Science.gov

Sample records for standardised candles improvements

  1. LSQ13fn: A type II-Plateau supernova with a possibly low metallicity progenitor that breaks the standardised candle relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polshaw, J.; Kotak, R.; Dessart, L.; Fraser, M.; Gal-Yam, A.; Inserra, C.; Sim, S. A.; Smartt, S. J.; Sollerman, J.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Benetti, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Campbell, H.; Chen, T.-W.; Galbany, L.; McKinnon, R.; Nicholl, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sullivan, M.; Takáts, K.; Valenti, S.; Young, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    We present optical imaging and spectroscopy of supernova (SN) LSQ13fn, a type II supernova with several hitherto-unseen properties. Although it initially showed strong symmetric spectral emission features attributable to He ii, N iii, and C iii, reminiscent of some interacting SNe, it transitioned into an object that would fall more naturally under a type II-Plateau (IIP) classification. However, its spectral evolution revealed several unusual properties: metal lines appeared later than expected, were weak, and some species were conspicuous by their absence. Furthermore, the line velocities were found to be lower than expected given the plateau brightness, breaking the SN IIP standardised candle method for distance estimates. We found that, in combination with a short phase of early-time ejecta-circumstellar material interaction, metal-poor ejecta, and a large progenitor radius could reasonably account for the observed behaviour. Comparisons with synthetic model spectra of SNe IIP of a given progenitor mass would imply a progenitor star metallicity as low as 0.1 Z⊙. LSQ13fn highlights the diversity of SNe II and the many competing physical effects that come into play towards the final stages of massive star evolution immediately preceding core-collapse. The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A1

  2. A five-year performance review of field-scale, slow-release permanganate candles with recommendations for second-generation improvements.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark; Kambhu, Ann; Reece, James; Comfort, Steve; Brunner, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    In 2009, we identified a TCE plume at an abandoned landfill that was located in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate cylinders (oxidant candles) that had diameters of either 5.1 or 7.6 cm and were 91.4 cm long. In 2010, we compared two methods of candle installation by inserting equal masses of the oxidant candles (7.6-cm vs 5.1-cm dia). The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted with direct-push rods while the 7.6-cm candles were housed in screens and lowered into 10 permanent wells. Since installation, the 7.6-cm oxidant candles have been refurbished approximately once per year by gently scraping off surface oxides. In 2012, we reported initial results; in this paper, we provide a 5-yr performance review since installation. Temporal sampling shows oxidant candles placed in wells have steadily reduced migrating TCE concentrations. Moreover, these candles still maintain an inner core of oxidant that has yet to contribute to the dissolution front and should provide several more years of service. Oxidant candles inserted by direct-push have stopped reducing TCE concentrations because a MnO2 scale developed on the outside of the candles. To counteract oxide scaling, we fabricated a second generation of oxidant candles that contain sodium hexametaphosphate. Laboratory experiments (batch and flow-through) show that these second-generation permanganate candles have better release characteristics and are less prone to oxide scaling. This improvement should reduce the need to perform maintenance on candles placed in wells and provide greater longevity for candles inserted by direct-push. PMID:26901481

  3. Improving hospital weekend handover: a user-centered, standardised approach

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Avi; Henein, Christin

    2014-01-01

    Clinical Handover remains one of the most perilous procedures in medicine (1). Weekend handover has emerged as a key area of concern with high variability in handover processes across hospitals (1,2,4, 5–10). Studying weekend handover processes within medicine at an acute teaching hospital revealed huge variability in documented content and structure. A total of 12 different pro formas were in use by the medical day-team to handover to the weekend team on-call. A Likert-survey of doctors revealed 93% felt the current handover system needed improvement with 71% stating that it did not ensure patient safety (Chi-squared, p-value <0.001, n=32). Semi-structured interviews of doctors identified common themes including “a lack of consistency in approach” “poor standardization” and “high variability”. Seeking to address concerns of standardization, a standardized handover pro forma was developed using Royal College of Physician (RCP) guidelines (2), with direct end-user input. Results following implementation revealed a considerable improvement in documented ceiling of care, urgency of task and team member assignment with 100% uptake of the new proforma at both 4-week and 6-month post-implementation analyses. 88% of doctors surveyed perceived that the new proforma improved patient safety (p<0.01, n=25), with 62% highlighting that it allowed doctors to work more efficiently. Results also revealed that 44% felt further improvements were needed and highlighted electronic solutions and handover training as main priorities. Handover briefing was subsequently incorporated into junior doctor induction and education modules delivered, with good feedback. Following collaboration with key stakeholders and with end-user input, integrated electronic handover software was designed and funding secured. The software is currently under final development. Introducing a standardized handover proforma can be an effective initial step in improving weekend handover. Handover

  4. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  5. Possible improvements to the back-pulse cleaning of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, A.; Giernoth, B.; Renz, U.

    1995-12-31

    For the successful application of hot gas filters with ceramic filter elements in coal fired power generation processes a stable cleaning of the filter elements must be guaranteed. The most frequent strategy of cleaning candle filters is back-pulse cleaning. To optimize the cleaning event a profound understanding of the physical phenomena involved in the build-up and break up of dust cakes is necessary. To determine the cohesive forces in a filter cake the strength of flat filter cakes was tested, by measuring the pressure difference driving the reversed gas flow through the filter that causes cake failure. Based on a model by Rumpf the measured strength of filter dust cakes is evaluated and discussed. Furthermore video observations of the pulse cleaning event and investigations on the particle aggregation immediately following the cleaning event are analyzed and suggestions towards an improved efficiency of the pulse cleaning are made. For the filtration process itself the permeability of dust cakes is of paramount importance. For the range of porosities above 75% most approaches to calculate the permeability on the basis of porosity and dust properties render poor agreement with experimental data. An extension to the Free-Surface-Model of Happel is proposed that shows a strongly improved accuracy in the predicted permeability when compared to the original model or the Carman-Kozeny correlation.

  6. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, K.; Iida, T.; Kishimoto, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshizawa, M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Naktani, N.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-08-01

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using 48Ca in CaF2 crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  7. Low background techniques in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, K. E-mail: nkyohei@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iida, T.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Umehara, S.; Kishimoto, T.; Chan, W. M.; Kakubata, H.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Ohata, T.; Temuge, B.; Tetsuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Yoshida, S.; Morishita, K.; Ogawa, I.; Sakamoto, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; and others

    2015-08-17

    CANDLES is a double beta decay experiment using {sup 48}Ca in CaF{sub 2} crystals. The measurement is being performed with prototype detector (CANDLES III) for high sensitive measurement in the future. Recent status of detector improvements and background reduction techniques are described in this paper.

  8. Catalyzed sodium chlorate candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malich, C. W.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    The catalytic effect of cobalt powder on chlorate decomposition has been confirmed. Catalysis is enhanced by oxidation of the metal during burning. Catalysts other than cobalt compounds should also be effective; the complete elimination of fuel has shown that the oxidation of cobalt during decomposition is not a vital factor in the improved performance of catalyzed candles.

  9. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros

    PubMed Central

    Plotz, Roan D.; Grecian, W. James; Kerley, Graham I.H.; Linklater, Wayne L.

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004–2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km2, 53 ±1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km2 ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  10. Standardising Home Range Studies for Improved Management of the Critically Endangered Black Rhinoceros.

    PubMed

    Plotz, Roan D; Grecian, W James; Kerley, Graham I H; Linklater, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    Comparisons of recent estimations of home range sizes for the critically endangered black rhinoceros in Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park (HiP), South Africa, with historical estimates led reports of a substantial (54%) increase, attributed to over-stocking and habitat deterioration that has far-reaching implications for rhino conservation. Other reports, however, suggest the increase is more likely an artefact caused by applying various home range estimators to non-standardised datasets. We collected 1939 locations of 25 black rhino over six years (2004-2009) to estimate annual home ranges and evaluate the hypothesis that they have increased in size. A minimum of 30 and 25 locations were required for accurate 95% MCP estimation of home range of adult rhinos, during the dry and wet seasons respectively. Forty and 55 locations were required for adult female and male annual MCP home ranges, respectively, and 30 locations were necessary for estimating 90% bivariate kernel home ranges accurately. Average annual 95% bivariate kernel home ranges were 20.4 ± 1.2 km(2), 53 ± 1.9% larger than 95% MCP ranges (9.8 km(2) ± 0.9). When home range techniques used during the late-1960s in HiP were applied to our dataset, estimates were similar, indicating that ranges have not changed substantially in 50 years. Inaccurate, non-standardised, home range estimates and their comparison have the potential to mislead black rhino population management. We recommend that more care be taken to collect adequate numbers of rhino locations within standardized time periods (i.e., season or year) and that the comparison of home ranges estimated using dissimilar procedures be avoided. Home range studies of black rhino have been data deficient and procedurally inconsistent. Standardisation of methods is required. PMID:27028728

  11. Experiment with a Candle without a Candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krnel, Dusan; Glazar, Sasa A.

    2001-07-01

    In the popular experiment in which a burning candle in an airtight cylinder purports to demonstrate the percentage of oxygen in the air, the main reason for the change in volume is the expansion and contraction of gases because of warming up or cooling down, not because the oxygen is used for burning. To support this explanation we have devised two experiments, the results of which are similar to the classic experiment with a candle, although a candle is not used. The experiments demonstrate that burning cannot be the only reason for the reduction of volume of gases in the cylinder.

  12. LEAD IN CANDLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The candle-using public should be made aware that the core of candle wicks may contain lead. Used as a stiffening agent to keep the wick out of the molten wax, lead can be emitted as particulate to the air and then deposited on indoor surfaces. To define the problem, 100 sets of ...

  13. Development of a methodology for the standardisation and improvement of 'Smartphone' photography of patterned bruises and other cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Paul R; Evans, Samuel T; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Human bite-mark analyses can play a prominent role in forensic case investigations, including those involving sexual assault. High-quality photographs routinely secure a link between a bite-mark and an individual's dentition. Access to around the clock forensic photography, however, is often limited, resulting in delay and/or missed opportunities to record valuable evidence. The emergence of Smartphone high-quality photographic technology now provides a previously unimagined opportunity to gather timely forensic photographic evidence. Problems can arise, however, due to the relatively poor quality of the photographs, as a result of many of those taking photographs having received little or no forensic photography training. This study compares unassisted photography with assisted photography, by a specifically developed camera application (App), to provide a standardised method for taking forensic photographs. An App, written in Java, was hosted on the Google Android Operating System, on a Samsung Galaxy SII Smartphone. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a study to photograph a pseudo bite-mark using three methods, (1) unassisted (as a control), (2) assisted by an ABFO No.2 right-angled photographic reference scale and (3) assisted by the App. The App, method (3), was shown to consistently outperform methods (1) and (2), demonstrating greater standardisation and precision (p<0.001). Analysis of the data showed the extent to which acquiring an accurate photograph depends on the image being orthogonal to the camera. It appears likely that the relatively inaccurate photographs acquired by methods (1) and (2), were as a result of deviation from the plane, orthogonal to the bite-mark. Therefore, the App was successful in ensuring that the camera was both orthogonal and at an appropriate distance, relative to the bite-mark. Thus, the App enhanced the abilities of non-experts to acquire more accurate photographs and created the potential to significantly improve the

  14. Development of a methodology for the standardisation and improvement of 'Smartphone' photography of patterned bruises and other cutaneous injuries.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Paul R; Evans, Samuel T; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2013-09-01

    Human bite-mark analyses can play a prominent role in forensic case investigations, including those involving sexual assault. High-quality photographs routinely secure a link between a bite-mark and an individual's dentition. Access to around the clock forensic photography, however, is often limited, resulting in delay and/or missed opportunities to record valuable evidence. The emergence of Smartphone high-quality photographic technology now provides a previously unimagined opportunity to gather timely forensic photographic evidence. Problems can arise, however, due to the relatively poor quality of the photographs, as a result of many of those taking photographs having received little or no forensic photography training. This study compares unassisted photography with assisted photography, by a specifically developed camera application (App), to provide a standardised method for taking forensic photographs. An App, written in Java, was hosted on the Google Android Operating System, on a Samsung Galaxy SII Smartphone. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a study to photograph a pseudo bite-mark using three methods, (1) unassisted (as a control), (2) assisted by an ABFO No.2 right-angled photographic reference scale and (3) assisted by the App. The App, method (3), was shown to consistently outperform methods (1) and (2), demonstrating greater standardisation and precision (p<0.001). Analysis of the data showed the extent to which acquiring an accurate photograph depends on the image being orthogonal to the camera. It appears likely that the relatively inaccurate photographs acquired by methods (1) and (2), were as a result of deviation from the plane, orthogonal to the bite-mark. Therefore, the App was successful in ensuring that the camera was both orthogonal and at an appropriate distance, relative to the bite-mark. Thus, the App enhanced the abilities of non-experts to acquire more accurate photographs and created the potential to significantly improve the

  15. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  16. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  17. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ross, Howard D.; Frate, David T.; Tien, James S.; Shu, Yong

    1997-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame is used as a model combustion system, in that in microgravity it is one of the only examples of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. Others have used the candle to study a number of combustion phenomena including flame flicker, flame oscillations, electric field effects and enhanced and reduced gravitational effects in flames. The present work is a continuation of a small-scale Shuttle experiment on candle flames. That study showed that the candle flame lifetimes were on the order of 40 seconds, the flames were dim blue after a transient ignition period, and that just prior to extinction the flames oscillated spontaneously for about five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz. The authors postulated that the gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the flame was quasi-steady. Further away from the flame, however, the assertion of a quasi-steady flame was less certain, thus the authors did not prove that a steady flame could exist. They also speculated that the short lifetime of the candle flame was due to the presence of the small, weakly perforated box that surrounded the candle. The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment, with revised hardware, was recently flown aboard the Mir orbiting station, and conducted inside the glovebox facility by Dr. Shannon Lucid. In addition to the purposes described above, the experiments were NASA's first ability to ascertain the merits of the Mir environment for combustion science studies. In this article, we present the results of that experiment. We are also in the process

  18. Low Radioactivity in CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kishimoto, T.; Ogawa, I.; Hazama, R.; Yoshida, S.; Umehara, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Sakai, H.; Yokoyama, D.; Mukaida, K.; Ichihara, K.; Tatewaki, Y.; Kishimoto, K.; Hirano, Y.; Yanagisawa, A.; Ajimura, S.

    2005-09-08

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 crystals. Double beta decay of 48Ca has the highest Q value among all nuclei whose double beta decay is energetically allowed. This feature makes the study almost background free and becomes important once the study is limited by the backgrounds. We studied double beta decays of 48Ca by using ELEGANTS VI detector system which features CaF2(Eu) crystals. We gave the best limit on the lifetime of neutrino-less double beta decay of 48Ca although further development is vital to reach the neutrino mass of current interest for which CANDLES is designed. In this article we present how CANDLES can achieve low radioactivity, which is the key for the future double beta decay experiment.

  19. Candles in Our Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    "Candles in Our Windows"--also titled "Nightlights"--is a play developed for elementary and middle school students about how residents in Billings, Montana, took a stand against hate. Last March, the 6th-grade students of Woodland Elementary School in New Jersey performed an early version of the play based on a children's book, "The Christmas…

  20. Progress in research on chlorate candle technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, J.

    1970-01-01

    Research and development program improves sodium chlorate candle formulation, production method, and igniter design. Cobalt is used as the fuel, dry processing methods are used to lower the water content, and a device based on pyrotechnic heater concepts is used as the igniter.

  1. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  2. 16 CFR 501.7 - Candles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Candles. 501.7 Section 501.7 Commercial... 500 § 501.7 Candles. Tapered candles and irregularly shaped decorative candles which are either hand... extent that diameter of such candles need not be expressed. The requirements of § 500.7 of this...

  3. Standardisation and Its Discontents

    PubMed Central

    Wears, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    In discussions of the quality and safety problems of modern, Western healthcare, one of the most frequently heard criticisms has been that: “It is not standardised.” This paper explores issues around standardisation that illustrate its surprising complexity, its potential advantages and disadvantages, and its political and sociological implications, in the hope that discourses around standardisation might become more fruitful. PMID:25667566

  4. Parallel Professionalism in an Era of Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-Johnson, Corrie

    2014-01-01

    Today's American educational context is characterised by increasing standardisation coupled with heightened accountability. While some view standardisation as a lever for equity, many view it as problematic for the work of teachers. Efforts to improve student achievement by focusing on the activities of teachers have resulted in an…

  5. ASSET (Age/Sex Standardised Estimates of Treatment): A Research Model to Improve the Governance of Prescribing Funds in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Favato, Giampiero; Mariani, Paolo; Mills, Roger W.; Capone, Alessandro; Pelagatti, Matteo; Pieri, Vasco; Marcobelli, Alberico; Trotta, Maria G.; Zucchi, Alberto; Catapano, Alberico L.

    2007-01-01

    Background The primary objective of this study was to make the first step in the modelling of pharmaceutical demand in Italy, by deriving a weighted capitation model to account for demographic differences among general practices. The experimental model was called ASSET (Age/Sex Standardised Estimates of Treatment). Methods and Major Findings Individual prescription costs and demographic data referred to 3,175,691 Italian subjects and were collected directly from three Regional Health Authorities over the 12-month period between October 2004 and September 2005. The mean annual prescription cost per individual was similar for males (196.13 euro) and females (195.12 euro). After 65 years of age, the mean prescribing costs for males were significantly higher than females. On average, costs for a 75-year-old subject would be 12 times the costs for a 25–34 year-old subject if male, 8 times if female. Subjects over 65 years of age (22% of total population) accounted for 56% of total prescribing costs. The weightings explained approximately 90% of the evolution of total prescribing costs, in spite of the pricing and reimbursement turbulences affecting Italy in the 2000–2005 period. The ASSET weightings were able to explain only about 25% of the variation in prescribing costs among individuals. Conclusions If mainly idiosyncratic prescribing by general practitioners causes the unexplained variations, the introduction of capitation-based budgets would gradually move practices with high prescribing costs towards the national average. It is also possible, though, that the unexplained individual variation in prescribing costs is the result of differences in the clinical characteristics or socio-economic conditions of practice populations. If this is the case, capitation-based budgets may lead to unfair distribution of resources. The ASSET age/sex weightings should be used as a guide, not as the ultimate determinant, for an equitable allocation of prescribing resources to

  6. CANDLE Syndrome: orodfacial manifestations and dental implications.

    PubMed

    Roberts, T; Stephen, L; Scott, C; di Pasquale, T; Naser-Eldin, A; Chetty, M; Shaik, S; Lewandowski, L; Beighton, P

    2015-01-01

    A South African girl with CANDLE Syndrome is reported with emphasis on the orodental features and dental management. Clinical manifestations included short stature, wasting of the soft tissue of the arms and legs, erythematous skin eruptions and a prominent abdomen due to hepatosplenomegaly. Generalized microdontia, confirmed by tooth measurement and osteopenia of her jaws, confirmed by digitalized radiography, were previously undescribed syndromic components. Intellectual impairment posed problems during dental intervention. The carious dental lesions and poor oral hygiene were treated conservatively under local anaesthetic. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered an hour before all procedures.Due to the nature of her general condition, invasive dental procedures were minimal. Regular follow-ups were scheduled at six monthly intervals. During this period, her overall oral health status had improved markedly.The CANDLE syndrome is a rare condition with grave complications including immunosuppression and diabetes mellitus. As with many genetic disorders, the dental manifestations are often overshadowed by other more conspicuous and complex syndromic features. Recognition of both the clinical and oral changes that occur in the CANDLE syndrome facilitates accurate diagnosis and appropriate dental management of this potentially lethal condition. PMID:26711936

  7. Emission of air pollutants from burning candles with different composition in indoor environments.

    PubMed

    Derudi, Marco; Gelosa, Simone; Sliepcevich, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Cavallo, Domenico; Rota, Renato; Nano, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Candle composition is expected to influence the air pollutants emissions, possibly leading to important differences in the emissions of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this regard, the purity of the raw materials and additives used can play a key role. Consequently, in this work emission factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic species, short-chain aldehydes and particulate matter have been determined for container candles constituted by different paraffin waxes burning in a test chamber. It has been found that wax quality strongly influences the air pollutant emissions. These results could be used, at least at a first glance, to foresee the expected pollutant concentration in a given indoor environment with respect to health safety standards, while the test chamber used for performing the reported results could be useful to estimate the emission factors of any other candle in an easy-to-build standardised environment. PMID:24318837

  8. NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Roger H.L. Chen, Ph.D.; Alejandro Kiriakidis

    1999-09-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques have been used to reduce the potential mechanical failures and to improve the reliability of a structure. Failure of a structure is usually initiated at some type of flaw in the material. NDE techniques have been developed to determine the presence of flaws larger than an acceptable size and to estimate the remaining stiffness of a damaged structure (Chen, et. al, 1995). Ceramic candle filters have been tested for use in coal-fueled gas turbine systems. They protect gas turbine components from damage due to erosion. A total of one hundred and one candle filters were nondestructively evaluated in this study. Ninety-eight ceramic candle filters and three ceramic composite filters have been nondestructively inspected using dynamic characterization technique. These ceramic filters include twelve unused Coors alumina/mullite, twenty-four unused and fifteen used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith TF-20, twenty-five unused and nine used Refractron 326, eight unused and three used Refractron 442T, one new Schumacher-T 10-20, and one used Schumacher-Dia-Schumalith F-40. All filters were subjected to a small excitation and the dynamic response was picked up by a piezoelectric accelerometer. The evaluation of experimental results was processed using digital signal analysis technique including various forms of data transformation. The modal parameters for damage assessment for the unexposed (unused) vs. exposed (used) specimen were based on two vibration parameters: natural frequencies and mode shapes. Finite Element models were built for each specimen type to understand its dynamic response. Linear elastic modal analysis was performed using eight nodes, three-dimensional isotropic solid elements. Conclusions based on our study indicate that dynamic characterization is a feasible NDE technique in studying structural properties of ceramic candle filters. It has been shown that the degradation of the filters due to long working hours (or

  9. Reducing costs via standardisation.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Speaking in a presentation at October's Healthcare Estates 2013, senior representatives from a number of Principal Supply Chain Partners (PSCPs) within the ProCure21 + National Framework explained their ongoing work to develop designs for standardised and repeatable rooms, along with a range of associated standard components--from flooring to air-handling units--all intended to reduce NHS capital building costs in line with the Government Construction Strategy. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:24516935

  10. Lighting that One Little Candle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarnati, James T.; Tice, Craig J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a lesson in which fifth graders made observations of candles. Discusses the progress of the lesson and the necessity of instructing students in what and how to watch and measure. Stresses that this can be easily accomplished inexpensively with imagination. (CW)

  11. LED solution for E14 candle lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Ye; Boonekamp, Erik P.; Shi, Lei; Mei, Yi; Jiang, Tan; Guo, Qing; Wu, Huarong

    2009-08-01

    On a short to medium term, energy efficient retrofit LED products can offer an attractive solution for traditional lamps replacement in existing fixtures. To comply with user expectations, LED retrofit lamps should not only have the same mechanical interface to fit (socket and shape), but also have the similar light effect as the lamps they replace. The decorative lighting segment shows the best conditions to meet these requirements on short term. In 2008, Philips Lighting Shanghai started with the development of an LED candle lamp for the replacement of a 15W Candle shape (B35 E14) incandescent bulb, which is used in e.g. chandeliers. In this decorative application the main objective is not to generate as much light as possible, but the application requires the lamp to have a comparable look and, primarily, the same light effect as the incandescent candle lamp. This effect can be described as sparkling light, and it has to be directed sufficiently downwards (i.e., in the direction of the base of the lamp). These requirements leave very limited room for optics, electronics, mechanics and thermal design to play with in the small outline of this lamp. The main voltage AC LED concept is chosen to save the space for driver electronics. However the size of the AC LED is relatively big, which makes the optical design challenging. Several optical solutions to achieve the required light effect, to improve the optical efficiency, and to simplify the system are discussed. A novel prismatic lens has been developed which is capable of transforming the Lambertian light emission from typical high power LEDs into a butter-fly intensity distribution with the desired sparkling light effect. Thanks to this lens no reflecting chamber is needed, which improves the optical efficiency up to 70%, while maintaining the compact feature of the original optics. Together with advanced driver solution and thermal solution, the resulting LED candle lamp operates at 230V, consumes 1.8W, and

  12. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-12-16

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  13. Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Timothy A; Tupy, Michael J; Abraham, Timothy W; Shafer, Andy

    2014-04-01

    A wax comprises a metathesis product and/or a product that resembles, at least in part, a product which may be formed from a metathesis reaction. The wax may be used to form articles, for example, candles (container candles, votive candles, and/or a pillar candles), crayons, fire logs, or tarts. The wax commonly includes other components in addition to the metathesis product.

  14. Candle Flames in Microgravity Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This video of a candle flame burning in space was taken by the Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment on the Russian Mir space station. It is actually a composite of still photos from a 35mm camera since the video images were too dim. The images show a hemispherically shaped flame, primarily blue in color, with some yellow early int the flame lifetime. The actual flame is quite dim and difficult to see with the naked eye. Nearly 80 candles were burned in this experiment aboard Mir. NASA scientists have also studied how flames spread in space and how to detect fire in microgravity. Researchers hope that what they learn about fire and combustion from the flame ball experiments will help out here on Earth. Their research could help create things such as better engines for cars and airplanes. Since they use very weak flames, flame balls require little fuel. By studying how this works, engineers may be able to design engines that use far less fuel. In addition, microgravity flame research is an important step in creating new safety precautions for astronauts living in space. By understanding how fire works in space, the astronauts can be better prepared to fight it.

  15. Burning Candles in the Microgravity of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel; Ross, Howard; Tien, James

    1997-01-01

    The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment was designed to study how long candle flames can be sustained in microgravity, how the flames behave prior to extinction, and the how two closely spaced candle flames behave. The scientists hope that one day the results will help resolve age-old questions regarding the effects of gravity on certain types of flames (low momentum diffusion flames, or candle flames) and their ability to burn without the presence of gravity. This information will provide a better understanding of fires on spacecraft and could lead to advances in fire detection and extinction techniques.

  16. Organic aerosol formation in citronella candle plumes

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Citronella candles are widely used as insect repellants, especially outdoors in the evening. Because these essential oils are unsaturated, they have a unique potential to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via reaction with ozone, which is also commonly elevated on summer evenings when the candles are often in use. We investigated this process, along with primary aerosol emissions, by briefly placing a citronella tealight candle in a smog chamber and then adding ozone to the chamber. In repeated experiments, we observed rapid and substantial SOA formation after ozone addition; this process must therefore be considered when assessing the risks and benefits of using citronella candle to repel insects. PMID:20700379

  17. When a Standard Candle Flickers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Case, G. L.; Chaplin, V.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; Greiner, J.; Jahoda, K.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Meegan, C. A.; Natalucci, L.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Rodi, J. C.; Shaposhnikov, N.; Swartz, D.; von Kienlin, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Crab is the only bright steady source in the X-ray sky. The Crab consists of a pulsar wind nebula, a synchrotron nebula, and a cloud of expanding ejecta. On small scales, the Crab is extremely complex and turbulent. X-ray astronomers have often used the Crab as a standard candle to calibrate instruments, assuming its spectrum and overall flux remains constant over time. Four instruments (Fermi/GBM, RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/ISGRI) show a approx.5% (50 m Crab) decline in the Crab from 2008-2010. This decline appears to be larger with increasing energy and is not present in the pulsed flux, implying changes in the shock acceleration, electron population or magnetic field in the nebula. The Crab is known to be dynamic on small scales, so it is not too surprising that its total flux varies as well. Caution should be taken when using the Crab for in-orbit calibrations.

  18. Novel Backup Filter Device for Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, B.; Goldsmith, R.; Dunham, G.; Henderson, A.

    2002-09-18

    The currently preferred means of particulate removal from process or combustion gas generated by advanced coal-based power production processes is filtration with candle filters. However, candle filters have not shown the requisite reliability to be commercially viable for hot gas clean up for either integrated gasifier combined cycle (IGCC) or pressurized fluid bed combustion (PFBC) processes. Even a single candle failure can lead to unacceptable ash breakthrough, which can result in (a) damage to highly sensitive and expensive downstream equipment, (b) unacceptably low system on-stream factor, and (c) unplanned outages. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the need to have fail-safe devices installed within or downstream from candle filters. In addition to CeraMem, DOE has contracted with Siemens-Westinghouse, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) at the University of North Dakota, and the Southern Research Institute (SRI) to develop novel fail-safe devices. Siemens-Westinghouse is evaluating honeycomb-based filter devices on the clean-side of the candle filter that can operate up to 870 C. The EERC is developing a highly porous ceramic disk with a sticky yet temperature-stable coating that will trap dust in the event of filter failure. SRI is developing the Full-Flow Mechanical Safeguard Device that provides a positive seal for the candle filter. Operation of the SRI device is triggered by the higher-than-normal gas flow from a broken candle. The CeraMem approach is similar to that of Siemens-Westinghouse and involves the development of honeycomb-based filters that operate on the clean-side of a candle filter. The overall objective of this project is to fabricate and test silicon carbide-based honeycomb failsafe filters for protection of downstream equipment in advanced coal conversion processes. The fail-safe filter, installed directly downstream of a candle filter, should have the capability for stopping essentially all particulate

  19. A standard method for measuring benzene and formaldehyde emissions from candles in emission test chambers for human health risk assessment purposes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Cazelle, Elodie; Lloyd, Paul; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Stijntjes, Gerard

    2013-07-01

    Burning candles release a number of volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC; SVOC) and particulate matters into indoor air. Publicly available candle emission studies vary in protocols and factors known to have a great influence on combustion processes, making it difficult to determine potential implications of candle emissions for human health. The main objective of this investigation was to establish and standardize as far as possible a candle VOC emission testing protocol in small- to mid-scale test chambers on the basis of existing standards as well as to verify its suitability for human health risk assessment purposes. Two pilot studies were conducted to define the boundaries of permissible variations in chamber parameters without significantly impacting the quality of the candle burn. A four-centre ring trial assessed the standardised protocol. The ring trial revealed that when the laboratories were able to control the chamber parameters within the defined boundaries, reproducible formaldehyde and benzene emissions, considered as VOC markers, are determined. It was therefore concluded that the protocol developed in this investigation is suitable for generating candle VOC emission data for human health risk assessment purposes. PMID:23695106

  20. Oscillation and synchronization in the combustion of candles.

    PubMed

    Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Junji; Nagayama, Masaharu; Sakurai, Tatsunari; Ikura, Yumihiko; Osa, Atsushi; Sumino, Yutaka; Tanaka, Masanobu; Yokoyama, Etsuro; Miike, Hidetoshi

    2009-07-23

    We investigate a simple experimental system using candles; stable combustion is seen when a single candle burns, while oscillatory combustion is seen when three candles burn together. If we consider a set of three candles as a component oscillator, two oscillators, that is, two sets of three candles, can couple with each other, resulting in both in-phase and antiphase synchronization depending on the distance between the two sets. The mathematical model indicates that the oscillatory combustion in a set of three candles is induced by a lack of oxygen around the burning point. Furthermore, we suggest that thermal radiation may be an essential factor of the synchronization. PMID:19606893

  1. When A Standard Candle Flickers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Beklen Elif; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Greiner, Jochen; Jahoda, Keith; Jenke, Peter; Kippen, R. Marc; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Krimm, Hans A.; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels; Meegan, Charles A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert; Rodi, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well-known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in August 2008 a 7% (70 mcrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the 15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Imager on Board INTEGRAL (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the 3 - 15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50 - 100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The change in the pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a 3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in April 2007. As of August 2010, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  2. WHEN A STANDARD CANDLE FLICKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Jenke, Peter; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Cherry, Michael L.; Case, Gary L.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Krimm, Hans A.; Bhat, P. Narayana; Briggs, Michael S.; Chaplin, Vandiver; Connaughton, Valerie; Camero-Arranz, Ascension; Finger, Mark H.; Gehrels, Neil; Jahoda, Keith; Greiner, Jochen; Kippen, R. Marc; Kuulkers, Erik; Lund, Niels

    2011-02-01

    The Crab Nebula is the only hard X-ray source in the sky that is both bright enough and steady enough to be easily used as a standard candle. As a result, it has been used as a normalization standard by most X-ray/gamma-ray telescopes. Although small-scale variations in the nebula are well known, since the start of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in 2008 August, a {approx}7% (70 mCrab) decline has been observed in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15-50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline is independently confirmed in the {approx}15-50 keV band with three other instruments: the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (RXTE/PCA), and the Imager on-Board the INTEGRAL Satellite (IBIS). A similar decline is also observed in the {approx}3-15 keV data from the RXTE/PCA and in the 50-100 keV band with GBM, Swift/BAT, and INTEGRAL/IBIS. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA since 1999 is consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes are nebular. Correlated variations in the Crab Nebula flux on a {approx}3 year timescale are also seen independently with the PCA, BAT, and IBIS from 2005 to 2008, with a flux minimum in 2007 April. As of 2010 August, the current flux has declined below the 2007 minimum.

  3. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    PubMed

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature.

  4. Burns and injuries resulting from the use of gel candles.

    PubMed

    Pickus, E J; Lionelli, G T; Parmele, J B; Lawrence, W T; Korentager, R A

    2001-01-01

    Scented gel candles are common decorative household items composed of gelled mineral oil, fragrances, and dye. Like traditional wax candles, they have an open flame. Because of defective design, there have been several burns and injuries caused by these products. Here we report our experience with a scald burn from a gel candle and describe 34 additional injuries attributed to gel candles previously unreported in the medical literature. PMID:11403248

  5. Chaotic dynamics of a candle oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mary Elizabeth; Byrne, Greg; Fenton, Flavio

    The candle oscillator is a simple, fun experiment dating to the late nineteenth century. It consists of a candle with a rod that is transverse to its long axis, around which it is allowed to pivot. When both ends of the candle are lit, an oscillatory motion will initiate due to different mass loss as a function of the flame angle. Stable oscillations can develop due to damping when the system has friction between the rod and the base where the rod rests. However, when friction is minimized, it is possible for chaos to develop. In this talk we will show periodic orbits found in the system as well as calculated, maximal Lyapunov exponents. We show that the system can be described by three ordinary differential equations (one each for angle, angular velocity and mass loss) that can reproduce the experimental data and the transition from stable oscillations to chaotic dynamics as a function of damping.

  6. Christmas-candle Senna:An ornamental and pharmaceutical plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Christmas candle (Senna alata L.) is an underutilized legume. The USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates only 2 accessions of Christmas candle. Christmas candle plants were transplanted from about 21 day-old seedlings with further transplanting to larger pots containing potting soil as the plants grew larger. Ho...

  7. Standardisation of neonatal clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Bhutta, Z A; Giuliani, F; Haroon, A; Knight, H E; Albernaz, E; Batra, M; Bhat, B; Bertino, E; McCormick, K; Ochieng, R; Rajan, V; Ruyan, P; Cheikh Ismail, L; Paul, V

    2013-09-01

    The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21(st) Century (INTERGROWTH-21(st) ) is a large-scale, population-based, multicentre project involving health institutions from eight geographically diverse countries, which aims to assess fetal, newborn and preterm growth under optimal conditions. Given the multicentre nature of the project and the expected number of preterm births, it is vital that all centres follow the same standardised clinical care protocols to assess and manage preterm infants, so as to ensure maximum validity of the resulting standards as indicators of growth and nutrition with minimal confounding. Moreover, it is well known that evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can reduce the delivery of inappropriate care and support the introduction of new knowledge into clinical practice. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) Neonatal Group produced an operations manual, which reflects the consensus reached by members of the group regarding standardised definitions of neonatal morbidities and the minimum standards of care to be provided by all centres taking part in the project. The operational definitions and summary management protocols were developed by consensus through a Delphi process based on systematic reviews of relevant guidelines and management protocols by authoritative bodies. This paper describes the process of developing the Basic Neonatal Care Manual, as well as the morbidity definitions and standardised neonatal care protocols applied across all the INTERGROWTH-21(st) participating centres. Finally, thoughts about implementation strategies are presented.

  8. 75 FR 44224 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... the Federal Register (75 FR 3705-3706, 1-22-2010) and the application has been processed pursuant to... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and... application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the candle and gift...

  9. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS FROM CANDLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives reulst of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tes...

  10. ADVANCED SECOND GENERATION CERAMIC CANDLE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2002-01-31

    Through sponsorship from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), development and manufacture of advanced second generation candle filters was undertaken in the early 1990's. Efforts were primarily focused on the manufacture of fracture toughened, 1.5 m, continuous fiber ceramic composite (CFCC) and filament wound candle filters by 3M, McDermott, DuPont Lanxide Composites, and Techniweave. In order to demonstrate long-term thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability of the advanced second generation candle filter materials, Siemens Westinghouse initiated high temperature, bench-scale, corrosion testing of 3M's CVI-SiC and DuPont's PRD-66 mini-candles, and DuPont's CFCC SiC-SiC and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} coupons under simulated, pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) conditions. This effort was followed by an evaluation of the mechanical and filtration performance of the advanced second generation filter elements in Siemens Westinghouse's bench-scale PFBC test facility in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Arrays of 1.4-1.5 m 3M CVI-SiC, DuPont PRD-66, DuPont SiC-SiC, and IF&P Fibrosic{sup TM} candles were subjected to steady state process operating conditions, increased severity thermal transients, and accelerated pulse cycling test campaigns which represented {approx}1760 hours of equivalent filter operating life. Siemens Westinghouse subsequently participated in early material surveillance programs which marked entry of the 3M CVI-SiC and DuPont PRD-66 candle filters in Siemens Westinghouse Advanced Particulate Filtration (APF) system at the American Electric Power (AEP) Tidd Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio. Siemens Westinghouse then conducted an extended, accelerated life, qualification program, evaluating the performance of the 3M, McDermott, and Techniweave oxide-based CFCC filter elements, modified DuPont PRD-66 elements, and the Blasch, Scapa Cerafil{sup TM}, and Specific Surface monolithic candles for use in the APF

  11. [Body plethysmography (I): Standardisation and quality criteria].

    PubMed

    de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H; Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R

    2015-08-01

    Whole body plethysmography is used to measure lung volumes, capacities and resistances. It is a well standardised technique, and although it is widely used in paediatric chest diseases units, it requires specific equipment, specialist staff, and some cooperation by the patient. Plethysmography uses Boyle's law in order to measure the intrathoracic gas volume or functional residual capacity, and once this is determined, the residual volume and total lung capacity is extrapolated. The measurement of total lung capacity is necessary for the diagnosis of restrictive diseases. Airway resistance is a measurement of obstruction, with the total resistance being able to be measured, which includes chest wall, lung tissue and airway resistance, as well as the specific airway resistance, which is a more stable parameter that is determined by multiplying the measured values of airway resistance and functional residual capacity. The complexity of this technique, the reference equations, the differences in the equipment and their variability, and the conditions in which it is performed, has led to the need for its standardisation. Throughout this article, the practical aspects of plethysmography are analysed, specifying recommendations for performing it, its systematic calibration and the calculations that must be made, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the principles of whole body plethysmography with the aim of optimising the interpretation of the results, leading to improved management of the patient, as well as a consensus among the speciality.

  12. [Body plethysmography (I): Standardisation and quality criteria].

    PubMed

    de Mir Messa, I; Sardón Prado, O; Larramona, H; Salcedo Posadas, A; Villa Asensi, J R

    2015-08-01

    Whole body plethysmography is used to measure lung volumes, capacities and resistances. It is a well standardised technique, and although it is widely used in paediatric chest diseases units, it requires specific equipment, specialist staff, and some cooperation by the patient. Plethysmography uses Boyle's law in order to measure the intrathoracic gas volume or functional residual capacity, and once this is determined, the residual volume and total lung capacity is extrapolated. The measurement of total lung capacity is necessary for the diagnosis of restrictive diseases. Airway resistance is a measurement of obstruction, with the total resistance being able to be measured, which includes chest wall, lung tissue and airway resistance, as well as the specific airway resistance, which is a more stable parameter that is determined by multiplying the measured values of airway resistance and functional residual capacity. The complexity of this technique, the reference equations, the differences in the equipment and their variability, and the conditions in which it is performed, has led to the need for its standardisation. Throughout this article, the practical aspects of plethysmography are analysed, specifying recommendations for performing it, its systematic calibration and the calculations that must be made, as well as the interpretation of the results obtained. The aim of this article is to provide a better understanding of the principles of whole body plethysmography with the aim of optimising the interpretation of the results, leading to improved management of the patient, as well as a consensus among the speciality. PMID:25797588

  13. Modeling Candle Flame Behavior In Variable Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsairafi, A.; Tien, J. S.; Lee, S. T.; Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.

    2003-01-01

    The burning of a candle, as typical non-propagating diffusion flame, has been used by a number of researchers to study the effects of electric fields on flame, spontaneous flame oscillation and flickering phenomena, and flame extinction. In normal gravity, the heat released from combustion creates buoyant convection that draws oxygen into the flame. The strength of the buoyant flow depends on the gravitational level and it is expected that the flame shape, size and candle burning rate will vary with gravity. Experimentally, there exist studies of candle burning in enhanced gravity (i.e. higher than normal earth gravity, g(sub e)), and in microgravity in drop towers and space-based facilities. There are, however, no reported experimental data on candle burning in partial gravity (g < g(sub e)). In a previous numerical model of the candle flame, buoyant forces were neglected. The treatment of momentum equation was simplified using a potential flow approximation. Although the predicted flame characteristics agreed well with the experimental results, the model cannot be extended to cases with buoyant flows. In addition, because of the use of potential flow, no-slip boundary condition is not satisfied on the wick surface. So there is some uncertainty on the accuracy of the predicted flow field. In the present modeling effort, the full Navier-Stokes momentum equations with body force term is included. This enables us to study the effect of gravity on candle flames (with zero gravity as the limiting case). In addition, we consider radiation effects in more detail by solving the radiation transfer equation. In the previous study, flame radiation is treated as a simple loss term in the energy equation. Emphasis of the present model is on the gas-phase processes. Therefore, the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena inside the porous wick are not treated. Instead, it is assumed that a thin layer of liquid fuel coated the entire wick surface during the burning process

  14. European standardisation of hearing protectors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, E

    2005-01-01

    European legislation based on the New Approach requires that technical requirements for products are given in harmonised European standards. The Directive 89/686/EEC on Personal Protective Equipment came into force in 1995. The existence of product and testing standards is a prerequisite for the effective implementation of the directive. There was a need to develop several standards in a very short time period and the basic standards for hearing protectors have already been revised once. It is important to continue the validation of the standardised testing methods and requirement levels. This requires good co-operation and research between test laboratories and research institutes, especially as it is necessary to ensure new products comply with these technical requirements.

  15. CANDLE syndrome: a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tüfekçi, Özlem; Bengoa, ŞebnemYilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba Hilkay; Ataseven, Eda Büke; İrken, Gülersu; Ören, Hale

    2015-05-01

    CANDLE syndrome (chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature) is a recently described autoinflammatory syndrome characterized by early onset, recurrent fever, skin lesions, and multisystemic inflammatory manifestations. Most of the patients have been shown to have mutation in PSMB8 gene. Herein, we report a 2-year-old patient with young onset recurrent fever, atypical facies, widespread skin lesions, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, joint contractures, hypertrglyceridemia, lipodystrophy, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Clinical features together with the skin biopsy findings were consistent with the CANDLE syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment of this syndrome have not been fully understood. Increased awareness of this recently described syndrome may lead to recognition of new cases and better understanding of its pathogenesis which in turn may help for development of an effective treatment. PMID:25036278

  16. The paradox of the floating candle that continues to burn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, Stavros; Aristidou, Charalambos

    2012-08-01

    What happens after lighting a paraffin candle that is barely floating in water and kept upright with the aid of an appropriately weighted nail attached to its bottom? Presumably, it should sink because the buoyant force will decrease more than the weight. Surprisingly, the candle will continue to burn, rising slowly above the surface of the water. The reason for this is that the flame forms a well around the wick filled with molten paraffin, while the water keeps the outer walls of the candle cool and unscathed. Thus, the buoyancy hardly changes while the weight is reduced through burning, resulting in a floating candle that will rise above water. We present a quantitative model that describes the formation of the well and verify it experimentally, examining first the case of a candle in the air and then the case of a candle immersed in water.

  17. Candle Flames in Non-Buoyant Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Shu, Y.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station (OS). On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. 'Me flames on the Mir OS were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration. The Mir flames burned for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction. The paper also presents a numerical model of candle flame. The model is detailed in the gas-phase, but uses a simplified liquid/wick phase. 'Me model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. ne model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough.

  18. Difficulties in Using GRBs as Standard Candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-Ray Bursts have been detected uniformly all over the observable universe, ranging in comoving distance from a few hundred Mpc to a few thousand Mpc, representing the farthest observable objects in the universe. This large distance coverage is highly attractive to those who study cosmology and the history of the early universe since there are no other observed objects that represent such a deep and comprehensive probe of the history of the universe. For this reason, there have been extensive studies into the possibility of using GRBs as standard candles much like Type Ia Supernovae, even though little is known about the physical mechanism that produces the observed burst of gamma-rays. We discuss the attempts at defining GRBs as standard candles, such as the search for a robust luminosity indicator, pseudo-redshift predictions, the complications that emission collimation introduces into the estimation of the rest-frame energetics, and the difficulty introduced by the widely varying observed properties of GRBs. These topics will be examined with supporting data and analyses from both Fermi and Swift observations. Problems with current studies using GRBs as standard candles will be noted as well as potential paths forward to solve these problems.

  19. Indoor protection against mosquito and sand fly bites: a comparison between citronella, linalool, and geraniol candles.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Butlers, Jerry; Schlein, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The repellent effect of 3 essential-oil-based candles was evaluated in a high biting pressure environment in Israel. In human landing assays, the repellency rate of 5% citronella candles against mosquitoes was 29.0%, of 5% linalool candles was 71.1%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 85.4%. The candles with geraniol were about twice as effective as those with linalool and were about 5 times as effective as citronella candles in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by mosquitoes. The repellency rate of 5% citronella candles towards sand flies was 24.7%, of 5% linalool candles was 55.2%, and of 5% geraniol candles was 79.7%. A geraniol candle was almost 5 times as effective as a citronella candle and about twice as effective as a linalool candle in protecting a person from being bitten indoors by sand flies. PMID:18437831

  20. Standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08) improves contextual fear memory by differentially regulating the activity of histone acetylation and protein phosphatases (PP1α, PP2A) in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Jayakumar; Singh, Hemant K; Venkataraman, Jois Shreyas; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2014-05-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is a paradigm for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in hippocampus-dependent memory. Earlier, we showed that standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08) improves hippocampus-dependent learning in postnatal rats by elevating the level of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), activate 5-HT3A receptors, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein. In this study, we have further examined the molecular mechanism of CDRI-08 in hippocampus-dependent memory and compared to the histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB). To assess the hippocampus-dependent memory, wistar rat pups were subjected to contextual fear conditioning (CFC) following daily (postnatal days 15-29) administration of vehicle solution (0.5 % gum acacia + 0.9 % saline)/CDRI-08 (80 mg/kg, p.o.)/NaB (1.2 g/kg in PBS, i.p.). CDRI-08/NaB treated group showed enhanced freezing behavior compared to control group when re-exposed to the same context. Administration of CDRI-08/NaB resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK/CREB signaling cascade and up-regulation of p300, Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 levels, and down-regulation of HDACs (1, 2) and protein phosphatases (PP1α, PP2A) in hippocampus following CFC. This would subsequently result in an increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) (exon IV) mRNA in hippocampus. Altogether, our results indicate that CDRI-08 enhances hippocampus-dependent contextual memory by differentially regulating histone acetylation and protein phosphatases in hippocampus.

  1. Standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08) improves contextual fear memory by differentially regulating the activity of histone acetylation and protein phosphatases (PP1α, PP2A) in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Jayakumar; Singh, Hemant K; Venkataraman, Jois Shreyas; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2014-05-01

    Contextual fear conditioning is a paradigm for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in hippocampus-dependent memory. Earlier, we showed that standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (CDRI-08) improves hippocampus-dependent learning in postnatal rats by elevating the level of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), activate 5-HT3A receptors, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding (CREB) protein. In this study, we have further examined the molecular mechanism of CDRI-08 in hippocampus-dependent memory and compared to the histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB). To assess the hippocampus-dependent memory, wistar rat pups were subjected to contextual fear conditioning (CFC) following daily (postnatal days 15-29) administration of vehicle solution (0.5 % gum acacia + 0.9 % saline)/CDRI-08 (80 mg/kg, p.o.)/NaB (1.2 g/kg in PBS, i.p.). CDRI-08/NaB treated group showed enhanced freezing behavior compared to control group when re-exposed to the same context. Administration of CDRI-08/NaB resulted in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK/CREB signaling cascade and up-regulation of p300, Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 levels, and down-regulation of HDACs (1, 2) and protein phosphatases (PP1α, PP2A) in hippocampus following CFC. This would subsequently result in an increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) (exon IV) mRNA in hippocampus. Altogether, our results indicate that CDRI-08 enhances hippocampus-dependent contextual memory by differentially regulating histone acetylation and protein phosphatases in hippocampus. PMID:24610280

  2. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Candles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on candles is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the history of candle making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  3. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... from China (51 FR 30686). Following first five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective... candles from China (64 FR 51514). Following second five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission... petroleum wax candles from China (70 FR 56890, September 29, 2005). The Commission is now conducting a...

  4. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.79 - Candles and wax melts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Candles and wax melts. 3201.79 Section 3201.79... Designated Items § 3201.79 Candles and wax melts. (a) Definition. Products composed of a solid mass and... wax melts. By that date, Federal agencies that have the responsibility for drafting or...

  6. 75 FR 3705 - Foreign-Trade Zone 201-Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 201--Holyoke, MA; Application for Subzone; Yankee Candle Corporation (Candles and Gift Sets); Whately and South Deerfield, MA An application has been submitted to...

  7. Nondestructive evaluation of ceramic candle filter with various boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.L.; Kiriakidis, A.C.

    2005-06-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) using a dynamic characterization technique was conducted to study ceramic candle filters. Ceramic candle filters are hollow cylindrical structures made of porous ceramic materials used to protect gas turbine in coal-fired power plants. Deterioration and failure of ceramic filters occurs after being exposed to high-temperature and high-pressure operational environment over a period of time. This paper focuses on the development of an NDE method that can predict the in-situ structural stiffness of the candle filters while still being attached to the plenum. A combination of laboratory testing, theoretical analysis, and finite element method (FEM) simulations are presented. The candle filters were tested using a laser vibrometer/accelerometer setup with variable boundary restraints. A variable end-restraint Timoshenko beam equation was derived to determine the dynamic response of the candle filters with simulated in-situ boundary conditions. Results from the FEM simulation were verified with the analysis to determine the stiffness degradation of the candle filters as well as the boundary conditions. Results from this study show that the vibration characteristics can be used effectively to evaluate both the structural stiffness and the in-situ boundary restraints of the ceramic candle filters during field inspections.

  8. Assessment of the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials. Topical report, September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Advancements have been made during the past five years to not only increase the strength of the as-manufactured clay bonded silicon carbide candle filter materials, but also to improve their high temperature creep resistance properties. This report reviews these developments, and describes the results of preliminary qualification testing which has been conducted at Westinghouse prior to utilizing the advanced clay bonded silicon carbide filters in high temperature, pressurized, coal-fired combustion and/or gasification applications.

  9. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  10. Advanced lightweight ceramic candle filter module

    SciTech Connect

    Zievers, J.F.; Eggerstedt, P.

    1992-11-01

    To determine the economic effect of light weight ceramics, several sizes of filters were cost estimated for operation at 217.5 psi (15 bar) based on the use of all light weight ceramics (Fibro/Fibro) vs. the use of cooled alloy (RA300) tubesheets and silicon carbide candles (Alloy/SiC). A jet pulse delivery system was included in both estimates. The Fibro/Fibro system was estimated with the plenum design while the Alloy/SiC system was based on header/nozzle design. Battery limits were the filters and jet pulse delivery systems, Ex-works, with no main valves or dust removal systems. It was found that the cost of Fibro/Fibro components were consistently lower than the cost of the Alloy/SiC components; this comparison is illustrated in Figure 8.

  11. FILTER COMPONENT ASSESSMENT--CERAMIC CANDLES--

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Alvin

    2004-04-23

    Efforts at Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) have been focused on development of hot gas filter systems as an enabling technology for advanced coal and biomass-based gas turbine power generation applications. SWPC has been actively involved in the development of advanced filter materials and component configuration, has participated in numerous surveillance programs characterizing the material properties and microstructure of field tested filter elements, and has undertaken extended, accelerated filter life testing programs. This report summarizes the results of SWPC's filter component assessment efforts, identifying the performance and stability of porous monolithic, fiber reinforced, and filament wound ceramic hot gas candle filters, potentially for {ge}3 years of viable pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) service operating life.

  12. A Simple Candle Filter Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Henderson, A.K.; Swanson, M.L.

    2002-09-18

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal utilization. Two main designs employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs) and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles (IGCCs). In both designs, the suspended particulates, or dust, must be cleaned from the gas before it enters the turbine to prevent fouling and erosion of the blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in commercial use. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the dust on the surface. The three main configurations are candle, cross-flow, and tube. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are primarily composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer o n the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle, and individual elements can fail, allowing the particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Because of the possibility of occasional filter breakage, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the dust streaming through broken filters from reaching the turbine. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) safeguard device is composed of three main parts: the ceramic substrate, the adhesive coating, and the safeguard device housing. This report describes the development and laboratory testing of each of those parts as well as the bench-scale performance of both types of complete SGDs.

  13. Candle Flames in Microgravity: USML-1 Results - 1 Year Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. D.; Dietrich, D. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the sustained behavior of a candle flame in microgravity determined in the glovebox facility aboard the First United States Microgravity Labomtofy. In a quiescent, microgmvjfy environment, diffusive transport becomes the dominant mode of heat and mass transfer; whether the diffusive transport rate is fast enough to sustain low-gravity candle flames in air was unknown to this series of about 70 tests. After an initial transient in which soot is observed, the microgravity candle flame in air becomes and remains hemispherical and blue (apparently soot-Ne) with a large flame standoff distance. Near flame extinction, spontaneous flame oscillations are regularly observed; these are explained as a flashback of flame through a premixed combustible gas followed by a retreat owed to flame quenching. The frequency of oscillations can be related to diffusive transport rates, and not to residual buoyant convective flow. The fact that the flame tip is the last point of the flame to survive suggests that it is the location of maximum fuel reactivity; this is unlike normal gravity, where the location of maximum fuel reactivity is the flame base. The flame color, size, and shape behaved in a quasi-steady manner; the finite size of the glovebox, combined with the restricted passages of the candlebox, inhibited the observation of true steady-state burning. Nonetheless, through calculations, and inference from the series of shuttle tests, if is concluded that a candle can burn indefinitely in a large enough ambient of air in microgravity. After igniting one candle, a second candle in close pximity could not be lit. This may be due to wax coating the wick and/or local oxygen depletion around the second, unlit candle. Post-mission testing suggests that simultaneous ignition may overcome these behaviors and enable both candles to be ignited.

  14. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-06

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CANDLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  15. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable.

