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Sample records for standardized cannabis extract

  1. Acute effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory evoked mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik; Nadulski, Thomas; Stadelmann, Andreas M; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2007-12-01

    Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked mismatch negativity (MMN) have often been found in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient auditory information processing and working memory. Cannabis-induced psychotic states may resemble schizophrenia. Currently, there are discussions focusing on the close relationship between cannabis, the endocannabinoid and dopaminergic system, and the onset of schizophrenic psychosis. This study investigated the effects of cannabis on MMN amplitude in 22 healthy volunteers (age 28+/-6 years, 11 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol (CBD) in a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design. The MMNs resulting from 1000 auditory stimuli were recorded by 32 channel EEG. The standard stimuli were 1000 Hz, 80 dB SPL, and 100 ms duration. The deviant stimuli differed in frequency (1500 Hz). Significantly greater MMN amplitude values at central electrodes were found under cannabis extract, but not under Delta(9)-THC. There were no significant differences between MMN amplitudes at frontal electrodes. MMN amplitudes at central electrodes were significantly correlated with 11-OH-THC concentration, the most important psychoactive metabolite of Delta(9)-THC. Since the main difference between Delta(9)-THC and standardized cannabis extract is CBD, which seems to have neuroprotective and anti-psychotic properties, it can be speculated whether the greater MMN amplitude that may imply higher cortical activation and cognitive performance is related to the positive effects of CBD. This effect may be relevant for auditory cortex activity in particular because only MMN amplitudes at the central, but not at the frontal electrodes were enhanced under cannabis.

  2. Lack of analgesia by oral standardized cannabis extract on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Birgit; Frickey, Nathalie A; Kaufmann, Rainer M; Reif, Marcus; Frey, Richard; Gustorff, Burkhard; Kress, Hans G

    2008-07-01

    Cannabinoid-induced analgesia was shown in animal studies of acute inflammatory and neuropathic pain. In humans, controlled clinical trials with Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol or other cannabinoids demonstrated analgesic efficacy in chronic pain syndromes, whereas the data in acute pain were less conclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of oral cannabis extract in two different human models of acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia. The authors conducted a double-blind, crossover study in 18 healthy female volunteers. Capsules containing Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol-standardized cannabis extract or active placebo were orally administered. A circular sunburn spot was induced at one upper leg. Heat and electrical pain thresholds were determined at the erythema, the area of secondary hyperalgesia, and the contralateral leg. Intradermal capsaicin-evoked pain and areas of flare and secondary hyperalgesia were measured. Primary outcome parameters were heat pain thresholds in the sunburn erythema and the capsaicin-evoked area of secondary hyperalgesia. Secondary measures were electrical pain thresholds, sunburn-induced secondary hyperalgesia, and capsaicin-induced pain. Cannabis extract did not affect heat pain thresholds in the sunburn model. Electrical thresholds (250 Hz) were significantly lower compared with baseline and placebo. In the capsaicin model, the area of secondary hyperalgesia, flare, and spontaneous pain were not altered. To conclude, no analgesic or antihyperalgesic activity of cannabis extract was found in the experiments. Moreover, the results even point to the development of a hyperalgesic state under cannabinoids. Together with previous data, the current results suggest that cannabinoids are not effective analgesics for the treatment of acute nociceptive pain in humans.

  3. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Vaseghi, Golnaz; Taki, Mohamad Javad; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2017-10-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617) was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls. C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  4. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Borrelli, Francesca; Pagano, Ester; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger G; Izzo, Angelo A

    2014-04-15

    Colon cancer is a major public health problem. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS, i.e. CBD botanical drug substance, on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and in experimental models of colon cancer in vivo. Proliferation was evaluated in colorectal carcinoma (DLD-1 and HCT116) as well as in healthy colonic cells using the MTT assay. CBD BDS binding was evaluated by its ability to displace [(3)H]CP55940 from human cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. In vivo, the effect of CBD BDS was examined on the preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), polyps and tumours induced by the carcinogenic agent azoxymethane (AOM) as well as in a xenograft model of colon cancer in mice. CBD BDS and CBD reduced cell proliferation in tumoral, but not in healthy, cells. The effect of CBD BDS was counteracted by selective CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists. Pure CBD reduced cell proliferation in a CB1-sensitive antagonist manner only. In binding assays, CBD BDS showed greater affinity than pure CBD for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, with pure CBD having very little affinity. In vivo, CBD BDS reduced AOM-induced preneoplastic lesions and polyps as well as tumour growth in the xenograft model of colon cancer. CBD BDS attenuates colon carcinogenesis and inhibits colorectal cancer cell proliferation via CB1 and CB2 receptor activation. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of Cannabis-based medicines in cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychomotor performance in relation to acute oral administration of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Gallinat, Jürgen; Weinberg, Gordon; Juckel, Georg; Gorynia, Inge; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2009-08-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor performance are a consistent finding in schizophrenic patients as well as in chronic cannabis users. The high levels of central cannabinoid (CB(1)) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum indicate their implication in the regulation of motor activity. Based on the close relationship between cannabis use, the endogenous cannabinoid system and motor disturbances found in schizophrenia, we expected that administration of cannabinoids may change pattern of psychomotor activity like in schizophrenic patients. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on psychomotor performance in 24 healthy right-handed volunteers (age 27.9 +/- 2.9 years, 12 male) by comparing Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta(9)-THC and cannabidiol. Psychomotor performance was assessed by using a finger tapping test series. Cannabis extract, but not Delta(9)-THC, revealed a significant reduction of right-hand tapping frequencies that was also found in schizophrenia. As to the pure Delta(9)-THC condition, left-hand tapping frequencies were correlated with the plasma concentrations of the Delta(9)-THC metabolite 11-OH-THC. These effects are thought to be related to cannabinoid actions on CB(1) receptors in the basal ganglia, the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum. Our data further demonstrate that acute CB(1) receptor activation under the cannabis extract condition may also affect intermanual coordination (IMC) as an index of interhemispheric transfer. AIR-Scale scores as a measure of subjective perception of intoxication were dose-dependently related to IMC which was shown by an inverted U-curve. This result may be due to functional changes involving GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission within the corpus callosum.

  6. Inhibitory effect of standardized cannabis sativa extract and its ingredient cannabidiol on rat and human bladder contractility.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Aviello, Gabriella; Borrelli, Francesca; Romano, Barbara; Ferro, Matteo; Castaldo, Luigi; Montanaro, Vittorino; Altieri, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a Cannabis sativa extract enriched in cannabidiol (CBD) botanic drug substance (BDS) and pure CBD, on bladder contractility in vitro. Cannabis based-medicines, including CBD-enriched extracts, have been shown to reduce urinary urgency, incontinence episodes, frequency, and nocturia in patients with multiple sclerosis. Strips were cut from male Wistar rats and the human bladder body and placed in organ baths containing Krebs solution. Contractions were induced by electrical field stimulation, acetylcholine, KCl, and α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate. CBD BDS significantly reduced the contractions induced by acetylcholine, but not those induced with electrical field stimulation, KCl, or α,β-methylene adenosine triphosphate in the isolated rat bladder. The inhibitory effect of CBD BDS was not significantly modified by the cannabinoid or opioid receptor antagonists or by modulators of calcium levels, but it was increased by ruthenium red and capsazepine, 2 transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 blockers. In humans, CBD BDS and pure CBD significantly reduced acetylcholine-induced contractions, an effect that was not changed by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 blockers. Our data have suggested that CBD BDS reduces cholinergic-mediated contractility and that this effect is modulated by transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 in rats but not in humans. CBD is the chemical ingredient of CBD BDS responsible for such activity. If confirmed in vivo, such results could provide a pharmacologic basis to explain, at least in part, the efficacy of Cannabis medicines in reducing incontinence episodes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Duran, Marta; Pérez, Eulàlia; Abanades, Sergio; Vidal, Xavier; Saura, Cristina; Majem, Margarita; Arriola, Edurne; Rabanal, Manel; Pastor, Antoni; Farré, Magí; Rams, Neus; Laporte, Joan-Ramon; Capellà, Dolors

    2010-11-01

    Despite progress in anti-emetic treatment, many patients still suffer from chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). This is a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II clinical trial designed to evaluate the tolerability, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of an acute dose titration of a whole-plant cannabis-based medicine (CBM) containing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, taken in conjunction with standard therapies in the control of CINV. Patients suffering from CINV despite prophylaxis with standard anti-emetic treatment were randomized to CBM or placebo, during the 120 h post-chemotherapy period, added to standard anti-emetic treatment. Tolerability was measured as the number of withdrawals from the study during the titration period because of adverse events (AEs). The endpoint for the preliminary efficacy analysis was the proportion of patients showing complete or partial response. Seven patients were randomized to CBM and nine to placebo. Only one patient in the CBM arm was withdrawn due to AEs. A higher proportion of patients in the CBM group experienced a complete response during the overall observation period [5/7 (71.4%) with CMB vs. 2/9 (22.2%) with placebo, the difference being 49.2% (95% CI 1%, 75%)], due to the delayed period. The incidence of AEs was higher in the CBM group (86% vs. 67%). No serious AEs were reported. The mean daily dose was 4.8 sprays in both groups. Compared with placebo, CBM added to standard antiemetic therapy was well tolerated and provided better protection against delayed CINV. These results should be confirmed in a phase III clinical trial. © 2010 Department of Health, Generalitat of Catalonia. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2010 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Effects of acute oral Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and standardized cannabis extract on the auditory P300 event-related potential in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Juckel, Georg; Rentzsch, Johannes; Nadulski, Thomas; Gallinat, Jürgen; Stadelmann, Andreas M

    2008-08-01

    Reduced amplitudes of auditory evoked P300 are a robust finding in schizophrenic patients, indicating deficient attentional resource allocation and active working memory. Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), the main active constituent of Cannabis sativa, has been known to acutely impair cognitive abilities in several domains, particularly in memory and attention. Given the psychotic-like effects of Delta9-THC, a cannabinoid hypothesis of schizophrenia has been proposed. This prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study investigated the acute effects of cannabinoids on P300 amplitude in 20 healthy volunteers (age 28.2+/-3.1 years, 10 male) by comparing Delta9-THC and standardized cannabis extract containing Delta9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD). P300 waves were recorded during a choice reaction task. As expected, Delta9-THC revealed a significant reduction of P300 amplitude at midline frontal, central, and parietal electrodes. CBD has been known to abolish many of the psychotropic effects of Delta9-THC, but, unexpectedly, failed to demonstrate a reversal of Delta9-THC-induced P300 reduction. Moreover, there were no correlations between cannabinoid plasma concentrations and P300 parameters. These data suggest that Delta(9)-THC may lead to acute impairment of attentional functioning and working memory. It can be speculated whether the lack of effect of CBD may be due to an insufficient dose used or to an involvement of neurotransmitter systems in P300 generation which are not influenced by CBD.

  9. [EFFECTS OF CANNABIS EXTRACT PREMEDICATION ON ANESTHETIC DEPTH].

    PubMed

    Ibera, Carlos; Shalom, Ben; Saifi, Fayez; Shruder, Joshua; Davidson, Elyad

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, used by approximately 2.7-4.9% of the world's population, and 7.6-10.2% of Israel's adults. During the past few years, legal systems around the world have enacted large scale adoption of the legalization of both medical and recreational cannabis. Anesthetists should therefore be prepared to treat patients who used cannabis and are undergoing elective or emergency operations. However, the interactions between cannabinoids and general anesthetic agents and the possible implications for patient care are not yet fully understood. The study aimed to examine how preoperative use of cannabis affects the anesthesia process, and whether this use requires special attention by the anesthesiologists during surgery. Hence, we examined the effect of preoperative administration of cannabis extract Sativex (nabiximols) on obtained BIS value relative to the concentration of anesthetic gases. This study is a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Twenty-seven patients undergoing elective orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of the following regimes: high dose cannabis (6), low dose cannabis (8), active placebo (6) and placebo (7). The study drugs were administered as premedication 20 minutes before induction of general anesthesia in a double-blind fashion. Cannabis was administered in the form of nabiximols (Sativex®), which is a highly-standardized extract of cannabis plants containing known drug dosages. During the surgery, hemodynamic parameters were monitored, and the anesthesia depth was measured using a BIS monitor, which is based on brain activity analysis. We found a significant effect of treatment groups on bispectral index (BIS) after controlling for minimum alveolar concentration (MAC). The average BIS values, as measured during steady state anesthesia, were significantly higher in the high dose cannabis treatment group. This study provides the first evidence that

  10. Cloud point extraction of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol from cannabis resin.

    PubMed

    Ameur, S; Haddou, B; Derriche, Z; Canselier, J P; Gourdon, C

    2013-04-01

    A cloud point extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/UV) method was developed for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in micellar phase. The nonionic surfactant "Dowfax 20B102" was used to extract and pre-concentrate THC from cannabis resin, prior to its determination with a HPLC-UV system (diode array detector) with isocratic elution. The parameters and variables affecting the extraction were investigated. Under optimum conditions (1 wt.% Dowfax 20B102, 1 wt.% Na2SO4, T = 318 K, t = 30 min), this method yielded a quite satisfactory recovery rate (~81 %). The limit of detection was 0.04 μg mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation was less than 2 %. Compared with conventional solid-liquid extraction, this new method avoids the use of volatile organic solvents, therefore is environmentally safer.

  11. Detection and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Extracts of Cannabis sativa Roots Using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Ibrahim, Elsayed A; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 10 major cannabinoids of cannabis, namely, (-)- trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, tetrahydrocannabivarian, cannabinol, (-)- trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, in the root extract of Cannabis sativa . Acetonitrile : methanol (80 : 20, v/v) was used for extraction; d 3 -cannabidiol and d 3 - tetrahydrocannabinol were used as the internal standards. All 10 cannabinoids showed a good regression relationship with r 2  > 0.99. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Extraction Method and Analysis of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Olive Oil Preparations.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Antonella; Roda, Gabriella; Casagni, Eleonora; Cristina, Cecilia; Musazzi, Umberto Maria; Franzè, Silvia; Rocco, Paolo; Giuliani, Claudia; Fico, Gelsomina; Minghetti, Paola; Gambaro, Veniero

    2018-03-01

    Recently, an increasing number of pharmacists had to supply medicinal products based on Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae), prescribed by physicians to individual patients. Cannabis olive oil preparation is the first choice as a concentrated extract of cannabinoids, even though standardized operative conditions for obtaining it are still not available. In this work, the impact of temperature and extraction time on the concentration of active principles was studied to harmonize the different compounding methods, optimize the extraction process, and reduce the variability among preparations. Moreover, starting from the cannabis inflorescence, the effect of temperature on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid decarboxylation was evaluated. For the analysis, a GC/MS method, as suggested by the Italian Ministry of Health, and a GC/flame ionization detection method were developed, validated, and compared. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. What place for ▾ cannabis extract in MS?

    PubMed

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that is estimated to affect around 60,000 people in England and Wales, with a lifetime risk in the UK of 1 in 1,000.(1,2) Spasticity (an increase in muscle tone) is a common symptom of MS, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain.(3,4) Complex drug combinations are sometimes necessary to manage symptoms of MS, but these are often only partially effective and associated with unacceptable side effects.(5) Cannabis extract containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) and cannabidiol are the principal extracts from the cannabis plant present in a licensed preparation (▾Sativex - GW Pharma Ltd), the first cannabinoid preparation to be approved for medical use. Sativex has been licensed "for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to MS who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy".(6) Here we review the evidence for cannabis extract and its place in the treatment of the condition.

  14. Evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pacifici, Roberta; Marchei, Emilia; Salvatore, Francesco; Guandalini, Luca; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Pichini, Simona

    2017-08-28

    Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting. The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone. The Italian National Institute of Health sought to establish conditions and indications on how to correctly use nationally produced cannabis to guarantee therapeutic continuity in individuals treated with medical cannabis. The evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil was conducted using an easy and fast ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay. Extraction efficiency of oil was significantly higher than that of water with respect to the different cannabinoids. This was especially observed in the case of the pharmacologically active THC, CBD and their acidic precursors. Fifteen minutes boiling was sufficient to achieve the highest concentrations of cannabinoids in the cannabis tea solutions. At ambient temperature, a significant THC and CBD decrease to 50% or less of the initial concentration was observed over 3 and 7 days, respectively. When refrigerated at 4 °C, similar decreasing profiles were observed for the two compounds. The cannabinoids profile in cannabis oil obtained after pre-heating the flowering tops at 145 °C for 30 min in a static oven resulted in a complete decarboxylation of cannabinoid acids CBDA and THCA-A. Nevertheless, it was apparent that heat not only decarboxylated acidic compounds, but also significantly increased the final concentrations of cannabinoids in oil. The stability of cannabinoids in oil samples was higher than that in tea samples since the maximum decrease (72% of initial concentration) was observed in THC coming from unheated flowering

  15. A novel component of cannabis extract potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat olfactory cortex in vitro.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Benjamin J; Wilkinson, Jonathan D; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Constanti, Andrew

    2004-07-15

    Cannabis is a potential treatment for epilepsy, although the few human studies supporting this use have proved inconclusive. Previously, we showed that a standardized cannabis extract (SCE), isolated Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), and even Delta9-THC-free SCE inhibited muscarinic agonist-induced epileptiform bursting in rat olfactory cortical brain slices, acting via CB1 receptors. The present work demonstrates that although Delta9-THC (1 microM) significantly depressed evoked depolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) in rat olfactory cortex neurones, both SCE and Delta9-THC-free SCE significantly potentiated evoked PSPs (all results were fully reversed by the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A, 1 microM); interestingly, the potentiation by Delta9-THC-free SCE was greater than that produced by SCE. On comparing the effects of Delta9-THC-free SCE upon evoked PSPs and artificial PSPs (aPSPs; evoked electrotonically following brief intracellular current injection), PSPs were enhanced, whereas aPSPs were unaffected, suggesting that the effect was not due to changes in background input resistance. Similar recordings made using CB1 receptor-deficient knockout mice (CB1-/-) and wild-type littermate controls revealed cannabinoid or extract-induced changes in membrane resistance, cell excitability and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice that were similar to those seen in rat neurones, but no effect on these properties were seen in CB1-/- cells. It appears that the unknown extract constituent(s) effects over-rode the suppressive effects of Delta9-THC on excitatory neurotransmitter release, which may explain some patients' preference for herbal cannabis rather than isolated Delta9-THC (due to attenuation of some of the central Delta9-THC side effects) and possibly account for the rare incidence of seizures in some individuals taking cannabis recreationally.

  16. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Cannabis extract was given by subcutaneous route at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) once daily for 18 days and the effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy was examined at selected time intervals using the bar test. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain and liver. In saline-treated mice, no catalepsy was observed at doses of cannabis up to 20 mg/kg. Mice treated with haloperidol at the dose of 1 mg/kg, exhibited significant cataleptic response. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days 1-12 after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. The administration of only cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) decreased brain MDA by 17.5 and 21.8 %, respectively. The level of nitric oxide decreased by 18 % after cannabis at 20 mg/kg. Glucose in brain decreased by 20.1 % after 20 mg/kg of cannabis extract. The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA (22.2 %), decreased GSH (25.7 %) and increased brain nitric oxide by 44.1 %. The administration of cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) to haloperidol-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in brain MDA and nitric

  17. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A; El-Din M Gaafar, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration in mice. Cannabis extract was given by subcutaneous route at 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) once daily for 18 days and the effect on haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced catalepsy was examined at selected time intervals using the bar test. Mice were euthanized 18 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) were determined in brain and liver. In saline-treated mice, no catalepsy was observed at doses of cannabis up to 20 mg/kg. Mice treated with haloperidol at the dose of 1 mg/kg, exhibited significant cataleptic response. Mice treated with cannabis and haloperidol showed significant decrease in catalepsy duration, compared with the haloperidol only treated group. This decrease in catalepsy duration was evident on days 1-12 after starting cannabis injection. Later the effect of cannabis was not apparent. The administration of only cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) decreased brain MDA by 17.5 and 21.8 %, respectively. The level of nitric oxide decreased by 18 % after cannabis at 20 mg/kg. Glucose in brain decreased by 20.1 % after 20 mg/kg of cannabis extract. The administration of only haloperidol increased MDA (22.2 %), decreased GSH (25.7 %) and increased brain nitric oxide by 44.1 %. The administration of cannabis (10 or 20 mg/kg) to haloperidol-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in brain MDA and nitric

  18. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study about the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on the pharmacokinetics of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) after oral application of THC verses standardized cannabis extract.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Pragst, Fritz; Weinberg, Gordon; Roser, Patrik; Schnelle, Martin; Fronk, Eva-Maria; Stadelmann, Andreas Michael

    2005-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to modify the effects of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by decreasing anxiety and antagonizing other THC-effects. As a reason, pharmacodynamic as well as pharmacokinetic mechanisms were suggested. In context of the use of cannabis-based medicine extracts for therapeutic purposes, a study was performed in a double-blind and placebo-controlled cross-over design in which each of 24 volunteers (12 male and 12 female, age 18-45 years) obtained soft-gelatin capsules with 10 mg THC (THC-set), cannabis extract containing 10 mg THC +5.4 mg CBD (CAN-set) or placebo in weekly intervals. Blood samples were taken 30 minutes before and 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours and 24 hours after the intake. The concentrations of THC, of its metabolites 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH and of CBD in the plasma samples were determined by automatic solid phase extraction, derivatization with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triflouroacetamide and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The concentration versus time curves (maximum concentrations Cmax, corresponding time tmax and areas under the curves AUC) were evaluated by statistical methods with respect to equivalence or differences between the CAN-set and the THC-set. Furthermore, the intra-individual ratios of Cmax and AUC for 11-OH-THC/THC, THC-COOH/THC and THC-COOH/11-OH-THC were compared between the THC-set and the CAN-set. Despite the large variation of the data, evidence emerged from the total of the results that CBD partially inhibits the CYP 2C catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC. The probability for this inhibition is particularly high for oral intake because THC and CBD attain relatively high concentrations in the liver and because of the high first-pass metabolism of THC. However, the effect of CBD is small in comparison to the variability caused by other factors. Therefore, a pharmacokinetic reason for the differences determined between pure THC and cannabis extract is improbable at

  19. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    PubMed

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. A cannabigerol-rich Cannabis sativa extract, devoid of [INCREMENT]9-tetrahydrocannabinol, elicits hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Brierley, Daniel I; Samuels, James; Duncan, Marnie; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2017-06-01

    Nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids (pCBs) from Cannabis sativa may represent novel therapeutic options for cachexia because of their pleiotropic pharmacological activities, including appetite stimulation. We have recently shown that purified cannabigerol (CBG) is a novel appetite stimulant in rats. As standardized extracts from Cannabis chemotypes dominant in one pCB [botanical drug substances (BDSs)] often show greater efficacy and/or potency than purified pCBs, we investigated the effects of a CBG-rich BDS, devoid of psychoactive [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol, on feeding behaviour. Following a 2 h prefeed satiation procedure, 16 male Lister-hooded rats were administered CBG-BDS (at 30-240 mg/kg) or vehicle. Food intake, meal pattern microstructure and locomotor activity were recorded over 2 h. The total food intake was increased by 120 and 240 mg/kg CBG-BDS (1.53 and 1.36 g, respectively, vs. 0.56 g in vehicle-treated animals). Latency to feeding onset was dose dependently decreased at all doses, and 120 and 240 mg/kg doses increased both the number of meals consumed and the cumulative size of the first two meals. No significant effect was observed on ambulatory activity or rearing behaviour. CBG-BDS is a novel appetite stimulant, which may have greater potency than purified CBG, despite the absence of [INCREMENT]-tetrahydrocannabinol in the extract.

  1. Evaluation of a reduced nicotine product standard: moderating effects of and impact on cannabis use*

    PubMed Central

    Pacek, Lauren R.; Vandrey, Ryan; Dermody, Sarah S.; Denlinger, Rachel L.; Lemieux, Andrine; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McClernon, F. Joseph; Bangdiwala, Ananta S.; Drobes, David J.; al'Absi, Mustafa; Strasser, Andrew A.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Donny, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act authorized the FDA to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes. Research is needed to guide proposed regulations, including evaluation of consequences to public health. This study evaluated how a reduced nicotine product standard might be moderated by and impact cannabis use. Methods Secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial examining the effects of nicotine content in cigarettes in adult daily smokers. Linear regression assessed whether baseline cannabis use moderated behavioral, subjective, or physiological effects of smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) versus normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes. Repeated measures analysis of associations between nicotine condition and prevalence and frequency of cannabis use was completed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results Among cannabis users and non-users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported lower nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, biomarkers of nicotine exposure, and craving compared to smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. Non-cannabis using smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes also reported lower smoking dependence motives and had lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and total puff volume versus smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. For cannabis users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported decreased positive affect. Cannabis use did not moderate most effects of VLNC cigarettes. VLNC cigarette use did not impact the prevalence or frequency of cannabis use. Discussion Findings provide evidence that nicotine reduction in cigarettes could have beneficial effects on cigarette smoking regardless of cannabis use. Results suggest that transitioning to VLNC cigarettes is unlikely to alter current rates of cannabis use. PMID:27590743

  2. Evaluation of a reduced nicotine product standard: Moderating effects of and impact on cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Pacek, Lauren R; Vandrey, Ryan; Dermody, Sarah S; Denlinger-Apte, Rachel L; Lemieux, Andrine; Tidey, Jennifer W; McClernon, F Joseph; Bangdiwala, Ananta S; Drobes, David J; al'Absi, Mustafa; Strasser, Andrew A; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Donny, Eric C

    2016-10-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act authorized the FDA to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes. Research is needed to guide proposed regulations, including evaluation of consequences to public health. This study evaluated how a reduced nicotine product standard might be moderated by and impact cannabis use. Secondary analysis of a controlled clinical trial examining the effects of nicotine content in cigarettes in adult daily smokers. Linear regression assessed whether baseline cannabis use moderated behavioral, subjective, or physiological effects of smoking very low nicotine content (VLNC) versus normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes. Repeated measures analysis of associations between nicotine condition and prevalence and frequency of cannabis use was completed using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Cannabis use did not moderate most of the following effects of VLNC cigarettes: Among cannabis users and non-users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported lower nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, biomarkers of nicotine exposure, and craving compared to smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. Non-cannabis using smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes also reported lower smoking dependence motives and had lower tobacco-specific nitrosamine exposure and total puff volume versus smokers randomized to NNC cigarettes. For cannabis users, smokers randomized to VLNC cigarettes reported decreased positive affect. VLNC cigarette use did not impact the prevalence or frequency of cannabis use. Findings provide evidence that nicotine reduction in cigarettes could have beneficial effects on cigarette smoking regardless of cannabis use. Results suggest that transitioning to VLNC cigarettes is unlikely to alter current rates of cannabis use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    PubMed Central

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protocol of Wagner and a CTAB protocol described by Somma (2004) adapted for difficult matrix. We obtained high quality genomic DNA from 8 cannabis resin seizures using the adapted protocol. DNA extracted by the Wagner CTAB protocol failed to give polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase coding gene. However, the extracted DNA by the second protocol permits amplification of THCA synthase coding gene using different sets of primers as assessed by PCR. We describe here for the first time the possibility of DNA extraction from (Hashish) resin derived from Cannabis sativa. This allows the use of DNA molecular tests under special forensic circumstances. PMID:24124454

  4. Anticoagulant effects of a Cannabis extract in an obese rat model.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, C; Levendal, R-A; van de Venter, M; Frost, C L

    2007-05-01

    Blood coagulation studies were conducted to determine the possible anti-/prothrombotic effect of an organic cannabis extract and the three major cannabinoids, THC, CBD and CBN. The in vitro effect of the cannabis extract on thrombin activity produced an IC50 value of 9.89 mg/ml, compared to THC at 1.79 mg/ml. It was also found that the extract, THC and CBN showed considerable inhibition of thrombin-induced clot formation in vitro with IC50 values of 600, 87 and 83 microg/ml for the extract, THC and CBN respectively. In an in vivo model used to determine clotting times of lean and obese rats treated with a cannabis extract, 50% clotting times were found to be 1.5 and 2 fold greater than their respective control groups, supporting the results obtained in the in vitro model. The study thus shows that Cannabis sativa and the cannabinoids, THC and CBN, display anticoagulant activity and may be useful in the treatment of diseases such as type 2 diabetes in which a hypercoagulable state exists.

  5. A low-Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol cannabis extract induces hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Jonathan A; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2010-12-01

    Appetite stimulation via partial agonism of cannabinoid type 1 receptors by Δtetrahydrocannabinol (ΔTHC) is well documented and can be modulated by non-ΔTHC phytocannabinoids. ΔTHC concentrations sufficient to elicit hyperphagia induce changes to both appetitive (reduced latency to feed) and consummatory (increased meal one size and duration) behaviours. Here, we show that a cannabis extract containing too little ΔTHC to stimulate appetite can induce hyperphagia solely by increasing appetitive behaviours. Twelve, male Lister hooded rats were presatiated before treatment with a low-ΔTHC cannabis extract (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg). Hourly intake and meal pattern data were recorded and analyzed using one-way analyses of variance followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests. The cannabis extract significantly increased food intake during the first hour of testing (at 4.0 mg/kg) and significantly reduced the latency to feed versus vehicle treatments (at doses ≥1.0 mg/kg). Meal size and duration were unaffected. These results show only the increase in appetitive behaviours, which could be attributed to non-ΔTHC phytocannabinoids in the extract rather than ΔTHC. Although further study is required to determine the constituents responsible for these effects, these results support the presence of non-ΔTHC cannabis constituent(s) that exert a stimulatory effect on appetite and likely lack the detrimental psychoactive effects of ΔTHC.

  6. Differential effects of cannabis extracts and pure plant cannabinoids on hippocampal neurones and glia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Duncan; Drysdale, Alison J; Pertwee, Roger G; Platt, Bettina

    2006-11-20

    We have shown previously that the plant cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) elevates intracellular calcium levels in both cultured hippocampal neurones and glia. Here, we investigated whether the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or in combination with other cannabis constituents can cause similar responses, and whether THC affects the responses induced by CBD. Our experiments were performed with 1 microM pure THC (pTHC), with 1 microM pure CBD (pCBD), with a high-THC, low CBD cannabis extract (eTHC), with a high-CBD, low THC cannabis extract (eCBD), with a mixture of eTHC and eCBD (THC:CBD=1:1) or with corresponding 'mock extracts' that contained only pTHC and pCBD mixed in the same proportion as in eTHC, eCBD or the 1:1 mixture of eTHC and eCBD. We detected significant differences in neurones both between the effects of pTHC and eTHC and between the effects of pCBD and eCBD. There were also differences between the Ca(2+) responses evoked in both neurones and glia by eTHC and mock eTHC, but not between eCBD and mock eCBD. A particularly striking observation was the much increased response size and maximal responder rates induced by the mixture of eTHC and eCBD than by the corresponding 1:1 mixture of pTHC and pCBD. Our data suggest that THC shares the ability of CBD to elevate Ca(2+) levels in neurones and glia, that THC and CBD interact synergistically and that the cannabis extracts have other constituents yet to be identified that can significantly modulate the ability of THC and CBD to raise Ca(2+) levels.

  7. Acute psychotropic effects of oral cannabis extract with a defined content of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R M; Kraft, B; Frey, R; Winkler, D; Weiszenbichler, S; Bäcker, C; Kasper, S; Kress, H G

    2010-01-01

    The medical use of cannabinoids is limited mainly by their undesirable effects. With respect to acute psychotropic effects, the aim of this study is the comparison of an oral cannabis extract and low-dose diazepam in a cross-over experiment in drug-naïve healthy women. Sixteen healthy females participated in this randomized, double-blind, active comparator-controlled, single-dose, balanced 2-way cross-over study. Cannabis extract with standardised Delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content (20 mg) or active placebo (5 mg diazepam) was administered orally. Subjects were assessed by self- and observer-rated visual analogue scales (VAS), the BRIEF PSYCHIATRIC RATING SCALE (BPRS) and three psychomotor tests up to 6 h after administration. VAS showed significantly elevated fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, and "feeling high" after cannabis as compared to baseline and diazepam. BPRS scores were significantly higher after cannabis intake. Only in one psychomotor test a decrease of psychomotor activity after cannabis was evident. One subject in the cannabis condition experienced severe transient psychotic symptoms. Orally administered cannabis produced significant central depressant side-effects compared to diazepam, mostly subjective effects (VAS) but marginal effects in psychomotor performance in 15 healthy females. Regarding the medical use of cannabis, a rigorous benefit-risk analysis and an exact psychiatric assessment before and during treatment are necessary. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  8. Beneficial effects of a Cannabis sativa extract treatment on diabetes-induced neuropathy and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara

    2009-12-01

    Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats without affecting hyperglycemia. In addition, the results showed that eCBD increased the reduced glutathione (GSH) content in the liver leading to a restoration of the defence mechanism and significantly decreased the liver lipid peroxidation suggesting that eCBD provides protection against oxidative damage in STZ-induced diabetes that also strongly contributes to the development of neuropathy. Finally, the nerve growth factor content in the sciatic nerve of diabetic rats was restored to normal following the repeated treatment with eCBD, suggesting that the extract was able to prevent the nerve damage caused by the reduced support of this neurotrophin. These findings highlighted the beneficial effects of cannabis extract treatment in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain, possibly through a strong antioxidant activity and a specific action upon nerve growth factor. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Cannabinoids from Cannabis Sativa L. Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Charu; Máthé, Katalin; Hofmann, Tamás; Csóka, Levente

    2018-03-01

    Ultrasonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from Cannabis sativa L. such as polyphenols, flavonoids, and cannabinoids. The influence of 3 independent factors (time, input power, and methanol concentration) was evaluated on the extraction of total phenols (TPC), flavonoids (TF), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and the overall yield. A face-centered central composite design was used for statistical modelling of the response data, followed by regression and analysis of variance in order to determine the significance of the model and factors. Both the solvent composition and the time significantly affected the extraction while the sonication power had no significant impact on the responses. The response predictions obtained at optimum extraction conditions of 15 min time, 130 W power, and 80% methanol were 314.822 mg GAE/g DW of TPC, 28.173 mg QE/g DW of TF, 18.79 mM AAE/g DW of FRAP, and 10.86% of yield. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental values of the responses, which validated the mathematical model. On comparing the ultrasonic process with the control extraction, noticeably higher values were obtained for each of the responses. Additionally, ultrasound considerably improved the extraction of cannabinoids present in Cannabis. Low frequency ultrasound was employed to extract bioactive compounds from the inflorescence part of Cannabis. The responses evaluated were-total phenols, flavonoids, ferric reducing assay and yield. The solvent composition and time significantly influenced the extraction process. Appreciably higher extraction of cannabinoids was achieved on sonication against control. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. The safety and efficacy of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream for reduction of human cheek skin sebum and erythema content.

    PubMed

    Ali, Atif; Akhtar, Naveed

    2015-07-01

    Escalated sebum fabrication is seen with an unattractive look and adds to the growth of acne. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of 3% Cannabis seeds extract cream on human cheek skin sebum and erythema content. For this purpose, base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base (control) were prepared for single blinded and comparative study. Healthy males were instructed to apply the base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract and base twice a day to their cheeks for 12 weeks. Adverse events were observed to determine skin irritation. Measurements for sebum and erythema content were recorded at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th and 12th week in a control room with Sebumeter and Mexameter. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract was found to be safe in volunteers. Measurements demonstrated that skin sebum and erythema content of base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract treated side showed significant decrease (p<0.05) compared with base treated side. Base plus 3% Cannabis seeds extract showed safety. It was well tolerated for the reduction of skin sebum and erythema content. Its improved efficacy could be suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris, seborrhea, papules and pustules to get attractive facial appearance.

  11. Cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa extracts inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lukhele, Sindiswa T; Motadi, Lesetja R

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer remains a global health related issue among females of Sub-Saharan Africa, with over half a million new cases reported each year. Different therapeutic regimens have been suggested in various regions of Africa, however, over a quarter of a million women die of cervical cancer, annually. This makes it the most lethal cancer amongst black women and calls for urgent therapeutic strategies. In this study we compare the anti-proliferative effects of crude extract of Cannabis sativa and its main compound cannabidiol on different cervical cancer cell lines. To achieve our aim, phytochemical screening, MTT assay, cell growth analysis, flow cytometry, morphology analysis, Western blot, caspase 3/7 assay, and ATP measurement assay were conducted. Results obtained indicate that both cannabidiol and Cannabis sativa extracts were able to halt cell proliferation in all cell lines at varying concentrations. They further revealed that apoptosis was induced by cannabidiol as shown by increased subG0/G1 and apoptosis through annexin V. Apoptosis was confirmed by overexpression of p53, caspase 3 and bax. Apoptosis induction was further confirmed by morphological changes, an increase in Caspase 3/7 and a decrease in the ATP levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that cannabidiol rather than Cannabis sativa crude extracts prevent cell growth and induce cell death in cervical cancer cell lines.

  12. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Antihyperalgesic effect of a Cannabis sativa extract in a rat model of neuropathic pain: mechanisms involved.

    PubMed

    Comelli, Francesca; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Costa, Barbara

    2008-08-01

    This study aimed to give a rationale for the employment of phytocannabinoid formulations to treat neuropathic pain. It was found that a controlled cannabis extract, containing multiple cannabinoids, in a defined ratio, and other non-cannabinoid fractions (terpenes and flavonoids) provided better antinociceptive efficacy than the single cannabinoid given alone, when tested in a rat model of neuropathic pain. The results also demonstrated that such an antihyperalgesic effect did not involve the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, whereas it was mediated by vanilloid receptors TRPV1. The non-psychoactive compound, cannabidiol, is the only component present at a high level in the extract able to bind to this receptor: thus cannabidiol was the drug responsible for the antinociceptive behaviour observed. In addition, the results showed that after chronic oral treatment with cannabis extract the hepatic total content of cytochrome P450 was strongly inhibited as well as the intestinal P-glycoprotein activity. It is suggested that the inhibition of hepatic metabolism determined an increased bioavailability of cannabidiol resulting in a greater effect. However, in the light of the well known antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties of terpenes and flavonoids which could significantly contribute to the therapeutic effects, it cannot be excluded that the synergism observed might be achieved also in the absence of the cytochrome P450 inhibition.

  14. Differential effects of THC- or CBD-rich cannabis extracts on working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Paola; Robinson, Lianne; Fratta, Walter; Pertwee, Roger G; Riedel, Gernot

    2004-12-01

    Cannabinoid receptors in the brain (CB(1)) take part in modulation of learning, and are particularly important for working and short-term memory. Here, we employed a delayed-matching-to-place (DMTP) task in the open-field water maze and examined the effects of cannabis plant extracts rich in either Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC), or rich in cannabidiol (CBD), on spatial working and short-term memory formation in rats. Delta(9)-THC-rich extracts impaired performance in the memory trial (trial 2) of the DMTP task in a dose-dependent but delay-independent manner. Deficits appeared at doses of 2 or 5 mg/kg (i.p.) at both 30 s and 4 h delays and were similar in severity compared with synthetic Delta(9)-THC. Despite considerable amounts of Delta(9)-THC present, CBD-rich extracts had no effect on spatial working/short-term memory, even at doses of up to 50 mg/kg. When given concomitantly, CBD-rich extracts did not reverse memory deficits of the additional Delta(9)-THC-rich extract. CBD-rich extracts also did not alter Delta(9)-THC-rich extract-induced catalepsy as revealed by the bar test. It appears that spatial working/short-term memory is not sensitive to CBD-rich extracts and that potentiation and antagonism of Delta(9)-THC-induced spatial memory deficits is dependent on the ratio between CBD and Delta(9)-THC.

  15. Plasma cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled oral delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and oromucosal cannabis extract administration.

    PubMed

    Karschner, Erin L; Darwin, W David; Goodwin, Robert S; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-01-01

    Sativex(®), a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC's effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board-approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor- 9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (C(max)) and areas under the curve from 0-10.5 h postdose (AUC(0→10.5)) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in C(max), time to maximum concentration or in the AUC(0→10.5) between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC's effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses.

  16. Plasma Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics following Controlled Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Oromucosal Cannabis Extract Administration

    PubMed Central

    Karschner, Erin L.; Darwin, W. David; Goodwin, Robert S.; Wright, Stephen; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sativex®, a cannabis extract oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in phase III trials as an adjunct to opioids for cancer pain treatment, and recently received United Kingdom approval for treatment of spasticity. There are indications that CBD modulates THC’s effects, but it is unclear if this is due to a pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction. METHODS Cannabis smokers provided written informed consent to participate in this randomized, controlled, double-blind, double-dummy institutional review board–approved study. Participants received 5 and 15 mg synthetic oral THC, low-dose (5.4 mg THC and 5.0 mg CBD) and high-dose (16.2 mg THC and 15.0 mg CBD) Sativex, and placebo over 5 sessions. CBD, THC, 11-hydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC were quantified in plasma by 2-dimensional GC-MS. Lower limits of quantification were ≤0.25 μg/L. RESULTS Nine cannabis smokers completed all 5 dosing sessions. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) and areas under the curve from 0–10.5 h postdose (AUC0→10.5) for all analytes were found between low and high doses of synthetic THC and Sativex. There were no statistically significant differences in Cmax, time to maximum concentration or in the AUC0→10.5 between similar oral THC and Sativex doses. Relative bioavailability was calculated to determine the relative rate and extent of THC absorption; 5 and 15 mg oral THC bioavailability was 92.6% (13.1%) and 98.8% (11.0%) of low- and high-dose Sativex, respectively. CONCLUSION These data suggest that CBD modulation of THC’s effects is not due to a pharmacokinetic interaction at these therapeutic doses. PMID:21078841

  17. ¹H NMR and HPLC/DAD for Cannabis sativa L. chemotype distinction, extract profiling and specification.

    PubMed

    Peschel, Wieland; Politi, Matteo

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal use of different chemovars and extracts of Cannabis sativa L. requires standardization beyond ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with complementing methods. We investigated the suitability of (1)H NMR key signals for distinction of four chemotypes measured in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide together with two new validated HPLC/DAD methods used for identification and extract profiling based on the main pattern of cannabinoids and other phenolics alongside the assayed content of THC, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) their acidic counterparts (THCA, CBDA, CBGA), cannabinol (CBN) and cannflavin A and B. Effects on cell viability (MTT assay, HeLa) were tested. The dominant cannabinoid pairs allowed chemotype recognition via assignment of selective proton signals and via HPLC even in cannabinoid-low extracts from the THC, CBD and CBG type. Substantial concentrations of cannabinoid acids in non-heated extracts suggest their consideration for total values in chemotype distinction and specifications of herbal drugs and extracts. Cannflavin A/B are extracted and detected together with cannabinoids but always subordinated, while other phenolics can be accumulated via fractionation and detected in a wide fingerprint but may equally serve as qualitative marker only. Cell viability reduction in HeLa was more determined by the total cannabinoid content than by the specific cannabinoid profile. Therefore the analysis and labeling of total cannabinoids together with the content of THC and 2-4 lead cannabinoids are considered essential. The suitability of analytical methods and the range of compound groups summarized in group and ratio markers are discussed regarding plant classification and pharmaceutical specification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Ligresti, Alessia; Moriello, Aniello Schiano; Allarà, Marco; Bisogno, Tiziana; Petrosino, Stefania; Stott, Colin G; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interact with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of 11 pure cannabinoids and botanical extracts [botanical drug substance (BDS)] from Cannabis varieties selected to contain a more abundant cannabinoid, on TRPV1, TRPV2, TRPM8, TRPA1, human recombinant diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα), rat brain fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), COS cell monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), human recombinant N-acylethanolamine acid amide hydrolase (NAAA) and anandamide cellular uptake (ACU) by RBL-2H3 cells, were studied using fluorescence-based calcium assays in transfected cells and radiolabelled substrate-based enzymatic assays. Cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), the acids (CBDA, CBGA, THCA) and propyl homologues (CBDV, CBGV, THCV) of CBD, cannabigerol (CBG) and THC, and tetrahydrocannabivarin acid (THCVA) were also tested. KEY RESULTS CBD, CBG, CBGV and THCV stimulated and desensitized human TRPV1. CBC, CBD and CBN were potent rat TRPA1 agonists and desensitizers, but THCV-BDS was the most potent compound at this target. CBG-BDS and THCV-BDS were the most potent rat TRPM8 antagonists. All non-acid cannabinoids, except CBC and CBN, potently activated and desensitized rat TRPV2. CBDV and all the acids inhibited DAGLα. Some BDS, but not the pure compounds, inhibited MAGL. CBD was the only compound to inhibit FAAH, whereas the BDS of CBC > CBG > CBGV inhibited NAAA. CBC = CBG > CBD inhibited ACU, as did the BDS of THCVA, CBGV, CBDA and THCA, but the latter extracts were more potent inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results are relevant to the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids and Cannabis extracts. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids in Biology and Medicine. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011

  19. Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.

    PubMed

    Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple sclerosis and extract of cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, John Peter; Hobart, Jeremy C; Slade, Anita; Barnes, David; Mattison, Paul G

    2012-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with chronic symptoms, including muscle stiffness, spasms, pain and insomnia. Here we report the results of the Multiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis (MUSEC) study that aimed to substantiate the patient based findings of previous studies. Patients with stable MS at 22 UK centres were randomised to oral cannabis extract (CE) (N=144) or placebo (N=135), stratified by centre, walking ability and use of antispastic medication. This double blind, placebo controlled, phase III study had a screening period, a 2 week dose titration phase from 5 mg to a maximum of 25 mg of tetrahydrocannabinol daily and a 10 week maintenance phase. The primary outcome measure was a category rating scale (CRS) measuring patient reported change in muscle stiffness from baseline. Further CRSs assessed body pain, spasms and sleep quality. Three validated MS specific patient reported outcome measures assessed aspects of spasticity, physical and psychological impact, and walking ability. The rate of relief from muscle stiffness after 12 weeks was almost twice as high with CE than with placebo (29.4% vs. 15.7%; OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.24 to 4.13; p=0.004, one sided). Similar results were found after 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and also for all further CRSs. Results from the MS scales supported these findings. The study met its primary objective to demonstrate the superiority of CE over placebo in the treatment of muscle stiffness in MS. This was supported by results for secondary efficacy variables. Adverse events in participants treated with CE were consistent with the known side effects of cannabinoids. No new safety concerns were observed. NCT00552604.

  1. Determination of Acid and Neutral Cannabinoids in Extracts of Different Strains of Cannabis sativa Using GC-FID.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Elsayed A; Gul, Waseem; Gul, Shahbaz W; Stamper, Brandon J; Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel Salam, Randa A; Ibrahim, Amany K; Ahmed, Safwat A; Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; Radwan, Mohamed M; ElSohly, Mahmoud A

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual herbaceous plant that belongs to the family Cannabaceae. Trans -Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the two major phytocannabinoids accounting for over 40% of the cannabis plant extracts, depending on the variety. At the University of Mississippi, different strains of C. sativa, with different concentration ratios of CBD and Δ 9 -THC, have been tissue cultured via micropropagation and cultivated. A GC-FID method has been developed and validated for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of acid and neutral cannabinoids in C. sativa extracts. The method involves trimethyl silyl derivatization of the extracts. These cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabivarian, CBD, cannabichromene, trans -Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ 9 -THC, cannabigerol, cannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A. The concentration-response relationship of the method indicated a linear relationship between the concentration and peak area ratio with R 2  > 0.999 for all 10 cannabinoids. The precision and accuracy of the method were found to be ≤ 15% and ± 5%, respectively. The limit of detection range was 0.11 - 0.19 µg/mL, and the limit of quantitation was 0.34 - 0.56 µg/mL for all 10 cannabinoids. The developed method is simple, sensitive, reproducible, and suitable for the detection and quantitation of acidic and neutral cannabinoids in different extracts of cannabis varieties. The method was applied to the analysis of these cannabinoids in different parts of the micropropagated cannabis plants (buds, leaves, roots, and stems). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2014-10-14

    Schizophrenia is a mental illness causing disordered beliefs, ideas and sensations. Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia.To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register, 12 August 2013, which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PUBMED and PsycINFO.We searched all references of articles selected for inclusion for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomised controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed:1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia;2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. We independently inspected citations, selected papers and then re-inspected the studies if there were discrepancies, and extracted data. For dichotomous data we calculated risk ratios (RR) and for continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed-effect model. We excluded data if loss to follow-up was greater than 50%. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and used GRADE to rate the quality of the evidence. We identified eight randomised trials, involving 530 participants, which met our selection criteria.For the cannabis reduction studies no one treatment showed superiority for reduction

  3. [Results of a standardized survey on the medical use of cannabis products in the German-speaking area].

    PubMed

    Schnelle, M; Grotenhermen, F; Reif, M; Gorter, R W

    1999-10-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has a long history of medical use in the treatment of pain and spasms, the promotion of sleep, and the suppression of nausea and vomiting. However, in the early 70s cannabis was classified in the Narcotic Acts in countries all over the world as having no therapeutic benefit; therefore, it cannot be prescribed by physicians or dispensed by pharmacists. In the light of this contradictory situation an increasing number of patients practices a self-prescription with cannabis products for relieving a variety of symptoms. An anonymous standardized survey of the medical use of cannabis and cannabis products of patients in Germany, Austria and Switzerland was conducted by the Association for Cannabis as Medicine (Cologne, Germany). During about one year 170 subjects participated in this survey; questionnaires of 128 patients could be included into the evaluation. 68% of these participants were males, 32% females, with a total mean age of 37.5 (+/- 9.6) years. The most frequently mentioned indications for medicinal cannabis use were depression (12.0%), multiple sclerosis (10.8%), HIV-infection (9.0%), migraine (6.6%), asthma (6.0%), back pain (5.4%), hepatitis C (4. 8%), sleeping disorders (4.8%), epilepsy (3.6%), spasticity (3.6%), headache (3.6%), alcoholism (3.0%), glaucoma (3.0%), nausea (3.0%), disk prolapse (2.4%), and spinal cord injury (2.4%). The majority of patients used natural cannabis products such as marihuana, hashish and an alcoholic tincture; in just 5 cases dronabinol (Marinol) was taken by prescription. About half of the 128 participants of the survey (52.4%) had used cannabis as a recreational drug before the onset of their illness. To date 14.3% took cannabis orally, 49.2% by inhalation and in 36.5% of cases both application modes were used. 72.2% of the patients stated the symptoms of their illness to have 'much improved' after cannabis ingestion, 23.4% stated to have 'slightly improved', 4.8% experienced 'no change' and 1

  4. Biological effects of THC and a lipophilic cannabis extract on normal and insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Gallant, M; Odei-Addo, F; Frost, C L; Levendal, R-A

    2009-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes, a chronic disease, affects about 150 million people world wide. It is characterized by insulin resistance of peripheral tissues such as liver, skeletal muscle, and fat. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which in turn inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase autophosphorylation. It has been reported that cannabis is used in the treatment of diabetes. A few reports indicate that smoking cannabis can lower blood glucose in diabetics. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. This study aimed to determine the effect of a lipophilic cannabis extract on adipogenesis, using 3T3-L1 cells, and to measure its effect on insulin sensitivity in insulin resistant adipocytes. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and differentiated over a 3 day period for all studies. In the adipogenesis studies, differentiated cells were exposed to the extract in the presence and absence of insulin. Lipid content and glucose uptake was subsequently measured. Insulin-induced glucose uptake increased, while the rate of adipogenesis decreased with increasing THC concentration. Insulin-resistance was induced using TNF-alpha, exposed to the extract and insulin-induced glucose uptake measured. Insulin-induced glucose was increased in these cells after exposure to the extract. Semiquantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed after ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction to evaluate the effects of the extract on glucose transporter isotype 4 (GLUT-4), insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 gene expression.

