Science.gov

Sample records for standards-based grading system

  1. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  2. Grading for Understanding--Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I…

  3. Grading for Understanding - Standards-Based Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG), sometimes called learning objectives-based assessment (LOBA), is an assessment model that relies on students demonstrating mastery of learning objectives (sometimes referred to as standards). The goal of this grading system is to focus students on mastering learning objectives rather than on accumulating points. I have used SBG in an introductory physics course for the past five years and worked with several physics faculty members to implement SBG in the first and second semester of algebra-based and calculus-based introductory physics courses at a primarily undergraduate comprehensive public university with class sizes of 48 students. In this article I will discuss methods for implementing SBG in a physics class.

  4. The relationship between standards-based reporting systems and third-grade mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean-Harris, Rose M.

    Over the last decade, accountability has been the driving force for many changes in education in the United States. One major educational reform effort is the standards-based movement with a focus of combining a number of processes that involve aligning curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback to specific standards that are measureable and indicative of student achievement. The purpose of this study is to determine if the type of report card is a possible predictor of third grade student achievement on standardized tests in mathematics and science for the 2012 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The results of this study concluded that the difference in test scores in mathematics and science for students in the traditional report card group was not statistically significant when compared to the scores of students in the standards-based report card group when controlling for poverty level, school locale, and school district. However, students in the traditional report card group scored an average of 1.01 point higher in mathematics and 2.27 points higher in science than students in the standards-based report card group.

  5. Moving to Standards-Based Grading: Lessons from Omaha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Chris; Spencer-May, Karen; Westerberg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Getting a large, urban school district to use standards-based education and standards-based grading is challenging. Doing so in one year is monumental. During the 2009-10 school year, Omaha (NE) Public Schools began to study the feasibility of making changes to its traditional grading system. The more closely district personnel investigated the…

  6. Perceived Effects of Standards-Based Grading on Student Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoernke, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how the implementation of a district-wide standards-based grading system affected the ways in which high school teachers assessed students' academic achievement. The researcher used a bounded case study to observe and interview three participating secondary teachers in a rural Wisconsin high school that used standards-based…

  7. Standards-Based Grading: History Adjusted True Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Jay; Cowell, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    There has been much research and discussion on the principles of standards-based grading, and there is a growing consensus of best practice. Even so, the actual process of implementing standards-based grading at a school or district level can be a significant challenge. There are very practical questions that remain unclear, such as how the grades…

  8. The Benefits of Standards-Based Grading: A Critical Evaluation of Modern Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iamarino, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology and application of an assessment philosophy known as standards-based grading, via a critical comparison of standards-based grading to other assessment philosophies commonly employed at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels of education. Evidenced by examples of increased student engagement and…

  9. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading…

  10. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading…

  11. Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the Implementation of Standards-Based Grading in Wake County Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen Graham

    2011-01-01

    Wake County Public School System's (WCPSS) 102 elementary schools have implemented standards-based grading. This grading practice is aligned with North Carolina's Student Accountability Standards and the WCPSS Promotion/Intervention policy. Standards-based report cards were designed to reflect student mastery of state standards and provide an…

  12. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  13. Best Practices for Leading a Transition to Standards-Based Grading in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    Educational policy researchers have concluded that if U.S. schools transition from the traditional model of grading and reporting to a uniform standards-based grading and reporting model, students would benefit academically. However, very few middle and high schools in the United States have made the transition to standards-based grading. This…

  14. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  15. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  16. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  17. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates…

  18. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  19. A Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Tool for Faculty: Design and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadik, Alaa M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of standard-based assessment, grading and reporting tools is essential to ensure that assessment meets acceptable levels of quality and standardization. This study reports the design, development and evaluation of a standards-based assessment tool for the instructors at Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. The Rapid Applications…

  20. Standards-Based Grading Practices among Practicing Music Educators: Prevalence and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Nathan A.; Wuttke, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to describe the prevalence of Standards-based grading (SBG) among practicing music teachers and report the rationale teachers provided for or against its use. Participants were music educators (N = 96) responsible for grading students. Most participants (52.08%, n = 50) indicated that they were not familiar with SBG. Many…

  1. Standards-Based Grading Practices among Practicing Music Educators: Prevalence and Rationale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, Nathan A.; Wuttke, Brian C.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to describe the prevalence of Standards-based grading (SBG) among practicing music teachers and report the rationale teachers provided for or against its use. Participants were music educators (N = 96) responsible for grading students. Most participants (52.08%, n = 50) indicated that they were not familiar with SBG. Many…

  2. Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urich, Laura Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have as…

  3. Implementation Issues of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System: Perceptions of Campus Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the key implementation issues of a standards-based teacher evaluation system as perceived by campus administrators. The 80 campus administrators that participated in this study were from six public school districts located in southeastern Texas that serve students in grades Kindergarten…

  4. Teaching with the End in Mind: The Role of Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippy, Nicole; Washer, Barton A.; Perrin, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Grading according to standards, competencies, or concepts is nothing new.With the current grading system gaining more scrutiny, parts of the basic framework of how we grade students are being questioned. Stephens (2010) and Marzano and Heflebower (2011) reinforced the notion that homework, behavior, attendance, notebooks, and group work should not…

  5. Teaching with the End in Mind: The Role of Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippy, Nicole; Washer, Barton A.; Perrin, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Grading according to standards, competencies, or concepts is nothing new.With the current grading system gaining more scrutiny, parts of the basic framework of how we grade students are being questioned. Stephens (2010) and Marzano and Heflebower (2011) reinforced the notion that homework, behavior, attendance, notebooks, and group work should not…

  6. Understanding the Impact of Online Grading and Standards-Based Report Cards: A Phenomenological Study on Teacher Instruction at the Elementary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathena, Ann Ashley

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental, phenomenological study was to understand the impact of online grading and standards-based report cards on elementary teacher instruction at a suburban school system. This research study examined teacher instruction and assessment, sharing obstacles, and resources necessary for the effective use of…

  7. Teaching the Middle School Grade-Level Outcomes with Standards-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Rettig, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the grade-level outcomes to be assessed on middle school (grades 6-8) physical education. Specifically, the article describes how to teach basic tactics and strategies while applying fundamental movement patterns to the various game and movement categories (invasion, net/wall, target, fielding/striking, dance/rhythms, &…

  8. Teaching the Middle School Grade-Level Outcomes with Standards-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Rettig, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the grade-level outcomes to be assessed on middle school (grades 6-8) physical education. Specifically, the article describes how to teach basic tactics and strategies while applying fundamental movement patterns to the various game and movement categories (invasion, net/wall, target, fielding/striking, dance/rhythms, &…

  9. The Association between Standards- Based Grading and Standardized Test Scores in a High School Reform Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, Marty; Hochbein, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: From two decades of research on the grading practices of teachers in secondary schools, researchers discovered that teachers evaluated students on numerous factors that do not validly assess a student's achievement level in a specific content area. These consistent findings suggested that traditional grading practices evolved…

  10. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  11. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development…

  12. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development…

  13. Standards-Based Reform: What Does It Mean for the Middle Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Anne

    This paper describes the status of the standards movement in relation to the middle grades and in terms of the policy context of the 1990s. It also outlines the potential of standards-guided reform at the middle level. By the early years of the 1990s, two key assumptions characterized the new wave of proposed reforms: that schools needed to…

  14. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  15. Safe To Be Smart. Building a Culture for Standards-Based Reform in the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Anne

    Viewing standards from the perspective of classroom teachers, this book discusses the need to alter middle school culture to facilitate meaningful improvements in the teaching-learning environment. It emphasizes efforts by middle grades educators to make schools and classrooms places where more students work harder to do work of higher quality…

  16. An extensible standards-based control system on a budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.; Langston, Glen; Shelton, John; Weadon, Tim

    2006-06-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank was charged with replacing and enhancing the original control system on the NRAO 43-Meter (43m) telescope, for a minimum amount of labor, time and materials. The original 1960's vintage design required continuous operator presence for monitoring and control of the telescope. A fully automated, unattended operation was desired, along with better tracking performance at high speeds and reduced maintenance costs. We responded with a design based on proven industrial control technology, RTAI/Linux computers, and hardware and software adapted from the GBT and other NRAO telescopes. Commercial off-the-shelf software packages were also used in the system. We describe the overall design of the system and the decision process that led to the adoption of the various pieces of hardware and software, including the tradeoffs made between buying and building systems, and allocation of telescope functions between subsystems.

  17. Modifications of the Standard Base Supply System Stock Leveling Techniques.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    only S more effective and efficient than our current system but also ":- guaranteed a leveling decision after the very first request that grounded... Effectiveness . 6 . The measure of Average Customer Wait Time, as defined by DODD 4140.45, is not currently measured in our current retail level inventory system...levels of supply support that would be required to achieve a specific level of operational effectiveness . This approach necessitated the identification

  18. Charting a Course to Standards-Based Grading: What to Stop, What to Start, and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    What's the best way to ensure that grading policies are fair, accurate, and consistent across classrooms? How can schools transition to a grading system that better reflects what students are actually learning? Author Tim R. Westerberg makes this journey easier by offering a continuum of options, with four "destinations" on the road to…

  19. Charting a Course to Standards-Based Grading: What to Stop, What to Start, and Why It Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    What's the best way to ensure that grading policies are fair, accurate, and consistent across classrooms? How can schools transition to a grading system that better reflects what students are actually learning? Author Tim R. Westerberg makes this journey easier by offering a continuum of options, with four "destinations" on the road to…

  20. Standards-Based, Web Services for Interoperable Geosciences Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Nativi, S.; Bigagli, L.; Caron, J.

    2005-12-01

    Disparate, "stove-pipe" data systems are among the main impediments to many interdisciplinary research projects in the geosciences. The solid earth disciplines and hydrology tend to use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) which enable them to store and interact with data representing as discrete features on or near the surface of the earth. Studies of the oceans and atmosphere on the other hand involve systems that represent data as discrete points in the continuous function space of fluid dynamics. Attempts to understand the nature of severe precipitation and flooding events are hampered by the difficulty of integrating data such as streamflows from hydrological data systems with radar data and precipitation forecasts from atmospheric science data systems. An effort is underway to address some of these issues with an interoperability experiment within the framework of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The experiment is called GALEON (Geo-interface to Atmosphere, Land, Earth, Ocean NetCDF). Teams at the Unidata Program Center and University of Florence are working with a number of international partners to implement a web services interface to traditional atmospheric and oceanographic datasets currently stored in netCDF form or served via the OPeNDAP protocol . The project will result in a gateway service using Web Coverage Service (WCS) specification of the OGC. Underneath the WCS interface will be a combination of technologies including THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services) and HDF5 (Heirarchical Data Format) in addition to netCDF and OPeNDAP. A key component of the project is to develop mechanisms for explicit encoding of coordinate system information in the form of Coordinate System extensions to NcML (the netCDF Markup Language), directly in the data files themselves and in the form of GML (Geography Markup Language) extensions to NcML. These extensions, called NcML-GML, include a subset profile of the standard GML which is

  1. 7th-12th Grade English/Language Arts Teachers and Their Classroom Grading Practices: Investigating the Use of Standards-Based Grading in Nebraska's Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Summer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A problem exists in grading practices accurately measuring student achievement. Both students' academic achievements and nonacademic factors, such as effort, homework completion, and behaviors continue to factor into grades. This combination can lead to inaccurate representation of true academic ability, rendering a grade useless. While…

  2. The View of Principals on Standards Based Evaluation Systems and Their Role as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoll, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of standards based evaluation systems, specifically Georgia's Teacher Keys Effectiveness System, affects the principals' role of instructional leader. Using a modified Delphi study, principals from a large urban/suburban school system, gave feedback on three questions: how has their role changed; are they…

  3. Does Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation Improve Schools: An Investigation of Teacher Perceptions of Appraisal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Joseph Albert

    2008-01-01

    Three years after implementing a standards-based teacher evaluation system in a private K-12 school, research was conducted to determine what attitudes and perceptions teachers had on the effectiveness of the system. The survey includes questions about the teacher evaluation process and the goals of the test school in implementing the process. The…

  4. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58…

  5. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58…

  6. Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making within a Standards-Based Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Milanowski, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports on a study of school leader decision making that examined variation in the validity of teacher evaluation ratings in a school district that has implemented a standards-based teacher evaluation system. Research Methods: Applying mixed methods, the study used teacher evaluation ratings and value-added student achievement…

  7. Distributed adaptive simulation through standards-based integration of simulators and adaptive learning systems.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Bryan; Cline, Andrew; Shipley, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a distributed, standards-based architecture that enables simulation and simulator designers to leverage adaptive learning systems. Our approach, which incorporates an electronic competency record, open source LMS, and open source microcontroller hardware, is a low-cost, pragmatic option to integrating simulators with traditional courseware.

  8. Student Grade History System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen R.

    This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…

  9. The Relationship between Prosodic Oral Reading Assessments and Standards-Based Reading Assessment in a 2nd Grade Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kariuki, Patrick; Baxter, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prosodic oral reading and overall reading comprehension of second grade students. The sample consisted of ten students who were randomly selected from a second grade classroom. The students read aloud from the book "Bedtime for Frances" by Lillian and Russell Hoban for a…

  10. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  11. Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes.

  12. The evolving Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ni; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-02-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s-1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new "Grade Group" system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate.

  13. The evolving Gleason grading system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ni

    2016-01-01

    The Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma has evolved from its original scheme established in the 1960s–1970s, to a significantly modified system after two major consensus meetings conducted by the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) in 2005 and 2014, respectively. The Gleason grading system has been incorporated into the WHO classification of prostate cancer, the AJCC/UICC staging system, and the NCCN guidelines as one of the key factors in treatment decision. Both pathologists and clinicians need to fully understand the principles and practice of this grading system. We here briefly review the historical aspects of the original scheme and the recent developments of Gleason grading system, focusing on major changes over the years that resulted in the modern Gleason grading system, which has led to a new “Grade Group” system proposed by the 2014 ISUP consensus, and adopted by the 2016 WHO classification of tumours of the prostate. PMID:27041927

  14. Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hjeresen, D.; Roybal, S.; Bertino, P.; Gherman, C.; Hosteny, B.

    1995-03-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today`s business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The Laboratory also realizes potential growth opportunities for developing ESH as a strength in providing new or improved services to its customers. Overall, the Laboratory desires to establish and build upon an ESH management system which ensures continuous improvement in protecting public health and safety and the environment and which fosters a working relationship with stakeholders. A team of process experts from the LANL Environmental Management (EM) Program Office, worked with management system consultants, and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an ESH management systems process to compare current LANL ESH management Systems and programs against leading industry standards. The process enabled the Laboratory to gauge its performance in each of the following areas: Planning and Policy Setting; Systems and Procedures; Implementation and Education; and Monitoring and Reporting. The information gathered on ESH management systems enabled LANL to pinpoint and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the provision of ESH services throughout the Laboratory and ultimately overall ESH compliance.

  15. A Standards-Based Professional Development Program and the Resulting Impact on Two Sixth Grade Teachers' Classroom Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereki, Debra Lynn

    In 2000, California introduced science content standards as part of an across the curriculum reform. This presented a special challenge for elementary teachers due to an increased emphasis on math and language arts, and limited science background and resources. This two year qualitative study looks at a professional development program that resulted from collaboration between a university and an elementary school district. The program brought sixth grade elementary teachers together with scientists (geologists) and a science educator to develop a quality sixth grade science curriculum aligned to the California content standards. This multiple-case embedded study included an analysis of how these standards were addressed during the program, and the impact of this professional development on two teachers' classroom practices. The results of this study indicate that the geologists and the science educator played different but complementary roles in the professional development program. Furthermore, the professional development disproportionately focused on the Earth science standards, and this correlated to a disproportionate focus on these standards in the classrooms of the two teachers studied. Finally, the results indicate that as these two teachers implemented their new science units, they progressed through the initial stages of teacher change as outlined by change models described in the literature. However, they did not reach the final stage of change that involves complete confidence in their knowledge and being satisfied with the implementation of their science units.

  16. Gleason grading system

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Prostatic Neoplasia. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ... nih.gov/pubmed/26956509 . Pierorazio PM, Walsh PC, Partin AW, Epstein JI. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data ...

  17. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  18. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  19. The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial

  20. Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

    1999-12-01

    This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated

  1. The Development and Implementation of a National, Standards-Based, Multi-Method Teacher Performance Assessment System in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Sun, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing teaching performance is a contentious issue in current educational policy in many countries. In Chile, a national, standards-based, multi-method, mandatory teacher evaluation system has been in place since 2003 to assess the performance of about 70, 000 public school teachers from pre-school to high school and adult education. The…

  2. International Water Information Systems: Evolving the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to a Standards-based Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, D. W.; Taylor, P.; Arctur, D. K.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2011-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is migrating core components of its service-oriented infrastructure to information models and service interfaces being standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), through coordination with the joint Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) of the OGC and the World Meteorological Organization. The CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure for hydrologic observations will rely on OGC service standards including Web Map Service (WMS) for map portrayal, Web Feature Service (WFS) for delivery of geographic feature information, Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) for discovery in service catalogs, and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for data delivery. These standards will be supplemented by additional services and corresponding standards, such as the Water Quality Exchange (WQX), which is presently in use at the USGS and US EPA for delivery of water quality and ex situ analytical data. One of the key standards being developed through the OGC process is Water Markup Language (WaterML) 2.0, which specifies standard encoding for the representation of in-situ hydrological observations. Implemented as an application schema of OGC Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, focusing on encoding different types of hydrologic time series. In addition to developing this exchange standard, the HDWG conducts Interoperability Experiments (IE) to test WaterML 2.0 and OGC services to see they meet the requirements of the Hydrologic community. The Groundwater IE tested cross border exchange of water information between the US and Canada, and exercised, not only a prototype of WaterML 2.0, but existing standards GeoSciML and GroundwaterML. A Surface Water IE is testing 3 use cases focusing on cross-border exchange of surface water information, hydrologic forecasting, and automated monthly and yearly volume calculations from large

  3. Standards Based Report Cards. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2005-01-01

    With the increased focus on standards-based education, more and more states, districts and school are becoming interested in standards-based grading and report cards. Hawaii, for example, is a state that is working hard on its "Standards Implementation Design" (SID), including standards-based report cards. As a component of Maine's Local…

  4. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate

  5. The Impact of Standards-Based Reforms on the Art of Teaching: A Narrative Case Study of the Perceptions of Highly Effective Teachers in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    In the 12 years subsequent to the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the ensuing standards-based reforms (SBRs) have created multiple effects that have permeated every aspect of the educational process, and teachers have reported specific constraints being placed upon them as a result. Grounded in Eisner's (2002b) theory of aesthetic teaching…

  6. The Impact of Standards-Based Reforms on the Art of Teaching: A Narrative Case Study of the Perceptions of Highly Effective Teachers in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    In the 12 years subsequent to the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the ensuing standards-based reforms (SBRs) have created multiple effects that have permeated every aspect of the educational process, and teachers have reported specific constraints being placed upon them as a result. Grounded in Eisner's (2002b) theory of aesthetic teaching…

  7. Open Source and Open Standard based decision support system: the example of lake Verbano floods management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Graf, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The Locarno area (Switzerland, Canton Ticino) is exposed to lacual floods with a return period of about 7-8 years. The risk is of particular concern because the area is located in a floodplain that registered in the last decades a great increase in settlement and values of the real estates. Moreover small differences in lake altitude may produce a significant increase in flooded area due to the very low average slope of the terrain. While fatalities are not generally registered, several important economic costs are associated, e.g.: damages to real estates, interruption of activities, evacuation and relocation and environmental damages. While important events were registered in 1978, 1993, 2000, 2002 and 2014 the local stakeholder invested time and money in the set-up of an up-to-date decision support system that allows for the reduction of risks. Thanks to impressive technological advances the visionary concept of the Digital Earth (Gore 1992, 1998) is being realizing: geospatial coverages and monitoring systems data are increasingly available on the Web, and more importantly, in a standard format. As a result, today is possible to develop innovative decision support systems (Molinari et al. 2013) which mesh-up several information sources and offers special features for risk scenarios evaluation. In agreement with the exposed view, the authors have recently developed a new Web system whose design is based on the Service Oriented Architecture pattern. Open source software (e.g.: Geoserver, PostGIS, OpenLayers) has been used throughout the whole system and geospatial Open Standards (e.g.: SOS, WMS, WFS) are the pillars it rely on. SITGAP 2.0, implemented in collaboration with the Civil protection of Locarno e Vallemaggia, combines a number of data sources such as the Federal Register of Buildings and Dwellings, the Cantonal Register of residents, the Cadastral Surveying, the Cantonal Hydro-meteorological monitoring observations, the Meteoswiss weather forecasts, and

  8. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  9. Registration Patterns Under Two Different Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Audrey W.

    In the early 1960's, Westminster College adopted a new grading system, with the traditional grade levels of A, B, C, D, and F converted to DN (Distinction), HP (High Pass), P (Pass), and NC (No Credit). NC replaced both D and F of the old system, and grade point averages were abolished, in an effort to encourage students to register in more…

  10. The role of differentiation and standards-based grading in the science learning of struggling and advanced learners in a detracked high school honors biology classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Michelina Ruth Carter

    The accountability movement in education resulting from the passage of The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 has brought to light the disparities that exist in student achievement in the United States which play out along racial and socioeconomic lines. Three educational practices hold promise for reducing this achievement gap: differentiated instruction, standards-based assessment, and elimination of academic tracking. The purpose of this practitioner research study was to examine the ways that differentiation and standards-based assessment can support struggling learners and challenge advanced learners in a detracked, honors biology classroom. To gain insight into the role that differentiation and standards-based assessment played in supporting struggling and advanced learners, I used practitioner research to examine the development and implementation of a differentiated, standards-based instructional unit around the conceptual topic of protein synthesis. I collected multiple data pieces for 10 students in the study: two advanced learners, four struggling learners, and four strong learners who struggled in biology. Data analyzed included formative, self-, and summative assessment results; student artifacts; informal and formal student interviews; and, a practitioner reflection journal chronicling critical incidents and actions taken during the development and implementation of this unit and notes from peer debriefing during and following the unit's implementation. As I analyzed the data collected, my four findings fell into two overarching categories related to student grouping. My first three findings reflect what I learned about homogeneous grouping: (1) Pre-assessment based on unit outcomes is not useful for determining groups for tiered instruction; (2) Decisions about differentiation and grouping for differentiation must be made in the act of teaching using formative assessment results; and, (3) Flexible grouping structures are effective for both struggling

  11. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  12. Individualized Instruction and the Letter Grade System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuba, Richard J.

    The relationship between individualized instruction (II) and letter grades is an issue of considerable debate. Ultimately, II and the letter grade system are incompatible. Grading has been a traditional form for ranking or comparing students with respect to performance criteria. The scale typically has been A to F, whereas with individualized…

  13. A Standardized Grading System For Scleritis

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Sangave, Amit A; Goldstein, Debra A.; Suhler, Eric B; Cunningham, Denise; Vitale, Susan; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the performance of a standardized grading system for scleritis using standard digital photographs. Design Cross-sectional inter-observer agreement study Participants Photo archives from the National Eye Institute (NEI) Methods Three uveitis specialists from 3 different centers graded 79 randomly arranged images of the sclera with various degrees of inflammation. Grading was done using standard screen resolution (1024 × 768 pixels) on a 0 to 4+ scale, in two sessions: first, without using reference photographs; then with reference to a set of standard photographs (proposed grading system). The graders were masked to the order of images and the order of images was randomized. Inter-observer agreement in grading the severity of inflammation with and without the use of grading system was evaluated. Main Outcome Measures Inter-observer agreement Results The proposed grading system for assessing activity in scleritis demonstrated a good inter-observer agreement. Inter-observer agreement (pooled κ) was poor (0.289) without photographic guidance and improved substantially when the “grading system” utilizing standardized photographs was used (κ = 0.603). Conclusion Utilizing this system of standardized images for scleritis grading provides significantly more consistent grading of scleral inflammation in this study and has clear applications in clinical settings as well as in clinical research. PMID:21093921

  14. Algorithms and applications of aberration correction and American standard-based digital evaluation in surface defects evaluating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fan; Cao, Pin; Yang, Yongying; Li, Chen; Chai, Huiting; Zhang, Yihui; Xiong, Haoliang; Xu, Wenlin; Yan, Kai; Zhou, Lin; Liu, Dong; Bai, Jian; Shen, Yibing

    2016-11-01

    The inspection of surface defects is one of significant sections of optical surface quality evaluation. Based on microscopic scattering dark-field imaging, sub-aperture scanning and stitching, the Surface Defects Evaluating System (SDES) can acquire full-aperture image of defects on optical elements surface and then extract geometric size and position information of defects with image processing such as feature recognization. However, optical distortion existing in the SDES badly affects the inspection precision of surface defects. In this paper, a distortion correction algorithm based on standard lattice pattern is proposed. Feature extraction, polynomial fitting and bilinear interpolation techniques in combination with adjacent sub-aperture stitching are employed to correct the optical distortion of the SDES automatically in high accuracy. Subsequently, in order to digitally evaluate surface defects with American standard by using American military standards MIL-PRF-13830B to judge the surface defects information obtained from the SDES, an American standard-based digital evaluation algorithm is proposed, which mainly includes a judgment method of surface defects concentration. The judgment method establishes weight region for each defect and adopts the method of overlap of weight region to calculate defects concentration. This algorithm takes full advantage of convenience of matrix operations and has merits of low complexity and fast in running, which makes itself suitable very well for highefficiency inspection of surface defects. Finally, various experiments are conducted and the correctness of these algorithms are verified. At present, these algorithms have been used in SDES.

  15. Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2013-04-01

    discovery and flexible configuration of model inputs, and managing provenance for selected model outputs. The talk will end with a discussion on the opportunities for fostering open, standards-based approaches for code development, model interoperability and data and metadata structures as well as the need for multi-scale and multi-physics model structures.