  16. Bioboxes: standardised containers for interchangeable bioinformatics software.

    PubMed

    Belmann, Peter; Dröge, Johannes; Bremges, Andreas; McHardy, Alice C; Sczyrba, Alexander; Barton, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Software is now both central and essential to modern biology, yet lack of availability, difficult installations, and complex user interfaces make software hard to obtain and use. Containerisation, as exemplified by the Docker platform, has the potential to solve the problems associated with sharing software. We propose bioboxes: containers with standardised interfaces to make bioinformatics software interchangeable. PMID:26473029

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor emission from decorative candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, Santino

    2011-04-01

    This study investigates PAHs indoor emissions from burning decorative candle in an indoor environment because emissions from burning wax in home have rarely been addressed. A total of 12 air samples were collected during the entire burning period of the decorative candles. Particulate and gaseous PAHs emissions were simultaneously measured by passing effluent through a filter (to collect particulate-phase PAHs), a cold trap and ORBO 43 tubes (to capture gaseous-phase PAHs). Analysis involved ultrasound extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The measured total PAHs concentration (particulate + aqueous phase + gas phases) for the candles, reported as mass of PAHs emitted/mass of candle burning, was between 2.3 and 49.8 μg kg -1 and mean 15 μg kg -1. Considering the volume of sampled air, the concentrations of total PAHs ranged from 7 ng m -3 to 267 ng m -3. Concentrations of B[ a]P emitted by candles ranged from 0.1 to 7.5 ng m -3, while total carcinogenic PAHs, expressed as B[a] eq, ranged from 0.2 to 10.7 ng m -3. The values of all the isomeric indices calculated in this research are in good agreement to literature data for emissions from high temperature processes.

  18. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CADLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  19. Brightest cluster galaxies as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Postman, Marc; Lauer, Tod R.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the use of brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) as standard candles for measuring galaxy peculiar velocities on large scales. We have obtained precise large-format CCD surface photometry and redshifts for an all-sky, volume-limited (z less than or = 0.05) sample of 199 BCG. We reinvestigate the Hoessel (1980) relationship between the metric luminosity, L(sub m), within the central 10 kpc/h of the BCGs and the logarithmic slope of the surface brightness profile, alpha. The L(sub m)-alpha relationship reduces the cosmic scatter in L(sub m) from 0.327 mag to 0.244 mag, yielding a typical distance accuracy of 17% per BCG. Residuals about the L(sub m)-alpha relationship are independent of BCG luminosity, BCG B - R(sub c) color, BCG location within the host cluster, and richness of the host cluster. The metric luminosity is independent of cluster richness even before correcting for its dependence on alpha, which provides further evidence for the unique nature of the BCG luminosity function. Indeed, the BCG luminosity function, both before and after application of the alpha-correction, is consistent with a single Gaussian distribution. Half the BCGs in the sample show some evidence of small color gradients as a function of radius within their central 50 kpc/h regions but with almost equal numbers becoming redder as becoming bluer. However, with the central 10 kpc/h the colors are remarkably constant -- the mean B - R(sub c) color is 1.51 with a dispersion of only 0.06 mag. The narrow photometric and color distributions of the BCGs, the lack of 'second-parameter' effects, as well as the unique rich cluster environment of BCGs, argue that BCGs are the most homogeneous distance indicators presently available for large-scale structure research.

  20. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, L. J.; Hannaford, J.; Chiverton, A.; Svensson, C.

    2015-12-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M&EW) systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M&EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow) drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI), with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1-24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity was calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the one month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the drought characteristics and propagation were investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the one-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period annual average rainfall was strongly correlated to drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage, such as base flow index, percentage of highly productive

  1. From meteorological to hydrological drought using standardised indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Lucy J.; Hannaford, Jamie; Chiverton, Andrew; Svensson, Cecilia

    2016-06-01

    Drought monitoring and early warning (M & EW) systems are a crucial component of drought preparedness. M & EW systems typically make use of drought indicators such as the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), but such indicators are not widely used in the UK. More generally, such tools have not been well developed for hydrological (i.e. streamflow) drought. To fill these research gaps, this paper characterises meteorological and hydrological droughts, and the propagation from one to the other, using the SPI and the related Standardised Streamflow Index (SSI), with the objective of improving understanding of the drought hazard in the UK. SPI and SSI time series were calculated for 121 near-natural catchments in the UK for accumulation periods of 1-24 months. From these time series, drought events were identified and for each event, the duration and severity were calculated. The relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought was examined by cross-correlating the 1-month SSI with various SPI accumulation periods. Finally, the influence of climate and catchment properties on the hydrological drought characteristics and propagation was investigated. Results showed that at short accumulation periods meteorological drought characteristics showed little spatial variability, whilst hydrological drought characteristics showed fewer but longer and more severe droughts in the south and east than in the north and west of the UK. Propagation characteristics showed a similar spatial pattern with catchments underlain by productive aquifers, mostly in the south and east, having longer SPI accumulation periods strongly correlated with the 1-month SSI. For catchments in the north and west of the UK, which typically have little catchment storage, standard-period average annual rainfall was strongly correlated with hydrological drought and propagation characteristics. However, in the south and east, catchment properties describing storage (such as base flow

  2. Standardised (plain) packaging: the time for implementation has come.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Janet; Edwards, Richard; Daube A O, Mike

    2015-07-03

    Although a growing number of countries have passed legislation to introduce standardised (or 'plain') packaging, New Zealand's legislation is currently stalled. The research evidence supporting standardised packaging is strong. Furthermore, evaluations from Australia, the first country to introduce this measure, show standardised packaging is reducing the appeal of smoking. Tobacco consumption in Australia has also fallen since the introduction of standardised packaging. The government should reassert its commitment to New Zealand's Smokefree 2025 goal by recognising the Australian evidence and passing and implementing standardised packaging as soon as possible.

  3. Oscillations of a candle burning at both ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, Stavros; Paridi, Kalliopi

    2009-11-01

    A candle burning at both ends will oscillate vertically about the horizontal, forming the popular "candle see-saw" or "stearic motor." The reason for these oscillations is that at any particular instant, more drops of liquid wax drip from the lower end than from the higher one. As a result, the lower side becomes lighter and moves upward, while the other side becomes heavier and moves downward, becoming the lower one. Thus the center of gravity oscillates continuously from one side to the other. We present a quantitative model describing these oscillations and verify it experimentally.

  4. Standardisation in the field of nanotechnology: some issues of legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2012-12-01

    Nanotechnology will allegedly have a revolutionary impact in a wide range of fields, but has also created novel concerns about health, safety and the environment (HSE). Nanotechnology regulation has nevertheless lagged behind nanotechnology development. In 2004 the International Organization for Standardization established a technical committee for producing nanotechnology standards for terminology, measurements, HSE issues and product specifications. These standards are meant to play a role in nanotechnology development, as well as in national and international nanotechnology regulation, and will therefore have consequences for consumers, workers and the environment. This paper gives an overview of the work in the technical committee on nanotechnology and discusses some challenges with regard to legitimacy in such work. The paper focuses particularly on stakeholder involvement and the potential problems of scientific robustness when standardising in such early stages of the scientific development. The intention of the paper is to raise some important issues rather than to draw strong conclusions. However, the paper will be concluded with some suggestions for improving legitimacy in the TC 229 and a call for increased public awareness about standardisation in the field of nanotechnology.

  5. Demonstrating Sound Wave Propagation with Candle Flame and Loudspeaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrepic, Zdeslav; Nettles, Corey; Bonilla, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    The motion of a candle flame in front of a loudspeaker has been suggested as a productive demonstration of the longitudinal wave nature of sound. The demonstration has been used also as a research tool to investigate students' understanding about sound. The underpinning of both applications is the expectation of a horizontal, back-and-forth…

  6. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, T.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Bruck, G.J.; Smeltzer, E.E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly are disclosed for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut. 9 figs.

  7. Filter holder and gasket assembly for candle or tube filters

    DOEpatents

    Lippert, Thomas Edwin; Alvin, Mary Anne; Bruck, Gerald Joseph; Smeltzer, Eugene E.

    1999-03-02

    A filter holder and gasket assembly for holding a candle filter element within a hot gas cleanup system pressure vessel. The filter holder and gasket assembly includes a filter housing, an annular spacer ring securely attached within the filter housing, a gasket sock, a top gasket, a middle gasket and a cast nut.

  8. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ....2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38121) and determined on October 4, 2010 that it would conduct an expedited review (75 FR 63200, October 14, 2010). The... COMMISSION Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in...

  9. Study of 48Ca double beta decay with CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Izumi; CANDLES Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    CANDLES is the project to search for double beta decay of 48Ca by using CaF2 scintillators. If neutrinos have Majorana mass they violate lepton number conservation and neutrino-less double beta decay (OvDBD) can then take place. Therefore the study of the 0 vDBD is one of the most fundamental researches to be carried out in a coming decade. We have been studying the DBD of 48Ca using CaF2 scintillators. The Q value of 48Ca is the highest (4.27 MeV) among potential DBD nuclei. It is far above energies of γ-rays from natural radio-activities (maximum 2.615 MeV from 208TI decay), therefore we can naturally expect small backgrounds in the energy region we are interested in. Required performances for the detector are radio-purity, good background rejection efficiency and good energy resolution. We have constructed CANDLES III detector in our laboratory at sea level, which consists of 60 CaF2 crystals with the total mass of 191 kg. We are studying the basic performances of the system, including the light collection, position reconstruction and background rejection. On the bases of experiences in CANDLES III, the CANDLES project will be scaled up to several tons of calcium to have the sensitivity to the mass region of interest.

  10. The Persistence of the Candle-and-Cylinder Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birk, James P.; Lawson, Anton E.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the candle-and-cylinder demonstration does not show that air is composed of 21% oxygen. Finds that the heating of air results in a partial expulsion of air, and that the flame is extinguished by a local, rather than a complete, consumption of oxygen. (WRM)

  11. I Wish We Could Be Together: The Candle Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Caroline V.

    1999-01-01

    Notes that young children need to express joys and sadness; discusses candle ceremony designed for discussions of grief. Suggests teachers inform parents of the ceremony and solicit their help in preparing children, resolve not to try to solve all problems that may be discussed, inform children the moments are private, and plan for difficult…

  12. A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight

    PubMed Central

    Coupé, Pierrick; Munz, Martin; Manjón, Jose V; Ruthazer, Edward S; Louis Collins, D.

    2012-01-01

    A new Collaborative Approach for eNhanced Denoising under Low-light Excitation (CANDLE) is introduced for the processing of 3D laser scanning multiphoton microscopy images. CANDLE is designed to be robust for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions typically encountered when imaging deep in scattering biological specimens. Based on an optimized non-local means filter involving the comparison of filtered patches, CANDLE locally adapts the amount of smoothing in order to deal with the noise inhomogeneity inherent to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy images. An extensive validation on synthetic data, images acquired on microspheres and in vivo images is presented. These experiments show that the CANDLE filter obtained competitive results compared to a state-of-the-art method and a locally adaptive optimized nonlocal means filter, especially under low SNR conditions (PSNR<8dB). Finally, the deeper imaging capabilities enabled by the proposed filter are demonstrated on deep tissue in vivo images of neurons and fine axonal processes in the Xenopus tadpole brain. PMID:22341767

  13. Gamma-ray burst supernovae as standardizable candles

    SciTech Connect

    Cano, Z.

    2014-10-20

    A long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) marks the violent end of a massive star. GRBs are rare in the universe, and their progenitor stars are thought to possess unique physical properties such as low metal content and rapid rotation, while the supernovae (SNe) that are associated with GRBs are expected to be highly aspherical. To date, it has been unclear whether GRB-SNe could be used as standardizable candles, with contrasting conclusions found by different teams. In this paper, I present evidence that GRB-SNe have the potential to be used as standardizable candles and show that a statistically significant relation exists between the brightness and width of their decomposed light curves relative to a template SN. Every single nearby spectroscopically identified GRB-SN for which the rest frame and host contributions have been accurately determined follows this relation. Additionally, it is shown that not only GRB-SNe, but perhaps all SNe whose explosions are powered by a central engine may eventually be used as a standardizable candle. Finally, I suggest that the use of GRB-SNe as standardizable candles likely arises from a combination of the viewing angle and similar explosion geometry in each event, the latter of which is influenced by the explosion mechanism of GRB-SNe.

  14. Standardised metrics for global surgical surveillance.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Thomas G; Makary, Martin A; Haynes, Alex B; Dziekan, Gerald; Berry, William R; Gawande, Atul A

    2009-09-26

    Public health surveillance relies on standardised metrics to evaluate disease burden and health system performance. Such metrics have not been developed for surgical services despite increasing volume, substantial cost, and high rates of death and disability associated with surgery. The Safe Surgery Saves Lives initiative of WHO's Patient Safety Programme has developed standardised public health metrics for surgical care that are applicable worldwide. We assembled an international panel of experts to develop and define metrics for measuring the magnitude and effect of surgical care in a population, while taking into account economic feasibility and practicability. This panel recommended six measures for assessing surgical services at a national level: number of operating rooms, number of operations, number of accredited surgeons, number of accredited anaesthesia professionals, day-of-surgery death ratio, and postoperative in-hospital death ratio. We assessed the feasibility of gathering such statistics at eight diverse hospitals in eight countries and incorporated them into the WHO Guidelines for Safe Surgery, in which methods for data collection, analysis, and reporting are outlined. PMID:19782877

  15. Managing EEE part standardisation and procurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serieys, C.; Bensoussan, A.; Petitmangin, A.; Rigaud, M.; Barbaresco, P.; Lyan, C.

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents the development activities in space components selection and procurement dealing with a new data base tool implemented at Alcatel Space using TransForm softwaa re configurator developed by Techform S.A. Based on TransForm, Access Ingenierie has devv eloped a software product named OLG@DOS which facilitate the part nomenclatures analyses for new equipment design and manufacturing in term of ACCESS data base implementation. Hi-Rel EEE part type technical, production and quality information are collected and compiled usingproduction data base issued from production tools implemented for equipment definition, description and production based on Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP II Control Open) and Parametric Design Manager (PDM Work Manager). The analysis of any new equipment nomenclature may be conducted through this means for standardisation purpose, cost containment program and management procurement activities as well as preparation of Component reviews as Part Approval Document and Declared Part List validation.

  16. Standardised animal models of host microbial mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, A J; McCoy, K D

    2015-01-01

    An appreciation of the importance of interactions between microbes and multicellular organisms is currently driving research in biology and biomedicine. Many human diseases involve interactions between the host and the microbiota, so investigating the mechanisms involved is important for human health. Although microbial ecology measurements capture considerable diversity of the communities between individuals, this diversity is highly problematic for reproducible experimental animal models that seek to establish the mechanistic basis for interactions within the overall host-microbial superorganism. Conflicting experimental results may be explained away through unknown differences in the microbiota composition between vivaria or between the microenvironment of different isolated cages. In this position paper, we propose standardised criteria for stabilised and defined experimental animal microbiotas to generate reproducible models of human disease that are suitable for systematic experimentation and are reproducible across different institutions. PMID:25492472

  17. Synchronization in flickering of three-coupled candle flames

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Keiko; Kijima, Akifumi; Umeno, Yoshitaka; Shima, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    When two or more candle flames are fused by approaching them together, the resulting large flame often exhibits flickering, i.e., prolonged high-frequency oscillation in its size and luminance. In the present work, we investigate the collective behaviour of three-coupled candle flame oscillators in a triangular arrangement. The system showed four distinct types of syncronised modes as a consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. The modes obtained include the in-phase mode, the partial in-phase mode, the rotation mode, and an anomalous one called the “death” mode that causes a sudden stop of the flame oscillation followed by self-sustained stable combustion. We also clarified the correlation between the inter-flame distance and the frequency with which the modes occur. PMID:27782191

  18. Standardised Library Instruction Assessment: An Institution-Specific Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Shannon M.; Branch, Nicole A.; Hewitt, Tom L.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We explore the use of a psychometric model for locally-relevant, information literacy assessment, using an online tool for standardised assessment of student learning during discipline-based library instruction sessions. Method: A quantitative approach to data collection and analysis was used, employing standardised multiple-choice…

  19. Minority Language Standardisation and the Role of Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Developing a standard for a minority language is not a neutral process; this has consequences for the status of the language and how the language users relate to the new standard. A potential inherent problem with standardisation is whether the language users themselves will accept and identify with the standard. When standardising minority…

  20. Comparison of cosmological models using standard rulers and candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Cao, Shuo; Zheng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Song; Biesiada, Marek

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we used standard rulers and standard candles (separately and jointly) to explore five popular dark energy models under the assumption of the spatial flatness of the Universe. As standard rulers, we used a data set comprised of 118 galactic scale strong lensing systems (individual standard rulers if properly calibrated for the mass density profile) combined with BAO diagnostics (statistical standard ruler). Type Ia supernovae served as standard candles. Unlike most previous statistical studies involving strong lensing systems, we relaxed the assumption of a singular isothermal sphere (SIS) in favor of its generalization: the power-law mass density profile. Therefore, along with cosmological model parameters, we fitted the power law index and its first derivative with respect to the redshift (thus allowing for mass density profile evolution). It turned out that the best fitted γ parameters are in agreement with each other, irrespective of the cosmological model considered. This demonstrates that galactic strong lensing systems may provide a complementary probe to test the properties of dark energy. The fits for cosmological model parameters which we obtained are in agreement with alternative studies performed by other researchers. Because standard rulers and standard candles have different parameter degeneracies, a combination of standard rulers and standard candles gives much more restrictive results for cosmological parameters. Finally, we attempted an analysis based on model selection using information theoretic criteria (AIC and BIC). Our results support the claim that the cosmological constant model is still best and there is no (at least statistical) reason to prefer any other more complex model.

  1. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  2. Sub-nm emittance lattice design for CANDLE storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Zanyan, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.

    2016-10-01

    The most effective way to increase the brilliance of synchrotron light sources is the reduction of beam emittance. Following the recent developments in low emittance lattice design, a new sub-nm emittance lattice based on implementation of multi-band achromat concept and application of longitudinal gradient bending magnets was developed for CANDLE storage ring. The paper presents the main design considerations, linear and non-linear beam dynamics aspects of the new lattice proposed.

  3. Developing slow-release persulfate candles to treat BTEX contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve; Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Sakulthaew, Chainarong

    2012-10-01

    The development of slow-release chemical oxidants for sub-surface remediation is a relatively new technology. Our objective was to develop slow-release persulfate-paraffin candles to treat BTEX-contaminated groundwater. Laboratory-scale candles were prepared by heating and mixing Na(2)S(2)O(8) with paraffin in a 2.25 to 1 ratio (w/w), and then pouring the heated mixture into circular molds that were 2.38 cm long and either 0.71 or 1.27 cm in diameter. Activator candles were prepared with FeSO(4) or zerovalent iron (ZVI) and wax. By treating benzoic acid and BTEX compounds with slow-release persulfate and ZVI candles, we observed rapid transformation of all contaminants. By using (14)C-labeled benzoic acid and benzene, we also confirmed mineralization (conversion to CO2) upon exposure to the candles. As the candles aged and were repeatedly exposed to fresh solutions, contaminant transformation rates slowed and removal rates became more linear (zero-order); this change in transformation kinetics mimicked the observed dissolution rates of the candles. By stacking persulfate and ZVI candles on top of each other in a saturated sand tank (14×14×2.5 cm) and spatially sampling around the candles with time, the dissolution patterns of the candles and zone of influence were determined. Results showed that as the candles dissolved and persulfate and iron diffused out into the sand matrix, benzoic acid or benzene concentrations (C(o)=1 mM) decreased by >90% within 7 d. These results support the use of slow-release persulfate and ZVI candles as a means of treating BTEX compounds in contaminated groundwater. PMID:22776257

  4. Developing slow-release persulfate candles to treat BTEX contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve; Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Sakulthaew, Chainarong

    2012-10-01

    The development of slow-release chemical oxidants for sub-surface remediation is a relatively new technology. Our objective was to develop slow-release persulfate-paraffin candles to treat BTEX-contaminated groundwater. Laboratory-scale candles were prepared by heating and mixing Na(2)S(2)O(8) with paraffin in a 2.25 to 1 ratio (w/w), and then pouring the heated mixture into circular molds that were 2.38 cm long and either 0.71 or 1.27 cm in diameter. Activator candles were prepared with FeSO(4) or zerovalent iron (ZVI) and wax. By treating benzoic acid and BTEX compounds with slow-release persulfate and ZVI candles, we observed rapid transformation of all contaminants. By using (14)C-labeled benzoic acid and benzene, we also confirmed mineralization (conversion to CO2) upon exposure to the candles. As the candles aged and were repeatedly exposed to fresh solutions, contaminant transformation rates slowed and removal rates became more linear (zero-order); this change in transformation kinetics mimicked the observed dissolution rates of the candles. By stacking persulfate and ZVI candles on top of each other in a saturated sand tank (14×14×2.5 cm) and spatially sampling around the candles with time, the dissolution patterns of the candles and zone of influence were determined. Results showed that as the candles dissolved and persulfate and iron diffused out into the sand matrix, benzoic acid or benzene concentrations (C(o)=1 mM) decreased by >90% within 7 d. These results support the use of slow-release persulfate and ZVI candles as a means of treating BTEX compounds in contaminated groundwater.

  5. Standardisation and "Quick Languages": The Shape-Shifting of Standardised Measurement of Pupil Achievement in Sweden and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Christian; Waldow, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the entry of standardised measurement into the educational systems of Sweden and Germany and the processes of shape-shifting associated with this process. In the first part of the article, we investigate how standardised measurement challenged existing ways of conceiving education in Sweden and Germany during the first half…

  6. Candle light-style OLED: a plausibly human-friendly safe night light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Chen, Po-Wei; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Chih; Tung, F.-C.; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-09-01

    Candles emit sensationally-warm light with a very-low color-temperature, comparatively most suitable for use at night. In response to the need for such a human-friendly night light, we demonstrate the employment of a high number of candle light complementary organic emitters to generate mimic candle light based on organic light emitting diode (OLED). One resultant candle light-style OLED shows a very-high color rendering index, with an efficacy at least 300 times that of candles or twice that of an incandescent bulb. The device can be fabricated, for example, by using four candle light complementary emitters, namely: red, yellow, green, and sky-blue phosphorescent dyes, vacuum-deposited into two emission layers, separated by a nano-layer of carrier modulation material to maximize both the desirable very-high color rendering index and energy efficiency, while keeping the blue emission very low and red emission high to obtain the desirable low color temperature. With different layer structures, the OLEDs can also show color tunable between that of candle light and dusk-hue. Importantly, a romantic sensation giving and supposedly physiologically-friendly candle light-style emission can hence be driven by electricity in lieu of the hydrocarbon-burning and greenhouse gas releasing candles that were invented 5,000 years ago.

  7. Standardised Benchmarking in the Quest for Orthologs

    PubMed Central

    Altenhoff, Adrian M.; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Dalquen, Daniel A.; DeLuca, Todd; Forslund, Kristoffer; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Linard, Benjamin; Pereira, Cécile; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Schreiber, Fabian; Sousa da Silva, Alan; Szklarczyk, Damian; Train, Clément-Marie; Bork, Peer; Lecompte, Odile; von Mering, Christian; Xenarios, Ioannis; Sjölander, Kimmen; Juhl Jensen, Lars; Martin, Maria J.; Muffato, Matthieu; Gabaldón, Toni; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Thomas, Paul D.; Sonnhammer, Erik; Dessimoz, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The identification of evolutionarily related genes across different species—orthologs in particular—forms the backbone of many comparative, evolutionary, and functional genomic analyses. Achieving high accuracy in orthology inference is thus essential. Yet the true evolutionary history of genes, required to ascertain orthology, is generally unknown. Furthermore, orthologs are used for very different applications across different phyla, with different requirements in terms of the precision-recall trade-off. As a result, assessing the performance of orthology inference methods remains difficult for both users and method developers. Here, we present a community effort to establish standards in orthology benchmarking and facilitate orthology benchmarking through an automated web-based service (http://orthology.benchmarkservice.org). Using this new service, we characterise the performance of 15 well-established orthology inference methods and resources on a battery of 20 different benchmarks. Standardised benchmarking provides a way for users to identify the most effective methods for the problem at hand, sets a minimal requirement for new tools and resources, and guides the development of more accurate orthology inference methods. PMID:27043882

  8. Thermoelectric standardisation - Reference materials and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, P.; Blaschkewitz, P.; Stiewe, C.; Karpinski, G.; Müller, E.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials for working temperatures between 300 K and 1000 K become continuously more important for energy recuperation applications. The efficiency is determined by the transport properties (electrical and thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient), which form the known thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. The thorough determination of ZT represents the basis for the assessment of thermoelectric materials research. Due to different continuing difficulties measurement errors distinctly higher than 15% can be observed repeatedly, which is still too high for an industrial benchmark and deficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. Against this background a project was launched in 2011 together with the Fraunhofer Institute of Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM, Freiburg), the Department Temperature of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Berlin) and the company Netzsch Gerätebau GbmH (Selb). The aim of the project "Thermoelectric Standardisation" (TEST) is to minimise the measurement uncertainties and to develop traceable, high-accurate thermoelectric characterisation techniques and thermoelectric reference materials for the mentioned temperature range. Here we initially present the project to the thermoelectric society and want to give a survey on the planned activities and the current status of the contributions of the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne).

  9. Thermal/chemical degradation of ceramic candle filter materials. Final report, September 1988--October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    High-temperature ceramic candle filters are being developed for use in advanced power generation systems such as the Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC), and Direct Coal-Fired Turbine (DCFT). The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter which must be removed to meet both environmental and process limitations. The ceramic candles increase the efficiency of the advanced power generation systems and protect downstream equipment from erosion and impingement of particulate matter in the hot exhaust gases. Ceramic candle filters are rigid, closed-ended (capped on one side) porous cylinders which generally have a flange on the open-ended side. The flange at the open end allows the candle to be suspended by a tubesheet in the filter vessel. Candle filters have shown promise, but have also encountered durability problems during use in hostile, high-temperature environments. Limitations in the candle lifetime lower the economic advantages of using candle filters for this application. Candles typically fail by cracking at the flange or in the body of the candle. The objective of this project was to test and analyze ceramic candle filter materials and to evaluate the degradation mechanisms. The tests were conducted such that the effects of each degradation mechanism could be examined. Separately. The overall objective of the project was to: (a) develop a better understanding of the thermal and chemical degradation mechanisms of ceramic candle filter materials in advanced coal utilization projects, (b) develop test procedures, and (c) recommend changes to increase filter lifetime. 15 refs., 67 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Recommendations for using standardised phenotypes in genetic association studies.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Melissa G; Weiss, Scott T; Lange, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    Genetic association studies of complex traits often rely on standardised quantitative phenotypes, such as percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume and body mass index to measure an underlying trait of interest (eg lung function, obesity). These phenotypes are appealing because they provide an easy mechanism for comparing subjects, although such standardisations may not be the best way to control for confounders and other covariates. We recommend adjusting raw or standardised phenotypes within the study population via regression. We illustrate through simulation that optimal power in both population- and family-based association tests is attained by using the residuals from within-study adjustment as the complex trait phenotype. An application of family-based association analysis of forced expiratory volume in one second, and obesity in the Childhood Asthma Management Program data, illustrates that power is maintained or increased when adjusted phenotype residuals are used instead of typical standardised quantitative phenotypes.

  11. Qualifications of Candle Filters for Combined Cycle Combustion Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasz Wiltowski

    2008-08-31

    The direct firing of coal produces particulate matter that has to be removed for environmental and process reasons. In order to increase the current advanced coal combustion processes, under the U.S. Department of Energy's auspices, Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SWPC) has developed ceramic candle filters that can operate at high temperatures. The Coal Research Center of Southern Illinois University (SIUC), in collaboration with SWPC, developed a program for long-term filter testing at the SIUC Steam Plant followed by experiments using a single-filter reactor unit. The objectives of this program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy were to identify and demonstrate the stability of porous candle filter elements for use in high temperature atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) process applications. These verifications were accomplished through extended time slipstream testing of a candle filter array under AFBC conditions using SIUC's existing AFBC boiler. Temperature, mass flow rate, and differential pressure across the filter array were monitored for a duration of 45 days. After test exposure at SIUC, the filter elements were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area analyses. In addition, a single-filter reactor was built and utilized to study long term filter operation, the permeability exhibited by a filter element before and after the slipstream test, and the thermal shock resilience of a used filter by observing differential pressure changes upon rapid heating and cooling of the filter. The data acquired during the slipstream test and the post-test evaluations demonstrated the suitability of filter elements in advanced power generation applications.

  12. Low radioactivity CaF{sub 2} scintillator crystals for CANDLES

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Umehara, S.; Ito, G.; Yasuda, K.; Kakubata, H.; Miyashita, M.; Matsuoka, K.; Nomachi, M.; Kishimoto, T.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Ohsumi, H.; Okada, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-04-27

    CANDLES is the project to search for neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay of {sup 48}Ca by using CaF{sub 2} scintillators. The observation of 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay will prove the existence of massive Majorana neutrinos. Expected performances and current status of the CANDLES system are described.

  13. Scientific Observation and the Learning Cycle: Burning the Candle at Both Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Bluhm, William J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a twist on the basic "Science 101" investigation of having students observe a birthday candle before, during, and after burning. It engages students in exploring the attributes of a candle, introduces them to the concepts of empirical observation and investigation, and involves them in developing and conducting a burning…

  14. On Calibrations Using the Crab Nebula as a Standard Candle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin; Guainazzi, Matteo; Jahoda, Keith; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; ODell, Stephen; Zavlin, Vyacheslav; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Elsner, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by a recent paper (Kirsch et al. 2005) on possible use of the Crab Nebula as a standard candle for calibrating X-ray response func tions, we examine possible consequences of intrinsic departures from a single (absorbed) power law upon such calibrations. We limited our analyses to three more modern X-ray instruments -- the ROSAT/PSPC, th e RXTE/PCA, and the XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn. The results are unexpected an d indicate a need to refine two of the three response functions studi ed. The implications for Chandra will be discussed.

  15. Five Requirements for Nuclear Energy and CANDLE Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-06-22

    The Center for Research into Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems (CRINES) was established in order to succeed the COE-INES mission after finishing this program in Tokyo Tech. CRINES considers nuclear energy should satisfy 5 requirements; sustainability as basic energy, solving 3 problems inherent to accidents, radioactive waste and nuclear bomb, and economical acceptance. Characteristics of CANDLE fast reactor are discussed for these requirements. It satisfies 4 requirements; sustainability and solving 3 inherent problems. For the remaining requirement for economy, a high potential to satisfy this requirement is also shown.

  16. Beam dynamics of CANDLE storage ring low alpha operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargsyan, A.; Amatuni, G.; Sahakyan, V.; Tsakanov, V.; Zanyan, G.

    2015-10-01

    The generation of the coherent THz radiation and short pulse synchrotron radiation in dedicated electron storage rings requires the study of non-standard magnetic lattices which provide low momentum compaction factor (alpha) of the ring. In the present paper two low alpha operation lattices based on modification of the original beam optics and implementation of inverse bend magnets are studied for CANDLE storage ring. For considered cases an analysis of transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics is given and the feasibility of lattices is discussed.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    Todd R. Snyder

    2002-03-29

    The full-flow mechanical safeguard device (FFMSGD) has been developed under contract to the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to address problems with the reliability of ceramic candle filter elements installed on high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) Hot Gas Cleanup (HGCU) filters. Although systems candle filters are expected to perform satisfactorily when in good operating condition, the failure of even a single filter element can increase the filter system outlet dust loading enough to potentially damage gas turbine blades, contaminate other downstream processes, and limit the availability of the power system. Filter failure safeguard devices that are installed on each individual candle filter element are envisioned as a guarantee of a candle filter system's ability to withstand some number of element failures and continue operation without these negative consequences. The intention of the FFMSGD is to provide this guarantee without incurring any significant pressure drop penalty or constraining the filter system's reverse-pulse cleaning procedures. The FFMSGD provides a clear flow path for filtered and reverse-flow cleaning gases when its filter element is intact, and activates to provide a positive mechanical seal against gas flow in either direction when its filter element breaks or fails. This activation is induced by the increase in the flow rate of gas through the device in event of filter failure. The FFMSGD is designed to be easily removed and reconditioned when the filter system is taken off line for routine maintenance. This report is intended to be issued with a companion appendix. As instructed in Section J.12 of Contract No. DE-AC26-99FT40678, all the restricted, proprietary, and patentable information (not yet disclosed through the patent application process) related to the FFMSGD and its evaluation under this contract has been included only in the appendix. This Final Report, which is available to the public, contains background

  18. Coordinating links among research, standardisation and policy in support of water framework directive chemical monitoring requirements.

    PubMed

    Quevauviller, Philippe; Borchers, Ulrich; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred

    2007-09-01

    The need for coordination among scientific and policy activities is an old debate in which respective communities have often tried to impose their views rather than reflecting on pragmatic solutions. In the last few years, however, constructive exchanges have taken place in the context of expert groups linked to the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and related EU funded research projects, which have resulted in a better understanding of communication and knowledge transfer gaps. These exchanges concern not only the way research is being interfaced with water policies, but also how improved coordination could be organised regarding technical specifications linked to standardisation. This paper discusses on-going efforts to improve coordination among research, standardisation and policy in support of WFD implementation, with emphasis on chemical monitoring requirements.

  19. Emissions of air pollutants from scented candles burning in a test chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derudi, Marco; Gelosa, Simone; Sliepcevich, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Rota, Renato; Cavallo, Domenico; Nano, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Burning of scented candles in indoor environment can release a large number of toxic chemicals. However, in spite of the large market penetration of scented candles, very few works investigated their organic pollutants emissions. This paper investigates volatile organic compounds emissions, with particular reference to the priority indoor pollutants identified by the European Commission, from the burning of scented candles in a laboratory-scale test chamber. It has been found that BTEX and PAHs emission factors show large differences among different candles, possibly due to the raw paraffinic material used, while aldehydes emission factors seem more related to the presence of additives. This clearly evidences the need for simple and cheap methodologies to measure the emission factors of commercial candles in order to foresee the expected pollutant concentration in a given indoor environment and compare it with health safety standards.

  20. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic candle soot coating and its wettability under condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqing; Huang, Juan; Peng, Chaoyi; Wang, Menglei; Wang, Xian; Bin, Jiping; Xing, Suli; Xiao, Jiayu; Zeng, Jingcheng; Xiao, Ximei; Fu, Xin; Gong, Huifang; Zhao, Dejian; Chen, Hong

    2016-02-01

    A facile method was developed to prepare a superhydrophobic candle soot coating by burning candle and simple deposition on a low-density polyethylene substrate. The water contact angle and sliding angle of the as-prepared superhydrophobic candle soot coating were, respectively, 160 ± 2° and 1° under common condition. ESEM images showed that the superhydrophobic candle soot coating was comprised of many nanoparticles with the size range of about 30-50 nm. After condensation for 30 min, the average contact angle of the condensed water droplets was 150° ± 2°, showing excellent superhydrophobicity under condensation. The mechanism of the candle soot coating remaining superhydrophobicity under condensation was analyzed. This work is helpful for the design and preparation of superhydrophobic surface which can remain superhydrophobicity in future.

  1. Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, J.; Barbieri, L.; Peterson, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    A number of barriers to entry remain for UAS use in science. One in particular is that of implementing an experiment and UAS specific software stack. Currently this stack is most often developed in-house and customised for a particular UAS-sensor pairing - limiting its reuse. Alternatively, when adaptable a suitable commercial package may be used, but such systems are both costly and usually suboptimal.In order to address this challenge the Standardised Embedded Data framework for Drones [SEDD] is being developed in μpython. SEDD provides an open source, reusable, and scientist-accessible drop in solution for drone data capture and triage. Targeted at embedded hardware, and offering easy access to standard I/O interfaces, SEDD provides an easy solution for simply capturing data from a sensor. However, the intention is rather to enable more complex systems of multiple sensors, computer hardware, and feedback loops, via 3 primary components.A data asset manager ensures data assets are associated with appropriate metadata as they are captured. Thereafter, the asset is easily archived or otherwise redirected, possibly to - onboard storage, onboard compute resource for processing, an interface for transmission, another sensor control system, remote storage and processing (such as EarthCube's CHORDS), or to any combination of the above.A service workflow managerenables easy implementation of complex onboard systems via dedicated control of multiple continuous and periodic services. Such services will include the housekeeping chores of operating a UAS and multiple sensors, but will also permit a scientist to drop in an initial scientific data processing code utilising on-board compute resources beyond the autopilot. Having such capabilities firstly enables easy creation of real-time feedback, to the human- or auto- pilot, or other sensors, on data quality or needed flight path changes. Secondly, compute hardware provides the opportunity to carry out real-time data triage

  2. The effectiveness of a standardised positioning tool and bedside education on the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

    PubMed

    Spilker, Arlene; Hill, Constance; Rosenblum, Ruth

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve the developmental proficiency of neonatal intensive care unit nurses, a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and a bedside education programme were introduced to the registered nurses in a 46 bed level III neonatal intensive care unit in the western United States. A developmental positioning team collected pre-intervention positioning scores on 54 preterm infants. This was followed by a survey of the registered nurses beliefs and attitudes, the introduction of the standardised assessment tool and an informal education programme. Post-intervention positioning scores were collected on 55 preterm infants, and analysis of the data indicated there was a statistically significant change in mean positioning scores. Additionally, the registered nurses identified several barriers to the implementation of developmental positioning. This research indicates the use of a standardised infant positioning assessment tool and bedside education may be useful strategies for improving the developmental positioning proficiency of NICU nurses.

  3. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  4. [Standardised psychopathological rating scales for the diagnosis of ADHD in adults].

    PubMed

    Retz, W; Retz-Junginger, P; Römer, K; Rösler, M

    2013-07-01

    Ascertaining the diagnosis of ADHD in adults according to DSM-IV requires determination of the presence of symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity during both childhood and adulthood. Developmental changes of psychopathology, age-related comorbidity and functional and psychosocial problems associated with ADHD have to be taken into account during the diagnostic process. The use of standardised instruments might improve validity and reliability of the diagnosis. These diagnostic tools comprise self and expert ratings as well as observer ratings for the retrospective assessment of childhood and the evaluation of current ADHD symptoms. Here we give an overview of the standardised instruments that are available in German language and present data regarding the validity and reliability of a structured guide for the integrated diagnosis of adult ADHD (IDA) which has been constructed in order to provide a feasible tool for diagnosis of ADHD.

  5. Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

    2015-04-01

    Scented candles are known to release various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including both pleasant aromas and toxic components both before lighting (off) and when lit (on). In this study, we explored the compositional changes of volatiles from scented candles under various settings to simulate indoor use. Carbonyl compounds and other VOCs emitted from six different candle types were analyzed under 'on/off' conditions. The six candle types investigated were: (1) Clean cotton (CT), (2) Floral (FL), (3) Kiwi melon (KW), (4) Strawberry (SB), (5) Vanilla (VN), and (6) Plain (PL). Although a large number of chemicals were released both before lighting and when lit, their profiles were noticeably distinguishable. Before lighting, various esters (n = 30) showed the most dominant emissions. When lit, formaldehyde was found to have the highest emission concentration of 2098 ppb (SB), 1022 ppb (CT), and 925 ppb (PL). In most lit scented candles, there was a general tendency to show increased concentrations of low boiling point compounds. For some scented candle products, the emission of volatiles occurred strongly both before lighting and when lit. For instance, in terms of TVOC (ppbC), the highest concentrations were observed from the KW product with their values of 12,742 (on) and 2766 ppbC (off). As such, the results suggest that certain scented candle products should act as potent sources of VOC emission in indoor environment, regardless of conditions--whether being lit or not.

  6. Characterization of hazardous and odorous volatiles emitted from scented candles before lighting and when lit.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Bo-Won

    2015-04-01

    Scented candles are known to release various volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including both pleasant aromas and toxic components both before lighting (off) and when lit (on). In this study, we explored the compositional changes of volatiles from scented candles under various settings to simulate indoor use. Carbonyl compounds and other VOCs emitted from six different candle types were analyzed under 'on/off' conditions. The six candle types investigated were: (1) Clean cotton (CT), (2) Floral (FL), (3) Kiwi melon (KW), (4) Strawberry (SB), (5) Vanilla (VN), and (6) Plain (PL). Although a large number of chemicals were released both before lighting and when lit, their profiles were noticeably distinguishable. Before lighting, various esters (n = 30) showed the most dominant emissions. When lit, formaldehyde was found to have the highest emission concentration of 2098 ppb (SB), 1022 ppb (CT), and 925 ppb (PL). In most lit scented candles, there was a general tendency to show increased concentrations of low boiling point compounds. For some scented candle products, the emission of volatiles occurred strongly both before lighting and when lit. For instance, in terms of TVOC (ppbC), the highest concentrations were observed from the KW product with their values of 12,742 (on) and 2766 ppbC (off). As such, the results suggest that certain scented candle products should act as potent sources of VOC emission in indoor environment, regardless of conditions--whether being lit or not. PMID:25588193

  7. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remediate PAH-contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Rauscher, Lindy; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve

    2012-11-30

    Surface waters impacted by urban runoff in metropolitan areas are becoming increasingly contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Slow-release oxidant candles (paraffin-KMnO(4)) are a relatively new technology being used to treat contaminated groundwater and could potentially be used to treat urban runoff. Given that these candles only release permanganate when submerged, the ephemeral nature of runoff events would influence when the permanganate is released for treating PAHs. Our objective was to determine if slow-release permanganate candles could be used to degrade and mineralize PAHs. Batch experiments quantified PAH degradation rates in the presence of the oxidant candles. Results showed most of the 16 PAHs tested were degraded within 2-4 h. Using (14)C-labled phenanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene, we demonstrated that the wax matrix of the candle initially adsorbs the PAH, but then releases the PAH back into solution as transformed, more water soluble products. While permanganate was unable to mineralize the PAHs (i.e., convert to CO(2)), we found that the permanganate-treated PAHs were much more biodegradable in soil microcosms. To test the concept of using candles to treat PAHs in multiple runoff events, we used a flow-through system where urban runoff water was pumped over a miniature candle in repetitive wet-dry, 24-h cycles. Results showed that the candle was robust in removing PAHs by repeatedly releasing permanganate and degrading the PAHs. These results provide proof-of-concept that permanganate candles could potentially provide a low-cost, low-maintenance approach to remediating PAH-contaminated water.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ADHESIVE CANDLE FILTER SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; Ann K. Henderson; Jan W. Nowok; Michael L. Swanson

    2002-01-01

    In order to reach the highest possible efficiencies in a coal-fired turbine-based power system, the turbine should be directly fired with the products of coal conversion. Two main types of systems employ these turbines: those based on pressurized fluidized-bed combustors and those based on integrated gasification combined cycles. In both systems, suspended particulates must be cleaned from the gas stream before it enters the turbine so as to prevent fouling and erosion of the turbine blades. To produce the cleanest gas, barrier filters are being developed and are in use in several facilities. Barrier filters are composed of porous, high-temperature materials that allow the hot gas to pass but collect the particulates on the surface. The three main configurations of the barrier filters are candle, cross-flow, and tube filters. Both candle and tube filters have been tested extensively. They are composed of coarsely porous ceramic that serves as a structural support, overlain with a thin, microporous ceramic layer on the dirty gas side that serves as the primary filter surface. They are highly efficient at removing particulate matter from the gas stream and, because of their ceramic construction, are resistant to gas and ash corrosion. However, ceramics are brittle and individual elements can fail, allowing particulates to pass through the hole left by the filter element and erode the turbine. Preventing all failure of individual ceramic filter elements is not possible at the present state of development of the technology. Therefore, safeguard devices (SGDs) must be employed to prevent the particulates streaming through occasional broken filters from reaching the turbine. However, the SGD must allow for the free passage of gas when it is not activated. Upon breaking of a filter, the SGD must either mechanically close or quickly plug with filter dust to prevent additional dust from reaching the turbine. Production of a dependable rapidly closing autonomous mechanical

  9. Quantitative analysis of CT scans of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferer, M.V.; Smith, D.H.

    1996-12-31

    Candle filters are being developed to remove coal ash and other fine particles (<15{mu}m) from hot (ca. 1000 K) gas streams. In the present work, a color scanner was used to digitize hard-copy CT X-ray images of cylindrical SiC filters, and linear regressions converted the scanned (color) data to a filter density for each pixel. These data, with the aid of the density of SiC, gave a filter porosity for each pixel. Radial averages, density-density correlation functions, and other statistical analyses were performed on the density data. The CT images also detected the presence and depth of cracks that developed during usage of the filters. The quantitative data promise to be a very useful addition to the color images.

  10. How Beatrice Tinsley Destroyed Sandage's Quest for a Standard Candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitton, Simon

    2014-01-01

    The goal of cosmology and most extragalactic optical astronomy during the heroic period spanning the half century from Hubble to Sandage (1920s - 1970s) was a search for two numbers, the Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter. Standard candles were needed to establish the measure of the universe. In 1968, Beatrice Tinsley, then a postdoctoral fellow in the astronomy department of the University of Texas at Austin showed that the great enterprise at Palomar of calibrating the galaxies was in need of major revision. At the 132nd AAS Meeting (June 1970, Boulder, Colorado) she presented a paper on galactic evolution on the magnitude-redshift relation. In her Abstract she boldly wrote: "My present conclusion is opposite to that reached by most cosmologists." In fact her claims caused great consternation among cosmologists. In 1972 she published eight papers on the evolution of galaxies, and the effects of that evolution for observational cosmology and the origin of structure.

  11. Axial and transverse characterizations of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.-E.; Nishihama, Y.; Yue, P.C.

    2008-09-01

    Ceramic candle filters are stiff composite tubes used in particle-removal during hot-gas filtration in coal energy generation. These filters are designed to withstand high temperature and pressure gradients. To determine the consistency in manufactured qualities of these filters, dynamic characterization method is recommended as a nondestructive evaluation technique. Six filters of the same manufactured batch were tested dynamically to establish the baseline properties of these filters. The test results are compared to theoretical values and are used to identify the variation in the manufactured products. This paper reports the frequencies in both transverse and axial directions indicating acceptable variations between all filters that are compatible to variations in measured physical parameters including density, stiffness and elastic modulus.

  12. Gas cleaning, gas conditioning and tar abatement by means of a catalytic filter candle in a biomass fluidized-bed gasifier.

    PubMed

    Rapagnà, Sergio; Gallucci, Katia; Di Marcello, Manuela; Matt, Muriel; Nacken, Manfred; Heidenreich, Steffen; Foscolo, Pier Ugo

    2010-09-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed biomass gasification plant, operating at atmospheric pressure and temperature within the range 800-820 degrees C, has been used to test an innovative gas cleaning device: a catalytic filter candle fitted into the bed freeboard. This housing of the gas conditioning system within the gasifier itself results in a very compact unit and greatly reduced thermal losses. Long term (22h) tests were performed on the gasifier both with and without the catalytic candle filter, under otherwise identical conditions. Analysis of the product gas for the two cases showed the catalytic filtration to give rise to notable improvements in both gas quality and gas yield: an increase in hydrogen yield of 130% and an overall increase in gas yield of 69% - with corresponding decreases in methane and tar content of 20% and 79%, respectively. HPLC/UV analysis was used to characterize the tar compounds.

  13. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing: is standardisation possible?

    PubMed

    Retamar, Pilar; Martín, M Luisa; Molina, José; del Arco, Alfonso

    2013-09-01

    The quality of antimicrobial prescribing refers to the optimal way to use antibiotics in regard to their benefits, safety (e.g., resistance generation and toxicity) and cost. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing in a way that focuses not only on reducing antimicrobial consumption but also on using them in a more optimal way allows us to understand patterns of use and to identify targets for intervention. The lack of standardisation is the primary problem to be addressed when planning an evaluation of antimicrobial prescribing. There is little information specifically describing an evaluation methodology. Information related to prescription evaluation can be obtained from the guidelines of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) and from local and international experience. The criteria used to evaluate the quality of prescription should include the indication for antimicrobial therapy, the timeliness of initiation, the correct antibiotic choice (according to local guidelines), the dosing, the duration, the route of administration and the time at which to switch to oral administration. A locally developed guideline on antimicrobial therapy should preferably be the gold standard by which to evaluate the appropriatenes of prescriptions. Various approaches used to carry out the evaluations have been described in the literature. Repeated point-prevalence surveys (PPS) have been proven to be effective in identifying targets for quality improvement. Continuous prospective monitoring allows the identification of more precise intervention points at different times during prescription. The design of the study chosen to perform the evaluation should be adapted according to the resources available in each centre. Evaluating the quality of antimicrobial prescribing should be the first step to designing ASPs, as well as to evaluating their impact and the changes in prescribing trends over time.

  14. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer.

  15. Structure analysis and size distribution of particulate matter from candles and kerosene combustion in burning chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitimirova, M.; Osite, A.; Katkevics, J.; Viksna, A.

    2012-08-01

    Burning of candles generates particulate matter of fine dimensions that produces poor indoor air quality, so it may cause harmful impact on human health. In this study solid aerosol particles of burning of candles of different composition and kerosene combustion were collected in a closed laboratory system. Present work describes particulate matter collection for structure analysis and the relationship between source and size distribution of particulate matter. The formation mechanism of particulate matter and their tendency to agglomerate also are described. Particles obtained from kerosene combustion have normal size distribution. Whereas, particles generated from the burning of stearin candles have distribution shifted towards finer particle size range. If an additive of stearin to paraffin candle is used, particle size distribution is also observed in range of towards finer particles. A tendency to form agglomerates in a short time is observed in case of particles obtained from kerosene combustion, while in case of particles obtained from burning of candles of different composition such a tendency is not observed. Particles from candles and kerosene combustion are Aitken and accumulation mode particles

  16. Human health risk evaluation of selected VOC, SVOC and particulate emissions from scented candles.

    PubMed

    Petry, Thomas; Vitale, Danielle; Joachim, Fred J; Smith, Ben; Cruse, Lynn; Mascarenhas, Reuben; Schneider, Scott; Singal, Madhuri

    2014-06-01

    Airborne compounds in the indoor environment arise from a wide variety of sources such as environmental tobacco smoke, heating and cooking, construction materials as well as outdoor sources. To understand the contribution of scented candles to the indoor load of airborne substances and particulate matter, candle emission testing was undertaken in environmentally controlled small and large emission chambers. Candle emission rates, calculated on the basis of measured chamber concentrations of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC, SVOC) and particulate matter (PM), were used to predict their respective indoor air concentrations in a standard EU-based dwelling using 2 models: the widely accepted ConsExpo 1-box inhalation model and the recently developed RIFM 2-box indoor air dispersion model. The output from both models has been used to estimate more realistic consumer exposure concentrations of specific chemicals and PM in candle emissions. Potential consumer health risks associated with the candle emissions were characterized by comparing the exposure concentrations with existing indoor or ambient air quality guidelines or, where not existent, to established toxicity thresholds. On the basis of this investigation it was concluded that under normal conditions of use scented candles do not pose known health risks to the consumer. PMID:24582651

  17. Incomplete Combustion with Candle Flames: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment in the First-Year Chemistry Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Joseph; Volaric, Lisa

    2003-03-01

    The self-extinction of candle flames in sealed environments is used as the foundation of a guided-inquiry module suitable for first-year chemistry labs. Working in groups of three or four, students are introduced to gas chromatography by resolving and identifying the O2 and N2 peaks from ambient air samples. The separation takes less than two minutes, permitting each student to gain hands-on experience. When the students are comfortable with the instrument, they are provided with the materials needed to construct a sample chamber and measure the composition of the air remaining after a candle flame has burned out. Students are initially surprised by the quantity of O2 remaining, which is typically found to be 14% to 16%. Through interaction with the laboratory instructor the students attempt to improve their experimental design and reproduce their best results to allow some estimate of the remaining error in their method. Finally, they are asked to explain their results and apply them in other contexts.

  18. Measuring income related inequality in health: standardisation and the partial concentration index.

    PubMed

    Gravelle, Hugh

    2003-10-01

    The partial concentration index (PCI) is commonly used as a measure of income related inequality in health after removing the effects of standardising variables such as age and gender which affect health, are correlated with income, but not amenable to policy. Both direct and indirect standardisation have been used to remove the effects of standardising variables. The paper shows that with individual level data direct standardisation is possible using the coefficients from a linear regression of health on income and the standardising variables and yields a consistent estimate of the PCI. Indirect standardisation estimates the effects of the standardising variables on health from a health regression which excludes income. The coefficients on the standardising variables include some of the effects of income on health if income is correlated with the standardising variables. Using these coefficients to remove the effects of the standardising variables also removes some of the effect of income on health and leads to an inconsistent estimate of the PCI. Indirect standardisation underestimates the PCI irrespective of the signs of the correlations of standardising variables and income with each other and with health. An adaptation of the PCI when the marginal effect of income on health depends on the standardising variables is also proposed.

  19. Evaluation of the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense for protection against field populations of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, L R; Surgeoner, G A; Heal, J D; Gallivan, G J

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the efficacy of 3% citronella candles and 5% citronella incense in protecting subjects from bites of Aedes spp. under field conditions. The study was conducted in a deciduous woodlot in Guelph, Ontario, Canada from July 26 to August 10, 1995. Eight subjects, dressed identically, were assigned to one of 8 positions on a grid within the study area. Two citronella candles, 2 citronella incense, 2 plain unscented candles, or no candles (i.e., nontreated controls) were assigned to 2 positions on the grid each evening. Subjects conducted 5-min biting counts at each position and performed 16 biting counts per evening. On average, subjects received 6.2 +/- 0.4, 8.2 +/- 0.5, 8.2 +/- 0.4, and 10.8 +/- 0.5 bites/ 5 min at positions with citronella candles, citronella incense, plain candles, and no candles, respectively. Although significantly fewer bites were received by subjects at positions with citronella candles and incense than at nontreated locations, the overall reduction in bites provided by the citronella candles and incense was only 42.3 and 24.2%, respectively.

  20. Sepsis following cancer surgery: the need for early recognition and standardised clinical care.

    PubMed

    Hiong, A; Thursky, K A; Teh, B W; Haeusler, G M; Slavin, M A; Worth, L J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the implementation of multimodal bundles of care in hospitalised patients, post-operative sepsis in patients with cancer still accounts for a significant burden of illness and substantial healthcare costs. Patients undergoing surgery for cancer are at particular risk of sepsis due to underlying malignancy, being immunocompromised associated with cancer management and the complexity of surgical procedures performed. In this review, we evaluate the burden of illness and risks for sepsis following surgery for cancer. Current evidence supporting standardised strategies for sepsis management (including early recognition and resuscitation) is examined together with challenges in implementing quality improvement programs.

  1. TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: MODEL LIGHT CURVES AND STANDARD CANDLE RELATIONSHIPS

    SciTech Connect

    Kasen, Daniel; Woosley, S. E.

    2009-10-01

    A survey of Type II supernovae explosion models has been carried out to determine how their light curves and spectra vary with their mass, metallicity, and explosion energy. The presupernova models are taken from a recent survey of massive stellar evolution at solar metallicity supplemented by new calculations at subsolar metallicity. Explosions are simulated by the motion of a piston near the edge of the iron core and the resulting light curves and spectra are calculated using full multi-wavelength radiation transport. Formulae are developed that describe approximately how the model observables (light curve luminosity and duration) scale with the progenitor mass, explosion energy, and radioactive nucleosynthesis. Comparison with observational data shows that the explosion energy of typical supernovae (as measured by kinetic energy at infinity) varies by nearly an order of magnitude-from 0.5 to 4.0 x 10{sup 51} ergs, with a typical value of approx0.9 x 10{sup 51} ergs. Despite the large variation, the models exhibit a tight relationship between luminosity and expansion velocity, similar to that previously employed empirically to make SNe IIP standardized candles. This relation is explained by the simple behavior of hydrogen recombination in the supernova envelope, but we find a sensitivity to progenitor metallicity and mass that could lead to systematic errors. Additional correlations between light curve luminosity, duration, and color might enable the use of SNe IIP to obtain distances accurate to approx20% using only photometric data.