  5. The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Cannabis Sativa on appetite hormone in rat.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Baghban Taraghdari, Sara; Rezaee, Peyman; Kamgar, Maryam; Jomezadeh, Mohammad Reza; Akbarieh Hasani, Omid; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Rakhshandeh, Hassan; Norouzy, Abdolreza; Esmaily, Habibollah; Patterson, Michael; Nematy, Mohsen

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide which is secreted from stomach. Cannabis sativa is known as an orexigenic herb in Iranian traditional medicine. Little evidence is published about its effect on energy intake and its mechanism. In the current study, the possible effect of hydroalcoholic extract of C. sativa on appetite and ghrelin is evaluated. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Two control groups were selected, the first group received 0.5 mL water per day (vehicle group) and another group did not receive anything (control group). The other three groups were treated daily with 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg of C. sativa for 7 days, respectively. Daily energy intake of the rats was calculated for 10 days prior to the> intervention and for the 7 day intervention. To investigate changes in plasma ghrelin as a potential mechanism, an orexigenic dose (150 mg/kg) of C. sativa or distilled water (vehicle) was fed to two separate groups of six rats by gavage. Total ghrelin levels in plasma were measured for 3 h post-gavage. There was no significant difference in energy intake between control and vehicle groups. Treatment with 100 and 150 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased energy intake vs the other groups (p<0.05). Total ghrelin levels were significantly elevated in the C. sativa group vs vehicle 30 and 60 min post-gavage. This study showed that C. sativa had both positive and dose-related effects on appetite of rats. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the orexigenic effect of this plant in human.

  6. Pro-resolution, protective and anti-nociceptive effects of a cannabis extract in the rat gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J L; Flannigan, K L; McKnight, W; Wang, L; Ferraz, J G P; Tuitt, D

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is widely used for treating a number of gastrointestinal ailments, but its use is associated with several adverse effects, particularly when the route of administration is via smoking. In the present study, we tested the effects (in rats) of a simple extract of medicinal cannabis (called "MFF") for its ability to promote resolution of colitis, to prevent gastric damage induced by naproxen, and to reduce gastric distention-induced visceral pain. Intracolonic, but not oral administration of MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of hapten-induced colitis, an effect not reduced by pretreatment with antagonists of CB1 or CB2 receptors. Significant improvement of symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss) and healing of ulcerated tissue was evident with MFF treatment at doses that did not produce detectable urinary levels of 9-Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). MFF increased colonic hydrogen sulfide synthesis in healthy rats, but not in rats with colitis, and had no effect on colonic prostaglandin E2 synthesis. Orally, but not systemically administered MFF dose-dependently reduced the severity of naproxen-induced gastric damage, and a CB1 antagonist reversed this effect. MFF prevented gastric distention-induced visceral pain via a CB2-dependent mechanism. These results demonstrate that a simple extract of medicinal cannabis can significantly enhance resolution of inflammation and injury, as well as prevent injury, in the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, different cannabinoid receptors were involved in some of the effects. MFF may serve as the basis for a simple preparation of cannabis that would produce beneficial effects in the GI tract with reduced systemic toxicity.

  7. Cannabis, 1977.

    PubMed

    1978-10-01

    Recent advances in development of immunoassay methods for marijuana constituents in body fluids provide a rapid means of detection for forensic purposes and a useful research tool for accurate quantitation of dose-response relation. Therapeutic possibilities of cannabis, such as reduction in intraocular pressure and bronchodilatation, may stimulate development of synthetic cannabinoid derivatives that meet acceptable standards of safety and effiicacy for treatment of glaucoma and asthma. Cannabis use may have harmful short- and long-term impacts on health. Potentially serious short-term effects include predisposition to angina during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease. Even in healthy subjects, marijuana smoking decreases peak exercise performance, possibly because of its chronotropic effect with achievement of maximum heart rate at reduced work loads. Although no conclusive evidence exists for long-term biologic consequences of chronic cannabis use, preliminary evidence, suggesting impairment in pulmonary function and immune responses, requires further investigation with large-scale epidemiologic studies.

  8. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for "CBD botanical drug substance," on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  9. An Orally Active Cannabis Extract with High Content in Cannabidiol attenuates Chemically-induced Intestinal Inflammation and Hypermotility in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pagano, Ester; Capasso, Raffaele; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Romano, Barbara; Parisi, Olga A.; Finizio, Stefania; Lauritano, Anna; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A.; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD), here named CBD BDS for “CBD botanical drug substance,” on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS). Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage – after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol). The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain, and liver after the oral treatments were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity) in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice) in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion) or orally (only at one dose). In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment. PMID:27757083

  10. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of an orally administered cannabis extract in the treatment of spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Vaney, C; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, M; Jobin, P; Tschopp, F; Gattlen, B; Hagen, U; Schnelle, M; Reif, M

    2004-08-01

    Cannabis may alleviate some symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study investigated the effect of an orally administered standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract in MS patients with poorly controlled spasticity. During their inpatient rehabilitation programme, 57 patients were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of cannabis-extract capsules standardized to 2.5 mg tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 0.9 mg cannabidiol (CBD) each. Patients in group A started with a drug escalation phase from 15 to maximally 30 mg THC by 5 mg per day if well tolerated, being on active medication for 14 days before starting placebo. Patients in group B started with placebo for seven days, crossed to the active period (14 days) and closed with a three-day placebo period (active drug dose escalation and placebo sham escalation as in group A). Measures used included daily self-report of spasm frequency and symptoms, Ashworth Scale, Rivermead Mobility Index, 10-m timed walk, nine-hole peg test, paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), and the digit span test. In the 50 patients included into the intention-to-treat analysis set, there were no statistically significant differences associated with active treatment compared to placebo, but trends in favour of active treatment were seen for spasm frequency, mobility and getting to sleep. In the 37 patients (per-protocol set) who received at least 90% of their prescribed dose, improvements in spasm frequency (P = 0.013) and mobility after excluding a patient who fell and stopped walking were seen (P = 0.01). Minor adverse events were slightly more frequent and severe during active treatment, and toxicity symptoms, which were generally mild, were more pronounced in the active phase. A standardized Cannabis sativa plant extract might lower spasm frequency and increase mobility with tolerable side effects in MS patients with persistent spasticity not responding to other drugs.

  11. Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Korthout, Henrie A A J; van Meeteren-Kreikamp, A P; Ehlert, Karl A; Wang, Mei; van der Greef, Jan; Rodenburg, Richard J T; Witkamp, Renger F

    2006-04-01

    There is a great interest in the pharmacological properties of cannabinoid like compounds that are not linked to the adverse effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), e.g. psychoactive properties. The present paper describes the potential immuno-modulating activity of unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its main non-psychoactive constituent Delta(9)-tetrahydrocanabinoid acid (THCa). By heating Cannabis extracts, THCa was shown to be converted into THC. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa were able to inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in culture supernatants from U937 macrophages and peripheral blood macrophages after stimulation with LPS in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition persisted over a longer period of time, whereas after prolonged exposure time THC and heated Cannabis extract tend to induce the TNF-alpha level. Furthermore we demonstrated that THCa and THC show distinct effects on phosphatidylcholine specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Unheated Cannabis extract and THCa inhibit the PC-PLC activity in a dose-dependent manner, while THC induced PC-PLC activity at high concentrations. These results suggest that THCa and THC exert their immuno-modulating effects via different metabolic pathways.

  12. Duration of use of oral cannabis extract in a cohort of pediatric epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Treat, Lauren; Chapman, Kevin E; Colborn, Kathryn L; Knupp, Kelly G

    2017-01-01

    Oral cannabis extracts (OCEs) are being used in the treatment of epilepsy with increasing rates in the United States following product legalization; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We evaluated the duration of use of OCEs as a measure of perceived benefit in a cohort of patients with pediatric epilepsy. Retrospective chart review was performed of children and adolescents who were given OCEs for treatment of epilepsy. Of the 119 patients included in the analysis, 71% terminated use of their OCE product during the study period. The average length of use of OCE was 11.7 months (range 0.3-57 months). Perceived seizure benefit was the only factor associated with longer duration of treatment with OCE (p < 0.01). Relocation to Colorado was associated with perceived benefit of OCEs for seizures (65% vs. 38%, p = 0.01), but was not independently associated with longer OCE use. Factors associated with shorter use included adverse effects (p = 0.03) and a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome (p = 0.02). Twenty-four percent of patients were considered OCE responders, which was defined by a parent's report of a > 50% reduction in seizures while on this therapy. Adverse events (AEs) were reported in 19% of patients, with the most common side effects being somnolence and worsening of seizures. Parental report of OCE use in refractory pediatric epilepsy suggests that some families perceive benefit from this therapy; however, discontinuation of these products is common. Duration appears to be affected by logical factors, such as perceived benefit and side effect profile. Surprisingly, families of patients with Dravet syndrome terminated use of OCEs more quickly than patients with other epilepsy syndromes. Results from this study highlight the need for rigorous clinical studies to characterize the efficacy and safety of OCEs, which can inform discussions with patients and families. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Parental reporting of response to oral cannabis extracts for treatment of refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Press, Craig A; Knupp, Kelly G; Chapman, Kevin E

    2015-04-01

    Oral cannabis extracts (OCEs) have been used in the treatment of epilepsy; however, no studies demonstrate clear efficacy. We report on a cohort of pediatric patients with epilepsy who were given OCE and followed in a single tertiary epilepsy center. A retrospective chart review of children and adolescents who were given OCE for treatment of their epilepsy was performed. Seventy-five patients were identified of which 57% reported any improvement in seizure control and 33% reported a >50% reduction in seizures (responders). If the family had moved to CO for OCE treatment, the responder rate was 47% vs. 22% for children who already were in CO. The responder rate varied based on epilepsy syndrome: Dravet 23%, Doose 0%, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) 88.9%. The background EEG of the 8 responders where EEG data were available was not improved. Additional benefits reported included: improved behavior/alertness (33%), improved language (10%), and improved motor skills (10%). Adverse events (AEs) occurred in 44% of patients including increased seizures (13%) and somnolence/fatigue (12%). Rare adverse events included developmental regression, abnormal movements, status epilepticus requiring intubation, and death. Our retrospective study of OCE use in pediatric patients with epilepsy demonstrates that some families reported patient improvement with treatment; however, we also found a variety of challenges and possible confounding factors in studying OCE retrospectively in an open-labeled fashion. We strongly support the need for controlled, blinded studies to evaluate the efficacy and safety of OCE for treatment of pediatric epilepsies using accurate seizure counts, formal neurocognitive assessments, as well as EEG as a biomarker. This study provides Class III evidence that OCE is well tolerated by children and adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of aldose reductase activity by Cannabis sativa chemotypes extracts with high content of cannabidiol or cannabigerol.

    PubMed

    Smeriglio, Antonella; Giofrè, Salvatore V; Galati, Enza M; Monforte, Maria T; Cicero, Nicola; D'Angelo, Valeria; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Circosta, Clara

    2018-02-07

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is a key enzyme involved in diabetic complications and the search for new aldose reductase inhibitors (ARIs) is currently very important. The synthetic ARIs are often associated with deleterious side effects and medicinal and edible plants, containing compounds with aldose reductase inhibitory activity, could be useful for prevention and therapy of diabetic complications. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids exert multiple pharmacological effects with therapeutic potential in many diseases such as inflammation, cancer, diabetes. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effects of extracts and their fractions from two Cannabis sativa L. chemotypes with high content of cannabidiol (CBD)/cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerol (CBG)/cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), respectively, on human recombinant and pig kidney aldose reductase activity in vitro. A molecular docking study was performed to evaluate the interaction of these cannabinoids with the active site of ALR2 compared to known ARIs. The extracts showed significant dose-dependent aldose reductase inhibitory activity (>70%) and higher than fractions. The inhibitory activity of the fractions was greater for acidic cannabinoid-rich fractions. Comparative molecular docking results have shown a higher stability of the ALR2-cannabinoid acids complex than the other inhibitors. The extracts of Cannabis with high content of non-psychotropic cannabinoids CBD/CBDA or CBG/CBGA significantly inhibit aldose reductase activity. These results may have some relevance for the possible use of C. sativa chemotypes based preparations as aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in the adult wistar male rats.

    PubMed

    Sailani, M R; Moeini, H

    2007-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of alcohol extracts of Ruta graveolens and Cannabis sativa that were used traditionally in medieval Persian medicine as male contraceptive drugs, on spermatogenesis in the adult male rats. Ethanol extracts of these plants were obtained by the maceration method. The male rats were injected intraperitionaly with C. sativa and R. graveolens 5% ethanol extracts at dose of 20 mg/day for 20 consecutive days, respectively. Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, testicular function was assessed by epididymal sperm count. The statistical results showed that the ethanol extracts of these plants reduced the number of sperms significantly (P=0.00) in the treatment groups in comparison to the control group. The results also showed that the group, treated by extract of R. graveolens reduced spermatogenesis more than the group treated by extracts of C. sativa. The present study demonstrated the spermatogenesis reducing properties of the ethanol extracts of R. graveolens and C. sativa in the adult male wistar rats but more studies are necessary to reveal the mechanism of action that is involved in spermatogenesis.

  16. Extract of Fructus Cannabis Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by D-Galactose in an Aging Rats Model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Yuan; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Lin, Wei; Ding, Yi; Bian, Zhang-Ya; Huang, Ling; Huang, Hao; Yu, Kai-Hui; Chen, Si-Bang; Sun, Yu; Wei, Lei; Peng, Jun-Hua; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Hempseed ( Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries. In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats. To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process. We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen. In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats. These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression.

  17. Testicular toxicity in cannabis extract treated mice: association with oxidative stress and role of antioxidant enzyme systems.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Tapas K; Das, Nildari S

    2010-02-01

    Intraperitoneal injection of cannabis extract at low doses (total doses ranging from 40 mg to 60 mg per mouse) induced adverse effect on testes and oxidative stress. At low doses, there was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in testicular lipid content, but the effects were significantly less at higher doses and at the withdrawal of cannabis treatment (recovery dose). There was a marked decrease in antioxidant enzyme profiles (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione content at low doses, but these effects were higher at higher dose and at withdrawal of the treatment (recovery effect). Histology revealed significant shrinkage of tubular diameter and detrimental changes in seminiferous epithelium of testis with resulting lowered serum testosterone and pituitary gonadotropins (follicular stimulating [FSH] and luteinizing hormones [LH]) levels at low doses. But at higher doses and particularly at withdrawal of the treatment, regression of various germ cell layers of testes through the revival of testosterone hormone and pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH) were observed, indicating that recovery effects on testes became operative possibly through the corrective measure of endogenous testicular antioxidant enzymes profiles and pituitary gonadotropins hormones feedback mechanisms.

  18. Simultaneous and sensitive analysis of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBD, and CBN by GC-MS in plasma after oral application of small doses of THC and cannabis extract.

    PubMed

    Nadulski, Thomas; Sporkert, Frank; Schnelle, Martin; Stadelmann, Andreas M; Roser, Patrik; Schefter, Tom; Pragst, Fritz

    2005-01-01

    Besides the psychoactive Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), hashish and marijuana as well as cannabis-based medicine extracts contain varying amounts of cannabidiol (CBD) and of the degradation product cannabinol (CBN). The additional determination of these compounds is interesting from forensic and medical points of view because it can be used for further proof of cannabis exposure and because CBD is known to modify the effects of THC. Therefore, a method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of THC, its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), CBD and CBN from plasma was developed. The method was based on automatic solid-phase extraction with C(18) ec columns, derivatization with N,O-bistrimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide (BSTFA), and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) with deuterated standards. The limits of detection were between 0.15 and 0.29 ng/mL for THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, and CBD and 1.1 ng/mL for CBN. The method was applied in a prospective pharmacokinetic study after single oral administration of 10 mg THC alone or together with 5.4 mg CBD in cannabis extract. The maximum plasma concentrations after cannabis extract administration ranged between 1.2 and 10.3 ng/mL (mean 4.05 ng/mL) for THC, 1.8 and 12.3 ng/mL (mean 4.9 ng/mL) for 11-OH-THC, 19 and 71 ng/mL (mean 35 ng/mL) for THC-COOH, and 0.2 and 2.6 ng/mL (mean 0.95 ng/mg) for CBD. The peak concentrations (mean values) of THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, and CBD were observed at 56, 82, 115, and 60 min, respectively, after intake. CBN was not detected. Caused by the strong first-pass metabolism, the concentrations of the metabolites were increased during the first hours after drug administration when compared to literature data for smoking. Therefore, the concentration ratio 11-OH-THC/THC was discussed as a criterion for distinguishing oral from inhalative cannabis

  19. Cannabis Guidelines
.

    PubMed

    Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis has been used for centuries in the treatment of medical conditions. Cannabis has been recommended for appetite, anxiety, depression, sleep, and migraines. However, the stigma associated with cannabis as a recreational drug has created challenges to the legitimacy and social acceptance of cannabis for medical purposes in the United States.

  20. Adverse effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis, Cannabis sativa L., is used to produce a resin that contains high levels of cannabinoids, particularly delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are psychoactive substances. Although cannabis use is illegal in France and in many other countries, it is widely used for its relaxing or euphoric effects, especially by adolescents and young adults. What are the adverse effects of cannabis on health? During consumption? And in the long term? Does cannabis predispose users to the development of psychotic disorders? To answer these questions, we reviewed the available evidence using the standard Prescrire methodology. The long-term adverse effects of cannabis are difficult to evaluate. Since and associated substances, with or without the user's knowledge. Tobacco and alcohol consumption, and particular lifestyles and behaviours are often associated with cannabis use. Some traits predispose individuals to the use of psychoactive substances in general. The effects of cannabis are dosedependent.The most frequently report-ed adverse effects are mental slowness, impaired reaction times, and sometimes accentuation of anxiety. Serious psychological disorders have been reported with high levels of intoxication. The relationship between poor school performance and early, regular, and frequent cannabis use seems to be a vicious circle, in which each sustains the other. Many studies have focused on the long-term effects of cannabis on memory, but their results have been inconclusive. There do not * About fifteen longitudinal cohort studies that examined the influence of cannabis on depressive thoughts or suicidal ideation have yielded conflicting results and are inconclusive. Several longitudinal cohort studies have shown a statistical association between psychotic illness and self-reported cannabis use. However, the results are difficult to interpret due to methodological problems, particularly the unknown reliability of self-reported data. It has not been possible to

  1. Cannabis extract treatment for terminal acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a Philadelphia chromosome mutation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yadvinder; Bali, Chamandeep

    2013-09-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells and is typically well treated with combination chemotherapy, with a remission state after 5 years of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults. To establish how aggressive the disease is, further chromosome testing is required to determine whether the cancer is myeloblastic and involves neutrophils, eosinophils or basophils, or lymphoblastic involving B or T lymphocytes. This case study is on a 14-year-old patient diagnosed with a very aggressive form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation). A standard bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy were revoked, with treatment being deemed a failure after 34 months. Without any other solutions provided by conventional approaches aside from palliation, the family administered cannabinoid extracts orally to the patient. Cannabinoid resin extract is used as an effective treatment for ALL with a positive Philadelphia chromosome mutation and indications of dose-dependent disease control. The clinical observation in this study revealed a rapid dose-dependent correlation.

  2. Pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Kushani; Gowing, Linda; Ali, Robert; Le Foll, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug in the world. Demand for treatment of cannabis use disorders is increasing. There are currently no pharmacotherapies approved for treatment of cannabis use disorders. Objectives To assess the effectiveness and safety of pharmacotherapies as compared with each other, placebo or supportive care for reducing symptoms of cannabis withdrawal and promoting cessation or reduction of cannabis use. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (to 4 March 2014), MEDLINE (to week 3 February 2014), EMBASE (to 3 March 2014) and PsycINFO (to week 4 February 2014). We also searched reference lists of articles, electronic sources of ongoing trials and conference proceedings, and contacted selected researchers active in the area. Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials involving the use of medications to reduce the symptoms and signs of cannabis withdrawal or to promote cessation or reduction of cannabis use, or both, in comparison with other medications, placebo or no medication (supportive care) in participants diagnosed as cannabis dependent or who were likely to be dependent. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Two review authors assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. All review authors confirmed the inclusion decisions and the overall process. Main results We included 14 randomised controlled trials involving 958 participants. For 10 studies the average age was 33 years; two studies targeted young people; and age data were not available for two studies. Approximately 80% of study participants were male. The studies were at low risk of selection, performance, detection and selective outcome reporting bias. Three studies were at risk of attrition bias. All studies involved comparison of active medication and placebo. The medications included preparations containing

  3. [A novel analgesics made from Cannabis].

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Kálmán

    2004-01-20

    Bayer AG has recently announced that it acquired exclusive rights for the marketing of GW Pharmaceuticals' new medicine Sativex in Europe and in other regions. Sativex is a sublingual spray on Cannabis extract basis, and is equipped with an electronic tool to facilitate accurate dosing and to prevent misuses. It is standardized for the THC and CBD. The new analgesic is proposed for the treatment of muscle spasticity and pains accompanying multiple sclerosis and as an efficient analgetic for neurogenic pain not responding well to opioids and to other therapies available. The entirely new mechanism of action through the recently discovered cannabinoid receptor system may offer a real therapeutic potential to the drug. Although the Government of Netherlands has authorized the sale of pharmaceutical grade Cannabis herb by pharmacies in the Netherlands, the availability on the pharmaceutical market of the registered preparation may render requests for the authorization of the smoking of Cannabis herb (marihuana) by individuals suffering of multiple sclerosis, neurogenic pain, AIDS wasting syndrome unnecessary. Nevertheless, the "old chameleon" plant Cannabis appears to gradually regain its previous status in mainstream therapy and pharmacy. As long as the plant Cannabis and its products continue to be classified as narcotic drugs, medical use of the new preparation will need close supervision.

  4. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

    PubMed

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Aviello, G; Romano, B; Scalisi, C; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal (control) mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh. In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or by the alpha2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Influence of chronic oral intake of cannabis extract on oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism of xenobiotics in rat.

    PubMed

    Khanna, P; Gupta, M B; Gupta, G P; Sanwal, G G; Ali, B

    1991-01-01

    Dietary intake of petroleum ether extract of cannabis leaves by rats in doses of 158, 250 and 500 mg/kg in the first, second and third week, respectively, caused selective induction of hepatic microsomal carboxylesterases/amidases without affecting the renal hydrolytic activity. Acetanilide N-deacetylase, p-nitrophenylacetate (NPA) esterase and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) esterase I and II (active at pH 5.5 and 7.4) were stimulated 125, 64, 82 and 60%, respectively, whereas the activities of procaine esterase and acetylaminofluorene (AAF) N-deacetylase remained unaltered. The hydrolysis of acetylcholine was also unchanged. Upon withdrawal of treatment microsomal hydrolytic activity receded to basal levels within 7 days. Curiously though, the two-fold induction of thiacetazone N-deacetylase (118%), a cytosolic hydrolase, remained largely undiminished (62%). An appraisal of the hepatic cytochrome P450 mediated oxidative metabolism revealed approximately three-fold induction of aromatic hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) metabolizing benzo(a)pyrene whereas the N-demethylation of aminopyrene was unaffected. These activities were restored to normal when resin administration was discontinued.

  6. Extract from Fructus cannabis activating calcineurin improved learning and memory in mice with chemical drug-induced dysmnesia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Yin, Jiang-Hua; Wu, He-Zhen; Wei, Qun

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the effects of extract from Fructus cannabis (EFC) that can activate calcineurin on learning and memory impairment induced by chemical drugs in mice. Bovine brain calcineurin and calmodulin were isolated from frozen tissues. The activity of calcineurin was assayed using p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) as the substrate. Step-down type passive avoidance test and water maze were used together to determine the effects of EFC on learning and memory dysfunction. EFC activated calcineurin activity at a concentration range of 0.01-100 g/L. The maximal value of EFC on calcineurin activity (35 %+/-5 %) appeared at a concentration of 10 g/L. The chemical drugs such as scopolamine, sodium nitrite, and 45 % ethanol, and sodium pentobarbital induced learning and memory dysfunction. EFC administration (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8 g/kg, igx7 d) prolonged the latency and decreased the number of errors in the step-down test. EFC, given for 7 d, enhanced the spatial resolution of amnesic mice in water maze test. EFC overcome amnesia of three stages of memory process at the dose of 0.2 g/kg. EFC with an activation role of calcineurin can improve the impaired learning and memory induced by chemical drugs in mice.

  7. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    PubMed

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  8. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  9. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  10. Cannabis arteritis.

    PubMed

    El Omri, Naoual; Eljaoudi, Rachid; Mekouar, Fadwa; Jira, Mohammed; Sekkach, Youssef; Amezyane, Taoufik; Ghafir, Driss

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is the most consumed psychoactive substance by young people. Chronic use of cannabis can lead to cannabis arteritis, which is a very rare peripheral vascular disease similar to Buerger's disease. It is affecting young adults, especially men, consuming cannabis. A 27-year old woman, with no particular past medical history except for long-term use of cannabis and tobacco developed a digital necrosis in the left hand. She denied using other illicit drugs. Doppler ultrasound examination of the upper limbs was unremarkable. Toxicological analysis revealed the presence of cannabis in both biological fluid and hair strand. Despite medical treatment, cessation of the cannabis and tobacco consumption and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an amputation of necrotic parts was then required. This case shows the prolonged use of cannabis could be a risk factor for young adult arteritis. Faced with a rapidly progressive arteritis occurring in young adult, the physician should consider the history of use of cannabis. Hair analysis can be useful for confirmation of the chronic consumption of drugs.

  11. [Medicinal cannabis].

    PubMed

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nallathambi, Rameshprabu; Mazuz, Moran; Ion, Aurel; Selvaraj, Gopinath; Weininger, Smadar; Fridlender, Marcelo; Nasser, Ahmad; Sagee, Oded; Kumari, Puja; Nemichenizer, Diana; Mendelovitz, Maayan; Firstein, Nave; Hanin, Orly; Konikoff, Fred; Kapulnik, Yoram; Naftali, Timna; Koltai, Hinanit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models. Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Colon Models Is Derived from Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid That Interacts with Additional Compounds in Cannabis Extracts.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Rameshprabu; Mazuz, Moran; Ion, Aurel; Selvaraj, Gopinath; Weininger, Smadar; Fridlender, Marcelo; Nasser, Ahmad; Sagee, Oded; Kumari, Puja; Nemichenizer, Diana; Mendelovitz, Maayan; Firstein, Nave; Hanin, Orly; Konikoff, Fred; Kapulnik, Yoram; Naftali, Timna; Koltai, Hinanit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) include Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Cannabis sativa preparations have beneficial effects for IBD patients. However, C. sativa extracts contain hundreds of compounds. Although there is much knowledge of the activity of different cannabinoids and their receptor agonists or antagonists, the cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activity of whole C. sativa extracts has never been characterized in detail with in vitro and ex vivo colon models. Material and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of C. sativa extracts was studied on three lines of epithelial cells and on colon tissue. C. sativa flowers were extracted with ethanol, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of interleukin-8 in colon cells and tissue biopsies, chemical analysis was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance and gene expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts derives from D9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) present in fraction 7 (F7) of the extract. However, all fractions of C. sativa at a certain combination of concentrations have a significant increased cytotoxic activity. GPR55 receptor antagonist significantly reduces the anti-inflammatory activity of F7, whereas cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist significantly increases HCT116 cell proliferation. Also, cannabidiol (CBD) shows dose dependent cytotoxic activity, whereas anti-inflammatory activity was found only for the low concentration of CBD, and in a bell-shaped rather than dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract and active fraction was verified on colon tissues taken from IBD patients, and was shown to suppress cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX2 ) and metalloproteinase-9 ( MMP9 ) gene expression in both cell culture and colon tissue. Conclusions: It is suggested that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cannabis extracts

  14. Trace-element characterization of evidential cannabis sative samples using k{sub 0}-standardization methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.P. Jr.; Vernetson, W.G.; Ratner, R.T.

    The University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facilities including the analytical laboratory are used for a wide range of educational, research, training, and service functions. The UFTR is a 100-kW light-water-cooled, graphite-and-water-moderated modified Argonaut-type reactor. The UFTR utilizes high enriched plate-type fuel in a two-slab arrangement and operates at a 100-kW power level. Since first licensed to operate at 10 kW in 1959, this nonpower reactor facility has had an active but evolving record of continuous service to a wide range of academic, utility, and community users. The services of the UFTR have also been used by various state authoritiesmore » in criminal investigations. Because of its relatively low power and careful laboratory analyses, the UFTR neutron flux characteristics in several ports are not only well characterized but they are also quite invariant with time. As a result, such a facility is well-suited to the application of the multielement analysis using the k{sub o}-standardization method of neutron activation analysis. The analysis of untreated evidential botanical samples presented a unique opportunity to demonstrate implementation of this method at the UFTR facilities.« less

  15. Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Romano, Barbara; Pagano, Ester; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Cascio, Maria Grazia; Pertwee, Roger; Marzo, Vincenzo Di; Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages. THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB 1 and CB 2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB 2 but not CB 1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages. THCV down-regulated the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) proteins induced by LPS. Furthermore, THCV counteracted LPS-induced up-regulation of CB 1 receptors, without affecting the changes in CB 2 , TRPV2 or TRPV4 mRNA expression caused by LPS. Other TRP channels, namely, TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 were poorly expressed or undetectable in both unstimulated and LPS-challenged macrophages. It is concluded that THCV - via CB 2 receptor activation - inhibits nitrite production in macrophages. The effect of this phytocannabinoid was associated with a down-regulation of CB 1 , but not CB 2 or TRP channel mRNA expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Salem, Neveen A; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  17. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory: effect of different nootropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Salem, Neveen A.; El-Sayed El-Shamarka, Marwa; Al-Said Ahmed, Noha; Seid Hussein, Jihan; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984[43]) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) or ginkgo biloba (25 mg/kg) once daily subcutaneously (s.c.) for one month. Mice were examined three times weekly for their ability to locate a submerged platform. Mice were euthanized 30 days after starting cannabis injection when biochemical assays were carried out. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide, glucose and brain monoamines were determined. Cannabis resulted in a significant increase in the time taken to locate the platform and enhanced the memory impairment produced by scopolamine. This effect of cannabis decreased by memory enhancing drugs with piracetam resulting in the most-shorter latency compared with the cannabis. Biochemically, cannabis altered the oxidative status of the brain with decreased MDA, increased GSH, but decreased nitric oxide and glucose. In cannabis-treated rats, the level of GSH in brain was increased after vinpocetine and donepezil and was markedly elevated after Ginkgo biloba. Piracetam restored the decrease in glucose and nitric oxide by cannabis. Cannabis caused dose-dependent increases of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. After cannabis treatment, noradrenaline is restored to its normal value by donepezil, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba, but increased by piracetam. The level of dopamine was significantly reduced by piracetam, vinpocetine or Ginkgo biloba. These data indicate that cannabis administration is associated with impaired memory performance which is likely to involve decreased brain glucose

  18. Current Status of Standardization of Inhalant Allergen Extracts in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Cho, Sang-Heon; Hong, Soo-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy in Korea rely mostly on imported allergen extracts. However, some allergens that are not important in Western countries are not commercially available, and even the same species of allergen source often displays differences in allergenicity due to amino acid sequence polymorphisms. Therefore, it is essential to prepare allergen extracts that reflect regional characteristics. Allergen standardization has been performed since 2009 with the support of the Korea Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Here, we summarize the current status of allergen standardization, focusing on the house dust mite and cockroach. Pollen allergens that are under investigation are also briefly described. PMID:24843793

  19. Development of a standardized sequential extraction protocol for simultaneous extraction of multiple actinide elements

    DOE PAGES

    Faye, Sherry A.; Richards, Jason M.; Gallardo, Athena M.; ...

    2017-02-07

    Sequential extraction is a useful technique for assessing the potential to leach actinides from soils; however, current literature lacks uniformity in experimental details, making direct comparison of results impossible. This work continued development toward a standardized five-step sequential extraction protocol by analyzing extraction behaviors of 232Th, 238U, 239,240Pu and 241Am from lake and ocean sediment reference materials. Results produced a standardized procedure after creating more defined reaction conditions to improve method repeatability. A NaOH fusion procedure is recommended following sequential leaching for the complete dissolution of insoluble species.

  20. A Metabolomic Approach Applied to a Liquid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method (HPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS): Towards the Comprehensive Evaluation of the Chemical Composition of Cannabis Medicinal Extracts.

    PubMed

    Citti, Cinzia; Battisti, Umberto Maria; Braghiroli, Daniela; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Schmid, Martin; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is a powerful medicinal plant and its use has recently increased for the treatment of several pathologies. Nonetheless, side effects, like dizziness and hallucinations, and long-term effects concerning memory and cognition, can occur. Most alarming is the lack of a standardised procedure to extract medicinal cannabis. Indeed, each galenical preparation has an unknown chemical composition in terms of cannabinoids and other active principles that depends on the extraction procedure. This study aims to highlight the main differences in the chemical composition of Bediol® extracts when the extraction is carried out with either ethyl alcohol or olive oil for various times (0, 60, 120 and 180 min for ethyl alcohol, and 0, 60, 90 and 120 min for olive oil). Cannabis medicinal extracts (CMEs) were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using an untargeted metabolomics approach. The data sets were processed by unsupervised multivariate analysis. Our results suggested that the main difference lies in the ratio of acid to decarboxylated cannabinoids, which dramatically influences the pharmacological activity of CMEs. Minor cannabinoids, alkaloids, and amino acids contributing to this difference are also discussed. The main cannabinoids were quantified in each extract applying a recently validated LC-MS and LC-UV method. Notwithstanding the use of a standardised starting plant material, great changes are caused by different extraction procedures. The metabolomics approach is a useful tool for the evaluation of the chemical composition of cannabis extracts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  2. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review.

    PubMed

    Anthony, James C; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-04

    Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field's five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/ control. The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7-8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a 'gateway sequence' and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that governmentsponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries

  3. Therapeutic Use of Δ9-THC and Cannabidiol: Evaluation of a New Extraction Procedure for the Preparation of Cannabis-based Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Morini, Luca; Porro, Giorgio; Liso, Maurizio; Groppi, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013 Cannabis-based preparations, containing the two main cannabinoids of interest, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and cannabidiol (CBD), can be used for therapeutic purposes, such as palliative care, neurodegenerative disorder treatment and other therapies. The preparations may consist of a drug partition in sachets, capsules or through the extraction in certified olive oil. The aims of the study were: a) to develop and validate a new liquid chromatographictandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the identification and quantification of THC and CBD in olive oil; b) to evaluate the extraction efficiency and reproducibility of a new commercial extractor on the market. The olive oil was simply diluted three consecutive times, using organic solvents with increasing polarity index (n-hexane → isopropanol → methanol). The sample was then directly injected into LC-MS/MS system, operating in Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mode, in positive polarization. The method was then fully validated. The method assessed to be linear over the range 0.1-10 ng/µL for both THC and CBD. Imprecision and accuracy were within 12.2% and 16.9% respectively; matrix effects proved to be negligible; THC concentration in oil is stable up to two months at room temperature, whenever kept in the dark. CBD provided a degradation of 30% within ten weeks. The method was then applied to olive oil after sample preparation, in order to evaluate the efficiency of extraction of a new generation instrument. Temperature of extraction is the most relevant factor to be optimized. Indeed, a difference of 2°C (from 94.5°C to 96.5°C, the highest temperature reached in the experiments) of the heating phase, increases the percentage of extraction from 54.2% to 64.0% for THC and from 58.2% to 67.0% for CBD. The amount of THC acid and CBD acid that are decarboxylated during the procedure must be check out in the future. The developed method was simple and fast. The extraction procedure proved to be

  4. A review of the world cannabis situation.

    PubMed

    Leggett, T

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is the world's most widely cultivated and consumed illicit drug, but there remain major gaps in our understanding of global cannabis markets. For example, it appears that premium sinsemilla cannabis, often produced indoors in consumer countries, has become more potent in recent years and that its market share is also growing in some areas. This may be leading to greater localization of cannabis markets. It may also be responsible for the increase in the proportion of cannabis users in treatment populations at the international level. Assessing the extent and impact of this trend, however, is hampered both by a lack of international standards on issues such as terminology and by unanswered research questions. In order to arrive at accurate global estimates of the extent of production, there is a need for more scientific data on cannabis yields. On the demand side, more information is required on the question of cannabis dosage and volumes used by both occasional and regular users. Cannabis is not a uniform drug: the impact of using cannabis of differing potencies and chemical compositions needs to be researched. While issues concerning cannabis have been evaluated many times in the past, it remains a highly adaptable plant and, consequently, a dynamic drug, requiring constant reassessment.

  5. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Nicole L.; Heinz, Adrienne J.; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Method: Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Results: Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Conclusions: Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference. PMID:27172585

  6. Pain, Cannabis Species, and Cannabis Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Nicole L; Heinz, Adrienne J; Ilgen, Mark; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether individuals who used medical cannabis for chronic pain were at increased risk for cannabis use problems compared with individuals who used medical cannabis for other reasons (e.g., anxiety, insomnia, and muscle spasms). An additional aim was to determine whether individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain, as well as those who reported greater within-group pain levels, demonstrated a species preference (i.e., sativa, indica, hybrids) and the extent to which species preference was associated with cannabis use problems. Participants were 163 medical cannabis users (77% male), recruited from a medical marijuana dispensary in California, who completed assessments of medical cannabis use motives, history, preferences (species type), and problems, as well as current pain level. Individuals who used cannabis to manage chronic pain experienced fewer cannabis use problems than those who did not use it for pain; among those who used it for pain, the average pain level in the past week was not associated with cannabis use problems. Furthermore, individuals who used cannabis for chronic pain were more likely to use indica over sativa. Preference for indica was associated with fewer cannabis use problems than preference for hybrid species. Individuals who use cannabis to manage chronic pain may be at a lower risk for cannabis use problems, relative to individuals who use it for other indications, potentially as a function of their species preference.

  7. Exposure to cannabis in popular music and cannabis use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Douglas, Erika L; Kraemer, Kevin L

    2010-03-01

    Cannabis use is referenced frequently in American popular music, yet it remains uncertain whether exposure to these references is associated with actual cannabis use. We aimed to determine if exposure to cannabis in popular music is associated independently with current cannabis use in a cohort of urban adolescents. We surveyed all 9th grade students at three large US urban high schools. We estimated participants' exposure to lyrics referent to cannabis with overall music exposure and content analyses of their favorite artists' songs. Outcomes included current (past 30 days) and ever use of cannabis. We used multivariable regression to assess independent associations between exposures and outcomes while controlling for important covariates. Each of the 959 participants was exposed to an estimated 27 cannabis references per day [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 40 has been changed to 27] (standard deviation = 73 [correction added on 19 January 2010, after first online publication: 104 has been changed to 73]). Twelve per cent (n = 108) were current cannabis users and 32% (n = 286) had ever used cannabis. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of total cannabis exposure in music, those in the highest tertile of exposure were almost twice as likely to have used cannabis in the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.83; 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 3.22), even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, personality characteristics and parenting style. As expected, however, there was no significant relationship between our cannabis exposure variable and a sham outcome variable of alcohol use. This study supports an independent association between exposure to cannabis in popular music and early cannabis use among urban American adolescents.

  8. Psychiatric Morbidity of Cannabis Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Jaydip; Murthy, Pratima; Singh, Swaran P

    2003-01-01

    The paper evaluates the hypothesis that cannabis abuse is associated with a broad range of psychiatric disorders in India, an area with relatively high prevalence of cannabis use. Retrospective case-note review of all cases with cannabis related diagnosis over a 11 -year period, for subjects presenting to a tertiary psychiatric hospital in southern India was carried out. Information pertaining to sociodemographic, personal, social, substance-use related, psychiatric and treatment histories, was gathered. Standardized diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic Criteria for Research of the World Health Organization, on the basis of information available. Cannabis abuse is associated with widespread psychiatric morbidity that spans the major categories of mental disorders under the ICD-10 system, although proportion of patients with psychotic disorders far outweighed those with non-psychotic disorders. Whilst paranoid psychoses were more prevalent, a significant number of patients with affective psychoses, particularly mania, was also noted. Besides being known as either the causative agent or a potent risk factor in cases of paranoid psychoses, cannabis appears to have similar capabilities with regard to affective psychoses, particularly in cases of mania. It is suggested that cannabis has the potential to act as a "life event stressor" amongst subjects vulnerable to develop affective psychoses and the possible aetiopathogenesis of such a finding is discussed. PMID:21206852

  9. Cannabis and schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Mehta, Hetal

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people with schizophrenia use cannabis and its effects on the illness are unclear. Objectives To evaluate the effects of cannabis use on people with schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like illnesses. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (April 2007) which is based on regular searches of BIOSIS, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and PsycINFO. Selection criteria We included all randomised trials involving cannabinoids and people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently. For dichotomous data we calculated relative risks (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) on an intention-to-treat basis, based on a fixed effects model. We calculated the numbers needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH). For continuous data, we calculated weighted mean differences (WMD) again based on a fixed effects model. Main results We identified one randomised trial. No significant differences were found between the Cannabis and Psychosis Therapy (CAP) intervention group and the Psychoeducaton (PE) intervention for use of cannabis at three months assessment (n=47, RR 1.04 CI 0.6 to 1.7). BPRS-extended scale scores at three months assessment (n=47, WMD −3.60 CI −12.8 to 5.6) and nine months assessment (n=47, WMD 0.80 CI −7.5 to 9.1) were non-significant between CAP and PE. We found no significant improvement in social functioning in the CAP group compared with PE (at 3 months, n=47, WMD −0.80 CI −10 to 8.4) and (at 9 months, n=47, WMD −4.70 CI −14.5 to 5.1). Authors’ conclusions At present, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of cannabis/cannabinoid compounds for people suffering with schizophrenia. This review highlights the need for well designed, conducted and reported clinical trials to address the potential effects of cannabis based compounds for people with schizophrenia. PMID:18646115

  10. Medicinal cannabis.

    PubMed

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4.

  11. Nabiximols as an agonist replacement therapy during cannabis withdrawal: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Allsop, David J; Copeland, Jan; Lintzeris, Nicholas; Dunlop, Adrian J; Montebello, Mark; Sadler, Craig; Rivas, Gonzalo R; Holland, Rohan M; Muhleisen, Peter; Norberg, Melissa M; Booth, Jessica; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-03-01

    There are no medications approved for treating cannabis dependence or withdrawal. The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex), developed as a multiple sclerosis treatment, offers a potential agonist medication for cannabis withdrawal. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of nabiximols in treating cannabis withdrawal. A 2-site, double-blind randomized clinical inpatient trial with a 28-day follow-up was conducted in New South Wales, Australia. Participants included 51 DSM-IV-TR cannabis-dependent treatment seekers. A 6-day regimen of nabiximols (maximum daily dose, 86.4 mg of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 80 mg of cannabidiol) or placebo with standardized psychosocial interventions during a 9-day admission. Severity of cannabis withdrawal and cravings (Cannabis Withdrawal Scale), retention in withdrawal treatment, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes include postwithdrawal cannabis use, health outcomes, and psychosocial outcomes. Nabiximols treatment significantly reduced the overall severity of cannabis withdrawal relative to placebo (F8,377.97 = 2.39; P = .01), including effects on withdrawal-related irritability, depression, and cannabis cravings. Nabiximols had a more limited, but still positive, therapeutic benefit on sleep disturbance, anxiety, appetite loss, physical symptoms, and restlessness. Nabiximols patients remained in treatment longer during medication use (unadjusted hazard ratio, 3.66 [95% CI, 1.18-11.37]; P = .02), with 2.84 the number needed to treat to achieve successful retention in treatment. Participants could not reliably differentiate between nabiximols and placebo treatment (χ21 = 0.79; P = .67), and those receiving nabiximols did not report greater intoxication (F1,6 = 0.22; P = .97). The number (F1,50 = 0.3; P = .59) and severity (F1,50 = 2.69; P = .10) of adverse events did not differ significantly between groups. Both groups showed reduced cannabis use at follow-up, with no advantage of

  12. The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten

    2012-07-01

    Cannabis-based medications have been a topic of intense study since the endogenous cannabinoid system was discovered two decades ago. In 2011, for the first time, a cannabis extract was approved for clinical use in Germany. Selective literature review. Cannabis-based medications exert their effects mainly through the activation of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2). More than 100 controlled clinical trials of cannabinoids or whole-plant preparations for various indications have been conducted since 1975. The findings of these trials have led to the approval of cannabis-based medicines (dronabinol, nabilone, and a cannabis extract [THC:CBD=1:1]) in several countries. In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in 2011 for the treatment of moderate to severe refractory spasticity in multiple sclerosis. It is commonly used off label for the treatment of anorexia, nausea, and neuropathic pain. Patients can also apply for government permission to buy medicinal cannabis flowers for self-treatment under medical supervision. The most common side effects of cannabinoids are tiredness and dizziness (in more than 10% of patients), psychological effects, and dry mouth. Tolerance to these side effects nearly always develops within a short time. Withdrawal symptoms are hardly ever a problem in the therapeutic setting. There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.

  13. Cannabis for Chronic Pain: Challenges and Considerations.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Fincham, Jack E; Kolano, Ashley L; Sharpe, Brandi N; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2018-06-01

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found substantial evidence that cannabis (plant) is effective for the treatment of chronic pain in adults, and moderate evidence that oromucosal cannabinoids (extracts, especially nabiximols) improve short-term sleep disturbances in chronic pain. The paradoxical superiority of the cannabis plant over cannabinoid molecules represents a challenge for the medical community and the established processes that define modern pharmacy. The expanding and variable legalization of cannabis in multiple states nationwide represents an additional challenge for patients and the medical community because recreational and medicinal cannabis are irresponsibly overlapped. Cannabis designed for recreational use (containing high levels of active ingredients) is increasingly available to patients with chronic pain who do not find relief with current pharmacologic entities, which exposes patients to potential harm. This article analyzes the available scientific evidence to address controversial questions that the current state of cannabis poses for health care professionals and chronic pain patients and sets the basis for a more open discussion about the role of cannabis in modern medicine for pain management. A critical discussion on these points, the legal status of cannabis, and considerations for health care providers is presented. © 2018 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  14. Cannabidivarin-rich cannabis extracts are anticonvulsant in mouse and rat via a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hill, T D M; Cascio, M-G; Romano, B; Duncan, M; Pertwee, R G; Williams, C M; Whalley, B J; Hill, A J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Epilepsy is the most prevalent neurological disease and is characterized by recurrent seizures. Here, we investigate (i) the anticonvulsant profiles of cannabis-derived botanical drug substances (BDSs) rich in cannabidivarin (CBDV) and containing cannabidiol (CBD) in acute in vivo seizure models and (ii) the binding of CBDV BDSs and their components at cannabinoid CB1 receptors. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The anticonvulsant profiles of two CBDV BDSs (50–422 mg·kg−1) were evaluated in three animal models of acute seizure. Purified CBDV and CBD were also evaluated in an isobolographic study to evaluate potential pharmacological interactions. CBDV BDS effects on motor function were also investigated using static beam and grip strength assays. Binding of CBDV BDSs to cannabinoid CB1 receptors was evaluated using displacement binding assays. KEY RESULTS CBDV BDSs exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in the pentylenetetrazole (≥100 mg·kg−1) and audiogenic seizure models (≥87 mg·kg−1), and suppressed pilocarpine-induced convulsions (≥100 mg·kg−1). The isobolographic study revealed that the anticonvulsant effects of purified CBDV and CBD were linearly additive when co-administered. Some motor effects of CBDV BDSs were observed on static beam performance; no effects on grip strength were found. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin content of CBDV BDS accounted for its greater affinity for CB1 cannabinoid receptors than purified CBDV. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CBDV BDSs exerted significant anticonvulsant effects in three models of seizure that were not mediated by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and were of comparable efficacy with purified CBDV. These findings strongly support the further clinical development of CBDV BDSs for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23902406

  15. Online extraction LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitative confirmation of urine drugs of abuse and metabolites: amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, cannabis, benzodiazepines and methadone.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Andrew D; Bailey, Neville L

    2011-09-01

    A rapid LC-MS/MS method for confirmatory testing of five major categories of drugs of abuse (amphetamine-type substances, opiates, cocaine, cannabis metabolites and benzodiazepines) in urine has been developed. All drugs of abuse mandated by the Australian/New Zealand Standard AS/NZS 4308:2008 are quantified in a single chromatographic run. Urine samples are diluted with a mixture of isotope labelled internal standards. An on-line trap-and-flush approach, followed by LC-ESI-MS/MS has been successfully used to process samples in a functioning drugs of abuse laboratory. Following injection of diluted urine samples, compounds retained on the trap cartridge are flushed onto a reverse-phase C18 HPLC column (5-μm particle size) with embedded hydrophylic functionality. A total chromatographic run-time of 15 min is required for adequate resolution. Automated quantitation software algorithms have been developed in-house using XML scripting to partially automate the identification of positive samples, taking into account ion ratio (IR) and retention times (Rt). The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of drugs in urine at and below the confirmation cut-off concentrations prescribed by AS/NZS 4308:2008. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp).