  16. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  17. Perceptions of Teacher and Administrators in a Massachusetts Suburban School District regarding the Implementation of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher evaluation systems have tremendous potential in helping teachers grow in their profession. A standards-based teacher evaluation system with a rubric and multiple sources of data has the potential to create a collaborative environment that focuses on the continuous improvement of each teacher in the district. This ultimately leads to an…

  18. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  19. Perceptions of Teacher and Administrators in a Massachusetts Suburban School District regarding the Implementation of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher evaluation systems have tremendous potential in helping teachers grow in their profession. A standards-based teacher evaluation system with a rubric and multiple sources of data has the potential to create a collaborative environment that focuses on the continuous improvement of each teacher in the district. This ultimately leads to an…

  20. A Standards-Based Architecture Proposal for Integrating Patient mHealth Apps to Electronic Health Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Marceglia, S; Fontelo, P; Rossi, E; Ackerman, M J

    2015-01-01

    Mobile health Applications (mHealth Apps) are opening the way to patients' responsible and active involvement with their own healthcare management. However, apart from Apps allowing patient's access to their electronic health records (EHRs), mHealth Apps are currently developed as dedicated "island systems". Although much work has been done on patient's access to EHRs, transfer of information from mHealth Apps to EHR systems is still low. This study proposes a standards-based architecture that can be adopted by mHealth Apps to exchange information with EHRs to support better quality of care. Following the definition of requirements for the EHR/mHealth App information exchange recently proposed, and after reviewing current standards, we designed the architecture for EHR/mHealth App integration. Then, as a case study, we modeled a system based on the proposed architecture aimed to support home monitoring for congestive heart failure patients. We simulated such process using, on the EHR side, OpenMRS, an open source longitudinal EHR and, on the mHealth App side, the iOS platform. The integration architecture was based on the bi-directional exchange of standard documents (clinical document architecture rel2 - CDA2). In the process, the clinician "prescribes" the home monitoring procedures by creating a CDA2 prescription in the EHR that is sent, encrypted and de-identified, to the mHealth App to create the monitoring calendar. At the scheduled time, the App alerts the patient to start the monitoring. After the measurements are done, the App generates a structured CDA2-compliant monitoring report and sends it to the EHR, thus avoiding local storage. The proposed architecture, even if validated only in a simulation environment, represents a step forward in the integration of personal mHealth Apps into the larger health-IT ecosystem, allowing the bi-directional data exchange between patients and healthcare professionals, supporting the patient's engagement in self

  1. A Standards-Based Architecture Proposal for Integrating Patient mHealth Apps to Electronic Health Record Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fontelo, P.; Rossi, E.; Ackerman, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Mobile health Applications (mHealth Apps) are opening the way to patients’ responsible and active involvement with their own healthcare management. However, apart from Apps allowing patient’s access to their electronic health records (EHRs), mHealth Apps are currently developed as dedicated “island systems”. Objective Although much work has been done on patient’s access to EHRs, transfer of information from mHealth Apps to EHR systems is still low. This study proposes a standards-based architecture that can be adopted by mHealth Apps to exchange information with EHRs to support better quality of care. Methods Following the definition of requirements for the EHR/mHealth App information exchange recently proposed, and after reviewing current standards, we designed the architecture for EHR/mHealth App integration. Then, as a case study, we modeled a system based on the proposed architecture aimed to support home monitoring for congestive heart failure patients. We simulated such process using, on the EHR side, OpenMRS, an open source longitudinal EHR and, on the mHealth App side, the iOS platform. Results The integration architecture was based on the bi-directional exchange of standard documents (clinical document architecture rel2 – CDA2). In the process, the clinician “prescribes” the home monitoring procedures by creating a CDA2 prescription in the EHR that is sent, encrypted and de-identified, to the mHealth App to create the monitoring calendar. At the scheduled time, the App alerts the patient to start the monitoring. After the measurements are done, the App generates a structured CDA2-compliant monitoring report and sends it to the EHR, thus avoiding local storage. Conclusions The proposed architecture, even if validated only in a simulation environment, represents a step forward in the integration of personal mHealth Apps into the larger health-IT ecosystem, allowing the bi-directional data exchange between patients and

  2. An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.

    PubMed

    Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-09-10

    The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A clinically useful simplified blastocyst grading system.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Alison; Brearley, Sophie; Ahitan, Saran; Chamberlain, Sarah; Davey, Tracey; Zujovic, Lyndsey; Hopkisson, James; Campbell, Bruce; Raine-Fenning, Nick

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a new simplified blastocyst grading system (A: fully expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; B: not yet expanded, clear inner cell mass, cohesive trophectoderm; C: small inner cell mass ± irregular trophectoderm ± excluded/degenerate cells) was clinically useful. All day-5 single embryo transfers between 15 June 2009 and 29 June 2012 were reviewed. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were related to embryo quality. Five embryologists were asked to grade and decide the clinical fate of 80 images of day-5 embryos on two occasions 4-6 weeks apart. Implantation, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates decreased with deteriorating embryo quality. A highly significant (P < 0.01) difference was observed between the groups. Inter-observer agreement was substantial for grade allocation (K = 0.63) and clinical decision-making (K = 0.66). Intra-observer agreement ranged from substantial (K = 0.71) to almost perfect (K = 0.88) for grade allocation, and was almost perfect for clinical fate determination (K ≥ 0.84). This grading system is quick and easy to use, effectively predicts IVF outcome and has levels of agreement similar to, if not better than, those associated with more complex grading systems.

  4. Keratoconus: The ABCD Grading System.

    PubMed

    Belin, M W; Duncan, J K

    2016-06-01

    To propose a new keratoconus classification/staging system that utilises current tomographic data and better reflects the anatomical and functional changes seen in keratoconus. A previously published normative database was reanalysed to generate both anterior and posterior average radii of curvature (ARC and PRC) taken from a 3.0 mm optical zone centred on the thinnest point of the cornea. Mean and standard deviations were recorded and anterior data were compared to the existing Amsler-Krumeich (AK) Classification. ARC, PRC, thinnest pachymetry and distance visual acuity were then used to construct a keratoconus classification. 672 eyes of 336 patients were analysed. Anterior and posterior values were 7.65 ± 0.236 mm and 6.26 ± 0.214 mm, respectively, and thinnest pachymetry values were 534.2 ± 30.36 µm. The ARC values were 2.63, 5.47 and 6.44 standard deviations from the mean values of stages 1-3 in the AK classification, respectively. PRC staging uses the same standard deviation gates. The pachymetric values differed by 4.42 and 7.72 standard deviations for stages 2 and 3, respectively. A new keratoconus staging incorporates anterior and posterior curvature, thinnest pachymetric values, and distance visual acuity and consists of stages 0-4 (5 stages). The proposed system closely matches the existing AK classification stages 1-4 on anterior curvature. As it incorporates posterior curvature and thickness measurements based on the thinnest point, rather than apical measurements, the new staging system better reflects the anatomical changes seen in keratoconus. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Proceedings)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Joe G. Tront; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1990-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  6. A grading system for nasal dorsal deformities.

    PubMed

    Kienstra, Matthew A; Gassner, Holger G; Sherris, David A; Kern, Eugene B

    2003-01-01

    There is no uniform grading system for nasal dorsal deformities currently in general use among surgeons who perform rhinoplasty. Given the popularity of this procedure among both the general public and surgeons, it is time that there was a uniform system describing dorsal deformities. Such a system has value in the education of students of rhinology and cosmetic nasal surgery. We have developed one such system, and applied it to 100 cases. In all cases it accurately describes the major pathological conditions of the dorsum, if present, as noted on physical examination. We have found application of this system to be facile.

  7. Proposal of a new grading system for malignant fibrous histiocytomas.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Ulrich; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Stachura, Jerzy; Bortkiewicz, Pawel; Fischer, Gösta; Korabiowska, Monika

    2005-01-01

    The proposed grading system for malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) comprises 3 grades of malignancy. Analogous to other grading systems, the system includes the factors of mitotic rate and necrosis. In addition to these two factors, the concept of cellularity was included. The prognostic relevance of the grading systems published by Costa, Coindre, van Unnik, Pezzi and Tsujimoto as well as the grading system proposed by the present study was tested on 161 MFH. The results showed that all grading systems tested produced clearly significant differences (p < 0.01) with regard to the survival estimated for patients with various grades of malignancy. These results revealed the superiority of systems that use 3 grades of malignancy over a 2-grade classification. The proposed grading system yielded a lower percentage of grade II tumours (37%) than the grading systems of Coindre (60%) and van Unnik (70%). In the multivariate analysis of all grading systems, the proposed grading system was the only one to show prognostic relevance (p < 0. 05).

  8. Multiple Model Forecasting as an Alternative to the Standard Base Supply System (D002A) Forecasting Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    accounting and control system designed to provide timely support to base level activities. The system uses the UNIVAC 1050 -I computer for storage and...24,1-2). When using the UNIVAC 1050 -I on-line computer system, all records affected by a given transaction are updated at the time of transaction input

  9. The Grading System: Does an "A" Really Equal Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Beverly

    1988-01-01

    Good grades on a report card do not necessarily mean the material has been comprehended. This article examines the relative worth of grades; extra credit assignments; categorizing students into A, B, or C boxes; and the role of parental pressures for higher grades. Grading systems should be subordinate to true learning motivation. (MLH)

  10. On-grade insulated panel floor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornson, D.; Briscoe, J.; Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.

    1999-07-01

    The on-grade insulated panel floor system combines floor and foundation to reduce cost, increase energy and structural performance, and provide easy dismantling and recycling upon demolition. The system uses one-sided structural insulated panels (SIPs with one layer of OSB attached to foam insulation), a compacted gravel bed, and engineered lumber for the perimeter beam. Tests show that an on-grade panel floor system of 20 ft by 36 ft (6.1 by 11.0 m) is $895 less expensive and has a 55% better insulating value than an insulated concrete slab, exceeds deflection and flatness criteria for wood and concrete slab floors and supports structural loads in excess of those in residential construction. The flexible nature of the foam and wood may also improve the standing comfort of the floor compared to a concrete slab floor. In addition, the panel and engineered wood components increase the recyclability of the floor. The system is easily adaptable to use over an existing concrete floor.

  11. Assessing the Feasibility of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Standard Base Supply Systems Equipment Custodian Management Course

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    course causes over 3,600 hours of lost productivity annually for the WPAFB workcenters while employees attend the six hour unit of instruction. Specific... analysis unit to develop local training programs to solve problems identified by management (10:2-53-2-54). The training unit at WPAFB does not have...less can cause big problems" (8:1-1). The development of any instruction involves many questions that must be asked. Instructional Systems

  12. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Ilmarinen, R; Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Mäkinen, H

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with SCBA (total mass 25.9 kg) on maximal physical work performance, and to evaluate the relationship between individual characteristics and power output with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The subjects were 12 healthy firemen aged 26-46 years. The range of their body mass, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption was 69-101 kg, 10-20% and 2.70-5.86 l.min-1, respectively. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25% (P < 0.001) varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency, and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The reduction of the power output was related to the extra mass of the fire protective clothing and SCBA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA).

  14. Preliminary work in developing sawbolt grading systems for white oak

    Treesearch

    Everette D. Rast; Everette D. Rast

    1971-01-01

    This paper is principally a description of one technique used in the development of white oak (Quercus alba L.) sawbolt grades--not a final sawbolt grading system for the species over its range. This technique can be used by anyone in developing other bolt-grade specifications or in refining the system presented in this paper.

  15. Quantitative Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grading System to Overcome the Limitation of Pfirrmann Disc Degeneration Grade.

    PubMed

    Rim, Dae Cheol

    2016-03-01

    Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade is one of morphologic disc degeneration grading system and it was reliable on routine T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade, and check the alternative technique of disc degeneration grading system. Fifteen volunteers (4 medical doctors related to spinal disease, 2 medical doctors not related to spinal disease, 6 nurses in spinal hospital, and 3 para-medicines) were included in this study. Three different digitalized MR images were provided all volunteers, and they checked Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade of each disc levels after careful listening to explanation. Indeed, all volunteers checked the signal intensity of disc degeneration at the points of nucleus pulposus (NP), disc membrane, ligaments, fat, and air to modify the quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade. Total 225 grade results of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade and 405 signal intensity results of quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were analyzed. Average interobserver agreement was "moderate (mean±standard deviation, 0.575±0.251)" from poor to excellent. Completely agreed levels of Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade were only 4 levels (26.67%), and the disagreement levels were observed in 11 levels; two different grades in 8 levels (53.33%) and three different grades in 3 levels (20%). Quantitative Pfirrmann disc degeneration showed relatively cluster distribution with the interobserver deviations of 0.41-1.56 at the ratio of NP and disc membrane, and it showed relatively good cluster and distribution indicating that the proposed grading system has good discrimination ability. Pfirrmann disc degeneration grade showed the limitation of different interobserver results, but this limitation could be overcome by using quantitative techniques of MR signal intensity. Further evaluation is needed to access its advantage and reliabilities.

  16. Grading Issues in a Desegregating System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Margaret; Zafirau, James

    Grades awarded to secondary school students in the Cleveland (Ohio) public schools were analyzed to determine relationships between grades and selected school climate variables in a desegregated urban school district. Failures or F grades and schoolwide non-promotion rates were both related to rates of class attendance and school suspensions. Over…

  17. Reproducibility of grading systems in oral epithelial dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Devi-Charan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess inter and intra observer variability in grading oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) using Smith and Pindborg grading system, WHO classification system and Brothwell DJ et al. classification system. Study design: In the study 45 histological tissues of dysplasia, 15 each of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were coded and blindly graded by three observers in three grading systems. Further on the same observers graded 15 slides again of the previous 45 for analyzing the reproducibility in the three grading systems. The individual significance of various indicators of dysplasia among various grades of dysplasia was also assessed. Result: Inter observer agreement was significantly higher in Brothwell system as compared to WHO and Smith and Pindborg system. Intra observer agreement was significantly higher in Smith and Pindborg system, but the predictability and the probability index was distributed over a larger range in this system. Each indicator of dysplasia was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) for grading dysplasia. Conclusion: The present study puts forth the inherent intricacies in the grading of oral premalignant lesions. Key words:Carcinoma, dysplasia, grading systems, reproducibility. PMID:22549675

  18. [The WHO/ISUP grading system for renal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Moch, H

    2016-07-01

    Histological tumor grading is an accepted prognostic parameter of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In 2012, the International Society of Urologic Pathologists (ISUP) proposed a novel grading system for RCC, mainly based on the evaluation of nucleoli: grade 1 tumors have nucleoli that are inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2 tumors have nucleoli that are clearly visible at ×400 magnification and eosinophilic; grade 3 tumors have clearly visible nucleoli at ×100 magnification; and grade 4 tumors have extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology. This grading system was validated for clear cell renal cell carcinoma and papillary renal cell carcinoma. At the same time, the ISUP proposed not grading chromophobe renal cell carcinomas according to this system. At a consensus conference in Zurich the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended the ISUP grading system; thus, the WHO/ISUP grading system is now going to be implemented internationally. The ISUP/WHO grading system has not been validated as a prognostic parameter for other tumor subtypes, but can be used for descriptive purposes.

  19. ACE grading-A proposed endoscopic grading system for adenoids and its clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Ajoy Mathew; Naina, P; Cheng, Alan T; Asif, Syed Kamran; Kurien, Mary

    2016-04-01

    To propose a novel endoscopic adenoid grading system using a rigid nasal endoscope and to study its correlation with the clinical diagnosis. Prerecorded video clips of rigid nasal endoscopy taken during endoscopic adenoidectomy were retrieved. Otolaryngology consultants blinded to the clinical diagnosis of the child were presented these videos and asked to grade the adenoid hypertrophy as per the proposed endoscopic ACE (Airway/Choana/Eustachian tube) grading system. The clinical diagnosis was correlated with the different aspects of the descriptive endoscopic grading system. 152 video clips were presented to the otolaryngology consultants for grading. The average age was 8.6 years (SD-3.48), while the male female ratio was 3:2. The A subcomponent of the ACE grading showed significant correlation with the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing and chronic adenotonsillitis, C subcomponent with sleep disordered breathing and the E subcomponent with the diagnosis of otitis media. The proposed endoscopic grading is easily applicable and at the same time clearly describes the relation of the adenoids to the nasopharynx, choana and Eustachian tube. Different aspects of the grading system correlated differently with the clinical diagnosis emphasizing that a descriptive scoring rather than a comprehensive scoring is a more relevant clinical tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Standards-Based Report Cards on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the effect of standards-based report cards on the growth and performance of Grade 4 students on the Massachusetts measure of accountability. This study examines the effect of the report card format on the grade level student growth percentiles (SGP) and composite performance index (CPI) on…

  1. Reproducibility of grading systems in oral epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Manchanda, Adesh; Shetty, Devi-Charan

    2012-11-01

    To assess inter and intra observer variability in grading oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) using Smith and Pindborg grading system, WHO classification system and Brothwell DJ et al. classification system. In the study 45 histological tissues of dysplasia, 15 each of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were coded and blindly graded by three observers in three grading systems. Further on the same observers graded 15 slides again of the previous 45 for analyzing the reproducibility in the three grading systems. The individual significance of various indicators of dysplasia among various grades of dysplasia was also assessed. Inter observer agreement was significantly higher in Brothwell system as compared to WHO and Smith and Pindborg system. Intra observer agreement was significantly higher in Smith and Pindborg system, but the predictability and the probability index was distributed over a larger range in this system. Each indicator of dysplasia was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) for grading dysplasia. The present study puts forth the inherent intricacies in the grading of oral premalignant lesions.

  2. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-02-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

  3. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  4. Searching for the Norm in a System of Absolutes: A Case Study of Standards-Based Accountability Reform in Pre-Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The emergence of standards-based accountability reforms in early childhood education has created new challenges for the field. This article presents findings from a case study that explored how stakeholders in a large urban pre-kindergarten program struggled to implement an assessment tool that aligned the normative academic…

  5. Alignment of Two Grading Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohner, Margaret; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    For the past number of years, a Canadian university has been offering its business degree program in universities located in Tianjin and Shanghai, China. This paper examines the alignment of the two grading systems and its implications on the grade distribution of graduates from the programs. An attempt is made to find an exchange rate of the two…

  6. TRSys: a hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kotharl; R. annavajjhala; Charles W. McMilling

    1994-01-01

    The training and remanufacturing system( TRsys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber and grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on HaLT2. REGS, and enhanced HARem computer programs. The mosti mportant feature of this new program is its ability to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  7. TRSys: A hardwood lumber grading training and remanufacturing system

    Treesearch

    P. Klinkhachorn; R. Kothari; R. Annavajjhala; Charles W. McMillin

    1994-01-01

    The Training and Remanufacturing System (TRSys) is a new training tool for teaching both hardwood lumber grading and remanufacturing of lower grade boards into smaller boards of higher total value. TRSys is based on the HaLT2, ReGS, and enhanced HaRem computer programs. The most important feature of this new program is its ablilty to evaluate remanufacturing beyond...

  8. Grades That Show What Students Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to cure the ills of current grading and reporting systems, many schools and districts across the United States have attempted to implement a standards-based system. The authors recommend four best practices in this area: (1) Get rid of the omnibus grade, which tells teachers little about the content measured or the difficulty level of…

  9. A practical grading system of ultrasonographic visibility for intracerebral lesions.

    PubMed

    Mair, Richard; Heald, James; Poeata, Ion; Ivanov, Marcel

    2013-12-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound for intracranial neurosurgery was largely abandoned in the 1980s due to poor image resolution. Despite many technological advances in ultrasound since then, the use of this imaging modality in contemporary practice remains limited. Our aim was to evaluate the utility of modern intraoperative ultrasound in the resection of a wide variety of intracranial pathologies. A total of 105 patients who underwent intracranial lesion resection in a contiguous fashion were prospectively included in the study. Ultrasound images acquired intraoperatively were used to stratify lesions into one of four grades (grades 0-3) on the basis of their ultrasonic echogenicity and border visibility. Forty-two out of 105 lesions (40 %) were clearly identifiable and had a clear border with normal tissue (grade 3). Fifty-five of 105 lesions (52 %) were clearly identifiable but had no clear border with normal tissue (grade 2). Eight of 105 lesions (8 %) were difficult to identify and had no clear border with normal tissue (grade 1). None (0 %) of the lesions could not be identified (grade 0). High-grade gliomas, cerebral metastases, meningiomas, ependymomas, and haemangioblastomas all demonstrated a median ultrasonic visibility grade of 2 or greater. Low-grade astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas demonstrated a median ultrasonic visibility grade of 2 or less. Intraoperative ultrasound can be of tremendous benefit in allowing the surgeon to appraise the location, extent, and local environment of their target lesion, as well as to reduce the risk of preventable complications. We believe that our grading system will provide a useful adjunct to the neurosurgeon when deciding for which lesions intraoperative ultrasound would be useful.

  10. Shape analysis for an automatic oyster grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Xu, Xiaoqian; Lane, Robert M.; Zhan, Pengcheng

    2004-12-01

    An overview of the oyster industry in the U. S. with emphasis in Virginia shows oyster grading occurs at harvest, wholesale and processing markets. Currently whole oysters, also called shellstock, are graded manually by screening and sorting based on diameter or weight. The majority of oysters harvested for the processing industry are divided into three to four main grades: small, medium, large, and selects. We have developed a shape analysis method for an automatic oyster grading system. The system first detects and removes poor quality oysters such as banana shape, broken shell, and irregular shapes. Good quality oysters move further into grades of small, medium and large. The contours of the oysters are extracted for shape analysis. Banana shape and broken shell have a specific shape flaw (or difference) compared to the ones with good quality. Global shape properties such as compactness, roughness, and elongation are suitable and useful to measure the shape flaw. Image projection area or length of the major axis measured as global properties for sizing. Incorporating a machine vision system for grading, sorting and counting oysters supports reduced operating costs. The savings produced from reducing labor, increasing accuracy in size, grade and count and providing real time accurate data for accounting and billing would contribute to the profit of the oysters industry.

  11. A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations. 1986.

    PubMed

    Speizler, Robert F; Martin, Neil A

    2008-01-01

    An important factor in making a recommendation for treatment of a patient with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is to estimate the risk of surgery for that patient. A simple, broadly applicable grading system that is designed to predict the risk of morbidity and mortality attending the operative treatment of specific AVM's is proposed. The lesion is graded on the basis of size, pattern of venous drainage, and neurological eloquence of adjacent brain. All AVM's fall into one of six grades. Grade I malformations are small, superficial, and located in non-eloquent cortex; Grade V lesions are large, deep, and situated in neurologically critical areas; and Grade VI lesions are essentially inoperable AVM's. Retrospective application of this grading scheme to a series of surgically excised AVM's has demonstrated its correlation with the incidence of postoperative neurological complications. The application of a standardized grading scheme will enable a comparison of results between various clinical series and between different treatment techniques, and will assist in the process of management decision-making.

  12. Nuclear grade plus proliferation grading system for invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: validation in a tertiary referral hospital cohort.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Maria; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Polymeropoulos, Evangelos; Mitsopoulos, Grigorios; Stogiannis, Dimitris; Caroni, Chrys; Vaiopoulos, George; Panayiotides, Joannis G; Karakitsos, Petros

    2015-12-01

    For patients with invasive breast cancer, management decisions are informed by tumor grade according to the Nottingham Grading System (NGS), either on its own or as part of the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). A system retaining the nuclear grade element but substituting the two subjective components, mitosis count and tubule formation, of the NGS with a proliferation index based on Ki-67 (MIB-1) has been proposed (nuclear grade plus proliferation [N+P] grading). We validated the prognostic value of this grading system on a population of 322 women. N+P grading resulted in more grade I tumors (47.9% vs 4.5%) and fewer grade II (32% vs 51.5%) and grade III (20.1% vs 44%) tumors compared with NGS. The NPI calculated based on N+P grade had a similar association with survival (P < .001; odds ratio, 1.729) as the NPI calculated on the basis of the NGS grade (P < .001; odds ratio, 1.668). The N+P system seems equivalent to the NGS system. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  13. Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes

    Treesearch

    D.W. Green; T.M. Gorman; J.W. Evans; J.F. Murphy

    2004-01-01

    Current grading standards for logs used in log home construction use visual criteria to sort logs into either “wall logs” or structural logs (round and sawn round timbers). The conservative nature of this grading system, and the grouping of stronger and weaker species for marketing purposes, probably results in the specification of logs with larger diameter than would...

  14. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  15. A new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae.

    PubMed

    Özgen, Ali; Taşdelen, Neslihan; Fırat, Zeynep

    2017-04-01

    Background Chondromalacia patellae is a very common disorder. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to investigate patellar cartilage lesions, there is no descriptive MRI-based grading system for chondromalacia patellae. Purpose To propose a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding high resolution images which might be useful in precisely reporting and comparing knee examinations in routine daily practice and used in predicting natural course and clinical outcome of the patellar cartilage lesions. Material and Methods High resolution fat-saturated proton density (FS PD) images in the axial plane with corresponding T2 mapping images were reviewed. A detailed MRI grading system covering the deficiencies of the existing gradings has been set and presented on these images. Two experienced observers blinded to clinical data examined 44 knee MR images and evaluated patellar cartilage changes according to the proposed grading system. Inter- and intra-rater validity testing using kappa statistics were calculated. Results A descriptive and detailed grading system with corresponding FS PD and T2 mapping images has been presented. Inter-rater agreement was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-0.89). Intra-rater agreements were 0.83 (95% CI, 0.74-0.91) for observer A and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.70-0.88) for observer B (k-values). Conclusion We present a new MRI grading system for chondromalacia patellae with corresponding images and good inter- and intra-rater agreement which might be useful in reporting and comparing knee MRI examinations in daily practice and may also have the potential for using more precisely predicting prognosis and clinical outcome of the patients.

  16. Lumber Grading With A Computer Vision System

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    Over the past few years significant progress has been made in developing a computer vision system for locating and identifying defects on surfaced hardwood lumber. Unfortunately, until September of 1988 little research had gone into developing methods for analyzing rough lumber. This task is arguably more complex than the analysis of surfaced lumber. The prime...

  17. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  18. A Study of the Letter Grade System and Its Effect on the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Fredrick

    This study explores and identifies patterns of teacher, student, parent, and administrator responses to letter grade evaluation systems. The study examined four main points: rationales for letter grades, interpretations of grading procedures and process, the consequences of letter grades, and alternatives to letter grades. The study involved an…

  19. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Moriya, Hajime

    2006-03-15

    The quantum Markov property is equivalent to the strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems. The additivity of von Neumann entropy for bipartite graded systems implies the statistical independence of states. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor-product systems which have trivial grading. For three-composed graded systems we have U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the marginal pair of subsystems is nonseparable.

  20. New technology for low-grade hardwood utilization: System 6

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Charles J. Gatchell

    1982-01-01

    System 6 is a technology for converting low-grade hardwood to high-valued end products such as furniture and kitchen cabinets. Among its concepts are: (1) a new, nonlumber product called standard-size blanks; (2) highly automated methods of converting the logs to blanks; (3) total processing of every board that contains a minimum-size cutting; and (4) minimized machine...