  2. Compilation of a standardised international folate database for EPIC.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Geneviève; Witthöft, Cornelia M; Vignat, Jérôme; Knaze, Viktoria; Huybrechts, Inge; Roe, Mark; Finglas, Paul; Slimani, Nadia

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for compiling an "international end-user" folate database. This work benefits from the unique dataset offered by the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) (N=520,000 subjects in 23 centres). Compilation was done in four steps: (1) identify folate-free foods then find folate values for (2) folate-rich foods common across EPIC countries, (3) the remaining "common" foods, and (4) "country-specific" foods. Compiled folate values were concurrently standardised in terms of unit, mode of expression and chemical analysis, using information in national food composition tables (FCT). 43-70% total folate values were documented as measured by microbiological assay. Foods reported in EPIC were either matched directly to FCT foods, treated as recipes or weighted averages. This work has produced the first standardised folate dataset in Europe, which was used to calculate folate intakes in EPIC; a prerequisite to study the relation between folate intake and diseases.

  3. Educating Students About Standardisation Relating to Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Darzentas, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Standardisation education is rarely taught to students in the design disciplines in academic settings, and consequently there is not much evidence about best practices. This paper examines this situation, and elaborates on some of the possible reasons for this situation. Further, it gives an example of how students may be instructed and encouraged to further their interests in standards and the standardization-making process as a means for increasing Universal Design in practice. PMID:27534303

  4. Educating Students About Standardisation Relating to Universal Design.

    PubMed

    Darzentas, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Standardisation education is rarely taught to students in the design disciplines in academic settings, and consequently there is not much evidence about best practices. This paper examines this situation, and elaborates on some of the possible reasons for this situation. Further, it gives an example of how students may be instructed and encouraged to further their interests in standards and the standardization-making process as a means for increasing Universal Design in practice.

  5. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms.

  6. Standardisation of methods in soil microbiology: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Philippot, Laurent; Ritz, Karl; Pandard, Pascal; Hallin, Sara; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2012-10-01

    A plethora of methods have been developed over the few last decades to enable a better understanding of the ecology of soil microbial communities and their roles in soil functioning. However, there is generally considerable variation (both subtle and more extensive) in the actual realisation of these methods, and limited efforts have been devoted to their standardisation, despite this being crucial to underpin data comparison and integration. Ensuring comparable data across studies through standardisation is arguably best-practice, as well as necessary to effectively meet the objectives of various schemas, which require assessment of the consequences of the global change and intensification of human activities on the functioning of the soil ecosystem and its biological diversity. This article presents an overview of the existing and forthcoming ISO standards in soil microbiology and highlights possible future research efforts to be undertaken for developing new standards. We also discuss some practical and theoretical bottlenecks and hurdles that have limited standardisation in soil microbiology up to now.

  7. Assessment of acrylamide toxicity using a battery of standardised bioassays.

    PubMed

    Zovko, Mira; Vidaković-Cifrek, Željka; Cvetković, Želimira; Bošnir, Jasna; Šikić, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Acrylamide is a monomer widely used as an intermediate in the production of organic chemicals, e.g. polyacrylamides (PAMs). Since PAMs are low cost chemicals with applications in various industries and waste- and drinking water treatment, a certain amount of non-polymerised acrylamide is expected to end up in waterways. PAMs are non-toxic but acrylamide induces neurotoxic effects in humans and genotoxic, reproductive, and carcinogenic effects in laboratory animals. In order to evaluate the effect of acrylamide on freshwater organisms, bioassays were conducted on four species: algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, duckweed Lemna minor and water flea Daphnia magna according to ISO (International Organization for Standardisation) standardised methods. This approach ensures the evaluation of acrylamide toxicity on organisms with different levels of organisation and the comparability of results, and it examines the value of using a battery of low-cost standardised bioassays in the monitoring of pollution and contamination of aquatic ecosystems. These results showed that EC50 values were lower for Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata than for Daphnia magna and Lemna minor, which suggests an increased sensitivity of algae to acrylamide. According to the toxic unit approach, the values estimated by the Lemna minor and Daphnia magna bioassays, classify acrylamide as slightly toxic (TU=0-1; Class 1). The results obtained from algal bioassays (Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) revealed the toxic effect of acrylamide (TU=1-10; Class 2) on these organisms. PMID:26751864

  8. 75 FR 70713 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Act''). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 39494 (July 9, 2010). On July 16, 2010... International Trade Administration Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of... petroleum wax candles from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). On the basis of a timely notice...

  9. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  10. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  11. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  12. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  13. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  14. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  15. 16 CFR Table 2 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 2 Table 2 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  16. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  17. 16 CFR Table 1 to Part 1512 - Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 1 Table 1 to Part 1512 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION... 1512—Minimum Candlepower per Incident Foot-Candle for Clear Reflector 1 Observation angle Front,...

  18. Cavity-Q aging observed via an atomic-candle signal.

    PubMed

    Coffer, John G; Sickmiller, Brett; Camparo, James C

    2004-02-01

    Slow variations in cavity-Q and microwave power are thought to play a role in the long-term frequency stability of gas-cell atomic clocks. Here, we use an atomic-candle method to study the aging of a TE011 microwave cavity's resonant frequency and quality factor when a glass resonance cell containing Rb87 loads the cavity. Our results suggest that the alkali vapor coats the inside glass surface of the resonance cell with a thin metallic film; and that, as this film evolves, the quality factor degrades. (In our experiments the quality factor changed by approximately 30% over a timescale of months.) More generally, the present work demonstrates the efficacy of the atomic-candle method for investigating cavity resonances. In particular, we show that, when used in conjunction with more traditional methods, the atomic-candle method has the potential to reveal information on a cavity mode's spatial profile.

  19. A STUDY ON ASH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISITICS OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, V.; Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic barrier filtration is a leading technology employed in hot gas filtration. Hot gases loaded with ash particle flow through the ceramic candle filters and deposit ash on their outer surface. The deposited ash is periodically removed using back pulse cleaning jet, known as surface regeneration. The cleaning done by this technique still leaves some residual ash on the filter surface, which over a period of time sinters, forms a solid cake and leads to mechanical failure of the candle filter. A room temperature testing facility (RTTF) was built to gain more insight into the surface regeneration process before testing commenced at high temperature. RTTF was instrumented to obtain pressure histories during the surface regeneration process and a high-resolution high-speed imaging system was integrated in order to obtain pictures of the surface regeneration process. The objective of this research has been to utilize the RTTF to study the surface regeneration process at the convenience of room temperature conditions. The face velocity of the fluidized gas, the regeneration pressure of the back pulse and the time to build up ash on the surface of the candle filter were identified as the important parameters to be studied. Two types of ceramic candle filters were used in the study. Each candle filter was subjected to several cycles of ash build-up followed by a thorough study of the surface regeneration process at different parametric conditions. The pressure histories in the chamber and filter system during build-up and regeneration were then analyzed. The size distribution and movement of the ash particles during the surface regeneration process was studied. Effect of each of the parameters on the performance of the regeneration process is presented. A comparative study between the two candle filters with different characteristics is presented.

  20. Where there's smoke there's fire--ear candling in a 4-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Hornibrook, Jeremy

    2012-12-14

    It is estimated that one-third of the United States population subscribes to alternative medical therapies (Eisenberg et al, NEJM 1993;328:246-252). Ear candles are popular products promoted by alternative health practitioners, and sold by health shops and even over the Internet. They have been promoted for ear and sinus discomfort, rhinitis, sinusitis, glue ear, colds, flu, migraine, tinnitus, but particularly for removal of ear wax (cerumen). In this case report, a 4-year-old girl in New Zealand presents with otitis media and during the course of the ear examination white deposits were noticed on her eardrum; this was confirmed as being caused by ear candling.

  1. Student Standardised Testing: Current Practices in OECD Countries and a Literature Review. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 65

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Allison

    2011-01-01

    This report discusses the most relevant issues concerning student standardised testing in which there are no-stakes for students ("standardised testing") through a literature review and a review of the trends in standardised testing in OECD countries. Unlike standardised tests in which there are high-stakes for students, no-stakes implies that…

  2. Skin contact transfer of three fragrance residues from candles to human hands.

    PubMed

    Api, Anne Marie; Bredbenner, Amy; McGowen, Margaret; Niemiera, David; Parker, Lori; Renskers, Kevin; Selim, Sami; Sgaramella, Richard; Signorelli, Richard; Tedrow, Sebastian; Troy, William

    2007-08-01

    The dermal hand transfer of three fragrance materials (cinnamic aldehyde, d-limonene and eugenol) from scented candles was determined in 10 subjects (i.e., 20 hands) after grasping scented candles for 5 consecutive 20s exposures/grasps. The fragrance materials from each subject's hands were recovered by isopropyl alcohol wipes and subsequent extractions. Removal efficiencies for both cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol placed directly on the hands were not concentration dependent and ranged from 103% to 106%. The removal efficiency of d-limonene showed an inverse relation with 74.3% removed at the low concentration of 50 microg and 63.8% removed at the high concentration of 500 microg. The residue/transfer of d-limonene from the candles to the hands was below the limit of detection of 50 microg. The residue/transfer of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol to each subject's hands was consistent between subjects as well as between each exposure/grasp. The total mean residues of cinnamic aldehyde and eugenol transferred per grasp from the candles to the hands were 0.255 microg/cm(2) and 0.279 microg/cm(2), respectively.

  3. ANALYSIS OF LEAD IN CANDLE PARTICULATE EMISSIONS BY XRF USING UNIQUANT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an extensive program to study the small combustion sources of indoor fine particulate matter (PM), candles with lead-core wicks were burned in a 46-L glass flow- through chamber. The particulate emissions with aerodynamic diameters <10 micrometers (PM10) were captured ...

  4. CANDLES AND INCENSE AS POTENTIAL SOURCES OF INDOOR AIR POLLUTION: MARKET ANALYSIS AND LITERATURE SEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes available information on candles and incense as potential sources of indoor air pollution. It covers market information and a review of the scientific literature. The market information collected focuses on production and sales data, typical uses in the U.S....

  5. Preliminary evaluation of FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter for particulate control in PFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Eggersedt, P.; Zievers, J.F.; Honea, F.I.

    1994-07-01

    The FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter is made by vacuum-forming a select blend of aluminosilicate fibers with silica and alumina binders and is potentially useful as a hot-gas cleanup device for particulate control in pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC). It has the advantages of lighter weight, lower cost, and lower tendency for thermal shock breakage over the more widely studied SiC candle filter. Both filter types were tested with Illinois No. 6 high-sulfur coal in a laboratory-scale PFBC/alkali sorber facility for (1) particulate collection efficiency, (2) permeability characteristics, and (3) physical and mechanical strength and integrity. Tests were conducted at 800--825{degrees}C and a system pressure of 9.2 atm. Filter face velocities were 5.1 and 10.2 cm/s (10 and 20 ft/min) during test periods of 8 and 9.5 h for SiC and FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filters, respectively. The filters were periodically cleaned by a reverse jet pulse of N{sub 2} gas. Both filter types achieved particulate collection efficiencies >99.9% and exhibited comparable permeability characteristics. Although the FIBROSIC{trademark} candle filter has inherently lower bursting strength than the SiC, its physical and mechanical strengths were demonstrated to be sufficient to maintain the integrity of the filter element under PFBC conditions.

  6. Shall We Continue to Teach the Candle Burning Experiment at Lower Secondary Level?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhindsa, Harkirat S.

    2005-01-01

    The candle burning experiment is usually conducted in lower secondary classes to prove the (about) 20% oxygen in air. The aim of this paper is to show that teachers misinterpret the results of the experiment to satisfy the objectives of teaching this experiment. However, when the results of this experiment are interpreted correctly, the objectives…

  7. Burning a Candle in a Vessel, a Simple Experiment with a Long History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Nunez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    The experiment in which a candle is burned inside an inverted vessel partially immersed in water has a history of more than 2,200 years, but even nowadays it is common that students and teachers relate the change in volume of the enclosed air to its oxygen content. Contrary to what many people think, Lavoisier concluded that any change in volume…

  8. At what distance can the human eye detect a candle flame?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisciunas, Kevin; Carona, Don W.

    2015-01-01

    Various claims in television commercials and on the web suggest that the human eye can detect a candle flame 3.5 to 30 miles away. These claims are wrong, in large part because the background light of the sky is not taken into account. Even at a dark sky site, the V-band sky brightness on a moonless night varies from 21.0 to 22.0 mag/sec2 (136 to 54 nL) over the course of the 11 year solar cycle. One calculation on the web sets the background to 0.1 nL, as if one had a photographic dark room miles in extent. The most direct way to estimate the maximum distance at which a candle can be seen is to first determine how far one has to be situated from a candle such that it is comparable in brightness to a star of magnitude V = 0, such as Vega or Rigel. We find that this distance is 160 to 200 m. This can be double checked with a CCD imager. A candle flame equivalent to a star of magnitude V = 6 would be 15.85 times more distant, or roughly 2.85 km. We present the results of our own experiments and discuss formulations that take into account the background light.

  9. 9 CFR 590.506 - Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and equipment. 590.506 Section 590.506 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... accuracy in removal of inedible or loss eggs by candling. Equipment shall be arranged so as to facilitate... enable candlers to detect loss, inedible, dirty eggs, and eggs other than chicken eggs. (e) Leaker...

  10. 9 CFR 590.506 - Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and equipment. 590.506 Section 590.506 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... accuracy in removal of inedible or loss eggs by candling. Equipment shall be arranged so as to facilitate... enable candlers to detect loss, inedible, dirty eggs, and eggs other than chicken eggs. (e) Leaker...

  11. 9 CFR 590.506 - Candling and transfer-room facilities and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and equipment. 590.506 Section 590.506 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... accuracy in removal of inedible or loss eggs by candling. Equipment shall be arranged so as to facilitate... enable candlers to detect loss, inedible, dirty eggs, and eggs other than chicken eggs. (e) Leaker...

  12. Start-up fuel and power flattening of sodium-cooled candle core

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Sagawa, Yu; Umino, Akitake; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-07-01

    The hard neutron spectrum and unique power shape of CANDLE enable its distinctive performances such as achieving high burnup more than 30% and exempting necessity of both enrichment and reprocessing. On the other hand, they also cause several challenging problems. One is how the initial fuel can be prepared to start up the first CANDLE reactor because the equilibrium fuel composition that enables stable CANDLE burning is complex both in axial and radial directions. Another prominent problem is high radial power peaking factor that worsens averaged burnup, namely resource utilization factor in once-through mode and shorten the life time of structure materials. The purposes of this study are to solve these two problems. Several ideas for core configurations and startup fuel using single enrichment uranium and iron as a substitute of fission products are studied. As a result, it is found that low enriched uranium is applicable to ignite the core but all concepts examined here exceeded heat limits. Adjustment in enrichment and height of active and burnt zone is opened for future work. Sodium duct assemblies and thorium fuel assemblies loaded in the center region are studied as measures to reduce radial power peaking factor. Replacing 37 fuels by thorium fuel assemblies in the zeroth to third row provides well-balanced performance with flattened radial power distribution. The CANDLE core loaded with natural uranium in the outer and thorium in the center region achieved 35.6% of averaged burnup and 7.0 years of cladding life time owing to mitigated local fast neutron irradiation at the center. Using thorium with natural or depleted uranium in CANDLE reactor is also beneficial to diversifying fission resource and extending available term of fission energy without expansion of needs for enrichment and reprocessing.

  13. Use and abuse of statistics in tobacco industry-funded research on standardised packaging.

    PubMed

    Laverty, Anthony A; Diethelm, Pascal; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Watt, Hilary C; McKee, Martin

    2015-09-01

    In this commentary we consider the validity of tobacco industry-funded research on the effects of standardised packaging in Australia. As the first country to introduce standardised packs, Australia is closely watched, and Philip Morris International has recently funded two studies into the impact of the measure on smoking prevalence. Both of these papers are flawed in conception as well as design but have nonetheless been widely publicised as cautionary tales against standardised pack legislation. Specifically, we focus on the low statistical significance of the analytical methods used and the assumption that standardised packaging should have an immediate large impact on smoking prevalence.

  14. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinker, Michael R.

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of colored indicator lights and colored print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm color scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the color blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing setups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  15. Standardisation and half-life measurements of (111)In.

    PubMed

    Dziel, Tomasz; Listkowska, Anna; Tymiński, Zbigniew

    2016-03-01

    The standardisation of (111)In by 4π(LS)-γ coincidence and anticoincidence counting is presented. Absolute measurements were performed for samples with different concentrations of carrier solution and for different window settings in the gamma channel. The radioactive concentration of the master solution determined on the same reference date was consistent for all measurements performed. The evaluated typical uncertainty was 0.43%. The half-life of (111)In was determined using a time series of measurements performed with an ionisation chamber. A least squares fit of the measured data resulted in a half-life of 2.8067 (34) days consistent with Decay Data Evaluation Project recommended value (0.064% higher than the DDEP value). PMID:26651174

  16. Standardisation of radiation portal monitor controls and readouts.

    PubMed

    Tinker, M

    2010-10-01

    There is an urgent need to standardise the numbering configuration of radiation portal monitor sensing panels. Currently, manufacturers use conflicting numbering schemes that may confuse operators of these varied systems. There is a similar problem encountered with the varied choices of coloured indicator lights and coloured print lines designated for gamma and neutron alarms. In addition, second-party software that changes the alarm colour scheme may also have been installed. Furthermore, no provision exists for the colour blind or to provide work stations with only black ink on alarm printouts. These inconsistencies and confusing set-ups could inadvertently cause a misinterpretation of the alarm, resulting in the potential release of a radiological hazard into a sovereign country. These issues are discussed, and a proposed solution is offered.

  17. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    PubMed

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach.

  18. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach

    PubMed Central

    MONTANO, Diego

    2016-01-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  19. Certifying leaders? high-quality management practices and healthy organisations: an ISO-9000 based standardisation approach.

    PubMed

    Montano, Diego

    2016-08-01

    The present study proposes a set of quality requirements to management practices by taking into account the empirical evidence on their potential effects on health, the systemic nature of social organisations, and the current conceptualisations of management functions within the framework of comprehensive quality management systems. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses focusing on the associations between leadership and/or supervision and health in occupational settings are evaluated, and the core elements of an ISO 9001 standardisation approach are presented. Six major occupational health requirements to high-quality management practices are identified pertaining to communication processes, organisational justice, role clarity, decision making, social influence processes and management support. It is concluded that the quality of management practices may be improved by developing a quality management system of management practices that ensures not only conformity to product but also to occupational safety and health requirements. Further research may evaluate the practicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26860787

  20. The Effect Direction Plot: Visual Display of Non-Standardised Effects across Multiple Outcome Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Hilary J.; Thomas, Sian

    2013-01-01

    Visual display of reported impacts is a valuable aid to both reviewers and readers of systematic reviews. Forest plots are routinely prepared to report standardised effect sizes, but where standardised effect sizes are not available for all included studies a forest plot may misrepresent the available evidence. Tabulated data summaries to…

  1. Baseline and optional bench-scale testing of a chemical candle filter safeguard device

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, J.P.; Swanson, M.L.

    2000-11-01

    This project was undertaken by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and test the feasibility of a hot-gas filter safeguard device (SGD) to prevent the release of dust in the event of candle filter failure under both pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) (oxidizing) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (reducing) operating conditions. The SGD must use existing filter system seals, gaskets, fixtures, and assemblies as much as possible. It must also activate quickly when a candle filter has failed, preferably preventing dust concentrations downstream of the SGD from exceeding 1 ppmw. In addition, the SGD must be able to operate in an inactive mode with minimal pressure drop, and its operation cannot be affected by repeated backpulse cleaning events of up to 3 psia and 1/2 second in duration.

  2. The Candle and the Mirror: One Author's Journey as an Outsider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreillon, Judi

    1999-01-01

    Chronicles the author's journey as an outsider who authored a book for children about the harvest traditions of the Tohono O'odham people. Describes how her concern about the lack of literature to serve as a mirror and a candle to reflect and illuminate the lives of Tohono O'odham children led her on a journey that was both painful and affirming.…

  3. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters in commercial plants: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1993-04-01

    Advanced coal fired power cycles require the removal of coal ash at high temperature and pressure. Granular-bed and ceramic candle filters can be used for this service. Conceptual designs for commercial size applications are made for each type of filter. The filters are incorporated in the design of a Foster Wheeler 450 MWe second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant which contains a pressurized fluidized combustor and carbonizer. In a second application, the inters are incorporated in the design of a 100 MWe KRW (air) gasifier based power plant. The candle filter design is state of the art as determined from the open literature with an effort to minimize the cost. The granular-bed filter design is based on test work performed at high temperature and low pressure, tests at New York University performed at high pressure and temperate, and new analysis used to simplify the scale up of the filter and reduce overall cost. The incorporation of chemically reactive granites in the granular-bed filter for the removal of additional coal derived contaminants such as alkali or sulfur is considered. The conceptual designs of the granular-bed inter and the ceramic candle filter are compared in terms of the cost of electricity, capital cost, and operating and maintenance costs for each application.

  4. Histologic and Immunohistochemical Features of the Skin Lesions in CANDLE Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torrelo, Antonio; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Paller, Amy S; Ramot, Yuval; Richard Lee, Chyi-Chia; Vera, Angel; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Kutzner, Heinz

    2015-07-01

    Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is a newly characterized autoinflammatory disorder, caused by mutations in PSMB8. It is characterized by early-onset fevers, accompanied by a widespread, violaceous, and often annular cutaneous eruption. Although the exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is still obscure, it is postulated that the inflammatory disease manifestations stem from excess secretion of interferons. Based on preliminary blood cytokine and gene expression studies, the signature seems to come mostly from type I interferons, which are proposed to lead to the recruitment of immature myeloid cells into the dermis and subcutis. In this study, we systematically analyzed skin biopsies from 6 patients with CANDLE syndrome by routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry methods. Skin lesions showed the presence of extensive mixed dermal and subcutaneous inflammatory infiltrate, composed of mononuclear cells, atypical myeloid cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and some mature lymphocytes. Positive LEDER and myeloperoxidase staining supported the presence of myeloid cells. Positive CD68/PMG1 and CD163 staining confirmed the existence of histiocytes and monocytic macrophages in the inflammatory infiltrate. CD123 staining was positive, demonstrating the presence of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Uncovering the unique histopathological and immunohistochemical features of CANDLE syndrome provides tools for rapid and specific diagnosis of this disorder and further insight into the pathogenesis of this severe life-threatening condition. PMID:26091509

  5. Status and future prospect of 48Ca double beta decay search in CANDLES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iida, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ajimura, S.; Batpurev, T.; Chan, W. M.; Fushimi, K.; Hazama, R.; Kakubata, H.; Khai, B. T.; Kishimoto, T.; Li, X.; Maeda, T.; Masuda, A.; Matsuoka, K.; Morishita, K.; Nakatani, N.; Nomachi, M.; Noshiro, S.; Ogawa, I.; Ohata, T.; Osumi, H.; Suzuki, K.; Tamagawa, Y.; Tesuno, K.; Trang, V. T. T.; Uehara, T.; Umehara, S.; Yoshida, S.

    2016-05-01

    The observation of neutrino-less double beta decay (0vßß) would be the most practical way to prove the Majorana nature of the neutrino and lepton number violation. CANDLES studies 48Ca double beta decay using CaF2 scintillator. The main advantage of 48Ca is that it has the highest Q-value (4.27 MeV) among all the isotope candidates for 0vßß. The CANDLES III detector is currently operating with 300kg CaF2 crystals in the Kamioka underground observatory, Japan. In 2014, a detector cooling system and a magnetic cancellation coil was installed with the aim to increase light emission of CaF2 scintillator and photo-electron collection efficiency of the photo-multipliers. After this upgrade, light yield was increased to 1000 p.e./MeV which is 1.6 times larger than before. According to data analysis and simulation, main background source in CANDLES is turned out to be high energy external gamma-ray originating neutron capture on the surrounding materials, so called (n,γ). Upgrading the detector by installing neutron and gamma-ray shield can reduce the remaining main backgrounds by two order magnitude. In this report, we discuss the detail of (n,γ) and background reduction by additional shielding.

  6. Standardised MedDRA queries: their role in signal detection.

    PubMed

    Mozzicato, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Standardised MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) queries (SMQs) are a newly developed tool to assist in the retrieval of cases of interest from a MedDRA-coded database. SMQs contain terms related to signs, symptoms, diagnoses, syndromes, physical findings, laboratory and other physiological test data etc, that are associated with the medical condition of interest. They are being developed jointly by CIOMS and the MedDRA Maintenance and Support Services Organization (MSSO) and are provided as an integral part of a MedDRA subscription. During their development, SMQs undergo testing to assure that they are able to retrieve cases of interest within the defined scope of the SMQ. This paper describes the features of SMQs that allow for flexibility in their application, such as 'narrow' and 'broad' sub-searches, hierarchical grouping of sub-searches and search algorithms. In addition, as with MedDRA, users can request changes to SMQs. SMQs are maintained in synchrony with MedDRA versions by internal maintenance processes in the MSSO. The list of safety topics to be developed into SMQs is long and comprehensive. The CIOMS Working Group retains a list of topics to be developed and periodically reviews the list for priority and relevance. As of mid-2007, 37 SMQs are in production use and several more are under development. The potential uses of SMQs in safety analysis will be discussed including their role in signal detection and evaluation. PMID:17604415

  7. Integrated interpretation of overlapping AEM datasets achieved through standardisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Camilla C.; Munday, Tim; Heinson, Graham

    2015-12-01

    Numerous airborne electromagnetic surveys have been acquired in Australia using a variety of systems. It is not uncommon to find two or more surveys covering the same ground, but acquired using different systems and at different times. Being able to combine overlapping datasets and get a spatially coherent resistivity-depth image of the ground can assist geological interpretation, particularly when more subtle geophysical responses are important. Combining resistivity-depth models obtained from the inversion of airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data can be challenging, given differences in system configuration, geometry, flying height and preservation or monitoring of system acquisition parameters such as waveform. In this study, we define and apply an approach to overlapping AEM surveys, acquired by fixed wing and helicopter time domain electromagnetic (EM) systems flown in the vicinity of the Goulds Dam uranium deposit in the Frome Embayment, South Australia, with the aim of mapping the basement geometry and the extent of the Billeroo palaeovalley. Ground EM soundings were used to standardise the AEM data, although results indicated that only data from the REPTEM system needed to be corrected to bring the two surveys into agreement and to achieve coherent spatial resistivity-depth intervals.

  8. TYPE II-P SUPERNOVAE FROM THE SDSS-II SUPERNOVA SURVEY AND THE STANDARDIZED CANDLE METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Chris B.; Sako, Masao; Dilday, Benjamin; Jha, Saurabh; Frieman, Joshua A.; Kessler, Richard; Holtzman, Jon; Konishi, Kohki; Yasuda, Naoki; Schneider, D. P.; Sollerman, Jesper; Wheeler, J. Craig; Cinabro, David; Nichol, Robert C.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Smith, Mathew; Atlee, David W.; Bassett, Bruce; Castander, Francisco J.; Goobar, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    We apply the Standardized Candle Method (SCM) for Type II Plateau supernovae (SNe II-P), which relates the velocity of the ejecta of a SN to its luminosity during the plateau, to 15 SNe II-P discovered over the three season run of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II Supernova Survey. The redshifts of these SNe-0.027 < z < 0.144-cover a range hitherto sparsely sampled in the literature; in particular, our SNe II-P sample contains nearly as many SNe in the Hubble flow (z > 0.01) as all of the current literature on the SCM combined. We find that the SDSS SNe have a very small intrinsic I-band dispersion (0.22 mag), which can be attributed to selection effects. When the SCM is applied to the combined SDSS-plus-literature set of SNe II-P, the dispersion increases to 0.29 mag, larger than the scatter for either set of SNe separately. We show that the standardization cannot be further improved by eliminating SNe with positive plateau decline rates, as proposed in Poznanski et al. We thoroughly examine all potential systematic effects and conclude that for the SCM to be useful for cosmology, the methods currently used to determine the Fe II velocity at day 50 must be improved, and spectral templates able to encompass the intrinsic variations of Type II-P SNe will be needed.

  9. Characteristics of emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Wang, B.

    The objective of this study was to characterize the emissions of air pollutants from mosquito coils and candles burning in a large environmental test chamber. The target pollutants included particulate matters (PM 10, PM 2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x), methane (CH 4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbonyl compounds. The average PM 10 concentrations for all tested mosquito coils exceeded Excellent and Good Classes objectives specified by Indoor Air Quality Objectives for Office Buildings and Public Places (IAQO) [ HKEPD, 2003. Guidance Notes for the Management of Indoor Air Quality in Offices and Public Places. Indoor Air Quality Management Group, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region]. The emission factors (mg g -1 mosquito coil) of mosquito coils combustion were: PM 2.5, 20.3-47.8; PM 10, 15.9-50.8; CO, 74.6-89.1; NO, 0.1-0.5; NO 2, n.d.-0.1; NO x, 0.1-0.5; CH 4, n.d.-4.7; NMHC, 0.1-5.7. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls species in the coil smoke. The average concentrations of formaldehyde and benzene of all tested mosquito coils exceeded Good Class of IAQO. Nitrogen oxides were the most abundant gas pollutants relating to candle burning among all target air pollutants. The candle made of gel (CAN 4) would emit more air pollutants than the paraffin candles (CAN 1, 2 and 3) and beeswax candle (CAN 5). Among five candles tested, CAN 5, the one made of beeswax, generated relatively smaller amount of air pollutants. It was noted that the concentrations of most VOCs from candles combustion were below the detection limit.

  10. Operation Behavior of a Multi-Candle Filter with Coupled Pressure Pulse Recleaning during Normal Operation and in the Case of a Filter Candle Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, R.; Leibold, H. Seifert, H.; Heidenreich, S.; Haag, W.

    2002-09-18

    A pilot filter with the CPP recleaning system was installed and commissioned during the first half year of 2000 in ''PYDRA'', the pyrolytic rotary tube facility of the Institute for Technical Chemistry, Research Center Karlsruhe. The filter, with a rated throughput of 50 std.m{sup 3}/h, is equipped with two clusters of three filter candles each (DIA-SCHUMALITH{reg_sign} T 10-20, 1 = 1500 mm), and has been designed for a maximum operating temperature of 550 C. After commissioning, the filter was run in the stand-alone mode, first without pyrolysis, to filter sticky inorganic dust of the type which can arise in waste incineration in the temperature range above 400 C.

  11. Does standardised structured reporting contribute to quality in diagnostic pathology? The importance of evidence-based datasets.

    PubMed

    Ellis, D W; Srigley, J

    2016-01-01

    Key quality parameters in diagnostic pathology include timeliness, accuracy, completeness, conformance with current agreed standards, consistency and clarity in communication. In this review, we argue that with worldwide developments in eHealth and big data, generally, there are two further, often overlooked, parameters if our reports are to be fit for purpose. Firstly, population-level studies have clearly demonstrated the value of providing timely structured reporting data in standardised electronic format as part of system-wide quality improvement programmes. Moreover, when combined with multiple health data sources through eHealth and data linkage, structured pathology reports become central to population-level quality monitoring, benchmarking, interventions and benefit analyses in public health management. Secondly, population-level studies, particularly for benchmarking, require a single agreed international and evidence-based standard to ensure interoperability and comparability. This has been taken for granted in tumour classification and staging for many years, yet international standardisation of cancer datasets is only now underway through the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR). In this review, we present evidence supporting the role of structured pathology reporting in quality improvement for both clinical care and population-level health management. Although this review of available evidence largely relates to structured reporting of cancer, it is clear that the same principles can be applied throughout anatomical pathology generally, as they are elsewhere in the health system.

  12. A HIGH TEMPERATURE TEST FACILITY FOR STUDYING ASH PARTICLE CHARACTERISTICS OF CANDLE FILTER DURING SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.; Rincon, J.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure back pulse cleaning jet. After this cleaning process has been done there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) was built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at high temperatures. The system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. Details of the HTTF apparatus as well as some preliminary test results are presented in this paper. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time.

  13. Mutations in PSMB8 Cause CANDLE Syndrome with Evidence of Genetic and Phenotypic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yin; Ramot, Yuval; Torrelo, Antonio; Paller, Amy S.; Si, Nuo; Babay, Sofia; Kim, Peter W.; Sheikh, Afzal; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Chen, Yongqing; Vera, Angel; Zhang, Xue; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Objective Chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE) syndrome is an autoinflammatory syndrome recently described in children. We investigated the clinical phenotype, genetic cause and the immune dysregulation in nine CANDLE patients. Methods Genomic DNA from all patients was screened for PSMB8 (Proteasome subunit beta type-8) mutations. Serum cytokine levels were measured from four patients. Skin biopsies were evaluated immunohistochemically and blood microarray profile (n=4) and stat-1 phosphorylation (n=3) were assessed. Results One patient was homozygous for a novel nonsense mutation in PSMB8 (c.405C>A) suggesting a protein truncation, four patients were homozygous and two were heterozygous for a previously reported missense mutation (c.224C>T), and one patient showed no mutation. None of these sequence changes was observed in chromosomes from 750 healthy controls. Of the four patients with the same mutation, only two share the same haplotype indicating a mutational hot spot. PSMB8 mutation-positive and -negative patients expressed high IP-10 (Interferon gamma-induced protein 10) levels. Levels of MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-1Ra were moderately elevated. Microarray profiles and monocyte stat-1 activation suggested a unique interferon (IFN) signaling signature, unlike in other autoinflammatory disorders. Conclusion CANDLE is caused by mutations in PSMB8, a gene recently reported to cause JMP syndrome (joint contractures, muscle atrophy and panniculitis induced lipodystrophy) in adults. We extend the clinical and pathogenic description of this novel autoinflammatory syndrome, thereby expanding the clinical and genetic disease spectrum of PSMB8-associated disorders. IFN may be a key mediator of the inflammatory response and may present a therapeutic target. PMID:21953331

  14. Burning a Candle in a Vessel, a Simple Experiment with a Long History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Francisco; Rivera, Rodrigo; Núñez, César

    2011-09-01

    The experiment in which a candle is burned inside an inverted vessel partially immersed in water has a history of more than 2,200 years, but even nowadays it is common that students and teachers relate the change in volume of the enclosed air to its oxygen content. Contrary to what many people think, Lavoisier concluded that any change in volume in this experiment is negligible; moreover, the explanation relating oxygen consumption in the air with its change in volume is known to be wrong. In this work we briefly review the history behind the candle experiment and its relationship with some typical erroneous explanations. One of the key factors behind Lavoisier's success was the use of experiments carefully designed to test different hypotheses. Following these steps, we performed several closed volume experiments where the candle wick was replaced by a capillary stainless steel cylinder supported and heated by a nichrome filament connected to an external power supply. Our recorded experiments are displayed as web pages, designed with the purpose that the reader can easily visualize and analyze modern versions of Lavoisier's experiments. These experiments clearly show an initial phase of complete combustion, followed by a phase of incomplete combustion with elemental carbon or soot rising to the top of the vessel, and a final phase where the hot artificial wick only evaporates a white steam of wax that cannot ignite because no oxygen is left in the closed atmosphere. After either a complete or incomplete combustion of the oxygen, our experiments show that the final gas volume is nearly equal to the initial air volume.

  15. Role of carbon monoxide in impaired endothelial function mediated by acute second-hand tobacco, incense, and candle smoke exposures.

    PubMed

    Weber, Lynn P; Al-Dissi, Ahmad; Marit, Jordan S; German, Timothy N; Terletski, Sharilyn D

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if carbon monoxide (CO) is responsible for acute adverse cardiovascular effects of different sources of smoke: second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS), incense and candle smoke. Endothelial function was tested using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in pigs and was shown to be sensitive to nitric oxide synthase blockade. Subsequent experiments showed that FMD was significantly impaired compared to sham-exposed pigs at 30 min after a 30-min exposure to all three sources of smoke. In contrast, SHS significantly increased systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures compared to sham-exposure, while both incense and candle smoke exposure had no effect. The FMD impairment correlated well with CO levels in the exposure chamber, but not total particulates or venous CO-hemoglobin. Therefore, this study suggests a gas phase component of smoke that accompanies CO, but not CO itself, is responsible for acute endothelial dysfunction after SHS, incense or candle smoke exposure.

  16. Planetary nebulae as standard candles. III - The distance to M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacoby, George H.; Ciardullo, Robin; Booth, John; Ford, Holland C.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a survey for PN in the nearby Sb galaxy M81 are reported, including the identification of 185 PN candidates. A distance to M81 of 3.50 + or - 0.40 Mpc is derived using the methods outlined by Ciardullo, et al. (1989). This value compares very well with values derived using traditional methods. Based on this agreement, it is concluded that PN are as good as, or better than, other standard candles for deriving distances to galaxies beyond 10 Mpc.

  17. DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION OF TEST FACILITY FOR THE STUDY OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce S. Kang; Eric K. Johnson

    2003-07-14

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure pulse of gas to back flush the filter. After this cleaning process has been completed there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may then lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A Room Temperature Test Facility (RTTF) and a High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) were built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at room and selected high temperatures. The RTTF system was used to gain experience with the selected instrumentation and develop an operating procedure to be used later at elevated temperatures. The HTTF system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time. Coal ash sample obtained from the Power System Development Facility (PSDF) at Wilsonville, AL was used at the

  18. Fail save shut off valve for filtering systems employing candle filters

    DOEpatents

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  19. Cosmokinetics: a joint analysis of standard candles, rulers and cosmic clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay; Jain, Deepak E-mail: sjhingan@jmi.ac.in

    2012-01-01

    We study the accelerated expansion of the Universe by using the kinematic approach. In this context, we parameterize the deceleration parameter, q(z), in a model independent way. Assuming three simple parameterizations we reconstruct q(z). We do the joint analysis with combination of latest cosmological data consisting of standard candles (Supernovae Union2 sample), standard ruler (CMB/BAO), cosmic clocks (age of passively evolving galaxies) and Hubble (H(z)) data. Our results support the accelerated expansion of the Universe.

  20. Fail Save Shut Off Valve for Filtering Systems Employing Candle Filters

    SciTech Connect

    VanOsdol, John

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  1. Comparison of the egg flotation and egg candling techniques for estimating incubation day of Canada Goose nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiter, M.E.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Both egg flotation and egg candling have been used to estimate incubation day (often termed nest age) in nesting birds, but little is known about the relative accuracy of these two techniques. We used both egg flotation and egg candling to estimate incubation day for Canada Geese (Branta canadensis interior) nesting near Cape Churchill, Manitoba, from 2000 to 2007. We modeled variation in the difference between estimates of incubation day using each technique as a function of true incubation day, as well as, variation in error rates with each technique as a function of the true incubation day. We also evaluated the effect of error in the estimated incubation day on estimates of daily survival rate (DSR) and nest success using simulations. The mean difference between concurrent estimates of incubation day based on egg flotation minus egg candling at the same nest was 0.85 ?? 0.06 (SE) days. The positive difference in favor of egg flotation and the magnitude of the difference in estimates of incubation day did not vary as a function of true incubation day. Overall, both egg flotation and egg candling overestimated incubation day early in incubation and underestimated incubation day later in incubation. The average difference between true hatch date and estimated hatch date did not differ from zero (days) for egg flotation, but egg candling overestimated true hatch date by about 1 d (true - estimated; days). Our simulations suggested that error associated with estimating the incubation day of nests and subsequently exposure days using either egg candling or egg flotation would have minimal effects on estimates of DSR and nest success. Although egg flotation was slightly less biased, both methods provided comparable and accurate estimates of incubation day and subsequent estimates of hatch date and nest success throughout the entire incubation period. ?? 2008 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  2. Canadian Open Genetics Repository (COGR): a unified clinical genomics database as a community resource for standardising and sharing genetic interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Lerner-Ellis, Jordan; Wang, Marina; White, Shana; Lebo, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Background The Canadian Open Genetics Repository is a collaborative effort for the collection, storage, sharing and robust analysis of variants reported by medical diagnostics laboratories across Canada. As clinical laboratories adopt modern genomics technologies, the need for this type of collaborative framework is increasingly important. Methods A survey to assess existing protocols for variant classification and reporting was delivered to clinical genetics laboratories across Canada. Based on feedback from this survey, a variant assessment tool was made available to all laboratories. Each participating laboratory was provided with an instance of GeneInsight, a software featuring versioning and approval processes for variant assessments and interpretations and allowing for variant data to be shared between instances. Guidelines were established for sharing data among clinical laboratories and in the final outreach phase, data will be made readily available to patient advocacy groups for general use. Results The survey demonstrated the need for improved standardisation and data sharing across the country. A variant assessment template was made available to the community to aid with standardisation. Instances of the GeneInsight tool were provided to clinical diagnostic laboratories across Canada for the purpose of uploading, transferring, accessing and sharing variant data. Conclusions As an ongoing endeavour and a permanent resource, the Canadian Open Genetics Repository aims to serve as a focal point for the collaboration of Canadian laboratories with other countries in the development of tools that take full advantage of laboratory data in diagnosing, managing and treating genetic diseases. PMID:25904639

  3. The EUROCARE-4 database on cancer survival in Europe: data standardisation, quality control and methods of statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Roberta; Francisci, Silvia; Baili, Paolo; Marchesi, Francesca; Roazzi, Paolo; Belot, Aurélien; Crocetti, Emanuele; Pury, Pierre; Knijn, Arnold; Coleman, Michel; Capocaccia, Riccardo

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes the collection, standardisation and checking of cancer survival data included in the EUROCARE-4 database. Methods for estimating relative survival are also described. Incidence and vital status data on newly diagnosed European cancer cases were received from 93 cancer registries in 23 countries, covering 151,400,000 people (35% of the participating country population). The third revision of the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology was used to specify tumour topography and morphology. Records were extensively checked for consistency and compatibility using multiple routines; flagged records were sent back for correction. An algorithm assigned standardised sequence numbers to multiple cancers. Only first malignant cancers were used to estimate relative survival from registry, year, sex and age-specific life tables. Age-adjusted and Europe-wide survival were also estimated. The database contains 13,814,573 cases diagnosed in 1978-2002; 92% malignant. A negligible proportion of records was excluded for major errors. Of 5,753,934 malignant adult cases diagnosed in 1995-2002, 5.3% were second or later cancers, 2.7% were known from death certificates only and 0.4% were discovered at autopsy. The remaining 5,278,670 cases entered the survival analyses, 90% of these had microscopic confirmation and 1.3% were censored alive after less than five years' follow-up. These indicators suggest satisfactory data quality that has improved since EUROCARE-3.

  4. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiawati, Nina; Su'ud, Zaki

    2015-09-01

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from -0.6695443 % at BOC to -0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  5. Enabling a blue-hazard free general lighting based on candle light-style OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Kumar, Sudhir; An, Chih-Chia; Singh, Meenu; Yu, Huei-Huan; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, You-Xing; Sung, Chao-Feng; Wang, Ching-Wu

    2015-06-01

    Increasing studies report blue light to possess a potential hazard to the retina of human eyes, secretion of melatonin and artworks. To devise a human- and artwork-friendly light source and to also trigger a "Lighting Renaissance", we demonstrate here how to enable a quality, blue-hazard free general lighting source on the basis of low color-temperature organic light emitting diodes. With the use of multiple candlelight complementary emitters, the sensationally warm candle light-style emission is proven to be also drivable by electricity. To be energy-saving, highly efficient candle-light emission is demanded. The device shows, at 100 cd m-2 for example, an efficacy of 85.4 lm W-1, an external quantum efficiency of 27.4%, with a 79 spectrum resemblance index and 2,279 K color temperature. The high efficiency may be attributed to the candlelight emitting dyes with a high quantum yield, and the host molecules facilitating an effective host-to-guest energy transfer, as well as effective carrier injection balance.

  6. Effect of Fuel Fraction on Small Modified CANDLE Burn-up Based Gas Cooled Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariani, Menik; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Khairurrijal, Asiah, Nur; Shafii, M. Ali

    2010-12-01

    A conceptual design study of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Modified CANDLE Burn-up has been performed. The objective of this research is to get optimal design parameters of such type reactors. The parameters of nuclear design including the critical condition, conversion ratio, and burn-up level were compared. These parameters are calculated by variation in the fuel fraction 47.5% up to 70%. Two dimensional full core multi groups diffusion calculations was performed by CITATION code. Group constant preparations are performed by using SRAC code system with JENDL-3.2 nuclear data library. In this design the reactor cores with cylindrical cell two dimensional R-Z core models are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The placement of fuel in core arranged so that the result of plutonium from natural uranium can be utilized optimally for 10 years reactor operation. Modified CANDLE burn-up was established successfully in a core radial width 1.4 m. Total thermal power output for reference core is 550 MW. Study on the effect of fuel to coolant ratio shows that effective multiplication factor (keff) is in almost linear relations with the change of the fuel volume to coolant ratio.

  7. Unbiased constraints on the clumpiness of the Universe from standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhengxiang; Ding, Xuheng; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-04-01

    We perform unbiased tests for the clumpiness of the Universe by confronting the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder luminosity distance, which describes the effect of local inhomogeneities on the propagation of light with the observational one estimated from measurements of standard candles, i.e., type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Methodologically, we first determine the light-curve fitting parameters which account for distance estimation in SNe Ia observations and the luminosity/energy relations which are responsible for distance estimation of GRBs in the global fit to reconstruct the Hubble diagrams in the context of a clumpy Universe. Subsequently, these Hubble diagrams allow us to achieve unbiased constraints on the matter density parameter Ωm , as well as the clumpiness parameter η which quantifies the fraction of homogeneously distributed matter within a given light cone. At a 1 σ confidence level, the constraints are Ωm=0.34 ±0.02 and η =1.0 0-0.02+0.00 from the joint analysis. The results suggest that the Universe full of Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker fluid is favored by observations of standard candles with very high statistical significance. On the other hand, they may also indicate that the Zel'dovich-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder approximation is a sufficiently accurate form to describe the effects of local homogeneity on the expanding Universe.

  8. Development of a new 48Ca enrichment method and the CANDLES experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Tadafumi

    2015-10-01

    CANDLES is a project to study double beta decay of 48Ca. CANDLES could become the most competitive experiment if we could have an efficient method to enrich 48Ca. We developed a new method for enrichment of large amount of calcium isotopes. The method is called Multi-Channel Counter-Current Electrophoresis (MCCCE) which can be found elsewhre. Essential point is the increase of the power density in the migration path. In MCCCE, ions migrate in multi-channels on a boron nitride (BN) plate by which substantial increase of the power density was achieved. We made a tiny prototype instrument with a 10 mm thick BN plate and obtained 3 for an enrichment factor for the ratio of abundance of 48Ca to 43Ca over that of natural abundance. It corresponds to 6 for the enrichment factor of 48Ca to 40Ca. Recently we obtained 10 for the enrichment factor by using 20 mm BN plate. This remarkably large enrichment factor demonstrates that the MCCCE is a realistic and promising method for the enrichment of large amount of ions. This method can be applied to many other elements and compounds. I will describe MCCCE and its effect on the study of double beta decay and other fields.

  9. A Double Candle-Flame-Shaped Solar Flare Observed by SDO and STEREO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, T.; Liu, R.; Wang, Y.; Liu, K.; Zhuang, B.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate an M1.4 flare occurring on 2011 January 28 near the northwest solar limb. The flare loop system exhibits a double candle-flame configuration in SDO/AIA's hot passbands, sharing a much larger cusp-shaped structure. The results of DEM analysis show that each candle flame has a similar temperature distribution as the famous Tsuneta flare. STEREO-A provides us a view from directly above the flare, and in SECCHI/EUVI 195 Å the post-flare loops are observed to propagate eastward. We performed a 3D reconstruction of the pos-flare loops with AIA and EUVI data. With the aid of the squashing factor Q based on a potential extrapolation of the photospheric field, we recognized that the footpoints of the post-flare loops were slipping along high-Q lines on the photosphere, and the reconstructed loops share similarity with the filed lines that are traced starting from the high-Q lines. The heights of the loops increase as they slip horizontally eastward, giving the loop-top a velocity of about 10 km/s. An extremely large EUV late phase in Fe XVI 33.5 nm observed by SDO/EVE is suggested to be related to the slipping magnetic reconnection occurring in the quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) whose photosheric footprints are featured by the high-Q lines.

  10. Enabling a blue-hazard free general lighting based on candle light-style OLED.

    PubMed

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Kumar, Sudhir; An, Chih-Chia; Singh, Meenu; Yu, Huei-Huan; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, You-Xing; Sung, Chao-Feng; Wang, Ching-Wu

    2015-06-01

    Increasing studies report blue light to possess a potential hazard to the retina of human eyes, secretion of melatonin and artworks. To devise a human- and artwork-friendly light source and to also trigger a "Lighting Renaissance", we demonstrate here how to enable a quality, blue-hazard free general lighting source on the basis of low color-temperature organic light emitting diodes. With the use of multiple candlelight complementary emitters, the sensationally warm candle light-style emission is proven to be also drivable by electricity. To be energy-saving, highly efficient candle-light emission is demanded. The device shows, at 100 cd m-2 for example, an efficacy of 85.4 lm W-1, an external quantum efficiency of 27.4%, with a 79 spectrum resemblance index and 2,279 K color temperature. The high efficiency may be attributed to the candlelight emitting dyes with a high quantum yield, and the host molecules facilitating an effective host-to-guest energy transfer, as well as effective carrier injection balance. PMID:26072882

  11. Do All Candle-Flame-Shaped Flares Have the Same Temperature Distribution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming

    2015-08-01

    We performed a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of candle-flame-shaped flares observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamic Observatory. The DEM profile of flaring plasmas generally exhibits a double peak distribution in temperature, with a cold component around log T≈6.2 and a hot component around log T≈7.0. Attributing the cold component mainly to the coronal background, we propose a mean temperature weighted by the hot DEM component as a better representation of flaring plasma than the conventionally defined mean temperature, which is weighted by the whole DEM profile. Based on this corrected mean temperature, the majority of the flares studied, including a confined flare with a double candle-flame shape sharing the same cusp-shaped structure, resemble the famous Tsuneta flare in temperature distribution, i.e., the cusp-shaped structure has systematically higher temperatures than the rounded flare arcade underneath. However, the M7.7 flare on 19 July 2012 poses a very intriguing violation of this paradigm: the temperature decreases with altitude from the tip of the cusp toward the top of the arcade; the hottest region is slightly above the X-ray loop-top source that is co-spatial with the emission-measure-enhanced region at the top of the arcade. This signifies that a different heating mechanism from the slow-mode shocks attached to the reconnection site operates in the cusp region during the flare decay phase.

  12. Void effect analysis of Pb-208 of fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Widiawati, Nina Su’ud, Zaki

    2015-09-30

    Void effect analysis of Pb-208 as coolant of fast reactors with modified candle burn-up scheme has been conducted. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the fourth-generation reactor designs. The reactor is designed with a thermal power output of 500 MWt. Modified CANDLE burn-up scheme allows the reactor to have long life operation by supplying only natural uranium as fuel cycle input. This scheme introducing discrete region, the fuel is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn up it is shifted to region 2 and region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. The reactor is designed for 100 years with 10 regions arranged axially. The results of neutronic calculation showed that the void coefficients ranged from −0.6695443 % at BOC to −0.5273626 % at EOC for 500 MWt reactor. The void coefficients of Pb-208 more negative than Pb-nat. The results showed that the reactors with Pb-208 coolant have better level of safety than Pb-nat.

  13. Emission characteristics of air pollutants from incense and candle burning in indoor atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Manoukian, A; Quivet, E; Temime-Roussel, B; Nicolas, M; Maupetit, F; Wortham, H

    2013-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles emitted by incense sticks and candles combustion in an experimental room have been monitored on-line and continuously with a high time resolution using a state-of-the-art high sensitivity-proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (HS-PTR-MS) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), respectively. The VOC concentration-time profiles, i.e., an increase up to a maximum concentration immediately after the burning period followed by a decrease which returns to the initial concentration levels, were strongly influenced by the ventilation and surface interactions. The obtained kinetic data set allows establishing a qualitative correlation between the elimination rate constants of VOCs and their physicochemical properties such as vapor pressure and molecular weight. The emission of particles increased dramatically during the combustion, up to 9.1(±0.2) × 10(4) and 22.0(±0.2) × 10(4) part cm(-3) for incenses and candles, respectively. The performed kinetic measurements highlight the temporal evolution of the exposure level and reveal the importance of ventilation and deposition to remove the particles in a few hours in indoor environments.

  14. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers’ responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John; Hoek, Janet; Darroch, Ella; Wood, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many of the approximately 8000 New Zealand retailers selling tobacco are small stores that tobacco companies have represented as victims of policy measures designed to reduce smoking. Despite this depiction, many retailers experience considerable ambivalence in selling tobacco, a product they know harms their customers. We explored how retailers perceived the proposed introduction of standardised (or ‘plain’) packaging and their assessment of arguments made by tobacco companies in submissions on proposed standardised packaging legislation. Participants Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we recruited and interviewed 23 retailers of dairies (small convenience stores), small supermarkets, and service stations. Analyses Data were analysed using a protocol-driven approach; this stance enabled direct analysis of tobacco companies’ arguments, particularly those purporting to represent retailers’ concerns. Results Retailers were concerned about the financial implications of standardised packaging and the effects it may have on their ability to provide rapid and efficient customer service. However, few thought standardised packaging would foster illicit trade or spawn further regulation; most placed public health goals ahead of tobacco companies’ ‘rights’, and many supported government intervention to protect population health. Conclusions Retailers held ambivalent views on standardised packaging; while they were concerned about short-term effects on their business, they recognised the harm smoking causes. Policymakers and health researchers could collaborate more effectively with retailers by assisting them to create financially viable roles more compatible with public health objectives. PMID:26553840

  15. Validation of a standardised gait score to predict the healing of tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Macri, F; Marques, L F; Backer, R C; Santos, M J; Belangero, W D

    2012-04-01

    There is no absolute method of evaluating healing of a fracture of the tibial shaft. In this study we sought to validate a new clinical method based on the systematic observation of gait, first by assessing the degree of agreement between three independent observers regarding the gait score for a given patient, and secondly by determining how such a score might predict healing of a fracture. We used a method of evaluating gait to assess 33 patients (29 men and four women, with a mean age of 29 years (15 to 62)) who had sustained an isolated fracture of the tibial shaft and had been treated with a locked intramedullary nail. There were 15 closed and 18 open fractures (three Gustilo and Anderson grade I, seven grade II, seven grade IIIA and one grade IIIB). Assessment was carried out three and six months post-operatively using videos taken with a digital camera. Gait was graded on a scale ranging from 1 (extreme difficulty) to 4 (normal gait). Bivariate analysis included analysis of variance to determine whether the gait score statistically correlated with previously validated and standardised scores of clinical status and radiological evidence of union. An association was found between the pattern of gait and all the other variables. Improvement in gait was associated with the absence of pain on weight-bearing, reduced tenderness over the fracture, a higher Radiographic Union Scale in Tibial Fractures score, and improved functional status, measured using the Brazilian version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire (all p < 0.001). Although further study is needed, the analysis of gait in this way may prove to be a useful clinical tool. PMID:22434473

  16. RECIST 1.1 - Standardisation and disease-specific adaptations: Perspectives from the RECIST Working Group.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lawrence H; Seymour, Lesley; Litière, Saskia; Ford, Robert; Gwyther, Stephen; Mandrekar, Sumithra; Shankar, Lalitha; Bogaerts, Jan; Chen, Alice; Dancey, Janet; Hayes, Wendy; Hodi, F Stephen; Hoekstra, Otto S; Huang, Erich P; Lin, Nancy; Liu, Yan; Therasse, Patrick; Wolchok, Jedd D; de Vries, Elisabeth

    2016-07-01

    Radiologic imaging of disease sites plays a pivotal role in the management of patients with cancer. Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), introduced in 2000, and modified in 2009, has become the de facto standard for assessment of response in solid tumours in patients on clinical trials. The RECIST Working Group considers the ability of the global oncology community to implement and adopt updates to RECIST in a timely manner to be critical. Updates to RECIST must be tested, validated and implemented in a standardised, methodical manner in response to therapeutic and imaging technology advances as well as experience gained by users. This was the case with the development of RECIST 1.1, where an expanded data warehouse was developed to test and validate modifications. Similar initiatives are ongoing, testing RECIST in the evaluation of response to non-cytotoxic agents, immunotherapies, as well as in specific diseases. The RECIST Working Group has previously outlined the level of evidence considered necessary to formally and fully validate new imaging markers as an appropriate end-point for clinical trials. Achieving the optimal level of evidence desired is a difficult feat for phase III trials; this involves a meta-analysis of multiple prospective, randomised multicentre clinical trials. The rationale for modifications should also be considered; the modifications may be proposed to improve surrogacy, to provide a more mechanistic imaging technique, or be designed to improve reproducibility of the imaging biomarker. Here, we present the commonly described modifications of RECIST, each of which is associated with different levels of evidence and validation. PMID:27237360

  17. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... a reasonably foreseeable future. See Petroleum Wax Candles From China Determination, 75 FR 80843... of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 39494 (July 9, 2010). As a result of its review, the... FR 70713 (November 18, 2010). On December 17, 2010, the ITC determined, pursuant to section...