    PubMed

    Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica; Steinbach, Marleen; Maran, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2017-09-05

    The present work was aimed at the development and validation of a new, efficient and reliable technique for the analysis of the main non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) inflorescences belonging to different varieties. This study was designed to identify samples with a high content of bioactive compounds, with a view to underscoring the importance of quality control in derived products as well. Different extraction methods, including dynamic maceration (DM), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE) were applied and compared in order to obtain a high yield of the target analytes from hemp. Dynamic maceration for 45min with ethanol (EtOH) at room temperature proved to be the most suitable technique for the extraction of cannabinoids in hemp samples. The analysis of the target analytes in hemp extracts was carried out by developing a new reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array (UV/DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection, by using an ion trap mass analyser. An Ascentis Express C 18 column (150mm×3.0mm I.D., 2.7μm) was selected for the HPLC analysis, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in both water and acetonitrile, under gradient elution. The application of the fused-core technology allowed us to obtain a significant improvement of the HPLC performance compared with that of conventional particulate stationary phases, with a shorter analysis time and a remarkable reduction of solvent usage. The analytical method optimized in this study was fully validated to show compliance with international requirements. Furthermore, it was applied to the characterization of nine hemp samples and six hemp-based pharmaceutical products. As such, it was demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the analysis of cannabinoids in both the plant material and its derivatives for

  17. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients.

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick T; Makela, Petra; Robson, Philip; House, Heather; Bateman, Cynthia

    2004-08-01

    The objective was to determine whether a cannabis-based medicinal extract (CBME) benefits a range of symptoms due to multiple sclerosis (MS). A parallel group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken in three centres, recruiting 160 outpatients with MS experiencing significant problems from at least one of the following: spasticity, spasms, bladder problems, tremor or pain. The interventions were oromucosal sprays of matched placebo, or whole plant CBME containing equal amounts of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) at a dose of 2.5-120 mg of each daily, in divided doses. The primary outcome measure was a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score for each patient's most troublesome symptom. Additional measures included VAS scores of other symptoms, and measures of disability, cognition, mood, sleep and fatigue. Following CBME the primary symptom score reduced from mean (SE) 74.36 (11.1) to 48.89 (22.0) following CBME and from 74.31 (12.5) to 54.79 (26.3) following placebo [ns]. Spasticity VAS scores were significantly reduced by CBME (Sativex) in comparison with placebo (P =0.001). There were no significant adverse effects on cognition or mood and intoxication was generally mild.

  18. [Study on quality standard of Sophora flavescens root extract].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Feng-chun; Li, Hao; Chen, Liang-mian; Gao, Hui-min; Zhang, Qi-wei; Wang, Zhi-min; Wu, Pi-e

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the quality standard of Sophora flavescens root extract was investigated and established. According to the methods described in the Appendix of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), the water and ash inspections were carried out. The marker components trifolirhizin, sophoraflavanone G, oxymatrine and oxysophocarpine in the samples were identified by qualitative TLC. The determination of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine was conducted by HPLC and the total flavonoids were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry, using sophoraflavanone G as reference substance. The results indicated the spots on the plate were clear with good resolution and the contents of oxymatrine, matrine, oxysophocarpine and sophocarpine in the 13 batches of the samples were 3.87% - 11.1%, 0.970% - 4.33%, 1.30% - 2.59% and 0.260% - 1.14%, respectively. The total flavoids in the 13 batches of the samples were 3.88% - 7.93%. In the study, the validated methods were reproducible and the established quality standard was feasible, which could be used for the quality control of S. flavescens root extract and related preparations.

  19. Association between increased EEG signal complexity and cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Laprevote, Vincent; Bon, Laura; Krieg, Julien; Schwitzer, Thomas; Bourion-Bedes, Stéphanie; Maillard, Louis; Schwan, Raymund

    2017-12-01

    Both acute and regular cannabis use affects the functioning of the brain. While several studies have demonstrated that regular cannabis use can impair the capacity to synchronize neural assemblies during specific tasks, less is known about spontaneous brain activity. This can be explored by measuring EEG complexity, which reflects the spontaneous variability of human brain activity. A recent study has shown that acute cannabis use can affect that complexity. Since the characteristics of cannabis use can affect the impact on brain functioning, this study sets out to measure EEG complexity in regular cannabis users with or without dependence, in comparison with healthy controls. We recruited 26 healthy controls, 25 cannabis users without cannabis dependence and 14 cannabis users with cannabis dependence, based on DSM IV TR criteria. The EEG signal was extracted from at least 250 epochs of the 500ms pre-stimulation phase during a visual evoked potential paradigm. Brain complexity was estimated using Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC), which was compared across groups by non-parametric Kruskall-Wallis ANOVA. The analysis revealed a significant difference between the groups, with higher LZC in participants with cannabis dependence than in non-dependent cannabis users. There was no specific localization of this effect across electrodes. We showed that cannabis dependence is associated to an increased spontaneous brain complexity in regular users. This result is in line with previous results in acute cannabis users. It may reflect increased randomness of neural activity in cannabis dependence. Future studies should explore whether this effect is permanent or diminishes with cannabis cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

    PubMed

    Jett, James; Stone, Emily; Warren, Graham; Cummings, K Michael

    2018-04-01

    The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes, with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects, such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and for pain management; however, studies are limited, particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products. Smoking cannabis has not been proved to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer, but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of use, small numbers of heavy cannabis smokers, and confounding of the risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer (such as parallel chronic tobacco use). Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally, controlled trials in which the cannabidiol and the delta-9-tetrahydrocabinol strength and use are controlled and documented. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Cannabis: Use and dependence].

    PubMed

    Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier

    2012-12-01

    The main characteristics of cannabis dependence are craving, persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use and important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of cannabis use. Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, irritability, anger, restlessness, depression, mood swings and cravings. Regular cannabis use induces cognitive impairment, especially of attention, episodic memory and working memory. Alcohol and other substances abuse or dependence are frequently found in patients with cannabis dependence. Psychiatric comorbidities are frequent in patients with cannabis dependence, in particular anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders. The treatment of cannabis dependence includes behavioral psychotherapy, especially motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral therapy, alongside treatment of co-occurring mental health and substance use conditions. There are currently no available pharmacological treatment interventions for cannabis dependence. The treatment of cannabis dependence and withdrawal remains nonspecific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of ultrasound pre-treatment of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed on supercritical CO2 extraction of oil.

    PubMed

    Da Porto, C; Natolino, A; Decorti, D

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent assistance was carried out for 10, 20 and 40 min prior to SCCO2 extraction at 40 °C, 300 bar and 45 kg CO2/kg feed. Sonication time effect on SC-CO2 extraction was investigated by the extraction kinetics. The maximum extraction yield was estimated to be 24.03 (% w/w) after 10 min of ultrasonic pre-treatment. The fatty acid compositions of the oils extracted by SC-CO2 without and with ultrasound pre-treatments was analyzed using gas chromatography. It was shown that the content of linoleic, α-linolenic and oleic acids (the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids) of the hemp seed oils were not affected significantly by the application of ultrasound. UV spectroscopy indices (K232 and K268) and antiradical capacity were used to follow the quality of oils. Significant were the changes in their antiradical capacity due to ultrasound treatment. A comparison with the oil extracted by Soxhlet was also given.

  3. Comparison of orally administered cannabis extract and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in treating patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome: a multicenter, phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial from the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Florian; Luftner, Diana; Possinger, Kurt; Ernst, Gernot; Ruhstaller, Thomas; Meissner, Winfried; Ko, You-Dschun; Schnelle, Martin; Reif, Marcus; Cerny, Thomas

    2006-07-20

    To compare the effects of cannabis extract (CE), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and placebo (PL) on appetite and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome (CACS). Adult patients with advanced cancer, CACS, weight loss (> or = 5% over 6 months), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) < or = 2 were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive CE (standardized for 2.5 mg THC and 1 mg cannabidiol) or THC (2.5 mg) or PL orally, twice daily for 6 weeks. Appetite, mood, and nausea were monitored daily with a visual analog scale (VAS); QOL was assessed with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 (composite score: questions 29 and 30). Cannabinoid-related toxicity was assessed every 2 weeks. Of 289 patients screened, 243 were randomly assigned and 164 (CE, 66 of 95 patients; THC, 65 of 100 patients; and PL, 33 of 48 patients) completed treatment. At baseline, groups were comparable for age (mean, 61 years), sex (54% men), weight loss (32% > or = 10%), PS (13% ECOG = 2), antineoplastic treatment (50%), appetite (mean VAS score, 31/100 mm), and QOL (mean score, 30/100). Intent-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the three arms for appetite, QOL, or cannabinoid-related toxicity. Increased appetite was reported by 73%, 58%, and 69% of patients receiving CE, THC, or PL, respectively. An independent data review board recommended termination of recruitment because of insufficient differences between study arms. CE at the oral dose administered was well tolerated by these patients with CACS. No differences in patients' appetite or QOL were found either between CE, THC, and PL or between CE and THC at the dosages investigated.

  4. Medicinal cannabis: is delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol necessary for all its effects?

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, J D; Whalley, B J; Baker, D; Pryce, G; Constanti, A; Gibbons, S; Williamson, E M

    2003-12-01

    Cannabis is under clinical investigation to assess its potential for medicinal use, but the question arises as to whether there is any advantage in using cannabis extracts compared with isolated Delta9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC), the major psychoactive component. We have compared the effect of a standardized cannabis extract (SCE) with pure Delta9THC, at matched concentrations of Delta9THC, and also with a Delta9THC-free extract (Delta9THC-free SCE), using two cannabinoid-sensitive models, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and an in-vitro rat brain slice model of epilepsy. Whilst SCE inhibited spasticity in the mouse model of MS to a comparable level, it caused a more rapid onset of muscle relaxation, and a reduction in the time to maximum effect compared with Delta9THC alone. The Delta9THC-free extract or cannabidiol (CBD) caused no inhibition of spasticity. However, in the in-vitro epilepsy model, in which sustained epileptiform seizures were induced by the muscarinic receptor agonist oxotremorine-M in immature rat piriform cortical brain slices, SCE was a more potent and again more rapidly-acting anticonvulsant than isolated Delta9THC, but in this model, the Delta9THC-free extract also exhibited anticonvulsant activity. Cannabidiol did not inhibit seizures, nor did it modulate the activity of Delta9THC in this model. Therefore, as far as some actions of cannabis were concerned (e.g. antispasticity), Delta9THC was the active constituent, which might be modified by the presence of other components. However, for other effects (e.g. anticonvulsant properties) Delta9THC, although active, might not be necessary for the observed effect. Above all, these results demonstrated that not all of the therapeutic actions of cannabis herb might be due to the Delta9THC content.

  5. Medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) impairs on-the-road driving performance of occasional and heavy cannabis users but is not detected in Standard Field Sobriety Tests.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Wendy M; Kuypers, Kim P C; Theunissen, Eef L; Surinx, Anke; Blankespoor, Roos J; Skopp, Gisela; Jeffery, Wayne K; Walls, H Chip; van Leeuwen, Cees J; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2012-10-01

    The acute and chronic effects of dronabinol [medicinal Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)] on actual driving performance and the Standard Field Sobriety Test (SFST) were assessed. It was hypothesized that occasional users would be impaired on these tests and that heavy users would show less impairment due to tolerance. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, three-way cross-over study. Twelve occasional and 12 heavy cannabis users (14 males/10 females) received single doses of placebo, 10 and 20 mg dronabinol. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP; i.e. weaving) is the primary measure of road-tracking control. Time to speed adaptation (TSA) is the primary reaction-time measure in the car-following test. Percentage of impaired individuals on the SFST and subjective high on a visual analogue scale were secondary measures. Superiority tests showed that SDLP (P = 0.008) and TSA (P = 0.011) increased after dronabinol in occasional users. Equivalence tests demonstrated that dronabinol-induced increments in SDLP were bigger than impairment associated with BAC of 0.5 mg/ml in occasional and heavy users, although the magnitude of driving impairment was generally less in heavy users. The SFST did not discriminate between conditions. Levels of subjective high were comparable in occasional and heavy users. Dronabinol (medicinal tetrahydrocannabinol) impairs driving performance in occasional and heavy users in a dose-dependent way, but to a lesser degree in heavy users due possibly to tolerance. The Standard Field Sobriety Test is not sensitive to clinically relevant driving impairment caused by oral tetrahydrocannabinol. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. A multicenter dose-escalation study of the analgesic and adverse effects of an oral cannabis extract (Cannador) for postoperative pain management.

    PubMed

    Holdcroft, Anita; Maze, Mervyn; Doré, Caroline; Tebbs, Susan; Thompson, Simon

    2006-05-01

    Cannabinoids have dose-related antinociceptive effects in animals. This clinical study aimed to investigate whether a single oral dose of cannabis plant extract (Cannador; Institute for Clinical Research, IKF, Berlin, Germany) could provide pain relief with minimal side effects for postoperative pain. Patients (aged 18-75 yr) were recruited and consented before surgery if patient-controlled analgesia was planned for provision of postoperative pain relief. Each patient received a single dose of 5, 10, or 15 mg Cannador if he or she had at least moderate pain after stopping patient-controlled analgesia. Starting with 5 mg, dose escalation was based on the number of patients requesting rescue analgesia and adverse effects. Pain relief, pain intensity, and side effects were recorded over 6 h and analyzed using tests for trend with dose. Rescue analgesia was requested by all 11 patients (100%) receiving 5 mg, 15 of 30 patient (50%) receiving 10 mg, and 6 of 24 patients (25%) receiving 15 mg Cannador (log rank test for trend in time to rescue analgesia with dose P < 0.001). There were also significant trends across the escalating dose groups for decreasing pain intensity at rest (P = 0.01), increasing sedation (P = 0.03), and more adverse events (P = 0.002). The number needed to treat to prevent one rescue analgesia request for the 10-mg and 15-mg doses, relative to 5 mg, were 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.1) and 1.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7), respectively. The study was terminated because of a serious vasovagal adverse event in a patient receiving 15 mg. These significant dose-related improvements in rescue analgesia requirements in the 10 mg and 15 mg groups provide a number needed to treat that is equivalent to many routinely used analgesics without frequent adverse effects.

  7. Intravenous administration of cannabis and lethal anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, John D; Grabowski, Marc; Byard, Roger W

    2017-04-01

    Cannabis allergy appears to be increasing. A 33-year-old woman is reported who collapsed and died shortly after injecting herself with a cannabis solution prepared by pouring boiling water onto plant material. There were no significant findings at autopsy, except for a single recent venepuncture wound in the left cubital fossa. Toxicological examination of the blood revealed low levels of methylamphetamine and amphetamine with tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ 9 -THC, and no opiates. The syringe used by the decedent contained Δ 9 -THC. Serum tryptase levels were markedly elevated (>200 µg/L; N < 12 µg/L). This finding coupled with the sudden collapse after injecting an aqueous extract of cannabis indicated a likely anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reaction to the extract. Cannabis allergy may occur following handling, inhalation, swallowing or injecting Cannabis sativa plants or their products. The possibility of an allergic reaction should therefore be considered at autopsy in deaths where there has been recent contact with cannabis.

  8. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, Wam; van den Brink, W; Wiers, R W; Meijer, C J; Machielsen, Mwj; Goudriaan, A E; Veltman, D J; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18-24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy.

  9. Longitudinal study of hippocampal volumes in heavy cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Koenders, L; Lorenzetti, V; de Haan, L; Suo, C; Vingerhoets, WAM; van den Brink, W; Wiers, RW; Meijer, CJ; Machielsen, MWJ; Goudriaan, AE; Veltman, DJ; Yücel, M; Cousijn, J

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cannabis exposure, particularly heavy cannabis use, has been associated with neuroanatomical alterations in regions rich with cannabinoid receptors such as the hippocampus in some but not in other (mainly cross-sectional) studies. However, it remains unclear whether continued heavy cannabis use alters hippocampal volume, and whether an earlier age of onset and/or a higher dosage exacerbate these changes. Methods: Twenty heavy cannabis users (mean age 21 years, range 18–24 years) and 23 matched non-cannabis using healthy controls were submitted to a comprehensive psychological assessment and magnetic resonance imaging scan at baseline and at follow-up (average of 39 months post-baseline; standard deviation=2.4). Cannabis users started smoking around 16 years and smoked on average five days per week. A novel aspect of the current study is that hippocampal volume estimates were obtained from manual tracing the hippocampus on T1-weighted anatomical magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a previously validated protocol. Results: Compared to controls, cannabis users did not show hippocampal volume alterations at either baseline or follow-up. Hippocampal volumes increased over time in both cannabis users and controls, following similar trajectories of increase. Cannabis dose and age of onset of cannabis use did not affect hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Continued heavy cannabis use did not affect hippocampal neuroanatomical changes in early adulthood. This contrasts with prior evidence on alterations in this region in samples of older adult cannabis users. In young adults using cannabis at this level, cannabis use may not be heavy enough to affect hippocampal neuroanatomy. PMID:28741422

  10. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  11. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    PubMed

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  12. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles.

    PubMed

    Barrus, Daniel G; Capogrossi, Kristen L; Cates, Sheryl C; Gourdet, Camille K; Peiper, Nicholas C; Novak, Scott P; Lefever, Timothy W; Wiley, Jenny L

    2016-11-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles.

  13. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    PubMed Central

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  14. Cannabis exposure associated with weight reduction and β-cell protection in an obese rat model.

    PubMed

    Levendal, R-A; Schumann, D; Donath, M; Frost, C L

    2012-05-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an organic cannabis extract on β-cell secretory function in an in vivo diet-induced obese rat model and determine the associated molecular changes within pancreatic tissue. Diet-induced obese Wistar rats and rats fed on standard pellets were subcutaneously injected with an organic cannabis extract or the vehicle over a 28-day period. The effect of diet and treatment was evaluated using the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTTs) and qPCR analysis on rat pancreata harvested upon termination of the experiment. The cafeteria diet induced an average weight difference of 32g and an overall increase in body weight in the experimental groups occurred at a significantly slower rate than the control groups, irrespective of diet. Area under the curve for glucose (AUC(g)) in the obese group was significantly lower compared to the lean group (p<0.001), with cannabis treatment significantly reducing the AUC(g) in the lean group (p<0.05), and remained unchanged in the obese group, relative to the obese control group. qPCR analysis showed that the cafeteria diet induced down-regulation of the following genes in the obese control group, relative to lean controls: UCP2, c-MYC and FLIP. Cannabis treatment in the obese group resulted in up-regulation of CB1, GLUT2, UCP2 and PKB, relative to the obese control group, while c-MYC levels were down-regulated, relative to the lean control group. Treatment did not significantly change gene expression in the lean group. These results suggest that the cannabis extract protects pancreatic islets against the negative effects of obesity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality of web-based information on cannabis addiction.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed to rate sites on the basis of accountability, presentation, interactivity, readability, and content quality. "Health on the Net" (HON) quality label, and DISCERN scale scores were used to verify their efficiency as quality indicators. Of the 94 Websites identified, 57 were included. Most were commercial sites. Based on outcome measures, the overall quality of the sites turned out to be poor. A global score (the sum of accountability, interactivity, content quality and esthetic criteria) appeared as a good content quality indicator. While cannabis education Websites for patients are widespread, their global quality is poor. There is a need for better evidence-based information about cannabis use and addiction on the Web.

  16. [Epidemiological news in cannabis].

    PubMed

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is by far the most common illicit drug in France. Among 15-64 years, 32.1% have already experienced it and 8.4% declare they have used it at least once during the past twelve months. In Europe, France is one of the countries with the highest prevalence. Males are markedly more often cannabis users than females and this gender gap tends to increase with the level of use. During the last two decades, the part of the population having tried cannabis did not stop increasing, under the influence of a generalization of the cannabis experience among young people. However, cannabis last year prevalence is rather stable since 2000. Cannabis lifetime use is very rare at the beginning of middle school (1.5% in sixth grade at age 11) but increases in the following years (11% of the pupils of the eighth grade, 24% of the pupils of the ninth grade). Cannabis use at a younger age is related to subsequent onset of cannabis related problems. Adolescent and young adults from high socioeconomic status (SES) more often try cannabis than young people from lower SES. However, cannabis regular use is associated with bad school results, truancy and early school leaving, and with a lower SES. Young people from high SES indeed dispose of greater sociocultural resources to master and regulate their consumption and are more often conscious of their interest not to be tipped over in problematic use.

  17. Chronic toxicology of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Reece, Albert Stuart

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. As societies reconsider the legal status of cannabis, policy makers and clinicians require sound knowledge of the acute and chronic effects of cannabis. This review focuses on the latter. A systematic review of Medline, PubMed, PsychInfo, and Google Scholar using the search terms "cannabis," "marijuana," "marihuana," "toxicity," "complications," and "mechanisms" identified 5,198 papers. This list was screened by hand, and papers describing mechanisms and those published in more recent years were chosen preferentially for inclusion in this review. There is evidence of psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone toxicity associated with chronic cannabis use. Cannabis has now been implicated in the etiology of many major long-term psychiatric conditions including depression, anxiety, psychosis, bipolar disorder, and an amotivational state. Respiratory conditions linked with cannabis include reduced lung density, lung cysts, and chronic bronchitis. Cannabis has been linked in a dose-dependent manner with elevated rates of myocardial infarction and cardiac arrythmias. It is known to affect bone metabolism and also has teratogenic effects on the developing brain following perinatal exposure. Cannabis has been linked to cancers at eight sites, including children after in utero maternal exposure, and multiple molecular pathways to oncogenesis exist. Chronic cannabis use is associated with psychiatric, respiratory, cardiovascular, and bone effects. It also has oncogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects all of which depend upon dose and duration of use.

  18. Species-specific susceptibility to cannabis-induced convulsions.

    PubMed

    Whalley, Benjamin J; Lin, Hong; Bell, Lynne; Hill, Thomas; Patel, Amesha; Gray, Roy A; Elizabeth Roberts, C; Devinsky, Orrin; Bazelot, Michael; Williams, Claire M; Stephens, Gary J

    2018-02-19

    Numerous claims are made for cannabis' therapeutic utility upon human seizures, but concerns persist about risks. A potential confounder is the presence of both Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), variously reported to be pro- and anticonvulsant, and cannabidiol (CBD), widely confirmed as anticonvulsant. Therefore, we investigated effects of prolonged exposure to different THC/CBD cannabis extracts on seizure activity and associated measures of endocannabinoid (eCB) system signalling. Cannabis extract effects on in vivo neurological and behavioural responses, and on bioanalyte levels, were measured in rats and dogs. Extract effects on seizure activity were measured using electroencephalography telemetry in rats. eCB signalling was also investigated using radioligand binding in cannabis extract-treated rats and treatment-naïve rat, mouse, chicken, dog and human tissue. Prolonged exposure to cannabis extracts caused spontaneous, generalized seizures, subserved by epileptiform discharges in rats, but not dogs, and produced higher THC, but lower 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC) and CBD, plasma concentrations in rats versus dogs. In the same rats, prolonged exposure to cannabis also impaired cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB 1 receptor)-mediated signalling. Profiling CB 1 receptor expression, basal activity, extent of activation and sensitivity to THC suggested interspecies differences in eCB signalling, being more pronounced in a species that exhibited cannabis extract-induced seizures (rat) than one that did not (dog). Sustained cannabis extract treatment caused differential seizure, behavioural and bioanalyte levels between rats and dogs. Supporting radioligand binding data suggest species differences in eCB signalling. Interspecies variations may have important implications for predicting cannabis-induced convulsions from animal models. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  19. [Cannabis: A Cognitive Illusion].

    PubMed

    Galván, Gonzalo; Guerrero-Martelo, Manuel; Vásquez De la Hoz, Francisco

    The vision of cannabis as a soft drug is due to the low risk perception that young and old people have of the drug. This perception is based on erroneous beliefs that people have about the drug. To compare the beliefs of cannabis use and consequences among adolescents with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use and those without a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use. Quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 156 high school students who completed an ad-hoc questionnaire that included sociodemographic data and 22 questions about the beliefs that young people had about cannabis use and its consequences. The lifetime prevalence of cannabis use was 13.5%. The prevalence group consisted mostly of males. Statistically significant differences between different groups and different beliefs were found. The group with no lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived higher risk as regards the damage that cannabis can cause to memory, other cognitive functions, neurons, mental health, and general health. The group with a lifetime prevalence of cannabis use perceived a lower risk as regards the use of cannabis, and think that intelligent people smoke cannabis, and that cannabis has positive effects on the brain, increasing creativity. and is used to cure mental diseases. Those who used cannabis once in their life perceive the use of the substance as less harmful or less potential danger to health compared to those who never consumed. In fact those who consumed at some time even have beliefs that suggest positive effects in those people that consume it. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Benefits and Harms of Plant-Based Cannabis for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Maya E; Nugent, Shannon M; Morasco, Benjamin J; Freeman, Michele; Low, Allison; Kondo, Karli; Zakher, Bernadette; Elven, Camille; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Paynter, Robin; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-05

    Cannabis is available from medical dispensaries for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in many states of the union, yet its efficacy in treating PTSD symptoms remains uncertain. To identify ongoing studies and review existing evidence regarding the benefits and harms of plant-based cannabis preparations in treating PTSD in adults. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and other sources from database inception to March 2017. English-language systematic reviews, trials, and observational studies with a control group that reported PTSD symptoms and adverse effects of plant-based cannabis use in adults with PTSD. Study data extracted by 1 investigator was checked by a second reviewer; 2 reviewers independently assessed study quality, and the investigator group graded the overall strength of evidence by using standard criteria. Two systematic reviews, 3 observational studies, and no randomized trials were found. The systematic reviews reported insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about benefits and harms. The observational studies found that compared with nonuse, cannabis did not reduce PTSD symptoms. Studies had medium and high risk of bias, and overall evidence was judged insufficient. Two randomized trials and 6 other studies examining outcomes of cannabis use in patients with PTSD are ongoing and are expected to be completed within 3 years. Very scant evidence with medium to high risk of bias. Evidence is insufficient to draw conclusions about the benefits and harms of plant-based cannabis preparations in patients with PTSD, but several ongoing studies may soon provide important results. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. (PROSPERO: CRD42016033623).

  1. Parasite Killing of Leishmania (V) braziliensis by Standardized Propolis Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Rebouças-Silva, Jéssica; Celes, Fabiana S.; Lima, Jonilson Berlink

    2017-01-01

    Treatments based on antimonials to cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) entail a range of toxic side effects. Propolis, a natural compound widely used in traditional medical applications, exhibits a range of biological effects, including activity against infectious agents. The aim of this study was to test the potential leishmanicidal effects of different propolis extracts against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in vitro. Stationary-phase L. (V) braziliensis promastigotes were incubated with medium alone or treated with dry, alcoholic, or glycolic propolis extract (10, 50, or 100 μg/mL) for 96 h. Our data showed that all extracts exhibited a dose-dependent effect on the viability of L. (V) braziliensis promastigotes, while controlling the parasite burden inside infected macrophages. Dry propolis extract significantly modified the inflammatory profile of murine macrophages by downmodulating TGF-β and IL-10 production, while upmodulating TNF-α. All three types of propolis extract were found to reduce nitric oxide and superoxide levels in activated L. braziliensis-infected macrophages. Altogether, our results showed that propolis extracts exhibited a leishmanicidal effect against both stages of L. (V) braziliensis. The low cell toxicity and efficient microbicidal effect of alcoholic or glycolic propolis extracts make them candidates to an additive treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:28690662

  2. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain

    PubMed Central

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. Quality of evidence We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Main message Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective “high” (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to “cannabinoid” clinics (level

  3. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.

  4. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life.

  5. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update.

    PubMed

    Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of Δ9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in Δ9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  6. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update

    PubMed Central

    Schoeler, Tabea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of Δ9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in Δ9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis-induced memory impairments occur and to elucidate underlying neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:24648785

  7. Optimizing Standard Sequential Extraction Protocol With Lake And Ocean Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental mobility/availability behavior of radionuclides in soils and sediments depends on their speciation. Experiments have been carried out to develop a simple but robust radionuclide sequential extraction method for identification of radionuclide partitioning in sed...

  8. Variation in cannabis potency and prices in a newly legal market: evidence from 30 million cannabis sales in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Smart, Rosanna; Caulkins, Jonathan P; Kilmer, Beau; Davenport, Steven; Midgette, Greg

    2017-12-01

    To (1) assess trends and variation in the market share of product types and potency sold in a legal cannabis retail market and (2) estimate how potency and purchase quantity influence price variation for cannabis flower. Secondary analysis of publicly available data from Washington State's cannabis traceability system spanning 7 July 2014 to 30 September 2016. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions assessed variation and trends in cannabis product variety and potency. Hedonic regressions estimated how purchase quantity and potency influence cannabis flower price variation. Washington State, USA. (1) A total of 44 482 176 million cannabis purchases, including (2) 31 052 123 cannabis flower purchases after trimming price and quantity outliers. Primary outcome measures were (1) monthly expenditures on cannabis, total delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentration and cannabidiol (CBD) concentration by product type and (2) excise tax-inclusive price per gram of cannabis flower. Key covariates for the hedonic price regressions included quantity purchased, THC and CBD. Traditional cannabis flowers still account for the majority of spending (66.6%), but the market share of extracts for inhalation increased by 145.8% between October 2014 and September 2016, now comprising 21.2% of sales. The average THC-level for cannabis extracts is more than triple that for cannabis flowers (68.7% compared to 20.6%). For flower products, there is a statistically significant relationship between price per gram and both THC [coefficient = 0.012; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.011-0.013] and CBD (coefficient = 0.017; CI = 0.015-0.019). The estimated discount elasticity is -0.06 (CI = -0.07 to -0.05). In the state of Washington, USA, the legal cannabis market is currently dominated by high-THC cannabis flower, and features growing expenditures on extracts. For cannabis flower, both THC and CBD are associated with higher per-gram prices, and there are small but

  9. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society.

  10. Ammonia release from heated 'street' cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Bloor, Roger N; Wang, Tianshu S; Spanel, Patrik; Smith, David

    2008-10-01

    To use selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) to analyse the molecular species emitted by heated 'street' cannabis plant material, especially targeting ammonia. Samples of 'street' cannabis leaf, held under a UK Home Office licence, were prepared by finely chopping and mixing the material. The samples were then heated in commercially available devices. The air containing the released gaseous compounds was sampled into the SIFT-MS instrument for analysis. Smoke from standard 3% National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) cannabis cigarettes was also analysed. For 'street' cannabis, ammonia was present in the air samples from the devices at levels approaching 200 parts per million (p.p.m.). This is compared with peak levels of 10 p.p.m. using NIDA samples of known provenance and tetrahydrocannabinol content (3%). Several other compounds were present at lower levels, including acetaldehyde, methanol, acetone, acetic acid and uncharacterized terpenes. Awareness of the risks of inhaling the smoke directly from burning cannabis has led to the development of a number of alternative methods of delivery, which are claimed to be safer than direct smoking. Ammonia at toxic levels is produced from heating 'street' cannabis in these commercially available devices. Thus, the use of these devices to deliver 'street' cannabis is now open to question and further research is needed to investigate their safety.

  11. 40 CFR 268.41 - Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations in waste extract. 268.41 Section 268.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.41 Treatment standards expressed as concentrations in waste extract. For the requirements previously found in this...

  12. Cannabis Use in Psychiatrie Patients.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, S; Sudarsanan, S; Salujha, S K; Srivastava, K

    2005-02-01

    Cannabis abuse has been associated with psychiatric disorders. The pattern of cannabis use and incidence of cannabis dependence and cannabis psychosis among 471 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary care psychiatric center was investigated. Cannabis use was reported by 67 (14.23%) patients of whom 42 (8.92%) were occasional users, 18 (3.82%) were classified as frequent users while 7 (1.49%) fulfilled criteria for cannabis dependence. 3 (0.64%) patients showed symptoms which were characteristic of cannabis psychosis. Among the 67 cannabis users, 56 (83.58%) had their first exposure to cannabis before entering service at 13-19 years of age. The remaining 14 (16.09%) began consuming cannabis 1-5 years after joining service. The reasons given for using cannabis were curiosity about its effects 32 (47.76%), peer pressure 17 (25.37%) or traditional use during festivals 18 (26.87%).

  13. Prescribing medical cannabis in Canada: Are we being too cautious?

    PubMed

    Lake, Stephanie; Kerr, Thomas; Montaner, Julio

    2015-04-30

    There has been much recent discussion and debate surrounding cannabis in Canada, including the prescribing of medical cannabis for therapeutic purposes. Certain commentators - including the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) - have denounced the prescribing of cannabis for medical purposes due to a perceived lack of evidence related to the drug's efficacy, harms, and mechanism of action. In this commentary, we present arguments in favour of prescribing medical cannabis in Canada. We believe the anti-cannabis position taken by CMA and other commentators is not entirely evidence-based. Using the example of neuropathic pain, we present and summarize the clinical evidence surrounding smoked or vapourized cannabis, including recent evidence pertaining to the effectiveness of cannabis in comparison to existing standard pharmacotherapies for neuropathy. Further, we outline how the concerns expressed regarding cannabis' mechanism of action are inconsistent with current decision-making processes related to the prescribing of many common pharmaceuticals. Finally, we discuss potential secondary public health benefits of prescribing cannabis for pain-related disorders in Canada and North America.

  14. Pressurized liquid extraction of diesel and air particulate standard reference materials: effect of extraction temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; McGaw, Elizabeth; Wise, Stephen A

    2012-10-02

    Four particulate matter Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) available from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were used to evaluate the effect of solvent, number of static cycles and static times, pressure, and temperature when using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated-PAHs. The four materials used in the study were SRM 1648a Urban Particulate Matter, SRM 1649b Urban Dust, SRM 1650b Diesel Particulate Matter, and SRM 2975 Diesel Particulate Matter (Industrial Forklift). The results from the study indicate that the choice of solvent, dichloromethane compared to toluene and toluene/methanol mixtures, had little effect on the extraction efficiency. With three to five extraction cycles, increasing the extraction time for each cycle from 5 to 30 min had no significant effect on the extraction efficiency. The differences in extraction efficiency were not significant (with over 95% of the differences being <10%) when the pressure was increased from 13.8 to 20.7 MPa. The largest increase in extraction efficiency occurred for selected PAHs when the temperature of extraction was increased from 100 to 200 °C. At 200 °C naphthalene, biphenyl, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and anthracene show substantially higher mass fractions (>30%) than when extracted at 100 °C in all the SRMs studied. For SRM 2975, large increases (>100%) are also observed for some other PAHs including benz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and benzo[b]chrysene when extracted at the higher temperatures; however, similar trends were not observed for the other diesel particulate sample, SRM 1650b. The results are discussed in relation to the use of the SRMs for evaluating analytical methods.

  15. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Genevieve; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2017-09-01

    Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a "soft" drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ 9 -THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. However, their composition and pharmacological properties make them dangerous substances. Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications. These therapeutic applications pertain only to certain cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. The objective of this article is to summarize current developments concerning cannabis and the spread of SCs. Future studies must further explore the benefit-risk profile of medical cannabis use.

  16. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    PubMed Central

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  17. Cannabis, cannabinoids, and health

    PubMed Central

    Lafaye, Genevieve; Karila, Laurent; Blecha, Lisa; Benyamina, Amine

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance in the world. Though it was long considered to be a “soft” drug, studies have proven the harmful psychiatric and addictive effects associated with its use. A number of elements are responsible for the increased complications of cannabis use, including the increase in the potency of cannabis and an evolution in the ratio between the two primary components, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (toward a higher proportion of Δ9-THC), Synthetic cannabinoid (SC) use has rapidly progressed over the last few years, primarily among frequent cannabis users, because SCs provide similar psychoactive effects to cannabis. However, their composition and pharmacological properties make them dangerous substances. Cannabis does have therapeutic properties for certain indications. These therapeutic applications pertain only to certain cannabinoids and their synthetic derivatives. The objective of this article is to summarize current developments concerning cannabis and the spread of SCs. Future studies must further explore the benefit-risk profile of medical cannabis use. PMID:29302228

  18. Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines: A Comprehensive Update of Evidence and Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Benedikt; Russell, Cayley; Sabioni, Pamela; van den Brink, Wim; Le Foll, Bernard; Hall, Wayne; Rehm, Jürgen; Room, Robin

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use is common in North America, especially among young people, and is associated with a risk of various acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. Cannabis control regimes are evolving, for example toward a national legalization policy in Canada, with the aim to improve public health, and thus require evidence-based interventions. As cannabis-related health outcomes may be influenced by behaviors that are modifiable by the user, evidence-based Lower-Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines (LRCUG)-akin to similar guidelines in other health fields-offer a valuable, targeted prevention tool to improve public health outcomes. To systematically review, update, and quality-grade evidence on behavioral factors determining adverse health outcomes from cannabis that may be modifiable by the user, and translate this evidence into revised LRCUG as a public health intervention tool based on an expert consensus process. We used pertinent medical search terms and structured search strategies, to search MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library databases, and reference lists primarily for systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and additional evidence on modifiable risk factors for adverse health outcomes from cannabis use. We included studies if they focused on potentially modifiable behavior-based factors for risks or harms for health from cannabis use, and excluded studies if cannabis use was assessed for therapeutic purposes. We screened the titles and abstracts of all studies identified by the search strategy and assessed the full texts of all potentially eligible studies for inclusion; 2 of the authors independently extracted the data of all studies included in this review. We created Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses flow-charts for each of the topical searches. Subsequently, we summarized the evidence by behavioral factor topic, quality-graded it by following standard (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation; GRADE

  19. Cannabis exacerbates depressive symptoms in rat model induced by reserpine.

    PubMed

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Sawie, Hussein G; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Hosny, Eman N

    2017-05-01

    Cannabis sativa is one of the most widely recreational drugs and its use is more prevalent among depressed patients. Some studies reported that Cannabis has antidepressant effects while others showed increased depressive symptoms in Cannabis users. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the effect of Cannabis extract on the depressive-like rats. Twenty four rats were divided into: control, rat model of depression induced by reserpine and depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis sativa extract (10mg/kg expressed as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol). The depressive-like rats showed a severe decrease in motor activity as assessed by open field test (OFT). This was accompanied by a decrease in monoamine levels and a significant increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in the cortex and hippocampus. Na + ,K + -ATPase activity increased in the cortex and decreased in the hippocampus of rat model. In addition, a state of oxidative stress was evident in the two brain regions. This was indicated from the significant increase in the levels of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. No signs of improvement were observed in the behavioral and neurochemical analyses in the depressive-like rats treated with Cannabis extract. Furthermore, Cannabis extract exacerbated the lipid peroxidation in the cortex and hippocampus. According to the present findings, it could be concluded that Cannabis sativa aggravates the motor deficits and neurochemical changes induced in the cortex and hippocampus of rat model of depression. Therefore, the obtained results could explain the reported increase in the depressive symptoms and memory impairment among Cannabis users. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Standardization of Weed Pollen Extracts, Japanese Hop and Mugwort, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Son, Mina; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Kyung Hee; Park, Hye Jung; Hong, Chein-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Japanese hop (Humulus spp.) and mugwort (Artemisia spp.) are notable causes of autumn pollinosis in East Asia. However, Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts, which are widely used for the diagnosis, have not been standardized. This study was performed to standardize Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts. Materials and Methods Allergen extracts were prepared in a standardized way using locally collected Humulus japonicus and purchased Artemisia vulgaris pollens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) reactivities of prepared extracts were compared with commercial extracts via IgE immunoblotting and inhibition analyses. Intradermal skin tests were performed to determine the bioequivalent allergy unit (BAU). Results The IgE reactive components of the extracts via IgE immunoblotting were similar to those of commercial extracts. A 11-kDa allergen showed the strongest IgE reactivity in Japanese hop, as did a 28-kDa allergen in mugwort pollen extracts. Allergenic potencies of the investigatory Japanese hop and mugwort extracts were essentially indistinguishable from the commercial ones. Sums of erythema of 50 mm by the intradermal skin test (ΣED50) were calculated to be 14.4th and 13.6th three-fold dilutions for Japanese hop and mugwort extracts, respectively. Therefore, the allergenic activity of the prepared extracts was 90827.4 BAU/mg for Japanese hop and 34412 BAU/mg for mugwort. Conclusion We produced Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts using a standardized method. Standardized Japanese hop and mugwort pollen extracts will facilitate the production of improved diagnostic and immunotherapeutic reagents. PMID:26847293

  1. Cannabis sativa allergy: looking through the fog.

    PubMed

    Decuyper, I I; Van Gasse, A L; Cop, N; Sabato, V; Faber, M A; Mertens, C; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L; Rihs, H P; Ebo, D G

    2017-02-01

    IgE-mediated Cannabis (C. sativa, marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may trigger a C. sativa sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical presentation of a C. sativa allergy varies from mild to life-threatening reactions and often seems to depend on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can result in various cross-allergies, mostly for plant foods. This clinical entity, designated as the 'cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome', might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, natural latex and plant-food-derived alcoholic beverages. Hitherto, these cross-allergies are predominantly reported in Europe and appear mainly to rely upon cross-reactivity between nonspecific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in C. sativa and their homologues, ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies predominantly rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from crushed buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures. Whether avoidance of further use will halt the extension of related cross-allergies remains uncertain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of the estrogenic potencies of standardized soy extracts by immature rat uterotrophic bioassay.

    PubMed

    de Lima Toccafondo Vieira, Manuela; Duarte, Rodrigo Ferreira; Campos, Ligia Maria Moreira; Nunan, Elzíria de Aguiar

    2008-01-01

    Soy phytoestrogens, isoflavones, are a primary class of plant-based estrogen alternatives being sold over the counter nowadays. Genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the major isoflavones found in soybeans, as aglycones and glycosides. Each isoflavone shows distinctive estrogenic activity and pharmacokinetics. Soy dry extracts, employed as pharmaceutical raw material for manufacturing isoflavone supplements, are standardized to contain 40% of total isoflavones, but the amount of each isoflavone is highly diverse. The influence of these compositional differences on the estrogenic potency of soy extracts was evaluated by uterotrophic bioassay. Five commercial samples of standardized soy dry extract, homogeneously suspended in arachis oil, were administered per os in serial doses (125-4150 mg/kg bw/day) to immature female rats for 3 days. Soy extract samples with considerable diversity in isoflavone composition revealed different estrogenic potencies. Our results indicate a need of standardization of the individual isoflavone content in soy extracts.

  4. Cannabis and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pushpa-Rajah, Jonathan A; McLoughlin, Benjamin C; Gillies, Donna; Rathbone, John; Variend, Hannele; Kalakouti, Eliana; Kyprianou, Katerina

    2015-03-01

    Many people with schizophrenia smoke cannabis, and it is unclear why a large proportion do so and if the effects are harmful or beneficial. It is also unclear what the best method is to allow people with schizophrenia to alter their cannabis intake. To assess the effects of specific psychological treatments for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia. To assess the effects of antipsychotics for cannabis reduction in people with schizophrenia. To assess the effects of cannabinoids (cannabis-related chemical compounds derived from cannabis or manufactured) for symptom reduction in people with schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (August 2013) and all references of articles selected for further relevant trials. We contacted the first author of included studies for unpublished trials or data. We included all randomized controlled trials involving cannabinoids and schizophrenia/schizophrenia-like illnesses, which assessed: (1) treatments to reduce cannabis use in people with schizophrenia and (2) the effects of cannabinoids on people with schizophrenia. Results are limited and inconclusive due to the small number and size of randomized controlled trials available and quality of data reporting within these trials. Currently, there is no evidence to demonstrate that one type of adjunct psychological therapy or one type of drug therapy is more effective than another. There is also insufficient evidence to show that cannabidiol has an antipsychotic effect. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    PubMed

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Schizophrenia and cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Kumra, Sanjiv

    2007-01-01

    Genetic predisposition and environmental risk factors are thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Exposure to cannabis is one environmental factor that's being studied for its possible link to development of schizophrenia in adolescents. This article presents evidence that supports the hypothesis that repeated cannabis use could interfere with the development of frontal white matter in some adolescents and may exacerbate anatomic pathology in those with schizophrenia. This putative mechanism may explain the deficits in working memory and worsening in the severity of clinical symptoms in adolescents with schizophrenia who use cannabis.

  7. Cannabis induced asystole.

    PubMed

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  9. Executive function deficits in short-term abstinent cannabis users.

    PubMed

    McHale, Sue; Hunt, Nigel

    2008-07-01

    Few cognitive tasks are adequately sensitive to show the small decrements in performance in abstinent chronic cannabis users. In this series of three experiments we set out to demonstrate a variety of tasks that are sufficiently sensitive to show differences in visual memory, verbal memory, everyday memory and executive function between controls and cannabis users. A series of three studies explored cognitive function deficits in cannabis users (phonemic verbal fluency, visual recognition and immediate and delayed recall, and prospective memory) in short-term abstinent cannabis users. Participants were selected using snowball sampling, with cannabis users being compared to a standard control group and a tobacco-use control group. The cannabis users, compared to both control groups, had deficits on verbal fluency, visual recognition, delayed visual recall, and short- and long-interval prospective memory. There were no differences for immediate visual recall. These findings suggest that cannabis use leads to impaired executive function. Further research needs to explore the longer term impact of cannabis use. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Immunotoxicity of a standardized citrus polymethoxylated flavone extract.

    PubMed

    Delaney, B; Phillips, K; Buswell, D; Mowry, B; Nickels, D; Cox, D; Wang, H B; Manthey, J

    2001-11-01

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) from citrus inhibit production of TNF-alpha and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. As TNF-alpha also modulates NK cell activity, the current studies were conducted to assess the potential for a standardized citrus PMF mixture to suppress humoral and innate immune functions. PMFs were isolated from orange peel oil using a procedure that obtained a consistent mixture of PMFs both in identity and proportion. The mixture consisted of nobiletin (30.7%), 3,3',4',5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone (27.9%), trimethylscutellarein (14.5%), tangeretin (10.4%), sinensetin (5.8%), 5-demethyl-nobiletin (2.0%), hexa-O-methylquercetagetin (1.3%), 5-demethyl-tetramethylscutellarein (0.6%), and other flavonoids (2.7%). To assess the effect of the PMF mixture on humoral immune responses, female B(6)C(3)F(1) mice (n=8) were exposed to the PMF by gavage at 5, 50, 150 and 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days. On day 25, mice were sensitized to sRBC by tail vein injection and AFC response determined 4 days later. Humoral immunity was insensitive to suppression following exposure to all concentrations of the PMF mixture. Suppression of NK cell activity was observed only following 500 mg/kg/day for 28 days. Body weights were not affected by exposure to any concentration of the PMF mixture in sRBC immunized or non-immunized mice. However, in sRBC-immunized mice, higher concentrations of PMF were associated with a statistically insignificant increase in spleen weight (P>0.05). No change in spleen weight was observed in non-immunized mice. As anticipated, based on previously published in vitro observations, long-term, high-dose exposure to a standardized mixture of citrus PMFs caused a mild suppression of NK cell activity; however, humoral immunity was not sensitive to suppression at the same exposure levels.

  11. [Review: executive functioning and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Priscila Previato; Novaes, Maria Alice Fontes Pinto; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Lacerda, Acioly Luiz Tavares de

    2008-03-01

    Cannabis is the most used illicit drug worldwide, however only a few studies have examined cognitive deficits related to its use. Clinical manifestations associated with those deficits include a motivational syndrome, impairment in cognitive flexibility, inattention, deficits in abstract reasoning and concept formation, aspects intimately related to the executive functions, which potentially exert a central role in substance dependence. The objective was to make a review about consequences of cannabis use in executive functioning. This review was carried out on reports drawn from MedLine, SciELO, and Lilacs. In studies investigating acute use effects, higher doses of tetrahydrocannabinol are associated to impairments in performance of nonsevere users in planning and control impulse tasks. However, chronic cannabis users do not show those impairments. Although demonstration of residual effects of cannabis in the executive functioning is controversial, persistent deficits seem to be present at least in a subgroup of chronic users after 28 days of abstinence. The neuropsychological studies found did not have as a main aim the evaluation of executive functioning. A criterial selection of standardized neuropsychological tests, more appropriate study designs as well as concomitant investigations with structural and functional neuroimaging techniques may improve the understanding of eventual neurotoxicity associated with cannabis use.

  12. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E; Wiers, Reinout W

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabis-AAT) and to investigate the predictive relationship between an approach-bias for cannabis-related materials and levels of cannabis use, craving, and the course of cannabis use. Design, settings and participants Cross-sectional assessment and six-month follow-up in 32 heavy cannabis users and 39 non-using controls. Measurements Approach and avoidance action-tendencies towards cannabis and neutral images were assessed with the cannabis AAT. During the AAT, participants pulled or pushed a joystick in response to image orientation. To generate additional sense of approach or avoidance, pulling the joystick increased picture size while pushing decreased it. Craving was measured pre- and post-test with the multi-factorial Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ). Cannabis use frequencies and levels of dependence were measured at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Findings Heavy cannabis users demonstrated an approach-bias for cannabis images, as compared to controls. The approach-bias predicted changes in cannabis use at six-month follow-up. The pre-test MCQ emotionality and expectancy factor were associated negatively with the approach-bias. No effects were found on levels of cannabis dependence. Conclusions Heavy cannabis users with a strong approach-bias for cannabis are more likely to increase their cannabis use. This approach-bias could be used as a predictor of the course of cannabis use to identify individuals at risk from increasing cannabis use. PMID:21518067

  13. Cannabis and psychosis revisited.

    PubMed

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Pantović, Maja; Damjanović, Aleksandra; Dunjić-Kostić, Bojana; Ivković, Maja; Milovanović, Srđan; Lacković, Maja; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    The association between cannabinoids and psychosis has been known for almost a thousand years, but it is still speculated whether cannabis use may be a contributory cause of psychosis, that is, whether it may precipitate schizophrenia in those at risk. In this paper, we will briefly present the data from individual longitudinal studies in the field, together with the factors that are considered important for the association of cannabis abuse and occurrence of schizophrenia and prevention opportunities in the target population. The reviewed studies clearly suggest that cannabis abuse predicts an increased risk for schizophrenia, particularly in young adults. They underline both the need to create adequate prevention measures and consequently avoid the occurrence of the disease in the young at risk. Particular attention should be additionally devoted toward encouraging the young presenting with psychotic symptoms to stop or, at the very least, reduce the frequency of cannabis abuse. The issues are undoubtedly to be addressed by the health care system in general.