  1. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  2. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  3. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  4. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  5. The Buddy System: A Step toward More Reliable Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanski, Virginia G.

    Designed to help teachers in writing programs collaborate to reach a consensus on grading standards for freshman essays, the "Buddy System" was instituted on a voluntary basis at a Pennsylvania college with an English department with a traditional literature orientation. To participate, the instructors were required: (1) to choose at…

  6. Evaluation of an automated hardwood lumber grading system

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman; Chris Surak

    2001-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies....

  7. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  8. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  9. A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber - (Industrial Metrology)

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas T. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbon

    1992-01-01

    Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that has...

  10. World Allergy Organization Systemic Allergic Reaction Grading System: Is a Modification Needed?

    PubMed

    Cox, Linda S; Sanchez-Borges, Mario; Lockey, Richard F

    There is no universally accepted grading system to classify the severity of systemic allergic reactions (SARs), including anaphylaxis. Although a consensus definition for anaphylaxis was established in 2005, the signs and symptoms required to define a reaction as anaphylaxis are inconsistently applied in research and clinical practice. As a result, it is difficult to compare and evaluate safety outcomes in surveys, clinical practice and trials, and pharmacovigilance data. In 2010, the World Allergy Organization (WAO) proposed a uniform grading system to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs. The basis of the grading system is the organ system(s) involved and reaction severity. The final grade is determined by the physician/health care professional after the event is over. Although the 2010 WAO grading system was developed to classify allergen immunotherapy SARs, with appropriate modifications, it can be used to classify SARs from any cause. The purpose of this Rostrum is to present a proposed modification of the 2010 WAO SAR grading system that will make it applicable to all SARs due to any cause. The modified grading system allows for classification of less severe SARs, which may be underreported or overreported in clinical trials and surveillance studies, depending on the criteria specified for adverse event reporting. The universal use of the proposed modified SAR grading system will allow for better safety comparisons across different venues and treatment protocols.

  11. The Introduction of a New Grading System at a Public Teaching Institution: Impact on Grading Tendencies of the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Nathaniel L.

    The grading system at the University of North Carolina at Asheville before fall 1978 provided four designations: H (honors); G (good or well above average); P (pass or satisfactory); and F (failure). This range does not provide a grade for unsatisfactory but passing work. It was suspected that this led teachers to give "average" grades…

  12. The Introduction of a New Grading System at a Public Teaching Institution: Impact on Grading Tendencies of the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Nathaniel L.

    The grading system at the University of North Carolina at Asheville before fall 1978 provided four designations: H (honors); G (good or well above average); P (pass or satisfactory); and F (failure). This range does not provide a grade for unsatisfactory but passing work. It was suspected that this led teachers to give "average" grades…

  13. Comparison of two MR grading systems for correlation between grade of cervical neural foraminal stenosis and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu H; Park, Hee J; Lee, So Y; Chung, Eun C; Rho, Myung H; Shin, Hyunchul; Kwon, Young J

    2016-06-01

    To compare the reliability of two recently reported MR grading systems of cervical neural foraminal stenosis (CNFS) and their correlation with clinical manifestations. We evaluated 188 patients (male : female = 80 : 108; mean age of 41 years) who visited our institution and underwent oblique sagittal MRI of the cervical spine. Two radiologists evaluated the MRI findings for the presence and grade of CNFS at the narrowest point, with the grading systems (Park, Kim and mKim systems) suggested by Park et al and Kim et al. More than one positive neurologic sign and more than one neurologic clinical symptom was considered a positive neurologic manifestation of each foraminal stenosis. Interobserver agreement between the two readers was analyzed using kappa statistics. Non-parametric correlation analysis (Spearman's correlation) was used to evaluate the correlation coefficients (R) to assess the relationship between CNFS grade and clinical manifestations. Both the Park and mKim systems demonstrated a relatively high correlation (R = 0.714-0.764) between the CNFS grade and clinical manifestation, while the Kim system yielded a moderate correlation (by Reader 2). The Park and mKim systems demonstrated higher correlation values at the level of C6-7 than C4-5, while the Kim system showed no difference in correlation at the cervical spine level. Both the Park and mKim systems provide a reliable, reproducible CNFS diagnosis, while the Kim system has a slightly inferior reliability. The Park and mKim systems had a similar, relatively high clinical correlation. Grades 2 and 3 of the Park system and Grade 2 in the Kim and mKim systems exhibited a similar clinical significance. Patients with a grade of 0 (using each system) consistently exhibit negative neurologic manifestation.

  14. A novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma incorporating tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Lohse, Christine M; Leibovich, Bradley C; Thompson, Robert Houston; Boorjian, Stephen A; Cheville, John C

    2013-03-01

    Grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prognostic significance, and there is recent consensus by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) that for clear cell and papillary RCC, grading should primarily be based on nucleolar prominence. Microscopic tumor necrosis also predicts outcome independent of tumor grading. This study was undertaken to assess whether the incorporation of microscopic tumor necrosis into the ISUP grading system provides survival information superior to ISUP grading alone. Data on 3017 patients treated surgically for clear cell RCC, 556 for papillary RCC, and 180 for chromophobe RCC were retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Registry. Median follow-up periods were 8.9, 9.7, and 8.5 years, respectively. Four proposed grades were defined: grade 1: ISUP grade 1+ISUP grade 2 without necrosis; grade 2: ISUP grade 2 with necrosis+ISUP grade 3 without necrosis; grade 3: ISUP grade 3 with necrosis+ISUP grade 4 without necrosis; grade 4: ISUP grade 4 with necrosis or sarcomatoid/rhabdoid tumors. There was a significant difference in survival between each of the grades for clear cell RCC, and the concordance index was superior to that of ISUP grading. The proposed grading system also outperformed the ISUP grading system when cases were stratified according to the TNM stage. Similar results were not obtained for papillary RCC or chromophobe RCC. We conclude that grading for clear cell RCC should be based on nucleolar prominence and necrosis, that ISUP grading should be used for papillary RCC, and that chromophobe RCC should not be graded.

  15. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out

  16. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  17. Relevance of Simpson grading system and recurrence-free survival after surgery for World Health Organization Grade I meningioma.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Konar, Subhas K; Missios, Symeon; Guthikonda, Bharat

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The clinical significance of the Simpson system for grading the extent of meningioma resection and its role as a predictor of the recurrence of World Health Organization (WHO) Grade I meningiomas have been questioned in the past, echoing changes in meningioma surgery over the years. The authors reviewed their experience in resecting WHO Grade I meningiomas and assessed the association between extent of resection, as evaluated using the Simpson classification, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) of patients after meningioma surgery. METHODS Clinical and radiological information for patients with WHO Grade I meningiomas who had undergone resective surgery over the past 20 years was retrospectively reviewed. Simpson and Shinshu grading scales were used to evaluate the extent of resection. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional-hazards regression. RESULTS Four hundred fifty-eight patients were eligible for analysis. Overall tumor recurrence rates for Simpson resection Grades I, II, III, and IV were 5%, 22%, 31%, and 35%, respectively. After Cox regression analysis, Simpson Grade I (extensive resection) was revealed as a significant predictor of RFS (p = 0.003). Patients undergoing Simpson Grade I and II resections showed significant improvement in RFS compared with patients undergoing Grade III and IV resections (p = 0.005). Extent of resection had a significant effect on recurrence rates for both skull base (p = 0.047) and convexity (p = 0.012) meningiomas. Female sex and a Karnofsky Performance Scale score > 70 were also identified as independent predictors of RFS after resection of WHO Grade I meningioma. CONCLUSIONS In this patient cohort, a significant association was noted between extent of resection and rates of tumor recurrence. In the authors' experience the Simpson grading system maintains its relevance and prognostic value and can serve an important role for patient education. Even though complete tumor

  18. Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan, Tony N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades…

  19. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  20. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  1. Standards Based Reform. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passantino, Claire; Kenyon, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this guide is to provide information, support and practical tools that may help educators design, implement, and evaluate their school's standards-based education program. In order to work, a comprehensive, standards-based educational program must, by definition, be the organizing structure upon which the school program operates.…

  2. A new grading system for ototoxicity in adults.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A R; Dreschler, Wouter A; Latenstein, Merel N; Rasch, Coen R N; van der Baan, Sieberen; de Boer, Jan Paul; Balm, Alfons J M; Zuur, Charlotte L

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to propose an ototoxicity grading system sensitive to the effect of ototoxicity on specific daily life situations like speech intelligibility and the perception of ultra-high sounds and to test its feasibility compared to current criteria. Pure tone averages (PTAs) for speech perception (1-2-4 kHz) and ultra-high frequencies (8-10-12.5 kHz) were incorporated. Threshold shift and hearing level posttreatment were taken into account. Criteria were tested on head and neck cancer patients treated with (chemo-)radiotherapy ([C]RT) and compared with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4 (CTCAEv4) and the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association criteria (ASHA). Grades 1 and 2 were based on threshold shifts from baseline (in dB) and subjective complaints. Grades 3 and 4 were defined as treatment-induced hearing loss of ≥ 35 dB at PTA 1-2-4 kHz and ≥ 70 dB at PTA 1-2-4 kHz, respectively. In high-dose cisplatin CRT incidences by the new criteria, CTCAEv4 and ASHA were comparable (78%-88%). In RT and low-dose cisplatin CRT, incidences were 36% to 39% in the new criteria versus 22% to 53% in CTCAEv4 and ASHA. The new criteria show an increased sensitivity to ototoxicity compared to CTCAEv4 and ASHA and provide insight into the effect of hearing loss on certain daily life situations. The new grading system seems feasible for clinic and research purposes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Enabling Better Interoperability for HealthCare: Lessons in Developing a Standards Based Application Programing Interface for Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Kumara, Harsha; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We sought to enable better interoperability and easy adoption of healthcare applications by developing a standardized domain independent Application Programming Interface (API) for an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. We leveraged the modular architecture of the Open Medical Record System (OpenMRS) to build a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) based add-on module that could consume FHIR resources and requests made on OpenMRS. The OpenMRS FHIR module supports a subset of FHIR resources that could be used to interact with clinical data persisted in OpenMRS. We demonstrate the ease of connecting healthcare applications using the FHIR API by integrating a third party Substitutable Medical Apps & Reusable Technology (SMART) application with OpenMRS via FHIR. The OpenMRS FHIR module is an optional component of the OpenMRS platform. The FHIR API significantly reduces the effort required to implement OpenMRS by preventing developers from having to learn or work with a domain specific OpenMRS API. We propose an integration pathway where the domain specific legacy OpenMRS API is gradually retired in favor of the new FHIR API, which would be integrated into the core OpenMRS platform. Our efforts indicate that a domain independent API is a reality for any EMR system. These efforts demonstrate the adoption of an emerging FHIR standard that is seen as a replacement for both Health Level 7 (HL7) Version 2 and Version 3. We propose a gradual integration approach where our FHIR API becomes the preferred method for communicating with the OpenMRS platform.

  4. Development of Grading Systems for Short-Length Lumber

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Wengert; Robert W. Rice; James G. Schroeder

    1987-01-01

    The abundance of low grade hardwood timber and a shortage of high grade timber of many species has led to the examination of alternative processing methods for converting logs to lumber. However, present grading rules for short length lumber are not good predictors of the lumber's true value. A new method of grading short length lumber is proposed, with furniture...

  5. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal...

  6. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal...

  7. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each railroad shall report...

  8. Computer-based image analysis system designed to differentiate between low-grade and high-grade laryngeal cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Ninos, Konstantinos; Kostopoulos, Spiros; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Kalatzis, Ioannis; Glotsos, Dimitris; Athanasiadis, Emmanouil; Ravazoula, Panagiota; Panayiotakis, George; Economou, George; Cavouras, Dionisis

    2013-10-01

    To design a pattern recognition (PR) system for discriminating between low- and high-grade laryngeal cancer cases, employing immunohistochemically stained, for p63 expression, histopathology images. The PR system was designed to assist in the physician's diagnosis for improving patient survival. The material comprised 55 verified cases of laryngeal cancer, 21 of low-grade and 34 of high-grade malignancy. Histopathology images were first processed for automatically segmenting p63 expressed nuclei. Fifty-two features were next extracted from the segmented nuclei, concerning nuclei texture, shape, and physical topology in the image. Those features and the Probabilistic Neural Network classifier were used to design the PR system on the multiprocessors of the Nvidia 580 GTX graphics processing unit (GPU) card using the Compute Unified Device Architecture parallel programming model and C++ programming language. PR system performance in classifying laryngeal cancer cases as low grade and high grade was 85.7% and 94.1%, respectively. The system's overall accuracy was 90.9%, using 7 features, and its estimated accuracy to "unseen" by the system cases was 80%. Optimum system design was feasible after employing parallel processing techniques and GPU technology. The proposed system was structured so as to function in a clinical environment, as a research tool, and with the capability of being redesigned on site when new verified cases are added to its repository.

  9. Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhuis, J W A; Schapers, R F M; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Pauwels, R P E; Newling, D W; ten Kate, F

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To test the prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP (World Health Organisation/International Society of Urologic Pathology) consensus classification system in Ta papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder. Methods: The histological slides of 322 patients with a primary Ta tumour were classified according to the consensus classification system, and recurrence free survival (RFS) and progression free survival (PFS) were assessed for a mean follow up period of 79 months. In the same patient group, the RFS and PFS rates for the 1973 WHO grading system and a low grade/high grade system were analysed. Results: Recurrent tumours were seen in all categories of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and five year RFS was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.12). The five year PFS showed a small but significant difference (p = 0.04) between papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (HGPUCs). In the 1973 WHO classification, no significant difference was found in RFS and PFS between the different grades. In the low grade/high grade classification PFS was significantly better for low grade tumours (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system is limited to predicting PFS, especially between PNLMP and HGPUC. The prognostic value of this system over other grading systems is questionable. PMID:12461053

  10. Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems.

    PubMed

    Oosterhuis, J W A; Schapers, R F M; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Pauwels, R P E; Newling, D W; ten Kate, F

    2002-12-01

    To test the prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP (World Health Organisation/International Society of Urologic Pathology) consensus classification system in Ta papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder. The histological slides of 322 patients with a primary Ta tumour were classified according to the consensus classification system, and recurrence free survival (RFS) and progression free survival (PFS) were assessed for a mean follow up period of 79 months. In the same patient group, the RFS and PFS rates for the 1973 WHO grading system and a low grade/high grade system were analysed. Recurrent tumours were seen in all categories of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and five year RFS was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.12). The five year PFS showed a small but significant difference (p = 0.04) between papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (HGPUCs). In the 1973 WHO classification, no significant difference was found in RFS and PFS between the different grades. In the low grade/high grade classification PFS was significantly better for low grade tumours (p = 0.01). The prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system is limited to predicting PFS, especially between PNLMP and HGPUC. The prognostic value of this system over other grading systems is questionable.

  11. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  12. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B.

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  13. Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

  14. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi; Igual, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona.

  15. Data-driven system to predict academic grades and dropout

    PubMed Central

    Rovira, Sergi; Puertas, Eloi

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the role of a tutor is more important than ever to prevent students dropout and improve their academic performance. This work proposes a data-driven system to extract relevant information hidden in the student academic data and, thus, help tutors to offer their pupils a more proactive personal guidance. In particular, our system, based on machine learning techniques, makes predictions of dropout intention and courses grades of students, as well as personalized course recommendations. Moreover, we present different visualizations which help in the interpretation of the results. In the experimental validation, we show that the system obtains promising results with data from the degree studies in Law, Computer Science and Mathematics of the Universitat de Barcelona. PMID:28196078

  16. Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

  17. Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

  18. Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

    2012-01-01

    A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

  19. User's guide to UGRS: the Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System (version 5.0).

    Treesearch

    John Moody; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker; Powsiri Klinkhachorn

    1998-01-01

    The Ultimate Grading and Remanufacturing System (UGRS) is the latest generation of advanced computer programs for lumber grading. It is designed to be a training and research tool that allows grading of lumber according to 1998 NHLA rules and remanufacturing for maximum dollar value. A 32-bit application that runs under all Microsoft Windows operating systems, UGRS...

  20. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses

    PubMed Central

    Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n = 480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n = 169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n = 105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n = 102); Pompe's disease (n = 62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n = 8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating

  1. Secondary Principals' Perceptions of Grading and Grade Reporting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akins, Jeremie

    2016-01-01

    Effective grading practices in the classroom as well as reporting practices such as standards-based grading (SBG) is one way to report learning (Marzano, 2010). The focus of this particular study was to address alternative ways to tackle the issue of grading and grade reporting in comparison to the traditional grading methods. Specifically, this…

  2. A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Travis M.; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Spetzler–Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. Methods: The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler–Martin grading system. Results: Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler–Martin grading system (P = 0.33). Conclusion: This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable. PMID:25657856

  3. A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Travis M; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V; Hopkins, L Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I

    2015-01-01

    The Spetzler-Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler-Martin grading system. Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler-Martin grading system (P = 0.33). This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable.

  4. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  5. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  6. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  7. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  8. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  9. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject.

  10. Standards-based Instruction in Rehearsal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, Todd L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of standards-based instruction in large ensemble rehearsals and the implementation of the National Standards for Music Education. Provides a sample lesson using "The Ash Grove," a piece arranged for band with notes on lesson preparation and rehearsal strategy. (CMK)

  11. Promoting Culturally Responsive Standards-Based Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifer, Steffen; Barton, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Culturally responsive standards-based (CRSB) teaching can help bring diverse school communities together and make learning meaningful. Unlike multicultural education--which is an important way to incorporate the world's cultural and ethnic diversity into lessons--CRSB teaching draws on the experiences, understanding, views, concepts, and ways of…

  12. Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

  13. Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were

  14. Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of Online Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the communication aspect of using an online grading program. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the implications of allowing the grading process to become transparent to parents. The purpose of this study was to assist teachers in searching for ways to create a positive parent-teacher relationship. A…

  15. Reliability assessment of Society for Fetal Urology ultrasound grading system for hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Keays, M A; Guerra, L A; Mihill, J; Raju, G; Al-Asheeri, N; Geier, P; Gaboury, I; Matzinger, M; Pike, J; Leonard, M P

    2008-10-01

    The Society for Fetal Urology introduced a subjective grading system for classifying hydronephrosis that has important implications in patient diagnosis, treatment and outcome. The grading system is frequently used to standardize the severity of hydronephrosis, and compare results among patients and centers. Despite widespread use to our knowledge no groups have investigated the reliability of the grading system since its introduction. We assessed the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Society for Fetal Urology grading system for hydronephrosis and examined levels of agreement by the degree of hydronephrosis (grades 0 to 4) and level of experience (staff vs trainee). A series of 50 pediatric renal ultrasound images from patients with a diagnosis of hydronephrosis were assessed by 4 staff individuals and 4 trainees using the Society for Fetal Urology grading system. Ultrasound images included the kidneys, ureters and bladder to be consistent with practice. After 7 to 14 days each rater repeated the assessment. The nonweighted Cohen kappa statistic was used to estimate intrarater and interrater reliability by Society for Fetal Urology grade and training level. Staff and trainee raters independently assigned Society for Fetal Urology grades to 50 patients (99 renal units). The average number of images per ultrasound was 41, including the right and left kidneys. Overall interrater agreement for staff individuals was substantial for grade 0, moderate for grades 1, 2 and 4, and only slight to fair for grade 3. Intrarater agreement was substantial to almost perfect for staff agreement (range 69% to 94%, kappa 0.56 to 0.89) and trainees (range 63% to 90%, kappa 0.48 to 0.85). Our study suggests that the Society for Fetal Urology grading system has good intrarater but modest interrater reliability. Individual rater interpretations of the grading system may explain the modest interrater agreement. Proposed modifications to the Society for Fetal Urology

  16. Quantitative assessment of graded burn wounds using a commercial and research grade laser speckle imaging (LSI) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponticorvo, A.; Rowland, R.; Yang, B.; Lertsakdadet, B.; Crouzet, C.; Bernal, N.; Choi, B.; Durkin, A. J.

    2017-02-01

    Burn wounds are often characterized by injury depth, which then dictates wound management strategy. While most superficial burns and full thickness burns can be diagnosed through visual inspection, clinicians experience difficulty with accurate diagnosis of burns that fall between these extremes. Accurately diagnosing burn severity in a timely manner is critical for starting the appropriate treatment plan at the earliest time points to improve patient outcomes. To address this challenge, research groups have studied the use of commercial laser Doppler imaging (LDI) systems to provide objective characterization of burn-wound severity. Despite initial promising findings, LDI systems are not commonplace in part due to long acquisition times that can suffer from artifacts in moving patients. Commercial LDI systems are being phased out in favor of laser speckle imaging (LSI) systems that can provide similar information with faster acquisition speeds. To better understand the accuracy and usefulness of commercial LSI systems in burn-oriented research, we studied the performance of a commercial LSI system in three different sample systems and compared its results to a research-grade LSI system in the same environments. The first sample system involved laboratory measurements of intralipid (1%) flowing through a tissue simulating phantom, the second preclinical measurements in a controlled burn study in which wounds of graded severity were created on a Yorkshire pig, and the third clinical measurements involving a small sample of clinical patients. In addition to the commercial LSI system, a research grade LSI system that was designed and fabricated in our labs was used to quantitatively compare the performance of both systems and also to better understand the "Perfusion Unit" output of commercial systems.

  17. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  18. International photographic classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy.

    PubMed

    Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Kawasaki, Ryo; Jonas, Jost B; Cheung, Chui Ming Gemmy; Saw, Seang-Mei; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Klaver, Caroline C W; Moriyama, Muka; Shinohara, Kosei; Kawasaki, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Mai; Meuer, Stacy; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Yasuda, Miho; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Sugano, Akira; Wang, Jie Jin; Mitchell, Paul; Wong, Tien Yin

    2015-05-01

    To develop a classification and grading system for myopic maculopathy. Development and evaluation of a classification system for myopic maculopathy based on observational case series. A comprehensive set of myopic macular lesions was defined via literature review and through consensus meetings among retinal specialists and clinician scientists. A classification of myopic maculopathy was formulated based on fundus photographs and a modified Delphi process and consensus. Inter- and intraobserver reproducibility, assessed as agreement (%) and weighted kappa values, were evaluated. One hundred retinal photographs with myopia and myopic macular lesions were selected from case series at the High Myopia Clinic of the Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan. We defined 5 categories of myopic maculopathy including "no myopic retinal degenerative lesion" (Category 0), "tessellated fundus" (Category 1), "diffuse chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 2), "patchy chorioretinal atrophy" (Category 3), and "macular atrophy" (Category 4). Three additional features to supplement these categories were defined as "plus" lesions, namely, lacquer cracks, myopic choroidal neovascularization, and Fuchs spot. Posterior staphyloma was considered as a further, important sign of myopic retinopathy. The intraobserver agreement was ≥85% and the corresponding weighted kappa statistic was ≥0.6 between observations. After a brief training session, interobserver kappa statistics reached the predefined satisfactory level (≥0.4), considered as above moderate agreement. We propose a classification system for myopic maculopathy that was found to be reproducible. Applying a uniform classification in different studies will facilitate communication and comparison of findings from clinical trials and epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  20. Distillation system for motor fuel grade anhydrous alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Katzen, R.; Kumana, J. D.; Moon, G. D.

    1980-08-12

    An improved distillation method is provided for obtaining motor fuel grade anhydrous ethanol from fermentation or synthetic feedstocks. A three tower system is used comprising a stripperrectifier tower in which the dilute feedstock is converted to a concentrated ethanol stream, a dehydrating tower in which water is removed from the concentrated ethanol stream by azeotropic distillation, and a stripper tower for recovering the azeotropic agent. The invention effects substantial energy savings by utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower to supply the heat required for the dehydrating and stripper towers and by preheating the feedstock in stages utilizing the heat content of the overhead vapors from the dehydrating and stripper towers, the heat content of the overhead vapors from the stripper-rectifier tower and the heat content of the bottoms from the stripper-rectifier tower. Provision is also made for separately removing lower boiling and higher boiling impurities from the stripper-rectifier tower which may be blended into the anhydrous ethanol product from the dehydrating tower.

  1. Feasibility and Outcomes of Implementing a Portfolio Assessment System Alongside a Traditional Grading System.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Celia Laird; Sanguino, Sandra M; Thomas, John X; Green, Marianne M

    2016-11-01

    Portfolios are a powerful tool to collect and evaluate evidence of medical students' competence across time. However, comprehensive portfolio assessment systems that are implemented alongside traditional graded curricula at medical schools in the United States have not been described in the literature. This study describes the development and implementation of a longitudinal competency-based electronic portfolio system alongside a graded curriculum at a relatively large U.S. medical school. In 2009, the authors developed a portfolio system that served as a repository for all student assessments organized by competency domain. Five competencies were selected for a preclerkship summative portfolio review. Students submitted reflections on their performance. In 2014, four clinical faculty members participated in standard-setting activities and used expert judgment and holistic review to rate students' competency achievement as "progressing toward competence," "progressing toward competence with some concern," or "progressing toward competence pending remediation." Follow-up surveys measured students' and faculty members' perceptions of the process. Faculty evaluated 156 portfolios and showed high levels of agreement in their ratings. The majority of students achieved the "progressing toward competence" benchmark in all competency areas. However, 31 students received at least one concerning rating, which was not reflected in their course grades. Students' perceptions of the system's ability to foster self-assessment were mixed. The portfolio review process allowed faculty to identify students with a concerning rating in a behavioral competency who would not have been identified in a traditional grading system. Identification of these students allows for intervention and early remediation.

  2. Double-channel on-line automatic fruit grading system based on computer vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junxiong; Xun, Yi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Cong

    2007-01-01

    The technology of fruit grading based on computer vision was studied and a double-channel on-line automatic grading system was built. The process of grading included fruit image acquiring, image processing and fruit tracking and separating. In the first section, a new approach of image grabbing by employing an asynchronous reset camera was presented. Three images of the different surfaces of each fruit would be collected by rolling the fruits when they passed through the image-capturing area. To acquire clear images, high-frequency fluorescent lamps supplied by three-phase alternating current were used to illuminate. In the image processing section, the diameter and a color model were used to identify the grade of the fruits. Fruits were graded into four grades by size, and two by color. Each fruit identified was tracked and separated by a novel algorithm which was realized with a PLC (Program Logic Controller). The whole grading system was tested with 1000 citrus. It could work stably when the grading capability was twelve citrus per second and the grading level was nine. The on-line grading results indicated that the accuracy of tracking and separating was higher than 99%, and the ultimate grading error was less than 3%.