  18. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afifah, Maryam; Miura, Ryosuke; Su'ud, Zaki; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-01

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don't need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  19. 75 FR 49475 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... the Scope of the Antidumping Duty Order and the Impact on Scope Determinations, 74 FR 42230 (August 21... Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28, 1996) (``Order... choice of a surrogate country, NCA states, ``Korea was deemed a poor choice as a surrogate because...

  20. Study on core radius minimization for long life Pb-Bi cooled CANDLE burnup scheme based fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Afifah, Maryam Su’ud, Zaki; Miura, Ryosuke; Takaki, Naoyuki; Sekimoto, H.

    2015-09-30

    Fast Breeder Reactor had been interested to be developed over the world because it inexhaustible source energy, one of those is CANDLE reactor which is have strategy in burn-up scheme, need not control roads for control burn-up, have a constant core characteristics during energy production and don’t need fuel shuffling. The calculation was made by basic reactor analysis which use Sodium coolant geometry core parameter as a reference core to study on minimum core reactor radius of CANDLE for long life Pb-Bi cooled, also want to perform pure coolant effect comparison between LBE and sodium in a same geometry design. The result show that the minimum core radius of Lead Bismuth cooled CANDLE is 100 cm and 500 MWth thermal output. Lead-Bismuth coolant for CANDLE reactor enable to reduce much reactor size and have a better void coefficient than Sodium cooled as the most coolant for FBR, then we will have a good point in safety analysis.

  1. Life cycle of a nanosilver based water candle filter: examining issues of toxicity, risks, challenges and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Shilpanjali Despande

    2011-02-01

    The present study examines the potential environment, health and safety (EHS) implications of a nanoscale silver based candle filter due to enter the Indian market, by utilizing the Life Cycle approach for analyzing key toxicity issues surrounding its manufacture, use and disposal. PMID:21485815

  2. First Report of Veronica Rust by Puccinia veronicae-longifoliae in Minnesota on Veronica spicata Royal Candles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2008, Veronica spicata Royal Candles plants showing foliar symptoms typical of a rust infection were brought to the Plant Disease Clinic at the University of Minnesota by a commercial nursery. A dark brown discoloration was apparent on the upper surface of the leaf with lighter brown pu...

  3. 76 FR 46277 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Request for Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... Republic of China Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR 49475 (August 13, 2010) (``Preliminary Results''). \\2\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Petroleum Wax Candles from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 30686 (August 28... Determinations, 74 FR 42230 (August 21, 2009). In that notice, interested parties were presented two options...

  4. Standardised methods--tools for mutual understanding and integration into global society.

    PubMed

    Zima, S

    1998-12-01

    The paper presents basic concepts, terms, and their definitions in the field of standardisation--standard, international standard, national standard, testing standard, test report, and proficiency testing according to the ISO/IEC Guide 2:1996. The paper also explains the role of voluntary standards in the process of technical harmonisation. National adoption and implementation of international testing standards facilitates testing, comparison of test reports, and any proficiency testing, and can promote their global recognition. This can be recognised as a step toward creation of the global society. The Croatian "approach" to these activities is given attention in the light of globalisation and efforts made in establishment of Croatian standardisation infrastructure.

  5. Using slow-release permanganate candles to remove TCE from a low permeable aquifer at a former landfill.

    PubMed

    Christenson, Mark D; Kambhu, Ann; Comfort, Steve D

    2012-10-01

    Past disposal of industrial solvents into unregulated landfills is a significant source of groundwater contamination. In 2009, we began investigating a former unregulated landfill with known trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. Our objective was to pinpoint the location of the plume and treat the TCE using in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO). We accomplished this by using electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) to survey the landfill and map the subsurface lithology. We then used the ERI survey maps to guide direct push groundwater sampling. A TCE plume (100-600 μg L(-1)) was identified in a low permeable silty-clay aquifer (K(h)=0.5 md(-1)) that was within 6m of ground surface. To treat the TCE, we manufactured slow-release potassium permanganate candles (SRPCs) that were 91.4 cm long and either 5. cm or 7.6 cm in dia. For comparison, we inserted equal masses of SRPCs (7.6-cm versus 5.1-cm dia) into the low permeable aquifer in staggered rows that intersected the TCE plume. The 5.1-cm dia candles were inserted using direct push rods while the 7.6-cm SRPCs were placed in 10 permanent wells. Pneumatic circulators that emitted small air bubbles were placed below the 7.6-cm SRPCs in the second year. Results 15 months after installation showed significant TCE reductions in the 7.6-cm candle treatment zone (67-85%) and between 10% and 66% decrease in wells impacted by the direct push candles. These results support using slow-release permanganate candles as a means of treating chlorinated solvents in low permeable aquifers.

  6. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  7. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin-electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  8. The Hubble relation for nonstandard candles and the origin of the redshift of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the magnitude-log (redshift) relation for brightest quasars can have a slope different from the value expected for standard candles. The value of this slope depends on the luminosity function and its evolution. Therefore the difference of this slope from the expected value cannot be used as evidence against the cosmological origin of the redshift of the quasars. It is shown that the observed variation of the luminosity of the brightest objects with redshift is consistent with the cosmological hypothesis and that it agrees with (and perhaps could be used to complement) the luminosity function obtained from V/Vm analysis. It is also shown that the nonzero slope of the magnitude-log (redshift) relation rules out the local quasar hypothesis, where it is assumed that the sources are nearby (less than 500 Mpc), that the bulk of their redshift is intrinsic, and that there is no dependence on distance of the intrinsic properties of the sources.

  9. The luminosity function of galactic X-ray sources - A cutoff and a 'standard candle'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of the 2- to 10-kev luminosity distribution of 36 X-ray sources in the Local Group having known or estimated distances, showing that there exists a luminosity cutoff of approximately 10 to the 37.7th ergs/sec in agreement with the theoretical (Eddington) limit for the luminosity of an approximately 1 solar mass star. Furthermore, among the complete sample of high-luminosity sources, there appears to be a statistically significant group of X-ray 'standard candles' at (within less than 0.8 mag) the critical luminosity. This finding (which is in agreement with the self-consistent mass flow accretion models) presents the possibility that X-ray sources may be used as extragalactic distance indicators in the next generation of X-ray astronomy experiments.

  10. Planetary nebulae as standard candles. IV - A test in the Leo I group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Jacoby, George H.; Ford, Holland C.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, PN are used to determine accurate distances to three galaxies in the Leo I group - The E0 giant elliptical NGC 3379, its optical companion, the SB0 spiral NGC 3384, and the smaller E6 elliptical NGC 3377. In all three galaxies, the luminosity-specific PN number densities are roughly the same, and the derived stellar death rates are in remarkable agreement with the predictions of stellar evolution theory. It is shown that the shape of the forbidden O III 5007 A PN luminosity function is the same in each galaxy and indistinguishable from that observed in M31 and M81. It is concluded that the PN luminosity function is an excellent standard candle for early-type galaxies.

  11. Impact of small-scale inhomogeneities on observations of standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Kengo; Yoo, Chul-Moon

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the effect of small-scale inhomogeneities on standard candle observations, such as type-Ia supernovae (SNe) observations. The existence of the small-scale inhomogeneities may cause a tension between SNe observations and other observations with larger-diameter sources, such as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) observation. To clarify the impact of the small-scale inhomogeneities, we use the Dyer-Roeder approach. We determined the smoothness parameter α(z) as a function of the redshift z so as to compensate the deviation of cosmological parameters for SNe from those for CMB. The range of the deviation which can be compensated by the smoothness parameter α(z) satisfying 0≤α(z)≤1 is reported. Our result suggests that the tension may give us the information of the small-scale inhomogeneities through the smoothness parameter.

  12. Candle soot as a template for a transparent robust superamphiphobic coating.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xu; Mammen, Lena; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Coating is an essential step in adjusting the surface properties of materials. Superhydrophobic coatings with contact angles greater than 150° and roll-off angles below 10° for water have been developed, based on low-energy surfaces and roughness on the nano- and micrometer scales. However, these surfaces are still wetted by organic liquids such as surfactant-based solutions, alcohols, or alkanes. Coatings that are simultaneously superhydrophobic and superoleophobic are rare. We designed an easily fabricated, transparent, and oil-rebounding superamphiphobic coating. A porous deposit of candle soot was coated with a 25-nanometer-thick silica shell. The black coating became transparent after calcination at 600°C. After silanization, the coating was superamphiphobic and remained so even after its top layer was damaged by sand impingement.

  13. Candle Soot as a Template for a Transparent Robust Superamphiphobic Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xu; Mammen, Lena; Butt, Hans-Jürgen; Vollmer, Doris

    2012-01-01

    Coating is an essential step in adjusting the surface properties of materials. Superhydrophobic coatings with contact angles greater than 150° and roll-off angles below 10° for water have been developed, based on low-energy surfaces and roughness on the nano- and micrometer scales. However, these surfaces are still wetted by organic liquids such as surfactant-based solutions, alcohols, or alkanes. Coatings that are simultaneously superhydrophobic and superoleophobic are rare. We designed an easily fabricated, transparent, and oil-rebounding superamphiphobic coating. A porous deposit of candle soot was coated with a 25-nanometer-thick silica shell. The black coating became transparent after calcination at 600°C. After silanization, the coating was superamphiphobic and remained so even after its top layer was damaged by sand impingement.

  14. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    SciTech Connect

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-06

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  15. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke

    2012-06-01

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and 208Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  16. Power flattening on modified CANDLE small long life gas-cooled fast reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Monado, Fiber; Su'ud, Zaki; Waris, Abdul; Basar, Khairul; Ariani, Menik; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-09-30

    Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) is one of the candidates of next generation Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) that expected to be operated commercially after 2030. In this research conceptual design study of long life 350 MWt GFR with natural uranium metallic fuel as fuel cycle input has been performed. Modified CANDLE burn-up strategy with first and second regions located near the last region (type B) has been applied. This reactor can be operated for 10 years without refuelling and fuel shuffling. Power peaking reduction is conducted by arranging the core radial direction into three regions with respectively uses fuel volume fraction 62.5%, 64% and 67.5%. The average power density in the modified core is about 82 Watt/cc and the power peaking factor decreased from 4.03 to 3.43.

  17. Candle soot-based super-amphiphobic coatings resist protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Schmüser, Lars; Encinas, Noemi; Paven, Maxime; Graham, Daniel J; Castner, David G; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans Jürgen; Weidner, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Super nonfouling surfaces resist protein adhesion and have a broad field of possible applications in implant technology, drug delivery, blood compatible materials, biosensors, and marine coatings. A promising route toward nonfouling surfaces involves liquid repelling architectures. The authors here show that soot-templated super-amphiphobic (SAP) surfaces prepared from fluorinated candle soot structures are super nonfouling. When exposed to bovine serum albumin or blood serum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis showed that less than 2 ng/cm(2) of protein was adsorbed onto the SAP surfaces. Since a broad variety of substrate shapes can be coated by soot-templated SAP surfaces, those are a promising route toward biocompatible materials design. PMID:27460261

  18. Polymer-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography on hairy skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Miyako; Kudo, Yuta; Miki, Norihisa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the optimization of the shape of dry microneedle electrodes for electroencephalography (EEG) on hairy locations and compare the electrodes we developed with conventional wet electrodes. We propose the use of SU-8-based candle-shaped microneedle electrodes (CMEs), which have pillars of 1.0 mm height and 0.4 mm diameter with a gap of 0.43 mm between pillars. Microneedles are formed on the top of the pillars. The shape was determined by how well the pillars can avoid hairs and support the microneedles to penetrate through the stratum corneum. The skin–electrode contact impedances of the fabricated CMEs were found to be higher and less stable than those of conventional wet electrodes. However, the CMEs successfully acquired signals with qualities as good as those of conventional wet electrodes. Given the usability of the CMEs, which do not require skin preparation or gel, they are promising alternatives to conventional wet electrodes.

  19. Temperature and Electron Density Diagnostics of a Candle-flame-shaped Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, S. E.; McKenzie, D. E.; Longcope, D. W.; Plowman, J. E.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-02-01

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of "half-loops." We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes & Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  20. TEMPERATURE AND ELECTRON DENSITY DIAGNOSTICS OF A CANDLE-FLAME-SHAPED FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Guidoni, S. E.; Plowman, J. E.

    2015-02-10

    Candle-flame-shaped flares are archetypical structures that provide indirect evidence of magnetic reconnection. A flare resembling Tsuneta's famous 1992 candle-flame flare occurred on 2011 January 28; we present its temperature and electron density diagnostics. This flare was observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA), Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Ahead (STEREO-A)/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, resulting in high-resolution, broad temperature coverage, and stereoscopic views of this iconic structure. The high-temperature images reveal a brightening that grows in size to form a tower-like structure at the top of the posteruption flare arcade, a feature that has been observed in other long-duration events. Despite the extensive work on the standard reconnection scenario, there is no complete agreement among models regarding the nature of this high-intensity elongated structure. Electron density maps reveal that reconnected loops that are successively connected at their tops to the tower develop a density asymmetry of about a factor of two between the two legs, giving the appearance of ''half-loops''. We calculate average temperatures with a new fast differential emission measure (DEM) method that uses SDO/AIA data and analyze the heating and cooling of salient features of the flare. Using STEREO observations, we show that the tower and the half-loop brightenings are not a line-of-sight projection effect of the type studied by Forbes and Acton. This conclusion opens the door for physics-based explanations of these puzzling, recurrent solar flare features, previously attributed to projection effects. We corroborate the results of our DEM analysis by comparing them with temperature analyses from Hinode/XRT.

  1. Optimisation of Healthcare Contracts: Tensions Between Standardisation and Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Mikkers, Misja; Ryan, Padhraig

    2016-01-01

    An important determinant of health system performance is contracting. Providers often respond to financial incentives, despite the ethical underpinnings of medicine, and payers can craft contracts to influence performance. Yet contracting is highly imperfect in both single-payer and multi-payer health systems. Arguably, in a competitive, multi-payer environment, contractual innovation may occur more rapidly than in a single-payer system. This innovation in contract design could enhance performance. However, contractual innovation often fails to improve performance as payer incentives are misaligned with public policy objectives. Numerous countries seek to improve healthcare contracts, but thus far no health system has demonstrably crafted the necessary blend of incentives to stimulate optimal contracting. PMID:26927400

  2. Standardisation a Considerable Force behind Language Death: A Case of Shona

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mhute, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    The paper assesses the contribution of standardisation towards language death taking Clement Doke's resolutions on the various Shona dialects as a case study. It is a qualitative analysis of views gathered from speakers of the language situated in various provinces of Zimbabwe, the country in which the language is spoken by around 75% of the…

  3. Trends in Examination Performance and Exposure to Standardised Tests in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Harvey; Leckie, George

    2016-01-01

    Schools in England and Wales since the late 1980s have been compared in terms of their performances in public examinations and standardised test scores in the form of "school league tables", with Wales ceasing to produce these after 2001. One of the factors related to performance in examinations is the choice of the examination board,…

  4. Problematising the Standardisation of Leadership and Management Development in South African Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    In 2007 the Department of Education introduced the standards-based Advanced Certificate in Education: School Management and Leadership. The standardisation of leadership and management development in South African schools has been uncritically accepted by most academics and professionals. The purpose of this article is to problematise the…

  5. What Can They Say about My Teaching? Teacher Educators' Attitudes to Standardised Student Evaluation of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kari; Welicker-Pollak, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article examines teacher educators' attitudes to standardised student feedback on the quality of their teaching in a teacher education college in Israel. It is part of a comprehensive study initiated by the management of the institution, and the focus in this writing is on teacher educators' attitudes to student feedback: the way they…

  6. Tensions and Fissures: The Politics of Standardised Testing and Accountability in Ontario, 1995-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    While Ontario has received international accolades for its enactment of province-wide standardised testing upon the formation of the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO), a closer look at provincial assessments over a 20-year span reveals successes as well as systemic tensions and fissures. The purpose of this paper is twofold.…

  7. Walking and Talking with Living Texts: Breathing Life against Static Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louise Gwenneth; Willis, Linda-Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Current educational reform, policy and public discourse emphasise standardisation of testing, curricula and professional practice, yet the landscape of literacy practices today is fluid, interactive, multimodal, ever-changing, adaptive and collaborative. How then can English and literacy educators negotiate these conflicting terrains? The nature…

  8. Simultaneous Synthesis of Treatment Effects and Mapping to a Common Scale: An Alternative to Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ades, A. E.; Lu, Guobing; Dias, Sofia; Mayo-Wilson, Evan; Kounali, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Trials often may report several similar outcomes measured on different test instruments. We explored a method for synthesising treatment effect information both within and between trials and for reporting treatment effects on a common scale as an alternative to standardisation Study design: We applied a procedure that simultaneously…

  9. The Knowledge Work of Professional Associations: Approaches to Standardisation and Forms of Legitimisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerland, Monika; Karseth, Berit

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how professional associations engage themselves in efforts to develop, regulate and secure knowledge in their respective domains, with special emphasis on standardisation. The general emphasis on science in society brings renewed attention to the knowledge base of professionals, and positions professional bodies as key…

  10. The Person over Standardisation: A Humanistic Framework for Teacher Learning in Diverse School-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Christopher J.; Choi, Su-Jin

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the purpose of education is to help students realise their unique potentials and pursue inner directions. With this assumption, we critique the inadequacy of the current emphasis on standardisation and provide a theoretical framework for teacher education based on humanistic psychology. Three tenets of humanistic psychology,…

  11. Vocational Training and European Standardisation of Qualifications: The Case of Aircraft Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Joachim; Ourtau, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Initiatives to standardise the conditions for practising certain regulated activities are being taken at European level, particularly in light of the free movement of people and the recognition of qualifications in Member states. This paper looks at the introduction of european licences for aircraft maintenance engineers. It follows an in-depth…

  12. Standardised Observation Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for Assessing Parent and Child Behaviours in Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Cynthia R.; Butter, Eric M.; Handen, Benjamin L.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Mulick, James; Lecavalier, Luc; Aman, Michael G.; Arnold, Eugene L.; Scahill, Lawrence; Swiezy, Naomi; Sacco, Kelley; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Observational measures of parent and child behaviours have a long history in child psychiatric and psychological intervention research, including the field of autism and developmental disability. We describe the development of the Standardised Observational Analogue Procedure (SOAP) for the assessment of parent-child behaviour before…

  13. Requirement for a standardised definition of advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    DE SOL, ANGELO; TRASTULLI, STEFANO; GRASSI, VERONICA; CORSI, ALESSIA; BARILLARO, IVAN; BOCCOLINI, ANDREA; DI PATRIZI, MICOL SOLE; DI ROCCO, GIORGIO; SANTORO, ALBERTO; CIROCCHI, ROBERTO; BOSELLI, CARLO; REDLER, ADRIANO; NOYA, GIUSEPPE; KONG, SEONG-HO

    2014-01-01

    Each year, ~988,000 new cases of stomach cancer are reported worldwide. Uniformity for the definition of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) is required to ensure the improved management of patients. Various classifications do actually exist for gastric cancer, but the classification determined by lesion depth is extremely important, as it has been shown to correlate with patient prognosis; for example, early gastric cancer (EGC) has a favourable prognosis when compared with AGC. In the literature, the definition of EGC is clear, however, there is heterogeneity in the definition of AGC. In the current study, all parameters of the TNM classification for AGC reported in each previous study were individually analysed. It was necessary to perform a comprehensive systematic literature search of all previous studies that have reported a definition of ACG to guarantee homogeneity in the assessment of surgical outcome. It must be understood that the term ‘advanced gastric cancer’ may implicate a number of stages of disease, and studies must highlight the exact clinical TNM stages used for evaluation of the study. PMID:24348842

  14. Surface brightness, standard candles and q/0/. [universe deceleration parameter determination by redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.

    1977-01-01

    The most direct way to determine the deceleration parameter, q(0), of the universe is through the study of the redshift-magnitude relation of extragalactic sources. Progress has been slow because the necessary sources for this study must be standard candles, which have identical absolute total luminosity (balometric or monochromatic). The present paper shows, first of all, that, although necessary, this is not a sufficient condition for nonpoint-like (or resolved) sources. A modification of the redshift-magnitude relation is then described for a certain class of nonstandard candles using measurements of isophotal surface brightness. It is noted that such measurements can be used to standardize the central surface brightness of galaxies, but the standardization of the scale parameter remains beyond observations.

  15. The impact of candle burning during All Saints' Day ceremonies on ambient alkyl-substituted benzene concentrations.

    PubMed

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Kłos, Andrzej

    2013-11-01

    Research findings concerning benzene, toluene, ethylobenzene, meta-, para- and ortho-xylene as well as styrene (BTEXS) emission at public cemeteries during All Saints' Day are presented here. Tests were carried out at town-located cemeteries in Opole and Grodków (southern Poland) and, as a benchmark, at the centres of those same towns. The purpose of the study was to estimate BTEXS emissions caused by the candle burning and, equally important to examine, whether emissions generated by the tested sources were similar to the BTEXS emissions generated by road transport. During the festive period, significant increases in benzene concentrations, by 200 % and 144 %, were noted at the cemeteries in Opole and Grodków, as well as in toluene, by 366 % and 342 %, respectively. Styrene concentrations also increased. It was demonstrated that the ratio of toluene to benzene concentrations from emissions caused by the burning candles are comparable to the ratio established for transportation emissions. PMID:24052143

  16. Standardising haemodialysis care by restricting nutrition during dialysis: introducing a quality improvement initiative for renal outpatients.

    PubMed

    De, Diana; Xiang Ai, Anna Tian

    2015-01-01

    A number of relevant issues are considered which show that it is essential to address the issue of in-centre meals during dialysis. This discussion paper critically explores the potential complications posed to patients who consume a large calorific intake during their dialysis treatment. The mission is to appeal to more dialysis units and outpatient departments to gradually implement a 'no food' policy during regular scheduled dialysis treatment sessions. The authors aim to put forward the significances and challenges and offer some possible solutions when introducing a 'no eating policy' like this into dialysis units. Nutritional supplements could, however, be offered on an as required basis.

  17. Design Study of Small Pb-Bi Cooled Modified Candle Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this study application of modified CANDLE burnup scheme based long life Pb-Bi Cooled Fast Reactors for small long life reactors with natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. The reactor cores are subdivided into several parts with the same volume in the axial directions. The natural uranium is initially put in region 1, after one cycle of 10 years of burn-up it is shifted to region 2, and 10 years after that it is shifted to region 3. This concept is applied to all regions, i.e. shifted the core of I'th region into I+1 region after the end of 10 years burn-up cycle. The first region 1 is filled by fresh natural uranium fuel. Compared to the previous works, in a smaller reactor core the criticality need to be considered more carefully especially at the beginning of life. As an optimized design, a core of 85 cm radius and 150 cm height with 300 MWt power are selected. This core can be operated 10 years without refueling or fuel shuffling. The average discharge burn-up is 350 GWd/ton HM.

  18. A Detailed Investigation into the Use of Planetary Nebulae as Standard Candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin

    2000-01-01

    The program's goal was to understand the physics underlying the [O III] (lambda)5007 planetary nebula luminosity function (PNLF) and evaluate its accuracy as an extragalactic distance indicator. Work under the grant concentrated in two areas. The first major goal was to extensively test the PNLF method to find its limits. We did this performing yet another internal test of the method in the core galaxies of the Fornax Cluster, performing external comparisons of PNLF distances with distances derived from Cepheids and the Surface Brightness Fluctuation method (SBF), and, in general, examining the PNLF in as many different galactic environments as possible, including the disks of late-type spirals. Because of the difficulty distinguishing planetary nebulae (PNe) from H II regions, and because spiral galaxies have uneven internal extinction, the process of identifying "statistical" samples of PNe in these objects is extremely complicated. Nevertheless, by using the ratio of [O III] (lambda)5007 to H(alpha) as a diagnostic, we were able to effectively discriminate PNe from most H II regions, and apply the method to systems such as NGC 300, M101, M51, and M96. The second goal of this research was to determine theoretically, why the PNLF is such an excellent standard candle.

  19. Calibration of Post-AGB Supergiants as Standard Extragalactic Candles for HST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Howard E.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes activities carried out with support from the NASA Ultraviolet, Visible, and Gravitational Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program. The aim of the program is to calibrate the absolute magnitudes of post-asymptotic-giant-branch (post-AGB or PAGB) stars, which we believe will be an excellent new "standard candle" for measuring extragalactic distances. The reason for this belief is that in old populations, the stars that are evolving through the PAGB region of the HR (Hertzsprung-Russell) diagram arise from only a single main-sequence turnoff mass. In addition, the theoretical PAGB evolutionary tracks show that they evolve through this region at constant luminosity; hence the PAGB stars should have an extremely narrow luminosity function. Moreover, as the PAGB stars evolve through spectral types F and A (en route from the AGB to hot stellar remnants and white dwarfs), they have the highest luminosities attained by old stars (both bolometrically and in the visual band). Finally, the PAGB stars of these spectral types are very easily identified, due to their large Balmer jumps, which are due to their very low surface gravities.

  20. The charge-asymmetric nonlocally determined local-electric (CANDLE) solvation model.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A

    2015-02-14

    Many important applications of electronic structure methods involve molecules or solid surfaces in a solvent medium. Since explicit treatment of the solvent in such methods is usually not practical, calculations often employ continuum solvation models to approximate the effect of the solvent. Previous solvation models either involve a parametrization based on atomic radii, which limits the class of applicable solutes, or based on solute electron density, which is more general but less accurate, especially for charged systems. We develop an accurate and general solvation model that includes a cavity that is a nonlocal functional of both solute electron density and potential, local dielectric response on this nonlocally determined cavity, and nonlocal approximations to the cavity-formation and dispersion energies. The dependence of the cavity on the solute potential enables an explicit treatment of the solvent charge asymmetry. With four parameters per solvent, this "CANDLE" model simultaneously reproduces solvation energies of large datasets of neutral molecules, cations, and anions with a mean absolute error of 1.8 kcal/mol in water and 3.0 kcal/mol in acetonitrile. PMID:25681887

  1. From a Better Understanding of GRB Prompt Emission to a New Type of Standard Candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, Sylvain

    2016-07-01

    Recent results revealed the simultaneous existence of multiple components in the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) leading to a unified spectro-temporal model for the broadband spectrum from the optical regime up to higher gamma rays. Unexpectedly, we discovered a relation intrinsic to one specific component of this model: its luminosity is strongly and tightly correlated to its spectral break energy. This new luminosity-hardness relation has the same index for all GRBs when fitted to a power law. In addition, this relation seems to have the same normalization for all GRBs; therefore, this is a promising and physically motivated tool that may establish GRBs as cosmological standard candles. During this presentation, I will introduce this new relation, which might eventually be used to (i) estimate GRB distances, (ii) to support searches for gravitational waves and cosmic high-energy neutrinos, and (iii) constrain the cosmological parameters. I will give a few examples of GRB redshift estimates using this relation and I will show why this new result cannot solely be explain by instrumental selection effects and/or measurement/analysis biases.

  2. Cancer Driver Log (CanDL): Catalog of Potentially Actionable Cancer Mutations.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Senthilkumar; Miya, Jharna; Kautto, Esko; Zhu, Eliot; Samorodnitsky, Eric; Datta, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2015-09-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have enabled characterization of genomic alterations across multiple tumor types. Efforts have focused on identifying driver mutations because they represent potential targets for therapy. However, because of the presence of driver and passenger mutations, it is often challenging to assign the clinical relevance of specific mutations observed in patients. Currently, there are multiple databases and tools that provide in silico assessment for potential drivers; however, there is no comprehensive resource for mutations with functional characterization. Therefore, we created an expert-curated database of potentially actionable driver mutations for molecular pathologists to facilitate annotation of cancer genomic testing. We reviewed scientific literature to identify variants that have been functionally characterized in vitro or in vivo as driver mutations. We obtained the chromosome location and all possible nucleotide positions for each amino acid change and uploaded them to the Cancer Driver Log (CanDL) database with associated literature reference indicating functional driver evidence. In addition to a simple interface, the database allows users to download all or selected genes as a comma-separated values file for incorporation into their own analysis pipeline. Furthermore, the database includes a mechanism for third-party contributions to support updates for novel driver mutations. Overall, this freely available database will facilitate rapid annotation of cancer genomic testing in molecular pathology laboratories for mutations.

  3. Research priorities in light of current trends in microsurgical training: revalidation, simulation, cross-training, and standardisation.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Rebecca Spenser; Madada-Nyakauru, Rudo N; Irri, Renu Anita; Myers, Simon Richard; Ghanem, Ali Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Plastic surgery training worldwide has seen a thorough restructuring over the past decade, with the introduction of formal training curricula and work-based assessment tools. Part of this process has been the introduction of revalidation and a greater use of simulation in training delivery. Simulation is an increasingly important tool for educators because it provides a way to reduce risks to both trainees and patients, whilst facilitating improved technical proficiency. Current microsurgery training interventions are often predicated on theories of skill acquisition and development that follow a 'practice makes perfect' model. Given the changing landscape of surgical training and advances in educational theories related to skill development, research is needed to assess the potential benefits of alternative models, particularly cross-training, a model now widely used in non-medical areas with significant benefits. Furthermore, with the proliferation of microsurgery training interventions and therefore diversity in length, cost, content and models used, appropriate standardisation will be an important factor to ensure that courses deliver consistent and effective training that achieves appropriate levels of competency. Key research requirements should be gathered and used in directing further research in these areas to achieve on-going improvement of microsurgery training.

  4. Standardised water-soluble extract of Eurycoma longifolia, Tongkat ali, as testosterone booster for managing men with late-onset hypogonadism?

    PubMed

    Tambi, M I B M; Imran, M K; Henkel, R R

    2012-05-01

    In most countries, millions of people are relying on herbal medicines as remedy for numerous ailments. In South-East Asia, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, also known as 'Malaysian ginseng' or Tongkat ali, is used to combat stress and disease and to improve physical strength. Moreover, the compounds of the roots of this plant are reported to have aphrodisiac and testosterone enhancing effects in the rat. Considering that human studies are not available, 76 of 320 patients suffering from late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) were given 200 mg of a standardised water-soluble extract of Tongkat ali for 1 month. The Ageing Males' Symptoms (AMS) according to the standardised rating scale and the serum testosterone concentration were taken. Results show that treatment of LOH patients with this Tongkat ali extract significantly (P < 0.0001) improved the AMS score as well as the serum testosterone concentration. While before treatment only 10.5% of the patients did not show any complaint according to the AMS scale and 35.5% had normal testosterone levels, after the completed treatment 71.7% and 90.8% of the patients showed normal values, respectively. Thus, Tongkat ali extract appears to be useful as a supplement in overcoming the symptoms of LOH and for the management of hypogonadism. PMID:21671978

  5. Standard Rulers, Candles, and Clocks from the Low-Redshift Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-01

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9 ±2.3 h-1 Mpc . The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3 ±2.1 h-1 Mpc ). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8 ±3.7 Mpc ), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9 ±1.9 h-1 Mpc ). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be Neff=3.53 ±0.32 , independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  6. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    PubMed

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics. PMID:25541763

  7. Standard rulers, candles, and clocks from the low-redshift universe.

    PubMed

    Heavens, Alan; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2014-12-12

    We measure the length of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature, and the expansion rate of the recent Universe, from low-redshift data only, almost model independently. We make only the following minimal assumptions: homogeneity and isotropy, a metric theory of gravity, a smooth expansion history, and the existence of standard candles (supernovæ) and a standard BAO ruler. The rest is determined by the data, which are compilations of recent BAO and type IA supernova results. Making only these assumptions, we find for the first time that the standard ruler has a length of 103.9±2.3h⁻¹ Mpc. The value is a measurement, in contrast to the model-dependent theoretical prediction determined with model parameters set by Planck data (99.3±2.1h⁻¹ Mpc). The latter assumes the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, and that the ruler is the sound horizon at radiation drag. Adding passive galaxies as standard clocks or a local Hubble constant measurement allows the absolute BAO scale to be determined (142.8±3.7 Mpc), and in the former case the additional information makes the BAO length determination more precise (101.9±1.9h⁻¹ Mpc). The inverse curvature radius of the Universe is weakly constrained and consistent with zero, independently of the gravity model, provided it is metric. We find the effective number of relativistic species to be N(eff)=3.53±0.32, independent of late-time dark energy or gravity physics.

  8. Stereoscopic Observation of Slipping Reconnection in a Double Candle-flame-shaped Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Tingyu; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai; Zhuang, Bin; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Jiajia

    2016-04-01

    The 2011 January 28 M1.4 flare exhibits two side-by-side candle-flame-shaped flare loop systems underneath a larger cusp-shaped structure during the decay phase, as observed at the northwestern solar limb by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The northern loop system brightens following the initiation of the flare within the southern loop system, but all three cusp-shaped structures are characterized by ˜10 MK temperatures, hotter than the arch-shaped loops underneath. The “Ahead” satellite of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory provides a top view, in which the post-flare loops brighten sequentially, with one end fixed while the other apparently slipping eastward. By performing stereoscopic reconstruction of the post-flare loops in EUV and mapping out magnetic connectivities, we found that the footpoints of the post-flare loops are slipping along the footprint of a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) separating the two loop systems and that the reconstructed loops share similarity with the magnetic field lines that are traced starting from the same HFT footprint, where the field lines are relatively flexible. These results argue strongly in favor of slipping magnetic reconnection at the HFT. The slipping reconnection was likely triggered by the flare and manifested as propagative dimmings before the loop slippage is observed. It may contribute to the late-phase peak in Fe xvi 33.5 nm, which is even higher than its main-phase counterpart, and may also play a role in the density and temperature asymmetry observed in the northern loop system through heat conduction.

  9. Ultra long period Cepheids: a primary standard candle out to the Hubble flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Marconi, M.; Musella, I.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; Contreras Ramos, R.; Annibali, F.; Aloisi, A.; van der Marel, R.

    2012-09-01

    The cosmological distance ladder crucially depends on classical Cepheids (with P=3-80 days), which are primary distance indicators up to 33 Mpc. Within this volume, very few SNe Ia have been calibrated through classical Cepheids, with uncertainty related to the non-linearity and the metallicity dependence of their period-luminosity (PL) relation. Although a general consensus on these effects is still not achieved, classical Cepheids remain the most used primary distance indicators. A possible extension of these standard candles to further distances would be important. In this context, a very promising new tool is represented by the ultra-long period (ULP) Cepheids ( P≳80 days), recently identified in star-forming galaxies. Only a small number of ULP Cepheids have been discovered so far. Here we present and analyse the properties of an updated sample of 37 ULP Cepheids observed in galaxies within a very large metallicity range of 12+log(O/H) from ˜7.2 to 9.2 dex. We find that their location in the colour-magnitude ( V- I, V) diagram as well as their Wesenheit ( V- I) index-period (WP) relation suggests that they are the counterparts at high luminosity of the shorter-period ( P≲80 days) classical Cepheids. However, a complete pulsation and evolutionary theoretical scenario is needed to properly interpret the true nature of these objects. We do not confirm the flattening in the studied WP relation suggested by Bird et al. (Astrophys. J. 695:874, 2009). Using the whole sample, we find that ULP Cepheids lie around a WP relation similar to that of the LMC, although with a large spread (˜ 0.4 mag).

  10. Standardised method for reporting exercise programmes: protocol for a modified Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Exercise is integral to health across the lifespan and important for people with chronic health conditions. A systematic review of exercise trials for chronic conditions reported suboptimal descriptions of the evaluated interventions and concluded that this hinders interpretation and replication. The aim of this project is to develop a standardised method for reporting essential exercise programme details being evaluated in clinical trials. Methods and analysis A modified Delphi technique will be used to gain consensus among international exercise experts. We will use three sequential rounds of anonymous online questionnaires to refine a standardised checklist. A draft checklist of potentially relevant items was developed based on the results of a systematic review of exercise systematic reviews. An international panel of experts was identified by exercise systematic review authorship, established international profile in exercise research and practice and by peer referral. In round 1, the international panel of experts will be asked to rate the importance of each draft item and provide additional suggestions for revisions or new items. Consensus will be considered reached if at least 70% of the panel strongly agree/disagree that an item should be included or excluded. Where agreement is not reached or there are suggestions for altered or new items, these will be taken to round 2 together with an aggregated summary of round 1 responses. Following the second round, a ranking of item importance will be made to rationalise the number of items. The final template will be distributed to panel members for approval. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was received from The Cabrini Institute Ethics Committee, Melbourne, Australia (HREC 02-07-04-14). We plan to use a stepwise process to develop and refine a standardised and internationally agreed template for explicit reporting of exercise programmes. The template will be generalisable across all types of

  11. Physiotherapy after subacromial decompression surgery: development of a standardised exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Falla, Deborah; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the development and details of a standardised physiotherapy exercise intervention designed to address pain and disability in patients with difficulty returning to usual activities after arthroscopic decompression surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome. To develop the intervention, the literature was reviewed with respect to the effectiveness of postoperative exercises, components of previous exercise programmes were extracted, and input from clinical physiotherapists in the field was obtained through a series of workshops. The physiotherapy exercise intervention is currently being evaluated within the framework of the Shoulder Intervention Project (ISRCTN55768749). PMID:25743933

  12. Physiotherapy after subacromial decompression surgery: development of a standardised exercise intervention.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, David Høyrup; Falla, Deborah; Frost, Poul; Frich, Lars Henrik; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the development and details of a standardised physiotherapy exercise intervention designed to address pain and disability in patients with difficulty returning to usual activities after arthroscopic decompression surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome. To develop the intervention, the literature was reviewed with respect to the effectiveness of postoperative exercises, components of previous exercise programmes were extracted, and input from clinical physiotherapists in the field was obtained through a series of workshops. The physiotherapy exercise intervention is currently being evaluated within the framework of the Shoulder Intervention Project (ISRCTN55768749).

  13. Standardisation and precise determination of the half-life of (44)Sc.

    PubMed

    García-Toraño, E; Peyrés, V; Roteta, M; Sánchez-Cabezudo, A I; Romero, E; Martínez Ortega, A

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of the positron-emitter (44)Sc has been determined by following the decay rate with two measurement systems; an Ionisation Chamber and a HPGe detector. The combination of seven results gives a value of T1/2=4.042 (25)h, about 2% higher than the recommended value of T1/2=3.97 (4)h (Browne, 2011) and with a lower uncertainty. This radionuclide has also been standardised by coincidence counting, and liquid scintillation counting techniques. A (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator developed at CIEMAT was used to obtain the (44)Sc solutions used in all measurements. PMID:26701659

  14. References for scientific papers: why not standardise to one global style?

    PubMed

    Harries, A D; Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Bissell, K; Hinderaker, S G; Edginton, M; Reid, A J; Zachariah, R

    2013-09-21

    The different reference styles demanded by journals, both for in-text citations and manuscript bibliographies, require that significant time and attention be paid to minute detail that constitute a tedious obstacle on the road to publication for all authors, but especially for those from resource-limited countries and/or writing in a second language. To illustrate this, we highlight different reference styles requested by five popular journals to which operational research papers are often submitted. We call for a simpler, standardised format for in-text and bibliography reference citations, so that researchers can concentrate on the science and its interpretation rather than fonts and punctuation.

  15. Recency, primacy, and memory: reappraising and standardising the serial position curve.

    PubMed

    Capitani, E; Della Sala, S; Logie, R H; Spinnler, H

    1992-09-01

    In this paper we consider the serial position curve in immediate verbal free recall. A large literature has argued that two components of the serial position curve, recency and primacy, reflect the functioning respectively of short-term and of long-term memory. However, there are a number of difficulties in interpreting the recency effect as a phenomenon uniquely associated with short-term memory. Moreover, the serial position curve has been used widely for clinical investigations in patients with memory deficits. This is despite the lack of norms for the measures derived from the curve. We present a set of standardised norms based on 321 Italian normal subjects. These norms are shown to be applicable both to an English speaking population, and to three groups of brain damaged-patients, namely Alzheimer's, amnesics, and frontals. The standardised norms offer a clinical and experimental tool which, coupled with a multiple single case approach, allows us to show dissociations and double dissociations among the performance patterns obtained from all three pathological groups. The paper concludes with a discussion of a possible interpretation of the recency effect as a emergent property of all types of memory system, including verbal short-term memory. Taking into account previous literature as well as our own data, the recency effect in immediate verbal free recall is here interpreted in terms of a two-component view of verbal short-term memory.

  16. [The EDQM Biological Standardisation Programme for the development of methods and reference preparations].

    PubMed

    Buchheit, K-H; Seitz, R

    2014-10-01

    The Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) was founded in 1992 with the objective to provide the necessary tools for the quality controls prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The BSP accomplishes this task by establishing reference standards and materials, as well as standardised control methods. A key aspect of BSP's work on development of methods is the validation of methods which can replace Ph. Eur. tests involving animals. The current area of work includes vaccines (for human and animal use), medicines produced from human plasma, hormones, cytokines, allergens, as well as reference materials and methods for determination of impurities and contaminations. BSP closely collaborates with the World Health Organization (WHO) and national authorities; many reference standards are established in joint projects with WHO. Participants of studies for establishing of reference materials and methods are mainly national control laboratories and manufacturers. BSP has to date run 131 projects, whereby 121 reference materials were established. Method development was the objective of 38 projects, with 21 thereof aiming at replacement of animal tests. BSP is funded by the EDQM (Council of Europe) and by the European Commission. With its activities BSP makes a significant contribution to quality, safety and efficacy of biological medicinal products in Europe and beyond, and serves thereby health and well-being of human beings and animals.

  17. Airborne trace element pollution in 11 European cities assessed by exposure of standardised ryegrass cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumpp, Andreas; Ansel, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Gabriele; Breuer, Jörn; Vergne, Philippe; Sanz, María José; Rasmussen, Stine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Ribas Artola, Àngela; Peñuelas, Josep; He, Shang; Garrec, Jean Pierre; Calatayud, Vicent

    Within a European biomonitoring programme, Italian ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was employed as accumulative bioindicator of airborne trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, Zn) in urban agglomerations. Applying a highly standardised method, grass cultures were exposed for consecutive periods of four weeks each to ambient air at up to 100 sites in 11 cities during 2000-2002. Results of the 2001 exposure experiments revealed a clear differentiation of trace element pollution within and among local monitoring networks. Pollution was influenced particularly by traffic emissions. Especially Sb, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cu exhibited a very uneven distribution within the municipal areas with strong accumulation in plants from traffic-exposed sites in the city centres and close to major roads, and moderate to low levels in plants exposed at suburban or rural sites. Accumulation of Ni and V was influenced by other emission sources. The biomonitoring sites located in Spanish city centres featured a much higher pollution load by trace elements than those in other cities of the network, confirming previously reported findings obtained by chemical analyses of dust deposition and aerosols. At some heavily-trafficked sites, legal thresholds for Cu, Pb, and V contents in foodstuff and animal feed were reached or even surpassed. The study confirmed that the standardised grass exposure is a useful and reliable tool to monitor and to assess environmental levels of potentially toxic compounds of particulate matter.

  18. Allergy vaccines: a need for standardisation in mass units of major allergen.

    PubMed

    van Ree, R; Dorpema, J W; Vieths, S

    2005-09-01

    Treatment of respiratory allergies can be performed with allergen-specific immunotherapy using allergen extracts. These products are biologicals with an extremely complex and variable composition. Only a few components are of major importance for the disease, the so-called major allergens. At present, standardisation of allergen extracts is dominated by techniques that aim at establishing their overall IgE-binding potencies using pooled sera of allergic patients. Each company in the market uses its own type of units to express potencies, thus hampering comparability. Another disadvantage is that the major allergen composition is not determined. Most companies have introduced assays for the measurement of major allergens in their quality control systems, but these data are not yet used for labelling purposes. The need to include major allergen content in standardisation protocols is now widely accepted. To support future labelling on the basis of major allergen content the European Union has funded the multidisciplinary multicentre project CREATE. This project aims at developing international certified references for the most important major respiratory allergens and at evaluating the performance of available ELISA for their measurement. The project will facilitate expression of potencies by active ingredient (major allergen) content and will allow direct comparison of competitor products.

  19. Comparison of four methods for deriving hospital standardised mortality ratios from a single hierarchical logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Manktelow, Bradley N; Hofer, Timothy P

    2016-04-01

    There is interest in deriving case-mix adjusted standardised mortality ratios so that comparisons between healthcare providers, such as hospitals, can be undertaken in the controversial belief that variability in standardised mortality ratios reflects quality of care. Typically standardised mortality ratios are derived using a fixed effects logistic regression model, without a hospital term in the model. This fails to account for the hierarchical structure of the data - patients nested within hospitals - and so a hierarchical logistic regression model is more appropriate. However, four methods have been advocated for deriving standardised mortality ratios from a hierarchical logistic regression model, but their agreement is not known and neither do we know which is to be preferred. We found significant differences between the four types of standardised mortality ratios because they reflect a range of underlying conceptual issues. The most subtle issue is the distinction between asking how an average patient fares in different hospitals versus how patients at a given hospital fare at an average hospital. Since the answers to these questions are not the same and since the choice between these two approaches is not obvious, the extent to which profiling hospitals on mortality can be undertaken safely and reliably, without resolving these methodological issues, remains questionable.

  20. Superluminous Supernovae as Standardizable Candles and High-redshift Distance Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = -21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM 20 decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  1. Superluminous supernovae as standardizable candles and high-redshift distance probes

    SciTech Connect

    Inserra, C.; Smartt, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the use of type Ic superluminous supernovae (SLSN Ic) as standardizable candles and distance indicators. Their appeal as cosmological probes stems from their remarkable peak luminosities, hot blackbody temperatures, and bright rest-frame ultraviolet emission. We present a sample of 16 published SLSN, from redshifts 0.1 to 1.2, and calculate accurate K corrections to determine uniform magnitudes in 2 synthetic rest-frame filter bandpasses with central wavelengths at 400 nm and 520 nm. At 400 nm, we find an encouragingly low scatter in their uncorrected, raw mean magnitudes with M(400) = –21.86 ± 0.35 mag for the full sample of 16 objects. We investigate the correlation between their decline rates and peak magnitude and find that the brighter events appear to decline more slowly. In a manner similar to the Phillips relation for type Ia SNe (SNe Ia), we define a ΔM {sub 20} decline relation. This correlates peak magnitude and decline over 20 days and can reduce the scatter in standardized peak magnitudes to ±0.22 mag. We further show that M(400) appears to have a strong color dependence. Redder objects are fainter and also become redder faster. Using this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation, a surprisingly low scatter of between ±0.08 mag and ±0.13 mag can be found in peak magnitudes, depending on sample selection. However, we caution that only 8 to 10 objects currently have enough data to test this peak magnitudecolor evolution relation. We conclude that SLSN Ic are promising distance indicators in the high-redshift universe in regimes beyond those possible with SNe Ia. Although the empirical relationships are encouraging, the unknown progenitor systems, how they may evolve with redshift, and the uncertain explosion physics are of some concern. The two major measurement uncertainties are the limited numbers of low-redshift, well-studied objects available to test these relationships and internal dust extinction in the host galaxies.

  2. European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardisation of immunoassay results for pertussis requires homogeneity in the antigenic preparations.

    PubMed

    Giammanco, Anna; Nardone, Antony; Pebody, Richard; Kafatos, George; Andrews, Nick; Chiarini, Alfredo; Taormina, Susanna; de Ory, Fernando; Prosenc, Katarina; Krize, Bohumir; Hallander, Hans; Ljungman, Margaretha; Marva, Esther; Tsakris, Athanassios; O'Flanagan, Darina; Schneider, François; Griskevicius, Algirdas; Vranckx, Robert; Karacs, Ildiko

    2008-08-18

    A standardisation process, already developed during the earlier European Sero-Epidemiology Network (ESEN) project, was employed with a more robust algorithm to harmonise results of pertussis serological assays performed in 12 European and non-European countries. Initially, results from each country's own assay were compared with those obtained at the reference laboratory by means of an in-house pertussis toxin (PT)-based ELISA: seven countries used in-house or commercial PT-ELISAs; the other countries used assays based on Bordetella pertussis whole cell extracts (WCE) (three countries) or on combined PT-FHA (filamentous haemagglutinin) antigenic preparations (two countries). The WCE assays, although admitted for diagnostic purposes, confirmed their low correlation with the PT-ELISAs and their results could not be used for standardisation; the PT-FHA ELISAs gave results that were suitable for standardisation in one country but unsatisfactory in the other; the use of purified PT in serological assays confirmed its better reliability than other preparations and all PT-ELISAs results could be calibrated against those of the reference centre. In the standardisation process two high-titre cut-offs indicative of likelihood of recent infection (from within 4 weeks of disease onset up to 1 year after) were included for evaluations as they are suggested to be more useful, for the sero-epidemiological assays of immunity to pertussis, than the cut-off of protection, commonly employed, but still not defined for pertussis. Providing PT-ELISAs are used, standardisation of pertussis assay results is always possible and, when standardisation is performed, evaluation and comparison of the impact of different interventions can be also allowed, by measuring at the distribution of high antibody titres in the populations. PMID:18602434

  3. "It Is Better to Light a Candle than to Curse the Darkness": Ethel Thompson Overby and Democratic Schooling in Richmond, Virginia, 1910-1958

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward Randolph, Adah L.

    2012-01-01

    In 1933, Ethel Thompson Overby became the first African American female principal in Richmond, Virginia. Her motto was "It is better to light a candle than to curse the darkness" (Overby 1975, 1). Before becoming principal, Overby had been a teacher in the southern urban "de jure" segregated schools of the city. How did the racially segregated…

  4. A virtual instrument to standardise the calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, John E.; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T.; Haviland, David B.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual instruments. This calibration is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual instrument (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their calibration measurements to those of others—standardising AFM force measurements—and simultaneously enabling non-invasive calibration of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global calibration initiative requires no additional instrumentation or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current calibration.

  5. The Standardisation and Sequencing of Solar Eclipse Images for the Eclipse Megamovie Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krista, Larisza D.; McIntosh, Scott W.

    2015-08-01

    We present a new tool, the Solar Eclipse Image Standardisation and Sequencing (SEISS), developed to process multi-source total solar eclipse images by adjusting them to the same standard of size, resolution, and orientation. Furthermore, by analysing the eclipse images, we can determine the relative time between the observations and order them to create a movie of the observed total solar eclipse sequence. We successfully processed images taken at the 14 November 2012 total solar eclipse that occurred in Queensland, Australia, and created a short eclipse proto-movie. The SEISS tool was developed for the Eclipse Megamovie Project (EMP: www.eclipsemegamovie.org), with the goal of processing thousands of images taken by the public during solar eclipse events. EMP is a collaboration among multiple institutes aiming to engage and advance the public interest in solar eclipses and the science of the Sun-Earth connection.

  6. Therapeutic and diagnostic outcomes of a standardised, comprehensive care pathway for patients with systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Meijs, Jessica; Schouffoer, Anne A; Ajmone Marsan, Nina; Kroft, Lucia J M; Stijnen, Theo; Ninaber, Maarten K; Huizinga, Tom W J; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M; de Vries-Bouwstra, Jeska K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the outcomes, including number of medical interventions and initiation of immunosuppressive treatment of a standardised, comprehensive, diagnostic care pathway for patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Patient characteristics associated with need for medical interventions and with need for immunosuppressive treatment were determined. Methods Data were routinely gathered in connection with a 2-day care pathway combining multidisciplinary care and complete diagnostic work-up of organ involvement in SSc. The number of patients in whom the pathway resulted in medical interventions, and/or initiation of immunosuppressives was recorded. Patient characteristics and diagnostic tests results were compared between patients with and without medical interventions, and patients with and without initiation of immunosuppressives by means of multivariable logistic regression analyses. Results During a period of 44 months, 226 patients with SSc were referred to the care pathway. They included 186 (82%) women with mean age of 54 (SD 14.5) years, and median disease duration of 4 years (range 1–11); 73 (32%) of them had diffuse cutaneous SSc. Medical interventions were initiated in 191 (85%) patients, including initiation of immunosuppressive treatment in n=49 (22%). Presence of telangiectasias and higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate were associated with any medical intervention. Of commonly available variables, lower age, higher skin score and absence of anticentromere antibody were associated with initiation of immunosuppressives. Conclusions A standardised comprehensive 2-day care pathway for patients with SSc resulted in additional diagnostic or therapeutic interventions in 85% of the patients, regardless of SSc subtype and disease duration. In 22% of the patients, immunosuppressive treatment was initiated. PMID:27042333

  7. Species-specific Standardisation of Licorice by Metabolomic Profiling of Flavanones and Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Simmler, Charlotte; Jones, Tristesse; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Nikolić, Dejan C.; van Breemen, Richard B.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Major phenolics from licorice roots (Glycyrrhiza sp.) are glycosides of the flavanone liquiritigenin (F) and its 2′-hydroxychalcone isomer, isoliquiritigenin (C). As the F and C contents fluctuate between batches of licorice, both quality control and standardisation of its preparations become complex tasks. Objective To characterise the F and C metabolome in extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC. by addressing their composition in major F–C pairs and defining the total F:C proportion. Material and methods Three types of extracts from DNA-authenticated samples were analysed by a validated UHPLC/UV method to quantify major F and C glycosides. Each extract was characterised by the identity of major F–C pairs and the proportion of Fs among all quantified Fs:Cs. Results The F and C compositions and proportions were found to be constant for all extracts from a Glycyrrhiza species. All G. uralensis extracts contained up to 2.5 more Fs than G. glabra extracts. Major F–C pairs were B-ring glycosidated in G. uralensis, and A-/B-ring apiosyl-glucosidated in the G. glabra extracts. The F:C proportion was found to be linked to the glycosidation site: the more B-ring F-C glycosides were present, the higher was the final F:C proportion in the extract. These results enable the chemical differentiation of extracts from G. uralensis and G. glabra, which are characterised by total F:C proportions of 8.37:1.63 and 7.18:2.82, respectively. Conclusion Extracts from G. glabra and G. uralensis can be differentiated by their respective F and C compositions and proportions, which are both useful for further standardisation of licorice botanicals. PMID:25859589

  8. A Standardised Vocabulary for Identifying Benthic Biota and Substrata from Underwater Imagery: The CATAMI Classification Scheme.