  14. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    PubMed

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  15. [Systematic review of safeness and therapeutic efficacy of cannabis in patients with multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, and in oncological patients treated with chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Amato, Laura; Minozzi, Silvia; Mitrova, Zuzana; Parmelli, Elena; Saulle, Rosella; Cruciani, Fabio; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2017-01-01

    medical cannabis refers to the use of cannabis or cannabinoids as medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms. In the United States, 23 states and Washington DC (May 2015) have introduced laws to permit the medical use of cannabis. Within the European Union, medicinal cannabis laws and praxis vary wildly between Countries. to provide evidence for benefits and harms of cannabis (including extracts and tinctures) treatment for adults in the following indications: control of spasticity and pain in patients with multiple sclerosis; control of pain in patients with chronic neuropathic pain; control of nausea and vomiting in adults with cancer receiving chemotherapy. we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE from inception to September 2016. We also searched for on-going studies via ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal. All searches included also non-English language literature. All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the safety and efficacy of cannabis (including extracts and tinctures) compared with placebo or other pharmacological agents were included. Three authors independently evaluated the titles and abstracts of studies identified in the literature searches for their eligibility. For studies considered eligible, we retrieved full texts. Three investigators independently extracted data. For the assessment of the quality of evidence, we used the standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane and GRADE working Group. 41 trials (4,550 participants) were included; 15 studies considered efficacy and safety of cannabis for patients with multiple sclerosis, 12 for patients with chronic pain, and 14 for patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. The included studies were published between 1975 and 2015, and the majority of them were conducted in Europe. We judged almost 50% of these studies to be at

  16. [Cannabis and mood].

    PubMed

    Sanches, Rafael Faria; Marques, João Mazzoncini de Azevedo

    2010-06-01

    Evaluate the relationship between acute and chronic use of cannabis and mood changes. Articles were selected by electronic search in PubMed. Chapters in books and reference lists of selected articles were also reviewed. As the research did not involve humans, there was no evaluation by a Research Ethics Committee. High rates of comorbidity between use/abuse/dependence of cannabis and affective disorders in longitudinal studies and in clinical samples were observed. Longitudinal studies indicate that, in long-term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  17. Cannabis and sport.

    PubMed

    Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J

    2006-07-01

    Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.

  18. Quantitative Determination of Cannabinoids in Cannabis and Cannabis Products Using Ultra-High-Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Diode Array/Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Wang, Yan-Hong; Avula, Bharathi; Radwan, Mohamed M; Wanas, Amira S; Mehmedic, Zlatko; van Antwerp, John; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-05-01

    Ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) is an efficient analytical technique and has not been fully employed for the analysis of cannabis. Here, a novel method was developed for the analysis of 30 cannabis plant extracts and preparations using UHPSFC/PDA-MS. Nine of the most abundant cannabinoids, viz. CBD, ∆ 8 -THC, THCV, ∆ 9 -THC, CBN, CBG, THCA-A, CBDA, and CBGA, were quantitatively determined (RSDs < 6.9%). Unlike GC methods, no derivatization or decarboxylation was required prior to UHPSFC analysis. The UHPSFC chromatographic separation of cannabinoids displayed an inverse elution order compared to UHPLC. Combining with PDA-MS, this orthogonality is valuable for discrimination of cannabinoids in complex matrices. The developed method was validated, and the quantification results were compared with a standard UHPLC method. The RSDs of these two methods were within ±13.0%. Finally, chemometric analysis including principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to differentiate between cannabis samples. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Psychiatric effects of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Tunving, K

    1985-09-01

    That cannabis use may provoke mental disturbances is well known to Scandinavian psychiatrists today. A review of the psychiatric aspects of cannabis use is given, and the clinical signs of 70 cases of cannabis psychoses collected in Sweden are described. The bluntness and "amotivation" following chronic cannabis use are discussed. Anxiety reactions, flashbacks, dysphoric reactions and an abstinence syndrome are all sequels of cannabis use. Three risk groups begin to emerge: a) Young teenage cannabis users who lose some of their capacity to learn complex functions and who flee from reality to a world of dreams. With its sedative effect, cannabis could modify such emotions as anger and anxiety and slow down the liberation process of adolescence. b) Heavy daily users, often persons who cannot cope with depression or their life circumstances. c) Psychiatric patients whose resistance to relapses into psychotic reactions might be diminished according to the psychotropic effects of cannabis.

  20. Agricultural innovations in Morocco's cannabis industry.

    PubMed

    Chouvy, Pierre-Arnaud; Macfarlane, Jennifer

    2018-06-06

    Cannabis cultivation in Morocco's mountainous Rif region is undergoing its most profound development since mass production of hashish began in the early 1980s. The adoption of high-yielding varieties of cannabis, modern agricultural practices, and modern hashish production techniques began in the mid-2000s and accelerated after the mid-2010s, with the result that more potent and varied cannabis derivatives are now being produced and that increased quantities of highly potent hashish are seized in Europe. This research was initiated to answer a simple research question: how, and to what extent, is the illegal cannabis industry modernizing in Morocco, now that we know that it explains the THC increase in hashish seized in Europe? To answer this question in the context of a lack of literature and quantitative data, empirical fieldwork was undertaken in cannabis fields and hashish-producing farms in Morocco in July and October 2017. A mostly qualitative approach to data collection was employed through participatory rural appraisals (discussions, interviews, direct observations). As such, this work builds predominantly upon primary research. Fieldwork showed that, subsequent to very localized, experimental beginnings in the early 2000s, the progressive and varied adoption of agricultural innovations at the cultivation and production stages has spread throughout the Rif during the 2010s. Interviews and direct observations conducted in the field indicate that the ongoing adoption of modern farming techniques has enabled the production of high-quality hashish and potent modern extracts. The still ongoing modernization and professionalization of the Moroccan cannabis industry is a testimony of the country's leading position in global hashish production. What the future holds for Moroccan cannabis growers is difficult to predict. How legalization processes manifest themselves in Moroccan and European policies, and how upcoming developments will affect the social, economic

  1. Anti-inflammatory, cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of standardized extracts of Tridax procumbens L.

    PubMed

    Jachak, Sanjay M; Gautam, Raju; Selvam, C; Madhan, Himanshu; Srivastava, Amit; Khan, Taj

    2011-03-01

    The standardized EtOAc, MeOH and 70% EtOH extracts of Tridax procumbens aerial parts showed significant inhibition of rat paw edema at a medium dose of 200mg/kg and the EtOAC extract was the most active. These extracts were standardized by HPLC with the help of chemical markers. Further, the extracts were evaluated for COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity and EtOAc extract exhibited the highest inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 at 50 μg/mL. Cent aurein, centaureidin and bergenin were isolated as COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory principles from the EtOAc extract. The extracts also exhibited antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The anti-inflammatory activity of T. procumbens aerial parts could be at least in part due to COX-1, COX-2 enzyme inhibition and free radical-scavenging activities which may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and other polyphenols in the extracts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A standardized method for sampling and extraction methods for quantifying microplastics in beach sand.

    PubMed

    Besley, Aiken; Vijver, Martina G; Behrens, Paul; Bosker, Thijs

    2017-01-15

    Microplastics are ubiquitous in the environment, are frequently ingested by organisms, and may potentially cause harm. A range of studies have found significant levels of microplastics in beach sand. However, there is a considerable amount of methodological variability among these studies. Methodological variation currently limits comparisons as there is no standard procedure for sampling or extraction of microplastics. We identify key sampling and extraction procedures across the literature through a detailed review. We find that sampling depth, sampling location, number of repeat extractions, and settling times are the critical parameters of variation. Next, using a case-study we determine whether and to what extent these differences impact study outcomes. By investigating the common practices identified in the literature with the case-study, we provide a standard operating procedure for sampling and extracting microplastics from beach sand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Cannabis--abuse and consequences].

    PubMed

    Wøien, Vidar-André; Horwitz, Henrik; Høgberg, Lotte C G; Askaa, Bjarke; Jürgens, Gesche

    2015-02-02

    Cannabis is the world's most popular illicit drug, and around half of all Danes have tried it at least once. In this paper we review the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of cannabis. We also discuss the treatment of cannabis intoxication and present data from The Danish Poison Information Center.

  4. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Sairam, K; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-04-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Scrophulariaceae) is a commonly used Ayurvedic drug for mental disorders. The standardized extract was reported earlier to have significant anti-oxidant effect, anxiolytic activity and improve memory retention in Alzheimer's disease. Presently, the standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (bacoside A - 38.0+/-0.9) was investigated for potential antidepressant activity in rodent models of depression. The effect was compared with the standard antidepressant drug imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip). The extract when given in the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally once daily for 5 days was found to have significant antidepressant activity in forced swim and learned helplessness models of depression and was comparable to that of imipramine.

  5. Perceived efficacy of cannabidiol-enriched cannabis extracts for treatment of pediatric epilepsy: A potential role for infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaun A; Zhou, Raymond; Jacobson, Catherine; Weng, Julius; Cheng, Emily; Lay, Johnson; Hung, Phoebe; Lerner, Jason T; Sankar, Raman

    2015-06-01

    There is a great need for safe and effective therapies for treatment of infantile spasms (IS) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). Based on anecdotal reports and limited experience in an open-label trial, cannabidiol (CBD) has received tremendous attention as a potential treatment for pediatric epilepsy, especially Dravet syndrome. However, there is scant evidence of specific utility for treatment of IS and LGS. We sought to document the experiences of children with IS and/or LGS who have been treated with CBD-enriched cannabis preparations. We conducted a brief online survey of parents who administered CBD-enriched cannabis preparations for the treatment of their children's epilepsy. We specifically recruited parents of children with IS and LGS and focused on perceived efficacy, dosage, and tolerability. Survey respondents included 117 parents of children with epilepsy (including 53 with IS or LGS) who had administered CBD products to their children. Perceived efficacy and tolerability were similar across etiologic subgroups. Eighty-five percent of all parents reported a reduction in seizure frequency, and 14% reported complete seizure freedom. Epilepsy was characterized as highly refractory with median latency from epilepsy onset to CBD initiation of five years, during which the patient's seizures failed to improve after a median of eight antiseizure medication trials. The median duration and the median dosage of CBD exposure were 6.8 months and 4.3mg/kg/day, respectively. Reported side effects were far less common during CBD exposure, with the exception of increased appetite (30%). A high proportion of respondents reported improvement in sleep (53%), alertness (71%), and mood (63%) during CBD therapy. Although this study suggests a potential role for CBD in the treatment of refractory childhood epilepsy including IS and LGS, it does not represent compelling evidence of efficacy or safety. From a methodological standpoint, this study is extraordinarily vulnerable

  6. The effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Lisa; D'Alessio, Stewart J; Dariano, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    A number of states in the United States legally allow the use of cannabis as a medical therapy to treat an illness or to alleviate symptoms. Concern persists as to whether these types of laws are increasing juvenile recreational cannabis use. It is also plausible that medical cannabis laws engender an escalation of illicit non-cannabis drug use among juveniles because cannabis is frequently considered to be a gateway drug. This study uses longitudinal data drawn from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health for the 50 U.S. states and a cross-sectional pooled-time series research design to investigate the effect of medical cannabis laws on juvenile cannabis use and on juvenile non-cannabis illicit drug use. Our study period encompasses five measurement periods calibrated in two-year intervals (2002-2003 to 2010-2011). This research design is advantageous in that it affords us the ability not only to assess the effect of the implementation of medical cannabis laws on juvenile drug use, but also to consider other state-specific factors that may explain variation in drug use that cannot be accounted for using a single time series. Findings show that medical cannabis laws amplify recreational juvenile cannabis use. Other salient predictors of juvenile cannabis use at the state-level of analysis include perceived availability of cannabis, percent of juveniles skipping school, severity of perceived punishment for cannabis possession, alcohol consumption, percent of respondents with a father residing in household, and percent of families in the state receiving public assistance. There is little empirical evidence to support the view that medical cannabis laws affect juveniles' use of illicit non-cannabis drugs. Based on our findings, it seems reasonable to speculate that medical cannabis laws amplify juveniles' use of cannabis by allaying the social stigma associated with recreational cannabis use and by placating the fear that cannabis use could potentially result in a

  7. Is the clinical use of cannabis by oncology patients advisable?

    PubMed

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Avisar, Adva; Batash, Ron; Schaffer, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    The use of the cannabis plant for various medical indications by cancer patients has been rising significantly in the past few years in several European countries, the US and Israel. The increase in use comes from public demand for the most part, and not due to a scientific basis. Cannabis chemistry is complex, and the isolation and extraction of the active ingredient remain difficult. The active agent in cannabis is unique among psychoactive plant materials, as it contains no nitrogen and, thus, is not an alkaloid. Alongside inconclusive evidence of increased risks of lung and head and neck cancers from prolonged smoking of the plant produce, laboratory evidence of the anti-cancer effects of plant components exists, but with no clinical research in this direction. The beneficial effects of treatment with the plant, or treatment with medicine produced from its components, are related to symptoms of the disease: pain, nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight loss. The clinical evidence of the efficacy of cannabis for these indications is only partial. However, recent scientific data from studies with THC and cannabidiol combinations report the first clinical indication of cancer-related pain relief. The difficulties of performing research into products that are not medicinal, such as cannabis, have not allowed a true study of the cannabis plant extract although, from the public point of view, such studies are greatly desirable.

  8. 76 FR 39039 - Establishment of a New Drug Code for Marihuana Extract

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... that have been derived from any plant of the genus cannabis and which contain cannabinols and... Nations Conventions on international drug control treat extracts from the cannabis plant differently than.... Cannabis and cannabis resin are listed in both schedule IV and schedule I of the Single Convention...

  9. Quantitative Criteria to Screen for Cannabis Use Disorder.

    PubMed

    Casajuana, Cristina; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Balcells-Oliveró, María Mercedes; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2018-06-27

    The Standard Joint Unit (1 SJU = 7 mg of 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol) simplifies the exploration of risky patterns of cannabis use. This study proposes a preliminary quantitative cutoff criterion to screen for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Socio-demographical data and information on cannabis quantities, frequency of use, and risk for CUD (measured with the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) of cannabis users recruited in Barcelona (from February 2015 to June 2016) were collected. CAST scores were categorized into low, moderate, and high risk for CUD, based on the SJU consumed and frequency. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis related daily SJU with CUD. Participants (n = 473) were on average 29 years old (SD = 10), men (77.1%), and single (74.6%). With an average of 4 joints per smoking day, 82.5% consumed cannabis almost every day. Risk for CUD (9.40% low, 23.72% moderate, 66.88% high) increased significantly with more frequency and quantities consumed. The ROC analyses suggest 1.2 SJU per day as a cutoff criterion to screen for at least moderate risk for CUD (sensitivity 69.4%, specificity 63.6%). Frequency and quantity should be considered when exploring cannabis risks. A 1 SJU per day is proposed as a preliminary quantitative-based criterion to screen users with at least a moderate risk for CUD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Latex allergy diagnosis: in vivo and in vitro standardization of a natural rubber latex extract.

    PubMed

    Turjanmaa, K; Palosuo, T; Alenius, H; Leynadier, F; Autegarden, J E; André, C; Sicard, H; Hrabina, M; Tran, T X

    1997-01-01

    For the diagnosis of IgE-mediated (immediate) hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (NRL), skin prick testing with extracts of latex gloves has been widely used, but such extracts are difficult to standardize. The present study aimed to produce on an industrial scale an NRL extract from freshly collected NRL and to evaluate, calibrate, and standardize the extract by both in vivo and in vitro testing. The source material, latex of the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis (clone RRIM 600), was frozen immediately after collection in Malaysia and shipped in dry ice to Stallergènes SA, France. Protein and allergen profiles were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting, isoelectric focusing (IEF), crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), and crossed radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE). Allergen quantification was effected by RAST inhibition. The capacity of the preparation to elicit immediate hypersensitivity reactions in vivo was measured by skin prick testing in 46 latex-allergic patients and 76 nonallergic control subjects. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot profiles of the extract and an NRL standard (E8) provided by the US Food and Drug Administration were almost identical, disclosing several distinct IgE-binding proteins with apparent molecular weights of 14, 20, 27, 30, and 45 kDa, conforming to reported molecular weights of several significant NRL allergens. An arbitrary index of reactivity (IR) of 100 was assigned to the extract at 1:200 dilution (w/v), having a protein content of 22 micrograms/ml. Skin prick testing of latex-allergic patients and controls using the extract at 100 IR revealed 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, and 96% positive predictive value. In conclusion, a skin prick test reagent for diagnosis of type I NRL allergy was successfully standardized. The reagent was demonstrated to contain most, if not all, of the currently known clinically significant NRL allergens, and it

  11. Ketosteroid Standardized Cissus quadrangularis L. Extract and its Anabolic Activity: Time to Look Beyond Ketosteroid?

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Atul N; Rafiq, Mohammed; Devanathan, Rajendran; Azeemuddin, Mohammed; Anturlikar, Suryakanth D; Ahmed, Akhil; Sundaram, Ramchandran; Babu, U V; Paramesh, Rangesh

    2016-05-01

    Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) L. reported to contain 3-ketosteroids and have bone health benefits. This study aimed at establishing the relationship between the ketosteroid content and anabolic as well as bone health-promoting activities of various Cissus extracts in well-established orchidectomized (ORX) rat model. Supercritical carbon dioxide, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts (AE) of CQ L. were prepared and standardized for ketosteroid content by two methods used in commerce. Moreover, ketosteroid standardized extracts of this plant were evaluated for anabolic activity in rats in well-established ORX rat model. The increase in the absolute weight was appreciable in the CQ-AE treated group. Similarly, with respect to bone parameters, a similar trend was seen. The mean bone density, strength, and calcium content were found to be highest in the group treated with CQ-AE compared to groups treated with other extracts. This study reveals for the first time that 3-ketosteroids are not linked to the beneficial activities on bone and highlights the need for extensive characterization of biological active principles from CQ L. In light of the above estimation studies, we believe that current standardization of Cissus extraction "3-ketosteroids" is incorrect. We also did not find any report suggesting the presence of androgenic steroids in this plant and hence the characterization based on "3-ketosteroids" is scientifically incorrect. This study highlights the insufficient understanding of biological active principles from CQ L. and underlines the need for extensive bioactivity guided studies. Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) L. reported to contain 3.ketosteroids and have bone health benefitsWe did not find correlation between ketosteroid content obtained by conventional methods and its biological effectStudies indicate that claims of ketosteroid content need not necessarily correlate to biological effects and hence warrants extensive phytochemical characterization of biological

  12. Chronic effects of cannabis use on the auditory mismatch negativity.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Lisa-Marie; Broyd, Samantha J; Croft, Rodney; Todd, Juanita; Michie, Patricia T; Johnstone, Stuart; Murray, Robin; Solowij, Nadia

    2014-03-15

    Cannabis use is associated with the development of psychotic symptoms and increased risk for schizophrenia. The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a brain event-related potential marker of change detection thought to index glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neurotransmission, which is known to be deficient in schizophrenia. This study examined auditory MMN in otherwise healthy chronic cannabis users compared with nonuser control subjects. Forty-two chronic cannabis users and 44 nonuser healthy control subjects completed a multi-feature MMN paradigm, which included duration, frequency, and intensity deviants (deviants 6%; standards 82%). The MMN was compared between users and control subjects as well as between long- and short-term users and age- and gender-matched control subjects. Associations between MMN, cannabis use measures, and symptoms were examined. The MMN amplitude was significantly reduced to frequency but not duration or intensity deviants in overall cannabis users relative to control subjects. Frequency MMN was similarly attenuated in short- and long-term users relative to control subjects. Long-term users also exhibited reduced duration MMN relative to control subjects and short-term users and this was correlated with increased duration of exposure to cannabis and increased psychotic-like experiences during intoxication. In short-term users, a younger age of onset of regular cannabis use and greater frequency of use were associated with greater psychotic-like experiences and symptomatic distress. These results suggest impaired sensory memory that might reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor dysfunction in chronic cannabis users. The pattern of MMN alterations in cannabis users differed from that typically observed in patients with schizophrenia, indicating overlapping but distinct underlying pathology. Copyright © 2014 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    PubMed

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  14. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated. PMID:27199751

  15. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  16. [Medicinal use of cannabis in the Netherlands: towards a responsible pattern of use].

    PubMed

    de Jong, Floris A

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, medicinal cannabis has been legally cultivated and distributed in the Netherlands under the auspices of the Dutch Office of Medicinal Cannabis (BMC), part of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. As a result of this measure, the indication, dosage, administration route, and safety of cannabis can now be investigated, information necessary for justifying its potentially future position as a standard medicinal product. Despite the current lack of reliable scientific efficacy data, standardised medicinal cannabis without microbes has also been made available on prescription. This has led to a safer and more responsible use. However, it is a bridge too far to say that 'it doesn't hurt to try'. The legalization of medicinal cannabis has also stimulated the development of new purified cannabis-based products, although it is claimed that some patients specifically benefit from using cannabis as a whole product. Despite disappointing sales at the end of 2007, the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport has announced that the current policy will be extended for a further five years. The Minister also indicated that he would consider discontinuing the availability of medicinal cannabis for patients, if new cannabis products are granted market authorization. This might, however, give rise to a new era of illegal cannabis use for medicinal purposes, notably for the use as a whole product.

  17. In vitro lethal efficacy of leaf extract of Cannabis sativa Linn on the larvae of Chironomous samoensis Edward: an insect of public health concern.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bishnupada; Dutta, B K

    2003-11-01

    Leaf extract of C. sativa causes paralysis leading to death in larvae of C. samoensis. The extract brought a drastic change in the morphology of sensilla trichoidea and the general body cuticle. The larvae exposed to the leaf extract also showed a significant reduction in the concentration of Mg and Fe, while Mn showed only slight average increase. Since the sensilla trichoidea has nerve connection, it is expected that the toxic principle of the leaf extract has affected the central nervous system. The significant reduction of the level of Fe indicates that the extract could cause the reduction in oxygen binding capacity of the haemolymph, thereby acting as a respiratory poison in addition to its known role as a neurotoxic substance.

  18. Validation of a standardized extraction method for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Lagheden, Camilla; Eklund, Carina; Kleppe, Sara Nordqvist; Unger, Elizabeth R; Dillner, Joakim; Sundström, Karin

    2016-07-01

    Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples can be DNA-extracted and used for human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping. The xylene-based gold standard for extracting FFPE samples is laborious, suboptimal and involves health hazards for the personnel involved. To compare extraction with the standard xylene method to a xylene-free method used in an HPV LabNet Global Reference Laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC); based on a commercial method with an extra heating step. Fifty FFPE samples were randomly selected from a national audit of all cervical cancer cases diagnosed in Sweden during 10 years. For each case-block, a blank-block was sectioned, as a control for contamination. For xylene extraction, the standard WHO Laboratory Manual protocol was used. For the CDC method, the manufacturers' protocol was followed except for an extra heating step, 120°C for 20min. Samples were extracted and tested in parallel with β-globin real-time PCR, HPV16 real-time PCR and HPV typing using modified general primers (MGP)-PCR and Luminex assays. For a valid result the blank-block had to be betaglobin-negative in all tests and the case-block positive for beta-globin. Overall, detection was improved with the heating method and the amount of HPV-positive samples increased from 70% to 86% (p=0.039). For all samples where HPV type concordance could be evaluated, there was 100% type concordance. A xylene-free and robust extraction method for HPV-DNA typing in FFPE material is currently in great demand. Our proposed standardized protocol appears to be generally useful. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An Australian nationwide survey on medicinal cannabis use for epilepsy: History of antiepileptic drug treatment predicts medicinal cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Suraev, Anastasia S; Todd, Lisa; Bowen, Michael T; Allsop, David J; McGregor, Iain S; Ireland, Carol; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Epilepsy Action Australia conducted an Australian nationwide online survey seeking opinions on and experiences with the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of epilepsy. The survey was promoted via the Epilepsy Action Australia's main website, on their Facebook page, and by word of mouth. The survey consisted of 39 questions assessing demographics, clinical factors, including diagnosis and seizure types, and experiences with and opinions towards cannabis use in epilepsy. A total of 976 responses met the inclusion criteria. Results show that 15% of adults with epilepsy and 13% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy were currently using, or had previously used, cannabis products to treat epilepsy. Of those with a history of cannabis product use, 90% of adults and 71% of parents reported success in reducing seizure frequency after commencing cannabis products. The main reasons for medicinal cannabis use were to manage treatment-resistant epilepsy and to obtain a more favorable side-effect profile compared to standard antiepileptic drugs. The number of past antiepileptic drugs tried was a significant predictor of medicinal cannabis use in both adults and children with epilepsy. Fifty-six percent of adults with epilepsy and 62% of parents/guardians of children with epilepsy expressed willingness to participate in clinical trials of cannabinoids. This survey provides insight into the use of cannabis products for epilepsy, in particular some of the likely factors influencing use, as well as novel insights into the experiences of and attitudes towards medicinal cannabis in people with epilepsy in the Australian community. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabis and psychosis: Neurobiology

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is a known risk factor for schizophrenia, although the exact neurobiological process through which the effects on psychosis occur is not well-understood. In this review, we attempt to develop and discuss a possible pathway for the development of psychosis. We examine the neurobiological changes due to cannabis to see if these changes are similar to those seen in schizophrenic patients the findings show similarities; however, these mere similarities cannot establish a ‘cause-effect’ relationship as a number of people with similar changes do not develop schizophrenia. Therefore, the ‘transition-to-psychosis’ due to cannabis, despite being a strong risk factor, remains uncertain based upon neurobiological changes. It appears that other multiple factors might be involved in these processes which are beyond neurobiological factors. Major advances have been made in understanding the underpinning of marijuana dependence, and the role of the cannabinoid system, which is a major area for targeting medications to treat marijuana withdrawal and dependence, as well as other addictions is of now, it is clear that some of the similarities in the neurobiology of cannabis and schizophrenia may indicate a mechanism for the development of psychosis, but its trajectories are undetermined. PMID:24574553

  1. Can we make cannabis safer?

    PubMed

    Englund, Amir; Freeman, Tom P; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis use and related problems are on the rise globally alongside an increase in the potency of cannabis sold on both black and legal markets. Additionally, there has been a shift towards abandoning prohibition for a less punitive and more permissive legal stance on cannabis, such as decriminalisation and legalisation. It is therefore crucial that we explore new and innovative ways to reduce harm. Research has found cannabis with high concentrations of its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), to be more harmful (in terms of causing the main risks associated with cannabis use, such as addiction, psychosis, and cognitive impairment) than cannabis with lower concentrations of THC. By contrast, cannabidiol, which is a non-intoxicating and potentially therapeutic component of cannabis, has been found to reduce the negative effects of cannabis use. Here, we briefly review findings from studies investigating various types of cannabis and discuss how future research can help to better understand and reduce the risks of cannabis use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cannabis-associated arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis effects on driving skills.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2013-03-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis' effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2-5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention, and include occasional and

  4. Extracting and standardizing medication information in clinical text – the MedEx-UIMA system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Yonghui; Shah, Anushi; Priyanka, Priyanka; Denny, Joshua C.; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of medication information embedded in clinical text is important for research using electronic health records (EHRs). However, most of current medication information extraction systems identify drug and signature entities without mapping them to standard representation. In this study, we introduced the open source Java implementation of MedEx, an existing high-performance medication information extraction system, based on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework. In addition, we developed new encoding modules in the MedEx-UIMA system, which mapped an extracted drug name/dose/form to both generalized and specific RxNorm concepts and translated drug frequency information to ISO standard. We processed 826 documents by both systems and verified that MedEx-UIMA and MedEx (the Python version) performed similarly by comparing both results. Using two manually annotated test sets that contained 300 drug entries from medication list and 300 drug entries from narrative reports, the MedEx-UIMA system achieved F-measures of 98.5% and 97.5% respectively for encoding drug names to corresponding RxNorm generic drug ingredients, and F-measures of 85.4% and 88.1% respectively for mapping drug names/dose/form to the most specific RxNorm concepts. It also achieved an F-measure of 90.4% for normalizing frequency information to ISO standard. The open source MedEx-UIMA system is freely available online at http://code.google.com/p/medex-uima/. PMID:25954575

  5. Extracting and standardizing medication information in clinical text - the MedEx-UIMA system.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Yonghui; Shah, Anushi; Priyanka, Priyanka; Denny, Joshua C; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of medication information embedded in clinical text is important for research using electronic health records (EHRs). However, most of current medication information extraction systems identify drug and signature entities without mapping them to standard representation. In this study, we introduced the open source Java implementation of MedEx, an existing high-performance medication information extraction system, based on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework. In addition, we developed new encoding modules in the MedEx-UIMA system, which mapped an extracted drug name/dose/form to both generalized and specific RxNorm concepts and translated drug frequency information to ISO standard. We processed 826 documents by both systems and verified that MedEx-UIMA and MedEx (the Python version) performed similarly by comparing both results. Using two manually annotated test sets that contained 300 drug entries from medication list and 300 drug entries from narrative reports, the MedEx-UIMA system achieved F-measures of 98.5% and 97.5% respectively for encoding drug names to corresponding RxNorm generic drug ingredients, and F-measures of 85.4% and 88.1% respectively for mapping drug names/dose/form to the most specific RxNorm concepts. It also achieved an F-measure of 90.4% for normalizing frequency information to ISO standard. The open source MedEx-UIMA system is freely available online at http://code.google.com/p/medex-uima/.

  6. Cannabis and social welfare assistance: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2011-09-01

    To investigate associations between cannabis use and subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance. The Young in Norway Longitudinal Study. A population-based Norwegian sample (n = 2606) was followed-up from adolescence to late 20s. Self-report data were merged with data from national registers. Data were extracted on the use of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis and other illegal substances. Information was also retrieved on socio-demographic and family factors, academic achievement, conduct problems and mental health. National registers provided data on social welfare assistance, educational level and crime statistics. We observed prospective bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use and subsequent social welfare assistance (P < 0.0001). The associations were reduced after adjusting for a range of potentially confounding factors, but remained significant. Frequent cannabis users were at highly increased risk for subsequently receiving social welfare assistance. At 28 years, those with 50+ times cannabis use during the previous 12 months and had an odds ratio of 9.3 (95% confidence interval: 4.3-20.1) for receiving social welfare assistance in the following 2-year span. Users of cannabis also had longer periods of receiving social welfare assistance than others (P < 0.0001) and were less likely to leave the welfare assistance system (P < 0.0001). In Norway the use of cannabis is linked with subsequent receipt of social welfare assistance whether the consequences are related to use of the substance per se, or to cultural factors and the illegal status of the cannabis. Future research should attempt to understand the interactions of factors behind these associations. © 2011 The Author, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Segmental hair analysis for 11-nor-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid and the patterns of cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Chung, Heesun; Song, Joon Myong

    2012-04-01

    Cannabis is the most widely abused drug in the world. The purpose of this study is to detect 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH) in segmental hair and to evaluate the patterns of cannabis use. We investigated the relationship between the concentrations of THCCOOH in hair and the self-reported use data and the route of administration. For this purpose, the hair samples were washed, digested with 1 mL of 1 M NaOH at 85°C for 30 min along with the internal standard, THCCOOH-d₃ (2.5 pg/mg) and extracted in 2 mL of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (9:1) twice after adding 1 mL of 0.1N sodium acetate buffer (pH = 4.5) and 200 µL of acetic acid. The organic extract was transferred and evaporated and the mixture was derivatized with 50 µL of pentafluoropropionic anhydride and 25 µL of pentafluoropropanol for 30 min at 70°C. Reconstituted final extract was injected into the gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer operating in the negative chemical ionization mode. In segmental hair analysis, the concentrations of THCCOOH decreased from the proximal to distal segments. The concentrations of THCCOOH in hair and the self-reported dose and frequency of administration from cannabis users were not well correlated because of the low accuracy and reliability of the self-reported data. However, this study provides preliminary information on the dose and frequency of administration among cannabis users in our country.

  8. Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Cannabis Craving and Use in Non-Treatment Seeking Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buchowski, Maciej S.; Meade, Natalie N.; Charboneau, Evonne; Park, Sohee; Dietrich, Mary S.; Cowan, Ronald L.; Martin, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. Aims To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. Design Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR) monitoring (60–70% HR reserve) over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. Participants Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females) met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Measurements Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF). Findings Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8–10.9). Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9–5.4) and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1–9.5) periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005). Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006), emotionality (P  = .002), expectancy (P  = .002), and purposefulness (P  = .002). Conclusions The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial

  9. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory potential of standardized Mucuna pruriens seed extract.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Sushil Kumar; De, Apurba; Bhadra, Santanu; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2015-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens Linn. (Fabaceae) is a tropical legume, traditionally used for controlling blood pressure. Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the successful strategies for controlling hypertension. The present study evaluated the ACE inhibition potential of the standardized extract of M. pruriens seeds. Standardization of the extract and its fractions were carried out by RP-HPLC method [methanol and 1% v/v acetic acid in water (5:95 v/v)] using levodopa as a marker. The ACE inhibition activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated at different concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg/mL) using the HPLC-DAD and the UV spectrophotometric method. The liberation of hippuric acid (HA) from hippuryl-L-histidyl-L-leucine (HHL) was estimated in the spectrophotometric method and RP-HPLC assay at 228 nm. Methanol extract and aqueous fraction showed a maximum activity with IC50 values of 38.44 ± 0.90 and 57.07 ± 2.90 µg/mL (RP-HPLC), and 52.68 ± 2.02 and 67.65 ± 2.40 µg/mL (spectrophotometry), respectively. The study revealed that the aqueous extract contains the highest amount of levodopa. Eventually the methanol extract showed highest ACE inhibition activity except levodopa alone. It was further observed that the inhibition was altered with respect to the change in the content of levodopa in the extract. Thus, it can be assumed that levodopa may be responsible for the ACE inhibition activity of M. pruriens seeds. It can be concluded that M. pruriens seed is a potential ACE inhibitor can be explored further as an effective antihypertensive agent.

  10. Prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic noncancer pain: preliminary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kahan, Meldon; Srivastava, Anita; Spithoff, Sheryl; Bromley, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    To offer preliminary guidance on prescribing smoked cannabis for chronic pain before the release of formal guidelines. We reviewed the literature on the analgesic effectiveness of smoked cannabis and the harms of medical and recreational cannabis use. We developed recommendations on indications, contraindications, precautions, and dosing of smoked cannabis, and categorized the recommendations based on levels of evidence. Evidence is mostly level II (well conducted observational studies) and III (expert opinion). Smoked cannabis might be indicated for patients with severe neuropathic pain conditions who have not responded to adequate trials of pharmaceutical cannabinoids and standard analgesics (level II evidence). Smoked cannabis is contraindicated in patients who are 25 years of age or younger (level II evidence); who have a current, past, or strong family history of psychosis (level II evidence); who have a current or past cannabis use disorder (level III evidence); who have a current substance use disorder (level III evidence); who have cardiovascular or respiratory disease (level III evidence); or who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant (level II evidence). It should be used with caution in patients who smoke tobacco (level II evidence), who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (level III evidence), who have anxiety or mood disorders (level II evidence), or who are taking higher doses of opioids or benzodiazepines (level III evidence). Cannabis users should be advised not to drive for at least 3 to 4 hours after smoking, for at least 6 hours after oral ingestion, and for at least 8 hours if they experience a subjective "high" (level II evidence). The maximum recommended dose is 1 inhalation 4 times per day (approximately 400 mg per day) of dried cannabis containing 9% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (level III evidence). Physicians should avoid referring patients to "cannabinoid" clinics (level III evidence). Future guidelines should be based on

  11. The chronic effects of cannabis on memory in humans: a review.

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Battisti, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Memory problems are frequently associated with cannabis use, in both the short- and long-term. To date, reviews on the long-term cognitive sequelae of cannabis use have examined a broad range of cognitive functions, with none specifically focused on memory. Consequently, this review sought to examine the literature specific to memory function in cannabis users in the nontoxicated state with the aim of identifying the existence and nature of memory impairment in cannabis users and appraising potentially related mediators or moderators. Literature searches were conducted to extract well-controlled studies that investigated memory function in cannabis users outside of the acute intoxication period, with a focus on reviewing studies published within the past 10 years. Most recent studies have examined working memory and verbal episodic memory and cumulatively, the evidence suggests impaired encoding, storage, manipulation and retrieval mechanisms in long-term or heavy cannabis users. These impairments are not dissimilar to those associated with acute intoxication and have been related to the duration, frequency, dose and age of onset of cannabis use. We consider the impact of not only specific parameters of cannabis use in the manifestation of memory dysfunction, but also such factors as age, neurodevelopmental stage, IQ, gender, various vulnerabilities and other substance-use interactions, in the context of neural efficiency and compensatory mechanisms. The precise nature of memory deficits in cannabis users, their neural substrates and manifestation requires much further exploration through a variety of behavioural, functional brain imaging, prospective and genetic studies.

  12. Development and Validation of a Reliable and Robust Method for the Analysis of Cannabinoids and Terpenes in Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Giese, Matthew W; Lewis, Mark A; Giese, Laura; Smith, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The requirements for an acceptable cannabis assay have changed dramatically over the years resulting in a large number of laboratories using a diverse array of analytical methodologies that have not been properly validated. Due to the lack of sufficiently validated methods, we conducted a single- laboratory validation study for the determination of cannabinoids and terpenes in a variety of commonly occurring cultivars. The procedure involves high- throughput homogenization to prepare sample extract, which is then profiled for cannabinoids and terpenes by HPLC-diode array detector and GC-flame ionization detector, respectively. Spike recovery studies for terpenes in the range of 0.03-1.5% were carried out with analytical standards, while recovery studies for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, cannabidiolic acid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid, and cannabigerolic acid and their neutral counterparts in the range of 0.3-35% were carried out using cannabis extracts. In general, accuracy at all levels was within 5%, and RSDs were less than 3%. The interday and intraday repeatabilities of the procedure were evaluated with five different cultivars of varying chemotype, again resulting in acceptable RSDs. As an example of the application of this assay, it was used to illustrate the variability seen in cannabis coming from very advanced indoor cultivation operations.

  13. Residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Pope, H G; Gruber, A J; Yurgelun-Todd, D

    2001-12-01

    Acute intoxication with cannabis clearly produces cognitive impairment, but it is less clear how long cognitive deficits persist after an individual stops regular cannabis use. Numerous methodologic difficulties confront investigators in the field attempting to assess the residual neuropsychologic effects of cannabis among heavy users, and these must be understood to properly evaluate available studies. At present, it appears safe to conclude that deficits in attention and memory persist for at least several days after discontinuing regular heavy cannabis use. Some of these deficits may be caused or exacerbated by withdrawal effects from the abrupt discontinuation of cannabis; these effects typically peak after 3 to 7 days of abstinence. It is less clear, however, whether heavy cannabis use can cause neurotoxicity that persists long after discontinuation of use. It seems likely that such long-term effects, if they exist, are subtle and not clinically disabling--at least in the majority of cases.

  14. Polysomnographic evaluation of the hypnotic effect of Valeriana edulis standardized extract in patients suffering from insomnia.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Luna-Villegas, G; Cuevas-Uriostegui, M L; Alvarez, L; Vargas-Pineda, G; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Tortoriello, J

    2001-11-01

    Valeriana edulis ssp. procera, commonly known as "valeriana mexicana", is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. To evaluate the hypnotic effect and safety of 450 mg of Valeriana edulis standardized hydroalcoholic extract in patients with insomnia, a double-blind, cross-over, controlled study was carried out. Valeriana officinalis extract, at the same doses, was used as a positive control. In a sleep laboratory, polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were performed for analyzing the quantity and architecture of sleep as well as evaluating morning sleepiness, memory quotient, and side effects. The experimental procedures were conducted on four consecutive nights of 8 h each. Twenty patients were admitted. Based on the PSG results, V. edulis reduced the number of awaking episodes while both treatments increased the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; this last parameter was better improved by V. officinalis extract. Other PSG data did not achieve outstanding statistical differences, but the clinical tendency with both treatments was to increase the sleep efficiency index. These Valeriana extracts produced beneficial effects on sleep architecture because they diminished the time of stages 1 and 2 in non-REM sleep while they increased delta sleep. Validated clinical tests showed that both species reduced notoriously the morning sleepiness, that was further improved by V. officinalis extract, and did not affect anterograde memory. In only three cases were slight side effects observed, one due to the experimental extract. Chemical analysis of the hydroalcoholic extract of V. edulis indicated that this extract contains 0.26 % of dihydroisovaltrate as the main valepotriate, and that it does not contain valerenic acid. In general, the results support the hypnotic effect and safety of acute treatment of Valeriana edulis and Valeriana officinalis on patients suffering insomnia.

  15. Cannabis Effects on Driving Skills

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Rebecca L.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the most prevalent illicit drug identified in impaired drivers. The effects of cannabis on driving continue to be debated, making prosecution and legislation difficult. Historically, delays in sample collection, evaluating the inactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, and polydrug use have complicated epidemiologic evaluations of driver impairment after cannabis use. CONTENT We review and evaluate the current literature on cannabis’ effects on driving, highlighting the epidemiologic and experimental data. Epidemiologic data show that the risk of involvement in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) increases approximately 2-fold after cannabis smoking. The adjusted risk of driver culpability also increases substantially, particularly with increased blood THC concentrations. Studies that have used urine as the biological matrix have not shown an association between cannabis and crash risk. Experimental data show that drivers attempt to compensate by driving more slowly after smoking cannabis, but control deteriorates with increasing task complexity. Cannabis smoking increases lane weaving and impaired cognitive function. Critical-tracking tests, reaction times, divided-attention tasks, and lane-position variability all show cannabis-induced impairment. Despite purported tolerance in frequent smokers, complex tasks still show impairment. Combining cannabis with alcohol enhances impairment, especially lane weaving. SUMMARY Differences in study designs frequently account for inconsistencies in results between studies. Participant-selection bias and confounding factors attenuate ostensible cannabis effects, but the association with MVA often retains significance. Evidence suggests recent smoking and/or blood THC concentrations 2–5 ng/mL are associated with substantial driving impairment, particularly in occasional smokers. Future cannabis-and-driving research should emphasize challenging tasks, such as divided attention

  16. Determination of diagnostic standards on saturated soil extracts for cut roses grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Franco-Hermida, John Jairo; Quintero, María Fernanda; Cabrera, Raúl Iskander; Guzman, José Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp.) growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations) of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area. The standards were conceived as a tool to improve the nutritional balance in the leaf tissue of rose plants and thereby define the norms for expressing optimum productive potential relative to nutritional conditions in the soil. To this end, previously determined diagnostic standard for rose leaf tissues were employed to obtain rates of foliar nutritional balance at each analyzed location and as criteria for determining the diagnostic norms for saturated soil extracts. Implementing this methodology to foliar analysis, showed a higher significant correlation for diagnostic indices. A similar behavior was observed in saturated soil extracts analysis, becoming a powerful tool for integrated nutritional diagnosis. Leaf analyses determine the most limiting nutrients for high yield and analyses of saturated soil extracts facilitate the possibility of correcting the fertigation formulations applied to soils or substrates. Recommendations are proposed to improve the balance in soil-plant system with which the possibility of yield increase becomes more probable. The main recommendations to increase and improve rose crop flower yields would be: continuously check pH values of SSE, reduce the amounts of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in fertigation solutions and carefully analyze the situation of Mn in the soil-plant system.

  17. Determination of diagnostic standards on saturated soil extracts for cut roses grown in greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Raúl Iskander

    2017-01-01

    This work comprises the theoretical determination and validation of diagnostic standards for the analysis of saturated soil extracts for cut rose flower crops (Rosa spp.) growing in the Bogota Plateau, Colombia. The data included 684 plant tissue analyses and 684 corresponding analyses of saturated soil extracts, all collected between January 2009 and June 2013. The tissue and soil samples were selected from 13 rose farms, and from cultivars grafted on the 'Natal Briar' rootstock. These concurrent samples of soil and plant tissues represented 251 production units (locations) of approximately 10,000 m2 distributed across the study area. The standards were conceived as a tool to improve the nutritional balance in the leaf tissue of rose plants and thereby define the norms for expressing optimum productive potential relative to nutritional conditions in the soil. To this end, previously determined diagnostic standard for rose leaf tissues were employed to obtain rates of foliar nutritional balance at each analyzed location and as criteria for determining the diagnostic norms for saturated soil extracts. Implementing this methodology to foliar analysis, showed a higher significant correlation for diagnostic indices. A similar behavior was observed in saturated soil extracts analysis, becoming a powerful tool for integrated nutritional diagnosis. Leaf analyses determine the most limiting nutrients for high yield and analyses of saturated soil extracts facilitate the possibility of correcting the fertigation formulations applied to soils or substrates. Recommendations are proposed to improve the balance in soil-plant system with which the possibility of yield increase becomes more probable. The main recommendations to increase and improve rose crop flower yields would be: continuously check pH values of SSE, reduce the amounts of P, Fe, Zn and Cu in fertigation solutions and carefully analyze the situation of Mn in the soil-plant system. PMID:28542547

  18. Anti-biofilm activity of Marula - a study with the standardized bark extract.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Ratul; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Sharma, Amrita; Yadav, Kirendra K; Nema, Neelesh K; Sekhoacha, Mamello; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Braga, Fernão C; Matsabisa, Motlalepula Gilbert; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Sen, Tuhinadri

    2014-05-28

    Marula (Sclerocarya birrea; family - Anacardiaceae) is an African plant, which enjoys wide socio-economic importance particularly in southern part of Africa. The fruits are consumed as food and also as alcoholic beverage (cream liquor). In different parts of Africa, the decoction of the bark is traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery, diarrhoea, and various other infectious conditions. The aim of the study was to investigate the anti-biofilm properties of the methanol extract of Marula bark (stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea), with a view towards combating the emergence of antimicrobial resistance often associated with bacterial biofilms. The standardized methanol extract was initially tested for its antimicrobial property. The crystal violet assay was used for evaluating anti-biofilm (biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeuginosa) activity. Further in order to study the mechanism of anti-biofilm activity, the same was evaluated for understanding its role on various quorums sensing mediated phenomenon (swarming motility assay, protease and pyoverdin assay) that are known to be associated with the formation of biofilms and pathogenicity. The methanol extract showed no inhibition of bacterial growth up to a concentration of 200 µg/ml. Interestingly, the sample produced anti-biofilm activity (around 75% decrease; 100 µg/ml) at sub-lethal concentration. Further it also significantly reduced the QS mediated swarming motility. The release of various virulent factors (protease and pyoverdin) was found to be lowered when pre-treated with the extract. The present study illustrates the anti-biofilm property Sclerocarya birrea. The standardized extract significantly disrupted the quorum sensing mediated production of biofilm formation and also inhibited swarming ability of the cells. The extract displayed a regulatory role on the secretion of protease and pyoverdin, two QS dependent pathogenic factors found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study also validates the

  19. Medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids containing products - Regulations in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Abuhasira, Ran; Shbiro, Liat; Landschaft, Yuval

    2018-03-01

    In 1937, the United States of America criminalized the use of cannabis and as a result its use decreased rapidly. In recent decades, there is a growing interest in the wide range of medical uses of cannabis and its constituents; however, the laws and regulations are substantially different between countries. Laws differentiate between raw herbal cannabis, cannabis extracts, and cannabinoid-based medicines. Both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) do not approve the use of herbal cannabis or its extracts. The FDA approved several cannabinoid-based medicines, so did 23 European countries and Canada. However, only four of the reviewed countries have fully authorized the medical use of herbal cannabis - Canada, Germany, Israel and the Netherlands, together with more than 50% of the states in the United States. Most of the regulators allow the physicians to decide what specific indications they will prescribe cannabis for, but some regulators dictate only specific indications. The aim of this article is to review the current (as of November 2017) regulations of medical cannabis use in Europe and North America. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Experimental Evaluation of Adaptogenic Potential of Standardized Epipremnum Aureum Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Das, Sreemoy Kanti; Sengupta, Pinaki; Mustapha, Mohd Shahimi; Sarker, Md Moklesur Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Stress is a normal part of everyday life but chronic stress can lead to a variety of stress-related illnesses including hypertension, anxiety, and depression. In the present investigation, standardized leaf extract of Epipremnumaureum was evaluated for its anti-stress potential. For the evaluation of anti-stress activity, groups of mice ( n = 6) were subjected to forced swim stress and anoxic stress tolerance test in mice 1h after daily treatment of E.aureumextract . Diazepam (5 mg/kg) was taken as a reference standard. Urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were selected as noninvasive biomarkers to assess the anti-stress activity and plasma cortisol, blood ascorbic acid, and weight of adrenal were measured. The 24 h urinary excretion of VMA and ascorbic acid were determined by spectrophotometric methods in all groups under normal and stressed conditions. The hematological parameters (neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils) were also determined. Administration of E.aureumat doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg wasfound to be effective in inhibiting the stress induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with E. aureum extract prevents the rise in blood ascorbic acid and plasma cortisol. Moreover, the extract prevented the increase in weight of adrenal gland also significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose-dependent significant reduction in white blood cell count was observed in anoxic stress tolerance test as compared to stressed group. Hence, the present study provides scientific support for the positiveadaptogenic effect of E. aureum extract.

  1. Δ9-THC Intoxication by Cannabidiol-Enriched Cannabis Extract in Two Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Full Remission after Switching to Purified Cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Crippa, José A S; Crippa, Ana C S; Hallak, Jaime E C; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Zuardi, Antonio W

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the cases of two children with treatment-resistant epilepsy (Case A with left frontal dysplasia and Case B with Dravet Syndrome) with initial symptom improvement after the introduction of CBD extracts followed by seizure worsening after a short time. The children presented typical signs of intoxication by Δ9-THC (inappropriate laughter, ataxia, reduced attention, and eye redness) after using a CBD-enriched extract. The extract was replaced by the same dose of purified CBD with no Δ9-THC in both cases, which led to improvement in intoxication signs and seizure remission. These cases support pre-clinical and preliminary clinical evidence suggesting that CBD may be effective for some patients with epilepsy. Moreover, the cases highlight the need for randomized clinical trials using high-quality and reliable substances to ascertain the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as medicines.

  2. Δ9-THC Intoxication by Cannabidiol-Enriched Cannabis Extract in Two Children with Refractory Epilepsy: Full Remission after Switching to Purified Cannabidiol

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, José A. S.; Crippa, Ana C. S.; Hallak, Jaime E. C.; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Zuardi, Antonio W.