  3. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  4. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  5. A Contemporary Prostate Cancer Grading System: A Validated Alternative to the Gleason Score

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Sjoberg, Daniel D.; Nelson, Joel B.; Egevad, Lars; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Vickers, Andrew J.; Parwani, Anil V.; Reuter, Victor E.; Fine, Samson W.; Eastham, James A.; Wiklund, Peter; Han, Misop; Reddy, Chandana A.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Nyberg, Tommy; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite revisions in 2005 and 2014, the Gleason prostate cancer (PCa) grading system still has major deficiencies. Combining of Gleason scores into a three-tiered grouping (6, 7, 8–10) is used most frequently for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The lowest score, assigned 6, may be misunderstood as a cancer in the middle of the grading scale, and 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7 are often considered the same prognostic group. Objective To verify that a new grading system accurately produces a smaller number of grades with the most significant prognostic differences, using multi-institutional and multimodal therapy data. Design, setting, and participants Between 2005 and 2014, 20 845 consecutive men were treated by radical prostatectomy at five academic institutions; 5501 men were treated with radiotherapy at two academic institutions. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Outcome was based on biochemical recurrence (BCR). The log-rank test assessed univariable differences in BCR by Gleason score. Separate univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards used four possible categorizations of Gleason scores. Results and limitations In the surgery cohort, we found large differences in recurrence rates between both Gleason 3 + 4 versus 4 + 3 and Gleason 8 versus 9. The hazard ratios relative to Gleason score 6 were 1.9, 5.1, 8.0, and 11.7 for Gleason scores 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8, and 9–10, respectively. These differences were attenuated in the radiotherapy cohort as a whole due to increased adjuvant or neoadjuvant hormones for patients with high-grade disease but were clearly seen in patients undergoing radiotherapy only. A five–grade group system had the highest prognostic discrimination for all cohorts on both univariable and multivariable analysis. The major limitation was the unavoidable use of prostate-specific antigen BCR as an end point as opposed to cancer-related death. Conclusions The new PCa grading system has these benefits: more

  6. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  7. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  8. Reliable Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Grading System for Cervical Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antonia F.; Kang, James D.; Lee, Joon Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational. Purpose To develop a simple and comprehensive grading system for cervical discs that precisely, consistently and meaningfully presents radiologic and morphologic data. Overview of Literature The Thompson grading system is commonly used to classify the severity of degenerative lumbar discs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Inherent differences in the morphological and physiological characteristics of cervical discs have hindered development of precise classification systems. Other grading systems have been developed for degenerating cervical discs, but their versatility and feasibility in the clinical setting is suboptimal. Methods MRIs of 46 human cervical discs were de-identified and displayed in PowerPoint format. Each slide depicted a single disc with a normal (grade 0) disc displayed in the top right corner for reference. The presentation was given to 25 physicians comprising attending spine surgeons, spine fellows, orthopaedic residents, and two attending musculoskeletal radiologists. The grading system included Grade 0 (normal height compared to C2–3, mid cleft still visible), grade 1 (dark disc, normal height), grade 2 (collapsed disc, few osteophytes), and grade 3 (collapsed disc, many osteophytes). The ease of use of the system was gauged in the participants and the interobserver reliability was calculated. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for interobserver reliability was 0.87, and 0.94 for intraobserver reliability, indicating excellent reliability. Ninety-five percent and 85 percent of the clinicians judged the grading system to be clinically feasible and useful in daily practice, respectively. Conclusions The grading system is easy to use, has excellent reliability, and can be used for precise and consistent clinician communication. PMID:26949461

  9. A clinically relevant MRI grading system for lumbar central canal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shiguo; Zou, Yucong; Li, Yikai; Chen, Meixiong; Yue, Yongbin

    To correlate lumbar spinal stenosis as graded on noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clinical symptomatology. Five grades were developed for lumbar central canal stenosis based on compression of the dural sac and cauda equina. We studied concordance in 112 patients between the grading system and the anteroposterior diameter of spinal canal, dural sac cross-sectional area, Oswestry disability index, and the pain visual analogue scale (VAS). Intra- and interobserver agreement was high. Although VAS was not significantly different between groups (P=.257), all other factors were significant (P≤.005). The MRI grading system reliably predicted the degree of stenosis and associated disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications of the International Society of Urological Pathology modified Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Egevad, Lars; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2012-04-01

    Histologic grading is the clinically most useful tissue-based predictor of prognosis for prostate cancer. Over the years, there has been a gradual shift in how the Gleason grading is applied in practice, with a general trend toward upgrading. A consensus conference was organized in 2005 by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) for standardizing both the perception of histologic patterns and how the grade information is compiled and reported. To review the implications of the ISUP modified Gleason grading system. Personal experience and review of the current literature. The recommendations regarding pattern interpretation and reporting are summarized. The practical consequences of the ISUP modification of the Gleason grading are reported. The prognostic importance of the Gleason score, its reproducibility, and its preoperative assessment are discussed. Subsequent proposals for slight modifications to the ISUP grading system are described.

  11. Visual tree grading systems for estimating lumber yields in young and mature southern pine

    Treesearch

    Alexander Clark; Robert H. McAlister

    1998-01-01

    New visual tree grading systems for mature southern pine ? 35 years old and young pine ? 35 years old based on number and size of branches in the lower bole are described. A series of lumber grade yield studies was conducted to test the new grading rules. A total of 214 natural loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill) trees 9 to 20 inches...

  12. Histologic grade in penile squamous cell carcinoma: visual estimation versus digital measurement of proportions of grades, adverse prognosis with any proportion of grade 3 and correlation of a Gleason-like system with nodal metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Alcides; Torres, José; Pfannl, Rolf; Barreto, Jose; Rodriguez, Ingrid; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L

    2009-07-01

    Histologic grade has been reported as an important pathologic parameter predictive of nodal metastases and outcome in patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. There is no consensus about the criteria for grading and the proportion of anaplastic cells required to classify a tumor as high grade. The incidence and management of heterogeneous tumors (tumors harboring more than 1 histologic grade) are not well established. The purposes of this study were to present a grading model for penile cancer, to test the practicality of the system by comparing a visual ("naked-eye") estimation of the proportions of grades with a digitally guided measuring system and to determine the influence on nodal metastasis of the various proportions of grades. A total of 117 penectomy and circumcision specimens with bilateral inguinal lymph node dissections were studied and 62 heterogeneous tumors were identified (53%). The following steps were taken: (1) design of a grading system model; (2) determination of proportions of histologic grades by naked-eye evaluation and by digital measurement; (3) evaluation of metastasis according to proportions of grades; (4) determination of the influence of site of grade 3 in nodal metastasis; (5) design of a Gleason-like scoring system; and (6) statistical evaluation. We designed a 3-tier grading system. Grade 1: well-differentiated cells, almost undistinguishable from normal squamous cells except for the presence of minimal basal/parabasal cell atypia. Grade 3: tumors predominantly composed of anaplastic cells. Grade 2: all tumors not fitting into criteria described for grade 1 or 3. A visual and digital-based (slides scanned and the corresponding areas measured with an image-editing software) proportions of grades were estimated and the metastatic rate between them were confronted using different proportions of grade 3. To evaluate the influence of site of grade 3 on nodal metastasis, we selected 20 heterogeneous tumors. We established 3 sites

  13. Validation of a classification system to grade fractionation in atrial fibrillation and correlation with automated detection systems.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ross J; Diab, Ihab; Thomas, Glyn; Duncan, Edward; Abrams, Dominic; Dhinoja, Mehul; Sporton, Simon; Earley, Mark J; Schilling, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    We tested application of a grading system describing complex fractionated electrograms (CFE) in atrial fibrillation (AF) and used it to validate automated CFE detection (AUTO). Ten seconds bipolar electrograms were classified by visual inspection (VI) during ablation of persistent AF and the result compared with offline manual measurement (MM) by a second blinded operator: Grade 1 uninterrupted fractionated activity (defined as segments > or =70 ms) for > or =70% of recording and uninterrupted > or =1 s; Grade 2 interrupted fractionated activity > or =70% of recording; Grade 3 intermittent fractionated activity 30-70%; Grade 4 discrete (<70 ms) complex electrogram (> or =5 direction changes); Grade 5 discrete simple electrograms (< or =4 direction changes); Grade 6 scar. Grade by VI and MM for 100 electrograms agreed in 89%. Five hundred electrograms were graded on Carto and NavX by VI to validate AUTO in (i) detection of CFE (grades 1-4 considered CFE), and (ii) assessing degree of fractionation by correlating grade and score by AUTO (data shown as sensitivity, specificity, r): NavX 'CFE mean' 92%, 91%, 0.56; Carto 'interval confidence level' using factory settings 89%, 62%, -0.72, and other published settings 80%, 74%, -0.65; Carto 'shortest confidence interval' 74%, 70%, 0.43; Carto 'average confidence interval' 86%, 66%, 0.53. Grading CFE by VI is accurate and correlates with AUTO.

  14. Exemplary Science PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E., Ed.; Enger, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Since their release in 1996, the National Science Education Standards have provided the vision for science education reform. But has that reform actually taken hold in elementary school? "Yes!," reports Robert Yager, editor of Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories. "Probably the Standards have done more to change…

  15. Mathematical Performance of Students with Disabilities in Middle School Standards-Based and Traditional Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouck, Emily C.; Kulkarni, Gauri; Johnson, Linley

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of mathematics curriculum (standards based vs. traditional) on the performance of sixth and seventh grade students with disabilities on multiple-choice and open-ended assessments aligned to one state's number and operations and algebra standards. It also sought to understand factors affecting student performance…

  16. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  17. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of…

  18. Assessment Grading Systems and Regulations in Learning Outcome Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodridge, Melvyn

    Learning outcomes and their assessment has given rise to considerable debate as to whether outcomes should be graded or just pass/fail. Assessment models employing learning outcomes have been used for some time in the United Kingdom (UK) in further education programs for example National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) and General National…

  19. Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat

    Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of…

  20. Inter- and intra-observer variability in three grading systems for oral epithelial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lakshmi; Karpagaselvi, Karuppiah; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Sudheendra, U S; Santosh, K V; Patil, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Management of oral premalignant lesions depends on clinical assessment and grading of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), which remains one of the most important predictors of malignant potential. Numerous grading systems for OED exists with varying sets of assessing criteria and are largely considered subjective. The present study attempted to assess the inter- and intra-observer variability in three grading systems: Binary system, WHO (2005) and Ljubljana systems. Histopathological grading of 63 cases of leukoplakia was performed by two oral pathologists and one general pathologist, who were blinded, using all the three grading systems at different time intervals and was repeated twice. Inter- and intra-observer variability was then evaluated by multivariate kappa analysis. Inter-observer agreement in the two set of observations was found to be "slight" in WHO (k = 0.001 and 0.039), "slight" and "poor" in binary (k = 0.108 and -0.007), "poor" and "slight" in Ljubljana's (k = -0.027 and 0.106) grading systems. Intra-observer agreement ranged from "slight" to "fair" (k = 0.128 and 0.295) in WHO, "fair" to "moderate" (k = 0.224 and 0.420) in binary and "slight" to "fair" (k = 0.161 and -0.353) in Ljubljana's grading systems. The binary system of classification proved to have an overall better inter- and intra-observer agreement. This study also showed better intra-observer agreement in all the grading systems as well as in individual histopathological parameters. Defining the individual parameters more objectively with the reproducible structuring of the grading systems and training of the pathologists would help reduce the variability in diagnosing dysplasia.

  1. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Finnerup, Nanna B; Haroutounian, Simon; Kamerman, Peter; Baron, Ralf; Bennett, David L H; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Freeman, Roy; Hansson, Per; Nurmikko, Turo; Raja, Srinivasa N; Rice, Andrew S C; Serra, Jordi; Smith, Blair H; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Jensen, Troels S

    2016-08-01

    The redefinition of neuropathic pain as "pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," which was suggested by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) in 2008, has been widely accepted. In contrast, the proposed grading system of possible, probable, and definite neuropathic pain from 2008 has been used to a lesser extent. Here, we report a citation analysis of the original NeuPSIG grading paper of 2008, followed by an analysis of its use by an expert panel and recommendations for an improved grading system. As of February, 2015, 608 eligible articles in Scopus cited the paper, 414 of which cited the neuropathic pain definition. Of 220 clinical studies citing the paper, 56 had used the grading system. The percentage using the grading system increased from 5% in 2009 to 30% in 2014. Obstacles to a wider use of the grading system were identified, including (1) questions about the relative significance of confirmatory tests, (2) the role of screening tools, and (3) uncertainties about what is considered a neuroanatomically plausible pain distribution. Here, we present a revised grading system with an adjusted order, better reflecting clinical practice, improvements in the specifications, and a word of caution that even the "definite" level of neuropathic pain does not always indicate causality. In addition, we add a table illustrating the area of pain and sensory abnormalities in common neuropathic pain conditions and propose areas for further research.

  2. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  3. Faculty Ratings as Part of a Competency-Based Evaluation Clinic Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a quarterly rating system developed to replace daily grading in a dental school with a competency-based educational model. Presents results from an early administration of the ratings. These results, for 126 students, show excellent face validity and rater consistency and satisfy the school's standard for grade defensibility. (SLD)

  4. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  5. Making Grades More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Pollio, Marty

    2016-01-01

    To expand and improve evidence of grading practices, we seized an opportunity presented by the implementation of standards-based grading practices at 11 high schools in Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Ky. These high-needs schools faced substantial sanctions outlined by recently revised federal and state policies unless they made…

  6. Making Grades More Meaningful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochbein, Craig; Pollio, Marty

    2016-01-01

    To expand and improve evidence of grading practices, we seized an opportunity presented by the implementation of standards-based grading practices at 11 high schools in Jefferson County Public Schools in Louisville, Ky. These high-needs schools faced substantial sanctions outlined by recently revised federal and state policies unless they made…

  7. Prognostic Gleason grade grouping: data based on the modified Gleason scoring system

    PubMed Central

    Pierorazio, Phillip M.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective • To investigate pathological and short-term outcomes since the most recent Gleason system modifications by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) in an attempt to divide the current Gleason grading system into prognostically accurate Gleason grade groups. Patients and Methods • We queried the Johns Hopkins Radical Prostatectomy Database (1982–2011), approved by the institutional review board, for men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) without a tertiary pattern since 2004 and identified 7869 men. • Multivariable models were created using preoperative and postoperative variables; prognostic grade group (Gleason grade ≤6; 3 + 4; 4 + 3; 8; 9–10) was among the strongest predictors of biochemical recurrence-free (BFS) survival. Results • Significant differences were noted among the Gleason grade groups at biopsy; differences were noted in the race, PSA level, clinical stage, number of positive cores at biopsy and the maximum percentage of positive cores among the Gleason grade groups at RP. • With a median (range) follow-up of 2 (1–7) years, 5-year BFS rates for men with Gleason grade ≤6, 3 + 4, 4 + 3, 8 and 9–10 tumours at biopsy were 94.6, 82.7, 65.1, 63.1 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001 for trend); and 96.6, 88.1, 69.7, 63.7 and 34.5%, respectively (P < 0.001), based on RP pathology. Conclusions • The 2005 ISUP modifications to the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma accurately categorize patients by pathological findings and short-term biochemical outcomes but, while retaining the essence of the Gleason system, there is a need for a change in its reporting to more closely reflect tumour behaviour. • We propose reporting Gleason grades, including prognostic grade groups which accurately reflect prognosis as follows: Gleason score ≤6 (prognostic grade group I); Gleason score 3+4=7 (prognostic grade group II); Gleason score 4+3=7 (prognostic grade group III); Gleason score 4+4=8 (prognostic grade

  8. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  9. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  10. New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Liao, Limin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Guoqing

    2014-05-22

    In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p > 0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). The MRU-UUTD grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD.

  11. A Review of The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Embryo Grading System and Proposed Modification

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Amjad; Phelps, John; Agarwal, Ashok; Sanz, Eduardo; Mahadevan, Maha

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) method of embryo grad- ing is unique, simple, and widely practiced, and its use has been mandatory for SART membership programs since 2010. Developed by SART in 2006, the current embryo grading system categories, “good, fair, and poor,” are limited because they do not describe the best 1-2 embryos in the interest of keeping pace with the shift in clinical practice to be more selective and to transfer fewer embryos. This inspired us to conduct a review on the SART embryo grading system. In this retrospective study, the literature on evaluation of human embryo quality in gen- eral, and the SART method of evaluation in particular, were reviewed for the period of 2000 to 2014. A multifaceted search pertaining to methods of embryo grading and trans- fer using a combination of relevant terms [embryo, mammalian, embryo transfer, grade, grading, morphology, biomarkers, SART, and in vitro fertilization (IVF)] was performed. The inclusion and exclusion in this review were dictated by the aim and scope of the study. Two investigators independently assessed the studies and extracted information. A total of 61 articles were reviewed. Very few studies have evaluated the efficacy of the SART embryo grading method. The present study suggests the necessity for revision of the current SART grading system. The system, as it is now, lacks criteria for describing the cohort specific best embryo and thus is of limited use in single embryo transfer. The study foresees heightened descriptive efficiency of the SART system by implementing the proposed changes. Strengths and weaknesses of the SART embryo grading were identified. Ideas for selecting the best cohort-specific embryo have been discussed, which may trigger methodological improvement in SART and other embryo grading systems. PMID:27441045

  12. Interobserver variability in grading of brain arteriovenous malformations using the Spetzler-Martin system.

    PubMed

    Du, Rose; Dowd, Christopher F; Johnston, S Clairborne; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

    2005-10-01

    Despite its quantitative definitions, the Spetzler-Martin grading scale for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is subject to interobserver variability, particularly when observers differ in their subspecialties. Interobserver variability between neuroradiologist and neurosurgeon grading was analyzed in a large AVM series to determine its extent, causes, and clinical implications. In a consecutive surgical series of 224 AVM patients, Spetzler-Martin grades were assigned independently by a neuroradiologist and a neurosurgeon. Interobserver agreement was measured with a Cohen kappa analysis and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Disagreement in grades occurred in 62 (27.7%) patients. By kappa analysis, agreement was highest for venous drainage pattern (kappa = 0.90), intermediate for eloquence (kappa = 0.71), and lowest for size (kappa = 0.67), with substantial agreement on overall grade (kappa = 0.61). By Wilcoxon signed-rank test, size scores and AVM grades were significantly different. Causes of interobserver variability in grading included diffuse nidus, differences in angiographic versus surgical borders, paradoxical venous drainage, and the ambiguity of eloquence. Interobserver variability affected outcome data but did not diminish the predictive value of the Spetzler-Martin scale. The Spetzler-Martin grading system can be applied reliably to most AVMs with good agreement between observers, but some unusual AVMs expose the system's imprecision and subjectivity. Interobserver variability can affect reporting of results, surgical risk assessment, and patient selection. Undergrading may encourage borderline surgical candidates to choose surgery and obtain results below their expectations.

  13. Recognition of Outstanding Performance in Medical Schools with Nontraditional Grading Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, M. J.; Finch, W. Tyree

    1984-01-01

    A survey to review practices for reporting student performance with nontraditional grading systems, to investigate the methods used to recognize outstanding student performance, and to survey the attitudes of medical school administrators concerning the recognition of excellence is described. (MLW)

  14. 14. Site D57C, Improved NIKEHercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Site D-57-C, Improved NIKE-Hercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 18 January 1962. - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  15. Interobserver and intraobserver variability of a two-tier system for grading ovarian serous carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malpica, Anais; Deavers, Michael T; Tornos, Carmen; Kurman, Robert J; Soslow, Robert; Seidman, Jeffrey D; Munsell, Mark F; Gaertner, Erich; Frishberg, David; Silva, Elvio G

    2007-08-01

    Although grading has been demonstrated to be an important prognostic factor in ovarian serous carcinoma, there is no system universally used to perform this task. A few years ago, we proposed a two-tier system for grading ovarian serous carcinoma that is based primarily on the assessment of nuclear atypia (uniformity vs. pleomorphism) in the worst area of the tumor. Tumor grade in this two-tier system is correlated with survival. After being used by numerous pathologists and trainees at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) for 15 years, we have observed that this system is user-friendly and reproducible. We undertook this study to evaluate the interobserver and intraobserver variability among a group of 7 gynecologic pathologists and 2 general surgical pathologists using this grading system. A total of 80 cases of ovarian serous carcinoma, 40 low-grade and 40 high-grade, were circulated twice among these pathologists. Slides with examples of low-grade and high-grade serous carcinoma were sent with the unknowns. A website was used to provide diagnostic criteria, images of examples of ovarian low-grade and high-grade carcinoma, and a log form to facilitate data entry. Statistical analysis demonstrated an overall kappa statistic among the different observers of 0.909. The intergrader kappa's ranged from 0.717 to 1.000 in the first round of the review and from 0.701 to 1.000 in the second round. Eight of the participants had an intragrader kappa ranging from 0.775 to 1.000 (excellent agreement), whereas a single participant had an intragrader kappa of 0.725 (good agreement). This study demonstrates that the two-tier grading system (the MDACC grading system) for ovarian serous carcinoma on the basis of the assessment of nuclear atypia is easy to learn and is highly reproducible. These findings would support its universal use, which would be beneficial for the standardization of clinical trials and protocols, thus facilitating the understanding of

  16. Increasing the Reliability of the Grading System for Voiding Cystourethrograms Using Ultrasonography: An Inter-Rater Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ozaydin, Seyithan; Celebi, Suleyman; Caymaz, Ismail; Besik, Cemile; Karaaslan, Birgul; Kuzdan, Ozgur; Sander, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the effectiveness of the current vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grading system according to the international classification of VUR (ICVUR) and to evaluate whether VUR grading accuracy could be improved by renal ultrasonography (RU) according to the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading system. Objectives Therefore, this study assessed the accuracy of the current VCUG staging system by assessing inter-rater reliability among pediatric radiologists and urologists; it also evaluated whether accuracy is increased by RU without consensus (with respect to VCUG grading). Methods Four pediatric urologists and four pediatric radiologists independently graded 120 voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs). Middle VUR grades were divided into the following three groups: VUR consensus grade III (group 1), VUR consensus grade IV (group 3), and VUR non-consensus grades III and IV (group 2). All groups were compared with respect to hydronephrosis grade using RU. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.86 to 0.89 reflected good reliability. The lowest agreement was associated with middle grades (III and IV). A marked difference in sensitivity was observed between groups 1 and 3 (35% and 95%, respectively, P < 0.05), indexed by SFU hydronephrosis grade, suggesting that VCUG cases in group 2 (n = 16 at SFU 0 or 1) could be accepted as grade III, and SFU scores of 2, 3, or 4 could be considered grade IV. Conclusions Inter-rater accuracy could be improved at middle grades using renal ultrasonography (USG), which could promote communication between different specialists. PMID:27878111

  17. Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

  18. Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

  19. Developing seventh grade students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students' systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students' systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students' knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students' ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems' components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students' systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials.

  20. Impaired peripheral vasodilation during graded systemic hypoxia in healthy older adults: role of the sympathoadrenal system.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Larson, Dennis G; Luckasen, Gary J; Dinenno, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    Systemic hypoxia is a physiological and pathophysiological stress that activates the sympathoadrenal system and, in young adults, leads to peripheral vasodilation. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral vasodilation to graded systemic hypoxia is impaired in older healthy adults and that this age-associated impairment is due to attenuated β-adrenergic mediated vasodilation and elevated α-adrenergic vasoconstriction. Forearm blood flow was measured (Doppler ultrasound), and vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated in 12 young (24 ± 1 yr) and 10 older (63 ± 2 yr) adults to determine the local dilatory responses to graded hypoxia (90, 85, and 80% O2 saturations) in control conditions, following local intra-arterial blockade of β-receptors (propranolol), and combined blockade of α- and β-receptors (phentolamine + propranolol). Under control conditions, older adults exhibited impaired vasodilation to hypoxia compared with young participants at all levels of hypoxia (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = 4 ± 6 vs. 35 ± 8%; P < 0.01). During β-blockade, older adults actively constricted at 85 and 80% [Formula: see text] (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text] = -13 ± 6%; P < 0.05 vs. control), whereas the response in the young was not significantly impacted (peak ΔFVC = 28 ± 8%). Combined α- and β-blockade increased the dilatory response to hypoxia in young adults; however, older adults failed to significantly vasodilate (peak ΔFVC at 80% [Formula: see text]= 12 ± 11% vs. 58 ± 11%; P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that peripheral vasodilation to graded systemic hypoxia is significantly impaired in older adults, which cannot be fully explained by altered sympathoadrenal control of vascular tone. Thus, the impairment in hypoxic vasodilation is likely due to attenuated local vasodilatory and/or augmented vasoconstrictor signaling with age.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that the lack of peripheral vasodilation

  1. Prognostic utility of Hyams histological grading and Kadish-Morita staging systems for esthesioneuroblastoma outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bell, Diana; Saade, Rami; Roberts, Dianna; Ow, Thomas J; Kupferman, Michael; DeMonte, Franco; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2015-03-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma (ENB) is derived from the specialized olfactory neuroepithelium. Hyams grading and Kadish staging have been used to prognosticate and to guide treatment decisions. In this study, we sought to validate the prognostic utility of these systems in a large ENB cohort. We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients with ENB who had been evaluated and treated at our institution. The association of grade and stage with prognostic outcome was assessed; the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used to generate 5-year OS and DFS curves. Out of 124 cases we identified, 121 were assessed for grading and 109 for staging. Review of the tissue samples revealed that 62 % of tumors were low grade (I/II) and 21 % were high grade (III/IV); 17 % of tumors were metastasis. The OS rate was 75 % at 5 years. The DFS was 60 % at 5 years. The OS was significantly worse for metastatic ENB (low-grade ENB vs metastatic ENB p = 0.01598); the DFS was significantly worse for high grade versus low grade ENB. Of the 109 cases that had been staged, 16 % were stage A, 33 % stage B, 43 % stage C, and 8 % stage D. In the A, B, and C groups, there were no significant differences between recurrence, distant metastasis, or 5-year survival rates. Statistical significance was not reached with the T, N, M and overall staging system. Age cutoff of 65 years reliably predicted OS. High grade of ENB was significantly associated with poor outcome, while advanced stage was not associated with poor outcome in this large cohort. Grading should certainly be considered in prognostication and treatment decisions for ENB.