    PubMed

    Althaus, Franziska; Hill, Nicole; Ferrari, Renata; Edwards, Luke; Przeslawski, Rachel; Schönberg, Christine H L; Stuart-Smith, Rick; Barrett, Neville; Edgar, Graham; Colquhoun, Jamie; Tran, Maggie; Jordan, Alan; Rees, Tony; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imagery collected by still and video cameras is an increasingly important tool for minimal impact, repeatable observations in the marine environment. Data generated from imagery includes identification, annotation and quantification of biological subjects and environmental features within an image. To be long-lived and useful beyond their project-specific initial purpose, and to maximize their utility across studies and disciplines, marine imagery data should use a standardised vocabulary of defined terms. This would enable the compilation of regional, national and/or global data sets from multiple sources, contributing to broad-scale management studies and development of automated annotation algorithms. The classification scheme developed under the Collaborative and Automated Tools for Analysis of Marine Imagery (CATAMI) project provides such a vocabulary. The CATAMI classification scheme introduces Australian-wide acknowledged, standardised terminology for annotating benthic substrates and biota in marine imagery. It combines coarse-level taxonomy and morphology, and is a flexible, hierarchical classification that bridges the gap between habitat/biotope characterisation and taxonomy, acknowledging limitations when describing biological taxa through imagery. It is fully described, documented, and maintained through curated online databases, and can be applied across benthic image collection methods, annotation platforms and scoring methods. Following release in 2013, the CATAMI classification scheme was taken up by a wide variety of users, including government, academia and industry. This rapid acceptance highlights the scheme's utility and the potential to facilitate broad-scale multidisciplinary studies of marine ecosystems when applied globally. Here we present the CATAMI classification scheme, describe its conception and features, and discuss its utility and the opportunities as well as challenges arising from its use. PMID:26509918

  9. A Standardised Vocabulary for Identifying Benthic Biota and Substrata from Underwater Imagery: The CATAMI Classification Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Alan; Rees, Tony; Gowlett-Holmes, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Imagery collected by still and video cameras is an increasingly important tool for minimal impact, repeatable observations in the marine environment. Data generated from imagery includes identification, annotation and quantification of biological subjects and environmental features within an image. To be long-lived and useful beyond their project-specific initial purpose, and to maximize their utility across studies and disciplines, marine imagery data should use a standardised vocabulary of defined terms. This would enable the compilation of regional, national and/or global data sets from multiple sources, contributing to broad-scale management studies and development of automated annotation algorithms. The classification scheme developed under the Collaborative and Automated Tools for Analysis of Marine Imagery (CATAMI) project provides such a vocabulary. The CATAMI classification scheme introduces Australian-wide acknowledged, standardised terminology for annotating benthic substrates and biota in marine imagery. It combines coarse-level taxonomy and morphology, and is a flexible, hierarchical classification that bridges the gap between habitat/biotope characterisation and taxonomy, acknowledging limitations when describing biological taxa through imagery. It is fully described, documented, and maintained through curated online databases, and can be applied across benthic image collection methods, annotation platforms and scoring methods. Following release in 2013, the CATAMI classification scheme was taken up by a wide variety of users, including government, academia and industry. This rapid acceptance highlights the scheme’s utility and the potential to facilitate broad-scale multidisciplinary studies of marine ecosystems when applied globally. Here we present the CATAMI classification scheme, describe its conception and features, and discuss its utility and the opportunities as well as challenges arising from its use. PMID:26509918

  10. How good are SNe Ia as standard candles? A short history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandage, Alan; Tammann, G. A.; Saha, A.

    An abbreviated history is given of the evidence that type Ia supernovae are excellent standard candles with a small diversity of properties such that they are elite distance indicators. The evidence for both homogeneity and diversity is set out, beginning with the initial proof by Kowal (1968) of a relatively small dispersion of SNeIa, and ending with the modern corrections for diversity using various formulations of second-parameter effects for decay rate, intrinsic color, and parent galaxy types. Most current investigations using the extant SNe Ia calibration give H0 in the range of 58 to 63 km s-1 Mpc-1, based on a Cepheid period-luminosity zero point with (m-M)0 = 18.58 for the LMC. The exception is H0 = 68 offered by the "Key Project" consortium where they use a debatable elimination of several of the extant Cepheid-based calibrators plus controversial modifications of the absolute magnitudes of the remainder. In addition, they substitute other supernovae that are without direct Cepheid calibrations, based on an unproven premise that the Cepheid distance to the spiral NGC 1365 gives the distance to the compact E and S0 core of the Fornax cluster. The results of the substitutions and modifications are (1) too faint a mean absolute magnitude, SNeIa, and (2) too large a slope for the decay rate-absolute magnitude correlation for SNe Ia, with the consequent combined effects on H0. Nevertheless, the systematic and statistical errors of H0 via the SNe Ia method remain at the level of ~10% in most of the current investigations, including ours. Because the differences at this level depend on precepts that will be difficult to adjudicate by observations in the short term, we have used three other independent methods to H0 to test the SNe Ia method externally. These are (1) the route through the Virgo cluster tied to the remote (global) expansion frame, (2) the Tully-Fisher method using field galaxies corrected for observational selection bias, and (3

  11. WHO working group on standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines--report of a meeting held on 16-17 March 2006, St. Albans, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Xing, D K L; Corbel, M J; Dobbelaer, R; Knezevic, I

    2007-04-12

    This report reflects the discussion and conclusions of a WHO group of experts from national regulatory authorities, national control laboratories, vaccine industry and other relevant institutions involved in standardisation and control of acellular pertussis vaccines, held on 16-17 March 2006, in St. Albans, UK. Following previous discussions (Bethesda, 2000; Ferney-Voltaire, 2003; Geneva, 2005) and collection of relevant data for quality control, on the one hand, and clinical evaluation of acellular pertussis vaccines, on the other, this meeting was intended to review the scientific basis for the revision of WHO guidelines adopted in 1996 [Guidelines for the production and control of the acellular pertussis component of monovalent or combined vaccines. In: WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardisation. Forty-seventh report. Geneva, World Health Organisation, 1998 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 878), Annex 2]. The discussion on animal protection models, immunogenicity and toxicity testing was focused on three main aspects: value of the assay for the purpose of licensing and/or lot release; validity criteria and potential optimisation of the assays. The group agreed that establishment of JNIH-3 as a potential International Standard (IS) for modified intra-cerebral challenge assay should be under consideration. It was suggested that the inclusion of a reference vaccine, such as JNIH-3 in the intra-nasal challenge model could improve the standardisation of this assay. It was proposed that the development of stable reference vaccines for immunogenicity testing should be encouraged. Further collection of the data from the countries with established lot release of acellular pertussis vaccines will be undertaken to prepare a solid basis for recommendations on toxicity tests. In the context of recommendations for clinical assessment of new vaccines, the group emphasised the importance of comparability studies with antigens that have already undergone efficacy

  12. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-01

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  13. Conceptual Design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactor With Modified CANDLE Burn-up Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Asiah, A.; Su'ud, Zaki; Ferhat, A.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, conceptual design study of Small Long-life Gas Cooled Fast Reactors with Natural Uranium as Fuel Cycle Input has been performed. In this study Gas Cooled Fast Reactor is slightly modified by employing modified CANDLE burn-up scheme so that it can use Natural Uranium as fuel cycle input. Due to their hard spectrum, GCFR in this study showed very good performance in converting U-238 to plutonium in order to maintain the operation condition requirement of long-life reactors. Due to the limitation of thermal hydraulic aspects, the average power density of the proposed design is selected about 70 W/cc. With such condition we got an optimal design of 325 MWt reactors which can be operated 10 years without refueling and fuel shuffling and just need natural uranium as fuel cycle input. The average discharge burn-up is about 290 GWd/ton HM.

  14. A Unified Model for GRB Prompt Emission from Optical to γ-Rays: Exploring GRBs as Standard Candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiriec, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Hartmann, D. H.; Granot, J.; Asano, K.; Mészáros, P.; Gill, R.; Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J.

    2016-11-01

    The origin of prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains to be an open question. Correlated prompt optical and γ-ray emission observed in a handful of GRBs strongly suggests a common emission region, but failure to adequately fit the broadband GRB spectrum prompted the hypothesis of different emission mechanisms for the low- and high-energy radiations. We demonstrate that our multi-component model for GRB γ-ray prompt emission provides an excellent fit to GRB 110205A from optical to γ-ray energies. Our results show that the optical and highest γ-ray emissions have the same spatial and spectral origin, which is different from the bulk of the X- and softest γ-ray radiation. Finally, our accurate redshift estimate for GRB 110205A demonstrates promise for using GRBs as cosmological standard candles.

  15. Preliminary safety analysis of Pb-Bi cooled 800 MWt modified CANDLE burn-up scheme based fast reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Su'ud, Zaki; Sekimoto, H.

    2014-09-30

    Pb-Bi Cooled fast reactors with modified CANDLE burn-up scheme with 10 regions and 10 years cycle length has been investigated from neutronic aspects. In this study the safety aspect of such reactors have been investigated and discussed. Several condition of unprotected loss of flow (ULOF) and unprotected rod run-out transient over power (UTOP) have been simulated and the results show that the reactors excellent safety performance. At 80 seconds after unprotected loss of flow condition, the core flow rate drop to about 25% of its initial flow and slowly move toward its natural circulation level. The maximum fuel temperature can be managed below 1000°C and the maximum cladding temperature can be managed below 700°C. The dominant reactivity feedback is radial core expansion and Doppler effect, followed by coolant density effect and fuel axial expansion effect.

  16. New mass limit for white dwarfs: super-Chandrasekhar type ia supernova as a new standard candle.

    PubMed

    Das, Upasana; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-02-15

    Type Ia supernovae, sparked off by exploding white dwarfs of mass close to the Chandrasekhar limit, play the key role in understanding the expansion rate of the Universe. However, recent observations of several peculiar type Ia supernovae argue for its progenitor mass to be significantly super-Chandrasekhar. We show that strongly magnetized white dwarfs not only can violate the Chandrasekhar mass limit significantly, but exhibit a different mass limit. We establish from a foundational level that the generic mass limit of white dwarfs is 2.58 solar mass. This explains the origin of overluminous peculiar type Ia supernovae. Our finding further argues for a possible second standard candle, which has many far reaching implications, including a possible reconsideration of the expansion history of the Universe.

  17. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  18. Students' Interpersonal Trust and Attitudes towards Standardised Tests: Exploring Affective Variables Related to Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Man-Wai; Guo, Qi; Leighton, Jacqueline P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and psychometric variables have directed research on student test performance. However, student learning involves a substantial affective component. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between two kinds of affective variables--interpersonal trust and attitudes towards standardised tests--likely to underlie student…

  19. Personal Meaning in the Public Sphere: The Standardisation and Rationalisation of Biodiversity Data in the UK and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Anna; Turnhout, Esther

    2010-01-01

    The demand for biodiversity data is increasing. Governments require standardised, objective data to underpin planning and conservation decisions. These data are produced by large numbers of (volunteer) natural historians and non-governmental organisations. This article analyses the interface between the state and the volunteer naturalists to…

  20. The Power of Numbers: The Adoption and Consequences of National Low-Stakes Standardised Tests in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feniger, Yariv; Israeli, Mirit; Yehuda, Smadar

    2016-01-01

    The use of standardised tests as a central tool in education policy has in recent decades become a common feature of many national education systems. In 2002 the Israeli Ministry of Education introduced new mandatory state tests for primary and middle schools. The article describes the adoption of these low-stakes tests and assesses their impact…

  1. Professional Standards for Teachers: How Do They "Work"? An Experiment in Tracing Standardisation In-the-Making in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Carlijne; Simons, Maarten; Struyf, Elke

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, professional standards describing competencies for teaching staff have emerged in nation states all around the world. This article reports on a pilot-study that applies a sociotechnological "lens" to examine this standardisation process in educational policy. In line with ethnographic analyses drawing on science and…

  2. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L; Remmers, Elaine F; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina I; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-11-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  3. Additive loss-of-function proteasome subunit mutations in CANDLE/PRAAS patients promote type I IFN production

    PubMed Central

    Brehm, Anja; Liu, Yin; Sheikh, Afzal; Marrero, Bernadette; Omoyinmi, Ebun; Zhou, Qing; Montealegre, Gina; Biancotto, Angelique; Reinhardt, Adam; Almeida de Jesus, Adriana; Pelletier, Martin; Tsai, Wanxia L.; Remmers, Elaine F.; Kardava, Lela; Hill, Suvimol; Kim, Hanna; Lachmann, Helen J.; Megarbane, Andre; Chae, Jae Jin; Brady, Jilian; Castillo, Rhina D.; Brown, Diane; Casano, Angel Vera; Gao, Ling; Chapelle, Dawn; Huang, Yan; Stone, Deborah; Chen, Yongqing; Sotzny, Franziska; Lee, Chyi-Chia Richard; Kastner, Daniel L.; Torrelo, Antonio; Zlotogorski, Abraham; Moir, Susan; Gadina, Massimo; McCoy, Phil; Wesley, Robert; Rother, Kristina; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Brogan, Paul; Krüger, Elke; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2015-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in proteasome subunit β 8 (PSMB8), which encodes the inducible proteasome subunit β5i, cause the immune-dysregulatory disease chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE), which is classified as a proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome (PRAAS). Here, we identified 8 mutations in 4 proteasome genes, PSMA3 (encodes α7), PSMB4 (encodes β7), PSMB9 (encodes β1i), and proteasome maturation protein (POMP), that have not been previously associated with disease and 1 mutation in PSMB8 that has not been previously reported. One patient was compound heterozygous for PSMB4 mutations, 6 patients from 4 families were heterozygous for a missense mutation in 1 inducible proteasome subunit and a mutation in a constitutive proteasome subunit, and 1 patient was heterozygous for a POMP mutation, thus establishing a digenic and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern of PRAAS. Function evaluation revealed that these mutations variably affect transcription, protein expression, protein folding, proteasome assembly, and, ultimately, proteasome activity. Moreover, defects in proteasome formation and function were recapitulated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of the respective subunits in primary fibroblasts from healthy individuals. Patient-isolated hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells exhibited a strong IFN gene-expression signature, irrespective of genotype. Additionally, chemical proteasome inhibition or progressive depletion of proteasome subunit gene transcription with siRNA induced transcription of type I IFN genes in healthy control cells. Our results provide further insight into CANDLE genetics and link global proteasome dysfunction to increased type I IFN production. PMID:26524591

  4. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology.

  5. Standardised surveillance of Clostridium difficile infection in European acute care hospitals: a pilot study, 2013.

    PubMed

    van Dorp, Sofie M; Kinross, Pete; Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael; Kola, Axel; Delmée, Michel; Pavelkovich, Anastasia; Mentula, Silja; Barbut, Frédéric; Hajdu, Agnes; Ingebretsen, André; Pituch, Hanna; Macovei, Ioana S; Jovanović, Milica; Wiuff, Camilla; Schmid, Daniela; Olsen, Katharina Ep; Wilcox, Mark H; Suetens, Carl; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-07-21

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remains poorly controlled in many European countries, of which several have not yet implemented national CDI surveillance. In 2013, experts from the European CDI Surveillance Network project and from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control developed a protocol with three options of CDI surveillance for acute care hospitals: a 'minimal' option (aggregated hospital data), a 'light' option (including patient data for CDI cases) and an 'enhanced' option (including microbiological data on the first 10 CDI episodes per hospital). A total of 37 hospitals in 14 European countries tested these options for a three-month period (between 13 May and 1 November 2013). All 37 hospitals successfully completed the minimal surveillance option (for 1,152 patients). Clinical data were submitted for 94% (1,078/1,152) of the patients in the light option; information on CDI origin and outcome was complete for 94% (1,016/1,078) and 98% (294/300) of the patients in the light and enhanced options, respectively. The workload of the options was 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0 person-days per 10,000 hospital discharges, respectively. Enhanced surveillance was tested and was successful in 32 of the hospitals, showing that C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 was predominant (30% (79/267)). This study showed that standardised multicountry surveillance, with the option of integrating clinical and molecular data, is a feasible strategy for monitoring CDI in Europe. PMID:27472820

  6. Standardisation or resilience? The paradox of stability and change in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kirstine Zinck

    2016-09-01

    This article explores an apparent paradox of stability and change in patient safety thinking and practice. The dominant approach to patient safety has largely been focused on closing 'safety gaps' through standardisation in seemingly stable healthcare systems. However, the presupposition of system stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature, the article analyses how a separation between stability and change is articulated in ontological, historical, and situated terms, and it suggests the way in which predetermining healthcare settings as either stable or unstable paves the way for a system engineering approach to patient safety that pre-empts certain types of safety solutions. Drawing on John Dewey's influential ideas about the interconnectedness of stability and change, this prescriptive perspective is discussed and challenged. It is suggested that only by rethinking the relationship between change and stability can patient safety efforts begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with 'safety dispositions' as a precondition for delivering safe care. PMID:27397546

  7. Components of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) promote hypothiocyanite production by lactoperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Jörg; Rusch, Dorothea; Czerwińska, Monika Ewa; Rauwald, Hans-Wilhelm; Arnhold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    We investigated in vitro the ability of a standardised olive leaf dry extract (Ph. Eur.) (OLE) as well as of its single components to circumvent the hydrogen peroxide-induced inhibition of the hypothiocyanite-producing activity of lactoperoxidase (LPO). The rate of hypothiocyanite (⁻OSCN) formation by LPO was quantified by spectrophotometric detection of the oxidation of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid (TNB). By using excess hydrogen peroxide, we forced the accumulation of inactive enzymatic intermediates which are unable to promote the two-electronic oxidation of thiocyanate. Both OLE and certain extract components showed a strong LPO-reactivating effect. Thereby an o-hydroxyphenolic moiety emerged to be essential for a good reactivity with the inactive LPO redox states. This basic moiety is found in the main OLE components oleuropein, oleacein, hydroxytyrosol, caffeic acid as well as in different other constituents including the OLE flavone luteolin. As LPO is a key player in the humoral immune response, these results propose a new mode of action regarding the well-known bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extract of Olea europaea L.

  8. A standardised terminology of the embryonic envelopes and associated developmental stages of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda).

    PubMed

    Conn, David Bruce; Swiderski, Zdzisław

    2008-03-01

    Over the past 40 years, much has been published on the ultrastructure and cellular development of embryonic structures in a wide range of cestodes. However, the literature contains many discrepancies in both terminology and interpretations because of the facts that these organisms are phylogenetically diverse within their respective orders and families, the habitats that affect embryonic envelope structure are diverse, and the work has been done in various laboratories around the world. This review and synthesis was initiated by a working group of biologists from around the world convened at the Fifth International Workshop on Cestode Systematics and Phylogeny in Ceské Budejovice, at the Institute of Parasitology of the Biology Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. It brings together the data from published work and establishes a uniform terminology and interpretation based on the data as they are presented. A consensus was reached for standardised definitions of the oncosphere, hexacanth, coracidium, embryonic envelopes, outer envelope, inner envelope, embryophore, vitelline capsule, shell, and outer coat. All of these are defined as components of the embryo or its vitellocyte-derived or uterine-derived coatings.

  9. Approaches of National 3d Mapping: Research Results and Standardisation in Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoter, J. E.; Streilein, A.; Pla, M.; Baella, B.; Capstick, D.; Home, R.; Roensdorf, C.; Lagrange, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Over the past ten years technologies for generating, maintaining and using 3D geo-information have matured. For national mapping agencies one of the challenges is how to best extend 2D data into 3D data, making best use of research results and available technologies. Some mapping organisations are making serious progress. The question addressed in this paper is how research results achieved in the past ten years are applied in practice and what research problems remain. In addition, the paper explores the potentials of the OGC 3D standard (i.e. CityGML) for 3D national mapping and what developments are further required to make the standard better fit for this purpose. The main conclusions of the paper are that 3D data is more and more available but still suffers from a low level of usage (mainly visualisation) and standards and formats based on CityGML have been stabilised although software support is still in the early stage. Several recommendations are made to meet these problems, including the definition of European CityGML profiles (as the INSPIRE Building profile) to harmonise 3D needs and standardise 3D implementations at international level.

  10. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  11. Standardisation or resilience? The paradox of stability and change in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kirstine Zinck

    2016-09-01

    This article explores an apparent paradox of stability and change in patient safety thinking and practice. The dominant approach to patient safety has largely been focused on closing 'safety gaps' through standardisation in seemingly stable healthcare systems. However, the presupposition of system stability and predictability is presently being challenged by critics who insist that healthcare systems are complex and changing entities, thereby shifting focus towards the healthcare organisation's resilient and adaptive capacities. Based on a close reading of predominant patient safety literature, the article analyses how a separation between stability and change is articulated in ontological, historical, and situated terms, and it suggests the way in which predetermining healthcare settings as either stable or unstable paves the way for a system engineering approach to patient safety that pre-empts certain types of safety solutions. Drawing on John Dewey's influential ideas about the interconnectedness of stability and change, this prescriptive perspective is discussed and challenged. It is suggested that only by rethinking the relationship between change and stability can patient safety efforts begin to address the uncertainty of medical practice as well as the necessary competences of healthcare professionals to act with 'safety dispositions' as a precondition for delivering safe care.

  12. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Bernd; Mittlboeck, Manfred; Lippautz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making. PMID:22163537

  13. Bio-objectifying European bodies: standardisation of biobanks in the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The article traces the genealogy of the Minimum Information About Biobank Data Sharing model, created in the European Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure to facilitate collaboration among biobanks and to foster the exchange of biological samples and data. This information model is aimed at the identification of biobanks; unification of databases; and objectification of the information, samples, and related studies - to create a completely new 'bio-object infrastructure' within the EU. The paper discusses key challenges in creating a 'universal' information model of such a kind, the most important technical translations of European research policy needed for a standardised model for biobank information, and how this model creates new bio-objects. The author claims that this amounts to redefinition of biobanks and technical governance over virtually bio-objectified European populations. It is argued here that old governance models based on the nation-state need radical reconsideration so that we are prepared for a new and changing situation wherein bodies of information that lack organs flow from one database to another with a click of a mouse. PMID:26626620

  14. Minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (MITAP): a first step towards reproducibility and standardisation of cellular therapies

    PubMed Central

    Spiering, Rachel; Aguillon, Juan C.; Anderson, Amy E.; Appel, Silke; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; ten Brinke, Anja; Broere, Femke; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Diboll, Julie; Geissler, Edward K.; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gregori, Silvia; van Ham, S. Marieke; Lattimer, Staci; Marshall, Lindsay; Harry, Rachel A.; Hutchinson, James A.; Isaacs, John D.; Joosten, Irma; van Kooten, Cees; Lopez Diaz de Cerio, Ascension; Nikolic, Tatjana; Oral, Haluk Barbaros; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Ritter, Thomas; Riquelme, Paloma; Thomson, Angus W.; Trucco, Massimo; Vives-Pi, Marta; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular therapies with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (tolAPC) show great promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of destructive immune responses after transplantation. The methodologies for generating tolAPC vary greatly between different laboratories, making it difficult to compare data from different studies; thus constituting a major hurdle for the development of standardised tolAPC therapeutic products. Here we describe an initiative by members of the tolAPC field to generate a minimum information model for tolAPC (MITAP), providing a reporting framework that will make differences and similarities between tolAPC products transparent. In this way, MITAP constitutes a first but important step towards the production of standardised and reproducible tolAPC for clinical application. PMID:27635311

  15. Minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (MITAP): a first step towards reproducibility and standardisation of cellular therapies

    PubMed Central

    Spiering, Rachel; Aguillon, Juan C.; Anderson, Amy E.; Appel, Silke; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; ten Brinke, Anja; Broere, Femke; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Diboll, Julie; Geissler, Edward K.; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gregori, Silvia; van Ham, S. Marieke; Lattimer, Staci; Marshall, Lindsay; Harry, Rachel A.; Hutchinson, James A.; Isaacs, John D.; Joosten, Irma; van Kooten, Cees; Lopez Diaz de Cerio, Ascension; Nikolic, Tatjana; Oral, Haluk Barbaros; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Ritter, Thomas; Riquelme, Paloma; Thomson, Angus W.; Trucco, Massimo; Vives-Pi, Marta; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular therapies with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (tolAPC) show great promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of destructive immune responses after transplantation. The methodologies for generating tolAPC vary greatly between different laboratories, making it difficult to compare data from different studies; thus constituting a major hurdle for the development of standardised tolAPC therapeutic products. Here we describe an initiative by members of the tolAPC field to generate a minimum information model for tolAPC (MITAP), providing a reporting framework that will make differences and similarities between tolAPC products transparent. In this way, MITAP constitutes a first but important step towards the production of standardised and reproducible tolAPC for clinical application.

  16. Minimum information about tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (MITAP): a first step towards reproducibility and standardisation of cellular therapies.

    PubMed

    Lord, Phillip; Spiering, Rachel; Aguillon, Juan C; Anderson, Amy E; Appel, Silke; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel; Ten Brinke, Anja; Broere, Femke; Cools, Nathalie; Cuturi, Maria Cristina; Diboll, Julie; Geissler, Edward K; Giannoukakis, Nick; Gregori, Silvia; van Ham, S Marieke; Lattimer, Staci; Marshall, Lindsay; Harry, Rachel A; Hutchinson, James A; Isaacs, John D; Joosten, Irma; van Kooten, Cees; Lopez Diaz de Cerio, Ascension; Nikolic, Tatjana; Oral, Haluk Barbaros; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana; Ritter, Thomas; Riquelme, Paloma; Thomson, Angus W; Trucco, Massimo; Vives-Pi, Marta; Martinez-Caceres, Eva M; Hilkens, Catharien M U

    2016-01-01

    Cellular therapies with tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (tolAPC) show great promise for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for the prevention of destructive immune responses after transplantation. The methodologies for generating tolAPC vary greatly between different laboratories, making it difficult to compare data from different studies; thus constituting a major hurdle for the development of standardised tolAPC therapeutic products. Here we describe an initiative by members of the tolAPC field to generate a minimum information model for tolAPC (MITAP), providing a reporting framework that will make differences and similarities between tolAPC products transparent. In this way, MITAP constitutes a first but important step towards the production of standardised and reproducible tolAPC for clinical application. PMID:27635311

  17. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  18. Standardised (plain) cigarette packaging increases attention to both text-based and graphical health warnings: experimental evidence

    PubMed Central

    Shankleman, M.; Sykes, C.; Mandeville, K.L.; Di Costa, S.; Yarrow, K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether standardised cigarette packaging increases the time spent looking at health warnings, regardless of the format of those warnings. Study design A factorial (two pack styles x three warning types) within-subject experiment, with participants randomised to different orders of conditions, completed at a university in London, UK. Methods Mock-ups of cigarette packets were presented to participants with their branded portion in either standardised (plain) or manufacturer-designed (branded) format. Health warnings were present on all packets, representing all three types currently in use in the UK: black & white text, colour text, or colour images with accompanying text. Gaze position was recorded using a specialised eye tracker, providing the main outcome measure, which was the mean proportion of a five-second viewing period spent gazing at the warning-label region of the packet. Results An opportunity sample of 30 (six male, mean age = 23) young adults met the following inclusion criteria: 1) not currently a smoker; 2) <100 lifetime cigarettes smoked; 3) gaze position successfully tracked for > 50% viewing time. These participants spent a greater proportion of the available time gazing at the warning-label region when the branded section of the pack was standardised (following current Australian guidelines) rather than containing the manufacturer's preferred design (mean difference in proportions = 0.078, 95% confidence interval 0.049 to 0.106, p < 0.001). There was no evidence that this effect varied based on the type of warning label (black & white text vs. colour text vs. colour image & text; interaction p = 0.295). Conclusions During incidental viewing of cigarette packets, young adult never-smokers are likely to spend more time looking at health warnings if manufacturers are compelled to use standardised packaging, regardless of the warning design. PMID:25542740

  19. A Standardised Abundance Index from Commercial Spotting Data of Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii): Random Effects to the Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Basson, Marinelle; Farley, Jessica H.

    2014-01-01

    Commercial aerial spotting of surface schools of juvenile southern bluefin tuna (SBT), Thunnus maccoyii, is conducted as part of fishing operations in the Great Australian Bight in summer. This provides the opportunity to efficiently collect large amounts of data on sightings of SBT. The data can potentially be used to construct a time-series index of relative abundance by standardising the data for issues such as weather, spotter ability and ocean conditions. Unlike a statistically designed survey, the commercial spotting is governed by business considerations and fishing operations. The SBT dataset is therefore highly unbalanced with regard to spotters operating in each season. This complicates the standardisation of the data, particularly with regard to interactions between covariates. We show how a generalized additive model with random effects can simplify both the fitting of the model and the construction of an index, while also avoiding the need to leave out strata or interaction terms that are important. The approach is applicable to standardisation of more traditional catch and effort data. PMID:25541730

  20. A standardisation of Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea) embryo-larval bioassay for ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, Elsa

    2003-11-01

    A standardisation of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis embryo-larval bioassay for marine pollution assessment has been developed. The minimum percentage of embryogenesis success was established to assess the quality of the biological material used; minimum sample size and number of replicates per treatment were also estimated. The suitability of artificial and natural seawater for the incubation of ascidian embryos and larvae was compared, and the optimum conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, density of embryos in the vials and the sperm/egg ratio were investigated. On the basis of the 10th percentile of the distribution of larval abnormalities, we proposed a threshold of 50% normal larvae in the control in order to consider the test of acceptable biological quality. According to our results n=5 is a sufficiently high replication to detect 5% differences among treatment means with a power of P=90% and alpha=0.05, and a sampling size >/=222 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate with an error of 0.05. Egg density did not affect larval development within the range 1-20 eggs/ml, and the optimum sperm/egg ratio which fertilise 100% of the eggs was 3000-30,000 sperm/egg (i.e. 10(8)-10(7) sperm/ml). There were not significant differences between the two water types tested, and the optimum tolerance ranges were 18-23 degrees C temperature, 34-42 ppt salinity (42 ppt was the highest salinity tested), and 7.4-8.8 pH. The median effective concentration (EC(50)) of copper (Cu) causing a 50% reduction of normal hatched larvae was 54.2 microg/l (0.85 microM), which shows a sensitivity of this species similar to the commonly used bivalve and sea-urchin tests. The ascidian embryo-larval bioassay is an accurate, reliable, simple and rapid method that can be used in ecotoxicological studies.

  1. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Prüller, Sandra; Frömke, Cornelia; Kaspar, Heike; Klein, Günter; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI), and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9%) of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 10(5) cfu/ml was proposed.

  2. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Minekus, M; Alminger, M; Alvito, P; Ballance, S; Bohn, T; Bourlieu, C; Carrière, F; Boutrou, R; Corredig, M; Dupont, D; Dufour, C; Egger, L; Golding, M; Karakaya, S; Kirkhus, B; Le Feunteun, S; Lesmes, U; Macierzanka, A; Mackie, A; Marze, S; McClements, D J; Ménard, O; Recio, I; Santos, C N; Singh, R P; Vegarud, G E; Wickham, M S J; Weitschies, W; Brodkorb, A

    2014-06-01

    Simulated gastro-intestinal digestion is widely employed in many fields of food and nutritional sciences, as conducting human trials are often costly, resource intensive, and ethically disputable. As a consequence, in vitro alternatives that determine endpoints such as the bioaccessibility of nutrients and non-nutrients or the digestibility of macronutrients (e.g. lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) are used for screening and building new hypotheses. Various digestion models have been proposed, often impeding the possibility to compare results across research teams. For example, a large variety of enzymes from different sources such as of porcine, rabbit or human origin have been used, differing in their activity and characterization. Differences in pH, mineral type, ionic strength and digestion time, which alter enzyme activity and other phenomena, may also considerably alter results. Other parameters such as the presence of phospholipids, individual enzymes such as gastric lipase and digestive emulsifiers vs. their mixtures (e.g. pancreatin and bile salts), and the ratio of food bolus to digestive fluids, have also been discussed at length. In the present consensus paper, within the COST Infogest network, we propose a general standardised and practical static digestion method based on physiologically relevant conditions that can be applied for various endpoints, which may be amended to accommodate further specific requirements. A frameset of parameters including the oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion are outlined and their relevance discussed in relation to available in vivo data and enzymes. This consensus paper will give a detailed protocol and a line-by-line, guidance, recommendations and justifications but also limitation of the proposed model. This harmonised static, in vitro digestion method for food should aid the production of more comparable data in the future.

  3. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Prüller, Sandra; Frömke, Cornelia; Kaspar, Heike; Klein, Günter; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI), and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9%) of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 10(5) cfu/ml was proposed. PMID:25910232

  4. A standardisation of Ciona intestinalis (Chordata, Ascidiacea) embryo-larval bioassay for ecotoxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Juan; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, Elsa

    2003-11-01

    A standardisation of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis embryo-larval bioassay for marine pollution assessment has been developed. The minimum percentage of embryogenesis success was established to assess the quality of the biological material used; minimum sample size and number of replicates per treatment were also estimated. The suitability of artificial and natural seawater for the incubation of ascidian embryos and larvae was compared, and the optimum conditions of temperature, salinity, pH, density of embryos in the vials and the sperm/egg ratio were investigated. On the basis of the 10th percentile of the distribution of larval abnormalities, we proposed a threshold of 50% normal larvae in the control in order to consider the test of acceptable biological quality. According to our results n=5 is a sufficiently high replication to detect 5% differences among treatment means with a power of P=90% and alpha=0.05, and a sampling size >/=222 allows a 95% confidence in the estimate with an error of 0.05. Egg density did not affect larval development within the range 1-20 eggs/ml, and the optimum sperm/egg ratio which fertilise 100% of the eggs was 3000-30,000 sperm/egg (i.e. 10(8)-10(7) sperm/ml). There were not significant differences between the two water types tested, and the optimum tolerance ranges were 18-23 degrees C temperature, 34-42 ppt salinity (42 ppt was the highest salinity tested), and 7.4-8.8 pH. The median effective concentration (EC(50)) of copper (Cu) causing a 50% reduction of normal hatched larvae was 54.2 microg/l (0.85 microM), which shows a sensitivity of this species similar to the commonly used bivalve and sea-urchin tests. The ascidian embryo-larval bioassay is an accurate, reliable, simple and rapid method that can be used in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:14568047

  5. Recommendation for a Standardised Method of Broth Microdilution Susceptibility Testing for Porcine Bordetella bronchiseptica

    PubMed Central

    Prüller, Sandra; Frömke, Cornelia; Kaspar, Heike; Klein, Günter; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Kehrenberg, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to establish and standardise a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method for porcine Bordetella (B.) bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica isolates from different geographical regions and farms were genotyped by macrorestriction analysis and subsequent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. One reference and one type strain plus two field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were chosen to analyse growth curves in four different media: cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth (CAMHB) with and without 2% lysed horse blood, Brain-Heart-Infusion (BHI), and Caso broth. The growth rate of each test strain in each medium was determined by culture enumeration and the suitability of CAMHB was confirmed by comparative statistical analysis. Thereafter, reference and type strain and eight epidemiologically unrelated field isolates of B. bronchiseptica were used to test the suitability of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method following CLSI-approved performance standards given in document VET01-A4. Susceptibility tests, using 20 antimicrobial agents, were performed in five replicates, and data were collected after 20 and 24 hours incubation and statistically analysed. Due to the low growth rate of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours resulted in significantly more homogeneous minimum inhibitory concentrations after five replications compared to a 20-hour incubation. An interlaboratory comparison trial including susceptibility testing of 24 antimicrobial agents revealed a high mean level of reproducibility (97.9%) of the modified method. Hence, in a harmonization for broth microdilution susceptibility testing of B. bronchiseptica, an incubation time of 24 hours in CAMHB medium with an incubation temperature of 35°C and an inoculum concentration of approximately 5 x 105 cfu/ml was proposed. PMID:25910232

  6. Standardised online data access and publishing for Earth Systems and Climate data in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. J. K.; Druken, K. A.; Trenham, C.; Wang, J.; Wyborn, L. A.; Smillie, J.; Allen, C.; Porter, D.

    2015-12-01

    The National Computational Infrastructure (NCI) hosts Australia's largest repository (10+ PB) of research data collections spanning a wide range of fields from climate, coasts, oceans, and geophysics through to astronomy, bioinformatics, and the social sciences. Spatial scales range from global to local ultra-high resolution, requiring storage volumes from MB to PB. The data have been organised to be highly connected to both the NCI HPC and cloud resources (e.g., interactive visualisation and analysis environments). Researchers can login to utilise the high performance infrastructure for these data collections, or access the data via standards-based web services. Our aim is to provide a trusted platform to support interdisciplinary research across all the collections as well as services for use of the data within individual communities. We thus cater to a wide range of researcher needs, whilst needing to maintain a consistent approach to data management and publishing. All research data collections hosted at NCI are governed by a data management plan, prior to being published through a variety of platforms and web services such as OPeNDAP, HTTP, and WMS. The data management plan ensures the use of standard formats (when available) that comply with relevant data conventions (e.g., CF-Convention) and metadata standards (e.g., ISO19115). Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) can be minted at NCI and assigned to datasets and collections. Large scale data growth and use in a variety of research fields has led to a rise in, and acceptance of, open spatial data formats such as NetCDF4/HDF5, prompting a need to extend these data conventions to fields such as geophysics and satellite Earth observations. The fusion of DOI-minted data that is discoverable and accessible via metadata and web services, creates a complete picture of data hosting, discovery, use, and citation. This enables standardised and reproducible data analysis.

  7. Urinary Microbiota Associated with Preterm Birth: Results from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study.

    PubMed

    Ollberding, Nicholas J; Völgyi, Eszter; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Tylavsky, Frances A; Piyathilake, Chandrika J

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation) and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation) balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed on urine samples collected during the second trimester. We observed no difference in taxa richness, evenness, or community composition between cases and controls or for gestational age modeled as a continuous variable. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified to Prevotella, Sutterella, L. iners, Blautia, Kocuria, Lachnospiraceae, and S.marcescens were enriched among cases (FDR corrected p≤ 0.05). A urinary microbiota clustering partition dominated by S. marcescens was also associated with PTB (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.19-13.24). These data suggest a limited role for the urinary microbiota in PTB when measured during the second trimester by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The enrichment among cases in several organisms previously reported to be associated with genitourinary pathology requires confirmation in future studies to rule out the potential for false positive findings. PMID:27611781

  8. Urinary Microbiota Associated with Preterm Birth: Results from the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ollberding, Nicholas J.; Völgyi, Eszter; Macaluso, Maurizio; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Piyathilake, Chandrika J.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Genitourinary infection is implicated in the initiation of spontaneous PTB; however, examination of the urinary microbiota in relation to preterm delivery using next-generation sequencing technologies is lacking. In a case-control study nested within the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study, we examined associations between the urinary microbiota and PTB. A total of 49 cases (delivery < 37 weeks gestation) and 48 controls (delivery ≥ 37 weeks gestation) balanced on health insurance type were included in the present analysis. Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V4 region was performed on urine samples collected during the second trimester. We observed no difference in taxa richness, evenness, or community composition between cases and controls or for gestational age modeled as a continuous variable. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified to Prevotella, Sutterella, L. iners, Blautia, Kocuria, Lachnospiraceae, and S.marcescens were enriched among cases (FDR corrected p≤ 0.05). A urinary microbiota clustering partition dominated by S. marcescens was also associated with PTB (OR = 3.97, 95% CI: 1.19–13.24). These data suggest a limited role for the urinary microbiota in PTB when measured during the second trimester by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The enrichment among cases in several organisms previously reported to be associated with genitourinary pathology requires confirmation in future studies to rule out the potential for false positive findings. PMID:27611781

  9. Growth hormone response to a standardised exercise test in relation to puberty and stature.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, S A; Torresani, T; Prader, A

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) was measured before and 10 minutes after a standardised bicycle exercise test (duration 15 minutes) in 37 short children (group 1: mean (SD) age 12.8 (3.5) years; mean (SD) bone age 10.4 (3.6) years; mean (SD) height standard deviation score (SDS) -2.8 (0.7], 16 tall children (group 2: mean age 12.9 (2.8) years; mean bone age 13.9 (1.4) years; mean height SDS 3.0 (0.8], and 30 normal children (group 3: mean age 13.3 (3.2) years; mean bone age 12.8 (3.4) years; mean height SDS -0.4 (0.8]. Results of GH are expressed as mean (SEM). The pre-exercise GH was similar in the three groups (group 1, 8.0 (2.3) mU/l, group 2, 8.5 (2.5) mU/l, and group 3, 8.3 (2.3) mU/l). There was a significant rise in GH after exercise in all three groups. GH after exercise was higher in group 2 (35.1 (2.5) mU/l) compared with groups 1 and 3 (17.8 (3.0) and (20.8 (3.2) mU/l). Post-exercise GH was less than 10 mU/l in 29 children (34% total; 49% group 1, 6% group 2, and 34% group 3). There was a positive relation between post-exercise GH and both bone age and public hair stage. Multiple regression analysis revealed that relevant predictors of a rise in GH with exercise were different for the sexes in these children with varying stature: for boys, bone age and pubic hair stage; for girls, height and height SDS. All the tall girls were in puberty. No statistical relation was observed between post-experience GH and cardiovascular response to exercise, time of day of exercise, time of eating before exercise, and plasma insulin or insulin to glucose ratio at time of exercise. We conclude that the GH response to the physiological stimulus of exercise is higher in puberty compared with childhood. Therefore, although children may be suspected of having GH deficiency after a failure of GH to increase after exercise, a non-response may be a normal finding in prepubertal children, independent of stature. PMID:3813636

  10. A semantically rich and standardised approach enhancing discovery of sensor data and metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinaki, Alexandra; Buck, Justin; Darroch, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The marine environment plays an essential role in the earth's climate. To enhance the ability to monitor the health of this important system, innovative sensors are being produced and combined with state of the art sensor technology. As the number of sensors deployed is continually increasing,, it is a challenge for data users to find the data that meet their specific needs. Furthermore, users need to integrate diverse ocean datasets originating from the same or even different systems. Standards provide a solution to the above mentioned challenges. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has created Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards that enable different sensor networks to establish syntactic interoperability. When combined with widely accepted controlled vocabularies, they become semantically rich and semantic interoperability is achievable. In addition, Linked Data is the recommended best practice for exposing, sharing and connecting information on the Semantic Web using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and RDF Query Language (SPARQL). As part of the EU-funded SenseOCEAN project, the British Oceanographic Data Centre (BODC) is working on the standardisation of sensor metadata enabling 'plug and play' sensor integration. Our approach combines standards, controlled vocabularies and persistent URIs to publish sensor descriptions, their data and associated metadata as 5 star Linked Data and OGC SWE (SensorML, Observations & Measurements) standard. Thus sensors become readily discoverable, accessible and useable via the web. Content and context based searching is also enabled since sensors descriptions are understood by machines. Additionally, sensor data can be combined with other sensor or Linked Data datasets to form knowledge. This presentation will describe the work done in BODC to achieve syntactic and semantic interoperability in the sensor domain. It will illustrate the reuse and extension of the Semantic Sensor

  11. Young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging: a comparison of EU Tobacco Products Directive & Ireland's Standardisation of Tobacco Act

    PubMed Central

    Babineau, Kate; Clancy, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To measure young people's perceptions of tobacco packaging according to two current pieces of legislation: The EU Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and Ireland's Public Health (Standardisation of Tobacco Products) Act. Design Within-subject experimental cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of secondary school students. School-based pen and paper survey. Setting 27 secondary schools across Ireland, randomly stratified for size, geographic location, gender, religious affiliation and school-level socioeconomic status. Data were collected between March and May 2014. Participants 1378 fifth year secondary school students aged 16–17 in Ireland. Main outcome measures Young people's perceptions of attractiveness, health risk and smoker characteristics of packs according to EU and Irish branding and packaging guidelines. Results Packs with more branding elements were thought to be healthier than standardised packs for Silk Cut (χ2=158.58, p<0.001), Marlboro (χ2=113.65, p<0.001), and Benson and Hedges (χ2=137.95, p<0.001) brands. Generalized estimating equation binary regressions found that gender was a significant predictor of pack attractiveness for Silk Cut, with females being more likely to find the EU packs attractive (β=−0.45, p=0.007). Gender was a significant predictor for females with regards to the perceived popularity of the Silk Cut brand (β=−0.37, p=0.03). Conclusions The removal of brand identifiers, including colour, font and embossing, reduces the perceived appeal of cigarette packs for young people across all three tested brands. Packs standardised according to Irish legislation are perceived as less attractive, less healthy and smoked by less popular people than packs which conform to the EU TPD 2014 guidelines. PMID:26048206

  12. Standardisation of uterine natural killer (uNK) cell measurements in the endometrium of women with recurrent reproductive failure.

    PubMed

    Lash, Gendie E; Bulmer, Judith N; Li, Tin Chiu; Innes, Barbara A; Mariee, Najat; Patel, Gnyaneshwari; Sanderson, Jean; Quenby, Siobhan; Laird, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Considerable work is being carried out on endometrial NK cells to determine whether they play a role in successful pregnancy outcome. In addition there is debate about whether measurements of uNK should be included in the clinical assessment for women with recurrent implantation failure or recurrent miscarriage. A hindrance to taking this forward is the fact that the density of uNK cells reported by different centres is very different. The aim of this study was to determine the reason for these differences and to develop a standardised method. Three centres participated in the study. Each centre exchanged five formalin fixed, wax embedded sections of endometrium from five women. Sections were immunostained for CD56. Images were taken of 10 random fields at ×400 magnification; total stromal and uNK cells were counted using Image J. Results were expressed as % positive uNK cells and the variation in counts obtained in each centre was compared. After initial analysis a standardised protocol was agreed and the process repeated. Significant variation was seen in the counts obtained after initial analysis (Centre A vs.B, mean difference=-0.72 P<0.001; A vs.C mean difference=-0.47 P<0.001; B vs.C, mean difference=0.25 P=0.085). Analysis suggested that differences may be due to duration of tissue fixation, the embedding and sectioning processes, selection of areas for assessment, definition of immunopositive cells and inclusion or exclusion of blood vessels. Adoption of a standardised protocol reduced the variation (Centre A vs.B mean difference=-0.105 P=0.744; A vs.C mean difference=0.219 P=0.150; B vs.C mean difference=0.32 P=0.031). Use of a standardised method is needed to establish a normal range for uNK cells and to develop a meaningful clinical test for uNK cell measurements. PMID:27214130

  13. Effects of Standardised Fermented Papaya Gel on Clinical Symptoms, Inflammatory Cytokines, and Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: An Open Randomised Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Kharaeva, Zaira F; Zhanimova, Lyana R; Mustafaev, Magomet Sh; De Luca, Chiara; Mayer, Wolfgang; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Tiew Siok Tuan, Rebecca; Korkina, Liudmila G

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of topical administration of standardised fermented papaya gel (SFPG), known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, versus conventional therapy was evaluated in a group of 84 patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis, randomly assigned to control group (n = 45) undergoing traditional pharmacologic/surgical protocols or to experimental group (n = 39), additionally treated with intragingival pocket SFPG (7 g) applications (15 min daily for 10 days). Patients undergoing SFPG treatment showed significant (P < 0.05), durable improvement of three major clinical indices of disease severity: reduced bleeding (day 7), plaque and gingival conditions (day 14), and consistent gingival pocket depth reduction (day 45). Proinflammatory nitric oxide metabolites reached normal values in plasma (day 14) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at day 45 with SFPG applications compared to controls that did not reach normalisation. Levels of highly increased proinflammatory (IL-1B, IL-6) and suppressed anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines normalised in the SFPG group by days 14 (plasma) and 45 (GCF), but never in the control group. Although not acting directly as antibiotic, SFPG acted in synergy with human granulocytes blocking adaptive catalase induction in S. aureus in response to granulocyte-derived oxidative stress, thus enhancing intracellular bacterial killing. PMID:26977121

  14. Participation of microRNA 124-CREB pathway: a parallel memory enhancing mechanism of standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08).

    PubMed

    Preethi, Jayakumar; Singh, Hemant K; Charles, Prisila Dulcy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    Bacosides, the effective component of standardised leaf extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) has been reported to have memory enhancing effect. Our previous reports suggested that BESEB CDRI-08 (BME) improves memory in postnatal rats by enhancing serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] metabolism, its transportation and subsequently activates 5-HT(3A) receptor during hippocampus-dependent learning. In this study, we examine whether the up-regulated 5-HT(3A) receptor activity by BME modulate microRNA 124-CREB pathway to enhance synaptic plasticity. Wistar rat pups received single dose of vehicle solution (0.5 % gum acacia + 0.9 % saline)/BME (80 mg/kg)/mCPBG (10 mg/kg)/BME + mCPBG during the postnatal days (PND) 15-29. On PND 30, individuals were trained at brightness discrimination task and 24 h later, they were tested on the task. The BME treated group exhibited significantly lower percentage of errors during retention than acquisition. In addition, pre-miR-124 expression in hippocampus was significantly down-regulated in the BME and mCPBG + BME treated groups combined with a significant increase in the plasticity related genes, cAMP response element-binding protein, its phosphorylation and postsynaptic density protein 95. Our results suggest that this may be one of the mechanisms of bacosides present in BME for the memory enhancement.

  15. Effects of Standardised Fermented Papaya Gel on Clinical Symptoms, Inflammatory Cytokines, and Nitric Oxide Metabolites in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis: An Open Randomised Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Kharaeva, Zaira F.; Zhanimova, Lyana R.; Mustafaev, Magomet Sh.; De Luca, Chiara; Mayer, Wolfgang; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Tiew Siok Tuan, Rebecca; Korkina, Liudmila G.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of topical administration of standardised fermented papaya gel (SFPG), known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, versus conventional therapy was evaluated in a group of 84 patients with moderate-to-severe periodontitis, randomly assigned to control group (n = 45) undergoing traditional pharmacologic/surgical protocols or to experimental group (n = 39), additionally treated with intragingival pocket SFPG (7 g) applications (15 min daily for 10 days). Patients undergoing SFPG treatment showed significant (P < 0.05), durable improvement of three major clinical indices of disease severity: reduced bleeding (day 7), plaque and gingival conditions (day 14), and consistent gingival pocket depth reduction (day 45). Proinflammatory nitric oxide metabolites reached normal values in plasma (day 14) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at day 45 with SFPG applications compared to controls that did not reach normalisation. Levels of highly increased proinflammatory (IL-1B, IL-6) and suppressed anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines normalised in the SFPG group by days 14 (plasma) and 45 (GCF), but never in the control group. Although not acting directly as antibiotic, SFPG acted in synergy with human granulocytes blocking adaptive catalase induction in S. aureus in response to granulocyte-derived oxidative stress, thus enhancing intracellular bacterial killing. PMID:26977121

  16. Participation of microRNA 124-CREB pathway: a parallel memory enhancing mechanism of standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08).

    PubMed

    Preethi, Jayakumar; Singh, Hemant K; Charles, Prisila Dulcy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    Bacosides, the effective component of standardised leaf extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) has been reported to have memory enhancing effect. Our previous reports suggested that BESEB CDRI-08 (BME) improves memory in postnatal rats by enhancing serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] metabolism, its transportation and subsequently activates 5-HT(3A) receptor during hippocampus-dependent learning. In this study, we examine whether the up-regulated 5-HT(3A) receptor activity by BME modulate microRNA 124-CREB pathway to enhance synaptic plasticity. Wistar rat pups received single dose of vehicle solution (0.5 % gum acacia + 0.9 % saline)/BME (80 mg/kg)/mCPBG (10 mg/kg)/BME + mCPBG during the postnatal days (PND) 15-29. On PND 30, individuals were trained at brightness discrimination task and 24 h later, they were tested on the task. The BME treated group exhibited significantly lower percentage of errors during retention than acquisition. In addition, pre-miR-124 expression in hippocampus was significantly down-regulated in the BME and mCPBG + BME treated groups combined with a significant increase in the plasticity related genes, cAMP response element-binding protein, its phosphorylation and postsynaptic density protein 95. Our results suggest that this may be one of the mechanisms of bacosides present in BME for the memory enhancement. PMID:22837048

  17. The development of a color-magnitude diagram for active galactic nuclei (AGN): hope for a new standard candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinnis, G.; Chung, S.; Gonzales, E. V.; Gorjian, V.; Pruett, L.

    2015-12-01

    Of the galaxies in our universe, only a small percentage currently have Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These galaxies tend to be further out in the universe and older, and are different from inactive galaxies in that they emit high amounts of energy from their central black holes. These AGN can be classified as either Seyferts or quasars, depending on the amount of energy emitted from the center (less or more). We are studying the correlation between the ratio of dust emission and accretion disk emission to luminosities of AGN in order to determine if there is a relationship strong enough to act as a predictive model for distance within the universe. This relationship can be used as a standard candle if luminosity is found to determine distances in space. We have created a color-magnitude diagram depicting this relationship between luminosity and wavelengths, similar to the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. The more luminous the AGN, the more dust surface area over which to emit energy, which results in a greater near-infrared (NIR) luminosity. This differs from previous research because we use NIR to differentiate accretion from dust emission. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), we analyzed over one thousand Type 1 Seyferts and quasars. We studied data at different wavelengths in order to show the relationship between color (the ratio of one wavelength to another) and luminosity. It was found that plotting filters i-K (the visible and mid-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum) against the magnitude absolute K (luminosity) showed a strong correlation. Furthermore, the redshift range between 0.14 and 0.15 was the most promising, with an R2 of 0.66.

  18. Using multiple continuous fine particle monitors to characterize tobacco, incense, candle, cooking, wood burning, and vehicular sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Wayne R.; Siegmann, Hans C.

    This study employed two continuous particle monitors operating on different measurement principles to measure concentrations simultaneously from common combustion sources in indoor, outdoor, and in-transit settings. The pair of instruments use (a) photo-charging (PC) operating on the principle ionization of fine particles that responds to surface particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAHs), and (b) diffusion charging (DC) calibrated to measure the active surface area of fine particles. The sources studied included: (1) secondhand smoke (cigarettes, cigars, and pipes), (2) incense (stick and cone), (3) candles used as food warmers, (4) cooking (toasting bread and frying meat), (5) fireplaces and ambient wood smoke, and (6) in-vehicle exposures traveling on California arterials and interstate highways. The ratio of the PC to the DC readings, or the PC/DC ratio, was found to be different for major categories of sources. Cooking, burning toast, and using a "canned heat" food warmer gave PC/DC ratios close to zero. Controlled experiments with 10 cigarettes averaged 0.15 ng mm -2 (ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 ng mm -2), which was similar to the PC/DC ratio for a cigar, although a pipe was slightly lower (0.09 ng mm -2). Large incense sticks had PC/DC ratios similar to those of cigarettes and cigars. The PC/DC ratios for ambient wood smoke averaged 0.29 ng mm -2 on 6 dates, or about twice those of cigarettes and cigars, reflecting a higher ratio of PAH to active surface area. The smoke from two artificial logs in a residential fireplace had a PC/DC ratio of 0.33-0.35 ng mm -2. The emissions from candles were found to vary, depending on how the candles were burned. If the candle flickered and generated soot, a higher PC/DC ratio resulted than if the candle burned uniformly in still air. Inserting piece of metal into the candle's flame caused high PPAH emissions with a record PC/DC reading of 1.8 ng mm -2. In-vehicle exposures measured on 43- and 50-min drives on a

  19. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  20. Anaerobic culture on growth efficient bi-layered culture plate in a modified candle jar using a rapid and slow combustion system.