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and preliminary clinical trials have shown that cannabidiol (CBD)-enriched extracts may have beneficial effects for children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. However, these compounds are not yet registered as medicines by regulatory agencies. We describe the cases of two children with treatment-resistant epilepsy (Case A with left frontal dysplasia and Case B with Dravet Syndrome) with initial symptom improvement after the introduction of CBD extracts followed by seizure worsening after a short time. The children presented typical signs of intoxication by Δ9-THC (inappropriate laughter, ataxia, reduced attention, and eye redness) after using a CBD-enriched extract. The extract was replaced by the same dose of purified CBD with no Δ9-THC in both cases, which led to improvement in intoxication signs and seizure remission. These cases support pre-clinical and preliminary clinical evidence suggesting that CBD may be effective for some patients with epilepsy. Moreover, the cases highlight the need for randomized clinical trials using high-quality and reliable substances to ascertain the safety and efficacy of cannabinoids as medicines. PMID:27746737

  3. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    PubMed

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Synthetic cannabis and respiratory depression.

    PubMed

    Jinwala, Felecia N; Gupta, Mayank

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabis use has been increasing in appeal among adolescents, and its use is now at a 30 year peak among high school seniors. The constituents of synthetic cannabis are difficult to monitor, given the drug's easy accessibility. Currently, 40 U.S. states have banned the distribution and use of some known synthetic cannabinoids, and have included these drugs in the Schedule I category. The depressive respiratory effect in humans caused by synthetic cannabis inhalation has not been thoroughly investigated in the medical literature. We are the first to report, to our knowledge, two cases of self-reported synthetic cannabis use leading to respiratory depression and necessary intubation.

  5. [Somatic consequences of cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Bence, Camille; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis can have negative effects in its users, and a range of acute and chronic health problems associated with cannabis use has been dentified. Acute cannabis consumption is rarely lethal but it is associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle accident because of longer reaction time or impaired motor coordination. Chronic effects of cannabis use include generally cardiovascular and respiratory consequences but there are also oral, gastrointestinal, cutaneous and mucous, metabolic, gynecologic and obstetrical, sexual consequences, and cancer But associated tobacco smoking or other potential confounders may explain part of those somatic consequences.

  6. Practical considerations in medical cannabis administration and dosing.

    PubMed

    MacCallum, Caroline A; Russo, Ethan B

    2018-03-01

    Cannabis has been employed medicinally throughout history, but its recent legal prohibition, biochemical complexity and variability, quality control issues, previous dearth of appropriately powered randomised controlled trials, and lack of pertinent education have conspired to leave clinicians in the dark as to how to advise patients pursuing such treatment. With the advent of pharmaceutical cannabis-based medicines (Sativex/nabiximols and Epidiolex), and liberalisation of access in certain nations, this ignorance of cannabis pharmacology and therapeutics has become untenable. In this article, the authors endeavour to present concise data on cannabis pharmacology related to tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) et al., methods of administration (smoking, vaporisation, oral), and dosing recommendations. Adverse events of cannabis medicine pertain primarily to THC, whose total daily dose-equivalent should generally be limited to 30mg/day or less, preferably in conjunction with CBD, to avoid psychoactive sequelae and development of tolerance. CBD, in contrast to THC, is less potent, and may require much higher doses for its adjunctive benefits on pain, inflammation, and attenuation of THC-associated anxiety and tachycardia. Dose initiation should commence at modest levels, and titration of any cannabis preparation should be undertaken slowly over a period of as much as two weeks. Suggestions are offered on cannabis-drug interactions, patient monitoring, and standards of care, while special cases for cannabis therapeutics are addressed: epilepsy, cancer palliation and primary treatment, chronic pain, use in the elderly, Parkinson disease, paediatrics, with concomitant opioids, and in relation to driving and hazardous activities. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Chitosan-tripolyphosphate nanoparticles as Arrabidaea chica standardized extract carrier: synthesis, characterization, biocompatibility, and antiulcerogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Servat-Medina, Leila; González-Gómez, Alvaro; Reyes-Ortega, Felisa; Sousa, Ilza Maria Oliveira; Queiroz, Nubia de Cássia Almeida; Zago, Patricia Maria Wiziack; Jorge, Michelle Pedrosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; San Román, Julio; Foglio, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Natural products using plants have received considerable attention because of their potential to treat various diseases. Arrabidaea chica (Humb. & Bonpl.) B. Verlot is a native tropical American vine with healing properties employed in folk medicine for wound healing, inflammation, and gastrointestinal colic. Applying nanotechnology to plant extracts has revealed an advantageous strategy for herbal drugs considering the numerous features that nanostructured systems offer, including solubility, bioavailability, and pharmacological activity enhancement. The present study reports the preparation and characterization of chitosan-sodium tripolyphosphate nanoparticles (NPs) charged with A. chica standardized extract (AcE). Particle size and zeta potential were measured using a Zetasizer Nano ZS. The NP morphological characteristics were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Our studies indicated that the chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate mass ratio of 5 and volume ratio of 10 were found to be the best condition to achieve the lowest NP sizes, with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 150±13 nm and a zeta potential of +45±2 mV. Particle size decreased with AcE addition (60±10.2 nm), suggesting an interaction between the extract's composition and polymers. The NP biocompatibility was evaluated using human skin fibroblasts. AcE-NP demonstrated capability of maintaining cell viability at the lowest concentrations tested, stimulating cell proliferation at higher concentrations. Antiulcerogenic activity of AcE-NP was also evaluated with an acute gastric ulcer experimental model induced by ethanol and indomethacin. NPs loaded with A. chica extract reduced the ulcerative lesion index using lower doses compared with the free extract, suggesting that extract encapsulation in chitosan NPs allowed for a dose reduction for a gastroprotective effect. The AcE encapsulation offers an approach for further application of the A. chica extract that could be considered a potential

  8. Attitudes of cannabis growers to regulation of cannabis cultivation under a non-prohibition cannabis model.

    PubMed

    Lenton, Simon; Frank, Vibeke A; Barratt, Monica J; Dahl, Helle Vibeke; Potter, Gary R

    2015-03-01

    How cannabis cultivation is dealt with under various examples of cannabis legalization or regulation is an important consideration in design of such schemes. This study aimed to (i) investigate support among current or recent cannabis growers, for various potential policy options for cannabis cultivation if prohibition were repealed, and (ii) explore the support for these options across countries, scale of growing operations, demographics, drug use and cannabis supply involvement variables. This study utilized data from the online web survey of largely 'small-scale' cannabis cultivators, aged 18yrs and over, in eleven countries conducted by the Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium (GCCRC). Data from 1722 current and recent cannabis growers in Australia, Denmark and the UK, who were all asked about policy, were included in the analysis. It investigated support for various frameworks for cultivation: (no regulation (free market); adult only; growing licenses; restrictions on plant numbers; licensed business-only sale; approved commercial growing; etc.). Among current growers, support for these options were compared across countries, across scale of growing operations, and by demographics, drug use and crime variables. Although there were some between country differences in support for the various policy options, what was striking was the similarity of the proportions for each of the eight most popular policy options. Among current growers, many of these positions were predicted by demographic, drug use and cannabis growing variables which were conceptually congruent with these positions. The results have relevance for the provisions regarding cannabis cultivation in the design of new non-prohibitionist models of cannabis which are increasingly under consideration. It should be of interest to policy makers, drug policy researchers, law enforcement and cannabis cultivators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed

    Fairman, Brian J; Anthony, James C

    2012-04-01

    A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005-2009 (74-76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR=1.7 and 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to diminish the cannabis-associated risk. Copyright © 2011

  10. Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells?

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, Brian J.; Anthony, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent research focus is a set of hypothesized adult-onset mental health disturbances possibly due to early-onset cannabis use (EOCU, onset <18 years). We seek to estimate the suspected EOCU-associated excess odds of experiencing an incident depression spell during adulthood, with comparisons to never cannabis smokers and those with delayed cannabis onset (i.e., not starting to smoke cannabis until adulthood). Methods The National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) assess non-institutionalized community-dwelling residents of the United States after probability sampling each year. In aggregate, the NSDUH analytical sample included 173,775 adult participants from survey years 2005–2009 (74–76% of designated respondents). Standardized computer-assisted interviews collected information on background determinants, age of first cannabis use, and depression spell onset. Logistic regression was used to estimate EOCU-depression spell associations in the form of odds ratios, with statistical adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, years of cannabis involvement, tobacco cigarette onset, and alcohol onset. Results About 1 in 10 experienced a depression spell during adulthood, and both early-onset and adult-onset cannabis smokers had a modest excess odds of a depression spell compared to never cannabis smokers, even with covariate adjustment (OR = 1.7 & 1.8, respectively; both p<0.001). Estimates for early- and adult-onset cannabis smokers did not statistically differ from one another. Limitations Shared diathesis that might influence both EOCU and adult-onset depression spell is controlled no more than partially, as will be true until essentially all known early-life shared vulnerabilities are illuminated. Conclusion Cannabis smoking initiated at any age signals a modest increased risk of a spell of depression in adulthood, even when adjusted for suspected confounding variables studied here. Delaying cannabis onset until adulthood does not appear to

  11. Probability and predictors of the cannabis gateway effect: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Garcia-Rodríguez, Olaya; Jin, Chelsea, J.; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background While several studies have shown a high association between cannabis use and use of other illicit drugs, the predictors of progression from cannabis to other illicit drugs remain largely unknown. This study aims to estimate the cumulative probability of progression to illicit drug use among individuals with lifetime history of cannabis use, and to identify predictors of progression from cannabis use to other illicit drugs use. Methods Analyses were conducted on the sub-sample of participants in Wave 1of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) who started cannabis use before using any other drug (n= 6,624). Estimated projections of the cumulative probability of progression from cannabis use to use of any other illegal drug use in the general population were obtained by the standard actuarial method. Univariate and multivariable survival analyses with time-varying covariates were implemented to identify predictors of progression to any drug use. Results Lifetime cumulative probability estimates indicated that 44.7% of individuals with lifetime cannabis use progressed to other illicit drug use at some time in their lives. Several sociodemographic characteristics, internalizing and externalizing psychiatric disorders and indicators of substance use severity predicted progression from cannabis use to other illicit drugs use. Conclusion A large proportion of individuals who use cannabis go on to use other illegal drugs. The increased risk of progression from cannabis use to other illicit drugs use among individuals with mental disorders underscores the importance of considering the benefits and adverse effects of changes in cannabis regulations and of developing prevention and treatment strategies directed at curtailing cannabis use in these populations. PMID:25168081

  12. Cannabis - the Israeli perspective.

    PubMed

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2016-05-01

    Short overviews are presented on the historical uses of cannabis in the Middle East and on the more recent scientific and medical research on phytocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, with emphasis on research contributions from Israel. These are followed by examples of research projects and clinical trials with cannabinoids and by a short report on the regulation of medical marijuana in Israel, which at present is administered to over 22,000 patients.

  13. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents.

    PubMed

    Satheeshkumar, N; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Bhadra, S; Saha, B P

    2010-03-01

    Ethno pharmacological approach has provided several leads to identify potential new drugs from plant sources, including those for memory disorders. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) give a symptomatic relief to some of the clinical manifestations of the disease. The main objective of this study is to standardize the extract of Trigonella foenum graecum L with trigonelline by HPTLC method and determine the in vitro AChE inhibitory activity of Trigonella foenum graecum L and its constituents using galanthamine as a reference. Different concentrations of hydro alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum and trigonelline were subjected to HPTLC analysis using the mobile phase n propanol, methanol and water (4:1:2, v/v). The R(f) of trigonelline was found to be 0.43, and the correlation coefficient of 0.99 was indicative of good linear dependence of peak area on concentration. The concentration of trigonelline was found to be 13mgg(-1)w/w in the hydro alcoholic extract of Trigonella foenum graecum. The AChE inhibitory activity of crude fenugreek seed extracts, fractions and trigonelline was evaluated using Ellman's method in 96-well micro plate's assay and TLC bioassay detection. The ethyl acetate fraction of the alcohol extract (IC50 53.00 +/- 17.33microg/ml), and total alkaloid fraction (IC50 9.23+/-6.08microg/ml) showed potential AChE inhibition. Trigonelline showed IC50 233+/-0.12microM. Galanthamine was used as standard and it showed inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase with an IC50 value of 1.27+/-0.21microM. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  15. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  16. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Coriolus versicolor standardized water extract in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hor, Sook Yee; Ahmad, Mariam; Farsi, Elham; Lim, Chung Pin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Yam, Mun Fei

    2011-10-11

    Coriolus versicolor, which is known as Yun Zhi, is one of the commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs. Recent studies have demonstrated its antitumor activities on cancer cells which led to its widespread use in cancer patient. However, little toxicological information is available regarding its safety. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of Coriolus versicolor standardized water extract after acute and subchronic administration in rats. In acute toxicity study, Coriolus versicolor water extract was administered by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (6 males, 6 females) at single doses of varying concentrations 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg. In subchronic toxicity study, the extract was administered orally at doses of 1250, 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day for 28 days to male and female SD rats respectively. General behavior, adverse effects and mortality were determined throughout the experimental period. Haematological and biochemical parameters, relative organ weights and histopathological were evaluated at the end of the experiment. There were no mortality and signs of toxicity in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. In the single dose acute toxicity and repeated dose 28-day subchronic toxicity studies, there were no significant difference in body weight, relative organ weight, haematological parameters, clinical chemistry, gross pathology and histopathology between treatment and control groups. Coriolus versicolor water extract did not cause remarkable adverse effect in SD rats. The oral lethal dose of Coriolus versicolor water extract is more than 5000 mg/kg and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of the extract for both male and female rats is 5000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  18. Evaluation of the anti-pyretic potential of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth standardized extract.

    PubMed

    Yam, M F; Ang, L F; Basir, R; Salman, I M; Ameer, O Z; Asmawi, M Z

    2009-02-01

    The anti-pyretic activity of a standardized methanol/water (50/50) extract of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (SEOS) was investigated for its effect on normal body temperature and yeast-induced pyrexia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The SEOS showed no effect on normal body temperature. Doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of SEOS significantly reduced the yeast-induced elevation in body temperature. This effect persisted up to 4 h following the administration of the extract. The anti-pyretic effect of SEOS was comparable with that of paracetamol (acetaminophen in U.S) (150 mg/kg p.o.), a standard anti-pyretic agent. HPLC study revealed that rosmarinic acid, sinensetin, eupatorin and tetramethoxyflavone were present in SEOS in the amounts of 7.58%, 0.2%, 0.34% and 0.24% respectively. The LD(50) of the extract in rats was higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. Therefore, the present study ascertained that SEOS possesses a significant anti-pyretic activity.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative measurement of cannabinoids in cannabis using modified HPLC/DAD method.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupendra; Wene, Daniel; Fan, Zhihua Tina

    2017-11-30

    This study presents an accurate and high throughput method for the quantitative determination of various cannabinoids in cannabis plant material using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD). Sample extraction and chromatographic analysis conditions for the measurement of cannabinoids in the complex cannabis plant material matrix were optimized. The Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18 column provided high resolution for all target analytes with a short run time (10minutes) given the core shell technology. The aqueous buffer mobile phase was optimized with ammonium acetate at pH 4.75. The change in the mobile phase and the new column ensured a separation between cannabidiol (CBD and cannabigerol (CBG) along with cannabigerol and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which were not well separated by previous publications, improved buffering capacity, and provided analytical performance stability. Moreover, baseline drifting was significantly minimized by the use of a low concentration buffer solution (25mM ammonium acetate). In addition, evaporation and reconstitution of the sample residue with a methanol-organic pure (OP) water solution (65:35) significantly reduced the matrix interference. The modified extraction produced good recoveries (>91%) for each of the eight cannabinoids. The optimized method was validated for specificity, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy, and stability. The combined relative standard deviation (%RSD) for intra-day and inter-day precision for all eight analytes varied from 2.5% to 5.2% and 0.28% to 5.5%, respectively. The %RSD for the repeatability study varied from 1.1% to 5.5%. The recoveries from spiked cannabis matrix samples were greater than 90% for all analytes, except delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 8 -THC), which was 80%. The recoveries varied from 81% to 107% with a precision of 0.7-8.1%RSD. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) in all of the cannabis samples (n=635) was less than 10

  20. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicinal cannabis: Principal cannabinoids concentration and their stability evaluated by a high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Citti, Cinzia; Ciccarella, Giuseppe; Braghiroli, Daniela; Parenti, Carlo; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Cannazza, Giuseppe

    2016-09-05

    In the last few years, there has been a boost in the use of cannabis-based extracts for medicinal purposes, although their preparation procedure has not been standardized but rather decided by the individual pharmacists. The present work describes the development of a simple and rapid high performance liquid chromatography method with UV detection (HPLC-UV) for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the principal cannabinoids (CBD-A, CBD, CBN, THC and THC-A) that could be applied to all cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CMEs) and easily performed by a pharmacist. In order to evaluate the identity and purity of the analytes, a high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF) analysis was also carried out. Full method validation has been performed in terms of specificity, selectivity, linearity, recovery, dilution integrity and thermal stability. Moreover, the influence of the solvent (ethyl alcohol and olive oil) was evaluated on cannabinoids degradation rate. An alternative extraction method has then been proposed in order to preserve cannabis monoterpene component in final CMEs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral and anticonvulsant effects of the standardized extract of Ficus platyphylla stem bark.

    PubMed

    Chindo, Ben A; Ya'U, Jamilu; Danjuma, Nuhu M; Okhale, Samuel E; Gamaniel, Karniyus S; Becker, Axel

    2014-06-11

    Decoctions of Ficus platyphylla Del.-Holl (Family: Moraceae) are used in Nigeria׳s folk medicine for the management of epilepsy and their efficacies are widely acclaimed among the rural communities of northern Nigeria. The aim of the study is to examine the behavioral and anticonvulsant properties of the standardized methanol extract of Ficus platyphylla (FP) stem bark, in order to scientifically describe its potential values in the management of convulsive disorders. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and preliminary phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract were utilized and the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50) determined in mice. The effects of FP were investigated on some murine models of behavior and its anticonvulsant effects studied on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-, strychnine (STN)-, picrotoxin (PCT)-, isoniazid (INH)-, aminophylline (AMI)- and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizures in mice. The intraperitoneal oral LD50 of FP was estimated to be 5000mg/kg. FP significantly reduced the locomotor activities including the total distance covered, speed, active time and rearing counts. It shortened the onset and prolonged the duration of diazepam-induced sleep, but had no effect on motor coordination on the rota-rod treadmill or beam-walking assay in mice at the doses tested. The extract protected the mice against PTZ- and STN-induced seizures and significantly delayed the latencies of myoclonic jerks and tonic seizures induced by all the standard convulsant agents (PTZ, PCT, INH, STN and AMI) used in this study, but failed to protect the mice against MES seizures at the doses tested. The HPLC fingerprint of the extract shows a spectrum profile characteristic of Ficus platyphylla, while the preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and tannins. Our study provides scientific evidence that FP may contain psychoactive principles with potential anticonvulsant properties, thus supporting further

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of standardized dichloromethane extract of Salvia connivens on macrophages stimulated by LPS.

    PubMed

    González-Chávez, Marco Martín; Ramos-Velázquez, Cinthia Saraí; Serrano-Vega, Roberto; Pérez-González, Cuauhtemoc; Sánchez-Mendoza, Ernesto; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Salud

    2017-12-01

    A previous study demonstrated that the chloroform extract of Salvia connivens Epling (Lamiaceae) has anti-inflammatory activity. Identification of the active components in the dicholorometane extract (DESC), and, standardization of the extract based in ursolic acid. DESC was prepared by percolation with dichlromethane and after washed with hot hexane, its composition was determined by CG-MS and NMR, and standardized by HPLC. The anti-inflammatory activity was tested on acute TPA-induced mouse ear oedema at doses of 2.0 mg/ear. The cell viability of macrophages was evaluated by MTT method, and pro- and anti-inflammatory interleukin levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, dihydroursolic acid and eupatorin were identified in DESC, which was standardized based on the ursolic acid concentration (126 mg/g). The anti-inflammatory activities of DESC, the acid mixture, and eupatorin (2 mg/ear) were 60.55, 57.20 and 56.40% inhibition, respectively, on TPA-induced ear oedema. The IC 50 of DESC on macrophages was 149.4 μg/mL. DESC (25 μg/mL) significantly reduced TNF-α (2.0-fold), IL-1β (2.2-fold) and IL-6 (2.0-fold) in macrophages stimulated with LPS and increased the production of IL-10 (1.9-fold). Inflammation is a basic response to injuries, and macrophages are involved in triggering inflammation. Macrophage cells exhibit a response to LPS, inducing inflammatory mediators, and DESC inhibits the biosynthesis of the pro-inflammatory and promote anti-inflammatory cytokines. DESC has an anti-inflammatory effect; reduced the levels of IL-1β, Il-6 and TNF-α; and increases IL-10 in macrophages stimulated with LPS. Ursolic acid is a good phytochemical marker.

  4. Cannabis and creativity: highly potent cannabis impairs divergent thinking in regular cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Kowal, Mikael A; Hazekamp, Arno; Colzato, Lorenza S; van Steenbergen, Henk; van der Wee, Nic J A; Durieux, Jeffrey; Manai, Meriem; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    Cannabis users often claim that cannabis has the potential to enhance their creativity. Research suggests that aspects of creative performance might be improved when intoxicated with cannabis; however, the evidence is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of cannabis on creativity. We examined the effects of administering a low (5.5 mg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) or high (22 mg THC) dose of vaporized cannabis vs. placebo on creativity tasks tapping into divergent (Alternate Uses Task) and convergent (Remote Associates Task) thinking, in a population of regular cannabis users. The study used a randomized, double-blind, between-groups design. Participants in the high-dose group (n = 18) displayed significantly worse performance on the divergent thinking task, compared to individuals in both the low-dose (n = 18) and placebo (n = 18) groups. The findings suggest that cannabis with low potency does not have any impact on creativity, while highly potent cannabis actually impairs divergent thinking.

  5. Cannabis cultivation: Methodological issues for obtaining medical-grade product.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Walker, Larry A; Potter, David

    2017-05-01

    As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods. Such practices have yielded desirable outcomes in Cannabis breeding and production: GW Pharmaceuticals has a collection of chemotypes dominant in any one of eight cannabinoids, two of which-cannabidiol and cannabidivarin-are supporting epilepsy clinical trial research, whereas in addition to a germplasm bank of high-THC, high-CBD, and intermediate type cannabis varieties, the team at University of Mississippi has established an in vitro propagation protocol for cannabis with no detectable variations in morphologic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic profiles as compared to the mother plants. Improvements in phytocannabinoid yields and growing efficiency are expected as research continues at these institutions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy". Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  7. Statistics on Cannabis Users Skew Perceptions of Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Rachel M.; Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Everingham, Susan S.; Kilmer, Beau

    2013-01-01

    Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight (1) differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; (2) how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and (3) the correlation between frequency of use in the past-month and average grams consumed per use-day. Key findings: focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanics. Further, data from a survey conducted in seven European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations. PMID:24223560

  8. The effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes: a protocol.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Jayleen K L; Rosales, Cecilia B; Center, Katherine E; Nuñez, Annabelle V; Gibson, Steven J; Ehiri, John E

    2015-03-13

    The effects of exposure to marijuana in utero on fetal development are not clear. Given that the recent legislation on cannabis in the US is likely to result in increased use, there is a need to assess the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this review is to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on pregnancy outcomes (including maternal and child outcomes). Major databases will be searched from inception to the latest issue, with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of prenatal exposure to cannabis on fetal development and pregnancy outcomes. Two investigators will independently review all titles and abstracts to identify potential articles. Discrepancies will be resolved by repeated review, discussion and consensus. Study quality assessment will be undertaken, using standard protocols. To qualify for inclusion, studies must report at least one maternal or neonatal outcome post partum. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort and randomised controlled trials published in English will be included. In order to rule out the effects of other drugs that may affect fetal development and pregnancy outcomes, studies will only be included if they report outcomes of prenatal exposure to cannabis while excluding other illicit substances. Data from eligible studies will be extracted, and data analysis will include a systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence, and meta-analysis if data permit. Meta-analysis will be conducted if three or more studies report comparable statistics on the same outcome. The review which will result from this protocol has not already been conducted. Preparation of the review will follow the procedures stated in this protocol, and will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Ethical approval of data will not be required since the review will use data that are already available in the

  9. Boosting accumulation of neutral lipids in Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 grown on hemp (Cannabis sativa Linn) seed aqueous extract as feedstock for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alok; Pravez, Mohammad; Deeba, Farha; Pruthi, Vikas; Singh, Rajesh P; Pruthi, Parul A

    2014-08-01

    Hemp seeds aqueous extract (HSAE) was used as cheap renewable feedstocks to grow novel oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae HIMPA1 isolated from Himalayan permafrost soil. The yeast showed boosted triglyceride (TAG) accumulation in the lipid droplets (LDs) which were transesterified to biodiesel. The sonicated HSAE prepared lacked toxic inhibitors and showed enhanced total lipid content and lipid yield 55.56%, 8.39±0.57g/l in comparison to 41.92%, 6.2±0.8g/l from industrially used glucose synthetic medium, respectively. Supersized LDs (5.95±1.02μm) accumulated maximum TAG in sonicated HSAE grown cells were visualized by fluorescent BODIPY (505/515nm) stain. GC-MS analysis revealed unique longer carbon chain FAME profile containing Arachidic acid (C20:0) 5%, Behenic acid (C22:0) 9.7%, Heptacosanoic acid (C27:0) 14.98%, for the first time in this yeast when grown on industrially competent sonicated HSAE, showing more similarity to algal oils. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of cannabis use among people with psychotic or depressive disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baker, Amanda L; Hides, Leanne; Lubman, Dan I

    2010-03-01

    This article systematically reviews the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for pharmacologic and psychological approaches to the treatment of cannabis use among individuals with psychotic or depressive disorders. A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed and PsychINFO databases from inception to December 2008. Individual searches in cannabis use (search terms: marijuana, cannabis, marijuana abuse, cannabis abuse, marijuana usage, cannabis usage), mental disorders (search terms: mood disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, anxiety, depressive disorder, depression, psychotic disorders, psychosis, mental disorders), and pharmacotherapy (search terms: medication, drug therapy, pharmacotherapy, psychopharmacology, clinical trials, drug trial, treatment trial) were conducted and limited to humans, adolescents and adults. A search combining the individual cannabis use, mental disorder and pharmacotherapy searches produced 1,713 articles (PubMed = 1,398; PsychINFO = 315). Combining the cannabis use and mental disorder searches while limiting them to English articles and RCTs produced a total of 286 articles (PubMed = 228; PsychINFO = 58). From this literature, there were 7 RCTs conducted among mental health clients that reported cannabis use outcomes using pharmacologic or psychological interventions. While few RCTs have been conducted, there is evidence that pharmacologic and psychological interventions are effective for reducing cannabis use in the short-term among people with psychotic disorders or depression. Although it is difficult to make evidence-based treatment recommendations due to the paucity of research in this area, available studies indicate that effectively treating the mental health disorder with standard pharmacotherapy may be associated with a reduction in cannabis use and that longer or more intensive psychological interventions rather than brief interventions may be required, particularly among heavier

  11. Cannabis use in people with Parkinson's disease and Multiple Sclerosis: A web-based investigation.

    PubMed

    Kindred, John H; Li, Kaigang; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B; Proessl, Felix; Fling, Brett W; Honce, Justin M; Shaffer, William R; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis has been used for medicinal purpose for thousands of years; however the positive and negative effects of cannabis use in Parkinson's disease (PD) and Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are mostly unknown. Our aim was to assess cannabis use in PD and MS and compare results of self-reported assessments of neurological disability between current cannabis users and non-users. An anonymous web-based survey was hosted on the Michael J. Fox Foundation and the National Multiple Sclerosis Society webpages from 15 February to 15 October 2016. The survey collected demographic and cannabis use information, and used standardized questionnaires to assess neurological function, fatigue, balance, and physical activity participation. Analysis of variance and chi-square tests were used for the analysis. The survey was viewed 801 times, and 595 participants were in the final data set. Seventy-six percent and 24% of the respondents reported PD and MS respectively. Current users reported high efficacy of cannabis, 6.4 (SD 1.8) on a scale from 0 to 7 and 59% reported reducing prescription medication since beginning cannabis use. Current cannabis users were younger and less likely to be classified as obese (P < 0.035). Cannabis users reported lower levels of disability, specifically in domains of mood, memory, and fatigue (P<0.040). Cannabis may have positive impacts on mood, memory, fatigue, and obesity status in people with PD and MS. Further studies using clinically and longitudinally assessed measurements of these domains are needed to establish if these associations are causal and determine the long-term benefits and consequences of cannabis use in people with PD and MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of standardized extract of polymethoxyflavones from Ageratum conyzoides.

    PubMed

    Faqueti, Larissa G; Brieudes, Vincent; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios L; Nascimento, Leandro F; Barros, Wellinghton M; Santos, Adair R S; Biavatti, Maique W

    2016-12-24

    Ageratum conyzoides L. is a plant widely used in traditional medicine in tropical and subtropical regions of the world due to its anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antibacterial properties. To characterize the standardized extract of polymethoxyflavones (SEPAc) from the plant and evaluate its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. The SEPAc purified from the ethanol extract of the plant leaves was characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry and the methoxyflavones were quantified by a validated UPLC-PDA method. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the SEPAc were evaluated after oral administration on the acute nocifensive behavior of mice induced by formalin, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta (IL-1β)) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in mice. Qualitative analyses revealed the presence of seven methoxyflavones in the SEPAc, also a simple UPLC-PDA method was developed and validated for the quantification of 5,6,7,3',4',5'-hexametoxyflavone; nobiletin; 5'-methoxynobiletin and eupalestin, major compounds in the extract. The SEPAc exhibited antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in both formalin phases, with significant inhibition of the paw edema formation and significant reduction of the nocifensive response induced by an intraplantar injection of PGE2 and intrathecal injection of interleukin-1β. The SEPAc exhibited significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. These results provided scientific suggestion of its potential as a source of new medicines to treat inflammatory diseases, such rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Radwan, Mohamed M; Gul, Waseem; Chandra, Suman; Galal, Ahmed

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC). The plant's behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ 9 -THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant. Besides Δ 9 -THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products. Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis. The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.

  14. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

    PubMed

    Booth, Judith K; Page, Jonathan E; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety 'Finola' revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of 'Finola' resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.

  15. [Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use].

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Pesa, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to February 2010. The terms searched were: "cannabi*" or "marijuana", and "cogniti*" or "memory" or "attention" or "executive function", and human studies were reviewed preferentially over the animal literature. Cannabis use impairs memory, attention, inhibitory control, executive functions and decision making, both during the period of acute intoxication and beyond, persisting for hours, days, weeks or more after the last use of cannabis. Pharmacological challenge studies in humans are elucidating the nature and neural substrates of cognitive changes associated with various cannabinoids. Long-term or heavy cannabis use appears to result in longer-lasting cognitive abnormalities and possibly structural brain alterations. Greater adverse cognitive effects are associated with cannabis use commencing in early adolescence. The endogenous cannabinoid system is involved in regulatory neural mechanisms that modulate processes underlying a range of cognitive functions that are impaired by cannabis. Deficits in human users most likely therefore reflect neuroadaptations and altered functioning of the endogenous cannabinoid system.

  16. Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Judith K.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence. Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties. Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b. Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene. Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties. PMID:28355238

  17. [Consumption of cannabis in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Phan, O; Obradovic, I; Har, A

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the consumption of cannabis among adolescents has dramatically increased. Today, adolescent cannabis use is a major public health problem. Two forms of cannabis are commonly smoked: herb (marijuana) and resin. These forms have a high concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active molecule of cannabis. Recent research has helped understand how the cannabinoid system works. This system combines specific receptors and specific molecules: the endocannabinoids. The effects of cannabis use are now well documented. Some adolescents report subjective positive effects. They use it not only on a recreational basis, but also to deal with their emotions. Over the long term, cannabis increases the risk of depression and schizophrenia for those adolescents who are at risk. Use, misuse, and dependence are frequently associated with heavy psychopathologic problems such as vulnerability and depression. Many cannabis dependence psychotherapies have shown their efficacy and efficiency. Motivational interviews, cognitive behavioral therapy, multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), and residential treatment have proved highly effective. MDFT seems very effective, especially in cases of heavy use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cannabis Use in Palliative Oncology: A Review of the Evidence for Popular Indications.

    PubMed

    Turgeman, Ilit; Bar-Sela, Gil

    2017-02-01

    A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Currently, cannabis is approved in several countries for indications of symptomatic alleviation. However, limited knowledge on the benefits and risks precludes inclusion of cannabis in standard treatment guidelines. This review provides a summary of the available literature on the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines in palliative oncology. Favorable outcomes are demonstrated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain, with evidence of advantageous neurological interactions. Benefit in the treatment of anorexia, insomnia and anxiety is also suggested. Short- and long-term side effects appear to be manageable and to subside after discontinuation of the drug. Finally, cannabinoids have shown anti-neoplastic effects in preclinical studies in a wide range of cancer cells and some animal models. Further research is needed before cannabis can become a part of evidence-based oncology practice.

  19. Matrix metalloproteinase, hyaluronidase and elastase inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Centella asiatica.

    PubMed

    Nema, Neelesh Kumar; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra Kumar; Mukherjee, Pulok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (Apiaceae), a valuable herb described in Ayurveda, is used in the indigenous system of medicine as a tonic to treat skin diseases. Centella asiatica methanol extract and its ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fraction, were subjected for the evaluation of skin care potential through the in vitro hyaluronidase, elastase and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) inhibitory assay. The C. asiatica plant was extracted with methanol and fractionated with ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The enzymatic activities were evaluated using ursolic acid and oleanolic acid as standards. Isolate molecule asiaticoside was quantified in the crude extract and fractions through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and structural was characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Isolated compound was also evaluated for in vitro enzyme assays. Extract exhibited anti-hyaluronidase and anti-elastase activity with IC₅₀ of 19.27 ± 0.37 and 14.54 ± 0.39 µg/mL, respectively, as compared to ursolic acid. Centella asiatica n-butanol fraction (CAnB) and isolated compound showed significant hyaluronidase (IC₅₀ = 27.00 ± 0.43 and 18.63 ± 0.33 µg/mL) and elastase (IC₅₀ = 29.15 ± 0.31 and 19.45 ± 0.25 µg/mL) inhibitory activities, respectively, and also showed significant MMP-1 inhibition (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). n-Butanol fraction was found to be most effective among the all fractions from which asiaticoside was isolated and further quantified by HPLC. This work concludes that the asiaticoside from C. asiatica may be a prospective agent for skin care.

  20. Cannabis use in adolescents: the impact of risk and protective factors and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Best, David; Gross, Samantha; Manning, Victoria; Gossop, Michael; Witton, John; Strang, John

    2005-11-01

    The study uses a school-based sample to test the social and familial risk and protective factors relating to cannabis use. Based on a self-completion survey of 2078 14-16-year-olds (mean age of 15 years) attending seven standard state-run secondary schools in south London, an assessment was made of rates and risk factors for cannabis use. Twenty-four per cent of the total sample had ever used cannabis, with 15% having done so in the month prior to assessment. In addition to greater likelihood of illicit drug use, lifetime cannabis users were less likely to spend time regularly with both their mothers and fathers, but more likely to spend free time with friends who smoked, drank alcohol and used illicit drugs, and with friends involved in criminal activities. Among those who had ever used cannabis, frequency of cannabis use was predicted (using linear regression) by two onset factors (earlier initiation of drinking and cannabis use were both linked to more frequent use) and two social factors (more time spent with drug-using friends and less time spent with the mother). Overall, the study showed that early onset, itself predicted by social networks, is linked to more frequent use of cannabis and that this appears to be sustained by less time spent with parents and more with drug-using peers.

  1. Cannabis in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  2. Adherence to Medical Cannabis Among Licensed Patients in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Zolotov, Yuval; Baruch, Yehuda; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Methods: Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient–physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare. In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect(s) and about their overall satisfaction from this medical treatment. Results: Eighty percent (n=76) has been identified as adherent to medical cannabis use. Variables found associated with adherence were “country of origin” (immigrant status), “type of illness” (cancer vs. non-cancer), and “experiencing adverse effect(s).” Three predictors of adherence were found significant in a logistic regression model: “type of illness” (odds ratio [OR] 0.101), patient–physician relationship (OR 1.406), and level of patient activation (OR 1.132). 71.5% rated themselves being “completely satisfied” or “satisfied” from medical cannabis use. Conclusions: Our findings show a relatively high adherence rate for medical cannabis, as well as relative safety and high satisfaction among licensed patients. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field—to both patients and physicians. PMID:28861475

  3. Adherence to Medical Cannabis Among Licensed Patients in Israel.

    PubMed

    Zolotov, Yuval; Baruch, Yehuda; Reuveni, Haim; Magnezi, Racheli

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate adherence among Israeli patients who are licensed to use medical cannabis and to identify factors associated with adherence to medical cannabis. Methods: Ninety-five novice licensed patients were interviewed for this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire measured demographics, the perceived patient-physician relationship, and the level of patients' active involvement in their healthcare. In addition, patients were queried about adverse effect(s) and about their overall satisfaction from this medical treatment. Results: Eighty percent ( n =76) has been identified as adherent to medical cannabis use. Variables found associated with adherence were "country of origin" (immigrant status), "type of illness" (cancer vs. non-cancer), and "experiencing adverse effect(s)." Three predictors of adherence were found significant in a logistic regression model: "type of illness" (odds ratio [OR] 0.101), patient-physician relationship (OR 1.406), and level of patient activation (OR 1.132). 71.5% rated themselves being "completely satisfied" or "satisfied" from medical cannabis use. Conclusions: Our findings show a relatively high adherence rate for medical cannabis, as well as relative safety and high satisfaction among licensed patients. Additionally indicated is the need to develop and implement standardized education about this evolving field-to both patients and physicians.

  4. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  5. [Cannabis and cannabinoids. Possibilities of their therapeutic use].

    PubMed

    Heim, M E

    1982-03-04

    Newer aspects of therapeutic potentials of cannabis and cannabinoids are reviewed. The major active constituent of cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and synthetic cannabinoids are evaluated in several clinical trials on their antiemetic efficacy in cancer chemotherapy induced vomiting. 80% of patients refractory to standard antiemetic treatment could be improved with the synthetic cannabinoid levonantradol. Other therapeutic effects, which are presently investigated in clinical trials are analgesia, antispasticity, anticonvulsion and the reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma. The future goal of cannabinoid research is the separation between specific pharmacologic activities and undesirable psychotropic effects.

  6. Alteration of glucose metabolism in liver by acute administration of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Sanz, P; Rodríguez-Vicente, C; Repetto, M

    1985-01-01

    In previous research on the effects of cannabis on cellular functions the authors observed an increase in glucose metabolism in the postmitochondrial fraction of the liver of rats submitted to chronic administration of cannabis extracts. Continuing this research on rats submitted to acute cannabis intoxication a single dose of cannabis extract (600 mg/kg) in olive oil is administered to male adult rats and the animals are killed within a 36-hour period. The analyses show that energetic and detoxifying metabolism of glucose is increased, as indicated by the increase of F-1, 6-di P-aldolase and uridin-diphosphoglucose-dehydrogenase activities, which parallels the observed decrease of glycogen levels. Maximum effect appears between 8 and 16 hours after administration.

  7. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    PubMed Central

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  8. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-05-26

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic.

  9. Implicit Associations and Explicit Expectancies toward Cannabis in Heavy Cannabis Users and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Beraha, Esther M.; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations toward cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies toward cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users. PMID:23801968

  10. Consumer perceptions of strain differences in Cannabis aroma

    PubMed Central

    DiVerdi, Joseph A.

    2018-01-01

    The smell of marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) is of interest to users, growers, plant breeders, law enforcement and, increasingly, to state-licensed retail businesses. The numerous varieties and strains of Cannabis produce strikingly different scents but to date there have been few, if any, attempts to quantify these olfactory profiles directly. Using standard sensory evaluation techniques with untrained consumers we have validated a preliminary olfactory lexicon for dried cannabis flower, and characterized the aroma profile of eleven strains sold in the legal recreational market in Colorado. We show that consumers perceive differences among strains, that the strains form distinct clusters based on odor similarity, and that strain aroma profiles are linked to perceptions of potency, price, and smoking interest. PMID:29401526

  11. Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Philip S; Fishman, Michael A

    2017-04-01

    Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research. Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting. Nabiximols is a cannabis extract that is approved for the treatment of spasticity and intractable pain in Canada and the UK. Further clinical trials are studying the effect of marijuana extracts for seizure disorders. Phytocannabinoids have been identified as key compounds involved in analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. Other compounds found in cannabis such as flavonoids and terpenes are also being investigated as to their individual or synergistic effects. This article will review relevant literature regarding medical use of marijuana and cannabinoid pharmaceuticals with an emphasis on pain and headaches.

  12. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists.

  13. Characterization of Cannabis sativa allergens.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ajay P; Green, Brett J; Sussman, Gordon; Berlin, Noam; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Hettick, Justin M; Beezhold, Donald H

    2013-07-01

    Allergic sensitization to Cannabis sativa is rarely reported, but the increasing consumption of marijuana has resulted in an increase in the number of individuals who become sensitized. To date, little is known about the causal allergens associated with C sativa. To characterize marijuana allergens in different components of the C sativa plant using serum IgE from marijuana sensitized patients. Serum samples from 23 patients with a positive skin prick test result to a crude C sativa extract were evaluated. IgE reactivity was variable between patients and C sativa extracts. IgE reactivity to C sativa proteins in Western blots was heterogeneous and ranged from 10 to 70 kDa. Putative allergens derived from 2-dimensional gels were identified. Prominent IgE reactive bands included a 23-kDa oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 2 and a 50-kDa protein identified to be the photosynthetic enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Additional proteins were identified in the proteomic analysis, including those from adenosine triphosphate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase, and luminal binding protein (heat shock protein 70), suggesting these proteins are potential allergens. Deglycosylation studies helped refine protein allergen identification and demonstrated significant IgE antibodies against plant oligosaccharides that could help explain cross-reactivity. Identification and characterization of allergens from C sativa may be helpful in further understanding allergic sensitization to this plant species. Copyright © 2013 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.

  15. [Therapeutic potential of Cannabis sativa].

    PubMed

    Avello L, Marcia; Pastene N, Edgar; Fernández R, Pola; Córdova M, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marihuana) is considered an illicit drug due to its psychoactive properties. Recently, the Chilean government opened to the use cannabis in the symptomatic treatment of some patients. The biological effects of cannabis render it useful for the complementary treatment of specific clinical situations such as chronic pain. We retrieved scientific information about the analgesic properties of cannabis, using it as a safe drug. The drug may block or inhibit the transmission of nervous impulses at different levels, an effect associated with pain control. Within this context and using adequate doses, forms and administration pathways, it can be used for chronic pain management, considering its effectiveness and low cost. It could also be considered as an alternative in patients receiving prolonged analgesic therapies with multiple adverse effects.

  16. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Preparation and Distribution of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Dosage Formulations for Investigational and Therapeutic Use in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Brian F.; Pollard, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling. The explosive increase in open sale and use of herbal cannabis and its products has occurred with widely variable and in many cases grossly inadequate quality control at all levels—growing, processing, storage, distribution, and use. This paper discusses elements of the analytical and regulatory system that need to be put in place to ensure standardization for the researcher and to reduce the hazards of contamination, overdosing, and underdosing for the end-user. PMID:27630566

  18. Prior Cannabis Use Is Associated with Outcome after Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Di Napoli, Mario; Zha, Alicia M; Godoy, Daniel A; Masotti, Luca; Schreuder, Floris H B M; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Behrouz, Réza

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that a potential harmful relationship exists between cannabis use and ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the implications of cannabis use in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. An analysis of an international, multicenter, observational database of consecutive patients with spontaneous ICH was conducted. We extracted the following characteristics on presentation: demographics, risk factors, antiplatelet or anticoagulant use, Glasgow Coma Scale, ICH score, neuroimaging parameters, and urine toxicology screen (UTS) results. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was utilized for determination of outcome at discharge. Adjusted logistic ordinal regression was used as shift analysis to assess the impact of cannabis use on mRS score at discharge. The adjusted common OR measured the likelihood that cannabis use would lead to lower mRS scores. Within a cohort of 725 spontaneous ICH patients, UTS was positive for cannabinoids in 8.6%. Cannabinoids-positive (CB+) patients were more frequently Caucasian (p < 0.001), younger (p < 0.001), and had lower median ICH scores on admission (p = 0.017) than those who were cannabinoids-negative. CB+ patients also showed a shift toward better outcome in the distribution of mRS categories, with an adjusted common OR of 0.544 (95% CI 0.330-0.895, p = 0.017). In this multinational cohort, cannabis use was discovered in nearly 10% of patients with spontaneous ICH. Although there was no relationship between cannabis use and specific ICH characteristics, CB+ patients had milder ICH presentation and less disability at discharge. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Antidepressant, antioxidant and neurotrophic properties of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber in mice.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eliane Brito Cortez; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Vasconcelos, Germana Silva; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; E Silva Pereira, Yuri Freitas; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; Santos Júnior, Manuel Alves; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; Brito, Rayanne; Miron, Diogo; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Macêdo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2016-07-01

    The plant Cocos nucifera and its derivatives have shown antidepressant-like effects, although its hydroalcoholic extract has not been studied with this end in mind. Therefore, we decided to determine the antidepressant-like effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of Cocos nucifera husk fiber (HECN) as well as oxidative alterations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST), and the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the HC of mice. The extract was characterized based on the content of total polyphenols as well as two phenol compounds-catechin and chlorogenic acid-by HPLC-PDA. Male animals were treated per os (p.o.) for 7 days with distilled water or HECN (50, 100 or 200 mg/kg), or intraperitoneally with vitamin E (Vit E 400 mg/kg). One hour after the last drug administration, the animals were submitted to the open field test, forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and, immediately after the behavioral tests, had their brain removed for neurochemical determinations. The results showed that HECN100 decreased the immobility time in the FST and TST presenting, thus demonstrating an antidepressant-like effect. The administration of HECN decreased malondialdehyde levels in all doses and brain areas studied with the exception of HECN50 in the HC. The administration of HECN also decreased nitrite levels in all doses and brain regions studied. HECN100 also increased the levels of BDNF in HC of mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HECN has antidepressant-like properties, probably based on its antioxidant and neurotrophic effects, and is thus relevant for the treatment of depression.

  20. Evaluation of antifungal activity of standardized extract of Salvia rhytidea Benth. (Lamiaceae) against various Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Salari, S; Bakhshi, T; Sharififar, F; Naseri, A; Ghasemi Nejad Almani, P

    2016-12-01

    Salvia species have long been described in traditional medicine for various indications. Owing to the widespread use of this genus by ethnic populations, especially for various infections ranging from skin disease to gastrointestinal disorders, we were encouraged to determine whether Salvia rhytidea could be effective against fungal infections. Given the increased incidence of candidiasis in the past decade, limits on the use of antifungal drugs, emergence of azole-resistant Candida species and increased incidence of treatment failures, it is necessary to identify a novel agent with antifungal properties. Aim of the study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of S. rhytidea against various Candida isolates. In this study, at first rosmarinic acid content of plant extract was determined. A total of 96 Candida isolates were tested, including the following species: Candida albicans (n=42), Candida glabrata (n=16), Candida tropicalis (n=11), Candida krusei (n=9), Candida parapsilosis (n=9), Candida lusitaniae (n=7) and Candida guilliermondii (n=2). The in vitro antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of S. rhytidea Benth. was evaluated against Candida isolates and compared with that of the standard antifungal drug nystatin by using a broth microdilution method, according to CLSI. Phytochemical screening results showed that the methanolic extract of S. rhytidea Benth. was rich in flavonoids and tannins. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values of S. rhytidea Benth. ranged from 3.125 to>100μg/ml and 6.25 to>100μg/ml respectively. The growth inhibition value displayed that C. tropicalis, C. krusei and C. albicans isolates were most susceptible to S. rhytidea. Findings show that S. rhytidea possesses an antifungal effect against Candida isolates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  2. Buying cannabis in 'coffee shops'.

    PubMed

    Monshouwer, Karin; Van Laar, Margriet; Vollebergh, Wilma A

    2011-03-01

    The key objective of Dutch cannabis policy is to prevent and limit the risks of cannabis consumption for users, their direct environment and society ('harm reduction'). This paper will focus on the tolerated sale of cannabis in 'coffee shops'. We give a brief overview of Dutch policy on coffee shops, its history and recent developments. Furthermore, we present epidemiological data that may be indicative of the effects of the coffee shop policy on cannabis and other drug use. Dutch coffee shop policy has become more restrictive in recent years and the number of coffee shops has decreased. Cannabis prevalence rates in the adult population are somewhat below the European average; the rate is relatively high among adolescents; and age of first use appears to be low. On a European level, the use of hard drugs in both the Dutch adult and adolescent population is average to low (except for ecstasy among adults). International comparisons do not suggest a strong, upward effect of the coffee shop system on levels of cannabis use, although prevalence rates among Dutch adolescents give rise to concern. Furthermore, the coffee shop system appears to be successful in separating the hard and soft drugs markets. Nevertheless, in recent years, issues concerning the involvement of organised crime and the public nuisance related to drug tourism have given rise to several restrictive measures on the local level and have sparked a political debate on the reform of Dutch drug policy. © 2011 Trimbos Institute.