  2. Construction and application of a food-grade expression system for Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenwei; Kong, Jian; Kong, Wentao

    2013-06-01

    A food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactococcus lactis was constructed using alanine racemase gene (alr) as the complementation marker. We obtained an alanine racemase auxotrophic mutant L. lactis NZ9000Δalr by double-crossover recombination using temperature-sensitive integration plasmid pG(+)host9 and a food-grade vector pALR with entirely lactococcal DNA elements, including lactococcal replicon, nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and the alr gene from Lactobacillus casei BL23 as a complementation marker. By using the new food-grade host/vector system, the green fluorescent protein and capsid protein of porcine circovirus type II were successfully overexpressed under the nisin induction. These results indicate that this food-grade host/vector expression system has application potential as an excellent antigen delivery vehicle, and is also suitable for the use in the manufacture of ingredients for the food industry.

  3. A Modular, Standards-based Digital Object Repository

    SciTech Connect

    De Sompel, Herbert Van; Bekaert, Jeroen; Liu, Xiaoming; Balakireva, Lyudmila L.; Schwander, Thorsten

    2005-08-01

    The aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects. aDORe was originally created for use at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packages (OAIS AIPs).

  4. An optical frequency standard based on ultracold magnesium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. N.; Bonert, A. E.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Prudnikov, O. N.; Tropnikov, M. A.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Bagayev, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the recent experimental results on development of an optical frequency standard based on ultra cold magnesium atoms with relative frequency uncertainty and long term stability at the level of Δv/v <10‑16. We stabilized the frequency of our clock laser system at 655 THz to narrow Ramsey fringes in a time separated laser fields interacting with cooled Mg atoms localized in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The intercombination line 1S0→3P1 was used as the reference for frequency stabilization. The results of stabilization were studied with femtosecond comb based on Ti:Sa laser.

  5. An Early Warning System: Predicting 10th Grade FCAT Success from 6th Grade FCAT Performance. Research Brief. Volume 0711

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Lapadula, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief presents a method for predicting 10th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) success from 6th grade FCAT performance. A simple equation provides the most probable single score prediction, and give-or-take error margins define high and low probability zones for expected 10th grade scores. In addition, a double-entry…

  6. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-04-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  7. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-07-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  8. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    PubMed Central

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  9. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  10. An empirical study of the predictive validity of number grades in medical school using 3 decades of longitudinal data: implications for a grading system.

    PubMed

    Gonnella, Joseph S; Erdmann, James B; Hojat, Mohammadreza

    2004-04-01

    Context It is important to establish the predictive validity of medical school grades. The strength of predictive validity and the ability to identify at-risk students in medical schools depends upon assessment systems such as number grades, pass/fail (P/F) or honours/pass/fail (H/P/F) systems. Objective This study was designed to examine the predictive validity of number grades in medical school, and to determine whether any important information is lost in a shift from number to P/F and H/P/F grading systems. Subjects The participants in this prospective, longitudinal study were 6656 medical students who studied at Jefferson Medical College over 3 decades. They were grouped into 10 deciles based on their number grades in Year 1 of medical school. Methods Participants were compared on academic accomplishments in Years 2 and 3 of medical school, medical school class rank, delayed graduation and attrition, performance on medical licensing examinations and clinical competence ratings in the first postgraduate year. Results Results supported the short- and longterm predictive validity of the number grades. Ratings of clinical competence beyond medical school were predicted by number grades in medical school. We demonstrated that small differences in number grades are statistically meaningful, and that important information for identifying students in need of remedial education is lost when students who narrowly meet faculty's expectations are included with the rest of the class in a broad 'pass' category. Conclusions The findings refute the argument that knowledge of sciences basic to medicine is not critical to subsequent performance in medical school and beyond if an appropriate evaluation system is used. Furthermore, the results of this study raise questions about abandoning number grades in favour of a pass/fail system. Consideration of these findings in policy decisions regarding assessment systems of medical students is recommended.

  11. Communication Systems, Unit I: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project for grades three and four, this first of two units on communication systems examines some systems which function without the use of human language, i.e., highway signs, trail signs, railroad signals, and facial expressions and gestures. After having identified concepts about communication systems,…

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF THREE DIFFERENT BASAL READING SYSTEMS ON FIRST GRADE READING ACHIEVEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALPERT, HARVEY; TANYZER, HAROLD J.

    BASAL READER SYSTEMS FOR BEGINNERS WERE ANALYZED TO DETERMINE THE EFFECTS OF SPECIFIC SYSTEM FEATURES ON THE READING ACHIEVEMENT OF FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN OF DIFFERENT SEX AND LEVELS OF INTELLIGENCE. THE PROJECT COVERED THE FOLLOWING SYSTEMS--(1) THE LIPPINCOTT "BASIC READING" SERIES, (2) THE "EARLY-TO-READ…

  13. Neuropathic pain: an updated grading system for research and clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Finnerup, Nanna B.; Haroutounian, Simon; Kamerman, Peter; Baron, Ralf; Bennett, David L.H.; Bouhassira, Didier; Cruccu, Giorgio; Freeman, Roy; Hansson, Per; Nurmikko, Turo; Raja, Srinivasa N.; Rice, Andrew S.C.; Serra, Jordi; Smith, Blair H.; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Jensen, Troels S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The redefinition of neuropathic pain as “pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system,” which was suggested by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) in 2008, has been widely accepted. In contrast, the proposed grading system of possible, probable, and definite neuropathic pain from 2008 has been used to a lesser extent. Here, we report a citation analysis of the original NeuPSIG grading paper of 2008, followed by an analysis of its use by an expert panel and recommendations for an improved grading system. As of February, 2015, 608 eligible articles in Scopus cited the paper, 414 of which cited the neuropathic pain definition. Of 220 clinical studies citing the paper, 56 had used the grading system. The percentage using the grading system increased from 5% in 2009 to 30% in 2014. Obstacles to a wider use of the grading system were identified, including (1) questions about the relative significance of confirmatory tests, (2) the role of screening tools, and (3) uncertainties about what is considered a neuroanatomically plausible pain distribution. Here, we present a revised grading system with an adjusted order, better reflecting clinical practice, improvements in the specifications, and a word of caution that even the “definite” level of neuropathic pain does not always indicate causality. In addition, we add a table illustrating the area of pain and sensory abnormalities in common neuropathic pain conditions and propose areas for further research. PMID:27115670

  14. CD10, actin, and vimentin expression in breast phyllodes tumors correlates with tumor grades of the WHO grading system.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Jin, Jong-Shiao; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Sheu, Lai-Fa

    2006-04-01

    The discrimination of borderline from malignant primary breast phyllodes (PT) tumor is still unclear. We studied 22 PT cases to investigate the immunohistochemical expression (staining of stromal CD10, SMA [smooth muscle actin], and vimentin) as well as the features of focal glandular atypia to determine whether these correlated with the histopathologic grading system. In our results, the stromal staining of CD10 was positive in 4 of 6 malignant and 2 of 5 borderline PT cases, but negative in all benign PT cases. Stromal actin and intraglandular vimentin-expressive tumor cells were found in 5 of 6 malignant PT cases but not in borderline and benign PT cases. There is a significant difference in the panel of stromal CD10, actin, and vimentin expression between borderline and malignant PT (p<0.05). Besides, the progression of malignant potential breast phyllodes tumor may cause glandular epithelium atypia with loss of polarity.

  15. Computer aided analysis of prostate histopathology images to support a refined Gleason grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jian; Sadimin, Evita; Foran, David J.; Qi, Xin

    2017-02-01

    The Gleason grading system used to render prostate cancer diagnosis has recently been updated to allow more accurate grade stratification and higher prognostic discrimination when compared to the traditional grading system. In spite of progress made in trying to standardize the grading process, there still remains approximately a 30% grading discrepancy between the score rendered by general pathologists and those provided by experts while reviewing needle biopsies for Gleason pattern 3 and 4, which accounts for more than 70% of daily prostate tis- sue slides at most institutions. We propose a new computational imaging method for Gleason pattern 3 and 4 classification, which better matches the newly established prostate cancer grading system. The computer- aided analysis method includes two phases. First, the boundary of each glandular region is automatically segmented using a deep convolutional neural network. Second, color, shape and texture features are extracted from superpixels corresponding to the outer and inner glandular regions and are subsequently forwarded to a random forest classifier to give a gradient score between 3 and 4 for each delineated glandular region. The F1 score for glandular segmentation is 0.8460 and the classification accuracy is 0.83+/-0.03.

  16. Development and assessment of Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center's Surgical Secondary Events grading system.

    PubMed

    Strong, Vivian E; Selby, Luke V; Sovel, Mindy; Disa, Joseph J; Hoskins, William; Dematteo, Ronald; Scardino, Peter; Jaques, David P

    2015-04-01

    Studying surgical secondary events is an evolving effort with no current established system for database design, standard reporting, or definitions. Using the Clavien-Dindo classification as a guide, in 2001 we developed a Surgical Secondary Events database based on grade of event and required intervention to begin prospectively recording and analyzing all surgical secondary events (SSE). Events are prospectively entered into the database by attending surgeons, house staff, and research staff. In 2008 we performed a blinded external audit of 1,498 operations that were randomly selected to examine the quality and reliability of the data. Of 4,284 operations, 1,498 were audited during the third quarter of 2008. Of these operations, 79 % (N = 1,180) did not have a secondary event while 21 % (N = 318) had an identified event; 91 % of operations (1,365) were correctly entered into the SSE database. Also 97 % (129 of 133) of missed secondary events were grades I and II. There were 3 grade III (2 %) and 1 grade IV (1 %) secondary event that were missed. There were no missed grade 5 secondary events. Grade III-IV events are more accurately collected than grade I-II events. Robust and accurate secondary events data can be collected by clinicians and research staff, and these data can safely be used for quality improvement projects and research.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and its clinicopathological correlation with modified Anneroth's histological grading system

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Kajal V; Chalishazar, Monali; Dave, Vishal R; Panja, Pritam; Singh, Manisha; Modi, Tapan G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an epithelial neoplasm generally beginning as focal overgrowth of altered stem cells near the basement membrane, moving upward and laterally, replacing the normal epithelium. Histopathological grading has been used for many decades in an attempt to predict the clinical behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. In the present study, Forty biopsies were studied for histological grading and p53 expression. The p53 expression was studied in relation to clinical parameters such as age, sex of patient and site of tumors. Relation between histological grade of malignancy and p53 protein expression was analysed. All cases were classified according to Anneroth's histological malignancy grading system (1987). Materials and Methods: 40 cases of OSCC were assessed for clinical parameters, Anneroth's histological grading and immunohistochemically stained with p53 protien. Statistical Analysis: The results obtained were analyzed using Spearman's Co-relation. Observations and Results: The positive expression of p53 was found in 62% of carcinomas studied. Positivity of p53 showed correlation with histological grade of malignancy and with individual parameters like degree of keratinization, nuclear polymorphism, number of mitoses and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration while showed a negative correlation with pattern of invasion. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant correlation between parameters of tumor cell population, lymphoplasmacytic infiltration and p53 expression. A significant association between high grade of malignancy and p53 overexpression and insignificant correlation of p53 with age, sex of the patient and site of the tumor was found. PMID:27194859

  18. An automated system for grading EEG abnormality in term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, N J; Korotchikova, I; Temko, A; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P; Boylan, G B

    2013-04-01

    Automated analysis of the neonatal EEG has the potential to assist clinical decision making for neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This paper proposes a method of automatically grading the degree of abnormality in an hour long epoch of neonatal EEG. The automated grading system (AGS) was based on a multi-class linear classifier grading of short-term epochs of EEG which were converted into a long-term grading of EEG using a majority vote operation. The features used in the AGS were summary measurements of two sub-signals extracted from a quadratic time-frequency distribution: the amplitude modulation and instantaneous frequency. These sub-signals were based on a model of EEG as a multiplication of a coloured random process with a slowly varying pseudo-periodic waveform and may be related to macroscopic neurophysiological function. The 4 grade AGS had a classification accuracy of 83% compared to human annotation of the EEG (level of agreement, κ = 0.76). Features estimated on the developed sub-signals proved more effective at grading the EEG than measures based solely on the EEG and the incorporation of additional sub-grades based on EEG states into the AGS also improved performance.

  19. A grading system combining architectural features and mitotic count predicts recurrence in stage I lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Suzuki, Kei; Kachala, Stefan S.; Zabor, Emily C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Moreira, Andre L.; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Riely, Gregory J.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The IASLC/ATS/ERS has recently proposed a new lung adenocarcinoma classification. We investigated whether nuclear features can stratify prognostic subsets. Slides of 485 stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients were reviewed. We evaluated nuclear diameter, nuclear atypia, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, chromatin pattern, prominence of nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, mitotic count/10 high-power fields (HPF) or 2.4 mm2, and atypical mitoses. Tumors were classified into histologic subtypes according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and grouped by architectural grade into low (adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma or lepidic predominant), intermediate (papillary or acinar), and high (micropapillary or solid). Log-rank tests and Cox regression models evaluated the ability of clinicopathologic factors to predict recurrence-free probability. In univariate analyses, nuclear diameter (p=0.007), nuclear atypia (p=0.006), mitotic count (p<0.001), and atypical mitoses (p<0.001) were significant predictors of recurrence. The recurrence-free probability of patients with high mitotic count (≥5/10HPF: n=175) was the lowest (5-year recurrence-free probability=73%), followed by intermediate (2–4/10HPF: n=106, 80%), and low (0–1/10HPF: n=204, 91%, p<0.001). Combined architectural/mitotic grading system stratified patient outcomes (p<0.001): low grade (low architectural grade with any mitotic count and intermediate architectural grade with low mitotic count: n=201, 5-year recurrence-free probability=92%), intermediate grade (intermediate architectural grade with intermediate-high mitotic counts: n=206, 78%), and high grade (high architectural grade with any mitotic count: n=78, 68%). The advantage of adding mitotic count to architectural grade is in stratifying patients with intermediate architectural grade into two prognostically distinct categories (p=0.001). After adjusting for clinicopathologic factors including sex, stage, pleural/lymphovascular invasion

  20. A grading system combining architectural features and mitotic count predicts recurrence in stage I lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Suzuki, Kei; Kachala, Stefan S; Zabor, Emily C; Sima, Camelia S; Moreira, Andre L; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Riely, Gregory J; Rusch, Valerie W; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

    2012-08-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) has recently proposed a new lung adenocarcinoma classification. We investigated whether nuclear features can stratify prognostic subsets. Slides of 485 stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients were reviewed. We evaluated nuclear diameter, nuclear atypia, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, chromatin pattern, prominence of nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, mitotic count/10 high-power fields (HPFs) or 2.4 mm(2), and atypical mitoses. Tumors were classified into histologic subtypes according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and grouped by architectural grade into low (adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, or lepidic predominant), intermediate (papillary or acinar), and high (micropapillary or solid). Log-rank tests and Cox regression models evaluated the ability of clinicopathologic factors to predict recurrence-free probability. In univariate analyses, nuclear diameter (P=0.007), nuclear atypia (P=0.006), mitotic count (P<0.001), and atypical mitoses (P<0.001) were significant predictors of recurrence. The recurrence-free probability of patients with high mitotic count (≥5/10 HPF: n=175) was the lowest (5-year recurrence-free probability=73%), followed by intermediate (2-4/10 HPF: n=106, 80%), and low (0-1/10 HPF: n=204, 91%, P<0.001). Combined architectural/mitotic grading system stratified patient outcomes (P<0.001): low grade (low architectural grade with any mitotic count and intermediate architectural grade with low mitotic count: n=201, 5-year recurrence-free probability=92%), intermediate grade (intermediate architectural grade with intermediate-high mitotic counts: n=206, 78%), and high grade (high architectural grade with any mitotic count: n=78, 68%). The advantage of adding mitotic count to architectural grade is in stratifying patients with intermediate architectural grade into two prognostically

  1. Independent surgical validation of the new prostate cancer grade-grouping system.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Daniel E; Cole, Adam I; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Weizer, Alon Z; Jackson, William C; Montgomery, Jeffrey S; Dess, Robert T; Zhao, Shuang G; Lee, Jae Y; Wu, Angela; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Talmich, Emily; Miller, David C; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Tomlins, Scott A; Feng, Felix Y; Mehra, Rohit; Morgan, Todd M

    2016-11-01

    To report the independent prognostic impact of the new prostate cancer grade-grouping system in a large external validation cohort of patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). Between 1994 and 2013, 3 694 consecutive men were treated with RP at a single institution. To investigate the performance of and validate the grade-grouping system, biochemical recurrence-free survival (bRFS) rates were assessed using Kaplan-Meier tests, Cox-regression modelling, and discriminatory comparison analyses. Separate analyses were performed based on biopsy and RP grade. The median follow-up was 52.7 months. The 5-year actuarial bRFS for biopsy grade groups 1-5 were 94.2%, 89.2%, 73.1%, 63.1%, and 54.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). Similarly, the 5-year actuarial bRFS based on RP grade groups was 96.1%, 93.0%, 74.0%, 64.4%, and 49.9% for grade groups 1-5, respectively (P < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios for bRFS relative to biopsy grade group 1 were 1.98, 4.20, 5.57, and 9.32 for groups 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (P < 0.001), and for RP grade groups were 2.09, 5.27, 5.86, and 10.42 (P < 0.001). The five-grade-group system had a higher prognostic discrimination compared with the commonly used three-tier system (Gleason score 6 vs 7 vs 8-10). In an independent surgical cohort, we have validated the prognostic benefit of the new prostate cancer grade-grouping system for bRFS, and shown that the benefit is maintained after adjusting for important clinicopathological variables. The greater predictive accuracy of the new system will improve risk stratification in the clinical setting and aid in patient counselling. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expression of monellin in a food-grade delivery system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Yan, Da-zhong; Zhao, Sheng-jun

    2015-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) foods have caused much controversy. Construction of a food-grade delivery system is a desirable technique with presumptive impact on industrial applications from the perspective of bio-safety. The aim of this study was to construct a food-grade delivery system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to study the expression of monellin from the berries of the West African forest plant Dioscoreophyllum cumminsii in this system. A food-grade system for S. cerevisiae was constructed based on ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-mediated homologous recombination to enable high-copy-number integration of the expression cassette inserted into the rDNA locus. A copper resistance gene (CUP1) was used as the selection marker for yeast transformation. Because variants of transformants containing different copy numbers at the CUP1 locus can be readily selected after growth in the presence of elevated copper levels, we suggest that this system would prove useful in the generation of tandemly iterated gene clusters. Using this food-grade system, a single-chain monellin gene was heterologously expressed. The yield of monellin reached a maximum of 675 mg L(-1) . This system harbors exclusively S. cerevisiae DNA with no antibiotic resistance genes, and it should therefore be appropriate for safe use in the food industry. Monellin was shown to be expressed in this food-grade delivery system. To our knowledge, this is the first report so far on expression of monellin in a food-grade expression system in S. cerevisiae. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. A multi-resolution image analysis system for computer-assisted grading of neuroblastoma differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jun; Sertel, Olcay; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Boyer, Kim L.; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Neuroblastic Tumor (NT) is one of the most commonly occurring tumors in children. Of all types of NTs, neuroblastoma is the most malignant tumor that can be further categorized into undifferentiated (UD), poorly-differentiated (PD) and differentiating (D) types, in terms of the grade of pathological differentiation. Currently, pathologists determine the grade of differentiation by visual examinations of tissue samples under the microscope. However, this process is subjective and, hence, may lead to intra- and inter-reader variability. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution image analysis system that helps pathologists classify tissue samples according to their grades of differentiation. The inputs to this system are color images of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue samples. The complete image analysis system has five stages: segmentation, feature construction, feature extraction, classification and confidence evaluation. Due to the large number of input images, both parallel processing and multi-resolution analysis were carried out to reduce the execution time of the algorithm. Our training dataset consists of 387 images tiles of size 512x512 in pixels from three whole-slide images. We tested the developed system with an independent set of 24 whole-slide images, eight from each grade. The developed system has an accuracy of 83.3% in correctly identifying the grade of differentiation, and it takes about two hours, on average, to process each whole slide image.

  4. Prognosis and biology in esthesioneuroblastoma: the emerging role of Hyams grading system.

    PubMed

    Saade, Rami E; Hanna, Ehab Y; Bell, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a sinonasal tumor with distinct clinicopathologic features, multiple facets, and a spectrum of behavior. Characterization of this disease is challenging, and clinically, several staging systems have been used with no consensus on a single scheme. Recently, the Hyams histological grading system has emerged as a promising prognostication tool that offers an added value to stage. This review addresses prognosis and biology in esthesioneuroblastoma. More specifically, we sought to present a critical appraisal on the value of each of these stratification systems, stage vs. grade, in identifying risk groups and guiding management.

  5. A comparative study using WHO and binary oral epithelial dysplasia grading systems in actinic cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Câmara, P R; Dutra, S N; Takahama Júnior, A; Fontes, Kbfc; Azevedo, R S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate comparatively the influence of histopathological features on epithelial dysplasia (ED) and the effectiveness in usage of WHO and binary grading systems in actinic cheilitis (AC). Cytological and architectural alterations established by WHO for ED were evaluated in 107 cases of AC. Epithelial dysplasia was graded using WHO and binary systems. The comparisons were performed using kappa, chi-square, and phi coefficient tests (P < 0.05). Most cases were classified as mild ED (44.5%) in the WHO system and as low risk for malignant transformation (64.5%) in the binary system. There was a positive correlation between WHO and binary systems (k = 0.33; P < 0.0002). Loss of basal cell polarity (P < 0.001) was associated with severity of ED grade in the WHO system. Anisonucleosis (P < 0.0001), nuclear pleomorphism (P < 0.0001), anisocytosis (P = 0.03), cell pleomorphism (P = 0.002) increased nuclear/cytoplasm ratio (P < 0.0001), increased nuclear size (P < 0.0001), increased number of mitotic figures (P = 0.0006), and dyskeratosis (P = 0.008) were associated with severity of ED grade in the binary system. It seems that usage of binary ED grading system in AC may be more precise because there is correlation between many of cytological and some of architectural microscopic alterations with increased grade of ED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Basic features of the ISUP prostate carcinoma Gleason grading system: a preliminary analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gong-Wei; Shen, Dan-Hua

    2014-06-01

    To explore the basic features of the prostate carcinoma Gleason grading system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP). We analyzed the means and proportions of the Gleason score (GS), primary grade (PG), secondary grade (SG) and third grade (TG) of 667 cases of prostate carcinoma. The means of GS, PG, SG and TG were 7.06 +/- 1.10, 3.53 +/- 0.66, 3.53 +/- 0.72 and 4.30 +/- 0.96, respectively. The cases with GS 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 accounted for 0.4% (3/677), 37.2% (252/677), 34.4% (233/677), 13.7% (93/677), 12.0% (81/677) and 2.2% (15/677), respectively; those with GS < or = 6 and > or = 7 constituted 37.7% (255/677) and 62.3% (422/677); those with GS3 + 3, 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 made up 37.2% (252/677), 19.2% (130/677) and 15.2% (103/677); and the TG cases held 10.3% (70/677), including 30.0% (21/70) of grade 3, 10% (7/70) of grade 4 and 60.0% (42/70) of grade 5. Our study showed a high proportion of GS, a low proportion of GS < or = 6, and a high proportion of GS > or = 7 in the ISUP prostate carcinoma Gleason grading system. TG of GS needs to be further understood.

  7. The intra-rater reliability of a revised 3-point grading system for accessory joint mobilizations.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jennifer; Hebron, Clair; Petty, Nicola J

    2017-09-01

    Joint mobilizations are often quantified using a 4-point grading system based on the physiotherapist's detection of resistance. It is suggested that the initial resistance to joint mobilizations is imperceptible to physiotherapists, but that at some point through range becomes perceptible, a point termed R1. Grades of mobilization traditionally hinge around this concept and are performed either before or after R1. Physiotherapists, however, show poor reliability in applying grades of mobilization. The definition of R1 is ambiguous and dependent on the skills of the individual physiotherapist. The aim of this study is to test a revised grading system where R1 is considered at the beginning of range, and the entire range, as perceived by the physiotherapists maximum force application, is divided into three, creating 3 grades of mobilization. Thirty-two post-registration physiotherapists and nineteen pre-registration students assessed end of range (point R2) and then applied 3 grades of AP mobilizations, over the talus, in an asymptomatic models ankle. Vertical forces were recorded through a force platform. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients, Standard Error of Measurement, and Minimal Detectable Change were calculated to explore intra-rater reliability on intra-day and inter-day testing. T-tests determined group differences. Intra-rater reliability was excellent for intra-day testing (ICC 0.96-0.97), and inter-day testing (ICC 0.85-0.93). No statistical difference was found between pre- and post-registration groups. Standardizing the definition of grades of mobilization, by moving R1 to the beginning of range and separating grades into thirds, results in excellent intra-rater reliability on intra-day and inter-day tests. 3b.