    PubMed

    Maiti, P K; Haldar, J; Mukherjee, P; Dey, R

    2013-01-01

    Success for maximum isolation of anaerobes depends on maintaining critically low oxygen levels throughout and growth in a reduced medium with exclusion of inhibitory substances. Hence a dual system was used equipped with candle combustion for instant exhaustion of major part of oxygen from a sealed jar, along with acidified steel wool for residual oxygen purging. For inhibitory substances removal, test anaerobes were grown on anaerobic medium layered on buffer charcoal agar bed. After 48 hours incubation average colony sizes were compared with that of growths in conventional Gas-Pak system. Better growths were noted in the innovative system.

  1. Standardised Radon Index (SRI): a normalisation of radon data-sets in terms of standard normal variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockett, R. G. M.; Holt, C. P.

    2011-07-01

    During the second half of 2002, from late June to mid December, the University of Northampton Radon Research Group operated two continuous hourly-sampling radon detectors 2.25 km apart in the English East Midlands. This period included the Dudley earthquake (ML = 5, 22 September 2002) and also a smaller earthquake in the English Channel (ML = 3, 26 August 2002). Rolling/sliding windowed cross-correlation of the paired radon time-series revealed periods of simultaneous similar radon anomalies which occurred at the time of these earthquakes but at no other times during the overall radon monitoring period. Standardising the radon data in terms of probability of magnitude, analogous to the Standardised Precipitation Indices (SPIs) used in drought modelling, which effectively equalises different non-linear responses, reveals that the dissimilar relative magnitudes of the anomalies are in fact closely equiprobabilistic. Such methods could help in identifying anomalous signals in radon - and other - time-series and in evaluating their statistical significance in terms of earthquake precursory behaviour.

  2. Injury surveillance during medical coverage of sporting events--development and testing of a standardised data collection form.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Valuri, G; Ozanne-Smith, J

    1999-03-01

    Medical coverage services have the potential to play a key role in sports injury surveillance activities. Provided that injury surveillance activities are fully coordinated and a standardised data collection procedure is implemented, valuable sports injury information can be obtained by medical coverage personnel. This paper describes the development of a standardised injury data collection form for use by medical coverage personnel during large sporting events. The form was trialed during two large sporting events in Melbourne, Australia in 1995. A range of sports medicine and sports first aid personnel was involved in the trial and injury details were collected on all persons receiving treatment from the coverage team, irrespective of injury severity. The final sports injury data collection form is easy to use, can be used by all types of medical coverage personnel and can provide valuable data in a timely manner. The form has since been adopted as the injury data collection standard at a number of major Australian sporting events. Recommendations for incorporating injury surveillance activities when organising sporting events and planning medical coverage services are given. Suggestions for maximising compliance with data collection procedures are also discussed. PMID:10331475

  3. A critical evaluation of the volume, relevance and quality of evidence submitted by the tobacco industry to oppose standardised packaging of tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    Hatchard, Jenny L; Fooks, Gary J; Evans-Reeves, Karen A; Ulucanlar, Selda; Gilmore, Anna B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the volume, relevance and quality of transnational tobacco corporations’ (TTCs) evidence that standardised packaging of tobacco products ‘won't work’, following the UK government's decision to ‘wait and see’ until further evidence is available. Design Content analysis. Setting We analysed the evidence cited in submissions by the UK's four largest TTCs to the UK Department of Health consultation on standardised packaging in 2012. Outcome measures The volume, relevance (subject matter) and quality (as measured by independence from industry and peer-review) of evidence cited by TTCs was compared with evidence from a systematic review of standardised packaging . Fisher's exact test was used to assess differences in the quality of TTC and systematic review evidence. 100% of the data were second-coded to validate the findings: 94.7% intercoder reliability; all differences were resolved. Results 77/143 pieces of TTC-cited evidence were used to promote their claim that standardised packaging ‘won't work’. Of these, just 17/77 addressed standardised packaging: 14 were industry connected and none were published in peer-reviewed journals. Comparison of TTC and systematic review evidence on standardised packaging showed that the industry evidence was of significantly lower quality in terms of tobacco industry connections and peer-review (p<0.0001). The most relevant TTC evidence (on standardised packaging or packaging generally, n=26) was of significantly lower quality (p<0.0001) than the least relevant (on other topics, n=51). Across the dataset, TTC-connected evidence was significantly less likely to be published in a peer-reviewed journal (p=0.0045). Conclusions With few exceptions, evidence cited by TTCs to promote their claim that standardised packaging ‘won't work’ lacks either policy relevance or key indicators of quality. Policymakers could use these three criteria—subject matter, independence and peer-review status

  4. Anthropometric contribution to standardising manikins for artificial-head microphones and to measuring headphones and ear protectors.

    PubMed

    Burandt, U; Pösselt, C; Ambrozus, S; Hosenfeld, M; Knauff, V

    1991-12-01

    True-to-size head-torso manikins are required for research in the field of artificial-head stereophony as well as for testing and measuring headphones, soundproof helmets, ear protectors and other headgear. Attempts to design a manikin according to the available anthropometric data available proved to be difficult. By testing 77 men with technical jobs, 15 new quantities have been measured, some of them for comparison and some to complete existing measurements. The tests showed that it is absolutely essential to differentiate manikins of the desired qualities from an ethnic point of view. Manikins of different model dimensions should not be standardised according to percentiles but should represent typical head shapes. To this end, thorough measurements have to be made.

  5. Standardising and mapping open-source information for crisis regions: the case of post-conflict Iraq.

    PubMed

    Mubareka, Sarah; Al Khudhairy, Delilah; Bonn, Ferdinand; Aoun, Sami

    2005-09-01

    Painting an accurate picture of the situation on the ground in countries in crisis is vital for the efficiency of humanitarian aid and reconstruction agencies. This study describes a method for standardising and mapping the plethora of open-source information. The test site for the study is post-conflict Iraq. Important information on aid distribution, reconstruction and security in Iraq can be derived from the reports of humanitarian aid agencies and the media, before being formatted, inserted into a database and mapped. The product is a visual, cartographic structure of otherwise random information, showing which organisations are working in the country, which thematic and geographic areas are being prioritized in the field, and which areas most frequently experience security events. This type of mapping not only highlights the overall working environment within different parts of the country, but it may also serve as a decision-making tool for donors and humanitarian aid agencies planning to deploy personnel.

  6. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide.

  7. Inter-individual variability in adaptation of the leg muscles following a standardised endurance training programme in young women.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; Williams, Alun G; Degens, Hans; Jones, David A

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable inter-individual variability in adaptations to endurance training. We hypothesised that those individuals with a low local leg-muscle peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) relative to their whole-body maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) would experience greater muscle training adaptations compared to those with a relatively high VO2peak. 53 untrained young women completed one-leg cycling to measure VO2peak and two-leg cycling to measure VO2max. The one-leg VO2peak was expressed as a ratio of the two-leg VO2max (Ratio(1:2)). Magnetic resonance imaging was used to indicate quadriceps muscle volume. Measurements were taken before and after completion of 6 weeks of supervised endurance training. There was large inter-individual variability in the pre-training Ratio(1:2) and large variability in the magnitude of training adaptations. The pre-training Ratio(1:2) was not related to training-induced changes in VO2max (P = 0.441) but was inversely correlated with changes in one-leg VO2peak and muscle volume (P < 0.05). No relationship was found between the training-induced changes in two-leg VO2max and one-leg VO2peak (r = 0.21; P = 0.129). It is concluded that the local leg-muscle aerobic capacity and Ratio(1:2) vary from person to person and this influences the extent of muscle adaptations following standardised endurance training. These results help to explain why muscle adaptations vary between people and suggest that setting the training stimulus at a fixed percentage of VO2max might not be a good way to standardise the training stimulus to the leg muscles of different people. PMID:20369366

  8. Trends in Canadian hospital standardised mortality ratios and palliative care coding 2004–2010: a retrospective database analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Christopher AKY; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Wilcox, M Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background The hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR), anchored at an average score of 100, is a controversial macromeasure of hospital quality. The measure may be dependent on differences in patient coding, particularly since cases labelled as palliative are typically excluded. Objective To determine whether palliative coding in Canada has changed since the 2007 national introduction of publicly released HSMRs, and how such changes may have affected results. Design Retrospective database analysis. Setting Inpatients in Canadian hospitals from April 2004 to March 2010. Patients 12 593 329 hospital discharges recorded in the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Discharge Abstract Database from April 2004 to March 2010. Measurements Crude mortality and palliative care coding rates. HSMRs calculated with the same methodology as CIHI. A derived hospital standardised palliative ratio (HSPR) adjusted to a baseline average of 100 in 2004–2005. Recalculated HSMRs that included palliative cases under varying scenarios. Results Crude mortality and palliative care coding rates have been increasing over time (p<0.001), in keeping with the nation's advancing overall morbidity. HSMRs in 2008–2010 were significantly lower than in 2004–2006 by 8.55 points (p<0.001). The corresponding HSPR rises dramatically between these two time periods by 48.83 points (p<0.001). Under various HSMR scenarios that included palliative cases, the HSMR would have at most decreased by 6.35 points, and may have even increased slightly. Limitations Inability to calculate a definitively comparable HSMR that include palliative cases and to account for closely timed changes in national palliative care coding guidelines. Conclusions Palliative coding rates in Canadian hospitals have increased dramatically since the public release of HSMR results. This change may have partially contributed to the observed national decline in HSMR. PMID:23131397

  9. Adapting a standardised international 24 h dietary recall methodology (GloboDiet software) for research and dietary surveillance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Min Kyung; Park, Jin Young; Nicolas, Geneviève; Paik, Hee Young; Kim, Jeongseon; Slimani, Nadia

    2015-06-14

    During the past decades, a rapid nutritional transition has been observed along with economic growth in the Republic of Korea. Since this dramatic change in diet has been frequently associated with cancer and other non-communicable diseases, dietary monitoring is essential to understand the association. Benefiting from pre-existing standardised dietary methodologies, the present study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and describe the development of a Korean version of the international computerised 24 h dietary recall method (GloboDiet software) and its complementary tools, developed at the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. Following established international Standard Operating Procedures and guidelines, about seventy common and country-specific databases on foods, recipes, dietary supplements, quantification methods and coefficients were customised and translated. The main results of the present study highlight the specific adaptations made to adapt the GloboDiet software for research and dietary surveillance in Korea. New (sub-) subgroups were added into the existing common food classification, and new descriptors were added to the facets to classify and describe specific Korean foods. Quantification methods were critically evaluated and adapted considering the foods and food packages available in the Korean market. Furthermore, a picture book of foods/dishes was prepared including new pictures and food portion sizes relevant to Korean diet. The development of the Korean version of GloboDiet demonstrated that it was possible to adapt the IARC-WHO international dietary tool to an Asian context without compromising its concept of standardisation and software structure. It, thus, confirms that this international dietary methodology, used so far only in Europe, is flexible and robust enough to be customised for other regions worldwide. PMID:25899045

  10. A certified plasmid reference material for the standardisation of BCR-ABL1 mRNA quantification by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    White, H; Deprez, L; Corbisier, P; Hall, V; Lin, F; Mazoua, S; Trapmann, S; Aggerholm, A; Andrikovics, H; Akiki, S; Barbany, G; Boeckx, N; Bench, A; Catherwood, M; Cayuela, J-M; Chudleigh, S; Clench, T; Colomer, D; Daraio, F; Dulucq, S; Farrugia, J; Fletcher, L; Foroni, L; Ganderton, R; Gerrard, G; Gineikienė, E; Hayette, S; El Housni, H; Izzo, B; Jansson, M; Johnels, P; Jurcek, T; Kairisto, V; Kizilors, A; Kim, D-W; Lange, T; Lion, T; Polakova, K M; Martinelli, G; McCarron, S; Merle, P A; Milner, B; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, G; Nagar, M; Nickless, G; Nomdedéu, J; Nymoen, D A; Leibundgut, E O; Ozbek, U; Pajič, T; Pfeifer, H; Preudhomme, C; Raudsepp, K; Romeo, G; Sacha, T; Talmaci, R; Touloumenidou, T; Van der Velden, V H J; Waits, P; Wang, L; Wilkinson, E; Wilson, G; Wren, D; Zadro, R; Ziermann, J; Zoi, K; Müller, M C; Hochhaus, A; Schimmel, H; Cross, N C P; Emons, H

    2015-02-01

    Serial quantification of BCR-ABL1 mRNA is an important therapeutic indicator in chronic myeloid leukaemia, but there is a substantial variation in results reported by different laboratories. To improve comparability, an internationally accepted plasmid certified reference material (CRM) was developed according to ISO Guide 34:2009. Fragments of BCR-ABL1 (e14a2 mRNA fusion), BCR and GUSB transcripts were amplified and cloned into pUC18 to yield plasmid pIRMM0099. Six different linearised plasmid solutions were produced with the following copy number concentrations, assigned by digital PCR, and expanded uncertainties: 1.08±0.13 × 10(6), 1.08±0.11 × 10(5), 1.03±0.10 × 10(4), 1.02±0.09 × 10(3), 1.04±0.10 × 10(2) and 10.0±1.5 copies/μl. The certification of the material for the number of specific DNA fragments per plasmid, copy number concentration of the plasmid solutions and the assessment of inter-unit heterogeneity and stability were performed according to ISO Guide 35:2006. Two suitability studies performed by 63 BCR-ABL1 testing laboratories demonstrated that this set of 6 plasmid CRMs can help to standardise a number of measured transcripts of e14a2 BCR-ABL1 and three control genes (ABL1, BCR and GUSB). The set of six plasmid CRMs is distributed worldwide by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium) and its authorised distributors (https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/reference-materials/catalogue/; CRM code ERM-AD623a-f). PMID:25036192

  11. A certified plasmid reference material for the standardisation of BCR-ABL1 mRNA quantification by real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    White, H; Deprez, L; Corbisier, P; Hall, V; Lin, F; Mazoua, S; Trapmann, S; Aggerholm, A; Andrikovics, H; Akiki, S; Barbany, G; Boeckx, N; Bench, A; Catherwood, M; Cayuela, J-M; Chudleigh, S; Clench, T; Colomer, D; Daraio, F; Dulucq, S; Farrugia, J; Fletcher, L; Foroni, L; Ganderton, R; Gerrard, G; Gineikienė, E; Hayette, S; El Housni, H; Izzo, B; Jansson, M; Johnels, P; Jurcek, T; Kairisto, V; Kizilors, A; Kim, D-W; Lange, T; Lion, T; Polakova, K M; Martinelli, G; McCarron, S; Merle, P A; Milner, B; Mitterbauer-Hohendanner, G; Nagar, M; Nickless, G; Nomdedéu, J; Nymoen, D A; Leibundgut, E O; Ozbek, U; Pajič, T; Pfeifer, H; Preudhomme, C; Raudsepp, K; Romeo, G; Sacha, T; Talmaci, R; Touloumenidou, T; Van der Velden, V H J; Waits, P; Wang, L; Wilkinson, E; Wilson, G; Wren, D; Zadro, R; Ziermann, J; Zoi, K; Müller, M C; Hochhaus, A; Schimmel, H; Cross, N C P; Emons, H

    2015-02-01

    Serial quantification of BCR-ABL1 mRNA is an important therapeutic indicator in chronic myeloid leukaemia, but there is a substantial variation in results reported by different laboratories. To improve comparability, an internationally accepted plasmid certified reference material (CRM) was developed according to ISO Guide 34:2009. Fragments of BCR-ABL1 (e14a2 mRNA fusion), BCR and GUSB transcripts were amplified and cloned into pUC18 to yield plasmid pIRMM0099. Six different linearised plasmid solutions were produced with the following copy number concentrations, assigned by digital PCR, and expanded uncertainties: 1.08±0.13 × 10(6), 1.08±0.11 × 10(5), 1.03±0.10 × 10(4), 1.02±0.09 × 10(3), 1.04±0.10 × 10(2) and 10.0±1.5 copies/μl. The certification of the material for the number of specific DNA fragments per plasmid, copy number concentration of the plasmid solutions and the assessment of inter-unit heterogeneity and stability were performed according to ISO Guide 35:2006. Two suitability studies performed by 63 BCR-ABL1 testing laboratories demonstrated that this set of 6 plasmid CRMs can help to standardise a number of measured transcripts of e14a2 BCR-ABL1 and three control genes (ABL1, BCR and GUSB). The set of six plasmid CRMs is distributed worldwide by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (Belgium) and its authorised distributors (https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/reference-materials/catalogue/; CRM code ERM-AD623a-f).

  12. Standardised mortality ratio based on the sum of age and percentage total body surface area burned is an adequate quality indicator in burn care: An exploratory review.

    PubMed

    Steinvall, Ingrid; Elmasry, Moustafa; Fredrikson, Mats; Sjoberg, Folke

    2016-02-01

    Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR) based on generic mortality predicting models is an established quality indicator in critical care. Burn-specific mortality models are preferred for the comparison among patients with burns as their predictive value is better. The aim was to assess whether the sum of age (years) and percentage total body surface area burned (which constitutes the Baux score) is acceptable in comparison to other more complex models, and to find out if data collected from a separate burn centre are sufficient for SMR based quality assessment. The predictive value of nine burn-specific models was tested by comparing values from the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and a non-inferiority analysis using 1% as the limit (delta). SMR was analysed by comparing data from seven reference sources, including the North American National Burn Repository (NBR), with the observed mortality (years 1993-2012, n=1613, 80 deaths). The AUC values ranged between 0.934 and 0.976. The AUC 0.970 (95% CI 0.96-0.98) for the Baux score was non-inferior to the other models. SMR was 0.52 (95% CI 0.28-0.88) for the most recent five-year period compared with NBR based data. The analysis suggests that SMR based on the Baux score is eligible as an indicator of quality for setting standards of mortality in burn care. More advanced modelling only marginally improves the predictive value. The SMR can detect mortality differences in data from a single centre. PMID:26700877

  13. A candle means night.

    PubMed

    Granados, V; Casanova, M E; Perkin, G W

    1979-09-01

    The Program for the Introduction and Adaptation of Contraceptive Technology de Mexico (PIACT de Mexico) developed a series of pamphlets for use by rural, illiterate, Mexican women. The graphic design and pictorial sequence were the most important features of the pamphlets which answered questions such as where to obtain oral contraceptives and how to use them. The director of the material development must have rapport with the target audience, who should be involved in the content, sequence, and identification of symbols. Content must be limited to important messages. 10 messages can be portrayed in a pamphlet. Nonverbal materials require more time and effort than verbal materials. Several groups of women were asked to arrange the individual messages into the sequence that was most logical to them. In a test of the pamphlet's effectiveness, 700 interviews of illiterate women found that 70% understood 13 pages and 60-70% could interpret the remaining 3. The pamphlet was 16 pages long and printed in black and white. Backgrounds were kept simple, and a combination of photographs of professional models and line drawings told the stories.

  14. Bell, Book and Candle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichenberg, Fritz

    1984-01-01

    This May Hill Arbuthnot Honor Lecture relates the career of an artist and illustrator of children's books whose best-known works for young children are "Dancing in the Moon" and "Ape in a Cape." School years, apprenticeship, first books, wood engravings, use of illustrations, and the generation gap are highlighted. (EJS)

  15. Candles in April

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Jamila

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author tells a story which has lived in her for more than 25 years. She was in the 7th grade. She remembers April as a time of hardship because that was the month that the "people" came to shut one's power off. They did, that is, if one followed the you-don't-have-to-pay-during-the-winter-because-they-can't-shut-you-off…

  16. Modifying candle soot with FeP nanoparticles into high-performance and cost-effective catalysts for the electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Hao, Jinhui; Yang, Wenshu; Lu, Baoping; Tang, Jilin

    2015-03-14

    Developing inexpensive and highly efficient non-precious-metal electrocatalysts has been proposed as a promising alternative to platinum-based catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Herein, we report novel FeP NPs supported on inexpensive and available candle soot (FeP-CS) derived from Fe3O4-CS hybrid precursors obtained after a phosphidation reaction. As HER electrocatalysts, the FeP-CS hybrids exhibit high electrocatalytic ability for HER with a Tafel slope of 58 mV dec(-1), a low onset overpotential of 38 mV, a large exchange current density of 2.2 × 10(-1) mA cm(-2) and an overpotential of 112 mV to obtain a current of 10 mA cm(-2). The present work shows significant advance in designing and developing non-precious-metal electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. PMID:25685982

  17. The FOBIMO (FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring) initiative—Towards a standardised protocol for soft-bottom benthic foraminiferal monitoring studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenfeld, Joachim; Alve, Elisabeth; Geslin, Emmanuelle; Jorissen, Frans; Korsun, Sergei; Spezzaferri, Silva; Abramovich, Sigal; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Armynot du Chatelet, Eric; Barras, Christine; Bergamin, Luisa; Bicchi, Erica; Bouchet, Vincent; Cearreta, Alejandro; Di Bella, Letizia; Dijkstra, Noortje; Trevisan Disaro, Sibelle; Ferraro, Luciana; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Gennari, Giordana; Golikova, Elena; Haynert, Kristin; Hess, Silvia; Husum, Katrine; Martins, Virginia; McGann, Mary; Oron, Shai; Romano, Elena; Mello Sousa, Silvia; Tsujimoto, Akira

    2012-01-01

    The European Community Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was established to provide guidelines for monitoring the quality of marine ecosystems. Monitoring the status of marine environments is traditionally based on macrofauna surveys, for which standardised methods have been established. Benthic foraminifera are also good indicators of environmental status because of their fast turnover rates, high degree of specialisation, and the preservation of dead assemblages in the fossil record. In spite of the growing interest in foraminiferal bio-monitoring during the last decades, no standardised methodology has been proposed until today. The aim of the FOraminiferal BIo-MOnitoring (FOBIMO) expert workshop, held in June 2011 at Fribourg, Switzerland, which assembled 37 scientists from 24 research groups and 13 countries, was to develop a suite of standard methods. This paper presents the main outcome of the workshop, a list of motivated recommendations with respect to sampling devices, sample storage, treatment, faunal analysis and documentation. Our recommendations fulfil the criteria imposed both by scientific rigour and by the practical limitations of routine studies. Hence, our aim is to standardise methodologies used in bio-monitoring only and not to limit the use of different methods in pure scientific studies. Unless otherwise stated, all recommendations concern living (stained) benthic foraminiferal assemblages. We have chosen to propose two types of recommendations. Mandatory recommendations have to be followed if a study wants to qualify as sound and compatible to the norms. The most important of these recommendations are the interval from 0 to 1 cm below the sediment surface has to be sampled, and an interface corer or box corer that keeps the sediment surface intact is to be used for offshore surveys. A grab sampler must not be deployed in soft sediments. Three replicate samples are to be taken and analysed separately. Samples are to be washed on a

  18. Reference intervals for the markers of proteinuria with a standardised bed-rest collection of urine.

    PubMed

    Kouri, T; Harmoinen, A; Laurila, K; Ala-Houhala, I; Koivula, T; Pasternack, A

    2001-05-01

    Reference intervals for markers of proteinuria or glomerular charge selectivity were measured in 61 healthy female and 61 healthy male individuals. Timed bed-rest and daytime collections were used to assess significance of preanalytical variability of results. Bed-rest collections are advisable for research on renal damage, whereas in routine care, robust protein/creatinine ratios work as practical estimates of protein excretion rates, the correlations to excretion rates improving with increasing proteinuria. For glomerular charge selectivity, pancreatic/salivary isoamylase clearance ratio showed lower within-subject biological variation than IgG/IgG4 clearance ratio, allowing more accurate classification into normal and reduced charge selectivity. With our method, the lower 2.5% reference intervals for isoamylase clearance ratio were 1.1 in men and 1.9 in women.

  19. Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

    2002-09-19

    This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

  20. [Practice report: the process-based indicator dashboard. Visualising quality assurance results in standardised processes].

    PubMed

    Petzold, Thomas; Hertzschuch, Diana; Elchlep, Frank; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Process management (PM) is a valuable method for the systematic analysis and structural optimisation of the quality and safety of clinical treatment. PM requires a high motivation and willingness to implement changes of both employees and management. Definition of quality indicators is required to systematically measure the quality of the specified processes. One way to represent comparable quality results is the use of quality indicators of the external quality assurance in accordance with Sect. 137 SGB V—a method which the Federal Joint Committee (GBA) and the institutions commissioned by the GBA have employed and consistently enhanced for more than ten years. Information on the quality of inpatient treatment is available for 30 defined subjects throughout Germany. The combination of specified processes with quality indicators is beneficial for the information of employees. A process-based indicator dashboard provides essential information about the treatment process. These can be used for process analysis. In a continuous consideration of these indicator results values can be determined and errors will be remedied quickly. If due consideration is given to these indicators, they can be used for benchmarking to identify potential process improvements.

  1. [Practice report: the process-based indicator dashboard. Visualising quality assurance results in standardised processes].

    PubMed

    Petzold, Thomas; Hertzschuch, Diana; Elchlep, Frank; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Process management (PM) is a valuable method for the systematic analysis and structural optimisation of the quality and safety of clinical treatment. PM requires a high motivation and willingness to implement changes of both employees and management. Definition of quality indicators is required to systematically measure the quality of the specified processes. One way to represent comparable quality results is the use of quality indicators of the external quality assurance in accordance with Sect. 137 SGB V—a method which the Federal Joint Committee (GBA) and the institutions commissioned by the GBA have employed and consistently enhanced for more than ten years. Information on the quality of inpatient treatment is available for 30 defined subjects throughout Germany. The combination of specified processes with quality indicators is beneficial for the information of employees. A process-based indicator dashboard provides essential information about the treatment process. These can be used for process analysis. In a continuous consideration of these indicator results values can be determined and errors will be remedied quickly. If due consideration is given to these indicators, they can be used for benchmarking to identify potential process improvements. PMID:25523849

  2. Standardisation of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Salmonella typhi in typhoid fever.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, R; Laxmi, B V; Nisar, N; Ray, K; Kumar, D

    1997-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis of Salmonella typhi infection, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the amplification of the dH flagellin gene of S typhi. Primers were designed from dH flagellin gene sequence which will give an amplification product of 486 base pairs. In tests to study the specificity of the assay, no amplification was seen in non-salmonella strains or salmonella strains with flagellar gene other than "d". Sensitivity tests determined that 28 pg of S typhi target DNA or 3 x 10(2) target bacteria could be detected by the PCR assay. Subsequently, the PCR technique was used for detection of S typhi in blood or clot cultures from 84 patients clinically suspected of having typhoid fever, and from 20 healthy control subjects. Twenty five of 84 samples from clinically suspected cases were positive by PCR; four of which were culture negative. No amplification was seen in samples from patients who were culture positive for organisms other than S typhi or from controls. The time taken for each sample for PCR analysis was less than 48 hours compared with three to five days for blood or clot culture. PCR appeared to be a promising diagnostic test for typhoid fever. Images PMID:9215131

  3. Stress reactivity to and recovery from a standardised exercise bout: a study of 31 runners practising relaxation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, E; Ingjer, F; Holen, A; Sundgot-Borgen, J; Nilsson, S; Holme, I

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To compare the efficacy in runners of two relaxation techniques with regard to exercise reactivity and recovery after exercise. Methods—Thirty one adult male runners were studied prospectively for six months in three groups practising either meditation (n = 11) or autogenic training (n = 11) or serving as controls (n = 10). Before and after the six months relaxation intervention, indicators of reactivity to exercise and metabolism after exercise (blood lactate concentration, heart rate (HR), and oxygen consumption (VO2)), were tested immediately after and 10 minutes after exercise. Resting HR was also assessed weekly at home during the trial. State anxiety was measured before and after the intervention. Results—After the relaxation training, blood lactate concentration after exercise was significantly (p<0.01) decreased in the meditation group compared with the control group. No difference was observed in lactate responses between the autogenic training group and the control group. There were no significant differences among the groups with regard to HR, VO2, or levels of anxiety. Conclusion—Meditation training may reduce the lactate response to a standardised exercise bout. Key Words: autogenic training; lactate; meditation; recovery; relaxation; psychology PMID:10953899

  4. Highly Efficient In Vitro Reparative Behaviour of Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured with Standardised Platelet Lysate Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Palmieri, Francesca; Marrelli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Dental pulp is an accessible source of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The perspective role of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in regenerative medicine demands an in vitro expansion and in vivo delivery which must deal with the safety issues about animal serum, usually required in cell culture practice. Human platelet lysate (PL) contains autologous growth factors and has been considered as valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) in cell cultures. The optimum concentration to be added of such supplement is highly dependent on its preparation whose variability limits comparability of results. By in vitro experiments, we aimed to evaluate a standardised formulation of pooled PL. A low selected concentration of PL (1%) was able to support the growth and maintain the viability of the DPSCs. The use of PL in cell cultures did not impair cell surface signature typically expressed by MSCs and even upregulated the transcription of Sox2. Interestingly, DPSCs cultured in presence of PL exhibited a higher healing rate after injury and are less susceptible to toxicity mediated by exogenous H2O2 than those cultured with FBS. Moreover, PL addition was shown as a suitable option for protocols promoting osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of DPSCs. Taken together, our results indicated that PL is a valid substitute of FBS to culture and differentiate DPSCs for clinical-grade use. PMID:27774106

  5. Increased Standardised Incidence Ratio of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma in Taiwanese Asbestos Workers: A 29-Year Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Kuan; Chang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Jung-Der; Lee, Lukas Jyuhn-Hsiarn

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This paper aimed to determine the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in workers exposed to asbestos in Taiwan. Methods. All workers employed in asbestos-related factories and registered by the Bureau of Labour Insurance between 1 March, 1950, and 31 December, 1989, were included in the study and were followed from 1 January, 1980, through 31 December, 2009. Incident cases of all cancers, including MPM (ICD-9 code: 163), were obtained from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. SIRs were calculated based on comparison with the incidence rate of the general population of Taiwan and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex, and duration of employment. Results. The highest SIR of MPM was found for male workers first employed before 1979, with a time since first employment more than 30 years (SIR 4.52, 95% CI: 2.25–8.09). After consideration of duration of employment, the SIR for male MPM was 5.78 (95% CI: 1.19–16.89) for the workers employed for more than 20 years in asbestos-related factories. Conclusions. This study corroborates the association between occupational asbestos exposure and MPM. The highest risk of MPM was found among male asbestos workers employed before 1979 and working for more than 20 years in asbestos-related factories. PMID:26290869

  6. Standardisation of a novel sperm banking kit - NextGen(®) - to preserve sperm parameters during shipment.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sharma, R; Singh, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, R

    2016-08-01

    Many male patients diagnosed with cancer are within their reproductive years. These men are advised to freeze their spermatozoa prior to the start of cancer treatment. Very often, sperm banking facilities may not be readily available and patients may be required to travel to distant sperm bank centres. Our objective was to design and standardise a remote home shipping sperm kit that allows patients to collect a semen sample at home and ship it overnight to a sperm bank. A total of 21 semen samples and two transport media (refrigeration media and human tubal fluid) and five different combinations of ice packs were tested for maintaining desired shipping temperature. Ten semen samples were assessed for pre- and post-shipment changes in sperm motility, membrane integrity, total motile spermatozoa and recovery of motile spermatozoa. Even though motility, membrane integrity and total motile spermatozoa declined both in samples examined under simulated shipped conditions and in overnight-shipped samples, the observed motility and total motile spermatozoa were adequate for use with assisted reproductive techniques. Using refrigeration media, cooling sleeve and ice packs, adequate sperm motility can be maintained utilising NextGen(®) kit and these spermatozoa can be used for procreation utilising ART techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:26564753

  7. Assessment of two alternative standardised tests for the vascular component of the hand–arm vibration syndrome (HAVS)

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ying; Griffin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Background Vibration-induced white finger (VWF) is the vascular component of the hand–arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Two tests have been standardised so as to assist the diagnosis of VWF: the measurement of finger rewarming times and the measurement of finger systolic blood pressures (FSBPs). Objectives This study investigates whether the two tests distinguish between fingers with and without symptoms of whiteness and compares individual results between the two test methods. Methods In 60 men reporting symptoms of the HAVS, the times for their fingers to rewarm by 4°C (after immersion in 15°C water for 5 min) and FSBPs at 30°C, 15°C and 10°C were measured on the same day. Results There were significant increases in finger rewarming times and significant reductions in FSBPs at both 15°C and 10°C in fingers reported to suffer blanching. The FSBPs had sensitivities and specificities >90%, whereas the finger rewarming test had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 79%. Fingers having longer rewarming times had lower FSBPs at both temperatures. Conclusions The findings suggest that, when the test conditions are controlled according to the relevant standard, finger rewarming times and FSBPs can provide useful information for the diagnosis of VWF, although FSBPs are more sensitive and more specific. PMID:27535036

  8. ‘Wanted—standard guinea pigs’: standardisation and the experimental animal market in Britain ca. 1919–1947

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Robert G.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 1942 a coalition of twenty scientific societies formed the Conference on the Supply of Experimental Animals (CSEA) in an attempt to pressure the Medical Research Council to accept responsibility for the provision of standardised experimental animals in Britain. The practice of animal experimentation was subject to State regulation under the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876, but no provision existed for the provision of animals for experimental use. Consequently, day-to-day laboratory work was reliant on a commercial small animal market which had emerged to sustain the hobby of animal fancying. This paper explores how difficulties encountered in experimental practice within the laboratory led to the problematisation of biomedical science’s reliance upon a commercial market for animals during the inter-war period. This is shown to have produced a crisis within animal reliant experimental science in the early 1940s which enabled the left-wing Association of Scientific Workers to cast science’s reliance on a free market as economically inefficient and a threat to the reliability of British research. It is argued that the development of standard experimental animals in Britain was, therefore, embedded within the wider cultural, societal, political and economic national context of the time. PMID:18761280

  9. Standardisation of a novel sperm banking kit - NextGen(®) - to preserve sperm parameters during shipment.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, A; Sharma, R; Singh, A; Gupta, S; Sharma, R

    2016-08-01

    Many male patients diagnosed with cancer are within their reproductive years. These men are advised to freeze their spermatozoa prior to the start of cancer treatment. Very often, sperm banking facilities may not be readily available and patients may be required to travel to distant sperm bank centres. Our objective was to design and standardise a remote home shipping sperm kit that allows patients to collect a semen sample at home and ship it overnight to a sperm bank. A total of 21 semen samples and two transport media (refrigeration media and human tubal fluid) and five different combinations of ice packs were tested for maintaining desired shipping temperature. Ten semen samples were assessed for pre- and post-shipment changes in sperm motility, membrane integrity, total motile spermatozoa and recovery of motile spermatozoa. Even though motility, membrane integrity and total motile spermatozoa declined both in samples examined under simulated shipped conditions and in overnight-shipped samples, the observed motility and total motile spermatozoa were adequate for use with assisted reproductive techniques. Using refrigeration media, cooling sleeve and ice packs, adequate sperm motility can be maintained utilising NextGen(®) kit and these spermatozoa can be used for procreation utilising ART techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

  10. Material characterization of the clay bonded silicon carbide candle filters and ash formations in the W-APF system after 500 hours of hot gas filtration at AEP. Appendix to Advanced Particle Filter: Technical progress report No. 11, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Alvin, M.A.

    1993-04-05

    (1) After 500 hours of operation in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas environment, the fibrous outer membrane along the clay bonded silicon carbide Schumacher Dia Schumalith candles remained intact. The fibrous outer membrane did not permit penetration of fines through the filter wall. (2) An approximate 10-15% loss of material strength occurred within the intact candle clay bonded silicon carbide matrix after 500 hours of exposure to the PFBC gas environment. A relatively uniform strength change resulted within the intact candles throughout the vessel (i.e., top to bottom plenums), as well as within the various cluster ring positions (i.e., outer versus inner ring candle filters). A somewhat higher loss of material strength, i.e., 25% was detected in fractured candle segments removed from the W-APF ash hopper. (3) Sulfur which is present in the pressurized fluidized-bed combustion gas system induced phase changes along the surface of the binder which coats the silicon carbide grains in the Schumacher Dia Schumalith candle filter matrix.

  11. [Experiences with follow-up investigations of oral vaccination campaigns against rabies in foxes in Saxony with special emphasis on a standardised serology].

    PubMed

    Schaarschmidt, U; Müller, T; Albert, G; Muluneh, A; Cox, J; Selhorst, T; Schlüter, H

    2002-05-01

    An 8-year experience with organisation and standardisation of follow-up investigations within oral vaccination campaigns against rabies in foxes (OVF) in Saxony is summarised. With respect to OVF, the number of diagnostic tests performed during the years 1992-2000 on foxes amounts to a total of 52,226 Fluorescence antibody-(FAT), 7,551 marker-(TC) and 11,645 serological tests. The mean bait-uptake and the mean immunisation rate in foxes ranged between 78-86% and 60-89%, respectively. Based on the seroconversion rates of the years 1997-2000 observed in vaccination areas and in areas where vaccination was already finished, experience with a standardised serology under routine conditions is presented and discussed. Furthermore, recommendations concerning organisation and logistics of sampling are given. PMID:12073494

  12. Standardisation of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho activity concentration using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method.

    PubMed

    Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Rožkov, Andrej

    2016-03-01

    The (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho standardisations using the CIEMAT/NIST efficiency tracing method, that have been carried out in the frame of the European Metrology Research Program project "Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management" are described. The radionuclide beta counting efficiencies were calculated using two computer codes CN2005 and MICELLE2. The sensitivity analysis of the code input parameters (ionization quenching factor, beta shape factor) on the calculated efficiencies was performed, and the results are discussed. The combined relative standard uncertainty of the standardisations of the (129)I, (151)Sm and (166m)Ho solutions were 0.4%, 0.5% and 0.4%, respectively. The stated precision obtained using the CIEMAT/NIST method is better than that previously reported in the literature obtained by the TDCR ((129)I), the 4πγ-NaI ((166m)Ho) counting or the CIEMAT/NIST method ((151)Sm).

  13. The effect of lead time bias on severity of illness scoring, mortality prediction and standardised mortality ratio in intensive care--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tunnell, R D; Millar, B W; Smith, G B

    1998-11-01

    The effect of lead time bias on severity of illness scoring, mortality prediction and standardised mortality ratios was examined in a pilot study of 76 intensive care (ICU) patients using APACHE II, APACHE III and SAPS II scoring systems. The inclusion of data collected in the period prior to ICU admission increased severity of illness scores and estimated risk of hospital mortality significantly for all three scoring systems (p < 0.01) by up to 14 points and 42.7% (APACHE II), 50 points and 26.3% (APACHE III) and 23 points and 33.4% (SAPS II), respectively. Standardised mortality ratios fell from 0.99 to 0.79 (APACHE II), 0.96 to 0.84 (APACHE III) and 0.75 to 0.64 (SAPS II), but these changes failed to reach statistical significance. Lead time bias had most effect in medical patients and on emergency admissions, and least effect in patients admitted from the operating theatre. These trends suggest that mortality ratios may not necessarily reflect intensive care unit performance and indicate that a larger study of the effect of lead time bias, case mix, pre-ICU care or post-ICU management on standardised mortality ratios is indicated. PMID:10023272

  14. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a standardised intracameral combination of mydriatics and anaesthetics for cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Labetoulle, Marc; Findl, Oliver; Malecaze, François; Alió, Jorge; Cochener, Béatrice; Lobo, Conceição; Lazreg, Sihem; Hartani, Dahbia; Colin, Joseph; Tassignon, Marie-José; Behndig, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims To compare the efficacy and safety of intracameral (IC) administration at the beginning of cataract surgery, of Mydrane, a standardised ophthalmic combination of tropicamide 0.02%, phenylephrine 0.31% and lidocaine 1%, to a standard topical regimen. Methods In this international phase III, prospective, randomised study, the selected eye of 555 patients undergoing phacoemulsification with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation received 200 μL of Mydrane (Mydrane group) just after the first incision or a topical regimen of one drop each of tropicamide 0.5% and phenylephrine 10% repeated three times (reference group). The primary efficacy variable was achievement of capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics. The non-inferiority of Mydrane to the topical regimen was tested. The main outcome measures were pupil size, patient perception of ocular discomfort and safety. Results Capsulorhexis without additional mydriatics was performed in 98.9% of patients and 94.7% in the Mydrane and reference groups, respectively. Both groups achieved adequate mydriasis (>7 mm) during capsulorhexis, phacoemulsification and IOL insertion. IOL insertion was classified as ‘routine’ in a statistically greater number of eyes in the Mydrane group compared with the reference group (p=0.047). Patients in the Mydrane group reported statistically greater comfort than the reference group before IOL insertion (p=0.034). Safety data were similar between groups. Conclusions Mydrane is an effective and safe alternative to standard eye drops for initiating and maintaining intraoperative mydriasis and analgesia. Patients who received IC Mydrane were significantly more comfortable before IOL insertion than the reference group. Surgeons found IOL insertion less technically challenging with IC Mydrane. Trial registration number NCT02101359; Results. PMID:26531052

  15. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  16. The Extended Statistical Analysis of Toxicity Tests Using Standardised Effect Sizes (SESs): A Comparison of Nine Published Papers

    PubMed Central

    Festing, Michael F. W.

    2014-01-01

    The safety of chemicals, drugs, novel foods and genetically modified crops is often tested using repeat-dose sub-acute toxicity tests in rats or mice. It is important to avoid misinterpretations of the results as these tests are used to help determine safe exposure levels in humans. Treated and control groups are compared for a range of haematological, biochemical and other biomarkers which may indicate tissue damage or other adverse effects. However, the statistical analysis and presentation of such data poses problems due to the large number of statistical tests which are involved. Often, it is not clear whether a “statistically significant” effect is real or a false positive (type I error) due to sampling variation. The author's conclusions appear to be reached somewhat subjectively by the pattern of statistical significances, discounting those which they judge to be type I errors and ignoring any biomarker where the p-value is greater than p = 0.05. However, by using standardised effect sizes (SESs) a range of graphical methods and an over-all assessment of the mean absolute response can be made. The approach is an extension, not a replacement of existing methods. It is intended to assist toxicologists and regulators in the interpretation of the results. Here, the SES analysis has been applied to data from nine published sub-acute toxicity tests in order to compare the findings with those of the author's. Line plots, box plots and bar plots show the pattern of response. Dose-response relationships are easily seen. A “bootstrap” test compares the mean absolute differences across dose groups. In four out of seven papers where the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was estimated by the authors, it was set too high according to the bootstrap test, suggesting that possible toxicity is under-estimated. PMID:25426843

  17. Multicentre standardisation of a clinical grade procedure for the preparation of allogeneic platelet concentrates from umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Rebulla, Paolo; Pupella, Simonetta; Santodirocco, Michele; Greppi, Noemi; Villanova, Ida; Buzzi, Marina; De Fazio, Nicola; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to a largely prevalent use for bleeding prophylaxis, platelet concentrates from adult blood have also been used for many years to prepare platelet gels for the repair of topical skin ulcers. Platelet gel can be obtained by activation of fresh, cryopreserved, autologous or allogeneic platelet concentrates with calcium gluconate, thrombin and/or batroxobin. The high content of tissue regenerative factors in cord blood platelets and the widespread availability of allogeneic cord blood units generously donated for haematopoietic transplant but unsuitable for this use solely because of low haematopoietic stem cell content prompted us to develop a national programme to standardise the production of allogeneic cryopreserved cord blood platelet concentrates (CBPC) suitable for later preparation of clinical-grade cord blood platelet gel. Materials and methods Cord blood units collected at public banks with total nucleated cell counts <1.5×109, platelet count >150×109/L and volume >50 mL, underwent soft centrifugation within 48 hours of collection. Platelet-rich plasma was centrifuged at high speed to obtain a CBPC with target platelet concentration of 800–1,200×109/L, which was cryopreserved, without cryoprotectant, below −40 °C. Results During 14 months, 13 banks produced 1,080 CBPC with mean (± standard deviation) volume of 11.4±4.4 mL and platelet concentration of 1,003±229×109/L. Total platelet count per CBPC was 11.3±4.9×109. Platelet recovery from cord blood was 47.7±17.8%. About one-third of cord blood units donated for haematopoietic transplant could meet the requirements for preparation of CBPC. The cost of preparation was € 160.92/CBPC. About 2 hours were needed for one technician to prepare four CBPC. Discussion This study yielded valuable scientific and operational information regarding the development of clinical trials using allogeneic CBPC. PMID:26509822

  18. Development of the first standardised panel of two new microsatellite multiplex PCRs for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Lee-Montero, I; Navarro, A; Borrell, Y; García-Celdrán, M; Martín, N; Negrín-Báez, D; Blanco, G; Armero, E; Berbel, C; Zamorano, M J; Sánchez, J J; Estévez, A; Ramis, G; Manchado, M; Afonso, J M

    2013-08-01

    The high number of multiplex PCRs developed for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) from many different microsatellite markers does not allow comparison among populations. This highlights the need for developing a reproducible panel of markers, which can be used with safety and reliability by all users. In this study, the first standardised panel of two new microsatellite multiplex PCRs was developed for this species. Primers of 138 specific microsatellites from the genetic linkage map were redesigned and evaluated according to their genetic variability, allele size range and genotyping reliability. A protocol to identify and classify genotyping errors or potential errors was proposed to assess the reliability of each marker. Two new multiplex PCRs from the best assessed markers were designed with 11 markers in each, named SMsa1 and SMsa2 (SuperMultiplex Sparus aurata). Three broodstocks (59, 47 and 98 breeders) from different Spanish companies, and a sample of 80 offspring from each one, were analysed to validate the usefulness of these multiplexes in the parental assignation. It was possible to assign each offspring to a single parent pair (100% success) using the exclusion method with SMsa1 and/or SMsa2. In each genotyped a reference sample (Ref-sa) was used, and its DNA is available on request similar to the kits of bin set to genotype by genemapper (v.3.7) software (kit-SMsa1 and kit-SMsa2). This will be a robust and effective tool for pedigree analysis or characterisation of populations and will be proposed as an international panel for this species.

  19. STANDARDISATION OF AYURVEDIC OILS

    PubMed Central

    Hepsibah, P.T.A.; Prasad, N.B.R.; Kumar, P. Sanjeev

    1998-01-01

    In the present study we report some physico-chemical standards for Karpooradi taila which is a medicated oil used for the treatment of “Varrthavikaram”. The physicochemical standards and the Thin Layer chromatographic pattern can be used as a finger print standard for Karpooradi taila. PMID:22556856

  20. Standardisation of civanar amritam.

    PubMed

    Saraswathy, A; Rani, M G

    1997-10-01

    Civanar amirtam is a siddha herbo- mineral formulation prescribed for rheumatism, bronchial asthma, tuber culosis and leprosy. Of the nine ingredients which constitute the preparation, four are inorganic and the others are plant drugs, Attempts have been made to chemically analyse and to identify the presence of each ingredient in the medicine to lay down standards. The identification of various chemical constituents present in the plant drugs using TLC technique by comparison with authentic chemicals, along with the physico-chemical parameters and quantification of inorganic ions established the presence of each ingredient. The parameters presented can be considered viable for prescribing dependable standards to this preparation. PMID:22556827

  1. Standardisation of pravala bhasma.

    PubMed

    Rao, V N; Dixit, S K

    1998-01-01

    Now-a-days it has become quite common to use modern electric heating devices in the place of conventional ones. A stud was conducted to standardize the temperature for the preparation of Pravala Bhasma by using Electric Muffle furnace (EMF) The details are presented in this article. PMID:22556842

  2. STANDARDISATION OF PRAVALA BHASMA

    PubMed Central

    Rao, V. Nageshwar; Dixit, S.K

    1998-01-01

    Now-a-days it has become quite common to use modern electric heating devices in the place of conventional ones. A stud was conducted to standardize the temperature for the preparation of Pravala Bhasma by using Electric Muffle furnace (EMF) The details are presented in this article. PMID:22556842

  3. Applying the expanding photosphere and standardized candle methods to Type II-Plateau supernovae at cosmologically significant redshifts . The distance to SN 2013eq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, E. E. E.; Kotak, R.; Leibundgut, B.; Taubenberger, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Kromer, M.

    2016-08-01

    Based on optical imaging and spectroscopy of the Type II-Plateau SN 2013eq, we present a comparative study of commonly used distance determination methods based on Type II supernovae. The occurrence of SN 2013eq in the Hubble flow (z = 0.041 ± 0.001) prompted us to investigate the implications of the difference between "angular" and "luminosity" distances within the framework of the expanding photosphere method (EPM) that relies upon a relation between flux and angular size to yield a distance. Following a re-derivation of the basic equations of the EPM for SNe at non-negligible redshifts, we conclude that the EPM results in an angular distance. The observed flux should be converted into the SN rest frame and the angular size, θ, has to be corrected by a factor of (1 + z)2. Alternatively, the EPM angular distance can be converted to a luminosity distance by implementing a modification of the angular size. For SN 2013eq, we find EPM luminosity distances of DL = 151 ± 18 Mpc and DL = 164 ± 20 Mpc by making use of different sets of dilution factors taken from the literature. Application of the standardized candle method for Type II-P SNe results in an independent luminosity distance estimate (DL = 168 ± 16 Mpc) that is consistent with the EPM estimate. Spectra of SN 2013eq are available in the Weizmann Interactive Supernova data REPository (WISeREP): http://wiserep.weizmann.ac.il

  4. Cross Platform Standardisation of an Experimental Pipeline for Use in the Identification of Dysregulated Human Circulating MiRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Helena; Downing, Tim; Tuite, Nina L.; Smith, Terry J.; Kerin, Michael J.; Dwyer, Róisín M.; Clancy, Eoin; Barry, Thomas; Reddington, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important part in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. A substantial number of miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for diseases. While reverse transcriptase Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is considered the gold standard for the evaluation and validation of miRNA biomarkers, small RNA sequencing is now routinely being adopted for the identification of dysregulated miRNAs. However, in many cases where putative miRNA biomarkers are identified using small RNA sequencing, they are not substantiated when RT-qPCR is used for validation. To date, there is a lack of consensus regarding optimal methodologies for miRNA detection, quantification and standardisation when different platform technologies are used. Materials and Methods In this study we present an experimental pipeline that takes into consideration sample collection, processing, enrichment, and the subsequent comparative analysis of circulating small ribonucleic acids using small RNA sequencing and RT-qPCR. Results, Discussion, Conclusions Initially, a panel of miRNAs dysregulated in circulating blood from breast cancer patients compared to healthy women were identified using small RNA sequencing. MiR-320a was identified as the most dysregulated miRNA between the two female cohorts. Total RNA and enriched small RNA populations (<30 bp) isolated from peripheral blood from the same female cohort samples were then tested for using a miR-320a RT-qPCR assay. When total RNA was analysed with this miR-320a RT-qPCR assay, a 2.3-fold decrease in expression levels was observed between blood samples from healthy controls and breast cancer patients. However, upon enrichment for the small RNA population and subsequent analysis of miR-320a using RT-qPCR, its dysregulation in breast cancer patients was more pronounced with an 8.89-fold decrease in miR-320a expression. We propose that the experimental pipeline

  5. Influence of OSEM and segmented attenuation correction in the calculation of standardised uptake values for [18F]FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Visvikis, D; Cheze-LeRest, C; Costa, D C; Bomanji, J; Gacinovic, S; Ell, P J

    2001-09-01

    Standardised Uptake Values (SUVs) are widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) as a semi-quantitative index of fluorine-18 labelled fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate any bias introduced in the calculation of SUVs as a result of employing ordered subsets-expectation maximisation (OSEM) image reconstruction and segmented attenuation correction (SAC). Variable emission and transmission time durations were investigated. Both a phantom and a clinical evaluation of the bias were carried out. The software implemented in the GE Advance PET scanner was used. Phantom studies simulating tumour imaging conditions were performed. Since a variable count rate may influence the results obtained using OSEM, similar acquisitions were performed at total count rates of 34 kcps and 12 kcps. Clinical data consisted of 100 patient studies. Emission datasets of 5 and 15 min duration were combined with 15-, 3-, 2- and 1-min transmission datasets for the reconstruction of both phantom and patient studies. Two SUVs were estimated using the average (SUVavg) and the maximum (SUVmax) count density from regions of interest placed well inside structures of interest. The percentage bias of these SUVs compared with the values obtained using a reference image was calculated. The reference image was considered to be the one produced by filtered back-projection (FBP) image reconstruction with measured attenuation correction using the 15-min emission and transmission datasets for each phantom and patient study. A bias of 5%-20% was found for the SUVavg and SUVmax in the case of FBP with SAC using variable transmission times. In the case of OSEM with SAC, the bias increased to 10%-30%. An overall increase of 5%-10% was observed with the use of SUVmax. The 5-min emission dataset led to an increase in the bias of 25%-100%, with the larger increase recorded for the SUVmax. The results suggest that OSEM and SAC with 3 and 2 min transmission may be reliably

  6. Influence of OSEM and segmented attenuation correction in the calculation of standardised uptake values for [(18)F]FDG PET.