  3. Solitary cannabis use in adolescence as a correlate and predictor of cannabis problems.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Kasey G; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B; Martin, Christopher S

    2015-11-01

    Most adolescent cannabis use occurs in social settings among peers. Solitary cannabis use during adolescence may represent an informative divergence from normative behavior with important implications for understanding risk for cannabis problems. This longitudinal study examined associations of adolescent solitary cannabis use with levels of cannabis use and problems in adolescence and in young adulthood. Cannabis using-adolescents aged 12-18 were recruited from clinical programs (n=354; 43.8% female; 83.3% Caucasian) and community sources (n=93; 52.7% female; 80.6% Caucasian). Participants reported on cannabis use patterns and diagnostic symptoms at baseline and multiple follow-ups into young adulthood. Compared to social-only users, adolescent solitary cannabis users were more likely to be male and reported more frequent cannabis use and more DSM-IV cannabis use disorder (CUD) symptoms. Regression analyses showed that solitary cannabis use in adolescence predicted CUD symptom counts in young adulthood (age 25) after controlling for demographic variables and the frequency of adolescent cannabis use. However, solitary adolescent cannabis use was no longer predictive of age 25 CUD symptoms after additionally controlling for adolescent CUD symptoms. Solitary cannabis use is associated with greater cannabis use and problems during adolescence, but evidence is mixed that it predicts young adult cannabis problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparing adult cannabis treatment-seekers enrolled in a clinical trial with national samples of cannabis users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Erin A.; King, Jacqueline S.; Wahle, Aimee; Matthews, Abigail G.; Sonne, Susan C.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Ghitza, Udi E.; Martinez, Melissa; Cloud, Kasie; Virk, Harvir S.; Gray, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cannabis use rates are increasing among adults in the United States (US) while the perception of harm is declining. This may result in an increased prevalence of cannabis use disorder and the need for more clinical trials to evaluate efficacious treatment strategies. Clinical trials are the gold standard for evaluating treatment, yet study samples are rarely representative of the target population. This finding has not yet been established for cannabis treatment trials. This study compared demographic and cannabis use characteristics of a cannabis cessation clinical trial sample (run through National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network) with three nationally representative datasets from the US; 1) National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, and 3) Treatment Episodes Data Set – Admissions. Methods Comparisons were made between the clinical trial sample and appropriate cannabis using sub-samples from the national datasets, and propensity scores were calculated to determine the degree of similarity between samples. Results Results showed that the clinical trial sample was significantly different from all three national datasets, with the clinical trial sample having greater representation among older adults, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, adults with more education, non-tobacco users, and daily and almost daily cannabis users. Conclusions These results are consistent with previous studies of other substance use disorder populations and extend sample representation issues to a cannabis use disorder population. This illustrates the need to ensure representative samples within cannabis treatment clinical trials to improve the generalizability of promising findings. PMID:28511033

  5. Comparing adult cannabis treatment-seekers enrolled in a clinical trial with national samples of cannabis users in the United States.

    PubMed

    McClure, Erin A; King, Jacqueline S; Wahle, Aimee; Matthews, Abigail G; Sonne, Susan C; Lofwall, Michelle R; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Ghitza, Udi E; Martinez, Melissa; Cloud, Kasie; Virk, Harvir S; Gray, Kevin M

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use rates are increasing among adults in the United States (US) while the perception of harm is declining. This may result in an increased prevalence of cannabis use disorder and the need for more clinical trials to evaluate efficacious treatment strategies. Clinical trials are the gold standard for evaluating treatment, yet study samples are rarely representative of the target population. This finding has not yet been established for cannabis treatment trials. This study compared demographic and cannabis use characteristics of a cannabis cessation clinical trial sample (run through National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network) with three nationally representative datasets from the US; 1) National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III, and 3) Treatment: Episodes Data Set - Admissions. Comparisons were made between the clinical trial sample and appropriate cannabis using sub-samples from the national datasets, and propensity scores were calculated to determine the degree of similarity between samples. showed that the clinical trial sample was significantly different from all three national datasets, with the clinical trial sample having greater representation among older adults, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, adults with more education, non-tobacco users, and daily and almost daily cannabis users. These results are consistent with previous studies of other substance use disorder populations and extend sample representation issues to a cannabis use disorder population. This illustrates the need to ensure representative samples within cannabis treatment clinical trials to improve the generalizability of promising findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychoactive constituents of cannabis and their clinical implications: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Casajuana Köguel, Cristina; López-Pelayo, Hugo; Balcells-Olivero, Mª Mercedes; Colom, Joan; Gual, Antoni

    2018-04-15

    Objective This systematic review aims to summarize current evidence on which naturally present cannabinoids contribute to cannabis psychoactivity, considering their reported concentrations and pharmacodynamics in humans. Design Following PRISMA guidelines, papers published before March 2016 in Medline, Scopus-Elsevier, Scopus, ISI-Web of Knowledge and COCHRANE, and fulfilling established a-priori selection criteria have been included. Results In 40 original papers, three naturally present cannabinoids (∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, ∆-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol) and one human metabolite (11-OH-THC) had clinical relevance. Of these, the metabolite produces the greatest psychoactive effects. Cannabidiol (CBD) is not psychoactive but plays a modulating role on cannabis psychoactive effects. The proportion of 9-THC in plant material is higher (up to 40%) than in other cannabinoids (up to 9%). Pharmacodynamic reports vary due to differences in methodological aspects (doses, administration route and volunteers' previous experience with cannabis). Conclusions Findings reveal that 9-THC contributes the most to cannabis psychoactivity. Due to lower psychoactive potency and smaller proportions in plant material, other psychoactive cannabinoids have a weak influence on cannabis final effects. Current lack of standard methodology hinders homogenized research on cannabis health effects. Working on a standard cannabis unit considering 9-THC is recommended.

  7. An exploratory study of cannabis withdrawal among Indigenous Australian prison inmates: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Rogerson, Bernadette; Copeland, Jan; Buttner, Petra; Bohanna, India; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Sarnyai, Zoltan; Clough, Alan R

    2013-05-28

    Cannabis use and dependence is a serious health and criminal justice issue among incarcerated populations internationally. Upon abrupt, enforced cessation of cannabis, prisoners may suffer irritability and anger that can lead to threatening behaviour, intimidation, violence, sleep disturbances and self-harm. Cannabis withdrawal syndrome, proposed for inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in 2013, has not been examined in Indigenous populations. Owing to the exceptionally high rates of cannabis use in the community, high proportions of Australian Indigenous prisoners may suffer from withdrawal upon entry to custody. 60 male and 60 female Indigenous prisoners (18-40 years) at a high risk of cannabis dependence will be recruited upon entry to custody. A pictorial representation of the standard Cannabis Withdrawal Scale will be tested for reliability and validity. Cortisol markers will be measured in saliva, as the indicators of onset and severity of cannabis withdrawal and psychological distress. The characteristics will be described as percentages and mean or median values with 95% CI. Receiver operator curve analysis will determine an ideal cut-off of the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale and generalised estimating equations modelling will test changes over time. The acceptability and efficacy of proposed resources will be assessed qualitatively using thematic analysis. A valid and reliable measure of cannabis withdrawal for use with Indigenous populations, the onset and time course of withdrawal symptoms in this population and the development of culturally acceptable resources and interventions to identify and manage cannabis withdrawal. The project has been approved by the James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number H4651).The results will be reported via peer reviewed publications, conference, seminar presentations and on-line media for national and international dissemination.

  8. An interlaboratory study of TEX86 and BIT analysis of sediments, extracts, and standard mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, Stefan; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Pearson, Ann; Adam, Pierre; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Bard, Edouard; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Brocks, Jochen J.; Carlson, Laura Truxal; Castañeda, Isla S.; Derenne, Sylvie; Selver, Ayça. Doǧrul; Dutta, Koushik; Eglinton, Timothy; Fosse, Celine; Galy, Valier; Grice, Kliti; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Huang, Yongsong; Huguet, Arnaud; Huguet, Carme; Hurley, Sarah; Ingalls, Anitra; Jia, Guodong; Keely, Brendan; Knappy, Chris; Kondo, Miyuki; Krishnan, Srinath; Lincoln, Sara; Lipp, Julius; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Martínez-García, Alfredo; Ménot, Guillemette; Mets, Anchelique; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Ossebaar, Jort; Pagani, Mark; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Emma J.; Peterse, Francien; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Schaeffer, Philippe; Schmitt, Gaby; Schwark, Lorenz; Shah, Sunita R.; Smith, Richard W.; Smittenberg, Rienk H.; Summons, Roger E.; Takano, Yoshinori; Talbot, Helen M.; Taylor, Kyle W. R.; Tarozo, Rafael; Uchida, Masao; van Dongen, Bart E.; Van Mooy, Benjamin A. S.; Wang, Jinxiang; Warren, Courtney; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Werne, Josef P.; Woltering, Martijn; Xie, Shucheng; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Chuanlun L.; Zhang, Yige; Zhao, Meixun; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe

    2013-12-01

    Two commonly used proxies based on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) are the TEX86 (TetraEther indeX of 86 carbon atoms) paleothermometer for sea surface temperature reconstructions and the BIT (Branched Isoprenoid Tetraether) index for reconstructing soil organic matter input to the ocean. An initial round-robin study of two sediment extracts, in which 15 laboratories participated, showed relatively consistent TEX86 values (reproducibility ±3-4°C when translated to temperature) but a large spread in BIT measurements (reproducibility ±0.41 on a scale of 0-1). Here we report results of a second round-robin study with 35 laboratories in which three sediments, one sediment extract, and two mixtures of pure, isolated GDGTs were analyzed. The results for TEX86 and BIT index showed improvement compared to the previous round-robin study. The reproducibility, indicating interlaboratory variation, of TEX86 values ranged from 1.3 to 3.0°C when translated to temperature. These results are similar to those of other temperature proxies used in paleoceanography. Comparison of the results obtained from one of the three sediments showed that TEX86 and BIT indices are not significantly affected by interlaboratory differences in sediment extraction techniques. BIT values of the sediments and extracts were at the extremes of the index with values close to 0 or 1, and showed good reproducibility (ranging from 0.013 to 0.042). However, the measured BIT values for the two GDGT mixtures, with known molar ratios of crenarchaeol and branched GDGTs, had intermediate BIT values and showed poor reproducibility and a large overestimation of the "true" (i.e., molar-based) BIT index. The latter is likely due to, among other factors, the higher mass spectrometric response of branched GDGTs compared to crenarchaeol, which also varies among mass spectrometers. Correction for this different mass spectrometric response showed a considerable improvement in the

  9. [Related, induced and associated psychiatric disorders to cannabis].

    PubMed

    Laqueille, Xavier

    2005-01-15

    Cannabis disorders, according to the DSM-IV and the ICD-10 criteria, include cannabis intoxication, cannabis abuse, cannabis dependence, and cannabis-related disorders (anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, cannabis intoxication delirium). Although cannabis withdrawal syndrome has clinical importance, it is not included in these classifications. The amotivational syndrome remains controversial. The psychiatric disorders related to cannabis use are anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and psychotic disorders. Cannabis use could be closely linked with the neurobiology of schizophrenia. As the other psychoactive substances, cannabis use worsens the psychiatric outcomes and is associated with poorer treatment compliance.

  10. Distance to Cannabis Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-11-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that influence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 km of a cannabis shop have a lower age of onset. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    PubMed Central

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-01-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle. PMID:21716924

  12. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    PubMed

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  13. Human Milk Fatty Acid Composition: Comparison of Novel Dried Milk Spot Versus Standard Liquid Extraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Michael C; Young, Bridget E; Jackson, Kristina Harris; Krebs, Nancy F; Harris, William S; MacLean, Paul S

    2016-12-01

    Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries. In the present study, we compare a novel and more practical approach to sample collection and processing that involves the spotting and drying ~50 μL of HM on a specialized paper stored and transported at ambient temperatures until analysis. Deming regression indicated the two methods aligned very well for all LC-PUFA and the abundant HM FA. Additionally, strong correlations (r > 0.85) were observed for DHA, ARA, EPA, linoleic (LA), and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA), which are of particular interest to the health of the developing infant. Taken together, our data suggest this more practical and inexpensive method of collection, storage, and transport of HM milk samples could dramatically facilitate studies of HM, as well as understanding its lipid composition influences on human health and development.

  14. A Toxicological Evaluation of a Standardized Hydrogenated Extract of Curcumin (CuroWhite™)

    PubMed Central

    Ravikumar, Alastimmanahalli Narasimhiah; Jacob, Joby

    2018-01-01

    A series of toxicological investigations were conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of CuroWhite, a proprietary extract of curcumin that has been hydrogenated and standardized to not less than 25% hydrogenated curcuminoid content. All tests were conducted in general accordance with internationally accepted standards. The test item was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and no in vivo genotoxic activity was observed in rat bone marrow in the micronucleus test. A 90-day repeated-dose study was conducted in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Two mortalities occurred in the main and satellite high-dose groups and were determined due to gavage error. No organ specific or other toxic effects of the test item were observed up to the maximum dose of 800 mg/kg bw/day, administered by gavage. NOAEL was, therefore, estimated as 800 mg/kg bw/day. PMID:29610573

  15. A Toxicological Evaluation of a Standardized Hydrogenated Extract of Curcumin (CuroWhite™).

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, Alastimmanahalli Narasimhiah; Jacob, Joby; Gopi, Sreeraj; Jagannath, Tumkur Subbarao

    2018-01-01

    A series of toxicological investigations were conducted in order to evaluate the genotoxic potential and repeated-dose oral toxicity of CuroWhite, a proprietary extract of curcumin that has been hydrogenated and standardized to not less than 25% hydrogenated curcuminoid content. All tests were conducted in general accordance with internationally accepted standards. The test item was not mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation test or in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test, and no in vivo genotoxic activity was observed in rat bone marrow in the micronucleus test. A 90-day repeated-dose study was conducted in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Two mortalities occurred in the main and satellite high-dose groups and were determined due to gavage error. No organ specific or other toxic effects of the test item were observed up to the maximum dose of 800 mg/kg bw/day, administered by gavage. NOAEL was, therefore, estimated as 800 mg/kg bw/day.

  16. A biodegradable device for the controlled release of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae) standardized extract to control Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Kauê Muller; Oliveira, Joice Guilherme de; Moterle, Diego; Zepon, Karine Modolon; Prophiro, Josiane Somariva; Kanis, Luiz Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The significant increase in dengue, Zika, and chikungunya and the resistance of the Aedes aegypti mosquito to major insecticides emphasize the importance of studying alternatives to control this vector. The aim of this study was to develop a controlled-release device containing Piper nigrum extract and to study its larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Piper nigrum extract was produced by maceration, standardized in piperine, and incorporated into cotton threads, which were inserted into hydrogel cylinders manufactured by the extrusion of carrageenan and carob. The piperine content of the extract and thread reservoirs was quantified by chromatography. The release profile from the device was assessed in aqueous medium and the larvicidal and residual activities of the standardized extract as well as of the controlled-release device were examined in Aedes aegypti larvae. The standardized extract contained 580mg/g of piperine and an LC50 value of 5.35ppm (24h) and the 3 cm thread reservoirs contained 13.83 ± 1.81mg of piperine. The device showed zero-order release of piperine for 16 days. The P. nigrum extract (25ppm) showed maximum residual larvicidal activity for 10 days, decreasing progressively thereafter. The device had a residual larvicidal activity for up to 37 days. The device provided controlled release of Piper nigrum extract with residual activity for 37 days. The device is easy to manufacture and may represent an effective alternative for the control of Aedes aegypti larvae in small water containers.

  17. Cannabis for the Management of Pain: Assessment of Safety Study (COMPASS).

    PubMed

    Ware, Mark A; Wang, Tongtong; Shapiro, Stan; Collet, Jean-Paul

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis is widely used as a self-management strategy by patients with a wide range of symptoms and diseases including chronic non-cancer pain. The safety of cannabis use for medical purposes has not been systematically evaluated. We conducted a prospective cohort study to describe safety issues among individuals with chronic non-cancer pain. A standardized herbal cannabis product (12.5% tetrahydrocannabinol) was dispensed to eligible individuals for a 1-year period; controls were individuals with chronic pain from the same clinics who were not cannabis users. The primary outcome consisted of serious adverse events and non-serious adverse events. Secondary safety outcomes included pulmonary and neurocognitive function and standard hematology, biochemistry, renal, liver, and endocrine function. Secondary efficacy parameters included pain and other symptoms, mood, and quality of life. Two hundred and fifteen individuals with chronic pain were recruited to the cannabis group (141 current users and 58 ex-users) and 216 controls (chronic pain but no current cannabis use) from 7 clinics across Canada. The median daily cannabis dose was 2.5 g/d. There was no difference in risk of serious adverse events (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval = .57-2.04) between groups. Medical cannabis users were at increased risk of non-serious adverse events (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 1.73, 95% confidence interval = 1.41-2.13); most were mild to moderate. There were no differences in secondary safety assessments. Quality-controlled herbal cannabis, when used by patients with experience of cannabis use as part of a monitored treatment program over 1 year, appears to have a reasonable safety profile. Longer-term monitoring for functional outcomes is needed. The study was registered with www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN19449752). This study evaluated the safety of cannabis use by patients with chronic pain over 1 year. The study found that there was a higher

  18. Driving under the influence of cannabis.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-12-05

    As more states decriminalize and legalize medical and recreational use of cannabis (marijuana), traffic safety leaders and public health advocates have growing concerns about driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). How do we understand the cu...

  19. Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Fiz, Jimena; Durán, Marta; Capellà, Dolors; Carbonell, Jordi; Farré, Magí

    2011-04-21

    The aim of this study was to describe the patterns of cannabis use and the associated benefits reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM) who were consumers of this drug. In addition, the quality of life of FM patients who consumed cannabis was compared with FM subjects who were not cannabis users. Information on medicinal cannabis use was recorded on a specific questionnaire as well as perceived benefits of cannabis on a range of symptoms using standard 100-mm visual analogue scales (VAS). Cannabis users and non-users completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36). Twenty-eight FM patients who were cannabis users and 28 non-users were included in the study. Demographics and clinical variables were similar in both groups. Cannabis users referred different duration of drug consumption; the route of administration was smoking (54%), oral (46%) and combined (43%). The amount and frequency of cannabis use were also different among patients. After 2 hours of cannabis use, VAS scores showed a statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction of pain and stiffness, enhancement of relaxation, and an increase in somnolence and feeling of well being. The mental health component summary score of the SF-36 was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cannabis users than in non-users. No significant differences were found in the other SF-36 domains, in the FIQ and the PSQI. The use of cannabis was associated with beneficial effects on some FM symptoms. Further studies on the usefulness of cannabinoids in FM patients as well as cannabinoid system involvement in the pathophysiology of this condition are warranted.

  20. The effect of cannabis on tremor in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fox, P; Bain, P G; Glickman, S; Carroll, C; Zajicek, J

    2004-04-13

    Disabling tremor is common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Data from animal model experiments and subjective and small objective studies involving patients suggest that cannabis may be an effective treatment for tremor associated with MS. To our knowledge, there are no published double-blind randomized controlled trials of cannabis as a treatment for tremor in MS patients. The authors conducted a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial to examine the effect of oral cannador (cannabis extract) on 14 patients with MS with upper limb tremors. There were eight women and six men, with a mean age of 45 years and mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 6.25. Patients were randomly assigned to receive each treatment and the doses escalated over a 2-week period before each assessment. The primary outcome was change on a tremor index, measured using a validated tremor rating scale. The study was powered to detect a functionally significant 50% improvement in the tremor index. Secondary outcomes included accelerometry, an ataxia scale, spiral drawing, finger tapping, and nine-hole pegboard test performance. Analysis of the data showed no significant improvement in any of the objective measures of upper limb tremor with cannabis extract compared to placebo. Finger tapping was faster on placebo compared to cannabis extract (p < 0.02). However, there was a nonsignificant trend for patients to experience more subjective relief from their tremors while on cannabis extract compared to placebo. Cannabis extract does not produce a functionally significant improvement in MS-associated tremor.

  1. Effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of alcohol metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marselos, M; Vasiliou, V; Malamas, M; Alikaridis, F; Kefalas, T

    1991-01-01

    The effects of cannabis and tobacco on the enzymes of ethanol metabolism were studied in the Wistar rat. The activities of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH) were measured in the liver and the brain, after treatment with an extract of cannabis resin, with an extract of tobacco leaves, or with nicotine. A condensate of cannabis resin extract was collected in a smoking machine, using a tobacco cigarette as the vehicle. Unsmoked or smoked cannabis extracts were dissolved in olive oil and were given i.p. (twice daily, for 7 days). In both cases, a similar dose level was used in terms of starting material (raw cannabis resin), estimated at about 100 mg/kg body weight. Control animals were treated either with olive oil, or with the same amount of smoked condensate obtained from a reference cigarette. Nicotine was dissolved in olive oil and it was given i.p. (10 micrograms/kg, twice daily for 7 days). An extract of unsmoked tobacco was dissolved in olive oil and was given with the same schedule, at a dose which was estimated to correspond to about 10 micrograms nicotine/kg b.w. All groups of animals received an additional i.p. injection on day 8, one hour before sacrifice. Our results showed that unsmoked cannabis inhibited the hepatic activities of the microchondrial AlDH (low-Km and high-Km), the hepatic low-Km cytosolic AlDH (p less than 0.001), and the low-Km mitochondrial AlDH of the brain (p less than 0.001). Administration of smoked cannabis to the animals inhibited the hepatic mitochondrial low-Km AlDH (p less than 0.001), but it did not influence the brain enzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Pharmacological Foundations of Cannabis Chemovars.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Mark A; Russo, Ethan B; Smith, Kevin M

    2018-03-01

    An advanced Mendelian Cannabis breeding program has been developed utilizing chemical markers to maximize the yield of phytocannabinoids and terpenoids with the aim to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. Cannabis is often divided into several categories based on cannabinoid content. Type I, Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-predominant, is the prevalent offering in both medical and recreational marketplaces. In recent years, the therapeutic benefits of cannabidiol have been better recognized, leading to the promotion of additional chemovars: Type II, Cannabis that contains both Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and cannabidiol-predominant Type III Cannabis. While high- Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and high-myrcene chemovars dominate markets, these may not be optimal for patients who require distinct chemical profiles to achieve symptomatic relief. Type II Cannabis chemovars that display cannabidiol- and terpenoid-rich profiles have the potential to improve both efficacy and minimize adverse events associated with Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol exposure. Cannabis samples were analyzed for cannabinoid and terpenoid content, and analytical results are presented via PhytoFacts, a patent-pending method of graphically displaying phytocannabinoid and terpenoid content, as well as scent, taste, and subjective therapeutic effect data. Examples from the breeding program are highlighted and include Type I, II, and III Cannabis chemovars, those highly potent in terpenoids in general, or single components, for example, limonene, pinene, terpinolene, and linalool. Additionally, it is demonstrated how Type I - III chemovars have been developed with conserved terpenoid proportions. Specific chemovars may produce enhanced analgesia, anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, and anti-anxiety effects, while simultaneously reducing sequelae of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol such as panic, toxic psychosis, and short-term memory impairment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  3. Sex differences in associations between cannabis craving and neural responses to cannabis cues: Implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, Reagan R; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R

    2015-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical research indicates that there are sex differences in how men and women initiate, progress, respond to, and withdraw from cannabis use; however, neurophysiological differences, such as neural responses to cannabis cues, are not well understood. Using functional MRI and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task, we compared neural responses to backward-masked cannabis cues to neutral cues in treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent adults (N = 44; 27 males) and examined whether sex differences exist. In addition, functional MRI findings were correlated with cannabis craving. Backward-masked cannabis cues elicited greater neural responses than neutral cues in reward-related brain regions, including the striatum, hippocampus/amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, p < .01, k > 121 voxels. Although no significant sex differences in neural responses to cannabis cues emerged, women showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the bilateral insula and cannabis craving and an inverse correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and cannabis craving. Men, however, showed a positive correlation between neural responses to cannabis cues in the striatum and cannabis craving. Given that cues and craving are important triggers and the focus on many behavioral treatment approaches, these findings suggest that treatment-seeking, cannabis-dependent men and women may benefit from sex-specific and tailored cannabis use disorder treatments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Ghosal, S

    1998-04-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Hindi - Brahmi) is classified in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, as Medhyarasayana, a group of plant derived drugs used as nervine tonics to promote mental health and improve memory and intellect. Earlier experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the memory-promoting action of the plant extracts and that of its active saponins, bacoside A and B. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract (bacoside A content 25.5 ± 0.8%) of B. monniera (BM), since the plant is used in Ayurveda in clinical conditions resembling the modern concept of anxiety disorders. The animal models used have been extensively validated as experimental models of anxiety and included the open-field, elevated plusmaze, social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding latency tests in rats. BM was used at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with those elicited by lorazepam, a well known benzodiazepine anxiolytic, used at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. BM produced a dose-related anxiolytic activity, qualitatively comparable to that of lorazepam, in all the test parameters. However, statistically significant results were elicited usually by the higher two doses of BM. BM did not produce any significant motor deficit, at the doses used, as was evidenced by using the rota-rod test. The findings correlate with the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda. The advantage of B. monniera over the widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytics lies in the fact that it promotes cognition unlike the amnesic action of the latter. Copyright © 1998 Gustav Fischer Verlag. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  5. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  6. Plasma and urine profiles of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its metabolites 11-hydroxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol after cannabis smoking by male volunteers to estimate recent consumption by athletes.

    PubMed

    Brenneisen, Rudolf; Meyer, Pascale; Chtioui, Haithem; Saugy, Martial; Kamber, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    Since 2004, cannabis has been prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for all sports competitions. In the years since then, about half of all positive doping cases in Switzerland have been related to cannabis consumption. In doping urine analysis, the target analyte is 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH), the cutoff being 15 ng/mL. However, the wide urinary detection window of the long-term metabolite of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) does not allow a conclusion to be drawn regarding the time of consumption or the impact on the physical performance. The purpose of the present study on light cannabis smokers was to evaluate target analytes with shorter urinary excretion times. Twelve male volunteers smoked a cannabis cigarette standardized to 70 mg THC per cigarette. Plasma and urine were collected up to 8 h and 11 days, respectively. Total THC, 11-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and THC-COOH were determined after hydrolysis followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The limits of quantitation were 0.1-1.0 ng/mL. Eight puffs delivered a mean THC dose of 45 mg. Plasma levels of total THC, THC-OH, and THC-COOH were measured in the ranges 0.2-59.1, 0.1-3.9, and 0.4-16.4 ng/mL, respectively. Peak concentrations were observed at 5, 5-20, and 20-180 min. Urine levels were measured in the ranges 0.1-1.3, 0.1-14.4, and 0.5-38.2 ng/mL, peaking at 2, 2, and 6-24 h, respectively. The times of the last detectable levels were 2-8, 6-96, and 48-120 h. Besides high to very high THC-COOH levels (245 +/- 1,111 ng/mL), THC (3 +/- 8 ng/mL) and THC-OH (51 +/- 246 ng/mL) were found in 65 and 98% of cannabis-positive athletes' urine samples, respectively. In conclusion, in addition to THC-COOH, the pharmacologically active THC and THC-OH should be used as target analytes for doping urine analysis. In the case of light cannabis use, this may allow the estimation of more recent consumption, probably influencing

  7. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Nafisa PC; Lagishetty, Chakradhar V; Panda, Vandana S; Naik, Suresh R

    2007-01-01

    Background The MCE, Momordica charantia fruit extract Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity on various occasions. However, due to lack of standardization of these extracts, their efficacy remains questionable. The present study was undertaken by selecting a well standardised MCE. This study reports hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities of MCE employing relevant animal models and in vitro methods. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by a s.c., subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg) in acetate buffer (pH 4.5). MCE and glibenclamide were administered orally to alloxan diabetic rats at doses of 150 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg & 600 mg/kg, and 4 mg/kg respectively for 30 days, blood was withdrawn for glucose determination on 0, 7, 14, 21 and 30th days. On the 31st day, overnight fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected for various biochemical estimations including glycosylated haemoglobin, mean blood glucose, serum insulin, cholesterol, triglcerides, protein and glycogen content of liver. The hemidiaphragms and livers were also isolated, carefully excised and placed immediately in ice cooled perfusion solution and processed to study the glucose uptake/transfer processes. Hypolipidemic activity in old obese rats was evaluated by treating two groups with MCE (150 mg/kg & 300 mg/kg) orally for 30 days and determining total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL-CH, LDL-CH and VLDL-CH levels from serum samples. Results Subchronic study of MCE in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant antihyperglycemic activity by lowering blood glucose and GHb%, percent glycosylated haemoglobin. Pattern of glucose tolerance curve was also altered significantly. MCE treatment enhanced uptake of glucose by hemidiaphragm and inhibited glycogenolysis in liver slices in vitro. A significant reduction in the serum cholesterol and glyceride levels of obese rats following MCE treatment was also observed. Conclusion Our

  8. Therapeutic potential of cannabis in pain medicine.

    PubMed

    Hosking, R D; Zajicek, J P

    2008-07-01

    Advances in cannabis research have paralleled developments in opioid pharmacology whereby a psychoactive plant extract has elucidated novel endogenous signalling systems with therapeutic significance. Cannabinoids (CBs) are chemical compounds derived from cannabis. The major psychotropic CB delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC) was isolated in 1964 and the first CB receptor (CB(1)R) was cloned in 1990. CB signalling occurs via G-protein-coupled receptors distributed throughout the body. Endocannabinoids are derivatives of arachidonic acid that function in diverse physiological systems. Neuronal CB(1)Rs modulate synaptic transmission and mediate psychoactivity. Immune-cell CB(2) receptors (CB(2)R) may down-regulate neuroinflammation and influence cyclooxygenase-dependent pathways. Animal models demonstrate that CBRs play a fundamental role in peripheral, spinal, and supraspinal nociception and that CBs are effective analgesics. Clinical trials of CBs in multiple sclerosis have suggested a benefit in neuropathic pain. However, human studies of CB-mediated analgesia have been limited by study size, heterogeneous patient populations, and subjective outcome measures. Furthermore, CBs have variable pharmacokinetics and can manifest psychotropism. They are currently licensed as antiemetics in chemotherapy and can be prescribed on a named-patient basis for neuropathic pain. Future selective peripheral CB(1)R and CB(2)R agonists will minimize central psychoactivity and may synergize opioid anti-nociception. This review discusses the basic science and clinical aspects of CB pharmacology with a focus on pain medicine.

  9. Successful isolation and PCR amplification of DNA from National Institute of Standards and Technology herbal dietary supplement standard reference material powders and extracts.

    PubMed

    Cimino, Matthew T

    2010-03-01

    Twenty-four herbal dietary supplement powder and extract reference standards provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were investigated using three different commercially available DNA extraction kits to evaluate DNA availability for downstream nucleotide-based applications. The material included samples of Camellia, Citrus, Ephedra, Ginkgo, Hypericum, Serenoa, And Vaccinium. Protocols from Qiagen, MoBio, and Phytopure were used to isolate and purify DNA from the NIST standards. The resulting DNA concentration was quantified using SYBR Green fluorometry. Each of the 24 samples yielded DNA, though the concentration of DNA from each approach was notably different. The Phytopure method consistently yielded more DNA. The average yield ratio was 22 : 3 : 1 (ng/microL; Phytopure : Qiagen : MoBio). Amplification of the internal transcribed spacer II region using PCR was ultimately successful in 22 of the 24 samples. Direct sequencing chromatograms of the amplified material suggested that most of the samples were comprised of mixtures. However, the sequencing chromatograms of 12 of the 24 samples were sufficient to confirm the identity of the target material. The successful extraction, amplification, and sequencing of DNA from these herbal dietary supplement extracts and powders supports a continued effort to explore nucleotide sequence-based tools for the authentication and identification of plants in dietary supplements. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  10. Expanding the potential of standard flow cytometry by extracting fluorescence lifetimes from cytometric pulse shifts

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ruofan; Naivar, Mark A; Wilder, Mark; Houston, Jessica P

    2014-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime measurements provide information about the fluorescence relaxation, or intensity decay, of organic fluorophores, fluorescent proteins, and other inorganic molecules that fluoresce. The fluorescence lifetime is emerging in flow cytometry and is helpful in a variety of multiparametric, single cell measurements because it is not impacted by nonlinearity that can occur with fluorescence intensity measurements. Yet time-resolved cytometry systems rely on major hardware modifications making the methodology difficult to reproduce. The motivation of this work is, by taking advantage of the dynamic nature of flow cytometry sample detection and applying digital signal processing methods, to measure fluorescence lifetimes using an unmodified flow cytometer. We collect a new lifetime-dependent parameter, referred to herein as the fluorescence-pulse-delay (FPD), and prove it is a valid representation of the average fluorescence lifetime. To verify we generated cytometric pulses in simulation, with light emitting diode (LED) pulsation, and with true fluorescence measurements of cells and microspheres. Each pulse is digitized and used in algorithms to extract an average fluorescence lifetime inherent in the signal. A range of fluorescence lifetimes is measurable with this approach including standard organic fluorophore lifetimes (∼1 to 22 ns) as well as small, simulated shifts (0.1 ns) under standard conditions (reported herein). This contribution demonstrates how digital data acquisition and signal processing can reveal time-dependent information foreshadowing the exploitation of full waveform analysis for quantification of similar photo-physical events within single cells. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25274073

  11. An update on cannabis research.

    PubMed

    Husain, S; Khan, I

    1985-01-01

    A symposium of over 125 scientists, held in August 1984 at the campus of Oxford University, considered the latest developments concerning cannabis research. Evidence on the mode of tetrahydrocannabinol action on the central nervous system indicates that acetylcholine turnover in the hippocampus through a GABA-ergic mechanism is of major importance, though the role of the dopaminergic or serotoninergic mechanism and involvement of prostaglandins and c-AMP is not ruled out. The use of cannabis causes prominent and predictable effects on the heart, including increased work-load, increased plasma volume and postural hypotension, which could impose threats to the cannabis users with hypertension, cerebrovascular disease or coronary arteriosclerosis. Cannabis or tetrahydrocannabinol has damaging effects on the endocrine functions in both male and female of all animal species tested. Among possible mechanisms of action, it is suggested that tetrahydrocannabinol disrupts gonadal functions by depriving the testicular cells of their energy reserves by inhibition of cellular energetics, and that it stimulates androgen-binding protein secretion, which may account for oligospermia seen in chronic cannabis smokers. In addition to these direct effects on gonads, tetrahydrocannabinol interferes with hormonal secretions from the pituitary, including luteinizing hormones, follicle-stimulating hormones and prolactin. Research findings indicate that maternal and paternal exposure to cannabinoids can influence developmental and reproductive functions in the offspring, but it is difficult to separate possible teratogenic effects from subsequent gametotoxic and mutagenic potentials of cannabinoids.

  12. Pharmacological Treatment of Cannabis Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, A.M.; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illegal psychoactive substance in the world. There is a significant increase in the number of treatment admissions for cannabis use disorders in the past few years, and the majority of cannabis-dependent individuals who enter treatment have difficulty in achieving and maintaining abstinence. Thus, there is increased need for medications that can be used to treat this population. So far, no medication has been shown broadly and consistently effective; none has been approved by any national regulatory authority. Medications studied have included those that alleviate symptoms of cannabis withdrawal (e.g., dysphoric mood, irritability), those that directly affect endogenous cannabinoid receptor function, and those that have shown efficacy in treatment of other drugs of abuse or psychiatric conditions. Buspirone is the only medication to date that has shown efficacy for cannabis dependence in a controlled clinical trial. Results from controlled human laboratory studies and small open-label clinical trials suggest that dronabinol, the COMT inhibitor entacapone, and lithium may warrant further study. Recent pre-clinical studies suggest the potential of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors such as URB597, endocannabinoid-metabolizing enzymes, and nicotinic alpha7 receptor antagonists such as methyllycaconitine (MLA). Controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of these medications and to validate the laboratory models being used to study candidate medications. PMID:21524266

  13. Auditory mismatch negativity deficits in long-term heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Roser, Patrik; Della, Beate; Norra, Christine; Uhl, Idun; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2010-09-01

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential indicating auditory sensory memory and information processing. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic cannabis use is associated with deficient MMN generation. MMN was investigated in age- and gender-matched chronic cannabis users (n = 30) and nonuser controls (n = 30). The cannabis users were divided into two groups according to duration and quantity of cannabis consumption. The MMNs resulting from a pseudorandomized sequence of 2 × 900 auditory stimuli were recorded by 32-channel EEG. The standard stimuli were 1,000 Hz, 80 dB SPL and 90 ms duration. The deviant stimuli differed in duration (50 ms) or frequency (1,200 Hz). There were no significant differences in MMN values between cannabis users and nonuser controls in both deviance conditions. With regard to subgroups, reduced amplitudes of frequency MMN at frontal electrodes were found in long-term (≥8 years of use) and heavy (≥15 joints/week) users compared to short-term and light users. The results indicate that chronic cannabis use may cause a specific impairment of auditory information processing. In particular, duration and quantity of cannabis use could be identified as important factors of deficient MMN generation.

  14. Use of lignin extracted from different plant sources as standards in the spectrophotometric acetyl bromide lignin method.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Kerley, Monty S

    2011-04-27

    A nongravimetric acetyl bromide lignin (ABL) method was evaluated to quantify lignin concentration in a variety of plant materials. The traditional approach to lignin quantification required extraction of lignin with acidic dioxane and its isolation from each plant sample to construct a standard curve via spectrophotometric analysis. Lignin concentration was then measured in pre-extracted plant cell walls. However, this presented a methodological complexity because extraction and isolation procedures are lengthy and tedious, particularly if there are many samples involved. This work was targeted to simplify lignin quantification. Our hypothesis was that any lignin, regardless of its botanical origin, could be used to construct a standard curve for the purpose of determining lignin concentration in a variety of plants. To test our hypothesis, lignins were isolated from a range of diverse plants and, along with three commercial lignins, standard curves were built and compared among them. Slopes and intercepts derived from these standard curves were close enough to allow utilization of a mean extinction coefficient in the regression equation to estimate lignin concentration in any plant, independent of its botanical origin. Lignin quantification by use of a common regression equation obviates the steps of lignin extraction, isolation, and standard curve construction, which substantially expedites the ABL method. Acetyl bromide lignin method is a fast, convenient analytical procedure that may routinely be used to quantify lignin.

  15. A Simple and Rapid Method for Standard Preparation of Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Noya, Yoichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Hoshi, Akimasa; Nepal, Prabha; Harada, Takuya; Horiguchi, Mika; Hatate, Chizuru; Kuge, Yuji; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations ≤15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar ≥20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are ≤15 mg/ml. PMID:25229830

  16. Evaluation of Cannabinoid and Terpenoid Content: Cannabis Flower Compared to Supercritical CO2 Concentrate.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Michelle; Shelton, Kyle; Haley, Pam; West, Mike

    2018-03-01

    A recent cannabis use survey revealed that 60% of cannabis users rely on smelling the flower to select their cannabis. Olfactory indicators in plants include volatile compounds, principally represented by the terpenoid fraction. Currently, medicinal- and adult-use cannabis is marketed in the United States with relatively little differentiation between products other than by a common name, association with a species type, and Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol potency. Because of this practice, how terpenoid compositions may change during an extraction process is widely overlooked. Here we report on a comparative study of terpenoid and cannabinoid potencies of flower and supercritical fluid CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ) extract from six cannabis chemovars grown in Washington State. To enable this comparison, we employed a validated high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector methodology for quantification of seven cannabinoids and developed an internal gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for quantification of 42 terpenes. The relative potencies of terpenoids and cannabinoids in flower versus concentrate were significantly different. Cannabinoid potency increased by factors of 3.2 for Δ-9 tetrahydrocannabinol and 4.0 for cannabidiol in concentrates compared to flower. Monoterpenes were lost in the extraction process; a ketone increased by 2.2; an ether by 2.7; monoterpene alcohols by 5.3, 7 and 9.4; and sesquiterpenes by 5.1, 4.2, 7.7, and 8.9. Our results demonstrate that the product of SC-CO 2 extraction may have a significantly different chemotypic fingerprint from that of cannabis flower. These results highlight the need for more complete characterization of cannabis and associated products, beyond cannabinoid content, in order to further understand health-related consequences of inhaling or ingesting concentrated forms. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Cannabis Smoking and Cardiovascular Health: It's Complicated.

    PubMed

    Piano, M R

    2017-08-01

    Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  18. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    PubMed

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  19. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-05-05

    Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56).Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the nature of the interventions provided, participant blinding was not possible, and reports of

  20. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. Selection criteria All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56). Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the

  1. Cannabis in Sport

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215

  2. Determination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol content of cannabis seizures in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Souleman, Ahmed M A; Gaafar, Alaa El-Din M; Abdel-Salam, Omar M; ElShebiney, Shaimaa A

    2017-03-01

    To determine the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of cannabis seizures in Egypt. Unheated and heated extracts of cannabis seizures were prepared from the dried flowering tops and leaves (marijuana) or from the resin (hashish) and subjected to analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The heated resin extract had the peak of THC in a relative ratio of 31.34%, while extracting the resin directly without heating contained only 18.34% of THC. On the other hand, marijuana showed minimum percentage of THC at 11.188% on heating and 9.55% without heating. These results indicate the high potency of the abused cannabis plant in the illicit Egyptian market. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cannabis species and cannabinoid concentration preference among sleep-disturbed medicinal cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Belendiuk, Katherine A; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2015-11-01

    Individuals report using cannabis for the promotion of sleep, and the effects of cannabis on sleep may vary by cannabis species. Little research has documented preferences for particular cannabis types or cannabinoid concentrations as a function of use for sleep disturbances. 163 adults purchasing medical cannabis for a physical or mental health condition at a cannabis dispensary were recruited. They provided self-report of (a) whether cannabis use was intended to help with sleep problems (e.g. insomnia, nightmares), (b) sleep quality (PSQI), (c) cannabis use (including preferred type), and (d) symptoms of DSM-5 cannabis dependence. 81 participants reported using cannabis for the management of insomnia and 14 participants reported using cannabis to reduce nightmares. Individuals using cannabis to manage nightmares preferred sativa to indica strains (Fisher's exact test (2) = 6.83, p < 0.05), and sativa users were less likely to endorse DSM-5 cannabis dependence compared with those who preferred indica strains (χ(2)(2) = 4.09, p < 0.05). Individuals with current insomnia (t(9) = 3.30, p < 0.01) and greater sleep latency (F(3,6) = 46.7, p < 0.001) were more likely to report using strains of cannabis with significantly higher concentrations of CBD. Individuals who reported at least weekly use of hypnotic medications used cannabis with lower THC concentrations compared to those who used sleep medications less frequently than weekly (t(17) = 2.40, p < 0.05). Associations between sleep characteristics and the type of cannabis used were observed in this convenience sample of individuals using cannabis for the management of sleep disturbances. Controlled prospective studies are needed to better characterize the impact that specific components of cannabis have on sleep. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso; Kolano, Ashley L; Alvarado-Vázquez, P Abigail

    2017-10-05

    The purpose of this study was to provide the most up-to-date scientific evidence of the potential analgesic effects, or lack thereof, of the marijuana plant (cannabis) or cannabinoids, and of safety or tolerability of their long-term use. We found that inhaled (smoked or vaporized) cannabis is consistently effective in reducing chronic non-cancer pain. Oral cannabinoids seem to improve some aspects of chronic pain (sleep and general quality of life), or cancer chronic pain, but they do not seem effective in acute postoperative pain, abdominal chronic pain, or rheumatoid pain. The available literature shows that inhaled cannabis seems to be more tolerable and predictable than oral cannabinoids. Cannabis or cannabinoids are not universally effective for pain. Continued research on cannabis constituents and improving bioavailability for oral cannabinoids is needed. Other aspects of pain management in patients using cannabis require further open discussion: concomitant opioid use, medical vs. recreational cannabis, abuse potential, etc.

  6. Effect of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08) on testicular functions in adult male mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shishir Kumar; Singh, Shilpi; Singh, Hemant Kumar; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-02-02

    Bacopa monnieri (BM) has been used in India since the time of Rig-Veda for augmentation of learning, memory, brain health etc. The memory augmenting effect of BM is well documented. CDRI-08 is a standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri, but its effect on the male reproductive health has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the effect of CDRI-08 administration on the male reproductive organs with special emphasis on testis in adult mice. CDRI-08, containing at least 55% bacosides (the major constituent of BM), was investigated for its effect on testicular functions in adult Parkes (P) mice. A suspension of CDRI-08 was orally administered in doses of 40 and 80mgkg -1 body weight day -1 for 28 days and various male reproductive end points were evaluated. Compared to control, CDRI-08 treatment caused a significant increase (p<0.05) in spermatogenic cell density (germinal epithelial height: control, 55.03±4.22 vs 40mg, 67.15±2.65 and 80mg, 69.93±3.76; and tubular diameter: control, 206.55±2.62 vs 80mg, 253.23±12.19), PCNA index (control, 59.85±2.09 vs 40mg, 82.17±1.56 and 80mg, 84.05±3.51) and in steroidogenic indices in the testis, and in sperm viability (control, 0.67±0.010 vs 80mg, 0.80±0.04) in cauda epididymidis of the treated mice. On the other hand, however, the same treatment caused a significant decrease (p<0.05) in abnormal sperm morphology (control, 21.72±1.06 vs 40mg, 10.63±1.50 and 80mg, 15.86±0.87) in cauda epididymidis, and in lipid peroxidation level in testis of the treated mice compared to controls. The results suggest that treatment with CDRI-08 extract improves sperm quality, and spermatogenic cell density and steroidogenic indices in the testis of P mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of standardized brazilin-rich Caesalpinia sappan extract.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Panichayupakaranant, Pharkphoom

    2015-01-01

    Brazilin is a major active principle of Caesalpinia sappan L. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae). For industry aspects, brazilin-rich extract (BRE) has been prepared and standardized to contain 39% w/w brazilin. BRE may have more advantages than brazilin in term of a lower-cost production process. To investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of BRE. BRE was prepared by a simple one-step purification of the crude ethanol extract of C. sappan heartwood (CSE) using a Diaion® HP-20 column. The antioxidant activities were determined using three methods, including DPPH radical scavenging, reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching assays, at concentration ranges of 1-10, 10-100, and 10-100 µg/mL, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of BRE (15.6-1000 µg/mL) against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were determined by the broth microdilution method. Anti-inflammatory activity of BRE (0.1-5 µg/mL) was evaluated as anti-denaturation activity using bovine serum albumin as a substrate. On the basis of β-carotene bleaching assay, BRE showed antioxidant activity with an EC50 value of 60.5 µg/mL, which was almost equal to that of pure brazilin (52.1 µg/mL). Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to all tested samples than Gram-negative bacteria. BRE possessed higher antibacterial activities than CSE, but lower than brazilin. MIC/MBC values of 62.5-125/125 and 250-500/250-500 µg/mL were obtained for BRE against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. A low concentration (0.1 µg/mL) of brazilin, BRE, and CSE showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting protein denaturation up to 46.8, 54.1, and 61.9%, respectively.

  8. Cognitive functioning of long-term heavy cannabis users seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Solowij, Nadia; Stephens, Robert S; Roffman, Roger A; Babor, Thomas; Kadden, Ronald; Miller, Michael; Christiansen, Kenneth; McRee, Bonnie; Vendetti, Janice

    2002-03-06

    Cognitive impairments are associated with long-term cannabis use, but the parameters of use that contribute to impairments and the nature and endurance of cognitive dysfunction remain uncertain. To examine the effects of duration of cannabis use on specific areas of cognitive functioning among users seeking treatment for cannabis dependence. Multisite retrospective cross-sectional neuropsychological study conducted in the United States (Seattle, Wash; Farmington, Conn; and Miami, Fla) between 1997 and 2000 among 102 near-daily cannabis users (51 long-term users: mean, 23.9 years of use; 51 shorter-term users: mean, 10.2 years of use) compared with 33 nonuser controls. Measures from 9 standard neuropsychological tests that assessed attention, memory, and executive functioning, and were administered prior to entry to a treatment program and following a median 17-hour abstinence. Long-term cannabis users performed significantly less well than shorter-term users and controls on tests of memory and attention. On the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, long-term users recalled significantly fewer words than either shorter-term users (P =.001) or controls (P =.005); there was no difference between shorter-term users and controls. Long-term users showed impaired learning (P =.007), retention (P =.003), and retrieval (P =.002) compared with controls. Both user groups performed poorly on a time estimation task (P<.001 vs controls). Performance measures often correlated significantly with the duration of cannabis use, being worse with increasing years of use, but were unrelated to withdrawal symptoms and persisted after controlling for recent cannabis use and other drug use. These results confirm that long-term heavy cannabis users show impairments in memory and attention that endure beyond the period of intoxication and worsen with increasing years of regular cannabis use.

  9. Abnormal medial prefrontal cortex activity in heavy cannabis users during conscious emotional evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Michael J; Lile, Joshua A; Hanlon, Colleen A; Porrino, Linda J

    2016-03-01

    Long-term heavy cannabis users (cannabis users) who are not acutely intoxicated have diminished subconscious neural responsiveness to affective stimuli. This study sought to determine if abnormal processing extends to the conscious evaluation of emotional stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity as cannabis users (N = 16) and non-cannabis-using controls (N = 17) evaluated and categorized standardized International Affective Picture System (IAPS) stimuli. Individual judgments were used to isolate activity during the evaluation of emotional (i.e., emotional evaluation) or neutral (i.e., neutral evaluation) stimuli. Within- and between-group analyses were performed. Both groups judged the same stimuli as emotional and had activations in visual, midbrain, and middle cingulate cortices during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Within-group analyses also revealed amygdalar and inferior frontal gyrus activations in controls, but not cannabis users, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) deactivations in cannabis users, but not controls, during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Between-group comparisons found that mPFC activity during positive and negative evaluation was significantly hypoactive in cannabis users, relative to controls. Abnormal neural processing of affective content extends to the level of consciousness in cannabis users. The hypoactive mPFC responses observed resembles the attenuated mPFC responses found during increased non-affective cognitive load in prior research. These findings suggest that abnormal mPFC singling in cannabis users during emotional evaluation might be associated with increased non-affective cognitive load.

  10. Abnormal Medial Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Heavy Cannabis Users During Conscious Emotional Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Hanlon, Colleen A.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Long-term heavy cannabis users (cannabis users) who are not acutely intoxicated have diminished subconscious neural responsiveness to affective stimuli. Objective This study sought to determine if abnormal processing extends to the conscious evaluation of emotional stimuli. Methods Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to examine brain activity as cannabis users (N=16) and non-cannabis using controls (N=17) evaluated and categorized standardized International Affective Picture System (IAPS) stimuli. Individual judgments were used to isolate activity during the evaluation of emotional (i.e., emotional evaluation) or neutral (i.e., neutral evaluation) stimuli. Within- and between-group analyses were performed. Results Both groups judged the same stimuli as emotional and had activations in visual, midbrain, and middle cingulate cortices during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Within-group analyses also revealed amygdalar and inferior frontal gyrus activations in controls, but not cannabis users, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) deactivations in cannabis users, but not controls, during emotional evaluation, relative to neutral. Between-group comparisons found that mPFC activity during positive and negative evaluation was significantly hypoactive in cannabis users, relative to controls. Conclusions Abnormal neural processing of affective content extends to the level of consciousness in cannabis users. The hypoactive mPFC responses observed resembles the attenuated mPFC responses found during increased non-affective cognitive load in prior research. These findings suggest that abnormal mPFC singling in cannabis users during emotional evaluation might be associated with increased non-affective cognitive load. PMID:26690589

  11. Bias and the cannabis researcher.

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T; Andrysiak, T

    1981-01-01

    This report focuses on several aspects of the "drug" cannabis in our society: the historical notion of a chemical as a moral issue (i.e., good and evil) rather than a pharmacological one; the scientist as a human being as well as a witting or unwitting influencer of social policy; the statistical design and manipulation of research consciously or unconsciously for fame and fortune (grants); the research treatment "connection" as part of our drug abuse industrial complex, a billion dollar a year industry; and the covert governmental manipulation and distortion of cannabis (and other drug) data.