  8. The Chiari Severity Index: A Preoperative Grading System for Chiari Malformation Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Yarbrough, Chester K; Radmanesh, Alireza; Godzik, Jakub; Yu, Megan; Jeffe, Donna B; Smyth, Matthew D; Park, Tae Sung; Piccirillo, Jay F; Limbrick, David D

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop evidence-based treatment guidelines for Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM-1), preoperative prognostic indices capable of stratifying patients for comparative trials are needed. Objective To develop a preoperative Chiari Severity Index (CSI) integrating the clinical and neuroimaging features most predictive of long-term patient-defined improvement in quality of life (QOL) after CM-1 surgery. Methods We recorded preoperative clinical (e.g. headaches, myelopathic symptoms) and neuroimaging (e.g. syrinx size, tonsillar descent) characteristics. Brief follow-up surveys were administered to assess overall patient-defined improvement in QOL. We used sequential sequestration to develop clinical and neuroimaging grading systems and conjunctive consolidation to integrate these indices to form the CSI. We evaluated statistical significance using the Cochran-Armitage test and discrimination using the c-statistic. Results Our sample included 158 patients. Sequential sequestration identified headache characteristics and myelopathic symptoms as the most impactful clinical parameters, producing a clinical grading system with improvement rates ranging from 81% (grade 1) to 58% (grade 3) (p=0.01). Based on sequential sequestration, the neuroimaging grading system included only the presence (55% improvement) or absence (74% improvement) of a syrinx ≥ 6 mm (p=0.049). Integrating the clinical and neuroimaging indices, improvement rates for the CSI ranged from 83% (grade 1) to 45% (grade 3) (p=0.002). The combined CSI had moderately better discrimination (c=0.66) than the clinical (c=0.62) or neuroimaging (c=0.58) systems alone. Conclusion Integrating clinical and neuroimaging characteristics, the CSI is a novel tool that predicts patient-defined improvement following CM-1 surgery. The CSI may aid preoperative counseling and stratify patients in comparative effectiveness trials. PMID:25584956

  9. Better Mileage for Your Grading Time: A New Feedback System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Annabel; Young, Marynell

    1980-01-01

    Describes a correction system that supplements and visually reinforces teacher responses to student papers by utilizing examples from those papers and emphasizing the positive aspects of the assignments. (HOD)

  10. The Economic, Legal, and Political Systems in Action, #4006. Ninth Grade, Required Semester, Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kenneth; Webb, Patrick

    This course is designed to provide ninth grade students with a basic understanding of the U.S. political, legal, and economic systems and includes the purpose of government, the need for law within society, the framework of the U.S. legal system, the processes used by the U.S. government and citizens to accomplish goals, and the roles of…

  11. Increased Percentage of Passing Grades on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System after Implementation of Block Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined one public school system's change in its bell scheduling format from a seven period day to block scheduling. The data collected was from a three year period of the grade 10 students passing the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System exam. Students in Massachusetts must pass the mathematics and English/language arts…

  12. STUB - a manufacturing system for producing rough dimension cuttings from low-grade lumber

    Treesearch

    Edwin L. Lucas; Charles J. Gatchell

    1976-01-01

    A rough mill manufacturing system for producing high-value furniture parts from low-value raw material is described. Called STUB (Short Temporarily Upgraded Boards), the system is designed to convert low-grade hardwood lumber into rough dimension parts. Computer simulation trials showed that more than one-third of the volume of parts produced from No. 2 Common oak...

  13. Media Communications Systems, Grade 11-12. Technology Education Course Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    Developed by the North Carolina Curriculum Study Taskforce to meet every student's need to be technologically literate, this technology education course guide outlines a media communications systems course for grades 11-12. After a brief explanation outlining the use of the curriculum guide in an instructional system involving the teacher,…

  14. The WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 systems for malignancy grading of bladder cancer. Scientific foundation and translation to one another and previous systems.

    PubMed

    Busch, Christer; Algaba, Ferran

    2002-08-01

    Recently, two new classification systems for grading of urothelial neoplasms have been published. The objective of both was to avoid the overdiagnosis of cancer and to create better criteria for the grades. The WHO/ISUP classification of 1998 distinguishes papilloma, papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), low and high grade carcinomas, whereas the WHO 1999 system subdivides the high grade into grades II and III, and is otherwise identical. This note summarizes studies supporting the rationale of the two new systems, describes pattern recognition criteria for the grades, and highlights the homology between them.

  15. A lumber grading system for the future: an update evaluation

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Virginia Tech and the Southern Research Station of the USDA Forest Service have jointly developed and refined a multiple-sensor lumber-scanning prototype to demonstrate and test applicable scanning technologies (Conners et al. 1997, Kline et al. 1997, Kline et al. 1998). This R&D effort has led to a patented wood color and grain sorting system (Conners and Lu 1998...

  16. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  17. Histopathological grading systems analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas of young patients

    PubMed Central

    Frare, Juliana-Cristina; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Ayroza-Rangel, Ana-Lucia-Carrinho; Bueno, Alexandre-Galvão; de Morais, Carlos-Floriano; Nagai, Hildebrando-Massahiro; Kunz, Reno

    2016-01-01

    Background To analyze the clinicopathological profile of young patients (≤ 40 years) with oral SCC and correlate with a control group (≥ 50 years) by means of histopathological grading systems. Material and Methods 14 young patients and 14 control patients were selected with similar clinical stage and tumor location. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient records and histological sections were evaluated according to four histopathological grading systems. Associations between categories of demographic and clinical data were performed through Chi-square test and Exact Fisher test. The survival analyzes were performed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The comparison between groups showed a greater association of treatment modalities in younger patients (p=0.022), they had a higher incidence of local recurrence and regional metastasis (p=0.018) and lower disease-free survival in 5 years (p=0.069). There was no difference in 5-year overall survival among the studied groups. There was no difference in histological grading between studied groups according to the four used systems. Conclusions This study showed that, despite tumors had similar histological grade and more therapeutic modalities were used in the young group, tumors in young patients had a higher incidence of recurrence/metastasis, showing tendency to a more aggressive behavior. Key words:Squamous cell carcinoma, tumors histological grading, young. PMID:26946200

  18. New MRI grading system for the diagnosis and management of mycetoma.

    PubMed

    El Shamy, M E; Fahal, A H; Shakir, M Y; Homeida, M M A

    2012-12-01

    The management of patients with mycetoma depends on accurate identification of the causative organisms and of the extent of disease involvement along the different tissue planes. Disease involvement cannot accurately be assessed with the available diagnostic tools, so in this study we set out to evaluate the effectiveness of MRI in the diagnosis and management of mycetoma. Forty-two patients with confirmed mycetoma had MRI examination of the affected parts. A grading system, The Mycetoma Skin, Muscle, Bone Grading System (MSMBS), was used to describe and grade disease severity on the basis of MRI findings. The logistic regression test was used to correlate the clinical and MRI findings. The study showed that MRI can help in the diagnosis and management of mycetoma patients. The dot-in-circle sign, conglomerated foci with low signal intensity and macro- and micro-abscesses on a background of a hypointense matrix are all diagnostic of mycetoma. In patients with mycetoma, the MSMBS can grade disease severity, compare patients and help to manage them. Further studies are needed to determine to what extent the grading system can be used to determine a patient's prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: The Mallet Grading System for Shoulder Function—Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; El-Sayed, A. A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mallet grading system is a commonly used functional scoring system to assess shoulder abduction/external rotation deficits in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. One feature of the Mallet score is that each grade is translated into certain degrees of deficiencies in both shoulder abduction and external rotation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the percentage of children in which the Mallet score could not be applied because of a discrepancy between the deficiency of shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation. The study group included 50 consecutive unoperated older children (over 5 years of age) with Erb's palsy and deficits in shoulder movements. The Mallet score could be applied in 40 cases (80%). In the remaining 10 cases (20%), the Mallet score could not be applied either because shoulder abduction had a better grade than the grade of shoulder external rotation (n = 7) or vice versa (n = 3). It was concluded that documenting the deficits in shoulder abduction and external rotation are best done separately and this can be accomplished by using other grading systems. PMID:24527447

  20. Systematic approach to managing vernal keratoconjunctivitis in clinical practice: Severity grading system and a treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Nikhil S

    2016-01-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is an ocular allergy that is common in the pediatric age group. It is often chronic, severe, and nonresponsive to the available treatment options. Management of these children is difficult and often a dilemma for the practitioner. There is a need to simplify and standardize its management. To achieve this goal, we require a grading system to judge the severity of inflammation and an algorithm to select the appropriate medications. This article provides a simple and practically useful grading system and a stepladder algorithm for systematic treatment of these patients. Use of appropriate treatment modalities can reduce treatment and disease-related complications. PMID:27050351

  1. A Histomorphologic Grading System That Predicts Overall Survival in Diffuse Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma With Epithelioid Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Blackham, Aaron U.; Levine, Edward; Russell, Greg; Votanopoulos, Konstantinos I.; Stewart, John H.; Shen, Perry; Geisinger, Kim R.; Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPeM) is rare and arises from peritoneal serosal surfaces. Although it shares similar histomorphology with its counterpart, malignant pleural mesothelioma, etiologies, clinical courses, and therapies differ. Nuclear grading and level of mitoses have been correlated with prognosis in malignant pleural mesothelioma with epithelioid subtype. Whether nuclear grading and level of mitoses correlate with prognosis in MPeM is still unknown. Our study utilizes a 2 tier system incorporating nuclear features and level of the mitoses to stratify cases of MPeM with epithelioid subtype. Fifty-one cases of MPeM with clinical follow-up underwent retrospective microscopic review. From that subset, 46 cases were of epithelioid subtype, which were then stratified into a low-grade or high-grade tier. Survival times were calculated on the basis of Kaplan-Meier analysis. The low-grade tier had higher overall survival with a median of 11.9 years and 57% at 5 years when compared with the high-grade tier with a median of 3.3 years and 21% at 5 years (P=0.002). Although not statistically significant, the low-grade tier had higher progression-free survival with a median of 4.7 years and 65% at 5 years when compared with the high-grade tier with a median of 1.9 years and 35% at 5 years (P=0.089). Our study is first to specifically evaluate and correlate nuclear features and level of mitoses with overall survival in MPeM with epithelioid subtype. PMID:27438989

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Criticality Alarm System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-09-16

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's criticality alarm system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item. PFP's Criticality Alarm System includes the nine criticality alarm system panels and their associated hardware. This includes all parts up to the first breaker in the electrical distribution system. Specific system boundaries and justifications are contained in HNF-SD-CP-SDD-003, ''Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Detectors and Alarms Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope.'' The procurement requirements associated with the system necessitates procurement of some system equipment as Commercial Grade Items in accordance with HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services.''

  3. Post-Mission Quality Assurance Procedure for Survey-Grade Mobile Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstinga, A. P.; Friess, P.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) consist of terrestrial-based moving platforms that integrate a set of imaging sensors (typically digital cameras and laser scanners) and a Position and Orientation System (POS), designed to collect data of the surrounding environment. MMS can be classified as "mapping-grade" or "survey-grade" depending on the system's attainable accuracy. Mapping-grade MMS produce geospatial data suitable for GIS applications (e.g., asset management) while survey-grade systems should satisfy high-accuracy applications such as engineering/design projects. The delivered accuracy of an MMS is dependent on several factors such as the accuracy of the system measurements and calibration parameters. It is critical, especially for survey-grade systems, to implement a robust Quality Assurance (QA) procedure to ensure the achievement of the expected accuracy. In this paper, a new post-mission QA procedure is presented. The presented method consists of a fully-automated self-calibration process that allows for the estimation of corrections to the system calibration parameters (e.g., boresight angles and lever-arm offsets relating the lidar sensor(s) to the IMU body frame) as well as corrections to the system measurements (e.g., post-processed trajectory position and orientation, scan angles and ranges). As for the system measurements, the major challenge for MMS is related to the trajectory determination in the presence of multipath signals and GNSS outages caused by buildings, underpasses and high vegetation. In the proposed self-calibration method, trajectory position errors are properly modelled while utilizing an efficient/meaningful trajectory segmentation technique. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated using a dataset collected under unfavorable GNSS conditions.

  4. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  5. Accuracy of a low-cost global positioning system receiver for estimating grade during outdoor walking.

    PubMed

    de Müllenheim, Pierre-Yves; Chaudru, Ségolène; Gernigon, Marie; Mahé, Guillaume; Bickert, Sandrine; Prioux, Jacques; Noury-Desvaux, Bénédicte; Le Faucheur, Alexis

    2016-09-21

    The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the accuracy of a low-cost global positioning system (GPS) receiver for estimating grade during outdoor walking. Thirty subjects completed outdoor walks (2.0, 3.5 and 5.0 km · h(-1)) in three randomized conditions: 1/level walking on a 0.0% grade; 2/graded (uphill and downhill) walking on a 3.4% grade; and 3/on a 10.4% grade. Subjects were equipped with a GPS receiver (DG100, GlobalSat Technology Corp., Taiwan; ~US$75). The GPS receiver was set to record at 1 Hz and its antenna was placed on the right shoulder. Grade was calculated from GPS speed and altitude data (grade  =  altitude variation/travelled distance  ×  100). Two methods were used for the grade calculation: one using uncorrected altitude data given by the GPS receiver and another one using corrected altitude data obtained using map projection software (CartoExploreur, version 3.11.0, build 2.6.6.22, Bayo Ltd, Appoigny, France, ~US$35). Linear regression of GPS-estimated versus actual grade with R (2) coefficients, bias with 95% limits of agreement (±95% LoA), and typical error of the estimate with 95% confidence interval (TEE (95% CI)) were computed to assess the accuracy of the GPS receiver. 444 walking periods were performed. Using uncorrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2)  =  0.88 (p  <  0.001), bias  =  0.0  ±  6.6%, TEE between 1.9 (1.7-2.2)% and 4.2 (3.6-4.9)% according to the grade level. Using corrected altitude data, we obtained: R (2)  =  0.98 (p  <  0.001), bias  =  0.2  ±  1.9%, TEE between 0.2 (0.2-0.3)% and 1.0 (0.9-1.2)% according to the grade level. The low-cost GPS receiver used was weakly accurate for estimating grade during outdoor walking when using uncorrected altitude data. However, the accuracy was greatly improved when using corrected altitude data. This study supports the potential interest of using GPS for estimating energy

  6. Training Field Grade Officers to Exploit the Maneuver Control System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 Peter F. Drucker , The Effective Executive (New York: Harper and Row 1966), 1. 10 “Chapter 5: Battle Command,” “US Army Combined Arms Command...digital battlefield systems. Peter Drucker , in his book The Effective Executive, identifies five “habits” characteristic of the effective executive...of decisions that include bad ones.16 16 Drucker , The Effective Executive, 23-24, 113 14 The

  7. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists’ Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists’ confidence rating. PMID:28158235

  8. Effect of a computer-aided diagnosis system on radiologists' performance in grading gliomas with MRI.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Kevin Li-Chun; Tsai, Ruei-Je; Teng, Yu-Chuan; Lo, Chung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on quantitative intensity features with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (MRI) were evaluated by examining radiologists' performance in grading gliomas. The acquired MRI database included 71 lower-grade gliomas and 34 glioblastomas. Quantitative image features were extracted from the tumor area and combined in a CAD system to generate a prediction model. The effect of the CAD system was evaluated in a two-stage procedure. First, a radiologist performed a conventional reading. A sequential second reading was determined with a malignancy estimation by the CAD system. Each MR image was regularly read by one radiologist out of a group of three radiologists. The CAD system achieved an accuracy of 87% (91/105), a sensitivity of 79% (27/34), a specificity of 90% (64/71), and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (Az) of 0.89. In the evaluation, the radiologists' Az values significantly improved from 0.81, 0.87, and 0.84 to 0.90, 0.90, and 0.88 with p = 0.0011, 0.0076, and 0.0167, respectively. Based on the MR image features, the proposed CAD system not only performed well in distinguishing glioblastomas from lower-grade gliomas but also provided suggestions about glioma grading to reinforce radiologists' confidence rating.

  9. The value of different Risser grading systems in determining growth maturity of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Zhen, Xin; Sun, Xu; Zhu, Zezhang; Zhu, Feng; Lam, T P; Cheng, Jack C Y; Qiu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    A grading system for ossification of the iliac apophysis (Risser sign) was developed for skeletal maturity assessment in the United States (US) then adopted with modifications in France (Fr) and other countries. Despite the same name, these systems have important differences. With the aim to analyzing the difference between US and Fr Risser grading systems in determining the growth maturity of girls with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), Fifty-three AIS girls undergoing posterior spinal correction with autogenous bone graft were recruited. The Risser grades were recorded for the non-dominant side iliac crest apophysis according to the US and Fr grading systems. Growth activity was determined by standard histologic grades (HGs) on iliac crest cartilage. As a result, Kappa statistics showed poor agreement between two grading systems. The US system showed higher correlation with HGs compared to Fr system by Spearman correlation analysis. It was also found that growth cessation could be determined by Risser grade 5 of US system or Risser grade 4 of Fr system. Furthermore, by employing Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, it was found that the Risser grade 4-5 of US system with two years after menarche could be used in determining growth cessation with the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. Hence it was concluded that the US Risser grading system was better in determining maturity of girls with AIS than Fr Risser grading system. By combining years since menarche, the accuracy of Risser grades in determining growth cessation could be enhanced, and the time of weaning from a brace could be advanced.

  10. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.P.; Marks, T.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci /sup 124/Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any /sup 235/U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables.

  11. New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. Methods A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. Results The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p > 0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The MRU-UUTD grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD. PMID:24885460

  12. Grading systems in head and neck dysplasia: their prognostic value, weaknesses and utility.

    PubMed

    Fleskens, Stijn; Slootweg, Piet

    2009-05-11

    Grading of dysplasia, including head and neck lesions, continues to be a hotly debated subject. It is subjective and lacks intra- and inter-observer reproducibility due to the insufficiency of validated morphological criteria and the biological nature of dysplasia. Moreover, due to the absence of a consensus, several systems are currently employed. The aims of this review are to: 1) Highlight the significance of dysplasia and the importance of a valid method for assessing precursor lesions of the head and neck. 2) Review the different histopathological classification systems for grading intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. 3) Discuss and review quality requirements for these grading systems. Regarding the different classification systems, data concerning the WHO classification system are the most available in current literature. There is no simple relationship or overlapping between the classification systems. Further studies should be done to see whether other systems have advantages above the current WHO system and to discover indications that could lead to an universal classification system for intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck.

  13. Intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injuries.

    PubMed

    Wangensteen, Arnlaug; Tol, Johannes L; Roemer, Frank W; Bahr, Roald; Dijkstra, H Paul; Crema, Michel D; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Guermazi, Ali

    2017-04-01

    To assess and compare the intra- and interrater reliability of three different MRI grading and classification systems after acute hamstring injury. Male athletes (n=40) with clinical diagnosis of acute hamstring injury and MRI ≤5days were selected from a prospective cohort. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRIs using standardised scoring form including the modified Peetrons grading system, the Chan acute muscle strain injury classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification. Intra-and interrater reliability was assessed with linear weighted kappa (κ) or unweighted Cohen's κ and percentage agreement was calculated. We observed 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- (κ range 0.65-1.00) and interrater reliability (κ range 0.77-1.00) with percentage agreement 83-100% and 88-100%, respectively, for severity gradings, overall anatomical sites and overall classifications for the three MRI systems. We observed substantial variability (κ range -0.05 to 1.00) for subcategories within the Chan classification and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification, however, the prevalence of positive scorings was low for some subcategories. The modified Peetrons grading system, overall Chan classification and overall British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification demonstrated 'substantial' to 'almost perfect' intra- and interrater reliability when scored by experienced radiologists. The intra- and interrater reliability for the anatomical subcategories within the classifications remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

  15. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

  16. Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers' Explicit Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…

  17. The Effects of Systemic Reform on Urban, African American Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes toward Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinburgh, Molly H.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of a local systemic change grant on 5th grade urban African American students' attitudes toward science. Measures students' attitudes by using the modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory (mATSI). Indicates a significant main effect for the program and for school but not for gender. Examines school characteristics…

  18. Design of an Automated Essay Grading (AEG) System in Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Fatima, Sameen S.

    2007-01-01

    Automated essay grading or scoring systems are no more a myth, but they are a reality. As of today, the human written (not hand written) essays are corrected not only by examiners/teachers but also by machines. The TOEFL exam is one of the best examples of this application. The students' essays are evaluated both by human and web based automated…

  19. Evaluation of a multi-sensor machine vision system for automated hardwood lumber grading

    Treesearch

    D. Earl Kline; Chris Surak; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, scientists at the Thomas M. Brooks Forest Products Center, the Bradley Department of Electrical Engineering, and the USDA Forest Service have been working on lumber scanning systems that can accurately locate and identify defects in hardwood lumber. Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies. The...

  20. Development and Implementation of Computerized Monitoring System in Mathematics Grades 4, 5, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier, Raymond H.

    A computerized monitoring system was developed for grades 4-6. Objectives and corresponding test items were stored on computer. Instructors selected objectives for each monitoring period. Stdents were tested frequently using interchangeable forms of tests covering these objectives. Tests were computer scored and interpreted by teachers. These…

  1. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  2. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  3. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, David; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Henry, David; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schünemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

    2004-01-01

    Background A number of approaches have been used to grade levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The use of many different approaches detracts from one of the main reasons for having explicit approaches: to concisely characterise and communicate this information so that it can easily be understood and thereby help people make well-informed decisions. Our objective was to critically appraise six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations as a basis for agreeing on characteristics of a common, sensible approach to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. Methods Six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and strength of recommendations were selected and someone familiar with each system prepared a description of each of these. Twelve assessors independently evaluated each system based on twelve criteria to assess the sensibility of the different approaches. Systems used by 51 organisations were compared with these six approaches. Results There was poor agreement about the sensibility of the six systems. Only one of the systems was suitable for all four types of questions we considered (effectiveness, harm, diagnosis and prognosis). None of the systems was considered usable for all of the target groups we considered (professionals, patients and policy makers). The raters found low reproducibility of judgements made using all six systems. Systems used by 51 organisations that sponsor clinical practice guidelines included a number of minor variations of the six systems that we critically appraised. Conclusions All of the currently used approaches to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations have important shortcomings. PMID:15615589

  4. From the notch to a glioma grading system: the neurological contributions of James Watson Kernohan.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Archer, Jacob B; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sughrue, Michael E; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

    2014-04-01

    During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as "Kernohan's notch" and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures.

  5. Culturing and expansion of "clinical grade" precursors cells from the fetal human central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Gelati, Maurizio; Profico, Daniela; Projetti-Pensi, Massimo; Muzi, Gianmarco; Sgaravizzi, Giada; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2013-01-01

    NSCs have been demonstrated to be very useful in grafts into the mammalian central nervous system to investigate the exploitation of NSC for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To push cell therapy in CNS on stage of clinical application, it is necessary to establish a continuous and standardized, clinical grade (i.e., produced following the good manufacturing practice guidelines) human neural stem cell lines. In this chapter, we illustrate some of the protocols routinely used into our GMP cell bank for the production of "clinical grade" human neural stem cell lines.

  6. Journey into a Standards-Based Mathematics Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brucker, Elizabeth L.

    2008-01-01

    A standards-based approach to mathematics involves using story problems to allow students to investigate a solution. This approach emphasizes an understanding of concepts and processes and assumes mastery of basic computation skills. This article will encourage teachers to continue teaching standards-based mathematics and to take advantage of…

  7. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  8. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  9. A Tool for Auditing Standards-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella; McKeon, Denise; Kapinus, Barbara

    The National Education Association developed this audit tool for interested affiliates to use to assess standards-based education in their states by gathering and analyzing information about its implementation and to array the information they gather against a set of standards that can help ensure that standards-based education fulfills its…

  10. Proposal of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors to more accurately predict biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiupel, M; Webster, J D; Bailey, K L; Best, S; DeLay, J; Detrisac, C J; Fitzgerald, S D; Gamble, D; Ginn, P E; Goldschmidt, M H; Hendrick, M J; Howerth, E W; Janovitz, E B; Langohr, I; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; Miller, M A; Misdorp, W; Moroff, S; Mullaney, T P; Neyens, I; O'Toole, D; Ramos-Vara, J; Scase, T J; Schulman, F Y; Sledge, D; Smedley, R C; Smith, K; W Snyder, P; Southorn, E; Stedman, N L; Steficek, B A; Stromberg, P C; Valli, V E; Weisbrode, S E; Yager, J; Heller, J; Miller, R

    2011-01-01

    Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic grading among veterinary pathologists and the prognostic significance of the Patnaik grading system, 95 cutaneous MCTs from 95 dogs were graded in a blinded study by 28 veterinary pathologists from 16 institutions. Concordance among veterinary pathologists was 75% for the diagnosis of grade 3 MCTs and less than 64% for the diagnosis of grade 1 and 2 MCTs. To improve concordance among pathologists and to provide better prognostic significance, a 2-tier histologic grading system was devised. The diagnosis of high-grade MCTs is based on the presence of any one of the following criteria: at least 7 mitotic figures in 10 high-power fields (hpf); at least 3 multinucleated (3 or more nuclei) cells in 10 hpf; at least 3 bizarre nuclei in 10 hpf; karyomegaly (ie, nuclear diameters of at least 10% of neoplastic cells vary by at least two-fold). Fields with the highest mitotic activity or with the highest degree of anisokaryosis were selected to assess the different parameters. According to the novel grading system, high-grade MCTs were significantly associated with shorter time to metastasis or new tumor development, and with shorter survival time. The median survival time was less than 4 months for high-grade MCTs but more than 2 years for low-grade MCTs.

  11. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  12. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  13. [Impact of International Association of Urological Pathology Gleason scoring system on prostatic carcinoma grading: a preliminary analysis of 185 cases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongwei; Shen, Danhua

    2014-10-01

    To explore the impact of the 2005 International Association of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Gleason score (GS) system on prostatic carcinoma grading. Using the 1977 revision and ISUP version of GS system, 112 needle biopsies, 18 transurethral resections of the prostate and 55 radical prostatectomies were scored. The proportion of grading discrepancy was observed and compared between the two versions of GS. Gleason scores of 3+3, 3+4 and 4+3 accounted for 47.0% (87/185), 11.4% (21/185) and 17.3% (32/185) in the modified system, and accounted for 25.9% (48/185), 21.6% (40/185) and 27.6 % (51/185) in ISUP system, respectively. The percentages of primary grade by modified vs. ISUP system were 62.7% (116/185) vs.50.8% (94/185) for grade 3, and 31.4% (58/185) vs. 41.6% (77/185) for grade 4. The percentages of secondary grade by modified vs. ISUP system were 65.9% (122/185) vs. 54.6% (101/185) for grade 3, and 21.1% (39/185) vs. 31.4% (58/185) for grade 4. ISUP system is different from the modified system. Compared with the modified system, the proportion scored by ISUP system tends to decline for GS 3+3 but increase for GS 3+4 and 4+3.

  14. Monitoring subsurface microbial and nutrient transport to assess treatment capability of at- grade septic system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cey, E.; Motz, E.; Chu, A.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    By design, septic systems release pathogenic microbes, nutrients and other chemical contaminants into the subsurface and have the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. Newer at-grade septic system designs discharge wastewater effluent on the soil surface, however, relatively little research has been conducted on transport processes and treatment efficacy for these systems. The objective of this study was to investigate physical, biological, and chemical processes beneath two at-grade wastewater treatment systems. Secondary treated effluent from the Fish Creek wastewater treatment plant in Calgary is being applied to soil through the two at-grade systems in volumes equivalent to a three-bedroom household. A dye tracer was also introduced with the effluent to aid in the evaluation of subsurface flow patterns and the identification of soil sampling locations. An extensive vadose zone monitoring system, consisting of suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry probes, thermistors, and soil vapour probes, was installed to track the effluent through the soil profile. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. Coli, as well as other physical and chemical parameters, are being monitored in-situ. Soil samples for microbial and chemical analysis have also been obtained by excavating portions of the infiltration area beneath the two systems. Chemical and dye tracers showed relatively rapid migration of effluent to depths of up to 1.5 m below surface. Preliminary pathogen results indicate an approximately four log reduction in E. Coli concentrations at 10 cm depth and six log reduction at 60 cm depth. Continued monitoring of these pilot systems will provide valuable data on subsurface pathogen migration and the suitability of at-grade systems for treating wastewater and reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  15. Histopathological grading systems analysis of oral squamous cell carcinomas of young patients.