    PubMed

    Visvikis, D; Cheze-Lerest, C; Costa, D; Bomanji, J; Gacinovic, S; Ell, P

    2001-09-01

    Standardised Uptake Values (SUVs) are widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) as a semi-quantitative index of fluorine-18 labelled fluorodeoxyglucose uptake. The objective of this study was to investigate any bias introduced in the calculation of SUVs as a result of employing ordered subsets-expectation maximisation (OSEM) image reconstruction and segmented attenuation correction (SAC). Variable emission and transmission time durations were investigated. Both a phantom and a clinical evaluation of the bias were carried out. The software implemented in the GE Advance PET scanner was used. Phantom studies simulating tumour imaging conditions were performed. Since a variable count rate may influence the results obtained using OSEM, similar acquisitions were performed at total count rates of 34 kcps and 12 kcps. Clinical data consisted of 100 patient studies. Emission datasets of 5 and 15 min duration were combined with 15-, 3-, 2- and 1-min transmission datasets for the reconstruction of both phantom and patient studies. Two SUVs were estimated using the average (SUVavg) and the maximum (SUVmax) count density from regions of interest placed well inside structures of interest. The percentage bias of these SUVs compared with the values obtained using a reference image was calculated. The reference image was considered to be the one produced by filtered backprojection (FBP) image reconstruction with measured attenuation correction using the 15-min emission and transmission datasets for each phantom and patient study. A bias of 5%-20% was found for the SUVavg and SUVmax in the case of FBP with SAC using variable transmission times. In the case of OSEM with SAC, the bias increased to 10%-30%. An overall increase of 5%-10% was observed with the use of SUVmax. The 5-min emission dataset led to an increase in the bias of 25%-100%, with the larger increase recorded for the SUVmax. The results suggest that OSEM and SAC with 3 and 2 min transmission may be reliably

  7. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer after renal transplant in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and non-SLE recipients

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Brar, Amarpali; Richardson, Carrie; Salifu, Moro O; Clarke, Ann; Bernatsky, Sasha; Stefanov, Dimitre G; Jindal, Rahul M

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated malignancy risk after renal transplantation in patients with and without systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Using the United States Renal Data System from 2001 to 2009, 143 652 renal transplant recipients with and without SLE contributed 585 420 patient-years of follow-up to determine incident cancers using Medicare claims codes. We calculated standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer by group using age, sex, race/ethnicity-specific and calendar year-specific cancer rates compared with the US population. Results 10 160 cancers occurred at least 3 months after renal transplant. Overall cancer risk was increased in both SLE and non-SLE groups compared with the US general population, SIR 3.5 (95% CI 2.1 to 5.7) and SIR 3.7 (95% CI 2.4 to 5.7), respectively. Lip/oropharyngeal, Kaposi, neuroendocrine, thyroid, renal, cervical, lymphoma, liver, colorectal and breast cancers were increased in both groups, whereas only melanoma was increased in SLE and lung cancer was increased in non-SLE. In Cox regression analysis, SLE status (HR 1.1, 95% CI 0.9 to 1.3) was not associated with increased risk of developing cancer, adjusted for other independent risk factors for developing cancer in renal transplant recipients. We found that smoking (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.0), cytomegalovirus positivity at time of transplant (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4), white race (HR 1.2, 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) and older recipient age at time of transplantation (HR 1.0 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) were associated with an increased risk for development of cancer, whereas shorter time on dialysis, Epstein-Barr virus or HIV were associated with a lower risk for development of cancer. Conclusions Cancer risk in renal transplant recipients appeared similar in SLE and non-SLE subjects, aside from melanoma. Renal transplant recipients may need targeted counselling regarding surveillance and modifiable risk factors. PMID:27335659

  8. Protocol for the PACE trial: A randomised controlled trial of adaptive pacing, cognitive behaviour therapy, and graded exercise as supplements to standardised specialist medical care versus standardised specialist medical care alone for patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis or encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter D; Sharpe, Michael C; Chalder, Trudie; DeCesare, Julia C; Walwyn, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS, also called myalgic encephalomyelitis/encephalopathy or ME) is a debilitating condition with no known cause or cure. Improvement may occur with medical care and additional therapies of pacing, cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy. The latter two therapies have been found to be efficacious in small trials, but patient organisations' surveys have reported adverse effects. Although pacing has been advocated by patient organisations, it lacks empirical support. Specialist medical care is commonly provided but its efficacy when given alone is not established. This trial compares the efficacy of the additional therapies when added to specialist medical care against specialist medical care alone. Methods/Design 600 patients, who meet operationalised diagnostic criteria for CFS, will be recruited from secondary care into a randomised trial of four treatments, stratified by current comorbid depressive episode and different CFS/ME criteria. The four treatments are standardised specialist medical care either given alone, or with adaptive pacing therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy. Supplementary therapies will involve fourteen sessions over 23 weeks and a 'booster session' at 36 weeks. Outcome will be assessed at 12, 24, and 52 weeks after randomisation. Two primary outcomes of self-rated fatigue and physical function will assess differential effects of each treatment on these measures. Secondary outcomes include adverse events and reactions, subjective measures of symptoms, mood, sleep and function and objective measures of physical activity, fitness, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. The primary analysis will be based on intention to treat and will use logistic regression models to compare treatments. Secondary outcomes will be analysed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a linear mixed model. All analyses will allow for stratification factors. Mediators and moderators

  9. Repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium of long-lasting flowers of the carnation 'White Candle': role of the gynoecium in carnation flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Nukui, Hideki; Kudo, Sakiko; Yamashita, Atsushi; Satoh, Shigeru

    2004-03-01

    Ethylene production and expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes was investigated in senescing flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) cultivars 'White Candle (WC)' and 'Light Pink Barbara (LPB)', with long and short vase-lives, respectively. Ethylene production from the gynoecium and petals of senescing 'WC' flowers was below the limit of detection, in agreement with the repressed ethylene production from the whole flowers. However, exogenous ethylene treatment caused the accumulation of transcripts for DC-ACS1 and DC-ACO1 genes in both the gynoecium and petals, resulting in ethylene production from the flowers. Moreover, application of ABA or IAA, which are known to exhibit their action through the induction of ethylene synthesis in the gynoecium, to 'WC' flowers from their cut stem-end induced ethylene production and wilting in the flowers. These findings suggested that, in 'WC' flowers the mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis, i.e. the induction of expression of genes for ethylene biosynthesis and the action of resulting enzymes, was not defective, but that its function was repressed during natural senescence. Transcripts of DC-ACO1, DC-ACS3, and DC-ACS1 were present in the gynoecium of senescing 'LPB' flowers. In the gynoecium of senescing 'WC' flowers, however, the DC-ACO1 transcript was present, but the DC-ACS1 transcript was absent and the DC-ACS3 transcript was detected only in a small amount; the latter two were associated with the low rate of ethylene production in the gynoecium of 'WC' flowers. These findings indicated that the repressed ethylene production in 'WC' flowers during natural senescence is caused by the repressed ethylene production in the gynoecium, giving further support for the role of the gynoecium in regulating petal senescence in carnation flowers.

  10. The Expanding Photosphere Method (EPM): Distance Calculations to Type II-P Supernovae and a Comparison with the Standard Candle Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio Enriquez, J.; Leonard, D. C.; Poznanski, D.; Filippenko, A. V.; Chornock, R.; Foley, R. J.; Ganeshalingam, M.; Li, W.; Silverman, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of independent methods to calculate extragalactic distances is important to help constrain cosmological parameters and to provide mutual checks on the external accuracy of other distance measuring techniques. In this work we present EPM distance estimates to a group of nearby (≤150 Mpc) Type II-Plateau Supernovae (SN-IIP) that are drawn from a sample for which distances have previously been determined by Poznanski et al. (2009) using the Standardized Candle Method (SCM), an independent distance-measuring technique for SNe II-P. We use the same photometric and spectral data as was used by Poznanski et al. (2009), which enables a direct comparison between the two techniques. To calculate our EPM distances we use the dilution factors of Jones et al. (2009), which were derived from the atmosphere models of Dessart & Hillier (2005b), and employ the filter subsets {BV}, {BVI}, and {VI}. Our “best” EPM distance estimates are derived as the mean of the three individual distances. We compare the EPM and SCM distance measurements and speculate on potential causes of any discrepancies found between our study and a parallel one carried out by Olivares et al. (2010) using a different dataset (which found a 40% difference between EPM and SCM distances, in the sense that EPM distances were systematically larger). Finally, we use our sample of EPM distances to SNe II-P to estimate the Hubble constant. We are grateful for the financial support of NSF grant AST-0908886, the TABASGO Foundation, and (for DP) an Einstein Fellowship.

  11. Dietary Patterns in Pregnancy and Effects on Nutrient Intake in the Mid-South: The Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Völgyi, Eszter; Carroll, Kecia N.; Hare, Marion E.; Ringwald-Smith, Karen; Piyathilake, Chandrika; Yoo, Wonsuk; Tylavsky, Frances A.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary patterns are sensitive to differences across socio-economic strata or cultural habits and may impact programing of diseases in later life. The purpose of this study was to identify distinct dietary patterns during pregnancy in the Mid-South using factor analysis. Furthermore, we aimed to analyze the differences in the food groups and in macro- and micronutrients among the different food patterns. The study was a cross-sectional analysis of 1155 pregnant women (mean age 26.5 ± 5.4 years; 62% African American, 35% Caucasian, 3% Other; and pre-pregnancy BMI 27.6 ± 7.5 kg/m2). Using food frequency questionnaire data collected from participants in the Conditions Affecting Neurocognitive Development and Learning in Early Childhood (CANDLE) study between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation, dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis. Three major dietary patterns, namely, Healthy, Processed, and US Southern were identified among pregnant women from the Mid-South. Further analysis of the three main patterns revealed four mixed dietary patterns, i.e., Healthy-Processed, Healthy-US Southern, Processed-US Southern, and overall Mixed. These dietary patterns were different (p < 0.001) from each other in almost all the food items, macro- and micro nutrients and aligned across socioeconomic and racial groups. Our study describes unique dietary patterns in the Mid-South, consumed by a cohort of women enrolled in a prospective study examining the association of maternal nutritional factors during pregnancy that are known to affect brain and cognitive development by age 3. PMID:23645026

  12. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones)

    PubMed Central

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  13. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas.

  14. The relevance, biases, and importance of digitising opportunistic non-standardised collections: A case study in Iberian harvestmen fauna with BOS Arthropod Collection datasets (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Merino-Sáinz, Izaskun; Torralba-Burrial, Antonio; Anadón, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we analyse the relevance of harvestmen distribution data derived from opportunistic, unplanned, and non-standardised collection events in an area in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Using specimens deposited in the BOS Arthropod Collection at the University of Oviedo, we compared these data with data from planned, standardised, and periodic collections with pitfall traps in several locations in the same area. The Arthropod Collection, begun in 1977, includes specimens derived from both sampling types, and its recent digitisation allows for this type of comparative analysis. Therefore, this is the first data-paper employing a hybrid approach, wherein subset metadata are described alongside a comparative analysis. The full dataset can be accessed through Spanish GBIF IPT at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/archive.do?r=Bos-Opi, and the metadata of the unplanned collection events at http://www.gbif.es:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=bos-opi_unplanned_collection_events. We have mapped the data on the 18 harvestmen species included in the unplanned collections and provided records for some species in six provinces for the first time. We have also provided the locations of Phalangium opilio in eight provinces without published records. These results highlight the importance of digitising data from unplanned biodiversity collections, as well as those derived from planned collections, especially in scarcely studied groups and areas. PMID:24843271

  15. Towards standardisation and improved understanding of sleep restriction therapy for insomnia disorder: A systematic examination of CBT-I trial content.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Simon D; Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica; Miller, Christopher B; Henry, Alasdair L; Crawford, Megan R; Espie, Colin A; Spielman, Arthur J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction therapy is a core element of contemporary cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia and is also effective as a single-component therapeutic strategy. Since its original description, sleep restriction therapy has been applied in several different ways, potentially limiting understanding of key therapeutic ingredients, mode of action, evidence synthesis, and clinical implementation. We sought to examine the quality of reporting and variability in the application of sleep restriction therapy within the context of insomnia intervention trials. Systematic literature searches revealed 88 trials of cognitive-behavioural therapy/sleep restriction therapy that met pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. All papers were coded in relation to their description of sleep restriction therapy procedures. Findings indicate that a large proportion of papers (39%) do not report any details regarding sleep restriction therapy parameters and, for those papers that do, variability in implementation is present at every level (sleep window generation, minimum time-in-bed, sleep efficiency titration criteria, and positioning of sleep window). Only 7% of papers reported all parameters of sleep restriction treatment. Poor reporting and variability in the application of sleep restriction therapy may hinder progress in relation to evidence synthesis, specification of mechanistic components, and refinement of therapeutic procedures for patient benefit. We set out guidelines for the reporting of sleep restriction therapy as well as a research agenda aimed at advancing understanding of sleep restriction therapy. PMID:25771293

  16. Making the Standard Candle: A study of how the progenitor white dwarf modulates the peak luminosity of type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Edward F

    2010-01-21

    The goals of the proposed research as stated in the proposal were to: • Build a suite of one-dimensional initial models of different metallicities and central densities. • Using the improved flame capturing scheme, simulate the explosion of a white dwarf with embedded Lagrangian tracer particles, and post-process the thermal histories of the tracers to reconstruct the nucleosynthesis of the explosion. • Survey the effects of a changing progenitor metallicity on the isotopic yields. Of particular interest is 1) whether the linear relation between the mass of 56Ni synthesized and the pro- genitor metallicity is moderated by the effect of electron captures in the core; and 2) how a varying central density alters the relation between metallicity and 56Ni mass. • Using these results, examine how the observed metallicity distribution would affect the brightness distribution of SNe Ia and the isotopic ratios about the Fe-peak.

  17. When a Standard Candle Flickers: Gamma-ray Flares and Hard X-Ray Variations in the Crab Nebula since 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen

    The Crab Nebula, one of the most important and best studied astronomical objects, often considered to be a "standard candle" reference source, is now known to be variable, with flares above 100 MeV on 1-day timescales and variability up to ~10% on timescales of ~1 year below 100 keV. These results motivate a search for variability in historical observations and have changed the widely held view that the Crab Nebula is a stable source suitable for calibration. We propose to investigate the past variability of the Crab Nebula by reanalyzing Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO) data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE, 20 keV-1 MeV), the Oriented Scintillating Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE, 40 keV-10 MeV), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL, 1-30 MeV), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET, 20 MeV-30 GeV). We will search for evidence of flares in daily EGRET data, more than doubling the baseline for flare detection, look for lower-energy counterparts to flares, and study their energy dependence using COMPTEL, OSSE, and BATSE. Using the Crab pulsar spectrum from contemporaneous data, we will cross-calibrate the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and CGRO to extend our baseline for studies of long-term (yearly) variations from 15 to 25 years of near-continuous monitoring. Data from BATSE, OSSE, COMPTEL, and EGRET will be used to investigate the energy dependence of these long-term variations, which have not yet been explored with sufficient sensitivity above about 100 keV. Results from this study will be combined with more recent results from RXTE, Swift, INTEGRAL, and Fermi to reveal the 25-year behavior of the Crab. A theorist on our team will use our results for the energy and time dependence of the flaring and long-term behaviors to constrain models of the Crab Nebula and other pulsar wind nebulae.

  18. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties. PMID:27337989

  19. Standardisation of a European measurement method for the determination of total gaseous mercury: results of the field trial campaign and determination of a measurement uncertainty and working range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard J C; Pirrone, N; van Hoek, C; Sprovieri, F; Fernandez, R; Toté, K

    2010-03-01

    Working Group 25 of the European Committee for Standardisation's (CEN) Technical Committee 264 'Air Quality' is currently finalising a standard method for the measurement of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in ambient air, in response to the requirements of the European Union's Fourth Air Quality Daughter Directive (4(th) DD). We report the results of a programme of field measurements and the statistical analysis performed to assess the uncertainty of the proposed standard method, define its working range and determine its compliance with the required data quality objectives of the Fourth Air Quality Daughter Directive. The statistical analysis has shown that the maximum relative expanded uncertainty of 50% allowed by the 4(th) DD is met down to a mercury mass concentration of approximately 0.75 ng m(-3), and that the dominant contribution to this uncertainty is systematic bias between instruments, mainly arising from the uncertainty in the calibration of the instruments.

  20. A basis for translational cancer research on aetiology, pathogenesis and prognosis: Guideline for standardised and population-based linkages of biobanks to cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Dillner, Joakim

    2015-06-01

    Population-based cancer research is paramount for controlling cancer. Cancer research is increasingly dependent on access to biospecimens from subjects that have been followed-up for future health outcomes. This is achieved using longitudinal follow-up of cohorts and biobanks using cancer registry linkages. All over the world, more and more large population-based cohorts and advanced biobanking facilities are established. International standardisation and networking in the linkage of cohorts and biobanks to cancer registries is required in order to enable international cancer research and comparability of research results. An international operating procedure and standard minimum dataset for linkages of biobanks, cohorts and cancer registries is proposed. An internationally comparable provision of well characterised study bases for molecular cancer research will be an essential prerequisite for the success of translational medicine.

  1. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  2. Adapting High-Resolution Respirometry to Glucose-Limited Steady State Mycelium of the Filamentous Fungus Penicillium ochrochloron: Method Development and Standardisation

    PubMed Central

    Schinagl, Christoph W.; Vrabl, Pamela; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fungal electron transport systems (ETS) are branched, involving alternative NADH dehydrogenases and an alternative terminal oxidase. These alternative respiratory enzymes were reported to play a role in pathogenesis, production of antibiotics and excretion of organic acids. The activity of these alternative respiratory enzymes strongly depends on environmental conditions. Functional analysis of fungal ETS under highly standardised conditions for cultivation, sample processing and respirometric assay are still lacking. We developed a highly standardised protocol to explore in vivo the ETS—and in particular the alternative oxidase—in Penicillium ochrochloron. This included cultivation in glucose-limited chemostat (to achieve a defined and reproducible physiological state), direct transfer without any manipulation of a broth sample to the respirometer (to maintain the physiological state in the respirometer as close as possible to that in the chemostat), and high-resolution respirometry (small sample volume and high measuring accuracy). This protocol was aimed at avoiding any changes in the physiological phenotype due to the high phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi. A stable oxygen consumption (< 5% change in 20 minutes) was only possible with glucose limited chemostat mycelium and a direct transfer of a broth sample into the respirometer. Steady state respiration was 29% below its maximum respiratory capacity. Additionally to a rotenone-sensitive complex I and most probably a functioning complex III, the ETS of P. ochrochloron also contained a cyanide-sensitive terminal oxidase (complex IV). Activity of alternative oxidase was present constitutively. The degree of inhibition strongly depended on the sequence of inhibitor addition. This suggested, as postulated for plants, that the alternative terminal oxidase was in dynamic equilibrium with complex IV—independent of the rate of electron flux. This means that the onset of activity does not depend on a

  3. Adapting High-Resolution Respirometry to Glucose-Limited Steady State Mycelium of the Filamentous Fungus Penicillium ochrochloron: Method Development and Standardisation.

    PubMed

    Schinagl, Christoph W; Vrabl, Pamela; Burgstaller, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fungal electron transport systems (ETS) are branched, involving alternative NADH dehydrogenases and an alternative terminal oxidase. These alternative respiratory enzymes were reported to play a role in pathogenesis, production of antibiotics and excretion of organic acids. The activity of these alternative respiratory enzymes strongly depends on environmental conditions. Functional analysis of fungal ETS under highly standardised conditions for cultivation, sample processing and respirometric assay are still lacking. We developed a highly standardised protocol to explore in vivo the ETS-and in particular the alternative oxidase-in Penicillium ochrochloron. This included cultivation in glucose-limited chemostat (to achieve a defined and reproducible physiological state), direct transfer without any manipulation of a broth sample to the respirometer (to maintain the physiological state in the respirometer as close as possible to that in the chemostat), and high-resolution respirometry (small sample volume and high measuring accuracy). This protocol was aimed at avoiding any changes in the physiological phenotype due to the high phenotypic plasticity of filamentous fungi. A stable oxygen consumption (< 5% change in 20 minutes) was only possible with glucose limited chemostat mycelium and a direct transfer of a broth sample into the respirometer. Steady state respiration was 29% below its maximum respiratory capacity. Additionally to a rotenone-sensitive complex I and most probably a functioning complex III, the ETS of P. ochrochloron also contained a cyanide-sensitive terminal oxidase (complex IV). Activity of alternative oxidase was present constitutively. The degree of inhibition strongly depended on the sequence of inhibitor addition. This suggested, as postulated for plants, that the alternative terminal oxidase was in dynamic equilibrium with complex IV-independent of the rate of electron flux. This means that the onset of activity does not depend on a complete

  4. Towards a standardised informed consent procedure for live donor nephrectomy: the PRINCE (Process of Informed Consent Evaluation) project—study protocol for a nationwide prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kortram, Kirsten; Spoon, Emerentia Q W; Ismail, Sohal Y; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest; Hofker, H Sijbrand; Hoksbergen, Arjan W J; Homan van der Heide, Jaap J; Idu, Mirza M; Looman, Caspar W N; Nurmohamed, S Azam; Ringers, Jan; Toorop, Raechel J; van de Wetering, Jacqueline; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Dor, Frank J M F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Informed consent is mandatory for all (surgical) procedures, but it is even more important when it comes to living kidney donors undergoing surgery for the benefit of others. Donor education, leading to informed consent, needs to be carried out according to certain standards. Informed consent procedures for live donor nephrectomy vary per centre, and even per individual healthcare professional. The basis for a standardised, uniform surgical informed consent procedure for live donor nephrectomy can be created by assessing what information donors need to hear to prepare them for the operation and convalescence. Methods and analysis The PRINCE (Process of Informed Consent Evaluation) project is a prospective, multicentre cohort study, to be carried out in all eight Dutch kidney transplant centres. Donor knowledge of the procedure and postoperative course will be evaluated by means of pop quizzes. A baseline cohort (prior to receiving any information from a member of the transplant team in one of the transplant centres) will be compared with a control group, the members of which receive the pop quiz on the day of admission for donor nephrectomy. Donor satisfaction will be evaluated for all donors who completed the admission pop-quiz. The primary end point is donor knowledge. In addition, those elements that have to be included in the standardised format informed consent procedure will be identified. Secondary end points are donor satisfaction, current informed consent practices in the different centres (eg, how many visits, which personnel, what kind of information is disclosed, in which format, etc) and correlation of donor knowledge with surgeons' estimation thereof. Ethics and dissemination Approval for this study was obtained from the medical ethical committee of the Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, on 18 February 2015. Secondary approval has been obtained from the local ethics committees in six participating centres. Approval in the

  5. Age-specific and age-standardised incidence rates for intraoral squamous cell carcinoma in blacks on the Witwatersrand, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Altini, M; Kola, A H

    1985-12-01

    All new cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma which occurred in Blacks resident on the Witwatersrand during the 10-yr period 1971-80 were traced by examining the records of all the hospital pathology departments in this area. The population at risk at the mid-point of the study (1975) was calculated from the National Population Censuses of 1970 and 1980, and consisted of 1125960 men and 880269 women. Age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated for each intraoral site for men and women. In the latter calculation a standard World population was used. All rates are expressed as average number of cases per 100000 population per annum. The age-specific incidence rates and age-standardised incidence rates (in brackets) for men and women respectively are: tongue, 1.43 and 0.26 (2.69 and 0.41); gingiva and alveolar ridge, 0.04 and 0.01 (0.07 and 0.01); floor of mouth, 0.87 and 0.22 (1.64 and 0.38); buccal mucosa, 0.05 and 0.04 (0.13 and 0.05); hard and soft palate, 0.34 and 0.05 (0.63 and 0.08). There appears to have been an increase in the incidence of intraoral cancer in Black South Africans since the first survey in 1953-55, which can probably be ascribed to the urbanization process. In Europe, North America and in other population groups in South Africa, the palate is least frequently affected. In contrast, in Black South Africans lesions of the palate are much more common, being less frequent only than tongue and floor of mouth lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The Dutch Hospital Standardised Mortality Ratio (HSMR) method and cardiac surgery: benchmarking in a national cohort using hospital administration data versus a clinical database

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, S; Pouw, M E; Moons, K G M; Versteegh, M I M; Bots, M L; van der Graaf, Y; Kalkman, C J; van Herwerden, L A; Groenwold, R H H

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of data from hospital administration databases and a national clinical cardiac surgery database and to compare the performance of the Dutch hospital standardised mortality ratio (HSMR) method and the logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation, for the purpose of benchmarking of mortality across hospitals. Methods Information on all patients undergoing cardiac surgery between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2010 in 10 centres was extracted from The Netherlands Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery database and the Hospital Discharge Registry. The number of cardiac surgery interventions was compared between both databases. The European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation and hospital standardised mortality ratio models were updated in the study population and compared using the C-statistic, calibration plots and the Brier-score. Results The number of cardiac surgery interventions performed could not be assessed using the administrative database as the intervention code was incorrect in 1.4–26.3%, depending on the type of intervention. In 7.3% no intervention code was registered. The updated administrative model was inferior to the updated clinical model with respect to discrimination (c-statistic of 0.77 vs 0.85, p<0.001) and calibration (Brier Score of 2.8% vs 2.6%, p<0.001, maximum score 3.0%). Two average performing hospitals according to the clinical model became outliers when benchmarking was performed using the administrative model. Conclusions In cardiac surgery, administrative data are less suitable than clinical data for the purpose of benchmarking. The use of either administrative or clinical risk-adjustment models can affect the outlier status of hospitals. Risk-adjustment models including procedure-specific clinical risk factors are recommended. PMID:24334377

  7. A standardised, generic, validated approach to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anti-cancer therapies: the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS).

    PubMed

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; de Vries, E G E; Piccart, M J

    2015-08-01

    The value of any new therapeutic strategy or treatment is determined by the magnitude of its clinical benefit balanced against its cost. Evidence for clinical benefit from new treatment options is derived from clinical research, in particular phase III randomised trials, which generate unbiased data regarding the efficacy, benefit and safety of new therapeutic approaches. To date, there is no standard tool for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit of cancer therapies, which may range from trivial (median progression-free survival advantage of only a few weeks) to substantial (improved long-term survival). Indeed, in the absence of a standardised approach for grading the magnitude of clinical benefit, conclusions and recommendations derived from studies are often hotly disputed and very modest incremental advances have often been presented, discussed and promoted as major advances or 'breakthroughs'. Recognising the importance of presenting clear and unbiased statements regarding the magnitude of the clinical benefit from new therapeutic approaches derived from high-quality clinical trials, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has developed a validated and reproducible tool to assess the magnitude of clinical benefit for cancer medicines, the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). This tool uses a rational, structured and consistent approach to derive a relative ranking of the magnitude of clinically meaningful benefit that can be expected from a new anti-cancer treatment. The ESMO-MCBS is an important first step to the critical public policy issue of value in cancer care, helping to frame the appropriate use of limited public and personal resources to deliver cost-effective and affordable cancer care. The ESMO-MCBS will be a dynamic tool and its criteria will be revised on a regular basis. PMID:26026162

  8. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of "standard candle” where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass one of these tests, and all but two pass the other. Even with this failure, redundancies in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the "Firmani relation” is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. It is also shown to be derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a luminosity indicator (Epeak) are measured. The result is an irreducible systematic error of 28%. Finally, the work concludes with a discussion about the impact of the work and the future of GRB luminosity relations.

  9. Properties of ceramic candle filters

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of ceramic filter elements is a key issue for hot gas cleanup systems. To meet the demands of the advanced power systems, the filter components must sustain the thermal stresses of normal operations (pulse cleaning), of start-up and shut-down conditions, and of unanticipated process upsets such as excessive ash accumulation without catastrophic failure. They must also survive the various mechanical loads associated with handling and assembly, normal operation, and process upsets. For near-term filter systems, these elements must survive at operating temperatures of 1650{degrees}F for three years.

  10. Not-so-standard candles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Matthew R.

    2015-10-01

    The discovery in the 1990s that the expansion of the universe is accelerating relied on the assumption that type Ia supernovae could all be calibrated to have the same brightness as each other. But as Matthew R Francis reports, new evidence shows that these objects in fact come in two previously indistinguished varieties.

  11. First Candle/SIDS Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sleep sponsored by Delta Children Baby Safety in Day Care and with the Babysitter SPONSORED BY THE BOPPY ... them: Safe Sleep Media Stars Safe Sleep in Day Care Pregnant and Empowered Safe Sleep for Military Parents ...

  12. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  13. Testing and Improving the Luminosity Relations for Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, Andrew

    2011-08-01

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) have several luminosity relations where a measurable property of a burst light curve or spectrum is correlated with the burst luminosity. These luminosity relations are calibrated for the fraction of bursts with spectroscopic redshifts and hence the known luminosities. GRBs have thus become known as a type of 'standard candle'; where standard candle is meant in the usual sense that their luminosities can be derived from measurable properties of the bursts. GRBs can therefore be used for the same cosmology applications as Type Ia supernovae, including the construction of the Hubble Diagram and measuring massive star formation rate. The greatest disadvantage of using GRBs as standard candles is that their accuracy is lower than desired. With the recent advent of GRBs as a new standard candle, every effort must be made to test and improve the distance measures. Here, several methods are employed to do just that. First, generalized forms of two tests are performed on all of the luminosity relations. All the luminosity relations pass the second of these tests, and all but two pass the first. Even with this failure, the redundancy in using multiple luminosity relations allows all the luminosity relations to retain value. Next, the 'Firmani relation' is shown to have poorer accuracy than first advertised. In addition, it is shown to be exactly derivable from two other luminosity relations. For these reasons, the Firmani relation is useless for cosmology. The Amati relation is then revisited and shown to be an artifact of a combination of selection effects. Therefore, the Amati relation is also not good for cosmology. Fourthly, the systematic errors involved in measuring a popular luminosity indicator (Epeak ) are measured. The result is that an irreducible systematic error of 28% exists. After that, a preliminary investigation into the usefulness of breaking GRBs into individual pulses is conducted. The results of an 'ideal' set of data do not

  14. Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE): standardised reporting for model reproducibility, interoperability, and data sharing.

    PubMed

    Quinn, T A; Granite, S; Allessie, M A; Antzelevitch, C; Bollensdorff, C; Bub, G; Burton, R A B; Cerbai, E; Chen, P S; Delmar, M; Difrancesco, D; Earm, Y E; Efimov, I R; Egger, M; Entcheva, E; Fink, M; Fischmeister, R; Franz, M R; Garny, A; Giles, W R; Hannes, T; Harding, S E; Hunter, P J; Iribe, G; Jalife, J; Johnson, C R; Kass, R S; Kodama, I; Koren, G; Lord, P; Markhasin, V S; Matsuoka, S; McCulloch, A D; Mirams, G R; Morley, G E; Nattel, S; Noble, D; Olesen, S P; Panfilov, A V; Trayanova, N A; Ravens, U; Richard, S; Rosenbaum, D S; Rudy, Y; Sachs, F; Sachse, F B; Saint, D A; Schotten, U; Solovyova, O; Taggart, P; Tung, L; Varró, A; Volders, P G; Wang, K; Weiss, J N; Wettwer, E; White, E; Wilders, R; Winslow, R L; Kohl, P

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac experimental electrophysiology is in need of a well-defined Minimum Information Standard for recording, annotating, and reporting experimental data. As a step towards establishing this, we present a draft standard, called Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE). The ultimate goal is to develop a useful tool for cardiac electrophysiologists which facilitates and improves dissemination of the minimum information necessary for reproduction of cardiac electrophysiology research, allowing for easier comparison and utilisation of findings by others. It is hoped that this will enhance the integration of individual results into experimental, computational, and conceptual models. In its present form, this draft is intended for assessment and development by the research community. We invite the reader to join this effort, and, if deemed productive, implement the Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment standard in their own work.

  15. SCAMP: standardised, concentrated, additional macronutrients, parenteral nutrition in very preterm infants: a phase IV randomised, controlled exploratory study of macronutrient intake, growth and other aspects of neonatal care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infants born <29 weeks gestation are at high risk of neurocognitive disability. Early postnatal growth failure, particularly head growth, is an important and potentially reversible risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcome. Inadequate nutrition is a major factor in this postnatal growth failure, optimal protein and calorie (macronutrient) intakes are rarely achieved, especially in the first week. Infants <29 weeks are dependent on parenteral nutrition for the bulk of their nutrient needs for the first 2-3 weeks of life to allow gut adaptation to milk digestion. The prescription, formulation and administration of neonatal parenteral nutrition is critical to achieving optimal protein and calorie intake but has received little scientific evaluation. Current neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens often rely on individualised prescription to manage the labile, unpredictable biochemical and metabolic control characteristic of the early neonatal period. Individualised prescription frequently fails to translate into optimal macronutrient delivery. We have previously shown that a standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimen can optimise macronutrient intake. Methods We propose a single centre, randomised controlled exploratory trial of two standardised, concentrated neonatal parenteral nutrition regimens comparing a standard macronutrient content (maximum protein 2.8 g/kg/day; lipid 2.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 10%) with a higher macronutrient content (maximum protein 3.8 g/kg/day; lipid 3.8 g/kg/day, dextrose 12%) over the first 28 days of life. 150 infants 24-28 completed weeks gestation and birthweight <1200 g will be recruited. The primary outcome will be head growth velocity in the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcomes will include a) auxological data between birth and 36 weeks corrected gestational age b) actual macronutrient intake in first 28 days c) biomarkers of biochemical and metabolic tolerance d) infection biomarkers and

  16. Improved Element Production Networks for Type Ia Supernova Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupryna, Viktor; Budiardja, Reuben; Guidry, Mike

    2004-11-01

    The cosmological implications of Type Ia supernovae depend crucially on their assumed standardizable candle properties. Therefore it is highly desirable to understand the detailed mechanism of the Ia supernova explosion from a fundamental point of view. There is some consensus that Type Ia supernovae result when a white dwarf in a binary star system is driven to the Chandrasekhar limit by accretion from a companion star, with the resulting instability triggering a thermonuclear runaway that burns most of the white dwarf to iron and nickel. However, the details of this mechanism are very poorly understood. The energy released in the supernovae comes primarily from the element and energy production network that powers the thermonuclear flash, but in most simulations of Ia explosions this network and its coupling to the hydrodynamics are treated only in an approximate fashion. In this presentation we shall discuss our current efforts to incorporate an improved description of energy generation networks coupled to hydrodynamics in Type Ia supernova simulations.

  17. Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and related databases.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J; Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W; Poore, Gary C B; van Soest, Rob W M; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim; Appeltans, Ward

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  18. Global Coordination and Standardisation in Marine Biodiversity through the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) and Related Databases

    PubMed Central

    Bouchet, Philippe; Boxshall, Geoff; Fauchald, Kristian; Gordon, Dennis; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Poore, Gary C. B.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Stöhr, Sabine; Walter, T. Chad; Vanhoorne, Bart; Decock, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The World Register of Marine Species is an over 90% complete open-access inventory of all marine species names. Here we illustrate the scale of the problems with species names, synonyms, and their classification, and describe how WoRMS publishes online quality assured information on marine species. Within WoRMS, over 100 global, 12 regional and 4 thematic species databases are integrated with a common taxonomy. Over 240 editors from 133 institutions and 31 countries manage the content. To avoid duplication of effort, content is exchanged with 10 external databases. At present WoRMS contains 460,000 taxonomic names (from Kingdom to subspecies), 368,000 species level combinations of which 215,000 are currently accepted marine species names, and 26,000 related but non-marine species. Associated information includes 150,000 literature sources, 20,000 images, and locations of 44,000 specimens. Usage has grown linearly since its launch in 2007, with about 600,000 unique visitors to the website in 2011, and at least 90 organisations from 12 countries using WoRMS for their data management. By providing easy access to expert-validated content, WoRMS improves quality control in the use of species names, with consequent benefits to taxonomy, ecology, conservation and marine biodiversity research and management. The service manages information on species names that would otherwise be overly costly for individuals, and thus minimises errors in the application of nomenclature standards. WoRMS' content is expanding to include host-parasite relationships, additional literature sources, locations of specimens, images, distribution range, ecological, and biological data. Species are being categorised as introduced (alien, invasive), of conservation importance, and on other attributes. These developments have a multiplier effect on its potential as a resource for biodiversity research and management. As a consequence of WoRMS, we are witnessing improved communication within the

  19. Standardisation of platelet counting accuracy in blood banks by reference to an automated immunoplatelet procedure: comparative evaluation of Cell-Dyn CD4000 impedance and optical platelet counts.

    PubMed

    Johannessen, B; Haugen, T; Scott, C S

    2001-10-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic platelet transfusions are increasingly used for patients with conditions associated with thrombocytopenia in order to prevent the development of potentially life threatening bleeding. These clinical strategies have led to a significant expansion in platelet unit manufacture, and this now represents a major resource and cost commitment for blood banks. As part of the manufacturing process, blood banks are required to implement control procedures, and the determination of platelet counts in particular is necessary to confirm that the quality of platelet unit production meets the standards defined by national or international guidelines. Apart from linearity analysis and comparisons of platelet counts given by different instruments, there has been no systematic standardisation of platelet counting methods in blood bank practice because to date there has been no suitable reference method for counting platelets in citrate anticoagulants. The recent introduction of an automated immunoplatelet procedure on the Cell-Dyn CD4000 provides a means of determining a true platelet count that is unaffected by changes induced either by storage or anticoagulant. The CD4000 in its routine configuration also provides simultaneous impedance and optical platelet counts and this study was therefore undertaken in order to compare all three different platelet counting methods in parallel with a representative series of platelet units. Platelet counts determined after sub-sampling of platelet units into EDTA vs plain non-anticoagulated tubes revealed no differences in impedance or immunoplatelet counts but generally lower optical counts when aliquoted into tubes that did not contain EDTA. This study therefore routinely used EDTA for platelet unit sub-samples. Comparative results of platelet counts for buffy coat platelet units (n = 36) aliquoted into EDTA indicated that the impedance count was higher than the reference immunoplatelet count by a mean factor of 1

  20. Behavioural and Electrophysiological Evidence of Impaired Learning and Memory in Male Sprague Dawley Rats following Subchronic Exposure to Standardised Methanolic Extract of Mitragyna speciosa Korth

    PubMed Central

    ILMIE, Mohd Ulul; MANSOR, Sharif Mahsufi; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mitragyna speciosa (MS) or ketum is primarily found in Southeast Asia, particularly in northern Malaysia and Thailand. The medicinal value of this plant has attracted significant attention from both herbal medicine practitioners and scientists worldwide. Despite having illegal consumption status, the plant merits study. We conducted a series of experiments to test our hypothesis that ketum impairs both learning and memory in rats. Methods: Ketum leaves were extracted using methanol and standardised for the amount of its pure compound, mitragynine. Rats were divided into groups for a passive avoidance task and long-term potentiation (LTP) extracellular recording. In the extracellular recording condition, rats were grouped into control, MS100 (100 mg/kg of ketum extract), MS200 (200 mg/kg of ketum extract), and MS500 (500 mg/kg of ketum extract) groups. An additional group that received morphine was included in the passive avoidance task (10 mg/kg), and there were six animals per group. Rats received daily treatments orally for 28 days for both experiments. Result: Using a passive avoidance task, our data revealed that the rats' memory significantly increased with increasing doses of MS compared to the morphine-treated group. Our findings from LTP recordings showed that LTP was fully blocked by the higher doses of MS. Conclusion: We speculate on the possibility that additional factors were involved in the passive avoidance task because it was an in vivo animal study, while the LTP experiment solely involved brain slices. PMID:27006637

  1. Standardisation of egg-viability assays for Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi: A tool for evaluating new technologies of parasite control.

    PubMed

    Chryssafidis, Andreas Lazaros; Fu, Yan; De Waal, Theo; Mulcahy, Grace

    2015-05-30

    Fasciola hepatica and Calicophoron daubneyi, liver and rumen flukes respectively, infect ruminants throughout Europe. There is considerable interest in the development of vaccines and in testing new potential anthelmintic agents against these species. One potential target of new control measures is the parasite egg, as interference at this stage of the life cycle could aid in blocking the transmission of infection, and some experimental vaccines have been shown to affect egg viability. In this study, we describe the standardisation of protocols to evaluate the viability of eggs of these two parasites. Eggs were recovered from adult parasites collected in a commercial abattoir, from naturally infected cattle. A protocol for in vitro development of F. hepatica eggs was optimised based on previously published methods, with variations in duration and temperature of incubation. A new protocol for measurement of rumen fluke egg development in vitro was designed, based on testing different temperatures and periods of incubation, with or without light exposure. The protocols described here may be used in the future for comparing experimental groups when new technologies for parasite control are tested. In addition, the methods described for C. daubneyi present new information on the biology of this parasite.

  2. Standardised Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Healthcare: An Overview of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of RCTs

    PubMed Central

    Gotink, Rinske A.; Chu, Paula; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Benson, Herbert; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Hunink, M. G. Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based therapies are being used in a wide range of common chronic conditions in both treatment and prevention despite lack of consensus about their effectiveness in different patient categories. Objective To systematically review the evidence of effectiveness MBSR and MBCT in different patient categories. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of systematic reviews of RCTs, using the standardized MBSR or MBCT programs. We used PRISMA guidelines to assess the quality of the included reviews and performed a random effects meta-analysis with main outcome measure Cohen’s d. All types of participants were considered. Results The search produced 187 reviews: 23 were included, covering 115 unique RCTs and 8,683 unique individuals with various conditions. Compared to wait list control and compared to treatment as usual, MBSR and MBCT significantly improved depressive symptoms (d=0.37; 95%CI 0.28 to 0.45, based on 5 reviews, N=2814), anxiety (d=0.49; 95%CI 0.37 to 0.61, based on 4 reviews, N=2525), stress (d=0.51; 95%CI 0.36 to 0.67, based on 2 reviews, N=1570), quality of life (d=0.39; 95%CI 0.08 to 0.70, based on 2 reviews, N=511) and physical functioning (d=0.27; 95%CI 0.12 to 0.42, based on 3 reviews, N=1015). Limitations include heterogeneity within patient categories, risk of publication bias and limited long-term follow-up in several studies. Conclusion The evidence supports the use of MBSR and MBCT to alleviate symptoms, both mental and physical, in the adjunct treatment of cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic pain, depression, anxiety disorders and in prevention in healthy adults and children. PMID:25881019

  3. Improvement, trust, and the healthcare workforce

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, D

    2003-01-01

    Although major defects in the performance of healthcare systems are well documented, progress toward remedy remains slow. Accelerating improvement will require large shifts in attitudes toward and strategies for developing the healthcare workforce. At present, prevailing strategies rely largely on outmoded theories of control and standardisation of work. More modern, and much more effective, theories of production seek to harness the imagination and participation of the workforce in reinventing the system. This requires a workforce capable of setting bold aims, measuring progress, finding alternative designs for the work itself, and testing changes rapidly and informatively. It also requires a high degree of trust in many forms, a bias toward teamwork, and a predilection toward shouldering the burden of improvement, rather than blaming external factors. A new healthcare workforce strategy, founded on these principles, will yield much faster improvement than at present. PMID:14645740

  4. Standardised packaging and new enlarged graphic health warnings for tobacco products in Australia—legislative requirements and implementation of the Tobacco Plain Packaging Act 2011 and the Competition and Consumer (Tobacco) Information Standard, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Scollo, Michelle; Lindorff, Kylie; Coomber, Kerri; Bayly, Megan; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development, content and implementation of two pieces of Australian tobacco control legislation: one to standardise the packaging of tobacco products and the other to introduce new, enlarged graphic health warnings. It describes the process of legislative drafting, public consultation and parliamentary consideration. It summarises exactly how tobacco products have been required to look since late 2012. Finally, it describes implementation, most particularly, the extent to which packs compliant with the legislation became available to consumers over time.

  5. Evaluation of the effect of mycotoxin binders in animal feed on the analytical performance of standardised methods for the determination of mycotoxins in feed.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, A; Stroka, J

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the use of substances that can suppress or reduce absorption, promote the excretion of mycotoxins or modify their mode of action in feed, so-called mycotoxin binders, has been officially allowed in the European Union as technological feed additives. The influence of the addition of mycotoxin binders to animal feed on the analytical performance of the official methods for the determination of mycotoxins was studied and the results are presented. Where possible standardised methods for analysis were applied. Samples of 20 commercial mycotoxin binders were collected from various companies. The following mycotoxins were included in the study: aflatoxin B₁, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B₁ and B₂, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A binder (or binders combined in a group) was mixed with feed material containing the mycotoxin, and the feed material was analysed. For data evaluation, the mean values were compared by Student's t-test (an independent two-sample t-test with unequal sample sizes and equal variance). The repeatability standard deviation of each method was used as an estimate of method variability. No significant differences (p = 0.05) in mycotoxin levels between binder-free material and the material containing different binders were found. Further, the possible effects of binder addition in combination with processing (pelletising) on the amount of aflatoxin B₁ determined in feed were studied. Three commercial mycotoxin binders containing hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) as the main component were used in these experiments. Feed samples with and without mycotoxin binders were pelletised with and without steam treatment. After pelletising, materials were analysed for AFB₁. Only the combination pelletising and a mixture of binders added at a total level of 1.2% had a significant effect (41% reduction) on the amount of AFB₁ determined.

  6. Do larger graphic health warnings on standardised cigarette packs increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of consumer health information and beliefs about smoking-related harms?

    PubMed Central

    White, Victoria; Williams, Tahlia; Faulkner, Agatha; Wakefield, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of plain packaging of cigarettes with enhanced graphic health warnings on Australian adolescents’ cognitive processing of warnings and awareness of different health consequences of smoking. Methods Cross-sectional school-based surveys conducted in 2011 (prior to introduction of standardised packaging, n=6338) and 2013 (7–12 months afterwards, n=5915). Students indicated frequency of attending to, reading, thinking or talking about warnings. Students viewed a list of diseases or health effects and were asked to indicate whether each was caused by smoking. Two—‘kidney and bladder cancer’ and ‘damages gums and teeth’—were new while the remainder had been promoted through previous health warnings and/or television campaigns. The 60% of students seeing a cigarette pack in previous 6 months in 2011 and 65% in 2013 form the sample for analysis. Changes in responses over time are examined. Results Awareness that smoking causes bladder cancer increased between 2011 and 2013 (p=0.002). There was high agreement with statements reflecting health effects featured in previous warnings or advertisements with little change over time. Exceptions to this were increases in the proportion agreeing that smoking was a leading cause of death (p<0.001) and causes blindness (p<0.001). The frequency of students reading, attending to, thinking or talking about the health warnings on cigarette packs did not change. Conclusions Acknowledgement of negative health effects of smoking among Australian adolescents remains high. Apart from increased awareness of bladder cancer, new requirements for packaging and health warnings did not increase adolescents’ cognitive processing of warning information.

  7. Standardisation and comparison of serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using different antigenic preparations of the Babesia (Theileria) equi parasite.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Yogesh; Malhotra, Dharam V; Dhar, Shruti; Nichani, Anil K

    2003-01-01

    Serial dilution and single dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were standardised and their sensitivity and specificity were compared for serodiagnosis of Babesia equi infection. The antibody titres of 24 donkey sera of known identity were determined separately by serial dilution ELISA using three different B. equi antigens namely whole merozoite (WM), cell membrane (CM) and high speed supernatant (HSS). The ratios of the optical density (OD) of known positive and known negative sera at different serum dilutions were calculated and termed as the positive/negative (P/N) ratio. The coefficients of correlation (r) were calculated between the P/N ratios at different dilutions of sera and the log10 antibody titres of the same sera were ascertained by serial dilution ELISA. The highest value of 'r' was obtained at a serum dilution of 1:200. From log10 antibody titre of sera (y) and their P/N ratio at a dilution of 1:200 (x), regression equations (y = a + bx) were calculated separately for the three antigens. Test sera were diluted to 1:200, their OD were read in duplicate wells and were converted to the P/N ratio. Antibody titres were predicted from the P/N ratio using a regression equation separately for the three antigens. Titres obtained by both ELISAs were not significantly different from each other, thus confirming that single dilution ELISA could be successfully used to replace conventional serial dilution ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of single dilution ELISA was validated statistically using 42 B. equi disease-positive sera and 106 B. equi disease-negative sera. The WM antigen was found to be the most sensitive with a higher predictive value for negative test sera as compared to the CM or HSS antigens. Sera positive for other equine infections including Babesia caballi showed no cross-reaction with the three B. equi antigens in ELISA, thus the test was immunologically specific. Antibody titres of 109 unknown field donkey

  8. Representation and Misrepresentation of Scientific Evidence in Contemporary Tobacco Regulation: A Review of Tobacco Industry Submissions to the UK Government Consultation on Standardised Packaging

    PubMed Central

    Ulucanlar, Selda; Fooks, Gary J.; Hatchard, Jenny L.; Gilmore, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Standardised packaging (SP) of tobacco products is an innovative tobacco control measure opposed by transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) whose responses to the UK government's public consultation on SP argued that evidence was inadequate to support implementing the measure. The government's initial decision, announced 11 months after the consultation closed, was to wait for ‘more evidence’, but four months later a second ‘independent review’ was launched. In view of the centrality of evidence to debates over SP and TTCs' history of denying harms and manufacturing uncertainty about scientific evidence, we analysed their submissions to examine how they used evidence to oppose SP. Methods and Findings We purposively selected and analysed two TTC submissions using a verification-oriented cross-documentary method to ascertain how published studies were used and interpretive analysis with a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine the conceptual significance of TTC critiques. The companies' overall argument was that the SP evidence base was seriously flawed and did not warrant the introduction of SP. However, this argument was underpinned by three complementary techniques that misrepresented the evidence base. First, published studies were repeatedly misquoted, distorting the main messages. Second, ‘mimicked scientific critique’ was used to undermine evidence; this form of critique insisted on methodological perfection, rejected methodological pluralism, adopted a litigation (not scientific) model, and was not rigorous. Third, TTCs engaged in ‘evidential landscaping’, promoting a parallel evidence base to deflect attention from SP and excluding company-held evidence relevant to SP. The study's sample was limited to sub-sections of two out of four submissions, but leaked industry documents suggest at least one other company used a similar approach. Conclusions The TTCs' claim that SP will not lead to public health benefits is largely

  9. Clues for a standardised thermal-optical protocol for the assessment of organic and elemental carbon within ambient air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, L.; Verlhac, S.; Aujay, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Putaud, J. P.; Sciare, J.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Liousse, C.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Alleman, L. Y.; Panteliadis, P.; Leoz, E.; Favez, O.

    2014-06-01

    measurements. Nevertheless, this should be confirmed by further experiments, involving more samples and various instruments, to enable statistical processing. All these results provide insights to determine the quality of EC-OC analytical methods and may contribute to the work toward establishing method standardisation.

  10. Clues for a standardised thermal-optical protocol for the assessment of organic and elemental carbon within ambient air particulate matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, L.; Verlhac, S.; Aujay, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Putaud, J. P.; Sciare, J.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Liousse, C.; Gally-Lacaux, C.; Alleman, L.; Panteliadis, P.; Leoz, E.; Favez, O.

    2013-11-01

    . Nevertheless, this should be confirmed by further experiments, involving more samples and various instruments, to enable statistical processing. All these results provide insights to determine the quality of EC-OC analytical methods and may contribute to the work toward establishing method standardisation.

  11. Using interprofessional simulation to improve collaborative competences for nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy students.

    PubMed

    King, Judy; Beanlands, Sarah; Fiset, Valerie; Chartrand, Louise; Clarke, Shelley; Findlay, Tarra; Morley, Michelle; Summers, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Within the care of people living with respiratory conditions, nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy healthcare professionals routinely work in interprofessional teams. To help students prepare for their future professional roles, there is a need for them to be involved in interprofessional education. The purpose of this project was to compare two different methods of patient simulation in improving interprofessional competencies for students in nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy programmes. The Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative competencies of communication, collaboration, conflict resolution patient/family-centred care, roles and responsibilities, and team functioning were measured. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post intervention approach two different interprofessional workshops were compared: the combination of standardised and simulated patients, and exclusively standardised patients. Students from nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy programmes worked together in these simulation-based activities to plan and implement care for a patient with a respiratory condition. Key results were that participants in both years improved in their self-reported interprofessional competencies as measured by the Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey (ICCAS). Participants indicated that they found their interprofessional teams did well with communication and collaboration. But the participants felt they could have better involved the patients and their family members in the patient's care. Regardless of method of patient simulation used, mannequin or standardised patients, students found the experience beneficial and appreciated the opportunity to better understand the roles of other healthcare professionals in working together to help patients living with respiratory conditions. PMID:27340933

  12. Using interprofessional simulation to improve collaborative competences for nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy students.

    PubMed

    King, Judy; Beanlands, Sarah; Fiset, Valerie; Chartrand, Louise; Clarke, Shelley; Findlay, Tarra; Morley, Michelle; Summers, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Within the care of people living with respiratory conditions, nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy healthcare professionals routinely work in interprofessional teams. To help students prepare for their future professional roles, there is a need for them to be involved in interprofessional education. The purpose of this project was to compare two different methods of patient simulation in improving interprofessional competencies for students in nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy programmes. The Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative competencies of communication, collaboration, conflict resolution patient/family-centred care, roles and responsibilities, and team functioning were measured. Using a quasi-experimental pre-post intervention approach two different interprofessional workshops were compared: the combination of standardised and simulated patients, and exclusively standardised patients. Students from nursing, physiotherapy, and respiratory therapy programmes worked together in these simulation-based activities to plan and implement care for a patient with a respiratory condition. Key results were that participants in both years improved in their self-reported interprofessional competencies as measured by the Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey (ICCAS). Participants indicated that they found their interprofessional teams did well with communication and collaboration. But the participants felt they could have better involved the patients and their family members in the patient's care. Regardless of method of patient simulation used, mannequin or standardised patients, students found the experience beneficial and appreciated the opportunity to better understand the roles of other healthcare professionals in working together to help patients living with respiratory conditions.

  13. Development of Simulation System for Hot Gas Filtration by Ceramic Candle Filters on High Temperature and/or High Pressure Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.J.; Lim, J.H.; Kim, S.D.; Choi, H.K.; Park, H,S.; Park, Y.O.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas filtration from industrial processes offers various advantages in terms of improvement of process efficiencies, heat recovery and protection of plant installation. Especially hot gas filtration is an essential technology for pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC).

  14. Measurement of the Inclusive $Z \\to ee$ Production Cross Section in Proton-Proton Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7TeV and $Z \\to ee$ Decays as Standard Candles for Luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This thesis comprises a precision measurement of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section in proton-proton collisions provided by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV and the absolute luminosity based on \\Zee decays. The data was collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector near Geneva, Switzerland during the year of 2010 and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $\\int\\mathcal{L}dt = 35.9\\pm 1.4$~pb$^{-1}$. Electronic decays of $Z$ bosons allow one of the first electroweak measurements at the LHC, making the cross section measurement a benchmark of physics performance after the first year of CMS detector and LHC machine operations. It is the first systematic uncertainty limited \\Zee cross section measurement performed at $\\sqrt{s}=7$~TeV. The measured cross section pertaining to the invariant mass window $M_{ee}\\in (60,120)$~GeV is reported as: $\\sigma(pp\\to Z+X) \\times \\mathcal{B}( Z\\to ee ) = 997 \\pm 11 \\mathrm{(sta t)} \\pm 19 \\mathrm{(syst)} \\pm 40 \\mathrm{(lumi)} \\textrm{ pb}$, which agrees with the theoretical prediction calculated to NNLO in QCD. Leveraging \\Zee decays as ``standard candles'' for measuring the absolute luminosity at the LHC is examined; they are produced copiously, are well understood, and have clean detector signatures. Thus the consistency of the inclusive \\Zee production cross section measurement with the theoretical prediction motivates inverting the measurement to instead use the \\Zee signal yield to measure the luminosity. The result, which agrees with the primary relative CMS luminosity measurement calibrated using Van der Meer separation scans, is not only the most precise absolute luminosity measurement performed to date at a hadron collider, but also the first one based on a physics signal at the LHC.