  12. Improved efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material Diesel Particulate Matter (SRM 2975) using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Masala, Silvia; Ahmed, Trifa; Bergvall, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with molecular masses of 252, 276, 278, 300, and 302 Da from standard reference material diesel particulate matter (SRM 2975) has been investigated using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with dichloromethane, toluene, methanol, and mixtures of toluene and methanol. Extraction of SRM 2975 using toluene/methanol (9:1, v/v) at maximum instrumental settings (200 °C, 20.7 MPa, and five extraction cycles) with 30-min extraction times resulted in the following elevations of the measured concentration when compared with the certified and reference concentrations reported by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): benzo[b]fluoranthene, 46%; benzo[k]fluoranthene, 137%; benzo[e]pyrene, 103%; benzo[a]pyrene, 1,570%; perylene, 37%; indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, 41%; benzo[ghi]perylene, 163%; and coronene, 361%. The concentrations of the following PAHs were comparable to the reference values assigned by NIST: indeno[1,2,3-cd]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, and picene. The measured concentration of dibenzo[a,e]-pyrene was lower than the information value reported by the NIST. The measured concentrations of other highly carcinogenic PAHs (dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene) in SRM 2975 are also reported. Comparison of measurements using the optimized ASE method and using similar conditions to those applied by the NIST for the assignment of PAH concentrations in SRM 2975 indicated that the higher values obtained in the present study were associated with more complete extraction of PAHs from the diesel particulate material. Re-extraction of the particulate samples demonstrated that the deuterated internal standards were more readily recovered than the native PAHs, which may explain the lower values reported by the NIST. The analytical results obtained in the study demonstrated that the efficient extraction of PAHs from SRM 2975 is a critical requirement for the

  13. Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample

    PubMed Central

    Barnwell, Sara Smucker; Earleywine, Mitch; Wilcox, Rand

    2006-01-01

    Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation [1], which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487) and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week) and abstinence (never). Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant. PMID:16722561

  14. Effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum prolactin levels in female rats.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Silitidil, a standardized extract of milk thistle, on the serum levels of prolactin in female rats. A 14-day treatment with Silitidil (25-200 mg/kg, per os), a standardized extract of Silybum marianum fruits (milk thistle), increased, in a dose dependent manner, the serum prolactin levels in female rats. Galega (200 mg/kg, per os) given alone neither modified the basal levels of prolactin nor increased further serum prolactin levels when associated with Silitidil. Bromocriptine (1 mg/kg, per os) significantly reduced the high serum prolactin levels induced by Silitidil (200 mg/kg, per os). The results show that the extract of S. marianum fruits significantly increases prolactin levels in female rats; this effect is not potentiated by galega and seems to involve, at least in part, dopamine D2 receptors.

  15. Stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure, sex, and relapse in the human laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chao, Thomas; Radoncic, Vanya; Hien, Denise; Bedi, Gillinder; Haney, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Stress responding is linked to drug use, but little is known about stress responses in cannabis smokers. We investigated acute stress responding in cannabis smokers as a function of trauma exposure and sex, and relationships between stress responses and cannabis relapse. 125 healthy, non-treatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers (23F, 102 M) completed the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST), a standardized laboratory stressor; subsets also completed a trauma questionnaire (n = 106) and a laboratory cannabis relapse measure (n = 54). Stress responding was assessed with heart rate (HR), salivary cortisol (CORT), and self-rated mood. Cannabis smokers reporting at least one trauma exposure had higher CORT and anxiety overall compared to those reporting no trauma. Stress responding did not differ as a function of binary trauma exposure, although total number of exposures correlated positively with CORT and anxiety during stress. Females reported increased nervousness after stress relative to males matched to the females for cannabis and cigarette use. An interactive effect of sex and trauma on HR suggested that females with trauma exposure have increased cardiovascular stress responding relative to those without such exposure, with no differential effect in males. Stress responding did not predict laboratory cannabis relapse. We report differences in acute stress responding as a function of trauma, sex, and their interaction in a large sample of relatively homogenous cannabis smokers. Further investigation of how trauma impacts stress responding in male and female cannabis smokers, and how this relates to different aspects of cannabis use, is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Cannabis-based medicines for chronic neuropathic pain in adults.

    PubMed

    Mücke, Martin; Phillips, Tudor; Radbruch, Lukas; Petzke, Frank; Häuser, Winfried

    2018-03-07

    This review is one of a series on drugs used to treat chronic neuropathic pain. Estimates of the population prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic components range between 6% and 10%. Current pharmacological treatment options for neuropathic pain afford substantial benefit for only a few people, often with adverse effects that outweigh the benefits. There is a need to explore other treatment options, with different mechanisms of action for treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain. Cannabis has been used for millennia to reduce pain. Herbal cannabis is currently strongly promoted by some patients and their advocates to treat any type of chronic pain. To assess the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabis-based medicines (herbal, plant-derived, synthetic) compared to placebo or conventional drugs for conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults. In November 2017 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trials registries for published and ongoing trials, and examined the reference lists of reviewed articles. We selected randomised, double-blind controlled trials of medical cannabis, plant-derived and synthetic cannabis-based medicines against placebo or any other active treatment of conditions with chronic neuropathic pain in adults, with a treatment duration of at least two weeks and at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Three review authors independently extracted data of study characteristics and outcomes of efficacy, tolerability and safety, examined issues of study quality, and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies by discussion. For efficacy, we calculated the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) for pain relief of 30% and 50% or greater, patient's global impression to be much or very much improved, dropout rates due to lack of efficacy, and the standardised mean differences for pain intensity, sleep problems, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and psychological distress. For

  17. Viwithan, a Standardized Withania somnifera Root Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sudeep, H.V.; Gouthamchandra, K.; Venkatesh, B. J.; Prasad, K. Shyam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. Objective: In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. Results: The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. Conclusion: We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. SUMMARY The present study reports for the first time that

  18. Viwithan, a Standardized Withania somnifera Root Extract Induces Apoptosis in Murine Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sudeep, H V; Gouthamchandra, K; Venkatesh, B J; Prasad, K Shyam

    2018-01-01

    Withania somnifera is an Indian medicinal herb known for the multipotential ability to cure various therapeutic ailments as described in the ayurvedic system of medicine. In the present study, we have evaluated the antiproliferative activity of a standardized W. somnifera root extract (Viwithan) against different human and murine cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity of Viwithan was determined using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium blue assay and crystal violet staining. The apoptotic changes in B16F1 cells following treatment with Viwithan were observed by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining and DNA fragmentation assay. The binding affinity of withanolides in Viwithan with antiapoptotic proteins B-cell lymphoma 2, B-cell lymphoma-extra large, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) were studied using in silico approach. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Viwithan against liver hepatocellular carcinoma, Henrietta Lacks cervical carcinoma cells, human colorectal carcinoma cell line, and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells were 1830, 968, 2715, and 633 μg/ml, respectively. Interestingly, Viwithan was highly effective against B16F1 cells with an IC50 value of 220 μg/ml after 24 h treatment. The morphological alterations of apoptotic cell death were clearly observed in the AO/EB-stained cells after treatment with Viwithan. Viwithan induced late apoptotic changes in treated B16F1 cells as evident by the ladder formation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. The findings of molecular docking showed that withanolides present in Viwithan have a more binding affinity with the antiapoptotic proteins, particularly MCL-1. We have reported for the first time that Viwithan with 5% withanolides has a potent cytotoxic effect, particularly against B16F1 murine melanoma cells among the different cancer cell lines tested. The present study reports for the first time that Viwithan, a standardized 5% Withania somnifera root extract, has potent

  19. Enhanced Cutaneous Wound Healing In Vivo by Standardized Crude Extract of Poincianella pluviosa

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Eduarda Antunes; de Morais, Gutierrez Rodrigues; Pacheco, Isabela Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that involves several biological events, and a delay in this process may cause economic and social problems for the patient. The search continues for new alternative treatments to aid healing, including the use of herbal medicines. Members of the genus Caesalpinia are used in traditional medicine to treat wounds. The related species Poincianella pluviosa (DC.) L.P. Queiroz increases the cell viability of keratinocytes and fibroblasts and stimulates the proliferation of keratinocytes in vitro. The crude extract (CE) from bark of P. pluviosa was evaluated in the wound-healing process in vivo, to validate the traditional use and the in vitro activity. Standardized CE was incorporated into a gel and applied on cutaneous wounds (TCEG) and compared with the formulation without CE (Control) for 4, 7, 10, or 14 days of treatment. The effects of the CE on wound re-epithelialization; cell proliferation; permeation, using photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS); and proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD-2) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) were evaluated. The TCEG stimulated the migration of keratinocytes at day 4 and proliferation on the following days, with a high concentration of cells in metaphase at 7 days. Type I collagen formed more rapidly in the TCEG. PAS showed that the CE had permeated through the skin. TCEG stimulated VEGF at day 4 and SOD-2 and COX-2 at day 7. The results suggest that the CE promoted the regulation of proteins and helped to accelerate the processes involved in healing, promoting early angiogenesis. This led to an increase in the re-epithelialized surface, with significant mitotic activity. Maturation of collagen fibers was also enhanced, which may affect the resistance of the extracellular matrix. PAS indicated a correlation between the rate of diffusion and biological events during the healing process. The CE from P. pluviosa appears promising as an aid in healing. PMID

  20. Cannabis use expectancies mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and cannabis use among cannabis-dependent veterans.

    PubMed

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and cannabis use, and the mediating role of positive and negative expectancies of cannabis use. Participants (n = 100) were cannabis-dependent veterans recruited as part of a larger self-guided cannabis quit study. Baseline (prequit) data were used. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the General Depression subscale of the Inventory of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms (IDAS), and cannabis use expectancies were assessed using the Marijuana Effect Expectancies Questionnaire. Quantity of cannabis use in the past 90 days was assessed with the Timeline Follow-Back. A parallel multiple mediation path analysis was conducted to simultaneously examine the effects of positive and negative expectancies as mediators of the relation between IDAS-Depression and prequit cannabis use. Results indicated that depressive symptoms were indirectly related to cannabis use through positive, but not negative, expectancies. This effect was unique to IDAS-Dysphoria symptoms. Depressive symptoms, particularly cognitive-affective symptom features, may be important to consider in better understanding positive cannabis effect expectancies among veterans in regard to cannabis use.

  1. Synergetic Antimicrobial Effects of Mixtures of Ethiopian Honeys and Ginger Powder Extracts on Standard and Resistant Clinical Bacteria Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Ewnetu, Yalemwork; Lemma, Wossenseged; Birhane, Nega

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate antimicrobial effects of mixtures of Ethiopian honeys and ginger rhizome powder extracts on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli (R), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (R). Methods. Agar diffusion and broth assays were performed to determine susceptibility of these standard and resistant clinical bacteria isolates using honey-ginger powder extract mixtures. Results. Honey-ginger powder extract mixtures produced the highest mean inhibition (25.62 mm ± 2.55) compared to the use of honeys (21.63 mm ± 3.30) or ginger extracts (19.23 mm ± 3.42) individually. The ranges of inhibitions produced by honey-ginger extract mixtures on susceptible test organisms (26–30 mm) and resistant strains (range: 19–27 mm) were higher compared to 7–22 mm and 0–14 mm by standard antibiotic discs. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of mixture of honeys-ginger extracts were 6.25% (0.625 v/mL) on the susceptible bacteria compared to 75% for resistant clinical isolates. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of honey-ginger extracts was 12.5% (0.125 g/mL) for all the test organisms. Conclusion. The result of this study showed that honey-ginger powder extract mixtures have the potential to serve as cheap source of antibacterial agents especially for the drug resistant bacteria strains. PMID:24772182

  2. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-08-12

    Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms "cannabis" and "marijuana." Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated "17+" years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated "high maturity" (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational (facts, strain classification), or recreational (games), likely

  3. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    PubMed

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  5. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  6. Relation between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in people at clinical high risk of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Buchy, Lisa; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Among people at genetic risk of schizophrenia, those who use cannabis show smaller thalamic and hippocampal volumes. We evaluated this relationship in people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Alcohol and Drug Use Scale was used to identify 132 CHR cannabis users, the majority of whom were non-dependent cannabis users, 387 CHR non-users, and 204 healthy control non-users, and all participants completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala were extracted with FreeSurfer, and compared across groups. Comparing all CHR participants with healthy control participants revealed no significant differences in volumes of any ROI. However, when comparing CHR users to CHR non-users, a significant ROI × Cannabis group effect emerged: CHR users showed significantly smaller amygdala compared to CHR non-users. However, when limiting analysis to CHR subjects who reported using alcohol at a ‘use without impairment’ severity level, the amygdala effect was non-significant; rather, smaller hippocampal volumes were seen in CHR cannabis users compared to non-users. Controlling statistically for effects of alcohol and tobacco use rendered all results non-significant. These results highlight the importance of controlling for residual confounding effects of other substance use when examining the relationship between cannabis use and neural structure. PMID:27289213

  7. Relation between cannabis use and subcortical volumes in people at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buchy, Lisa; Mathalon, Daniel H; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Seidman, Larry J; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Addington, Jean

    2016-08-30

    Among people at genetic risk of schizophrenia, those who use cannabis show smaller thalamic and hippocampal volumes. We evaluated this relationship in people at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. The Alcohol and Drug Use Scale was used to identify 132 CHR cannabis users, the majority of whom were non-dependent cannabis users, 387 CHR non-users, and 204 healthy control non-users, and all participants completed magnetic resonance imaging scans. Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala were extracted with FreeSurfer, and compared across groups. Comparing all CHR participants with healthy control participants revealed no significant differences in volumes of any ROI. However, when comparing CHR users to CHR non-users, a significant ROI×Cannabis group effect emerged: CHR users showed significantly smaller amygdala compared to CHR non-users. However, when limiting analysis to CHR subjects who reported using alcohol at a 'use without impairment' severity level, the amygdala effect was non-significant; rather, smaller hippocampal volumes were seen in CHR cannabis users compared to non-users. Controlling statistically for effects of alcohol and tobacco use rendered all results non-significant. These results highlight the importance of controlling for residual confounding effects of other substance use when examining the relationship between cannabis use and neural structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A review of methods for the chemical characterization of cannabis natural products.

    PubMed

    Leghissa, Allegra; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Schug, Kevin A

    2018-01-01

    Cannabis has garnered a great deal of new attention in the past couple of years in the United States due to the increasing instances of its legalization for recreational use and indications for medicinal benefit. Despite a growing number of laboratories focused on cannabis analysis, the separation science literature pertaining to the determination of cannabis natural products is still in its infancy despite the plant having been utilized by humans for nearly 30 000 years and it being now the most widely used drug worldwide. This is largely attributable to the restrictions associated with cannabis as it is characterized as a schedule 1 drug in the United States. Presented here are reviewed analytical methods for the determination of cannabinoids (primarily) and terpenes (secondarily), the primary natural products of interest in cannabis plants. Focus is placed foremost on analyses from plant extracts and the various instrumentation and techniques that are used, but some coverage is also given to analysis of cannabinoid metabolites found in biological fluids. The goal of this work is to provide a collection of relevant separation science information, upon which the field of cannabis analysis can continue to grow. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Transient Retinal Dysfunctions after Acute Cannabis Use.

    PubMed

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Robert, Matthieu P; Giersch, Anne; Angioi-Duprez, Karine; Ingster-Moati, Isabelle; Pon-Monnier, Amandine; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Although cannabis is very widespread worldwide, the impact of cannabis on visual function remains poorly understood. This is partly due to numerous difficulties met in developing clinical studies in cannabis users. Here, we report the first documented case of neuroretinal dysfunction after acute cannabis smoking. This observation was favored by the need of an annual ophthalmic evaluation in the context of a chloroquine intake for a systemic lupus erythematosus in a 47-year-old heavy cannabis user. A complete ophthalmic evaluation including visual acuity tests, intraocular pressure, fundoscopic examination, automated 10° central visual field, full-field electroretinogram (ERG) and multifocal ERG was performed twice - 30 min and 5 h after cannabis smoking. A strong decrease (up to 48%) in the a-wave amplitude of the full-field ERG was measured 30 min after cannabis smoking for all scotopic responses compared with the responses 5 h after smoking. Other tests showed reproducible results between the 2 series of measurements. This clinical case suggests that acute inhalation of cannabis affects the photoreceptors functioning. This rare situation suggests further investigations are required on the impact of cannabis on retinal processing, especially since cannabis has been incriminated in car injuries. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, Robert J.; Shin, Hayden H.; Gray, Andrew R.; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers. Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. PMID:25837035

  11. Effects of quitting cannabis on respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hancox, Robert J; Shin, Hayden H; Gray, Andrew R; Poulton, Richie; Sears, Malcolm R

    2015-07-01

    Smoking cannabis is associated with symptoms of bronchitis. Little is known about the persistence of symptoms after stopping cannabis use. We assessed associations between changes in cannabis use and respiratory symptoms in a population-based cohort of 1037 young adults. Participants were asked about cannabis and tobacco use at ages 18, 21, 26, 32 and 38 years. Symptoms of morning cough, sputum production, wheeze, dyspnoea on exertion and asthma diagnoses were ascertained at the same ages. Frequent cannabis use was defined as ≥52 occasions over the previous year. Associations between frequent cannabis use and respiratory symptoms were analysed using generalised estimating equations with adjustments for tobacco smoking, asthma, sex and age. Frequent cannabis use was associated with morning cough (OR 1.97, p<0.001), sputum production (OR 2.31, p<0.001) and wheeze (OR 1.55, p<0.001). Reducing or quitting cannabis use was associated with reductions in the prevalence of cough, sputum and wheeze to levels similar to nonusers.Frequent cannabis use is associated with symptoms of bronchitis in young adults. Reducing cannabis use often leads to a resolution of these symptoms. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  12. Cannabis arteritis: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent; Lambert, Marc; Arveiller, Catherine; Benyamina, Amine; Boissonas, Alain; Goudemand, Michel; Reynaud, Michel

    2010-12-01

    Consumption of cannabis in young adults has continued to increase in recent years. Cannabis arteritis was first described in the 1960s, but the number of cases has continued to increase. We reviewed current knowledge of the different types of cannabis arteritis in young adults and found 70 cases of cannabis arteritis in the literature. We discuss physiopathological arguments in favor of cannabis vascular toxicity per se, although we did not find sufficient evidence to identify cannabis arteritis as a specific diagnostic entity. Many factors suggest a link between cannabis consumption and arteritis in young adults, but it is difficult to say whether this type of arteritis is similar to thromboangiitis obliterans. We were unable to demonstrate a formal association between cannabis smoking and the development of thromboangiitis obliterans, because most case reports showed associated tobacco smoking (97%) and the number of years cannabis had been smoked by the participants was mostly unknown. Cannabis consumption would however seems to be an aggravating factor, together with tobacco, in arteritis, which occurs in young adults.

  13. In vitro investigation of a standardized dried extract of Citrullus colocynthis on liver toxicity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barth, Astrid; Müller, Dieter; Dürrling, Katrin

    2002-11-01

    A standardized extract of Citrullus colocynthis used as an oral natural laxative in folk medicine was tested for its influence on liver function parameters in vitro. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under the influence of Citrullus colocynthis extract was investigated by means of stimulated lipid peroxidation (LPO), H2O2 formation and amplified chemiluminescence in rat liver microsomes. In rat liver 9000 x g supernatants 4 monooxygenase reactions mediated by different CYP forms were measured. Putative hepatotoxic effects of Citrullus colocynthis extract were measured by means of potassium and GSH concentrations in and LDH leakage from precision-cut rat liver slices. For possible hepatoprotective effects the influence of the extract on carbon tetrachloride-induced changes of these parameters was investigated. Citrullus colocynthis extract in concentrations higher than 10 microg/ml incubation mixture proved to inhibit lipid peroxidation and ROS-production as well as CYP1A-, 2B- and 3A-dependent reactions with typical substrates. In contrast, H2O2 production was not reduced under the influence of the extract, a slight but significant increase was seen. Citrullus colocynthis extract was found to be free of hepatotoxic effects in concentrations up to 100 microg/ml incubation mixture when liver slices were incubated in William's medium E for 22 hours. All viability parameters used were not influenced by the extract of Citrullus colocynthis. Carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity could not be prevented or alleviated. Moreover, the damage was sometimes enhanced by higher extract concentrations.

  14. Quality of life and recreational cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Matthew; IsHak, Waguih William; Danovitch, Itai

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis is now the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and use is increasing. Frequent cannabis use has been associated with adverse social and health effects. We sought to evaluate the relationship between recreational cannabis use and Quality of Life (QoL), a person-centered measure that characterizes the overall sense of health and wellbeing. We hypothesized that QoL would be unchanged or increased among recreational cannabis users, who did not meet criteria for a Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) and that QoL would be lower among those who met criteria for a CUD. We conducted a systematic review, employing guidelines from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The results were categorized into tables and identified trends. Fourteen studies met our pre-defined selection criteria. The studies were heterogeneous and their quality was low. With one exception, we did not identify any population for whom cannabis use was associated with improved QoL. QoL was lower in persons who used cannabis heavily, or who met criteria for CUD. However, this association was inconsistent and the magnitude was weaker than the relationship between QoL and use of other addictive substances (including tobacco and illicit drugs). In this systematic review, heavy cannabis use or CUD was associated with reduced QoL. It is unknown whether reduced QoL drives cannabis use, or whether cannabis use can lead to reduced QoL. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the causal relationship between cannabis and QoL. Furthering the understanding of the relationship between cannabis and QoL can inform public policy, prevention efforts, outcomes, and an objective understanding of the effects of cannabis users. (Am J Addict 2017;26:8-25). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  15. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  16. Presentations to the Emergency Department Following Cannabis use--a Multi-Centre Case Series from Ten European Countries.

    PubMed

    Dines, Alison M; Wood, David M; Galicia, Miguel; Yates, Christopher M; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik; Giraudon, Isabelle; Sedefov, Roumen; Dargan, Paul I

    2015-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in Europe, and is generally regarded as having low acute toxicity. We present the findings of the first 6 months of data collection from the Euro-DEN project on presentations related to cannabis use to further understand the acute toxicity related to the use of cannabis. Data was extracted on clinical features, treatment and outcome from the Euro-DEN minimum dataset for all cases of acute recreational drug toxicity reported 1st October 2013 to 31st March 2014 for all cannabis-related presentations. Of 2198 presentations reported by 14 of the 16 Euro-DEN centres, 356 (16.2 %) involved cannabis either alone or together with other drugs/alcohol. There were 36 that involved lone use of cannabis (1.6 % of all presentations). Of the 35 non-fatal lone cannabis presentations, the most commonly reported features were neuro-behavioural (agitation/aggression 8 (22.9 %), psychosis 7 (20.0 %), anxiety 7 (20.0 %)) and vomiting 6 (17.1 %). Most patients (25, 71.4 %) received no treatment and 30 (85.7 %) were discharged/self-discharged from the ED. There was one fatality amongst these lone-cannabis cases: an 18-year-old male collapsed with an asystolic cardiac arrest whilst smoking cannabis and suffered hypoxic brain injury related to prolonged cardiac arrest. THC was detected in a urine sample taken at ED arrival; no other drugs were detected. Lone acute cannabis toxicity was typically associated with neuro-behavioural symptoms and vomiting. Although uncommon, severe toxicity including cardiovascular toxicity and death may be under-recognised, and it is important that Emergency Physicians are aware of this.

  17. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Cannabis effects on driving lateral control with and without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Pierce, Russell S; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-09-01

    Effects of cannabis, the most commonly encountered non-alcohol drug in driving under the influence cases, are heavily debated. We aim to determine how blood Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations relate to driving impairment, with and without alcohol. Current occasional (≥1×/last 3 months, ≤3days/week) cannabis smokers drank placebo or low-dose alcohol, and inhaled 500mg placebo, low (2.9%)-THC, or high (6.7%)-THC vaporized cannabis over 10min ad libitum in separate sessions (within-subject design, 6 conditions). Participants drove (National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa) simulated drives (∼0.8h duration). Blood, oral fluid (OF), and breath alcohol samples were collected before (0.17h, 0.42h) and after (1.4h, 2.3h) driving that occurred 0.5-1.3h after inhalation. We evaluated standard deviations of lateral position (lane weave, SDLP) and steering angle, lane departures/min, and maximum lateral acceleration. In N=18 completers (13 men, ages 21-37years), cannabis and alcohol increased SDLP. Blood THC concentrations of 8.2 and 13.1μg/L during driving increased SDLP similar to 0.05 and 0.08g/210L breath alcohol concentrations, the most common legal alcohol limits. Cannabis-alcohol SDLP effects were additive rather than synergistic, with 5μg/L THC+0.05g/210L alcohol showing similar SDLP to 0.08g/210L alcohol alone. Only alcohol increased lateral acceleration and the less-sensitive lane departures/min parameters. OF effectively documented cannabis exposure, although with greater THC concentration variability than paired blood samples. SDLP was a sensitive cannabis-related lateral control impairment measure. During drive blood THC ≥8.2μg/L increased SDLP similar to notably-impairing alcohol concentrations. Despite OF's screening value, OF variability poses challenges in concentration-based effects interpretation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  20. Evaluation of free radical scavenging and antityrosinase activities of standardized longan fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sitthimonchai, Somkid; Worasuttayangkurn, Luksamee; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-02-01

    The protective effects of fruits and vegetables against chronic diseases have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of some secondary metabolites present in these foods. Plant polyphenols have been reported to exhibit bioactive properties, and in particular antioxidant activities. Longan seeds are found to contain high levels of some beneficial polyphenolic compounds such as corilagin, gallic acid and ellagic acid. The present study examined the free radical scavenging activity of longan seed extract by using three different assay methods. Longan extracts contained corilagin ranging from zero to 50.64 mg/g DW, gallic acid from 9.18 to 23.04 mg/g DW, and ellagic acid from 8.13 to 12.65 mg/g DW depending on the cultivars. Dried longan seed extracts of cultivar Edor contained high levels of gallic acid and ellagic acid and also exhibited the highest radical scavenging activities when comparing fresh seed and dried pulp extracts. For scavenging activity of DPPH and superoxide radicals, longan seed extract was found to be as effective as Japanese green tea extract while dried longan pulp and mulberry green tea extracts showed the least scavenging activities. In the ORAC assay, both fresh and dried longan seed also had higher activity than dried pulp and whole fruit. However, the results demonstrate that three polyphenolics may not be the major contributors of the high antioxidant activity of longan water extracts but this high activity may be due to other phenolic/flavonoid glycosides and ellagitannins present in longan fruit. In addition, longan seed also showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 2.9-3.2 mg/ml. Therefore, the preliminary observations suggest that longan seed extract could be another potential source of potent natural dietary antioxidants and also in an application as a new natural skin-whitening agent.

  1. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of standardized root extract of Jasminum sambac.

    PubMed

    Sengar, Nidhi; Joshi, Apurva; Prasad, Satyendra K; Hemalatha, S

    2015-02-03

    The plant Jasminum sambac L. (Oleaceae) is cultivated throughout India. The leaves and roots of the plant are used traditionally in the treatment of inflammation, fever and pain. The leaves of the plant have been reported to posses significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. To scientifically validate anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of roots from Jasminum sambac. Ethanol root extract of Jasminum sambac (EJS) was standardized using HPTLC and was subjected to acute oral toxicity study. Further, analgesic activity of EJS at 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, p.o. was evaluated using writhing test on Swiss albino mice and tail-flick test on Charles Foster albino rats. Anti-inflammatory activity of EJS was assessed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and Freund׳s adjuvant-induced arthritis models, while antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer׳s yeast induced pyrexia. In addition, biochemical parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood serum and edematous tissue of rats exposed to acute (carrageenan) and granulomatous tissue in sub-chronic (cotton pellet granuloma) inflammation models were also evaluated. Phytochemical analysis of EJS revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins and carbohydrates in major quantities, while the quantity of hesperidin in EJS (using HPTLC) was found to be 4.25%w/w. EJS at 400mg/kg, p.o. reduced writhing count up to 49.21%, whereas in tail-flick test, EJS in a dose dependent manner increased latency in flicking tail. EJS at 400mg/kg, p.o. showed significant anti-inflammatory activity after 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 6thh of treatment in carrageenan-induced edema, while a 33.58% inhibition in cotton pellet induced granuloma formation was observed at same dose level. EJS significantly (p<0.001) inhibited adjuvant

  2. Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) standardized extract: a potential pharmacological tool to diet-induced metabolic syndrome damage management.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Pathise Souto; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Bona, Natália Pontes; Soares, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira; Cardoso, Juliane de Souza; Vasconcellos, Flávia Aleixo; Tavares, Rejane Giacomelli; Vizzotto, Marcia; Silva, Luísa Mariano Cerqueira da; Grecco, Fabiane Borelli; Gamaro, Giovana Duzzo; Spanevello, Roselia Maria; Lencina, Claiton Leoneti; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Stefanello, Francieli Moro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Eugenia uniflora fruit (red type) extract on metabolic status, as well as on neurochemical and behavioral parameters in an animal model of metabolic syndrome induced by a highly palatable diet (HPD). Rats were treated for 150days and divided into 4 experimental groups: standard chow (SC) and water orally, SC and E. uniflora extract (200mg/kg daily, p.o), HPD and water orally, HPD and extract. Our data showed that HPD caused glucose intolerance, increased visceral fat, weight gain, as well as serum glucose, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol; however, E. uniflora prevented these alterations. The extract decreased lipid peroxidation and prevented the reduction of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum of animals submitted to HPD. We observed a HPD-induced reduction of thiol content in these cerebral structures. The extract prevented increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the prefrontal cortex caused by HPD and the increase in immobility time observed in the forced swim test. Regarding chemical composition, LC/MS analysis showed the presence of nine anthocyanins as the major compounds. In conclusion, E. uniflora extract showed benefits against metabolic alterations caused by HPD, as well as exhibited antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Do recreational cannabis users, unlicensed and licensed medical cannabis users form distinct groups?

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to gain a more nuanced perspective on the differences between recreationally and medically motivated cannabis use by distinguishing between people who use cannabis for recreational purposes, unlicensed and licensed medical users. Data collection was conducted online from a convenience sample of 1479 Israeli cannabis users. Multinomial regression analysis compared unlicensed medical users (38%) with recreational (42%) and licensed medical (5.6%) users in terms of sociodemographics, mode, frequency and problematic cannabis use. There were more variables distinguishing unlicensed from licensed users than there were distinguishing features between unlicensed and recreational users. Recreational users were more likely to be male, less likely to eat cannabis, to use cannabis frequently and to use alone and before midday than unlicensed users. Licensed users were older than unlicensed users, they reported less hours feeling stoned, less cannabis use problems and they were more likely to report cannabis use patterns analogous of medication administration for chronic problems (frequent use, vaping, use alone and use before midday). This study suggests that a sizable proportion of cannabis users in Israel self-prescribe cannabis and that licensed medical cannabis users differ from unlicensed users. This is, in turn, suggestive of a rigorous medicalized cannabis program that does not function as a backdoor for legal access to recreational use. However, due to methodological limitations this conclusion is only suggestive. The most meaningful differences across recreational, unlicensed and licensed users were mode and patterns of use rather than cannabis use problems. Current screening tools for cannabis use problems may, however, not be well suited to assess such problems in medically motivated users. Indeed, when screening for problematic cannabis use there is a need for a more careful consideration of whether or not cannabis use is medically motivated

  4. Prevalence and correlates of "Vaping" as a route of cannabis administration in medical cannabis patients.

    PubMed

    Cranford, James A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Perron, Brian E; Bourque, Carrie; Ilgen, Mark

    2016-12-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of vaporization (i.e., "vaping") as a route of cannabis administration in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=1485M age=45.1) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed a screening assessment. Participants completed measures of route of cannabis administration, cannabis use, alcohol and other substance use. An estimated 39% (n=511) of the sample reported past-month cannabis vaping, but vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration was rare. Specifically, only 30 participants (2.3% of the full sample and 5.9% of those who reported any vaping) indicated vaping as the sole route of cannabis administration. The majority (87.3%) of those who reported vaping also reported smoking (combustion) as a route of cannabis administration. Being younger than age 44, having more than a high school education, engaging in nonmedical stimulant use, being a returning medical cannabis patient, and greater frequency of cannabis use were associated with higher odds of vaping at the bivariate level and with all variables considered simultaneously. Vaping appears to be relatively common among medical cannabis patients, but is seldom used as the sole route of cannabis administration. highlight the importance of monitoring trends in vaping and other substance use behaviors in this population and underscore the need for longitudinal research into the motives, correlates, and consequences of cannabis vaping in medical cannabis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical Cannabis and the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement

    PubMed Central

    Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M.; Kirsch, Douglas B.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Carden, Kelly A.; Aurora, R. Nisha; Kristo, David A.; Malhotra, Raman K.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Olson, Eric J.; Rosen, Carol L.; Rowley, James A.

    2018-01-01

    The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown. Dronabinol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of OSA, and medical cannabis and synthetic extracts other than dronabinol have not been studied in patients with OSA. The composition of cannabinoids within medical cannabis varies significantly and is not regulated. Synthetic medical cannabis may have differential effects, with variable efficacy and side effects in the treatment of OSA. Therefore, it is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that medical cannabis and/or its synthetic extracts should not be used for the treatment of OSA due to unreliable delivery methods and insufficient evidence of effectiveness, tolerability, and safety. OSA should be excluded from the list of chronic medical conditions for state medical cannabis programs, and patients with OSA should discuss their treatment options with a licensed medical provider at an accredited sleep facility. Further research is needed to understand the functionality of medical cannabis extracts before recommending them as a treatment for OSA. Citation: Ramar K, Rosen IM, Kirsch DB, Chervin RD, Carden KA, Aurora RN, Kristo DA, Malhotra RK, Martin JL, Olson EJ, Rosen CL, Rowley JA; American Academy of Sleep Medicine Board of Directors. Medical cannabis and the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: an

  6. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Lucy; Grana, Rachel; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Android devices as of November 26, 2014. Methods The Apple and Google Play app stores were searched using the terms “cannabis” and “marijuana.” Three trained coders classified the top 20 apps for each term and each store, using a coding guide. Apps were examined for the presence of 20 content codes derived by the researchers. Results Total apps available for each search term were 124 for cannabis and 218 for marijuana in the Apple App Store, and 250 each for cannabis and marijuana on Google Play. The top 20 apps in each category in each store were coded for 59 independent apps (30 Apple, 29 Google Play). The three most common content areas were cannabis strain classification (33.9%), facts about cannabis (20.3%), and games (20.3%). In the Apple App Store, most apps were free (77%), all were rated “17+” years, and the average user rating was 3.9/5 stars. The most popular apps provided cannabis strain classifications (50%), dispensary information (27%), or general facts about cannabis (27%). Only one app (3%) provided information or resources related to cannabis abuse, addiction, or treatment. On Google Play, most apps were free (93%), rated “high maturity” (79%), and the average user rating was 4.1/5. The most popular app types offered games (28%), phone utilities (eg, wallpaper, clock; 21%) and cannabis food recipes (21%); no apps addressed abuse, addiction, or treatment. Conclusions Cannabis apps are generally free and highly rated. Apps were most often informational

  7. Solvent Extraction for Vegetable Oil Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA has identified solvent extraction for vegetable oil production processes as major sources of a single hazardous air pollutant (HAP), n-hexane. Learn more about the rule requirements and regulations, as well as find compliance help

  8. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Gururaja, G M; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity.

  9. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A. Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J. Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. SUMMARY The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity. PMID:28250649

  10. Dutch coffee shops and trends in cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Korf, Dirk J

    2002-01-01

    Conflicting predictions have been made to the influence of decriminalization on cannabis use. Prohibitionists forecast that decriminalization will lead to an increase in consumption of cannabis, while their opponents hypothesise that cannabis use will decline after decriminalization. Most probably cannabis use in the Netherlands so far evolved in two waves, with a first peak around 1970, a low during the late 1970s and early 1980s, and a second peak in the mid-1990s. It is striking that this trend in cannabis use among youth in the Netherlands rather parallels four identified stages in the availability of cannabis. The number of cannabis users peaked when the cannabis was distributed through an underground market (late 1960s and early 1970s). Then the number decreased as house dealers were superseeding the underground market (1970s), and went up again after coffee shops took over the sale of cannabis (1980s), and stabilised or slightly decreased by the end of the 1990s when the number of coffee shops was reduced. Although changes in cannabis policy went along with changes in availability of cannabis and prevalence of cannabis use, it is questionable whether changes in cannabis policy were causally related to trends in cannabis use. Cannabis use also developed in waves in other European countries that did not decriminalize cannabis, as well as in the US. Consequently, trends in cannabis use seem to develop rather independently of cannabis policy.

  11. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  12. Pathways to psychosis in cannabis abuse.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remain elusive. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however, neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak.

  13. The Cannabis Information Helpline: Assessing Interest in the Medicinal Use of Cannabis in Australia.

    PubMed

    Gates, Peter J; Albertella, Lucy

    2017-10-15

    The majority of Australians support a change in legislation to allow the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Despite strong public support, very little is known about the patterns of medicinal cannabis use among Australians. This study aims to gain a better understanding of Australian medicinal cannabis users and their patterns of use. The nature of calls to the Cannabis Information and Helpline (N = 15701), a free national service for Australians with concerns regarding cannabis use, were investigated to determine the number of calls made by those who inquired about the medicinal use of cannabis (N = 275) and the implied reasons for use among those who identify using cannabis in this way. The majority of medicinal cannabis inquirers mentioned cannabis to alleviate pain. Further, compared to other callers, medicinal cannabis inquirers were more likely to be male, unemployed, older, and have recently started using cannabis. These findings highlight the need for future research to better understand the issues faced by Australians regarding the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes and how they may be meaningfully addressed. Particular focus should be placed toward older, unemployed males.

  14. Topically applied standardized aqueous extract of Curcuma longa Linn. suppresses endotoxin-induced uveal inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Gupta, S K; Agarwal, Puneet; Srivastava, Sushma

    2013-10-01

    Aqueous extract of C. longa when administered 4 h after induction of E. coli lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in rats showed significantly suppressed inflammation with a significantly lower mean clinical grade, histopathological grade and aqueous humor (AH) protein level compared to vehicle treated group. Although, prednisolone group showed significantly lower clinical grade, histopathological grades and AH protein levels compared to C. longa group, TNF-alpha levels did not differ significantly. Moreover, when the aqueous extract was administered starting from 3 days before induction of uveitis, the mean clinical and histopathological grade as well as AH protein and TNF-alpha levels were comparable to C. longa group when treatment was administered 4 h after induction of uveitis. It is concluded that topically applied standardized aqueous extract of C. longa suppresses endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats by reducing TNF-alpha activity.

  15. Cannabis use and first manic episode.

    PubMed

    Bally, Nathalie; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2014-08-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug among patients with bipolar disorder. Available data has shown that the risk of psychotic disorders increases with the frequency and intensity of cannabis abuse. The present purpose was to review relevant studies to investigate whether cannabis use can be linked to the onset of mania in bipolar disorder. Articles published between 1972 and December 2013 were searched on Medline and PsychInfo using the following keywords: first manic episode, or onset mania, or bipolar disorder and cannabis. Relevant papers cited in the references of selected articles were further considered for inclusion into the review. Lifetime use of cannabis among bipolar patients appears to be around 70% and approximately 30% of patients with a bipolar disorder present a comorbidity of cannabis abuse or dependence. Cannabis use is associated with younger age at onset of first mania and with more frequent depressive or manic episodes, although the evidence is somewhat inconsistent. Likewise cannabis consumption is related to poorer outcome and an increased risk of rapid cycling or mixed episodes. In contrast, neuro-cognitive functioning seems to be positively affected in patients with psychiatric comorbidity. While cannabis use often precedes first manic episodes, the causal direction remains to be determined. Variations in definition of cannabis use/dependence. Lack of controlled studies limiting definite conclusions about a putative causal relationship between cannabis and onset of mania. Further investigations are needed to clarify the relationships between cannabis use and first manic episode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Medical use of cannabis in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Robert W; Butorac, Mario; Cobian, Eloy Pulido; van der Sluis, Willem

    2005-03-08

    The authors investigated the indications for cannabis prescription in the Netherlands and assessed its efficacy and side effects. A majority (64.1%) of patients reported a good or excellent effect on their symptoms. Of these patients, approximately 44% used cannabis for >/=5 months. Indications were neurologic disorders, pain, musculoskeletal disorders, and cancer anorexia/cachexia. Inhaled cannabis was perceived as more effective than oral administration. Reported side effects were generally mild.

  17. A standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba prevents locomotion impairment induced by cassava juice in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rivadeneyra-Domínguez, Eduardo; Vázquez-Luna, Alma; Rodríguez-Landa, Juan F.; Díaz-Sobac, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The long-term consumption of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) juice produce neurotoxic effects in the rat, characterized by an increased motor activity in the open field test and presence of uncoordinated swim (i.e., lateral swimming), in the swim test; which has been associated with damage in the hippocampus (CA1). On the other hand, flavonoids content in the Ginkgo biloba extract has been reported to produces neuroprotective effects at experimental level; therefore we hypothesized that G. biloba extract may prevents the motor alterations produced by cassava juice and reduce cellular damage in hippocampal neurons of the rat. In present study the effect of vehicle, cassava juice (linamarin, 0.30 mg/kg), G. biloba extract (dry extract, 160 mg/kg), and combination of treatment were evaluated in the open field and swim tests to identify locomotor and hippocampal alterations in adult male Wistar rats. All treatments were administered once per day, every 24 h, for 28 days, by oral rout. The effect was evaluated at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of treatment. The results show that cassava group from day 14 of treatment increase crossing and rearing in the open field test, as compared with the vehicle group; while in the swim test produces an uncoordinated swim characterized by the lateral swim. In this same group an increase in the number of damage neurons in the hippocampus (CA1) was identified. Interestingly, both behavioral and neuronal alterations produced by cassava juice administration were prevented by treatment with G. biloba extract. The results shown that G. biloba extract exert a protective effect against behavioral and neuronal damage associated with consumption of cassava juice in the rat. These effects are possibly related with flavonoid content in the G. biloba extract. PMID:25309441

  18. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Methods Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Results Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. Conclusions The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis. PMID:27904421

  19. Childhood predictors of first chance to use and use of cannabis by young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Storr, Carla L.; Wagner, Fernando A.; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Anthony, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To prospectively examine the linkage between childhood antecedents and progression to early cannabis involvement as manifest in first chance to try it and then first onset of cannabis use. Methods Two consecutive cohorts of children entering first grade of a public school system of a large mid-Atlantic city in the mid 1980s (n=2311) were assessed (mean age 6.5 years) and then followed into young adulthood (15 years later, mean age 21) when first chance to try and first use were assessed for 75% (n=1698) of the original sample. Assessments obtained at school included standardized readiness scores (reading; math) and teacher ratings of behavioral problems. Regression and time to event models included covariates for sex, race, and family disadvantage. Results Early classroom misconduct, better reading readiness, and better math readiness predicted either occurrence or timing of first chance to try cannabis, first use, or both. Higher levels of childhood concentration problems and lower social connectedness were not predictive. Conclusions Childhood school readiness and behavioral problems may influence the risk for cannabis smoking indirectly via an increased likelihood of first chance to use. Prevention efforts that seek to shield youths from having a chance to try cannabis might benefit from attention to early predictive behavioral and school readiness characteristics. When a youth’s chance to try cannabis is discovered, there are new windows of opportunity for prevention and intervention. PMID:21288658

  20. Childhood predictors of first chance to use and use of cannabis by young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Storr, Carla L; Wagner, Fernando A; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Anthony, James C

    2011-08-01

    To prospectively examine the linkage between childhood antecedents and progression to early cannabis involvement as manifest in first chance to try it and then first onset of cannabis use. Two consecutive cohorts of children entering first grade of a public school system of a large mid-Atlantic city in the mid 1980s (n=2311) were assessed (mean age 6.5 years) and then followed into young adulthood (15 years later, mean age 21) when first chance to try and first use were assessed for 75% (n=1698) of the original sample. Assessments obtained at school included standardized readiness scores (reading; math) and teacher ratings of behavioral problems. Regression and time to event models included covariates for sex, race, and family disadvantage. Early classroom misconduct, better reading readiness, and better math readiness predicted either occurrence or timing of first chance to try cannabis, first use, or both. Higher levels of childhood concentration problems and lower social connectedness were not predictive. Childhood school readiness and behavioral problems may influence the risk for cannabis smoking indirectly via an increased likelihood of first chance to use. Prevention efforts that seek to shield youths from having a chance to try cannabis might benefit from attention to early predictive behavioral and school readiness characteristics. When a youth's chance to try cannabis is discovered, there are new windows of opportunity for prevention and intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. History of cannabis and its preparations in saga, science, and sobriquet.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is possibly one of the oldest plants cultivated by man, but has remained a source of controversy throughout its history. Whether pariah or panacea, this most versatile botanical has provided a mirror to medicine and has pointed the way in the last two decades toward a host of medical challenges from analgesia to weight loss through the discovery of its myriad biochemical attributes and the endocannabinoid system wherein many of its components operate. This study surveys the history of cannabis, its genetics and preparations. A review of cannabis usage in Ancient Egypt will serve as an archetype, while examining first mentions from various Old World cultures and their pertinence for contemporary scientific investigation. Cannabis historians of the past have provided promising clues to potential treatments for a wide array of currently puzzling medical syndromes including chronic pain, spasticity, cancer, seizure disorders, nausea, anorexia, and infectious disease that remain challenges for 21st century medicine. Information gleaned from the history of cannabis administration in its various forms may provide useful points of departure for research into novel delivery techniques and standardization of cannabis-based medicines that will allow their prescription for treatment of these intractable medical conditions.

  2. Cannabis-induced Moto-Cognitive Dysfunction in Wistar Rats: Ameliorative Efficacy of Nigella Sativa.

    PubMed

    Imam, Aminu; Ajao, Moyosore Saliu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Ibrahim, Abdulmumin; Olajide, Olayemi Joseph; Ajibola, Musa Iyiola; Alli-Oluwafuyi, Abdulmusawir; Balogun, Wasiu Gbolahan

    2016-09-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug with various threats of personality syndrome, and Nigella sativa has been widely implicated as having therapeutic efficacy in many neurological diseases. The present study investigates the ameliorative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on cannabis-induced moto-cognitive defects. Scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.) was given to induce dementia as a standard base line for cannabis (20 mg/kg)-induced cognitive impairment, followed by an oral administration of NSO (1 ml/kg) for 14 consecutive days. The Morris water maze (MWM) paradigm was used to assess the memory index, the elevated plus maze was used for anxiety-like behaviour, and the open field test was used for locomotor activities; thereafter, the rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed for histopathologic studies. Cannabis-like Scopolamine caused memory impairment, delayed latency in the MWM, and anxiety-like behaviour, coupled with alterations in the cerebello-hippocampal neurons. The post-treatment of rats with NSO mitigated cannabis-induced cognitive dysfunction as with scopolamine and impaired anxiety-like behaviour by increasing open arm entry, line crossing, and histological changes. The observed ameliorative effects of NSO make it a promising agent against moto-cognitive dysfunction and cerebelo-hippocampal alterations induced by cannabis.

  3. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  4. Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I

    2004-05-01

    The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing.

  5. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Medical cannabis and chronic opioid therapy.

    PubMed

    Reisfield, Gary M

    2010-12-01

    Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others.

  7. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    PubMed

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    PubMed

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

  9. Detection of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in exhaled breath collected from cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof; Sandqvist, Sören; Dubbelboer, Ilse; Franck, Johan

    2011-10-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been proposed as a new possible matrix for drugs of abuse testing. A key drug is cannabis, and the present study was aimed at investigating the possibility of detecting tetrahydrocannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid in exhaled breath after cannabis smoking. Exhaled breath was sampled from 10 regular cannabis users and 8 controls by directing the exhaled breath by suction through an Empore C(18) disk. The disk was extracted with hexane/ethyl acetate, and the resulting extract was evaporated to dryness and redissolved in 100 μL hexane/ethyl acetate. A 3-μL aliquot was injected onto the LC-MS-MS system and analyzed using positive electrospray ionization and selected reaction monitoring. In samples collected 1-12 h after cannabis smoking, tetrahydrocannabinol was detected in all 10 subjects. The rate of excretion was between 9.0 and 77.3 pg/min. Identification of tetrahydrocannabinol was based on correct retention time relative to tetrahydrocannabinol-d(3) and correct product ion ratio. In three samples, peaks were observed for tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid, but these did not fulfill identification criteria. Neither tetrahydrocannabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid was detected in the controls. These results confirm older reports that tetrahydrocannabinol is present in exhaled breath following cannabis smoking and extend the detection time from minutes to hours. The results further support the idea that exhaled breath is a promising matrix for drugs-of-abuse testing.