    PubMed

    Frare, J-C; Sawazaki-Calone, I; Ayroza-Rangel, A-L-C; Bueno, A-G; de Morais, C-F; Nagai, H-M; Kunz, R; Lopes, M-A

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the clinicopathological profile of young patients (≤ 40 years) with oral SCC and correlate with a control group (≥ 50 years) by means of histopathological grading systems. 14 young patients and 14 control patients were selected with similar clinical stage and tumor location. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from patient records and histological sections were evaluated according to four histopathological grading systems. Associations between categories of demographic and clinical data were performed through Chi-square test and Exact Fisher test. The survival analyzes were performed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. The comparison between groups showed a greater association of treatment modalities in younger patients (p=0.022), they had a higher incidence of local recurrence and regional metastasis (p=0.018) and lower disease-free survival in 5 years (p=0.069). There was no difference in 5-year overall survival among the studied groups. There was no difference in histological grading between studied groups according to the four used systems. This study showed that, despite tumors had similar histological grade and more therapeutic modalities were used in the young group, tumors in young patients had a higher incidence of recurrence/metastasis, showing tendency to a more aggressive behavior.

  16. Institutional Research, Fiscal Year 1979: The Grading System. Research Monographs VIII and IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Oklahoma City Junior Coll., OK.

    In February and March 1979, students, faculty, and staff at South Oklahoma City Junior College were surveyed to determine their feelings toward the change from a one-mark grading system (M for mastery of the subject) to a three-mark system (MH for mastery with honors, M for mastery, and CR for credit). Of the student sample, 53.8% (N=574)…

  17. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with

  18. Analysis and design of hybrid double-absorption cooling systems for low grade thermal energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. S. P.; Howell, J. R.

    1980-11-01

    A hybrid double-absorption system using LiCl-H2O solution as a working fluid is proposed in this paper. This system can operate at low source temperature (55 C-80 C), requires lower blower power than a desiccant system, and has a higher system C.O.P. A modification of this system, a double absorption-evaporation system that provides even higher C.O.P. is also proposed. Both closed and open regeneration of the working fluid are considered in the system design. Performance equations for these hybrid systems are presented. A computer code HYBRID is written to do parametric analysis for these systems under steady state conditions. The operating range and optimum design conditions are determined through both theoretical analysis and computer simulation. It is shown that these hybrid absorption systems have definite advantages over conventional absorption and desiccant systems for low grade thermal energy applications.

  19. [Prostate cancer. Part 2: Review of the various tumor grading systems over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L; Kristiansen, G

    2016-02-01

    The continued development of methods in needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer has given special emphasis to the question of the prognostic relevance of the various systems of grading. The classical purely histological grading system of Gleason has been modified several times in the past decades and cleared the way for a new grading system by the prognostic grading of Epstein. Assessment of the old and also modified combined histological and cytological grading of Mostofi, the World health Organization (WHO) and the urologic-pathological working group of prostate cancer in connection with the Gleason grading (combined Gleason-Helpap grading), has led to considerably improved rates of concordance between biopsy and radical prostatectomy and to improved estimations of prognosis beside its contribution to the development of a more practicable grading system for clinical use.

  20. Does the Clinical Context Improve the Reliability of Rheumatologists Grading Digital Ulcers in Systemic Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, C.; Tracey, A.; Dinsdale, G.; Murray, A.; Herrick, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Digital ulcers (DUs) are often a primary end point in systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) clinical trials, although the reliability of rheumatologists grading DUs is poor to moderate at best. DU assessment in recent trials has been based upon visual inspection alone, which potentially misses “real‐world” clinical contextual information. Our aim was to investigate whether this clinical information improves the reliability of rheumatologists grading DUs. A secondary aim was to assess agreement between patients and rheumatologists. Methods Eighty images of a range of digital lesions were collected from patients with SSc with the clinical context: pain (severity and temporal relationship), lesion duration, and discharge (patient reported and clinician observed). Raters received all images either with or without the clinical context, and graded these images (using a custom‐built interface) on an ordinal scale of severity: no ulcer, inactive ulcer, or active ulcer. Patients also graded their lesion(s) on the same scale. Results Fifty‐one rheumatologists from 15 countries completed the study (26 without and 25 with context): 4,590 (including 510 repeated) image gradings were obtained. Context did not significantly increase (without and with context) either intra‐ (0.64, 0.71) or interrater (0.32, 0.36) reliability. Pain (visual analog scale and temporal relationship) and discharge (patient reported and clinician observed) were associated with increased lesion severity, and duration with reduced severity. Agreement between individual patients and rheumatologists was poor without and with context (0.19, 0.28). Conclusion The overall intra‐ and interrater reliability of DU grading did not significantly improve with the clinical context. Agreement between patients and rheumatologists was poor. PMID:26748825

  1. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Gianduzzo, Troy; Delahunt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia.

  2. The ISUP system of staging, grading and classification of renal cell neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gianduzzo, Troy; Delahunt, Brett

    2014-01-01

    There have been significant changes in the staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia in recent times. Major changes have occurred in our understanding of extra-renal extension by renal cell cancer and how gross specimens must be handled to optimally display extra-renal spread. Since the 1981 World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal tumors, in which only a handful of different entities were reported, many new morphological types have been described in the literature, resulting in 50 different entities reported in the 2004 WHO classification. Since 2004, further new entities have been recognized and reported necessitating an update of the renal tumor classification. There have also been numerous grading systems for renal cell carcinoma with Fuhrman grading, the most widely used system. In recent times, the prognostic value and the applicability of the Fuhrman grading system in practice has been shown to be, at best, suboptimal. To address these issues and to recommend reporting guidelines, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) undertook a review of adult renal neoplasia through an international consensus conference in Vancouver in 2012. The conduct of the conference was based upon evidence from the literature and the current practice amongst recognized experts in the field. Working groups selected to deal with key topics evaluated current data and identified points of controversy. A pre-meeting survey of the ISUP membership was followed by the consensus conference at which a formal ballot was taken on each key issue. A 65% majority vote was taken as consensus. This review summarizes the outcome and recommendations of this conference with regards to staging, classification and grading of renal cell neoplasia. PMID:28326247

  3. Rating the quality of evidence: the GRADE system in systematic reviews/meta-analyses of AKI.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yuke; Wei, Xuequan; Duan, Lei; Wang, Wenge; Zhong, Zhenmei; Ming, Zhenhua; Zeng, Rong

    2015-08-01

    The method of systematic reviews/meta-analyses (SRs/MAs) has been widely used in acute kidney injury (AKI) studies. However, it is not quite clear about the quality of the evidence and existing problems. To grade the evidence quality of published SRs/MAs of AKI by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, understand the current situation of evidence rating and analyze the possible problems. Researchers systematically searched for articles about SRs/MAs of AKI published in the following four Chinese databases and four English databases, including Chinese Biomedicine Literature Database, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Internet Database, VIP Database, Pubmed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Totally, 81 SRs/MAs were included in this study and the overall quality of evidence was not satisfactory. The number of literatures of low and very low evidence quality was 33 (40.7%) and 41 (50.6%), respectively. Limitation was the main factor which caused the quality of research evidence degrading (92.6%), and other degradation factors were inconsistency (56.8%), publication bias (44.4%), indirectness (35.8%) and imprecision (32.1%). The quality of evidence for AKI has been significantly improved after the publication of the GRADE system in 2004. Since 2004 when the GRADE system was published, the quality of evidence of AKI has been increased clearly. But quality of AKI evidence of SRs/MAs for intervention is still not satisfactory. Limitation and inconsistency were two major factors leading to degradation.

  4. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  5. An update on the grading of muscle injuries: a narrative review from clinical to comprehensive systems

    PubMed Central

    GRASSI, ALBERTO; QUAGLIA, ALBERTO; CANATA, GIAN LUIGI; ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO

    2016-01-01

    Muscle injuries are recognized to be among the most frequent injuries occurring in the sporting and athletic population, and they account for more than 30% of all injuries in professional soccer players. Despite their considerable frequency and impact, there is still a lack of uniformity in the categorization, description and grading of muscle injuries. Dozens of systems based on clinical signs, ultrasound imaging (US) appearance or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been proposed over the years. Most of them are three-grade systems that take into account pain, ROM limitation, swelling and hematoma, hypoechoic or hyperintense areas on US or MRI, and muscle gap or tendon involvement; however, they still lack evidence-based prognostic value. Recently, new comprehensive classification systems have been proposed, with the aim of developing uniform muscle injury terminology and giving each severity grade prognostic value. The systems that combine detailed MRI and US features with the clinical presentation, such as the Munich Muscle Injury Classification, the ISMuLT classification, and the British Athletic Classification, if used extensively, could improve the diagnosis, prognosis and management of muscle injuries. PMID:27386446

  6. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  7. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  8. Proposal of Gleason-like grading system of canine prostate carcinoma in veterinary pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Chiara; Grieco, Valeria

    2015-12-01

    Gleason grading - the most useful predictor of prognosis for prostate cancer in men - was updated at a 2005 consensus conference by the International Society of Urological Pathology. Since Gleason-like growth patterns have been recognised in dogs, this study aimed to apply the modified Gleason grading to 45 canine prostate carcinomas. A single primary growth pattern was observed in 28 cases, a secondary pattern in 11 cases and a tertiary pattern in 6 cases. Cribriform, solid and small acinar/ductal were the most common primary, secondary and tertiary morphological patterns, respectively. The highest Gleason score (GS10) was obtained in 46.7% of cases. Nine of 14 metastasizing cases were classified as GS10. Gleason pattern 5 was present in 33 of cases. This study suggests that the modified Gleason grading, based on specific histological growth patterns existing in canine prostate carcinomas, may be accepted as a grading system for histopathology in the practice settings in order to complete the clinical assessment for the best management of the patient.

  9. Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, David; Briss, Peter A; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Harbour, Robin T; Hill, Suzanne; Jaeschke, Roman; Liberati, Alessandro; Magrini, Nicola; Mason, James; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schünemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

    2005-01-01

    Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82). However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are complex. Some subjectivity

  10. Common Workflow Service: Standards Based Solution for Managing Operational Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinio, A. W.; Hollins, G. A.

    2017-06-01

    The Common Workflow Service is a collaborative and standards-based solution for managing mission operations processes using techniques from the Business Process Management (BPM) discipline. This presentation describes the CWS and its benefits.

  11. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  12. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform on Teachers: The Case of "No Child Left Behind"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jason M.; Kovacs, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based reform is a trend affecting the educational systems of nations around the world, driven by desires to create educational systems suited to increasing economic productivity. In the USA, The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 includes goals of reducing achievement gaps and getting "highly qualified" teachers in all…

  13. Evaluation of Urinary Tract Dilation Classification System for Grading Postnatal Hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Hodhod, Amr; Capolicchio, John-Paul; Jednak, Roman; El-Sherif, Eid; El-Doray, Abd El-Alim; El-Sherbiny, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the reliability and validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system as a new grading system for postnatal hydronephrosis. We retrospectively reviewed charts of patients who presented with hydronephrosis from 2008 to 2013. We included patients diagnosed prenatally and those with hydronephrosis discovered incidentally during the first year of life. We excluded cases involving urinary tract infection, neurogenic bladder and chromosomal anomalies, those associated with extraurinary congenital malformations and those with followup of less than 24 months without resolution. Hydronephrosis was graded postnatally using the Society for Fetal Urology system, and then the management protocol was chosen. All units were regraded using the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system and compared to the Society for Fetal Urology system to assess reliability. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the validity of the Urinary Tract Dilation classification system in predicting hydronephrosis resolution and surgical intervention. A total of 490 patients (730 renal units) were eligible to participate. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system was reliable in the assessment of hydronephrosis (parallel forms 0.92). Hydronephrosis resolved in 357 units (49%), and 86 units (12%) were managed by surgical intervention. The remainder of renal units demonstrated stable or improved hydronephrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of surgical intervention was predicted independently by Urinary Tract Dilation classification system risk group, while Society for Fetal Urology grades were predictive of likelihood of resolution. The Urinary Tract Dilation classification system is reliable for evaluation of postnatal hydronephrosis and is valid in predicting surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. International study on low-grade primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agnieszka; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Blay, Jean-Yves; Abrey, Lauren E; Martus, Peter; Poortmans, Philip M P; Shenkier, Tamara N; Batchelor, Tracy T; Neuwelt, Edward A; Raizer, Jeffrey J; Schiff, David; Pels, Hendrik; Herrlinger, Ulrich; Stein, Harald; Thiel, Eckhard

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation, course, and outcome of low-grade primary central nervous system lymphoma. Cases were assessed in a retrospective series collected from 18 cancer centers in 5 countries. Forty patients (18 men, 22 women; median age, 60 years [range, 19-78]) were identified. Involvement of a cerebral hemisphere or deeper brain structures was seen in 37 patients, only leptomeningeal involvement in 2 patients, and spinal cord disease in 1 patient. Chemotherapy/radiotherapy was conducted in 15 patients, radiotherapy alone in 12, chemotherapy alone in 10, and tumor resection alone in 2, whereas 1 patient received no treatment. The median progression-free, disease-specific, and overall survival were 61.5 (range, 0-204), 130 (range, 1-204), and 79 (range, 1-204) months, respectively. Only age 60 years or older was associated with shorter progression-free (p = 0.009), disease-specific (p = 0.015), and overall survival (p = 0.001) in multivariate analysis. Low-grade primary central nervous system lymphoma differs from the high-grade subtype in its pathological, clinical, and radiological features. It has a better long-term outcome than primary central nervous system lymphoma in general with age 60 years or older adversely affecting survival.

  15. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hussain F; Nandi, Asoke K; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  16. Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement. PMID:23565103

  17. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  18. Making the grade in a portfolio-based system: student performance and the student perspective.

    PubMed

    Nowacki, Amy S

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student's perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement.

  19. Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations: Anatomical Subtypes, Surgical Results, and Increased Predictive Accuracy of the Supplementary Grading System

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomical diversity amongst cerebellar AVMs calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs, but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. Objective To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, determine results according to subtypes, and compare predictive accuracies of Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. Methods From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brain stem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Results Cerebellar AVM subtypes were: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (p<0.001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (p=0.036) and less likely eloquent (p<0.001). The predictive accuracy of supplementary grade was better than that of Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the ROC curve 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Conclusion Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system, like venous drainage and eloquence, are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not. PMID:22986595

  20. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations: anatomic subtypes, surgical results, and increased predictive accuracy of the supplementary grading system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L; Lawton, Michael T

    2012-12-01

    Anatomic diversity among cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, to determine results according to subtypes, and to compare predictive accuracies of the Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brainstem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Cerebellar AVM subtypes were as follows: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (P < .001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (P = .04) and less likely to be eloquent (P < .001). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary grade was better than that of the Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more often than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system such as venous drainage and eloquence are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not.

  1. Social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in the primary grades.

    PubMed

    Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah; Sandilos, Lia E; DiPerna, James C; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social validity of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) for teachers in the primary grades. Participants included 45 first and second grade teachers who completed a 16-item social validity questionnaire during each year of the SSIS-CIP efficacy trial. Findings indicated that teachers generally perceived the SSIS-CIP as a socially valid and feasible intervention for primary grades; however, teachers' ratings regarding ease of implementation and relevance and sequence demonstrated differences across grade levels in the second year of implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Long-term occlusal changes assessed by the American Board of Orthodontics' model grading system.

    PubMed

    Aszkler, Robert M; Preston, Charles B; Saltaji, Humam; Tabbaa, Sawsan

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term posttreatment changes in all criteria of the American Board of Orthodontics' (ABO) model grading system. We used plaster models from patients' final and posttreatment records. Thirty patients treated by 1 orthodontist using 1 bracket prescription were selected. An initial discrepancy index for each subject was performed to determine the complexity of each case. The final models were then graded using the ABO's model grading system immediately at posttreatment and postretention. Statistical analysis was performed on the 8 criteria of the model grading system, including paired t tests and Pearson correlations. An alpha of 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The average length of time between the posttreatment and postretention records was 12.7 ± 4.4 years. It was shown that alignment and rotations worsened by postretention (P = 0.014), and a weak statistically significant correlation at posttreatment and postretention was found (0.44; P = 0.016). Both marginal ridges and occlusal contacts scored less well at posttreatment. These criteria showed a significant decrease in scores between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), but the correlations were not statistically significant. The average total score showed a significant decrease between posttreatment and postretention (P <0.001), partly because of the large decrease in the previous 2 criteria. Higher scores for occlusal contacts and marginal ridges were found at the end of treatment; however, those scores and the overall scores for the 30 subjects improved in the postretention phase. Copyright © 2014. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21. In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading.

  4. Susceptibility Imaging in Glial Tumor Grading; Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance (MR) System and 32 Channel Head Coil

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Omer; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a velocity compensated, high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-echo sequence that uses magnitude and filtered-phase data. SWI seems to be a valuable tool for non-invasive evaluation of central nervous system gliomas. Relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) ratio is one of the best noninvasive methods for glioma grading. Degree of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) on SWI correlates with rCBV ratio and histopathological grade. This study investigated the effectiveness of ITSS grading and rCBV ratio in preoperative assessment. Material/Methods Thirty-one patients (17 males and 14 females) with histopathogical diagnosis of glial tumor undergoing routine cranial MRI, SWI, and perfusion MRI examinations between October 2011 and July 2013 were retrospectively enrolled. All examinations were performed using 3T apparatus with 32-channel head coil. We used ITSS number for SWI grading. Correlations between SWI grade, rCBV ratio, and pathological grading were evaluated. ROC analysis was performed to determine the optimal rCBV ratio to distinguish between high-grade and low-grade glial tumors. Results There was a strong positive correlation between both pathological and SWI grading. We determined the optimal rCBV ratio to discriminate between high-grade and low-grade tumors to be 2.21 Conslusions In conclusion, perfusion MRI and SWI using 3T MR and 32-channel head coil may provide useful information for preoperative glial tumor grading. SWI can be used as an accessory to perfusion MR technique in preoperative tumor grading. PMID:28439322

  5. Measuring Listening Comprehension Skills of 5th Grade School Students with the Help of Web Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…

  6. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

  7. TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system.

    PubMed

    Rindi, G; Klöppel, G; Couvelard, A; Komminoth, P; Körner, M; Lopes, J M; McNicol, A-M; Nilsson, O; Perren, A; Scarpa, A; Scoazec, J-Y; Wiedenmann, B

    2007-10-01

    Criteria for the staging and grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of midgut and hindgut origin were established at the second Consensus Conference in Frascati (Rome) organized by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The proposed tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classifications are based on the recently published ENETS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic NETs and follow our previous proposal for foregut tumors. The new TNM classifications for NETs of the ileum, appendix, colon, and rectum, and the grading system were designed, discussed, and consensually approved by all conference participants. These proposals need to be validated and are meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment and follow-up of patients.

  8. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  9. The prognostic significance of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Delahunt, Brett; Gianduzzo, Troy; Coughlin, Geoff; Duffy, David; LeFevre, Ian; Johannsen, Shulammite; Egevad, Lars; Yaxley, John

    2015-10-01

    The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) modified Gleason grading system was further amended in 2014 with the establishment of grade groupings (ISUP grading). This study examined the predictive value of ISUP grading, comparing results with recognised prognostic parameters.Of 3700 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) reported at Aquesta Pathology between 2008 and 2013, 2079 also had a positive needle biopsy available for review. We examined the association between needle biopsy 2014 ISUP grade and 2005 modified Gleason score, tumour volume, pathological stage of the subsequent RP tumour, as well as biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). The median age was 62 (range 32-79 years). Median serum prostate specific antigen was 5.9 (range 0.4-69 ng/mL). For needle biopsies, 280 (13.5%), 1031 (49.6%), 366 (17.6%), 77 (3.7%) and 325 (15.6%) were 2014 ISUP grades 1-5, respectively. Needle biopsy 2014 ISUP grade showed a significant association with RP tumour volume (p < 0.001), TNM pT and N stage (p < 0.001) and BRFS (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression model showed serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) at the time of diagnosis and ISUP grade >2 to be significantly associated with BRFS.This study provides evidence of the prognostic significance of ISUP grading for thin core needle biopsy of prostate.

  10. Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

  11. The dysfunctional consequences of a performance measurement system: the case of the Iranian national hospital grading programme.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor A; Mannion, Russell; Mahdipour, Saeade

    2015-07-01

    Performance measurement systems are increasingly used to reward and improve provider performance. However, such initiatives may also inadvertently induce a range of unintended and dysfunctional side-effects. This study explores the unintended and adverse consequences induced by the Iranian national hospital grading programme, which incorporates financial incentives for meeting nationally defined standards. We interviewed key informants across four key groups with a legitimate interest in healthcare performance: four purposively selected hospitals; four health insurance organizations; the Iranian hospital accreditation body; and one grading agency. The transcribed interviews and field notes were analysed thematically, and subsequently, member checking was conducted. Seven dysfunctional consequences were identified: misrepresentation of data by hospitals; increased anxiety and stress among hospital employees; tunnel vision; financial pressures on poorly graded hospitals; incentives to purchase unnecessary equipment; erosion of public trust; and restricting access to hospital services by patients. These were caused by the way the grading system was implemented: poor standards of audit; the way in which the audit process was conducted; and the timing of audits. The pay for performance element of the grading system and the focus on structural aspects in the standards made improvement in grading particularly difficult for those hospitals that had been assessed as under-performing. Although the Iranian hospital grading system has resulted in a significant increase in the adoption of national standards, it has nevertheless induced a range of perverse outcomes. To mitigate these requires further refinement and recalibration of the system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  13. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-02

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas.

  14. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform in Duval County, Florida: 1999-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…

  15. Alignment: Its Role in Standards-Based Reform and Prospects for the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Perrault, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) of 2010 represent a new chapter in the 25-year history of standards-based reforms (SBR). The CCSS attempts to bring the system back to the principles of its founding--more rigorous, focused, academic content and performance expectations collectively embraced by the nation. The new standards depart…

  16. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  17. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  18. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension.

  19. Systematic Review of Anastomotic Leakage Rate According to an International Grading System Following Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Guang-Yao; Yu, Min-Hao; Gao, Yun-He; Li, Zhao-Shen; Yu, En-Da; Zhong, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background A generally acceptable definition and a severity grading system for anastomotic leakages (ALs) following rectal resection were not available until 2010, when the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISGRC) proposed a definition and a grading system for AL. Methods A search for published data was performed using the MEDLINE database (2000 to December 5, 2012) to perform a systematic review of the studies that described AL, grade AL according to the grading system, pool data, and determine the average rate of AL for each grade after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer. Results A total of 930 abstracts were retrieved; 40 articles on AR, 25 articles on low AR (LAR), and 5 articles on ultralow AR (ULAR) were included in the review and analysis. The pooled overall AL rate of AR was 8.58% (2,085/24,288); the rate of the asymptomatic leakage (Grade A) was 2.57%, that of AL that required active intervention without relaparotomy (Grade B) was 2.37%, and that of AL that required relaparotomy (Grade C) was 5.40%. The pooled rate of AL that required relaparotomy was higher in AR (5.40%) than in LAR (4.70%) and in ULAR (1.81%), which could be attributed to the higher rate of protective defunctioning stoma in LAR (40.72%) and ULAR (63.44%) compared with that in AR (30.11%). Conclusions The new grading system is simple that the ALs of each grade can be easily extracted from past publications, therefore likely to be accepted and applied in future studies. PMID:24086552

  20. Predictive efficacy of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology Gleason grading system in initially diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-Xi; Shen, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Xing-Ming; Gong, Jing; Gui, Hao-Jun; Shu, Kun-Peng; Liu, Jiang-Dong; Zhao, Jinge; Yang, Yao-Jing; Chen, Xue-Qin; Chen, Ni; Zeng, Hao

    2017-01-01

    We compared the predictive ability of the 2014 and 2005 Gleason grading systems in 568 patients initially diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Outcomes included the duration of castration-resistant prostate cancer-free survival (CFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate analyses and log-rank tests were used to identify prognosis indicators and assess univariable differences in CFS and OS in Gleason score (GS) groups. Cox proportional hazards and area under the curves of receiver operator characteristics methods were used to evaluate the predictive efficacy of the 2005 and 2014 ISUP grading systems. Univariate analyses showed that the 2005 and 2014 grading systems were prognosticators for CFS and OS; both systems could distinguish the clinical outcome of patients with GS 6, GS 7, and GS 8–10. Using the 2014 criteria, no statistical differences in patient survival were observed between GS 3 + 4 and GS 4 + 3 or GS 8 and GS 9–10. The predictive ability of the 2014 and 2005 grading systems was comparable for CFS and OS (P = 0.321). However, the 2014 grading system did not exhibit superior predictive efficacy in patients initially diagnosed with PCa and bone metastasis; trials using larger cohorts are required to confirm its predictive value. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first study to compare the 2005 and 2014 grading systems in initially diagnosed PCa with bone metastasis. At present, we recommend that both systems should be used to predict the prognosis of patients with metastatic PCa. PMID:27569001

  1. The Failure of a Decision Support System: Inconsistency in Test Grading by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of boredom/fatigue on Israeli junior high school teachers' evaluation of students' written compositions. Teachers graded 31 papers, placed in sequential order, which had received a grade of 80 percent from three experts. They graded the papers in one sitting. Scores teachers gave to papers they graded earlier were…

  2. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Corneal Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated with Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark

    2015-03-03

    Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.

  3. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices.

