayer tank fatigue; tank impact; pump resistance to bursting; pump resistance to collapse; pump friction; cut-off valve durability; constant-pressure valves; cut-off valve actuation; hose flexure; hose tension and bursting-pressure; hose friction; gaskets, valve faces, and similar non-metallic parts; nozzle-orifice erosion; and nozzle pattern. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 14FIG. 20 PMID:14364189

  7. Development of Standardization and Management System for the Severity of Unpaved Test Courses

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Do-Kyung; Lee, Sang-Ho; Goo, Sang-Hwa

    2007-01-01

    The vibration environment essentially accompanied by vehicle operation on the ground is determined by the shape of road surface, which is called as profile. This paper focuses on the development of profile measurement and severity analysis system for unpaved test courses. In general, the profile and severity of unpaved road is an important issue in the reliability of endurance test. In order to measure and maintain unpaved road profile and severity, it is necessary to develop a profilometer system. The developed profilometer system is composed of data processing computer, power unit, air compressor and sensors(encoder, vertical gyro and laser displacement). This study presents the measuring system configuration, measurement principle of road profile and analysis method of road characteristics used at CPG (Chang-won Proving Ground) for this purpose. In order to standardize and manage the severity of unpaved test courses, neural network is applied

  8. Computer simulation of temperatures on the Centaur standard shroud during heated jettison tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemminger, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A heating fixture for simulating the heating and environment encountered by the Centaur standard shroud (CSS) during its ascent through the earth's atmosphere is discussed. A computer program was developed to provide a means of determining the overall temperature profile of a free-skin model of the CSS during the heating portion of the heated jettison tests. The program treats the energy contribution of each lamp on the heater to various points on the CSS surface. The analytic model was verified by adapting the computer program to the configuration of the hardware used in a series of Intermediate Scale Tests performed on a 2.4 meters by 2.4 meters section of the CSS corrugated structure. A comparison of some predicted versus experimental results from these tests is presented.

  9. Standard test evaluation of graphite fiber/resin matrix composite materials for improved toughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Andrew J.

    1984-01-01

    Programs sponsored by NASA with the commercial transport manufacturers to develop a technology data base are required to design and build composite wing and fuselage structures. To realize the full potential of composite structures in these strength critical designs, material systems having improved ductility and interlaminar toughness are being sought. To promote systematic evaluation of new materials, NASA and the commercial transport manufacturers have selected and standardized a set of five common tests. These tests evaluate open hole tension and compression performance, compression performance after impact at an energy level of 20 ft-lb, and resistance to delamination. Ten toughened resin matrix/graphite fiber composites were evaluated using this series of tests, and their performance is compared with a widely used composite system.

  10. Evaluation of the Standard Setting on the 2005 Grade 12 National Assessment of Educational Progress Mathematics Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Hauger, Jeffrey B.; Wells, Craig S.; Shea, Christine; Zenisky, April L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Assessment Governing Board used a new method to set achievement level standards on the 2005 Grade 12 NAEP Math test. In this article, we summarize our independent evaluation of the process used to set these standards. The evaluation data included observations of the standard-setting meeting, observations of advisory committee meetings…

  11. 75 FR 39023 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... 20755-5235, 301-677-7085. * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  12. 75 FR 32950 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... 20755-5235. 301-677-7085. * The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  13. 75 FR 5088 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  14. 75 FR 9229 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in... Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its Laboratory Accreditation Program for Substance...

  15. 75 FR 45128 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... Engaged in Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in.... Meade, MD 20755-5235, 301-677-7085 *The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  16. 75 FR 27348 - Current List of Laboratories Which Meet Minimum Standards To Engage in Urine Drug Testing for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... Guidelines dated April 13, 2004 (69 FR 19644), the following laboratories meet the minimum standards to... Urine Drug Testing for Federal Agencies,'' sets strict standards that laboratories must meet in order to... 20755-5235, 301-677-7085. *The Standards Council of Canada (SCC) voted to end its...