  10. Postoperative Shivering Among Cannabis Users at a Public Hospital in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Sankar-Maharaj, Sasha; Chen, Deryk; Hariharan, Seetharaman

    2018-02-01

    Postoperative shivering has been anecdotally observed to be frequent and severe in Cannabis smokers following general anesthesia in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to compare the frequency and intensity of postoperative shivering in Cannabis users versus non-users. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was used. Demographic data were obtained. Patients were grouped into Cannabis users and non-users. All patients received standardized general anesthesia and were administered warmed fluids intraoperatively. Ambient room temperatures and clinical data were recorded. Patients' core body temperature was recorded at 10-minute intervals both in the operating room and the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Postoperatively an independent observer assessed the patients who had shivering using a scoring system ranging from 0 to 3. Treatment for shivering and post-treatment shivering scores were also recorded. Fifty-five patients were studied, of which 71% were male. There were 25 (45%) Cannabis users, of which 50% smoked < 5 joints per week, and 35% smoked >10 joints per week; 30 (55%) patients were non-users. The overall incidence of postoperative shivering was 36%; 16% had a shivering score of '3', 13% had '2' and 7% had a score of '1'. The incidence of postoperative shivering among Cannabis users was 40% while it was 33.3% in non-users. Also, 90% of Cannabis users had shivering scores of 2 and 3, compared to 70% of non-users. There was a higher incidence and intensity of shivering in Cannabis smokers, although the study could not establish a statistically significant difference in the frequency and severity of shivering between Cannabis users and non-users. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Sparreboom, Alex; Mathot, Ron A A; Loos, Walter J; Kitzen, Jos J E M; de Bruijn, Peter; Verweij, Jaap; Mathijssen, Ron H J

    2007-03-01

    To date, data regarding the potential of cannabinoids to modulate cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A (CYP3A) activity are contradictory. Recently, a standardized medicinal cannabis product was introduced in The Netherlands. We anticipated an increased use of medicinal cannabis concurrent with anticancer drugs, and undertook a drug-interaction study to evaluate the effect of concomitant medicinal cannabis on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel, both subject to CYP3A-mediated biotransformation. Twenty-four cancer patients were treated with i.v. irinotecan (600 mg, n = 12) or docetaxel (180 mg, n = 12), followed 3 weeks later by the same drugs concomitant with medicinal cannabis (200 ml herbal tea, 1 g/l) for 15 consecutive days, starting 12 days before the second treatment. Blood samples were obtained up to 55 hours after dosing and analyzed for irinotecan and its metabolites (SN-38, SN-38G), respectively, or docetaxel. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed during both treatments. Results are reported as the mean ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the observed pharmacokinetic parameters with and without concomitant medicinal cannabis. Medicinal cannabis administration did not significantly influence exposure to and clearance of irinotecan (1.04; CI, 0.96-1.11 and 0.97; CI, 0.90-1.05, respectively) or docetaxel (1.11; CI, 0.94-1.28 and 0.95; CI, 0.82-1.08, respectively). Coadministration of medicinal cannabis, as herbal tea, in cancer patients treated with irinotecan or docetaxel does not significantly influence the plasma pharmacokinetics of these drugs. The evaluated variety of medicinal cannabis can be administered concomitantly with both anticancer agents without dose adjustments.

  12. Is there a cannabis epidemic model? Evidence from France, Germany and USA.

    PubMed

    Legleye, Stephane; Piontek, Daniela; Pampel, Fred; Goffette, Céline; Khlat, Myriam; Kraus, Ludwig

    2014-11-01

    Cannabis is the most popular illicit drug in the world, but the process of its diffusion through the population has rarely been studied. The unfolding of the tobacco epidemic was accompanied by a shift in the educational gradient of users across generations. As a consequence, cannabis may show the same pattern of widening social inequalities. We test the diffusion hypotheses that a positive value in older cohorts - the more educated experimenting more - shifts to a negative one in younger cohorts - the more educated experimenting less, first for males and then females. Three nationwide subsamples (18-64 years old) of representative surveys conducted in France (n=21,818), Germany (n=7887) and USA (n=37,115) in 2009-2010 recorded age at cannabis experimentation (i.e., first use), educational level, gender, and age. Cumulative prevalence of experimentation was plotted for three retrospective cohorts (50-64, 35-49, 18-34 years old at data collection) and multivariate time-discrete logistic regression was computed by gender and generation to model age at experimentation adjusted on age at data collection and educational level. This latter was measured according to four categories derived from the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) and a relative (rather than absolute) index of education. The findings demonstrate a consistent pattern of evolution of the prevalence, gender ratio and educational gradient across generations and countries that support the hypothesis of an "epidemic" of cannabis experimentation that mimics the epidemic of tobacco. We provide evidence for a cannabis epidemic model similar to the tobacco epidemic model. In the absence of clues regarding the future of cannabis use, our findings demonstrate that the gender gap is decreasing and, based on the epidemic model, suggest that we may expect widening social inequalities in cannabis experimentation if cannabis use decreases in the future. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by

  13. The Effects of Cannabis Among Adults With Chronic Pain and an Overview of General Harms: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Shannon M; Morasco, Benjamin J; O'Neil, Maya E; Freeman, Michele; Low, Allison; Kondo, Karli; Elven, Camille; Zakher, Bernadette; Motu'apuaka, Makalapua; Paynter, Robin; Kansagara, Devan

    2017-09-05

    Cannabis is increasingly available for the treatment of chronic pain, yet its efficacy remains uncertain. To review the benefits of plant-based cannabis preparations for treating chronic pain in adults and the harms of cannabis use in chronic pain and general adult populations. MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and several other sources from database inception to March 2017. Intervention trials and observational studies, published in English, involving adults using plant-based cannabis preparations that reported pain, quality of life, or adverse effect outcomes. Two investigators independently abstracted study characteristics and assessed study quality, and the investigator group graded the overall strength of evidence using standard criteria. From 27 chronic pain trials, there is low-strength evidence that cannabis alleviates neuropathic pain but insufficient evidence in other pain populations. According to 11 systematic reviews and 32 primary studies, harms in general population studies include increased risk for motor vehicle accidents, psychotic symptoms, and short-term cognitive impairment. Although adverse pulmonary effects were not seen in younger populations, evidence on most other long-term physical harms, in heavy or long-term cannabis users, or in older populations is insufficient. Few methodologically rigorous trials; the cannabis formulations studied may not reflect commercially available products; and limited applicability to older, chronically ill populations and patients who use cannabis heavily. Limited evidence suggests that cannabis may alleviate neuropathic pain in some patients, but insufficient evidence exists for other types of chronic pain. Among general populations, limited evidence suggests that cannabis is associated with an increased risk for adverse mental health effects. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (PROSPERO: CRD42016033623).

  14. Reverse breech extraction versus the standard approach of pushing the impacted fetal head up through the vagina in caesarean section for obstructed labour: A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nooh, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdeldayem, Hussein Mohammed; Ben-Affan, Othman

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess effectiveness and safety of the reverse breech extraction approach in Caesarean section for obstructed labour, and compare it with the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina. This randomised controlled trial included 192 women. In 96, the baby was delivered by the 'reverse breech extraction approach', and in the remaining 96, by the 'standard approach'. Extension of uterine incision occurred in 18 participants (18.8%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 46 (47.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .0003). Two women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group needed blood transfusion and 11 (11.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .012). Pyrexia developed in 3 participants (3.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 19 (19.8%) in the standard approach group (p = .0006). Wound infection occurred in 2 women (2.1%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 12 (12.5%) in the standard approach group (p = .007). Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes was noted in 8 babies (8.3%) in the reverse breech extraction approach group, and 21 (21.9%) in the standard approach group (p = .015). In conclusion, reverse breech extraction in Caesarean section for obstructed labour is an effective and safe alternative to the standard approach of pushing the fetal head up through the vagina.

  15. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Caudal, Dorian; Guinobert, Isabelle; Lafoux, Aude; Bardot, Valérie; Cotte, César; Ripoche, Isabelle; Chalard, Pierre; Huchet, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.

  16. The medical necessity for medicinal cannabis: prospective, observational study evaluating the treatment in cancer patients on supportive or palliative care.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Vorobeichik, Marina; Drawsheh, Saher; Omer, Anat; Goldberg, Victoria; Muller, Ella

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products. We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients. Methods. The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6-8 weeks later. Cancer symptoms and cannabis side effects were documented on scales from 0 to 4 following the CTCAE. The distress thermometer was used also. Results. Of the 211 patients who had a first interview, only 131 had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. All cancer or anticancer treatment-related symptoms showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). No significant side effects except for memory lessening in patients with prolonged cannabis use (P = 0.002) were noted. Conclusion. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables. Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients.

  17. The Medical Necessity for Medicinal Cannabis: Prospective, Observational Study Evaluating the Treatment in Cancer Patients on Supportive or Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sela, Gil; Vorobeichik, Marina; Drawsheh, Saher; Omer, Anat; Goldberg, Victoria; Muller, Ella

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cancer patients using cannabis report better influence from the plant extract than from synthetic products. However, almost all the research conducted to date has been performed with synthetic products. We followed patients with a medicinal cannabis license to evaluate the advantages and side effects of using cannabis by cancer patients. Methods. The study included two interviews based on questionnaires regarding symptoms and side effects, the first held on the day the license was issued and the second 6–8 weeks later. Cancer symptoms and cannabis side effects were documented on scales from 0 to 4 following the CTCAE. The distress thermometer was used also. Results. Of the 211 patients who had a first interview, only 131 had the second interview, 25 of whom stopped treatment after less than a week. All cancer or anticancer treatment-related symptoms showed significant improvement (P < 0.001). No significant side effects except for memory lessening in patients with prolonged cannabis use (P = 0.002) were noted. Conclusion. The positive effects of cannabis on various cancer-related symptoms are tempered by reliance on self-reporting for many of the variables. Although studies with a control group are missing, the improvement in symptoms should push the use of cannabis in palliative treatment of oncology patients. PMID:23956774

  18. On the move: Exploring the impact of residential mobility on cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Morris, Tim; Manley, David; Northstone, Kate; Sabel, Clive E

    2016-11-01

    A large literature exists suggesting that residential mobility leads to increased participation in risky health behaviours such as cannabis use amongst youth. However, much of this work fails to account for the impact that underlying differences between mobile and non-mobile youth have on this relationship. In this study we utilise multilevel models with longitudinal data to simultaneously estimate between-child and within-child effects in the relationship between residential mobility and cannabis use, allowing us to determine the extent to which cannabis use in adolescence is driven by residential mobility and unobserved confounding. Data come from a UK cohort, The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Consistent with previous research we find a positive association between cumulative residential mobility and cannabis use when using multilevel extensions of conventional logistic regression models (log odds: 0.94, standard error: 0.42), indicating that children who move houses are more likely to use cannabis than those who remain residentially stable. However, decomposing this relationship into within- and between-child components reveals that the conventional model is underspecified and misleading; we find that differences in cannabis use between mobile and non-mobile children are due to underlying differences between these groups (between-child log odds: 3.56, standard error: 1.22), not by a change in status of residential mobility (within-child log odds: 1.33, standard error: 1.02). Our findings suggest that residential mobility in the teenage years does not place children at an increased risk of cannabis use throughout these years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Big data on a big new market: Insights from Washington State's legal cannabis market.

    PubMed

    Caulkins, Jonathan P; Bao, Yilun; Davenport, Steve; Fahli, Imane; Guo, Yutian; Kinnard, Krista; Najewicz, Mary; Renaud, Lauren; Kilmer, Beau

    2018-07-01

    Voters in eight U.S. states have passed initiatives to legalize large-scale commercial production of cannabis for non-medical use. All plan or require some form of "seed-to-sale" tracking systems, which provide a view of cannabis market activity at a heretofore unimagined level of detail. Legal markets also create a range of new matters for policy makers to address. Publicly available data were obtained on approximately 45 million individually priced items purchased in the 35 million retail transactions that took place during the first two and a half years of Washington State's legal cannabis market. Records include product type (flower, extract, lotion, liquid edible, etc.), product name, price, and potency with respect to multiple cannabinoids, notably THC and CBD. Items sold can be traced back up the supply chain through the store to the processor and producer, to the level of identifying the specific production batch and mother plant, the firm that tested the product, and test results. Data visualization methods are employed to describe spatial-temporal patterns of multiple correlated attributes (e.g., price and potency) broken down by product. Text-analytic methods are used to subdivide the broad category of "extracts for inhalation" into more homogeneous sub-categories. To understand the competitiveness of the legal cannabis market in Washington we calculate the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) for processors and retailers. Cannabis prices fell steadily and proportionally at the processor and retailer levels. Retail and wholesale price maintained a roughly 3:1 ratio for multiple product types after some initial fluctuations. Although a wide range of edibles are sold, they account for a modest share of consumer spending; extracts for inhalation are a larger and heterogeneous market segment. The HHI indicates the cannabis market is highly competitive at the processor level, but less so for retail markets at the county level. Washington's state-legal cannabis

  20. Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.

    PubMed

    2003-01-01

    conditions: pain in spinal cord injury, pain and sleep in MS and spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain in MS and general neuropathic pain (presented as allodynia). Results from these trials show that THC:CBD (narrow ratio) caused statistically significant reductions in neuropathic pain in patients with MS and other conditions. In addition, improvements in other MS symptoms were observed as well. Phase II studies of THC:CBD (narrow ratio) have also been completed in patients with MS, spinal cord injury, neuropathic pain and a small number of patients with peripheral neuropathy secondary to diabetes mellitus or AIDS. A phase II trial of THC:CBD (broad ratio) has also been completed in a small number of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as has a trial of High CBD in patients with neurogenic symptoms. A phase II trial has also been evaluated with High THC in small numbers of patients for the treatment of perioperative pain. The phase II trials provided positive results and confirmed an excellent safety profile for cannabis-based medicines. GW Pharmaceuticals received an IND approval to commence phase II clinical trials in Canada in patients with chronic pain, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury in 2002. Following meetings with the US FDA, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), the Office for National Drug Control Policy, and National Institute for Drug Abuse, GW was granted an import license from the DEA and has imported its first cannabis extracts into the US. Preclinical research with these extracts in the US is ongoing.

  1. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one’s lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26546076

  2. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    PubMed

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction.

  3. MICROWAVE-ASSISTED EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM STANDARD REFERENCE SOILS AND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of an ongoing evaluation of new sample preparation techniques by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), especially those that minimize waste solvents, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of organic compounds from solid materials (or "matrices") was evaluated. Six...

  4. Radioprotective activity of Polyalthia longifolia standardized extract against X-ray radiation injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Jothy, Subramanion L; Saito, Tamio; Kanwar, Jagat R; Chen, Yeng; Aziz, Azlan; Yin-Hui, Leong; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2016-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Polyalthia longifolia was studied in mice. P. longifolia treatment showed improvement in mice survival compared to 100% mortality in the irradiated mice. Significant increases in hemoglobin concentration, and red blood cell, white blood cell and platelet counts were observed in the animals pretreated with leaf extract. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia leaf extract also increased the CFU counts of the spleen colony and increased the relative spleen size. A dose-dependent decrease in lipid peroxidation levels was observed in the animals pretreated with P. longifolia. However, although the animals pretreated with P. longifolia exhibited a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, the values remained below normal in both liver and the intestine. Pre-irradiation administration of P. longifolia also resulted in the regeneration of the mucosal crypts and villi of the intestine. Moreover, pretreatment with P. longifolia leaf extract also showed restoration of the normal liver cell structure and a significant reduction in the elevated levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin. These results suggested the radioprotective ability of P. longifolia leaf extract, which is significant for future investigation for human applications in developing efficient, economically viable, non-toxic natural and clinically acceptable novel radioprotectors. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference standards. Limits of quantification ranged from 10 to 15 ng/g, and calibration curves were linear to 500 ng/g. Bias and intra-day and inter-day imprecision were <12.3%. Hydrolysis efficiencies were analyte-dependent; THC-glucuronide was effectively cleaved by enzyme, but not base. Conversely, THCCOOH-glucuronide was most sensitive to alkaline hydrolysis. Enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis maximized efficiency for both glucuronides. Identification of cannabinoid-positive meconium specimens nearly doubled following alkaline and enzyme–alkaline hydrolysis. Although no 11-OH-THC glucuronide standard is available, enzymatic hydrolysis improved 11-OH-THC detection in authentic specimens. Maximal identification of cannabis-exposed neonates and the widest range of cannabis biomarkers are achieved with enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis. PMID:20517601

  6. Hepatoprotective standardized EtOH-water extract from the seeds of Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sen; Guo, Tiantian; Cheng, Ni; Liu, Qingchao; Zhang, Yunting; Bai, Lu; Zhang, Li; Cao, Wei; Ho, Chi-Tang; Bai, Naisheng

    2017-04-01

    Fraxinus rhynchophylla Hance (Oleaceae), its stem barks are known as Cortex fraxini ( qín pí) listed in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Phytochemical study has indicated that methanol extracts from Qinpi has protective effect on acute liver injury. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective activity of EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in mice. The EtOH-water extract significantly alleviated liver damage as indicated by the decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and increased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and reduced the pathological tissue injury induced by CCl 4 . Quantitative analysis of seven major constituents ( 1-7 ) in EtOH-water extract (EWE) was developed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD). The current research indicates that the EWE from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance decreased liver index, inhibited the increase of serum aminotransferase induced by CCl 4 , and decreased hepatic MDA content, SOD and GSH-Px activities. These results suggested that the pretreatment with EWE protected mice against CCl 4 -induced liver injuries. Based on the results, the EtOH-water extract from the seeds of F. rhynchophylla Hance is efficacious for prevention and treatment of CCl 4 -induced hepatic injury in mice. Secoiridoid and tyrosol glucosides might be the active ingredients responsible for the biological and pharmacological activities of hepatoprotection.

  7. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    PubMed

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  8. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  9. Cannabis and sex: multifaceted paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S

    1982-01-01

    At the present level of ignorance about sexuality and cannabis, what rational position can be adopted? First, it must be recognized that even without cannabis, current involvement in sex-related activities may well have been called "promiscuous" by a preceding generation or two. The general loosening of morality, the erosion of family, church and other authoritarian controls, The Pill, antibiotics and other recent developments have contributed to current casual attitudes. Although one may not perceive it, counterculture beliefs have had their impact on the dominant culture. Marijuana has some enhancing effect upon sexual proceedings for some individuals. It may be sexually evocative and gratifying. Nonspecific factors play an important role in this matter. Opposite effects also occur, and an endocrinologic basis for actual diminution of drives and potency may exist. The final paradox is that cannabis' employment for sexual arousal is predominantly an activity of young adults. The older age groups most in need of sexual support and assistance are less frequently involved in its use. It is unclear why this dichotomy between need and utilization exists.

  10. Maternal use of cannabis and pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Northstone, Kate

    2002-01-01

    To document the prevalence of cannabis use in a large sample of British women studied during pregnancy, to determine the association between cannabis use and social and lifestyle factors and assess any independent effects on pregnancy outcome. Self-completed questionnaire on use of cannabis before and during pregnancy. Over 12,000 women expecting singletons at 18 to 20 weeks of gestation who were enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. Any association with the use of cannabis before and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcome was examined, taking into account potentially confounding factors including maternal social background and other substance use during pregnancy. Late fetal and perinatal death, special care admission of the newborn infant, birthweight, birth length and head circumference. Five percent of mothers reported smoking cannabis before and/or during pregnancy; they were younger, of lower parity, better educated and more likely to use alcohol, cigarettes, coffee, tea and hard drugs. Cannabis use during pregnancy was unrelated to risk of perinatal death or need for special care, but, the babies of women who used cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 216 g lighter than those of non-users, had significantly shorter birth lengths and smaller head circumferences. After adjustment for confounding factors, the association between cannabis use and birthweight failed to be statistically significant (P = 0.056) and was clearly non-linear: the adjusted mean birthweights for babies of women using cannabis at least once per week before and throughout pregnancy were 90 g lighter than the offspring of other women. No significant adjusted effects were seen for birth length and head circumference. The results of this study suggest that the use of cannabis during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of perinatal mortality or morbidity in this sample. However, frequent and regular use of cannabis

  11. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Smit, E; Verdurmen, J E E; Engels, R C M E; Vollebergh, W A M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N=3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Logistic regression analyses revealed that 1) parental cannabis use was significantly related to more adolescent lifetime and recent cannabis use, and 2) restrictive cannabis-specific parental rules were associated with less adolescent recent cannabis and lifetime use of other illicit drugs, even when controlled for sociodemographic factors, general parenting, adolescent tobacco use, and tobacco-specific parenting. In addition, no significant interaction was observed between parental cannabis use and cannabis-specific rules in their relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use, indicating that cannabis rules are evenly associated with adolescent drug use for families with and without parental cannabis experience. In addition to general parenting practices, restrictive cannabis-specific rules are related to lower adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug rates. Parents who ever used cannabis have children with a higher prevalence of cannabis use. However, their restrictive cannabis-specific rules are equally related to a lower chance of adolescent cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Multidimensional analysis of cannabis volatile constituents: identification of 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane as a volatile marker of hashish, the resin of Cannabis sativa L.

    PubMed

    Marchini, Marie; Charvoz, Céline; Dujourdy, Laurence; Baldovini, Nicolas; Filippi, Jean-Jacques

    2014-11-28

    The volatile constituents of drug samples derived from Cannabis sativa L. were investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography techniques (GC-MS, GC×GC-MS). Samples of cannabis herb and hashish showed clear differences in their volatile chemical profiles, mostly resulting from photo-oxidation processes occurring during the transformation of fresh cannabis herb into hashish. Most unexpectedly, we could demonstrate hashish samples as containing remarkable amounts of a rare and unusual monoterpene - 5,5-dimethyl-1-vinylbicyclo[2.1.1]hexane - among the volatile compounds detected in their headspaces. We gave evidence for the formation of this compound from the light induced rearrangement of β-myrcene during the manufacture of hashish. In view of its high abundance among volatile constituents of cannabis resin and its scarce occurrence in other natural volatile extracts, we propose to rename this specific monoterpene hashishene. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies.

    PubMed

    Sznitman, Sharon R; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-10-14

    Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Robust regression analysis was used to analyse data derived from two nationally representative samples of adults participating in comparable cross-sectional online surveys in one country where medical cannabis smoking is illegal (Norway, n = 2175, 51 % male) and in one country where medical cannabis smoking is legal (Israel, n = 648, 49 % male). The belief that cannabis has medical benefits was more strongly related to support for medical cannabis legalization than were beliefs about addiction and spillover effects. While the support for medical cannabis legalization was stronger in Israel than in Norway (78 vs. 51 %, p < 0.01), the belief variables had, in general, more impact on the policy stand in Norway. The belief that cannabis has medical benefits is particularly salient for support for medical cannabis legalization. It is possible that the recent surge in evidence supporting the medical benefits of cannabis will increase the belief about medical benefits of cannabis in the general population which may in turn increase public support for medical cannabis legalization. Results also suggest that once medical cannabis is legalized, factors beyond cannabis-specific beliefs will increasingly influence medical cannabis legalization support. These conclusions are, however, only suggestive as the current study is based on cross-sectional data. Hopefully, future research will be able to capitalize on changes in medical cannabis policies and conduct longitudinal studies that enable an

  14. Validation of the Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) in adult cannabis users in treatment.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Gullo, Matthew J; Feeney, Gerald F X; Young, Ross McD

    2011-06-01

    Outcome expectancies are a key cognitive construct in the etiology, assessment and treatment of Substance Use Disorders. There is a research and clinical need for a cannabis expectancy measure validated in a clinical sample of cannabis users. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) was subjected to exploratory (n=501, mean age 27.45, 78% male) and confirmatory (n=505, mean age 27.69, 78% male) factor analysis in two separate samples of cannabis users attending an outpatient cannabis treatment program. Weekly cannabis consumption was clinically assessed and patients completed the Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis (SDS-C) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Two factors representing Negative Cannabis Expectancies and Positive Cannabis Expectancies were identified. These provided a robust statistical and conceptual fit for the data. Internal reliabilities were high. Negative expectancies were associated with greater dependence severity (as measured by the SDS) and positive expectancies with higher consumption. The interaction of positive and negative expectancies was consistently significantly associated with self-reported functioning across all four GHQ-28 scales (Somatic Concerns, Anxiety, Social Dysfunction and Depression). Specifically, within the context of high positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of more impaired functioning. By contrast, within the context of low positive cannabis expectancy, higher negative expectancy was predictive of better functioning. The CEQ is the first cannabis expectancy measure to be validated in a sample of cannabis users in treatment. Negative and positive cannabis expectancy domains were uniquely associated with consumption, dependence severity and self-reported mental health functioning. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K.; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample (n=2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes. PMID:28861492

  16. Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence.

    PubMed

    Freeman, T P; Winstock, A R

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis use is decreasing in England and Wales, while demand for cannabis treatment in addiction services continues to rise. This could be partly due to an increased availability of high-potency cannabis. Adults residing in the UK were questioned about their drug use, including three types of cannabis (high potency: skunk; low potency: other grass, resin). Cannabis types were profiled and examined for possible associations between frequency of use and (i) cannabis dependence, (ii) cannabis-related concerns. Frequent use of high-potency cannabis predicted a greater severity of dependence [days of skunk use per month: b = 0.254, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.161-0.357, p < 0.001] and this effect became stronger as age decreased (b = -0.006, 95% CI -0.010 to -0.002, p = 0.004). By contrast, use of low-potency cannabis was not associated with dependence (days of other grass use per month: b = 0.020, 95% CI -0.029 to 0.070, p = 0.436; days of resin use per month: b = 0.025, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.067, p = 0.245). Frequency of cannabis use (all types) did not predict severity of cannabis-related concerns. High-potency cannabis was clearly distinct from low-potency varieties by its marked effects on memory and paranoia. It also produced the best high, was preferred, and most available. High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

  17. Sex Differences in Cannabis Use and Effects: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Cannabis Users.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; Mischley, Laurie K; Sexton, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Despite known sex differences in the endocannabinoid system of animals, little attention has been paid to sex differences in human's cannabis use patterns and effects. The purpose of the present study was to examine sex differences in cannabis use patterns and effects in a large sample of recreational and medical cannabis users. Methods: A large sample ( n =2374) of cannabis users completed an anonymous, online survey that assessed their cannabis use practices and experiences, including the short-term acute effects of cannabis and withdrawal effects. A subsample of 1418 medical cannabis users further indicated the medical conditions for which they use cannabis and its perceived efficacy. Results: The results indicated that men reported using cannabis more frequently and in higher quantities than did women. Men were more likely to report using joints/blunts, vaporizers, and concentrates, while women were more likely to report using pipes and oral administration. Men were more likely than women to report increased appetite, improved memory, enthusiasm, altered time perception, and increased musicality when high, while women were more likely than men to report loss of appetite and desire to clean when high. Men were more likely than women to report insomnia and vivid dreams during periods of withdrawal, while women were more likely than men to report nausea and anxiety as withdrawal symptoms. Sex differences in the conditions for which medical cannabis is used, and its efficacy, were trivial. Conclusions: These results may be used to focus research on biological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying cannabis-related sex differences, to inform clinicians treating individuals with cannabis use disorders, and to inform cannabis consumers, clinicians, and policymakers about the risks and benefits of cannabis for both sexes.

  18. Anti-cholinesterase activity of the standardized extract of Syzygium aromaticum L.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Manoj K; Bhadra, Santanu; Chaudhary, Sushil K; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is a well-known culinary spice with strong aroma; contains a high amount of oil known as clove oil. The major phyto-constituent of the clove oil is eugenol. Clove and its oil possess various medicinal uses in indigenous medicine as an antiseptic, anti-oxidant, analgesic and neuroprotective properties. Thus, it draws much attention among researchers from pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-cholinesterase activity of the methanol extract of clove, its oil and eugenol. In vitro anti-cholinesterase activity of S. aromaticum was performed by a thin layer chromatography bio autography, 96 well micro titer plate and kinetic methods. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analysis was carried out to identify the biomarker compound eugenol in clove oil. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibition study revealed that eugenol possess better inhibition of the enzymes than extract and oil. Clove extract, its oil and eugenol showed better inhibition of AChE than BChE. Polyphenolic compound eugenol was detected through RP-HPLC analysis. The content of eugenol in essential oil was found to be 0.5 μg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the cholinesterase inhibition study of the extract; clove oil and eugenol have shown that they possess mixed type of inhibition for AChE and non-competitive type of inhibition for BChE. These results might be useful in explaining the effect of clove as anti-cholinesterase agent for the management of cognitive ailments like Alzheimer's disease.

  19. A Dietary Supplement Containing Standardized Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Influences Body Composition of Overweight Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Celleno, Leonardo; Tolaini, Maria Vittoria; D'Amore, Alessandra; Perricone, Nicholas V.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: More than one billion human adults worldwide are overweight and, therefore, are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and a variety of other chronic perturbations. Many believe that use of natural dietary supplements could aid in the struggle against obesity. So-called "starch blockers" are listed among natural weight loss supplements. Theoretically, they may promote weight loss by interfering with the breakdown of complex carbohydrates thereby reducing, or at least slowing, the digestive availability of carbohydrate-derived calories and/or by providing resistant starches to the lower gastrointestinal tract. Aims: The present research study examines a dietary supplement containing 445 mg of Phaseolus vulgaris extract derived from the white kidney bean, previously shown to inhibit the activity of the digestive enzyme alpha amylase, on body composition of overweight human subjects. Methods: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted on 60 pre-selected, slightly overweight volunteers, whose weight had been essentially stable for at least six months. The volunteers were divided into two groups, homogeneous for age, gender, and body weight. The test product containing Phaseolus vulgaris extract and the placebo were taken one tablet per day for 30 consecutive days before a main meal rich in carbohydrates. Each subject's body weight, fat and non-fat mass, skin fold thickness, and waist/hip/thigh circumferences were measured. Results: After 30 days, subjects receiving Phaseolus vulgaris extract with a carbohydrate-rich, 2000- to 2200-calorie diet had significantly (p<0.001) greater reduction of body weight, BMI, fat mass, adipose tissue thickness, and waist,/hip/ thigh circumferences while maintaining lean body mass compared to subjects receiving placebo. Conclusion: The results indicate that Phaseolus vulgaris extract produces significant decrements in body weight and suggest decrements in fat mass in the

  20. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and infrared spectroscopy. The amount of active principle in rhizome isolated active fraction of plant was assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Later, the standardized rhizome extract of plant and its active principle were tested for in vivo anthelmintic efficacy against experimentally induced Hymenolepis diminuta, a zoonotic cestode, infections in rats. Results: The study revealed that b-asarone is the active principle of plant. The HPLC analysis of local variety of A. calamus revealed that active fraction contains 83.54% (w/w) of b-asarone. The in vivo study revealed that treatment of H. diminuta infected rats by a single 800 mg/kg dose of rhizome extract for 5 days results into 62.30% reduction in eggs per gram of feces counts and 83.25% reduction in worm counts of animals. These findings compared well with the efficacy of a reference drug, praziquantel. The active principle b-asarone showed slightly better anthelmintic effects than crude extract. In acute toxicity assay, a single oral 2000 mg/kg dose of extract did not reveal any signs of toxicity or mortality in mice, and the LD50 of the extract was noted to be >2000 mg/kg. Conclusion: Taken together, the results of this study indicate that rhizomes of A. calamus bear significant dose-dependent effects against intestinal helminths. Further, the Indian variety of A. calamus contains high b-asarone content. Therefore, there exists a great potential to develop some

  1. Psychotic-like experiences with cannabis use predict cannabis cessation and desire to quit: a cannabis discontinuation hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Sami, Musa; Notley, Caitlin; Kouimtsidis, Christos; Lynskey, Michael; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2018-03-23

    Evidence suggests that cannabis-induced psychotic-like experiences may be a marker of psychosis proneness. The effect of such experiences on cannabis use has not systematically been examined. We undertook a mixed-methods online survey of 1231 cannabis users (including 926 continued users) using the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire. We examined the effect of psychotic-like and pleasurable experiences on cessation of cannabis and intention to quit. Socio-demographic variables, cannabis use parameters and substance misuse history were included as covariates. Free-text data explored subjective reasons for changes in use. Cessation of cannabis use was associated with greater psychotic-like experiences [p < 0.001, Exp(B) 1.262, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.179-1.351], whilst continued cannabis users were more likely to report pleasurable experiences [p < 0.001, Exp(B) 0.717, 95% CI 0.662-0.776]. Intention to quit cannabis in continued users was associated with greater psychotic-like experiences [p < 0.003, Exp(B) 1.131, 95% CI 1.044-1.225], whilst intention to not quit was significantly associated with increased pleasurable experiences [p < 0.015, Exp(B) 0.892, 95% CI 0.814-0.978]. Whereas former users clearly ascribed cessation to negative experiences, continued users who expressed intention to quit less readily ascribed the intention to negative experiences. Elucidation of psychotic-like experiences may form the basis of a therapeutic intervention for those who wish to quit. Cessation in those with cannabis-induced psychotomimetic experiences may offset the risk for the development of a psychotic disorder, in this higher risk group.

  2. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Awad, Hamza H.; Ghali, Jalal K.

    2017-01-01

    The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-terms effects. The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia, and potentially sudden death, and to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption. Cannabinoids, or the active compounds of cannabis, have been shown to have heterogeneous effects on central and peripheral circulation. Acute cannabis consumption has been shown to cause an increase in blood pressure, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP), and orthostatic hypotension. Cannabis use has been reported to increase risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in the healthy young patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered as a promising therapeutic target in the management of several disease conditions. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic effects; however, the value of their benefits over possible complications remains controversial. Despite the considerable research in this field, the benefits of cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remains questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude towards recreational consumption and promotion of the therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with cannabis use and to disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects. PMID:28840009

  3. Recreational cannabis use: pleasures and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rella, Joseph G

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis is widely used for a variety of reasons, and its changing legal status may foster more new users. Although the acute clinical effects of cannabis are generally benign, clinicians should be aware of health complications and testing limitations. Copyright © 2015 Cleveland Clinic.

  4. Role of cannabis in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Hemant; Awad, Hamza H; Ghali, Jalal K

    2017-07-01

    The growing popularity of medical and recreational consumption of cannabis, especially among the youth, raises immediate concerns regarding its safety and long-terms effects. The cardiovascular effects of cannabis are not well known. Cannabis consumption has been shown to cause arrhythmia including ventricular tachycardia, and potentially sudden death, and to increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). These effects appear to be compounded by cigarette smoking and precipitated by excessive physical activity, especially during the first few hours of consumption. Cannabinoids, or the active compounds of cannabis, have been shown to have heterogeneous effects on central and peripheral circulation. Acute cannabis consumption has been shown to cause an increase in blood pressure, specifically systolic blood pressure (SBP), and orthostatic hypotension. Cannabis use has been reported to increase risk of ischemic stroke, particularly in the healthy young patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is currently considered as a promising therapeutic target in the management of several disease conditions. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are being increasingly investigated for their therapeutic effects; however, the value of their benefits over possible complications remains controversial. Despite the considerable research in this field, the benefits of cannabis and its synthetic derivatives remains questionable even in the face of an increasingly tolerating attitude towards recreational consumption and promotion of the therapeutic complications. More efforts are needed to increase awareness among the public, especially youth, about the cardiovascular risks associated with cannabis use and to disseminate the accumulated knowledge regarding its ill effects.

  5. The Risks and Benefits of Cannabis in the Dermatology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Dhadwal, Gurbir; Kirchhof, Mark G

    Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa/indica), also known as marijuana, has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia. There has been a recent trend to legalize the use of cannabis, as illustrated by the recent legalization votes in numerous states in the United States and legislation in Canada to allow recreational cannabis use. With this increasing consumption of cannabis, dermatologists will see increased pressure to prescribe cannabis and will see the side effects of cannabis use with greater frequency. There are several approved medical indications for cannabis use, including psoriasis, lupus, nail-patella syndrome, and severe pain. In addition, very preliminary studies have suggested cannabis and its derivatives might have use in acne, dermatitis, pruritus, wound healing, and skin cancer. Further well-controlled studies are required to explore these potential uses. Conversely, the side effects of cannabis use are relatively well documented, and dermatologists should be aware of these presentations. Side effects of cannabis use include cannabis allergy manifesting as urticaria and pruritus, cannabis arteritis presenting with necrosis and ulcers, and oral cancers from cannabis smoke. In this review, we summarize some of the studies and reports regarding the medicinal uses of cannabis in the dermatology clinic and some of the side effects that might present more often to dermatologists as the use of cannabis increases.

  6. The Choice of Screening Instrument Matters: The Case of Problematic Cannabis Use Screening in Spanish Population of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  7. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  8. Prevalence of cannabis residues in psychiatric patients: a case study of two mental health referral hospitals in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Awuzu, Epaenetus A; Kaye, Emmanuel; Vudriko, Patrick

    2014-01-08

    Various studies have reported that abuse of cannabis is a risk factor for psychosis. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of delta 9-tetrahydrocanabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a major metabolite of cannabis, in psychiatric patients in Uganda, and to assess the diagnostic capacity of two referral mental health hospitals to screen patients for exposure to cannabis in Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics of the patients were collected through questionnaires and review of medical records. Urine samples were collected from 100 patients and analyzed using Δ(9)-THC immunochromatographic kit (Standard Diagnostics(®), South Korea). Seventeen percent of the patients tested positive for Δ(9)-THC residues in their urine. There was strong association (P < 0.05) between history of previous abuse of cannabis and presence of Δ(9)-THC residues in the urine. Alcohol, cocaine, heroin, pethidine, tobacco, khat and kuber were the other substances abused in various combinations. Both referral hospitals lacked laboratory diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis in psychiatric patients. In conclusion, previous abuse of cannabis is associated with occurrence of the residues in psychiatric patients, yet referral mental health facilities in Uganda do not have the appropriate diagnostic kits for detection of cannabis residues as a basis for evidence-based psychotherapy.

  9. Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Imbert, Bruce; Labrune, Nathalie; Lancon, Christophe; Simon, Nicolas

    2014-02-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However, only few studies have shown the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in targeting cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reducing the reinforcing effects of cannabis. Baclofen has been shown to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms and the subjective effects of cannabis. We think that the clinical utility of baclofen for cannabis dependence is a reasonable approach. A case report using baclofen is presented and provides preliminary support for the use of baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence.

  10. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    PubMed

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Consumer agency in cannabis supply - Exploring auto-regulatory documents of the cannabis social clubs in Spain.

    PubMed

    Belackova, Vendula; Wilkins, Chris

    2018-04-01

    There is growing experience with the not-for-profit, consumer-driven cannabis social club (CSC) model that builds on self-supply, self-organization and harm-reduction; these are principles upon which people who use drugs (PWUD) have been engaging for decades. Recent legalization of cannabis in a number of jurisdictions and the related challenges in regulating production, sale, taxation and health-related matters have raised interest in non-commercial models of cannabis supply. The "codes of conduct" (CsoC) of CSC federations in Spain might reveal whether a consumer-based model could overcome these challenges. To examine the content of the CSC auto-regulatory documents, an online search using key terms to identify the CsoC was conducted. Six documents were found; analysis of the main thematic categories and overarching themes was conducted. It was discussed how these corresponded to the areas of cannabis policy regulation and what the main limitations of the CSC model were. The CsoC detailed the rules for CSC administration, not-for-profit aims, "invitation only" and other conditions of membership, collective cultivation and security as well as for operation of the consumption venue and health-related initiatives. The themes in the CsoC overlapped with cannabis regulatory areas as outlined internationally. Concern over cannabis prices and potency was missing in the CsoC. The potential strengths of the CSC model might include safe environment for peer-delivered harm reduction practice, preventing illicit transactions, quality control, shifting economic surplus to the consumers and increased consumer responsibility. The limitations of the CSC model include high threshold, disguised motives, tax revenue and the risk of both under- and over-regulation. CSCs represent an opportunity to enhance consumer agency and responsibility. The right "to be self-supplied" with psychoactive substances can be granted to consumer associations - but authorities need to provide a

  13. Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure

    PubMed Central

    Oburai, Nethaji Lokeswar; Rao, V. Vaikunta; Bonath, Ram Babu Naik

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complementing herbal drugs with conservative modern treatment could improve renal condition in canine chronic renal failure (CRF). Objective: In this study, clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract was carried out in CRF in dogs in comparison with standard enalapril. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 dogs of mixed breeds suffering from CRF from 1 to 2 months were divided into two groups (n = 10) and treated as follows: Group I - Enalapril at 0.5 mg/kg p.o. once daily for 90 days + amoxicillin and cloxacillin at 25 mg/kg i.m. once daily for 1-week; Group II - B. diffusa root extract at 500 mg p.o per dog daily for 90 days. Both groups were maintained on a supportive fluid therapy. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's post-hoc test. Results: CRF caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, urinary protein, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and glutamyl transferase (GGT). A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in hemoglobin and total erythrocyte count (TEC) was also observed. Nephrosonography revealed indistinct corticomedullary junction, altered renal architecture, hyper-echoic cortex, medulla, and sunken kidneys. Both the treatments significantly (P < 0.05) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by day 30. Serum Creatinine, urea nitrogen, phosphorus, urinary protein, ALP, and GGT showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction by day 60 in both the treatments. However, potassium levels were normalized only by B. diffusa root extract treatment by day 30. Both the treatments failed to show a significant improvement in nephrosonographic picture even after 90 days posttreatment. Conclusion: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs. PMID:26604549

  14. A novel reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for standardization of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Saidan, Noor Hafizoh; Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Hamil, Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3'-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4'-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts. The aim was to develop and validate a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of 4 marker compounds (RA, TMF, SIN, EUP) in various O. stamineus leaf extracts. The method was developed and validated using RP-HPLC-diode-array detection at 320 nm for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and was applied for quantification of it markers in five different extracts prepared in solvents with increasing polarity, using a gradient mobile phase 0.1% formic acid: Acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on reverse phase acclaim polar advantage II C18 column (3 μm, 3 × 150 mm) with 18 min separation time. The developed method provided satisfactory precision, and the accuracy of this method was in the range of 90.2% to 105.5%. All of 4 compounds showed good linearity at R2 > 0.999. The developed method is a simple, cost effective with shorter run time (18 min) in comparison to previous methods (30 min) and utilization of environmental-friendly solvents system. Therefore, this method has the potential to replace currently used methods in the routine standardization work of O. stamineus extracts, raw materials and its commercial products.

  15. A novel reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography method for standardization of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Saidan, Noor Hafizoh; Aisha, Abdalrahim F.A.; Hamil, Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan; Majid, Amin Malik Shah Abdul; Ismail, Zhari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. (Lamiaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used in treating various ailments such as kidney diseases, bladder inflammation, arthritis and diabetes. The leaves contain high concentration of phenolic compounds, thus, rosmarinic acid (RA), 3’-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4’-tetramethoxyflavone (TMF), sinensetin (SIN) and eupatorin (EUP) were chosen as a marker compounds for standardization of various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Objective: The aim was to develop and validate a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for quantification of 4 marker compounds (RA, TMF, SIN, EUP) in various O. stamineus leaf extracts. Materials and Methods: The method was developed and validated using RP-HPLC-diode-array detection at 320 nm for accuracy, precision and limits of detection and was applied for quantification of it markers in five different extracts prepared in solvents with increasing polarity, using a gradient mobile phase 0.1% formic acid: Acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1 ml/min on reverse phase acclaim polar advantage II C18 column (3 μm, 3 × 150 mm) with 18 min separation time. Results: The developed method provided satisfactory precision, and the accuracy of this method was in the range of 90.2% to 105.5%. All of 4 compounds showed good linearity at R2 > 0.999. Conclusion: The developed method is a simple, cost effective with shorter run time (18 min) in comparison to previous methods (30 min) and utilization of environmental-friendly solvents system. Therefore, this method has the potential to replace currently used methods in the routine standardization work of O. stamineus extracts, raw materials and its commercial products. PMID:25598631

  16. Medical Cannabis and the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Kirsch, Douglas B; Chervin, Ronald D; Carden, Kelly A; Aurora, R Nisha; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Martin, Jennifer L; Olson, Eric J; Rosen, Carol L; Rowley, James A

    2018-04-15

    The diagnosis and effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults is an urgent health priority. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy remains the most effective treatment for OSA, although other treatment options continue to be explored. Limited evidence citing small pilot or proof of concept studies suggest that the synthetic medical cannabis extract dronabinol may improve respiratory stability and provide benefit to treat OSA. However, side effects such as somnolence related to treatment were reported in most patients, and the long-term effects on other sleep quality measures, tolerability, and safety are still unknown. Dronabinol is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of OSA, and medical cannabis and synthetic extracts other than dronabinol have not been studied in patients with OSA. The composition of cannabinoids within medical cannabis varies significantly and is not regulated. Synthetic medical cannabis may have differential effects, with variable efficacy and side effects in the treatment of OSA. Therefore, it is the position of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) that medical cannabis and/or its synthetic extracts should not be used for the treatment of OSA due to unreliable delivery methods and insufficient evidence of effectiveness, tolerability, and safety. OSA should be excluded from the list of chronic medical conditions for state medical cannabis programs, and patients with OSA should discuss their treatment options with a licensed medical provider at an accredited sleep facility. Further research is needed to understand the functionality of medical cannabis extracts before recommending them as a treatment for OSA. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  17. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Cannabis constituents modulate δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Farrimond, Jonathan A; Hill, Andrew J; Whalley, Benjamin J; Williams, Claire M

    2010-05-01

    The hyperphagic effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9THC) in humans and rodents is well known. However, no studies have investigated the importance of Delta9THC composition and any influence other non-Delta9THC cannabinoids present in Cannabis sativa may have. We therefore compared the effects of purified Delta9THC, synthetic Delta9THC (dronabinol), and Delta9THC botanical drug substance (Delta9THC-BDS), a Delta9THC-rich standardized extract comparable in composition to recreationally used cannabis. Adult male rats were orally dosed with purified Delta9THC, synthetic Delta9THC, or Delta9THC-BDS, matched for Delta9THC content (0.34-2.68 mg/kg). Prior to dosing, subjects were satiated, and food intake was recorded following Delta9THC administration. Data were then analyzed in terms of hourly intake and meal patterns. All three Delta9THC substances tested induced significant hyperphagic effects at doses >or=0.67 mg/kg. These effects included increased intake during hour one, a shorter latency to onset of feeding and a greater duration and consumption in the first meal. However, while some differences in vehicle control intakes were observed, there were significant, albeit subtle, differences in pattern of effects between the purified Delta9THC and Delta9THC-BDS. All Delta9THC compounds displayed classical Delta9THC effects on feeding, significantly increasing shortterm intake whilst decreasing latency to the first meal. We propose that the subtle adjustment to the meal patterns seen between the purified Delta9THC and Delta9THC-BDS are due to non-Delta9THC cannabinoids present in Delta9THC-BDS. These compounds and other non-cannabinoids have an emerging and diverse pharmacology and can modulate Delta9THC-induced hyperphagia, making them worth further investigation for their therapeutic potential.

  19. [Actions of standardized extracts of Crataegus berries on exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure].

    PubMed

    Rietbrock, N; Hamel, M; Hempel, B; Mitrovic, V; Schmidt, T; Wolf, G K

    2001-10-01

    Standardized extracts of Crataegus leaves and blossoms are said to have positive inotropic, positive dromotropic and negative bathmotropic effects. Clinical trials produce evidence for an improvement of symptoms in patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA II). In this trial the efficacy of a standardized extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Rob 10) on exercise tolerance and quality of life was studied in 88 patients. In a three-month placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial these patients were treated with Rob 10 (3 x 25 drops daily). Total exercise time in bicycle ergometry was defined as primary efficacy variable, while quality of life (Minnesota Questionnaire), Dyspnea-Fatigue Index and the assessment of dyspnea by the patient on a visual analogous scale were chosen as secondary parameters. Investigations were performed after a two week placebo run-in period as well as 6 and 12 weeks after the onset of the study. Treatment with Rob 10 led to a increase of exercise time of 38.9 s vs placebo (95% confidence interval 5.7-72.1 s). Quality of life improved accordingly in favour of Rob 10. In the Minnesota Questionnaire, the total score fell by 31% (30.6 vs 44.1) under Rob 10 vs 18% (34.6 vs 42.4) under placebo. The Dyspnea-Fatigue Index demonstrated an increase of the total score of 12% (9.41 vs 8.37) vs 8% (8.92 vs 8.26) under administration of placebo. According to findings of the assessment of dyspnea by the patient, dyspnea decreased by 11% (50.5 vs 56.6 mm) vs 4% (54.8 vs 57.3 mm) under placebo. The present study proves the efficacy and safety of a standardized extract of fresh Crataegus berries (Rob 10) in patients with congestive heart failure (NYHA II) regarding the parameters evaluated.

  20. Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.

    PubMed

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-04-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed.

  1. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  2. First-principles calibration of 40Ar/39Ar mineral standards and complete extraction of 40Ar* from sanidine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, L. E.; Kuiper, K.; Mark, D.; Postma, O.; Villa, I. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar geochronology relies on comparing argon isotopic data for unknowns to those for knowns. Mineral standards used as neutron fluence monitors must be dated by the K-Ar method (or at least referenced to a mineral of known K-Ar age). The commonly used age of 28.02 ± 0.28 Ma for the Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) (Renne et al., 1998) is based upon measurements of radiogenic 40Ar in GA1550 biotite (McDougall and Roksandic, 1974), but underlying full data were not published (these measurements were never intended for use as an international standard), so uncertainties are difficult to assess. Recent developments by Kuiper et al. (2008) and Renne et al. (2010) are limited by their reliance on the accuracy of other systems. Modern technology should allow for more precise and accurate calibration of primary K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar standards. From the ideal gas law, the number of moles of 40Ar in a system can be calculated from measurements of pressure, volume, and temperature. Thus we have designed and are proceeding to build a pipette system to introduce well-determined amounts of 40Ar into noble gas extraction lines and mass spectrometers. This system relies on components with calibrations traceable to SI unit prototypes, including a diaphragm pressure gauge (MKS Instruments), thermocouples, and a “slug” of an accurately determined volume to be inserted into the reservoir for volume determinations of the reservoir and pipette. The system will be renewable, with a lifetime of ca. 1 month for gas in the reservoir, and portable, to permit interlaboratory calibrations. The quantitative extraction of 40Ar* from the mineral standard is of highest importance; for sanidine standards this is complicated by high melt viscosity during heating. Experiments adding basaltic “zero age glass” (ZAG) to decrease melt viscosity are underway. This has previously been explored by McDowell (1983) with a resistance furnace, but has not been quantitatively addressed with laser heating

  3. Using cannabis to help you sleep: heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Babson, Kimberly A; Vandrey, Ryan

    2014-03-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes is proliferating in the U.S., and PTSD is an explicitly approved condition for accessing medical cannabis in 5 states. Prior research suggests that people with PTSD often use cannabis to help cope with their condition, and that doing so results in more frequent and problematic cannabis use patterns. Specific coping motivations, such as sleep improvement, among medical cannabis users, have not been examined. The present study evaluated specific coping use motivations, frequency of cannabis and alcohol use, and mental health among a convenience sample of patients (N=170) at a medical cannabis dispensary in California. Those with high PTSD scores were more likely to use cannabis to improve sleep, and for coping reasons more generally, compared with those with low PTSD scores. Cannabis use frequency was greater among those with high PTSD scores who used for sleep promoting purposes compared with those with low PTSD scores or those who did not use for sleep promoting purposes. Consistent with prior research, this study found increased rates of coping-oriented use of c