  15. Improving communication between phlebotomists and doctors: a quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Saunsbury, Emma; Howarth, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Blood tests are a seemingly basic investigation, but are often a vital part of directing patient management. Despite the importance of this everyday process, we indentified the potential for improvement of the current phlebotomy service in our hospital, as both junior doctors and phlebotomists reported a lack of communication and standardised practice across the wards. Resulting delays in obtaining blood test results can impact detrimentally on patient safety and management. We designed a survey which highlighted inefficient handovers and discrepancies between wards as driving factors behind this. We therefore aimed to improve communication between phlebotomists and doctors, as well as the overall organisation of the service. This took the form of the "Phlebotomy Box," a box file system offering a set location for blood stickers to be situated. The box concept was optimised on a series of medical and surgical wards, incorporating multidisciplinary feedback from relevant teams. We measured how many untaken bloods were handed over to medical staff continuously, both pre- and post implementation of the phlebotomy box. Our baseline ward demonstrated poor handover rates of untaken bloods, ranging from 0% to 40%. This increased to a consistent 100% following introduction of the Phlebotomy Box and ongoing staff education. Once optimised, the box was trialled on a further two medical wards and one surgical ward, achieving 100% handover from an initial 0% to 67%. Quantitative improvement was also reflected qualitatively in widespread staff surveys, with overwhelmingly positive support and acceptance. In summary, the Phlebotomy Box innovation has led to 100% of untaken bloods being effectively handed over. We have demonstrated a significant improvement in communication and efficiency within the phlebotomy service, with tangible benefits to patient care, as minimising time lags can prevent delays in clinical decisions. The phlebotomy box represents a simplistic, sustainable

  16. Improving communication between phlebotomists and doctors: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Saunsbury, Emma; Howarth, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Blood tests are a seemingly basic investigation, but are often a vital part of directing patient management. Despite the importance of this everyday process, we indentified the potential for improvement of the current phlebotomy service in our hospital, as both junior doctors and phlebotomists reported a lack of communication and standardised practice across the wards. Resulting delays in obtaining blood test results can impact detrimentally on patient safety and management. We designed a survey which highlighted inefficient handovers and discrepancies between wards as driving factors behind this. We therefore aimed to improve communication between phlebotomists and doctors, as well as the overall organisation of the service. This took the form of the “Phlebotomy Box,” a box file system offering a set location for blood stickers to be situated. The box concept was optimised on a series of medical and surgical wards, incorporating multidisciplinary feedback from relevant teams. We measured how many untaken bloods were handed over to medical staff continuously, both pre- and post implementation of the phlebotomy box. Our baseline ward demonstrated poor handover rates of untaken bloods, ranging from 0% to 40%. This increased to a consistent 100% following introduction of the Phlebotomy Box and ongoing staff education. Once optimised, the box was trialled on a further two medical wards and one surgical ward, achieving 100% handover from an initial 0% to 67%. Quantitative improvement was also reflected qualitatively in widespread staff surveys, with overwhelmingly positive support and acceptance. In summary, the Phlebotomy Box innovation has led to 100% of untaken bloods being effectively handed over. We have demonstrated a significant improvement in communication and efficiency within the phlebotomy service, with tangible benefits to patient care, as minimising time lags can prevent delays in clinical decisions. The phlebotomy box represents a simplistic

  17. Improving communication between phlebotomists and doctors: a quality improvement project

    PubMed Central

    Saunsbury, Emma; Howarth, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Blood tests are a seemingly basic investigation, but are often a vital part of directing patient management. Despite the importance of this everyday process, we indentified the potential for improvement of the current phlebotomy service in our hospital, as both junior doctors and phlebotomists reported a lack of communication and standardised practice across the wards. Resulting delays in obtaining blood test results can impact detrimentally on patient safety and management. We designed a survey which highlighted inefficient handovers and discrepancies between wards as driving factors behind this. We therefore aimed to improve communication between phlebotomists and doctors, as well as the overall organisation of the service. This took the form of the “Phlebotomy Box,” a box file system offering a set location for blood stickers to be situated. The box concept was optimised on a series of medical and surgical wards, incorporating multidisciplinary feedback from relevant teams. We measured how many untaken bloods were handed over to medical staff continuously, both pre- and post implementation of the phlebotomy box. Our baseline ward demonstrated poor handover rates of untaken bloods, ranging from 0% to 40%. This increased to a consistent 100% following introduction of the Phlebotomy Box and ongoing staff education. Once optimised, the box was trialled on a further two medical wards and one surgical ward, achieving 100% handover from an initial 0% to 67%. Quantitative improvement was also reflected qualitatively in widespread staff surveys, with overwhelmingly positive support and acceptance. In summary, the Phlebotomy Box innovation has led to 100% of untaken bloods being effectively handed over. We have demonstrated a significant improvement in communication and efficiency within the phlebotomy service, with tangible benefits to patient care, as minimising time lags can prevent delays in clinical decisions. The phlebotomy box represents a simplistic

  18. HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS AS SPECTRAL CANDLES TO MEASURE THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT IN THE FERMI AND AIR CHERENKOV TELESCOPES ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-20

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e {sup -} e {sup +} pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE {gamma}-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known-only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE {gamma}-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE {gamma}-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z {approx_lt} 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the {gamma}{gamma} opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  19. Crystallisation properties in stone forming and normal subjects' urine diluted using a standardised procedure to match the composition of urine in the distal part of the distal tubule and the middle part of the collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Tiselius, H G; Hallin, A; Lindbäck, B

    2001-04-01

    Using a standardised procedure, we assessed the crystallisation properties of calcium phosphate in urine with a composition matching that in the distal part of the distal tubules (DTd) and of calcium oxalate in urine with a composition matching that in the mid-collecting duct (CDm). We used 8-h urine samples collected between 2200 h and 0600 h with sodium azide as preservative. Urine from ten patients with recurrent CaOx stone formation and from ten normal subjects was used for the measurements. The DTd and CDm samples were obtained by diluting the voided 8-h urine to 3000 ml and 1750 ml per 1.73 m2 body surface area, respectively. The nucleation was studied in DTd urine following supersaturation with CaP. The crystal size distribution was assessed with a Coulter counter both following supersaturation of DTd urine with CaP and of CDm urine with CaOx. The crystallisation of CaP in DTd urine as well as that of CaOx in CDm urine, in the presence of CaP crystals that had been precipitated in DTd urine, was measured with the isotope technique. The inhibition of CaOx and brushite crystal aggregation in standardised diluted aliquots of DTd and CDm urine was assessed spectrophotometrically as the rate of sedimentation. There was a slightly increased sedimentation rate and a lower initial absorbance in DTd urine from stone formers supersaturated with CaP. Although these findings might reflect a state of increased crystal aggregation in stone formers' urine, this could not be confirmed by crystal size measurements in the Coulter counter. The inhibition of brushite crystal aggregation in DTd urine was significantly in stone formers' urine than in normal subjects' urine (P < 0.001). Moreover, all inhibition values in DTd samples from stone formers were negative, suggesting a promoter effect on crystal aggregation. The inhibition of CaOx crystal aggregation in CDm urine also was significantly higher in CDm urine from normal subjects than in CDm urine from stone formers (P < 0

  20. [Improving patient safety through voluntary peer review].

    PubMed

    Kluge, S; Bause, H

    2015-01-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is one area of the hospital in which processes and communication are of primary importance. Errors in intensive care units can lead to serious adverse events with significant consequences for patients. Therefore quality and risk-management are important measures when treating critically ill patients. A pragmatic approach to support quality and safety in intensive care is peer review. This approach has gained significant acceptance over the past years. It consists of mutual visits by colleagues who conduct standardised peer reviews. These reviews focus on the systematic evaluation of the quality of an ICU's structure, its processes and outcome. Together with different associations, the State Chambers of Physicians and the German Medical Association have developed peer review as a standardized tool for quality improvement. The common goal of all stakeholders is the continuous and sustainable improvement in intensive care with peer reviews significantly increasing and improving communication between professions and disciplines. Peer reviews secure the sustainability of planned change processes and consequently lead the way to an improved culture of quality and safety.

  1. "Candles Burn Very Well in Air...".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, John A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a class demonstration that shows the exchange of gases that occurs when a green plant is placed in the light. Develops an important concept related to the understanding of photosynthesis and brings an historical perspective to biology teaching. (JRH)

  2. Discourse, the Moral Imperative and Faraday's Candle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape…

  3. RR Lyrae stars as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young-Wook

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in our understanding of RR Lyrae variables are discussed, with special emphasis on their role as distance indicators. The dependence of RR Lyrae luminosity on metallicity and horizontal-branch (HB) morphology is now well understood with many pieces of supporting evidence. This allows the determination of distances to several Local Group galaxies (LMC, M31, and M33) by constructing HB population models that reproduce the observed luminosity functions of RR Lyraes in these galaxies. The new RR Lyrae distances to M31 and M33 are some 15-37 percent larger than those adopted by de Vaucouleurs (1986) and by Aaronson et al. (1986), while they are in reasonable agreements with the recent results based on multicolor CCD photometry of classical Cepheids. This indicates that the large value of Hubble constant (90-100 km/s/Mpc) suggested by these authors may be due, at least in part, to the errors in distances to nearby calibrating galaxies.

  4. Dopamine: burning the candle at both ends.

    PubMed

    Pearson, John M; Platt, Michael L

    2013-09-01

    Dopamine neurons are well known for signaling reward-prediction errors. In this issue, Matsumoto and Takada (2013) show that some dopamine neurons also signal salient events during progression through a visual search task requiring working memory and sustained attention. PMID:24011998

  5. Discourse, the moral imperative and Faraday's candle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-03-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape notions of a `good' science education. Any shift towards Vision II will require serious engagement in a Foucaultian discourse into the issues of power, inclusion and exclusion that Ideland and Malmberg describe. Similarly, the moral imperatives that arise require courage to both contest the status quo in science education, and develop a reasoned, morally defensible, response to the challenge that Vision II is really a form of ideological activism.

  6. Type Ia supernovae as standard candles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branch, David; Miller, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution of absolute blue magnitudes among Type Ia supernovae (SNs Ia) is studied. Supernovae were used with well determined apparent magnitudes at maximum light and parent galaxies with relative distances determined by the Tully-Fisher or Dn - sigma techniques. The mean absolute blue magnitude is given and the observational dispersion is only sigma(MB) 0.36, comparable to the expected combined errors in distance, apparent magnitude, and extinction. The mean (B-V) color at maximum light is 0.03 +/- 0.04, with a dispersion sigma(B-V) = 0.20. The Cepheid-based distance to IC 4182, the parent galaxy of the normal and unextinguished Type Ia SN 1937C, leads to a Hubble constant of H(0) + 51 +/- 12 km/s Mpc. The existence of a few SNs Ia that appear to have been reddened and dimmed by dust in their parent galaxies does not seriously compromise the use of SNs Ia as distance indicators.

  7. Burning the Candle at Just One End

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2009-01-01

    To deeply understand proportional reasoning, students must be able to differentiate proportional situations from nonproportional situations. Unfortunately, the emphasis on the use of proportional strategies in middle-grades mathematics has led students to develop a disposition to associate certain characteristics of problem formulation with the…

  8. Science as a Candle in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder-Davis, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A major impediment to fostering critical thinking in STEM programs is, ironically, state science standards. In 2012, the Thomas Fordham Foundation completed a review of multiple aspects of US state science standards and determined states averaged a "C-" overall, with only six states earning an "A." This article is about how teachers (whether in a…

  9. Improving the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James B; Walshe, Maria; Aggarwal, Dinesh; Thapar, Ankur; Hardman, John; Wilson, Jonathan; Oshowo, Ayo; Bhan, Chetan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to improve the lead-time and the patient experience of the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway. This project worked within the constraints of limited resources and an austere environment. The core team included a project manager trained in quality improvement methodologies. Senior and Fleming's planned change model was used as the overall framework. Baseline data supported the case for change and highlighted targets for improvement. A stakeholder workshop employed social movement theory, lean thinking, experience-based design and patient stories to engage influential leaders and secure support and commitment. Solutions that arose from the workshop were then researched. A "Genchi Genbutsu" ethos took the team to Northumbria to learn about another unit's pathway innovations. Subsequently, our new pathway employed solutions aimed at increasing the proportion of patients who went straight-to-test. Consensus on the design was achieved using Schein's process consultation theory. Implementation of the new pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the median time from referral to endoscopy from 26 days to 14 days (P<0.001), and a significant increase in the proportion going straight-to-test from 6% to 43%. Changes to improve patient experience were also implemented, however data to evidence this has not yet been collected. Going forward, further standardisation is required and issues around sustainability need to be tackled. This project exemplified, amongst others, the value of working from data from the beginning and a comprehensive early stakeholder engagement. PMID:27637830

  10. Improving the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway: A quality improvement project.

    PubMed

    Haddow, James B; Walshe, Maria; Aggarwal, Dinesh; Thapar, Ankur; Hardman, John; Wilson, Jonathan; Oshowo, Ayo; Bhan, Chetan; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to improve the lead-time and the patient experience of the diagnostic stage of the suspected colorectal cancer pathway. This project worked within the constraints of limited resources and an austere environment. The core team included a project manager trained in quality improvement methodologies. Senior and Fleming's planned change model was used as the overall framework. Baseline data supported the case for change and highlighted targets for improvement. A stakeholder workshop employed social movement theory, lean thinking, experience-based design and patient stories to engage influential leaders and secure support and commitment. Solutions that arose from the workshop were then researched. A "Genchi Genbutsu" ethos took the team to Northumbria to learn about another unit's pathway innovations. Subsequently, our new pathway employed solutions aimed at increasing the proportion of patients who went straight-to-test. Consensus on the design was achieved using Schein's process consultation theory. Implementation of the new pathway resulted in a significant reduction in the median time from referral to endoscopy from 26 days to 14 days (P<0.001), and a significant increase in the proportion going straight-to-test from 6% to 43%. Changes to improve patient experience were also implemented, however data to evidence this has not yet been collected. Going forward, further standardisation is required and issues around sustainability need to be tackled. This project exemplified, amongst others, the value of working from data from the beginning and a comprehensive early stakeholder engagement.

  11. Absolute calibration of the colour index and O4 absorption derived from Multi AXis (MAX-)DOAS measurements and their application to a standardised cloud classification algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Beirle, Steffen; Remmers, Julia; Shaiganfar, Reza; Wang, Yang

    2016-09-01

    A method is developed for the calibration of the colour index (CI) and the O4 absorption derived from differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of scattered sunlight. The method is based on the comparison of measurements and radiative transfer simulations for well-defined atmospheric conditions and viewing geometries. Calibrated measurements of the CI and the O4 absorption are important for the detection and classification of clouds from MAX-DOAS observations. Such information is needed for the identification and correction of the cloud influence on Multi AXis (MAX-)DOAS profile inversion results, but might be also be of interest on their own, e.g. for meteorological applications. The calibration algorithm was successfully applied to measurements at two locations: Cabauw in the Netherlands and Wuxi in China. We used CI and O4 observations calibrated by the new method as input for our recently developed cloud classification scheme and also adapted the corresponding threshold values accordingly. For the observations at Cabauw, good agreement is found with the results of the original algorithm. Together with the calibration procedure of the CI and O4 absorption, the cloud classification scheme, which has been tuned to specific locations/conditions so far, can now be applied consistently to MAX-DOAS measurements at different locations. In addition to the new threshold values, further improvements were introduced to the cloud classification algorithm, namely a better description of the SZA (solar zenith angle) dependence of the threshold values and a new set of wavelengths for the determination of the CI. We also indicate specific areas for future research to further improve the cloud classification scheme.

  12. Improved MLWDF scheduler for LTE downlink transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obinna Nnamani, Christantus; Anioke, Chidera Linda; Ikechukwu Ani, Cosmas

    2016-11-01

    In long-term evolution (LTE) downlink transmission, modified least weighted delay first (MLWDF) scheduler is a quality of service (QoS) aware scheduling scheme for real-time (RT) services. Nevertheless, MLWDF performs below optimal among the trade-off between strict delay and loss restraints of RT and non-RT traffic flows, respectively. This is further worsened with the implementation of hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ). As these restraints grow unabated with increasing number of user demands, the performance of MLWDF further reduces. In order to ameliorate this situation, there is a need to directly incorporate the variations in user demands and HARQ implementation as parameters to the MLWDF scheduler. In this work, an improvement to the MLWDF scheduler is proposed. The improvement entails adding two novel parameters that characterise user demand and HARQ implementation. The scheduler was tested using varying three classes of service in QoS class identifiers (QCIs) table standardised by Third Generation Partnership Project for LTE network to characterise different services. It was also tested on the basis of packet prioritisation. The proposed scheduler was simulated with LTE-SIM simulator and compared with the MLWDF and proportional fairness schedulers. In terms of delay, throughput and packet loss ratio; the proposed scheduler increased overall system performance.

  13. Attenuation of 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide induced hippocampus-dependent memory impairment by a standardised extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08).

    PubMed

    Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel; Singh, Hemant K; Parkavi, Arunagiri; Charles, Prisila Dulcy

    2011-11-01

    Bacopa monniera is a well-known medhya-rasayana (memory enhancing and rejuvenating) plant in Indian traditional medical system of Ayurveda. The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) on serotonergic receptors and its influence on other neurotransmitters during hippocampal-dependent learning was evaluated in the present study. Wistar rat pups received a single dose of BESEB CDRI-08 during postnatal days 15-29 showed higher latency during hippocampal-dependent learning accompanied with enhanced 5HT(3A) receptor expression, serotonin and acetylcholine levels in hippocampus. Furthermore, 5HT(3A) receptor agonist 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (mCPBG) impaired learning in the passive avoidance task followed by reduction of 5HT(3A) receptor expression, 5HT and ACh levels. Administration of BESEB CDRI-08 along with mCPBG attenuated mCPBG induced behavioral, molecular and neurochemical alterations. Our results suggest that BESEB CDRI-08 possibly acts on serotonergic system, which in turn influences the cholinergic system through 5-HT(3) receptor to improve the hippocampal-dependent task.

  14. An in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction: standardisation and comparison with the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV tests for the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA.

    PubMed

    Santos, Ana Paula de Torres; Levi, José Eduardo; Lemos, Marcilio Figueiredo; Calux, Samira Julien; Oba, Isabel Takano; Moreira, Regina Célia

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to standardise an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to allow quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum or plasma samples, and to compare this method with two commercial assays, the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test. Samples from 397 patients from the state of São Paulo were analysed by all three methods. Fifty-two samples were from patients who were human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus positive, but HBV negative. Genotypes were characterised, and the viral load was measure in each sample. The in-house rtPCR showed an excellent success rate compared with commercial tests; inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients correlated with commercial tests (r = 0.96 and r = 0.913, p < 0.001) and the in-house test showed no genotype-dependent differences in detection and quantification rates. The in-house assay tested in this study could be used for screening and quantifying HBV DNA in order to monitor patients during therapy.

  15. Subcutaneous fat patterning in athletes: selection of appropriate sites and standardisation of a novel ultrasound measurement technique: ad hoc working group on body composition, health and performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Wolfram; Lohman, Timothy G; Stewart, Arthur D; Maughan, Ronald J; Meyer, Nanna L; Sardinha, Luis B; Kirihennedige, Nuwanee; Reguant-Closa, Alba; Risoul-Salas, Vanessa; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Ahammer, Helmut; Anderhuber, Friedrich; Fürhapter-Rieger, Alfred; Kainz, Philipp; Materna, Wilfried; Pilsl, Ulrike; Pirstinger, Wolfram; Ackland, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Background Precise and accurate field methods for body composition analyses in athletes are needed urgently. Aim Standardisation of a novel ultrasound (US) technique for accurate and reliable measurement of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Methods Three observers captured US images of uncompressed SAT in 12 athletes and applied a semiautomatic evaluation algorithm for multiple SAT measurements. Results Eight new sites are recommended: upper abdomen, lower abdomen, erector spinae, distal triceps, brachioradialis, lateral thigh, front thigh, medial calf. Obtainable accuracy was 0.2 mm (18 MHz probe; speed of sound: 1450 m/s). Reliability of SAT thickness sums (N=36): R2=0.998, SEE=0.55 mm, ICC (95% CI) 0.998 (0.994 to 0.999); observer differences from their mean: 95% of the SAT thickness sums were within ±1 mm (sums of SAT thicknesses ranged from 10 to 50 mm). Embedded fibrous tissues were also measured. Conclusions A minimum of eight sites is suggested to accommodate inter-individual differences in SAT patterning. All sites overlie muscle with a clearly visible fascia, which eases the acquisition of clear images and the marking of these sites takes only a few minutes. This US method reaches the fundamental accuracy and precision limits for SAT measurements given by tissue plasticity and furrowed borders, provided the measurers are trained appropriately. PMID:26702017

  16. An in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction: standardisation and comparison with the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV tests for the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana Paula de Torres; Levi, José Eduardo; Lemos, Marcilio Figueiredo; Calux, Samira Julien; Oba, Isabel Takano; Moreira, Regina Célia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to standardise an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to allow quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum or plasma samples, and to compare this method with two commercial assays, the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test. Samples from 397 patients from the state of São Paulo were analysed by all three methods. Fifty-two samples were from patients who were human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus positive, but HBV negative. Genotypes were characterised, and the viral load was measure in each sample. The in-house rtPCR showed an excellent success rate compared with commercial tests; inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients correlated with commercial tests (r = 0.96 and r = 0.913, p < 0.001) and the in-house test showed no genotype-dependent differences in detection and quantification rates. The in-house assay tested in this study could be used for screening and quantifying HBV DNA in order to monitor patients during therapy. PMID:26872342

  17. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  18. ESA initiatives to improve mechanical design and verification methods for ceramic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coe, Graham; Behar-Lafenetre, Stéphanie; Cornillon, Laurence; Rancurel, Michaël.; Denaux, David; Ballhause, Dirk; Lucarelli, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Current and future space missions demanding ever more stringent stability and precision requirements are driving the need for (ultra) stable and lightweight structures. Materials best suited to meeting these needs in a passive structural design, centre around ceramic materials or specifically tailored CFRP composite. Ceramic materials have essential properties (very low CTE, high stiffness), but also unfavorable properties (low fracture toughness). Ceramic structures feature in a number of current and planned ESA missions. These missions benefit from the superior stiffness and thermo-elastic stability properties of ceramics, but suffer the penalties inherent to the brittle nature of these materials. Current practice in designing and sizing ceramic structures is to treat ceramic materials in a deterministic manner similar to conventional materials but with larger safety factors and conservatively derived material strength properties. This approach is convenient, but can be penalising in mass and in practice does not arrive at an equivalent structural reliability compared to metallic components. There is also no standardised approach for the design and verification of ceramic structures in Europe. To improve this situation, ESA placed two parallel study contracts with Astrium and Thales Alenia Space with the objective to define design and verification methodology for ceramic structures, with the further goal to establish a common `handbook' for design and verification approach. This paper presents an overview of ceramic structures used in current and future ESA missions and summarises the activities to date in the frame of improving and standardising design and verification methods for ceramic structures.

  19. Improving tumour heterogeneity MRI assessment with histograms

    PubMed Central

    Just, N

    2014-01-01

    By definition, tumours are heterogeneous. They are defined by marked differences in cells, microenvironmental factors (oxygenation levels, pH, VEGF, VPF and TGF-α) metabolism, vasculature, structure and function that in turn translate into heterogeneous drug delivery and therapeutic outcome. Ways to estimate quantitatively tumour heterogeneity can improve drug discovery, treatment planning and therapeutic responses. It is therefore of paramount importance to have reliable and reproducible biomarkers of cancerous lesions' heterogeneity. During the past decade, the number of studies using histogram approaches increased drastically with various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques (DCE-MRI, DWI, SWI etc.) although information on tumour heterogeneity remains poorly exploited. This fact can be attributed to a poor knowledge of the available metrics and of their specific meaning as well as to the lack of literature references to standardised histogram methods with which surrogate markers of heterogeneity can be compared. This review highlights the current knowledge and critical advances needed to investigate and quantify tumour heterogeneity. The key role of imaging techniques and in particular the key role of MRI for an accurate investigation of tumour heterogeneity is reviewed with a particular emphasis on histogram approaches and derived methods. PMID:25268373

  20. ‘It will harm business and increase illicit trade’: an evaluation of the relevance, quality and transparency of evidence submitted by transnational tobacco companies to the UK consultation on standardised packaging 2012

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Reeves, K A; Hatchard, J L; Gilmore, A B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) submitted evidence to the 2012 UK Consultation on standardised packaging (SP) to argue the policy will have detrimental economic impacts and increase illicit tobacco trade. Methods A content analysis of the four TTC submissions to the consultation assessed the relevance and quality of evidence TTCs cited to support their arguments. Investigative research was used to determine whether the cited evidence was industry connected. Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the relevance and quality of industry-connected and independent from the industry evidence. The extent to which TTCs disclosed financial conflicts of interest (COI) when citing evidence was examined. Results We obtained 74 pieces of TTC-cited evidence. The quality of the evidence was poor. TTCs cited no independent, peer-reviewed evidence that supported their arguments. Nearly half of the evidence was industry-connected (47%, 35/74). None of this industry-connected evidence was published in peer-reviewed journals (0/35) and 66% (23/35) of it was opinion only. Industry-connected evidence was of significantly poorer quality than independent evidence (p<0.001). COIs were not disclosed by TTCs in 91% (32/35) of cases. Conclusions In the absence of peer-reviewed research to support their arguments, TTCs relied on evidence they commissioned and the opinions of TTC-connected third-parties. Such connections were not disclosed by TTCs when citing this evidence and were time consuming to uncover. In line with Article 5.3 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and broader transparency initiatives, TTCs should be required to disclose their funding of all third-parties and any COIs when citing evidence. PMID:25472733

  1. Teaching Package on Standardisation in Information Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). General Information Programme.

    One of the objectives of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is to promote standardization in the field of information handling, both in development of guidelines and standards and in the use and application of existing norms and standards. This teaching package on the standardization of information…

  2. How can healthcare standards be standardised?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    International travel, medical tourism and trade have created a demand for reliable assessment of healthcare provision across borders, and for information which is accessible to patients, insurers and referring institutions. External assessment schemes for healthcare providers may be clustered into three types: statutory regulation and institutional licensing, International Standardization Organisation certification, and voluntary systems such as peer review and healthcare accreditation. Increasing complexity of healthcare provision, pressures for public accountability and expectations of professional self-governance place a burden on the inspectors and the inspected. If only to contain costs of external assessment and to increase access to reliable information for patients and insurers, the three approaches must work together rather than compete. This paper summarises the origins, aims, authority and methods of the three general models, describing current pressures and opportunities for convergence (between systems and across borders) in the UK and in Europe.

  3. Standardisation of Study Protocols - Pros and Cons.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert

    2016-09-01

    Designing clinical trials in inflammatory bowel diseases is challenging. Composite scores that have been used for drug approval until recently such as the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI) and the Mayo score for ulcerative colitis have been criticized by regulatory bodies for its lack of validation, poor correlation with objective mucosal disease and absence of 'patient reported outcomes'.Most drug development programs use the 'classic 'separation' between an induction and a maintenance phase. Challenging issues are the 'ideal timing' of the primary endpoint for induction and maintenance studies, strategies to reduce placebo response rates and rules for corticosteroids withdrawal. Discussion about which patients to re-randomize after induction into the maintenance phase of the study is critical.Presently, new instruments for disease assessment in IBD are being developed and validated. Central (independent) review of endoscopic recordings at screening and at the end of the intervention will probably become standard. Finally, the most optimal trial design for every individual intervention is likely to depend on the mechanism of action of the medication under study. PMID:27604980

  4. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    PubMed

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  5. Standardisation of the factor H autoantibody assay.

    PubMed

    Watson, Rachael; Lindner, Susanne; Bordereau, Pauline; Hunze, Eva-Maria; Tak, Federico; Ngo, Stéphanie; Zipfel, Peter F; Skerka, Christine; Dragon-Durey, Marie-Agnes; Marchbank, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The screening of all atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) patients for factor H autoantibodies is best practice. However, there is no consensus assay for the reporting of factor H autoantibody titres. In this study, three European complement laboratories with expertise in the field of autoantibody testing address this by systematically evaluating several ELISA methods used for the detection of factor H autoantibodies. All methods tested adequately detect high titre samples. However, this study recommends the Paris method for the detection and reporting of factor H autoantibodies to be used when setting up a factor H autoantibody screen. The importance of individual sample background subtraction in these ELISA tests was established. The use of a relative or arbitrary unit index with a common positive and negative serum allowed for consistent comparison of findings from different test centres. Therefore, it is recommended that a standard arbitrary unit scale based on a titration curve from a common positive anti-serum be adopted to allow future establishment of the relative importance of particular titres of factor H autoantibodies in aHUS. Systematic assay for the presence of factor H autoantibodies in patients using the Paris method will provide the longitudinal analysis needed to fully establish the importance of factor H autoantibodies in disease. This will feed into additional research to clarify whether additional factors have a bearing on the phenotype/outcome of autoimmune aHUS. PMID:23891327

  6. How can healthcare standards be standardised?

    PubMed

    Shaw, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    International travel, medical tourism and trade have created a demand for reliable assessment of healthcare provision across borders, and for information which is accessible to patients, insurers and referring institutions. External assessment schemes for healthcare providers may be clustered into three types: statutory regulation and institutional licensing, International Standardization Organisation certification, and voluntary systems such as peer review and healthcare accreditation. Increasing complexity of healthcare provision, pressures for public accountability and expectations of professional self-governance place a burden on the inspectors and the inspected. If only to contain costs of external assessment and to increase access to reliable information for patients and insurers, the three approaches must work together rather than compete. This paper summarises the origins, aims, authority and methods of the three general models, describing current pressures and opportunities for convergence (between systems and across borders) in the UK and in Europe. PMID:26130813

  7. [Royal jelly: component efficiency, analysis, and standardisation].

    PubMed

    Oršolić, Nada

    2013-09-01

    Royal jelly is a viscous substance secreted by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) that contains a considerable amount of proteins, free amino acids, lipids, vitamins, sugars, and bioactive substances such as 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, antibacterial protein, and 350-kDa protein. These properties make it an attractive ingredient in various types of healthy foods. This article brings a brief review of the molecular mechanisms involved in the development of certain disorders that can be remedied by royal jelly, based on a selection of in vivo and in vitro studies. It also describes current understanding of the mechanisms and beneficial effects by which royal jelly helps to combat aging-related complications. Royal jelly has been reported to exhibit beneficial physiological and pharmacological effects in mammals, including vasodilative and hypotensive activities, antihypercholesterolemic activity, and antitumor activity. As its composition varies significantly (for both fresh and dehydrated samples), the article brings a few recommendations for defining new quality standards.

  8. Improving time to antibiotics and implementing the "Sepsis 6".

    PubMed

    McGregor, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that completion of the "Sepsis 6" within 1 hour reduces mortality (1). This project aims to assess compliance with this standard and evaluate the effectiveness of a sepsis improvement plan in a district general hospital in the UK. A baseline audit was performed, examining case notes of "septic patients" retrospectively (those on intravenous antibiotics). Compliance with each element of the sepsis six plus time to first antibiotic (TTFA) was assessed. A sepsis improvement plan was introduced consisting of staff education, reinforcing vigilance, regular multidisciplinary meetings and incorporating a standardised approach through the use of a sepsis proforma. Following the introduction of this, and after some refinement, the average time to antibiotic fell from 6 hours to 1.4 hours. In conclusion, an educational drive along with a systematic change in processes has seen reduced TTFA along with enhanced compliance with most elements of the sepsis 6. Through continued assessment and further improving upon systematic processes with continued education we would anticipate consistent improvement in the management of septic patients.

  9. Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean, Laurence…

  10. Tome Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Careless, James

    1994-01-01

    College catalogs can be made less costly by various techniques such as using inexpensive paper, keeping as much of the production as possible in-house, minimizing photographs and color, and printing separate catalogs for different divisions. Catalogs can be improved by providing greater visual appeal and ease of use. (MSE)

  11. Improving Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Evans, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthesis is the basis of plant growth, and improving photosynthesis can contribute toward greater food security in the coming decades as world population increases. Multiple targets have been identified that could be manipulated to increase crop photosynthesis. The most important target is Rubisco because it catalyses both carboxylation and oxygenation reactions and the majority of responses of photosynthesis to light, CO2, and temperature are reflected in its kinetic properties. Oxygenase activity can be reduced either by concentrating CO2 around Rubisco or by modifying the kinetic properties of Rubisco. The C4 photosynthetic pathway is a CO2-concentrating mechanism that generally enables C4 plants to achieve greater efficiency in their use of light, nitrogen, and water than C3 plants. To capitalize on these advantages, attempts have been made to engineer the C4 pathway into C3 rice (Oryza sativa). A simpler approach is to transfer bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria into chloroplasts and prevent CO2 leakage. Recent technological breakthroughs now allow higher plant Rubisco to be engineered and assembled successfully in planta. Novel amino acid sequences can be introduced that have been impossible to reach via normal evolution, potentially enlarging the range of kinetic properties and breaking free from the constraints associated with covariation that have been observed between certain kinetic parameters. Capturing the promise of improved photosynthesis in greater yield potential will require continued efforts to improve carbon allocation within the plant as well as to maintain grain quality and resistance to disease and lodging. PMID:23812345

  12. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. CCFSs were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFSs was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after two-thirds of their specified lifetime, none of the distributed CCFSs produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated in hygienic water quality. Besides the water source (springs were preferable compared to river or rain water), a high water throughput was the dominant reason for poor CCFS performance. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. These findings suggest that not every CCFS type per se guarantees improved drinking water security and that the efficiency of low-cost systems should continuously be monitored. For this purpose, dip slides were found to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard laboratory tests. They consistently underestimated microbial counts but can be used by laypersons and hence by the users themselves to assess critical contamination of their filter systems.

  13. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring and

  14. Improved aethalometer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, A.D.

    1988-01-25

    An improved aethalometer having a single light source and a single light detector and two light paths from the light source to the light detector. A quartz fiber filter is inserted in the device, the filter having a collection area in one light path and a reference area in the other light path. A gas flow path through the aethalometer housing allows ambient air to flow through the collection area of the filter so that aerosol particles can be collected on the filter. A rotating disk with an opening therethrough allows light for the light source to pass alternately through the two light paths. The voltage output of the detector is applied to a VCO and the VCO pulses for light transmission separately through the two light paths, are counted and compared to determine the absorption coefficient of the collected aerosol particles. 5 figs.

  15. Improved predictability of droughts over southern Africa using the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manatsa, Desmond; Mushore, Terrence; Lenouo, Andre

    2015-09-01

    The provision of timely and reliable climate information on which to base management decisions remains a critical component in drought planning for southern Africa. In this observational study, we have not only proposed a forecasting scheme which caters for timeliness and reliability but improved relevance of the climate information by using a novel drought index called the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), instead of the traditional precipitation only based index, the standardised precipitation index (SPI). The SPEI which includes temperature and other climatic factors in its construction has a more robust connection to ENSO than the SPI. Consequently, the developed ENSO-SPEI prediction scheme can provide quantitative information about the spatial extent and severity of predicted drought conditions in a way that reflects more closely the level of risk in the global warming context of the sub region. However, it is established that the ENSO significant regional impact is restricted only to the period December-March, implying a revisit to the traditional ENSO-based forecast scheme which essentially divides the rainfall season into the two periods, October to December and January to March. Although the prediction of ENSO events has increased with the refinement of numerical models, this work has demonstrated that the prediction of drought impacts related to ENSO is also a reality based only on observations. A large temporal lag is observed between the development of ENSO phenomena (typically in May of the previous year) and the identification of regional SPEI defined drought conditions. It has been shown that using the Southern Africa Regional Climate Outlook Forum's (SARCOF) traditional 3-month averaged Nino 3.4 SST index (June to August) as a predictor does not have an added advantage over using only the May SST index values. In this regard, the extended lead time and improved skill demonstrated in this study could immensely benefit

  16. Improving institutional childbirth services in rural Southern Tanzania: a qualitative study of healthcare workers’ perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jaribu, Jennie; Penfold, Suzanne; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna; Pfeiffer, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe health workers’ perceptions of a quality improvement (QI) intervention that focused on improving institutional childbirth services in primary health facilities in Southern Tanzania. Design A qualitative design was applied using in-depth interviews with health workers. Setting This study involved the Ruangwa District Reproductive and Child Health Department, 11 dispensaries and 2 health centres in rural Southern Tanzania. Participants 4 clinical officers, 5 nurses and 6 medical attendants from different health facilities were interviewed. Results The healthcare providers reported that the QI intervention improved their skills, capacity and confidence in providing counselling and use of a partograph during labour. The face-to-face QI workshops, used as a platform to refresh their knowledge on maternal and newborn health and QI methods, facilitated peer learning, networking and standardisation of care provision. The onsite follow-up visits were favoured by healthcare providers because they gave the opportunity to get immediate help, learn how to perform tasks in practice and be reminded of what they had learnt. Implementation of parallel interventions focusing on similar indicators was mentioned as a challenge that led to duplication of work in terms of data collection and reporting. District supervisors involved in the intervention showed interest in taking over the implementation; however, funding remained a major obstacle. Conclusions Healthcare workers highlighted the usefulness of applying a QI approach to improve maternal and newborn health in rural settings. QI programmes need careful coordination at district level in order to reduce duplication of work. PMID:27660313

  17. Improved Quantification, Propagation, Purification and Storage of the Obligate Intracellular Human Pathogen Orientia tsutsugamushi

    PubMed Central

    Giengkam, Suparat; Blakes, Alex; Utsahajit, Peemdej; Chaemchuen, Suwittra; Atwal, Sharanjeet; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Paris, Daniel H.; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Salje, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Background Scrub typhus is a leading cause of serious febrile illness in rural Southeast Asia. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is transmitted to humans by the bite of a Leptotrombidium mite. Research into the basic mechanisms of cell biology and pathogenicity of O. tsutsugamushi has lagged behind that of other important human pathogens. One reason for this is that O. tsutsugamushi is an obligate intracellular bacterium that can only be cultured in mammalian cells and that requires specific methodologies for propagation and analysis. Here, we have performed a body of work designed to improve methods for quantification, propagation, purification and long-term storage of this important but neglected human pathogen. These results will be useful to other researchers working on O. tsutsugamushi and also other obligate intracellular pathogens such as those in the Rickettsiales and Chlamydiales families. Methodology A clinical isolate of O. tsutsugamushi was grown in cultured mouse embryonic fibroblast (L929) cells. Bacterial growth was measured using an O. tsutsugamushi-specific qPCR assay. Conditions leading to improvements in viability and growth were monitored in terms of the effect on bacterial cell number after growth in cultured mammalian cells. Key results Development of a standardised growth assay to quantify bacterial replication and viability in vitro. Quantitative comparison of different DNA extraction methods. Quantification of the effect on growth of FBS concentration, daunorubicin supplementation, media composition, host cell confluence at infection and frequency of media replacement. Optimisation of bacterial purification including a comparison of host cell lysis methods, purification temperature, bacterial yield calculations and bacterial pelleting at different centrifugation speeds. Quantification of bacterial viability loss after long term storage and freezing under a range of conditions including

  18. How to improve the performances of Fecal Immunological Tests (FIT): Need for standardization of the sampling and pre-analytical phases and revision of the procedures for comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rapi, Stefano; Rubeca, Tiziana; Fraser, Callum G

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reference materials and standard procedures, on faecal tests leads to major problems in harmonisation of methods and do not allow the comparison of outcome data. In particular the absence of standardisation of pre-analytical characteristic was noted for faecal test methods for haemoglobin since different manufacturers have developed different sampling procedures and report units. Moreover the physical characteristics of the faecal specimen and the designs of specimen collection devices do not allow analysis of samples on different systems in consequence, faecal tests cannot be compared using standard evaluation protocols. To improve the harmonization of results generated using different analytical systems and the overall performances of test on faecal materials we propose the introduction of standard procedures for sampling and pre-analytical phase and the adoption of specific procedures based on the use of artificial biological samples for comparison of methods. Harmonization of sampling devices with the use of a standard design for pickers and a standard ratio between analyte and buffer for different manufacturers represent a mandatory step in the roadmap for harmonization of clinical laboratory measurement on faecal materials and can allow a significant standardisation of results generated by different devices.The creation of specific protocols for the evaluation and comparison of analytical methods for analyse of faeces could lead to a significant improvement in the performance of methods and systems. PMID:24855037

  19. Improving documentation of clinical care within a clinical information network: an essential initial step in efforts to understand and improve care in Kenyan hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Tuti, Timothy; Bitok, Michael; Malla, Lucas; Paton, Chris; Muinga, Naomi; Gathara, David; Gachau, Susan; Mbevi, George; Nyachiro, Wycliffe; Ogero, Morris; Julius, Thomas; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In many low income countries health information systems are poorly equipped to provide detailed information on hospital care and outcomes. Information is thus rarely used to support practice improvement. We describe efforts to tackle this challenge and to foster learning concerning collection and use of information. This could improve hospital services in Kenya. We are developing a Clinical Information Network, a collaboration spanning 14 hospitals, policy makers and researchers with the goal of improving information available on the quality of inpatient paediatric care across common childhood illnesses in Kenya. Standardised data from hospitals’ paediatric wards are collected using non-commercial and open source tools. We have implemented procedures for promoting data quality which are performed prior to a process of semi-automated analysis and routine report generation for hospitals in the network. In the first phase of the Clinical Information Network, we collected data on over 65 000 admission episodes. Despite clinicians’ initial unfamiliarity with routine performance reporting, we found that, as an initial focus, both engaging with each hospital and providing them information helped improve the quality of data and therefore reports. The process has involved mutual learning and building of trust in the data and should provide the basis for collaborative efforts to improve care, to understand patient outcome, and to evaluate interventions through shared learning. We have found that hospitals are willing to support the development of a clinically focused but geographically dispersed Clinical Information Network in a low-income setting. Such networks show considerable promise as platforms for collaborative efforts to improve care, to provide better information for decision making, and to enable locally relevant research. PMID:27398232

  20. Candles, Corks and Contracts: Essential Relationships between Learners and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burge, Elizabeth J.; Snow, Judith E.

    2000-01-01

    Current relationships between libraries and adult learners are shaped by technology adoption, learner demographics, constructivist learning, and institutional pressures. Future relationships must emphasize learner-centered action over technological efficiency, stronger learning leadership, and greater integration of libraries in educational…

  1. RECONSTRUCTING COSMOLOGICAL MATTER PERTURBATIONS USING STANDARD CANDLES AND RULERS

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Ujjaini; Sahni, Varun; Starobinsky, Alexei A. E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.i

    2009-10-20

    For a large class of dark energy (DE) models, for which the effective gravitational constant is a constant and there is no direct exchange of energy between DE and dark matter (DM), knowledge of the expansion history suffices to reconstruct the growth factor of linearized density perturbations in the non-relativistic matter component on scales much smaller than the Hubble distance. In this paper, we develop a non-parametric method for extracting information about the perturbative growth factor from data pertaining to the luminosity or angular size distances. A comparison of the reconstructed density contrast with observations of large-scale structure and gravitational lensing can help distinguish DE models such as the cosmological constant and quintessence from models based on modified gravity theories as well as models in which DE and DM are either unified or interact directly. We show that for current supernovae (SNe) data, the linear growth factor at z = 0.3 can be constrained to 5% and the linear growth rate to 6%. With future SNe data, such as expected from the Joint Dark Energy Mission, we may be able to constrain the growth factor to 2%-3% and the growth rate to 3%-4% at z = 0.3 with this unbiased, model-independent reconstruction method. For future baryon acoustic oscillation data which would deliver measurements of both the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter, it should be possible to constrain the growth factor at z = 2.5%-9%. These constraints grow tighter with the errors on the data sets. With a large quantity of data expected in the next few years, this method can emerge as a competitive tool for distinguishing between different models of dark energy.

  2. Development of a Candle Filter Failure Safeguard Device

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjana, Z.; Bruck, G.; Smeltzer, E.; Alvin, M.A.; Newby, R.; Foote, J.

    2002-09-18

    The objective of the program was to develop an SGD which would essentially eliminate ash or char leakage. The quantitative target was arrived at based on detailed estimates of gas turbine and combustor performance degradation due to particle erosion and deposition. An SGD capable of limiting particle leakage to <0.5 ppmw will be needed to achieve highest system availability, commensurate with annual maintenance outage. Our advanced SGD concepts were selected to achieve the goal of >16,000 hours cleaning interval.

  3. I Light This Candle: Using Rituals in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of rituals in the classroom can enrich and enhance learning. They can also build a sense of community and belonging which in turn makes the classroom a safer place to risk sharing ideas and engaging in class discussion. Rituals also bring closure to a particular segment of the class learning experience or for the class itself. How many…

  4. Reconstructing cosmological matter perturbations using standard candles and rulers

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Ujjaini; Sahni, Varun; Starobinsky, Alexei A

    2008-01-01

    For a large class of dark energy (DE) models, for which the effective gravitational constant is a constant and there is no direct exchange of energy between DE and dark matter (DM), knowledge of the expansion history suffices to reconstruct the growth factor of linearized density perturbations in the non-relativistic matter component on scales much smaller than the Hubble distance. In this paper, we develop a non-parametric method for extracting information about the perturbative growth factor from data pertaining to the luminosity or angular size distances. A comparison of the reconstructed density contrast with observations of large-scale structure and gravitational lensing can help distinguish DE models such as the cosmological constant and quintessence from models based on modified gravity theories as well as models in which DE and DM are either unified or interact directly. We show that for current supernovae (SNe) data, the linear growth factor at z = 0.3 can be constrained to 5% and the linear growth rate to 6%. With future SNe data, such as expected from the Joint Dark Energy Mission, we may be able to constrain the growth factor to 2%-3% and the growth rate to 3%-4% at z = 0.3 with this unbiased, model-independent reconstruction method. For future baryon acoustic oscillation data which would deliver measurements of both the angular diameter distance and the Hubble parameter, it should be possible to constrain the growth factor at z = 2.5%-9%. These constraints grow tighter with the errors on the data sets. With a large quantity of data expected in the next few years, this method can emerge as a competitive tool for distinguishing between different models of dark energy.

  5. Are long gamma-ray bursts standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hai-Nan; Li, Xin; Wang, Sai; Chang, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are widely proposed as an effective probe to trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe in high-redshift range. However, the calibration of GRBs is not as easy as that of Type-Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Most calibrating methods at present make use one or some of the empirical luminosity correlations, e.g. Amati relation. One of the underlying assumptions of these calibrating methods is that the empirical correlation is universal over all redshifts. In this paper, we check to what extent this assumption holds. Assuming that SNe Ia exactly trace the Hubble diagram of the Universe, we re-investigate the Amati relation for low-redshift (z < 1.4) and high-redshift (z > 1.4) GRBs, respectively. It is found that the Amati relation of low-z GRBs differs from that of high-z GRBs at more than 3σ confidence level. This result is insensitive to cosmological models. We should be cautious when using Amati relation to reconstruct the Hubble diagram of the Universe.

  6. Cosmology with AGN: can we use quasars as standard candles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risaliti, G.

    2016-06-01

    The non-linear relation between X-ray and UV luminosity in quasars can be used to estimate their distance. Recently, we have shown that despite the large dispersion of the relation, a Hubble Diagram made of large samples of quasars can provide unique constraints on cosmology at high redshift. Furthermore, the dispersion of the relation is heavily affected by measurement errors: until now we have used serendipitous X-ray observations, but dedicated observations would significantly increase the precision of the distance estimates. I discuss the future role of XMM in this new field, showing (1) the fundamental contribution of the Serendipitous Source Catalogue and of large surveys, and (2) the breakthrough advancements we may achieve with the observation of a large number of SDSS quasars at high redshift: every 12-15 quasars observed at z~3 would be equivalent to discovering a supernova at that redshift.

  7. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... of institution (75 FR 38121, July 1, 2010) of the subject five-year review was adequate and that the... the Commission's rules, as amended, 67 FR 68036 (November 8, 2002). Even where electronic filing of a... Commission's Handbook on Electronic ] Filing Procedures, 67 FR 68168, 68173 (November 8, 2002). \\2\\...

  8. Dark Candles of the Universe: Black Hole Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aykutalp, Aycin

    2016-03-01

    In 1916, when Karl Schwarzschild solved the Einstein field equations of general relativity for a spherically symmetric, non-rotating mass no one anticipated the impact black holes would have on astrophysics. I will review the main formation channels for black hole seeds and their evolution through cosmic time. In this, emphasis will be placed on the observational diagnostics of astrophysical black holes and their role on the assembly of galaxy formation and evolution. I then review how these observations put constrain on the seed black hole formation theories. Finally, I present an outlook for how future observations can shed light on our understanding of black holes. This work is supported by NSF Grant AST-1333360.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A CANDLE FILTER FAILURE SAFEGUARD DEVICE

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Bruck; E.E. Smeltzer; Z.N. Sanjana

    2002-06-06

    Development, testing and optimization of advanced metal and ceramic, barrier and fiber safeguard devices (SGDs) is described. Metal barrier devices are found prone to manufacturing defects and premature blinding. Fiber devices are found to be satisfactory if fine fibers are used. Durable alloys are identified for both oxidation and gasification conditions. Ceramic honeycomb SGDs were found to perform as excellent barrier devices. Optimization has shown such devices to be durable. Field testing of ceramic honeycomb SGDs from two different manufacturers is being pursued.

  10. The Standardized Candle Method for Type II-Plateau Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Felipe; Hamuy, Mario

    The determination of extragalactic distances allows us to constrain the cosmological parameters which drive the universe dynamics. The large luminosities of type II supernovae (SNe) (those with a hydrogen-rich envelope) make this class of objects as interesting distance indicators. Their luminosities can be standardized using the expansion velocity of the photosphere estimated from P-Cygni line profiles. However, one of the problems that hampers their use in distance determinations is the uncertainty in the host-galaxy extinction. The physics of the photosphere suggests the existence of a unique asymptotic color for all SNe toward the end of the optically thick phase (which corresponds to a period of constant luminosity of about 100 days called plateau). The purpose of this work is to examine the validity of this hypothesis and to contruct Hubble diagrams standardizing the luminosities of these objects. A usual problem with the measurement of such asymptotic color is that there is no obvious maximum during the plateau phase (unlike their cousins, the type Ia SNe), so it proves hard to bring all light curves to the same time scale. One way around this is to use the end of the plateau as an estimate of the time origin for each event. This time origin also serves as a uniform reference epoch to measure magnitudes and expansion velocities. Although simple in theory, in practice it is usually hard to measure magnitudes, colors and expansion velocities owing to the coarse sampling of the observations. Thus, our aims are 1) perform adequate fits to the light, color and velocity curves, 2) determine the asymptotic color, 3) explore the usefulness of such color as reddening indicator, 4) calibrate the relation between luminosity and expansion velocity, and 5) measure distances, which will lead us to the contruction a Hubble diagram. In this talk we present fits made by means of analytic function modeling. We discuss the usefulness of the (V-R) and (V-I) colors for the reddening determination. Furthermore, we study the quality of the luminosity-expansion velocity correlation of FeII lines. Finally, we show the accuracy of the method by means of Hubble diagrams built using a set of 36 type II plateau SNe.

  11. The Crab Nebula: A Flickering X-ray Candle

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Crab Nebula, created by a supernova seen nearly a thousand years ago, is one of the sky's most famous "star wrecks." For decades, most astronomers have regarded it as the steadiest beacon at X-...

  12. How to Use a Candle to Study Sound Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, P. Simeão; Briosa, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Pereira, C.; Ataíde, M.

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that sound waves in air are longitudinal waves. Although teachers use analogies such as compressing horizontal springs to demonstrate what longitudinal waves look like, students still present some difficulty in understanding that (1) sound waves correspond to oscillations of air particles, and (2) there is no "air flow"…

  13. On Picturing a Candle: The Prehistory of Imagery Science

    PubMed Central

    MacKisack, Matthew; Aldworth, Susan; Macpherson, Fiona; Onians, John; Winlove, Crawford; Zeman, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical – and even psychological – reckoning with imagery and its parent concept ‘imagination’. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imagination’s intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for – and presents challenges to – the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literature’s most commonly used task – imagining a concrete object – and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates. PMID:27148124

  14. On Picturing a Candle: The Prehistory of Imagery Science.

    PubMed

    MacKisack, Matthew; Aldworth, Susan; Macpherson, Fiona; Onians, John; Winlove, Crawford; Zeman, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical - and even psychological - reckoning with imagery and its parent concept 'imagination'. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imagination's intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for - and presents challenges to - the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literature's most commonly used task - imagining a concrete object - and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates. PMID:27148124

  15. Theme: Laboratory Facilities Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Glen M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "Laboratory Facilities Improvement" (Miller); "Remodeling Laboratories for Agriscience Instruction" (Newman, Johnson); "Planning for Change" (Mulcahy); "Laboratory Facilities Improvement for Technology Transfer" (Harper); "Facilities for Agriscience Instruction" (Agnew et al.); "Laboratory Facility Improvement" (Boren, Dwyer); and…

  16. Improvement in the Grain Growth of Plasma-Treated Nano-Sized ZnO Films and Their Characterization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mi; Chou, Ching-Chuan; Lin, Ching-Cheng; Koo, Horng-Show

    2015-11-01

    The well-aligned ZnO nanorods were rapidly grown on an indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate using Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin film as seed layer by the microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route. The optimal growth conditions for the well-aligned ZnO nanorods were obtained by modulating H2 plasma pretreatment time for the seed layer and synthesis time for ZnO nanorods. The H2 plasma effect of the seed layer on the alignment, growth rate and crysallinity of ZnO nanods is also demonstrated. The synthesized ZnO nanorods were annealed in atmosphere of N2, O2 and H2 + N2 mixed gas to improve the related physical characteristics, the ZnO nanorods on grapheme/ITO substrate were also investigated. The results show that the alignment and growth rate of ZnO nanorods depends on the physical characteristics and roughness of the seed layer, which can be improved by H2 plasma pretreatment. The average growth rate of ZnO nanorods synthesized by microwave hydrothermal technique is about 2.2 μm/hr which significantly superior to other conventional techniques. After the appropriate N2 annealing treatment, good quality and well-aligned ZnO nanorods, which are single crystal with stacking defects and pyramid or candle shape, were obtained. A fundamental model of the effect of H2 plasma pretreatment on the surface of seed layer and the growth of ZnO nanorods using a microwave-assisted hydrothermal chemical route is also described. PMID:26726662

  17. Improving Skiing: A Metaphor for Improving Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Metaphors are powerful in describing organizations (Morgan, 1986; 1998) and stories reveal the meaning of experiences (Kouzes & Posner, 1993). As an avid skier and school change leader, the author has drawn on her personal experiences and the literature to develop the idea of improving skiing as a metaphor for improving leadership, particularly…

  18. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    PubMed

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  19. Analysis of drought characteristics for improved understanding of a water resource system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lennard, A. T.; Macdonald, N.; Hooke, J.

    2014-09-01

    Droughts are a reoccurring feature of the UK climate; recent drought events (2004-2006 and 2010-2012) have highlighted the UK's continued vulnerability to this hazard. There is a need for further understanding of extreme events, particularly from a water resource perspective. A number of drought indices are available, which can help to improve our understanding of drought characteristics such as frequency, severity and duration. However, at present little of this is applied to water resource management in the water supply sector. Improved understanding of drought characteristics using indices can inform water resource management plans and enhance future drought resilience. This study applies the standardised precipitation index (SPI) to a series of rainfall records (1962-2012) across the water supply region of a single utility provider. Key droughts within this period are analysed to develop an understanding of the meteorological characteristics that lead to, exist during and terminate drought events. The results of this analysis highlight how drought severity and duration can vary across a small-scale water supply region, indicating that the spatial coherence of drought events cannot be assumed.

  20. Influence of canola hulls on gain in weight of larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L.

    PubMed

    Davis, G R; Campbell, S J; McGregor, D I

    1983-12-01

    Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets in which the protein component was supplied by defatted ground seed, defatted ground dehulled fraction, or defatted ground hulls of Brassica napus L. cv. Tower or Brassica campestris L. cv. Candle, obtained from autoclaved seed. They were also fed casein diets to which defatted ground hulls of Tower or Candle seed were added. Gain in weight was equally good for all diets containing Candle seed fractions and for diets containing Tower ground seed. However, it was lower for diets containing the ground dehulled fraction or the ground hulls of Tower. Addition of Candle hulls or of a mixture of equal proportions (w/w) of Candle and Tower hulls to diets containing dehulled Tower did not improve the gain in weight of larvae, compared with that of larvae fed diets containing the dehulled fraction, alone. Similar additions of Tower hulls or of the mixture to diets containing the dehulled fraction of Candle had no adverse effect on larval gain in weight, compared to that registered by larvae fed the dehulled fraction of Candle. Significant improvement in weight gain in comparison with that recorded for larvae fed the unsupplemented casein diet could not be demonstrated when ground hulls of Tower or Candle were added to this diet. Considered collectively, weight gains of larvae of T. molitor were consistently greater when Candle products were fed than when Tower products provided the protein fraction of the diet.