  17. Critical Factors to Consider in Evaluating Standard-Setting Studies to Map Language Test Scores to Frameworks of Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Cho, Yeonsuk

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consolidate and present in one place what is known about quality indicators for setting standards so that stakeholders may be able to recognize the signs of standard-setting quality. We use the context of setting standards to associate English language test scores with language proficiency descriptions such as those presented…

  18. Thermal cycling for restorative materials: does a standardized protocol exist in laboratory testing? A literature review.

    PubMed

    Morresi, Anna Lucia; D'Amario, Maurizio; Capogreco, Mario; Gatto, Roberto; Marzo, Giuseppe; D'Arcangelo, Camillo; Monaco, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    In vitro tests continue to be an indispensable method for the initial screening of dental materials. Thermal cycling is one of the most widely used procedures to simulate the physiological aging experienced by biomaterials in clinical practice. Consequently it is routinely employed in experimental studies to evaluate materials' performance. A literature review aimed to elucidate test parameters for in vitro aging of adhesive restorations was performed. This study aims to assess whether or not a standardized protocol of thermal cycling has been acknowledged from a review of the literature. An exhaustive literature search, examining the effect of thermal cycling on restorative dental materials, was performed with electronic database and by hand. The search was restricted to studies published from 1998 to August 2013. No language restrictions were applied. The search identified 193 relevant experimental studies. Only twenty-three studies had faithfully applied ISO standard. The majority of studies used their own procedures, showing only a certain consistency within the temperature parameter (5-55°C) and a great variability in the number of cycles and dwell time chosen. A wide variation in thermal cycling parameters applied in experimental studies has been identified. The parameters selected amongst these studies seem to be done on the basis of convenience for the authors in most cases. A comparison of results between studies would appear to be impossible. The available data suggest that further investigations will be required to ultimately develop a standardized thermal cycling protocol.

  19. B →K*l+l-: Zeros of angular observables as test of standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Girish; Mahajan, Namit

    2016-03-01

    We calculate the zeros of angular observables P4' and P5' of the angular distribution of 4-body decay B →K*(→K π )l+l- where LHCb, in its analysis of form-factor independent angular observables, has found deviations from the standard model predictions. In the large recoil region, we obtain relations between the zeros of P4' , P5' and the zero (s^0) of forward-backward asymmetry of lepton pair, AF B. These relations are independent of hadronic uncertainties and depend only on the Wilson coefficients. We also construct a new observable, OTL ,R, whose zero in the standard model coincides with s^0, but in the presence of new physics contributions will show different behavior. Moreover, the profile of the new observable, even within the standard model, is very different from AF B. We point out that precise measurements of these zeros in the near future would provide a crucial test of the standard model and would be useful in distinguishing between different possible new physics contributions to the Wilson coefficients.

  20. Everyday uses of standardized test information in a geriatric setting: a qualitative study exploring occupational therapist and physiotherapist test administrators’ justifications

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health professionals are required to collect data from standardized tests when assessing older patients’ functional ability. Such data provide quantifiable documentation on health outcomes. Little is known, however, about how physiotherapists and occupational therapists who administer standardized tests use test information in their daily clinical work. This article aims to investigate how test administrators in a geriatric setting justify the everyday use of standardized test information. Methods Qualitative study of physiotherapists and occupational therapists on two geriatric hospital wards in Norway that routinely tested their patients with standardized tests. Data draw on seven months of fieldwork, semi-structured interviews with eight physiotherapists and six occupational therapists (12 female, two male), as well as observations of 26 test situations. Data were analyzed using Systematic Text Condensation. Results We identified two test information components in everyday use among physiotherapist and occupational therapist test administrators. While the primary component drew on the test administrators’ subjective observations during testing, the secondary component encompassed the communication of objective test results and test performance. Conclusions The results of this study illustrate the overlap between objective and subjective data in everyday practice. In clinical practice, by way of the clinicians’ gaze on how the patient functions, the subjective and objective components of test information are merged, allowing individual characteristics to be noticed and made relevant as test performance justifications and as rationales in the overall communication of patient needs. PMID:24528609