  4. Optical Characterization of Plasma Generated in a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Ashley; Drake, Dereth

    2015-11-01

    The use of plasma for etching and cleaning of many types of metal surfaces is becoming more prominent in industry. This is primarily due to the fact that plasma etching can reduce the amount of time necessary to clean/etch the surface and does not require large amounts of environmentally hazardous chemicals. Most plasma etching systems are designed and built in academic institutions. These systems provide reasonable etching rates and easy accessibility for monitoring plasma parameters. The downside is that the cost is typically high. Recently a number of commercial grade plasma etchers have been introduced on the market. These etching systems cost near a fraction of the price, making them a more economical choice for researchers in the field. However, very few academics use these devices because their effectiveness has not yet been adequately verified in the current literature. We will present the results from experiments performed in a commercial grade plasma etching system, including analysis of the pulse characteristics observed by a photo diode and the plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy.

  5. Characterization of Plasma Generated in a Commercial Grade Plasma Etching system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessinger, Gabriella; Drake, Dereth; Popovic, Svetozar; Vuskovic, Leposava

    2014-10-01

    The use of plasma for etching and cleaning of many types of metal surfaces is becoming more prominent in industry. This is primarily due to the fact that plasma etching can reduce the amount of time necessary to clean/etch the surface and does not require large amounts of environmentally hazardous chemicals. Most plasma etching systems are designed and built in academic institutions. These systems provide reasonable etching rates and easy accessibility for monitoring plasma parameters. The downside is that the cost is typically high. Recently a number of commercial grade plasma etchers have been introduced on the market. These etching systems cost near a fraction of the price, making them a more economical choice for researchers in the field. However, very few academicians use these devices because their effectiveness has not yet been adequately verified in the current literature. We will present the results from experiments performed in a commercial grade plasma etching system, including analysis of the pulse characteristics observed by a photo diode and the plasma parameters obtained with optical emission spectroscopy.

  6. Validation of a grading system for complicated diverticulitis in the prediction of need for operative or percutaneous intervention

    PubMed Central

    Fung, AKY; Ahmeidat, H; McAteer, D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The current surgical management of acute complicated diverticulitis has seen a major paradigm shift from routine operative intervention to a more conservative approach. This has been made possible by the widespread availability of computed tomography (CT) to enable stratification of the disease severity of acute complicated diverticulitis. The aim of this study was to retrospectively validate a CT grading system for acute complicated diverticulitis in the prediction of the need for operative or percutaneous intervention. Methods Hospital and radiology records were reviewed to identify patients with acute complicated diverticulitis confirmed by CT. A consultant gastrointestinal radiologist, blinded to the clinical outcomes of patients, assigned a score according to the CT grading system. Results Three hundred and sixty-seven patients (34.6%) had CT performed for acute diverticulitis during the study period. Forty-four patients (12.0%) had acute complicated diverticulitis (abscess and/or free intraperitoneal air) confirmed on CT. There were 22 women (50%) and the overall median age was 59 years (range: 19–92 years). According to the CT findings, there was one case with grade 1, eighteen patients with grade 2, four with grade 3 and twenty-one with grade 4 diverticulitis. Three patients with grade 2, three patients with grade 3 and ten patients with grade 4 disease underwent acute radiological or surgical intervention. Conclusions The use of a CT grading system for acute complicated diverticulitis did not predict the need for acute radiological or operative intervention in this small study. Decision making guided by the patient’s clinical condition still retains a primary role in the management of acute complicated diverticulitis. PMID:26263806

  7. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  8. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  9. Twelve-point scale grading system of scanning electron microscopic examination to investigate subtle changes in damaged hair surface.

    PubMed

    Lee, S Y; Choi, A R; Baek, J H; Kim, H O; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-11-01

    To assess the hair surface condition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly used and it remains an indispensable hair morphology characterization technique. Yet, the technique is criticized for having subjective viewpoints and limitations in distinguishing the appearance of cuticle layers. The aim of this study is to establish an objective classification system and also to subdivide by detailed description of damaged cuticle layers. Hair samples were collected from female subjects (n = 500) who participated in hair efficacy study and Asian hair bunches (n = 180) that were previously collected. Damage to hair was initiated by chemical, heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. We suggested the grading criterion on a 12-point scale and compared with a wide range grading system on a 5-point scale. We evaluated other hair surface-related parameters such as hair luster-ring and combing load to verify the validity and efficacy of our new grading system. The grading criterion on our 12-point scale revealed an improved discrimination compared to the wide range grading system. Hair surface-related parameters were significantly improved after hair care product, and these tendencies were likely to be determined to be similarly improved using the 12-point scale grading system. The 12-point scale classification system was demonstrated to be a more precise standardization and appropriate evaluation method to investigate the subtle distinction of the hair shaft after hair care product application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Asterisk Grade Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokorsky, Eileen A.

    A study was conducted at Passaic County Community College (PCCC) to investigate the operation of a grading system which utilized an asterisk (*) grade to indicate progress in a course until a letter grade was assigned. The study sought to determine the persistence of students receiving the "*" grade, the incidence of cases of students receiving…

  11. Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

  12. The Assumptions and Possible Futures of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Boyce

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based education is the most important and widely implemented education reform idea of the last several decades in the USA, one supported by the full weight of the mainstream bipartisan educational establishment. Motivated by "global economic competitiveness" as the ideological driver and big business as the empirical driver, it…

  13. The Assumptions and Possible Futures of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Boyce

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based education is the most important and widely implemented education reform idea of the last several decades in the USA, one supported by the full weight of the mainstream bipartisan educational establishment. Motivated by "global economic competitiveness" as the ideological driver and big business as the empirical driver, it…

  14. Instructional Leadership in a Standards-Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Poglinco, Susan M.

    This document is an external evaluation report on the America's Choice School Design. The design is a K-12 comprehensive school-reform model focusing on raising academic achievement by providing a rigorous standards-based curriculum and safety net for all students. Its essential principles and tools include high expectations for student…

  15. Special Education: Does It Fit with Standards-Based Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kysilko, David, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on how special education fits into standards-based reform and contains the following featured articles: (1) A New Vision for Special Education Accountability (Martha L. Thurlow and Jane L. Krentz) charts the change in special education accountability as it moves from the old focus on Individualized Education Program teams; (2)…

  16. Special Education: Does It Fit with Standards-Based Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kysilko, David, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on how special education fits into standards-based reform and contains the following featured articles: (1) A New Vision for Special Education Accountability (Martha L. Thurlow and Jane L. Krentz) charts the change in special education accountability as it moves from the old focus on Individualized Education Program teams; (2)…

  17. Teacher and Administrator Responses to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the onset of standards-based reform and its continuation in the form of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now Race to the Top, debates have continued about whether such policies foster desirable change in states, districts, schools and classrooms. Research Question: The study asks: How do state and district administrators,…

  18. What's the Big Issue? Creating Standards-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hider, Glenn R.

    2006-01-01

    "Technological Issues" is one of a series of standards-based curricula being developed through the Center for the Advancement of Teaching Technology and Science (CATTS). This curriculum has been developed by the author of this article over the past year and a half. In this article, the author describes what it takes to develop a curriculum that…

  19. Teacher and Administrator Responses to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the onset of standards-based reform and its continuation in the form of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now Race to the Top, debates have continued about whether such policies foster desirable change in states, districts, schools and classrooms. Research Question: The study asks: How do state and district administrators,…

  20. Instructional Sensitivity of a State's Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Welsh, Megan E.; Corson, Nina M.

    2007-01-01

    The accuracy of achievement test score inferences largely depends on the sensitivity of scores to instruction focused on tested objectives. Sensitivity requirements are particularly challenging for standards-based assessments because a variety of plausible instructional differences across classrooms must be detected. For this study, we developed a…

  1. Preparing High School Biology Teachers for Standards-Based Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, William H.; Penick, John E.

    This paper describes a preparation program in which 16 high school biology teachers in widely diverse settings across the country have successfully implemented a new standards-based biology curriculum, "Biology: A Community Context" (BACC), written by W.H. Leonard and J.E. Penick. During the summer of 1997, these 16 teachers were given an…

  2. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  3. Grading Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Okuchi, Sachi; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Yamauchi, Moritaka; Kataoka, Masako; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C.; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to compare capability of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and thallium-201 (Tl)-SPECT for grading meningioma. This retrospective study was conducted as a case-control study under approval by the institutional review board. In the hospital information system, 67 patients (22 men and 45 women) who had both FDG-PET and Tl-SPECT preoperative examinations were found with histopathologic diagnosis of meningioma. The maximum FDG uptake values of the tumors were measured, and they were standardized to the whole body (SUVmax) and normalized as gray matter ratio (SUVRmax). Mean and maximum Tl uptake ratios (TURmean and TURmax, respectively) of the tumors were measured and normalized as ratios to those of the contralateral normal brain. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses of the 4 indexes were conducted for differentiation between low- and high-grade meningiomas, and areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared. Correlation coefficients were calculated between these indexes and Ki-67. Fifty-six meningiomas were classified as grade I (low grade), and 11 were grade II or III (high grade). In all 4 indexes, a significant difference was observed between low- and high-grade meningiomas (P < 0.05). AUCs were 0.817 (SUVmax), 0.781 (SUVRmax), 0.810 (TURmean), and 0.831 (TURmax), and no significant difference was observed among the indexes. Their sensitivity and specificity were 72.7% to 90.9% and 71.4% to 87.5%, respectively. Correlation of the 4 indexes to Ki-67 was statistically significant, but coefficients were relatively low (0.273–0.355). Tl-SPECT, which can be used at hospitals without a cyclotron or an FDG distribution network, has high diagnostic capability of meningioma grades comparable to FDG-PET. PMID:25674763

  4. [Grading of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, G; Roth, W; Helpap, B

    2016-07-01

    The current grading of prostate cancer is based on the classification system of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) following a consensus conference in Chicago in 2014. The foundations are based on the frequently modified grading system of Gleason. This article presents a brief description of the development to the current ISUP grading system.

  5. The significance of "geothermal microzonation" for the correct planning of low-grade source geothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viccaro, Marco; Pezzino, Antonino; Belfiore, Giuseppe Maria; Campisano, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the environmental-friendly energy systems are solar thermal technologies, photovoltaic and wind power, other advantageous technologies exist, although they have not found wide development in countries such as Italy. Given the almost absent environmental impact and the rather favorable cost/benefit ratio, low-enthalpy geothermal systems are, however, likely to be of strategic importance also in Italy during the next years. The importance of geology for a sustainable exploitation of the ground through geothermal systems from low-grade sources is becoming paramount. Specifically, understanding of the lithological characteristics of the subsurface along with structures and textures of rocks is essential for a correct planning of the probe/geo-exchanger field and their associated ground source heat pumps. The complex geology of Eastern Sicily (Southern Italy), which includes volcanic, sedimentary and metamorphic units over limited extension, poses the question of how thermal conductivity of rocks is variable at the scale of restricted areas (even within the same municipality). This is the innovative concept of geothermal microzonation, i.e., how variable is the geothermal potential as a function of geology at the microscale. Some pilot areas have been therefore chosen to test how the geological features of the subsurface can influence the low-enthalpy geothermal potential of an area. Our geologically based evaluation and micro-zonation of the low-grade source geothermal potential of the selected areas have been verified to be fundamental for optimization of all the main components of a low-enthalpy geothermal system. Saving realization costs and limiting the energy consumption through correct sizing of the system are main ambitions to have sustainable development of this technology with intensive utilization of the subsurface. The variegated territory of countries such as Italy implies that these goals can be only reached if, primarily, the geological features

  6. Comparison of WHO 1973, WHO/ISUP 1998, WHO 1999 grade and combined scoring systems in evaluation of bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bircan, Sema; Candir, Ozden; Serel, T Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    To compare WHO 1973, WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 histologic grading systems, and also to evaluate the primary (most common) and secondary (second most common) patterns of cancer growth according to these three grading systems. The study consisted of 87 bladder transurethral resections that were classified as grade 1, 2 and 3, and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), low grade (LG) and high grade (HG) carcinoma considering WHO 1973 and WHO/ISUP, respectively. The WHO 1999 system was subdivided high grade into grades 2 and 3 (HG-2 and HG-3). For combined scoring, primary (most common) and secondary (second most common) grades according to extension were recorded for three grading systems. The number was repeated when only grade was seen in all extension of the tissue examined. A final combined score was obtained which ranged from 2 to 6 for the WHO 1973 and WHO/ISUP 1998 systems and from 2 to 8 for the WHO 1999 schema. The TNM system was used for the pathologic staging. When considering the pathological stage, there were statistical differences between the WHO 1973 grades (p=0.011 and p=0.000), and LG and HG carcinomas of WHO/ISUP 1998 (p=0.000) and also the WHO 1999 grades (p=0.010 and p=0.003), except PUNLMP. Regarding the combined scoring, significant differences were found between score 4 (2+2) and 5 (2+3) of WHO 1973 (p=0.014) and score 5 (LG+HG) and 6 (HG+HG) of WHO/ISUP 1998 (p=0.011). There was also a significant difference between scores 4 and 6, and 6 and 8 of the WHO 1999 combined scoring system (p=0.019 and p=0.019). WHO 1973, WHO/ISUP 1998 and WHO 1999 systems were positively correlated with the pathological stage (r(s)=0.30, r(s)=0.52 and r(s)=0.50, respectively), whereas there was weak association between the combined scoring systems and stage (r(s)=0.20, r(s)=0.18 and r(s)=0.19). Comparing these grading systems, the grade 2 of WHO 1973 was subdivided into LG and HG in WHO/ISUP 1998 and also LG-1and HG-2 in WHO 1999 systems

  7. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  8. Transportation Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8126 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in transportation systems. The course, which has been designed for students in grades 9 and 10, is intended to provide a basic understanding of transportation systems and the role of energy systems in transportation. The first two sections discuss the guide's development within the framework of…

  9. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  10. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Alex Y.; Bhat, Rajaram; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wang, Jie; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2015-09-01

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ˜4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ˜110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  11. Student performance and grading changes in a systems-based curriculum.

    PubMed

    Cooles, Philip E; Harrigan-Vital, Miscilda; Laville, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Changing from a conventional discipline-based, basic science medical school curriculum to an integrated systems-based curriculum, which was graded on overall performance not by discipline, was associated with a highly significant improvement in an externally administered comprehensive exam at the end of the 2-year basic science program. The reason for the improvement was unclear, but we hypothesized that it was partly due to a change in student study strategy. Anecdotal evidence suggested that students had changed their study habits to spend less time on previously harder-to-pass courses and more time on courses with previously lower failure rates. If this were so, performance in previously harder disciplines might have deteriorated, while performance in previously easier disciplines could have improved. We examined relative performance in the four discipline-based courses of Systemic Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, and Introductory Clinical Medicine (ICM) in the fourth (and last) semester of the curriculum. We compared failure rates in these four courses for the three cohorts before the change with the three cohorts after. Pharmacology and Microbiology which had failure rates over twice as high as Systemic Pathology and ICM in the conventional program before the curriculum change showed a deterioration in performance after the change with an approximately threefold rise in internal failure rate. In contrast, Systemic Pathology showed a dramatic improvement with a more than threefold drop in the failure rate, while the ICM clinical skills course, which was largely assessed by a practical exam in all 6 cohorts, showed no change. The improvement in student performance in an external assessment may be due, at least partly, to a change in the school's internal grading policy which led to a more appropriate balancing of student study strategies. Future studies on the effect of curriculum change should include an assessment of the impact on student study

  12. New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. T.; Júnior, J. de Martin; Pechoneri, R. D.; Santa Catharina, P.; Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhães, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the results have shown the advantages of using this kind of system compared to cesium beam standards. Based on the first setup with an expanding cloud of atoms, we can plan the construction of a clock more compact since it has no strict size limitations. In order to assemble the new system even smaller, the development of a system containing lasers, microwave source and cavity in a single box has already begun. The mobile atomic standard based on cold atoms is a possible strategic product with a broad range of applications and an important contribution to a primary standard of high relevance.

  13. The Effects of Systemic Reform on Urban, African American Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinburgh, Molly H.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a National Science Foundation-funded Local Systemic Change grant on fifth grade, urban, African American students' attitudes toward science. Seven schools, representative of the district, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory (mATSI), consisting of five attitudinal scales, was used to measure students' attitudes. Project records, school district records, and focus groups provided school-level data. Analyses of the mATSI data indicated a significant main effect for the program and for school but not for gender. A small overall difference in positive attitudes was seen for fifth grade students who experienced the science reform program compared to those who had not. The most important variable influencing attitudes toward science was the school in which the students were assigned. The seven schools varied greatly in the effectiveness of the science program. School characteristics were examined to try to explain the differences.

  14. Role of inflammation in oral carcinogenesis (Part I): Histological grading of malignancy using a binary system

    PubMed Central

    PIVA, MARTA RABELLO; DE SOUZA, LÉLIA BATISTA; MARTINS-FILHO, PAULO RICARDO SAQUETE; SOARES, ROSILENE CALAZANS; DE SANTANA SANTOS, THIAGO; DE SOUZA ANDRADE, EMANUEL SÁVIO

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the suppressant role of the inflammatory infiltrate in oral carcinogenesis through the immunohistochemical expression of CD8 and FOXP3 and to discuss how representative this expression proved, as well as other parameters considered to be of prognostic value. A total of 20 cases of oral epithelial dysplasia and 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma were selected. The criteria suggested by the World Health Organization were used for the histological grading of dysplasia. For carcinoma, a binary method was developed for the present study using parameters such as type of invasion, maturity, presence of epithelial masses and dysmorphism of the masses. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for assessment of the expression of anti-CD8 and anti-FOXP3 in cases of dysplasia and carcinoma. Although the inflammatory infiltrate was more intense in the majority of carcinomas, it exercised a protective role in the dysplasia cases, as CD8 expression was significantly greater. Although a correlation was found between CD8 and the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate in the carcinoma cases, CD8 demonstrated >5% expression in only 32.5% of the cases, compared to 80% of the dysplasia cases. Thus, we suggest that the inflammatory infiltrate should not be used as a parameter in routine examinations, as it plays different roles in the various stages of carcinogenesis. The histological grading system for malignancy employed in the present study is indicated for the assessment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:22848292

  15. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be νCa = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  16. Frequency and time standards based on stored ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, J. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Prestage, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The method of ion storage provides a basis for excellent time and frequency standards. This is due to the ability to confine ions for long periods of time without the usual perturbations associated with confinement (e.g., wall shifts). In addition, Doppler effects can be greatly suppressed. The use of stored ions for microwave frequency standards and the future possibilities for an optical frequency standard based on stored ions are addressed.

  17. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Brusch, A.; Diddams, S. A.; Fortier, T. M.; Heavner, T. P.; Hollberg, L.; Hume, D. B.; Jefferts, S. R.; Lorini, L.; Parker, T. E.; Rosenband, T.; Stalnaker, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    Single-trapped-ion frequency standards based on a 282 nm transition in 199Hg+ and on a 267 nm transition in 27Al + have been developed at NIST over the past several years. Their frequencies are measured relative to each other and to the NIST primary frequency standard, the NIST-F1 cesium fountain, by means of a self-referenced femtosecond laser frequency comb. Both ion standards have demonstrated instabilities and inaccuracies of less than 1 × 10 -16.

  18. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Czarnecki, Joby M Prince

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial

  19. Novel grading system for quantifying upper-airway obstruction on sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Gideon; Nageris, Benny; Feinmesser, Raphael; Hadar, Tuvia; Yaniv, Eitan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Eidelman, Leonid

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to present a novel anatomically comprehensive and clinically applicable system for the quantification of sleep endoscopy findings in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Fifty-five adult patients with a polysomnographic diagnosis of OSAHS were referred for midazolam-induced sleep endoscopy following failure of continuous positive airway pressure. Five anatomical sites of possible obstruction along the upper airway were documented: nose/nasopharynx (N), uvulopalatine plane (P), tongue base (T), larynx (L), and hypopharynx (H). Each involved site was assigned a severity grade of 1 (partial obstruction) or 2 (complete obstruction). The digits representing the obstruction pattern at each level were then added to yield a severity index (SI). The SI for each patient was determined by two independent observers. Findings were correlated with the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and body mass index (BMI). The SI was significantly correlated with the RDI (R=0.746, Pearson; P<0.0001) and predicted disease severity with 65% accuracy. There was no association with BMI. By site, the tongue base and hypopharynx were significantly correlated with obstruction severity; obstruction in the tongue base predicted disease severity with a sensitivity of 68.8 and sensitivity of 81.1. Our easy-to-use endoscopic grading system provides physicians with an accurate picture of the pattern of the upper-airway system obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. It is a promising tool for estimating the location and severity of upper airway disease and may have implications for treatment planning.

  20. Revised definition of neuropathic pain and its grading system: an open case series illustrating its use in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Schwab, Rainer; Müller, Harald; Stoeter, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sommer, Clemens; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2009-10-01

    The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been revised by an expert committee of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain (NeuPSIG) as "pain arising as direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," and a grading system of "definite," "probable," and "possible" neuropathic pain has been introduced. This open case series of 5 outpatients (3 men, 2 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) demonstrates how the grading system can be applied, in combination with appropriate confirmatory testing, to diagnosis neuropathic conditions in clinical practice. The proposed grading system includes a dynamic algorithm that enhances the physician's ability to determine with a greater level of certainty whether a pain condition is neuropathic. Its clinical use should be further validated in prospective studies.

  1. Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation Profile, Unrelated to Homocysteinemia, in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    V. Economou, Emanuel; V. Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne; P. Pitsavos, Christos; E. Kouskouni, Evangelia; Magaziotou-Elefsinioti, Ioanna; Creatsas, George

    2005-01-01

    To investigate in prepubertal obese children (POC) the profile of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation (CLGSI) and its relation to homocysteinemia, 72 POC were evaluated for serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and amyloid A (SAA) levels, both markers of CLGSI, and plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy), an independent risk factor for adult atherosclerosis, in comparison to 42 prepubertal lean children (PLC). The main observations in POC were higher CRP levels compared to PLC, positive association of SAA levels to CRP levels, no association of CRP or SAA levels to tHcy levels. Thus, in POC, positively interrelated to each other, elevated CRP and unaltered SAA levels reveal a unique profile of the CLGSI, not explaining homocysteinemia-induced risk for future atherosclerosis. PMID:16489253

  2. The effects of hyperthermia on normal mesenchymal tissues. Application of a histologic grading system

    SciTech Connect

    Meshorer, A.; Prionas, S.D.; Fajardo, L.F.; Meyer, J.L.; Hahn, G.M.; Martinez, A.A.

    1983-06-01

    The alterations produced by radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia of 42 to 48 degrees C for 30 minutes were studied in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of swine. Acute lesions (18 to 24 hours) included edema, hemorrhage, necrosis (predominantly of myocytes) and granulocytic exudate in fat or muscle. The most important chronic lesion (28 to 31 days) was fibrosis replacing either tissue. There was a histiolymphocytic exudate with foreign-body giant cells around large lipid vacuoles. Muscle necrosis persisted and there was variable myocyte regeneration. Several specimens showed deep necrosis and abscesses. A grading system was developed to quantitate independently acute and chronic damage in each tissue. Acute lesions were usually less severe and extensive than chronic ones, without obvious dose response. Chronic lesions showed clearly a dose response, which began at 43 degrees C and increased with temperature. The latter appear to be reliable indicators of hyperthermic damage in deep soft tissues.

  3. A DHT Key-Value Storage System with Carrier Grade Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangyu; Chen, Jian; Gong, Hao; Fan, Lingyuan; Xue, Haiqiang; Lu, Qingming; Liang, Liang

    The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology being widely adopted in today’s both academic research and practical service providing, has many potential advantages and achieves a great success in Information Technology scope. Recently some researchers have proposed that P2P inspired architecture also might be one choice for the telecom network evolution. Most of such works adopted structured P2P (DHT) as the basic solutions, but they seldom discussed how to eliminate the huge gap between the telecom underlay performance requirement and the performance of existed DHT which mainly originated from the Internet applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of SandStone, a DHT based key-value storage system with carrier grade performance, such as good scalability, strong consistency and high reliability, which could be deployed as the cornerstone in such new P2P inspired networking architectures.

  4. Direct Metal Deposition of Functional Graded Structures in Ti- Al System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishkovsky, I.; Missemer, F.; Smurov, I.

    A direct laser metal deposition (DLMD) technology with co-axial powder injection is used to fabricate a complex functional graded structure (FGS) fabrication. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the possibility to produce intermetallic phases in the Ti-Al powder systems in the course of a single-step DMD process. Besides, relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the intermetallic phase structures of the built-up objects have been studied. In our research we applied the optical microscopy, X-ray analysis, microhardness measurement and SEM with EDX analysis of the laser-fabricated intermetallics. The discussion of the mechanisms of Ti x Al y (x,y = 1.3) intermetallic transformations in exothermal reactions is also offered in the report.

  5. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Alhman, H.; Caplin, M.; Couvelard, A.; de Herder, W. W.; Erikssson, B.; Falchetti, A.; Falconi, M.; Komminoth, P.; Körner, M.; Lopes, J. M.; McNicol, A-M.; Nilsson, O.; Perren, A.; Scarpa, A.; Scoazec, J-Y.; Wiedenmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis proposal for foregut NETs of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas that was designed, discussed, and consensually approved at this conference. In addition, we report the proposal for a working formulation for the grading of digestive NETs based on mitotic count and Ki-67 index. This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients. PMID:16967267

  6. Treatment outcome in a graduate orthodontic clinic using the American Board of Orthodontics grading system.

    PubMed

    Yang-Powers, Linda C; Sadowsky, Cyril; Rosenstein, Sheldon; BeGole, Ellen A

    2002-11-01

    Since 1999, the American Board of Orthodontics (ABO) has used the objective grading system (OGS) to grade clinical case reports; the ABO also encourages prospective candidates to use the system. Ninety-two cases that satisfied the specifications of 6 of the ABO's malocclusion categories were selected from the files of 500 consecutively completed patients in the graduate orthodontic clinic at the University of Illinois at Chicago; this was called the university group. A comparison group of 32 cases previously presented to the ABO was collected from 5 clinicians in the Chicago area who had passed the ABO examination and become board-certified between 1984 and 2000; this was called the ABO group. Fourteen of the 32 cases in the ABO group were presented to the ABO after implementation of the OGS; these were also analyzed separately. Overall, the ABO group lost fewer points (had lower OGS scores) than did the university group (P <.05); the ABO group comprised a highly selected sample. The university group had significantly (P <.05) better scores for root parallelism, whereas the ABO group had significantly better scores for occlusal contacts and overjet scores, possibly reflecting settling after appliance removal. Finishing in the anterior segment and the second molar region was better in the ABO group. Orthodontists are good at correcting spaces in the arch and are deficient in placing adequate torque in the buccal segments. No differences were found in OGS scores among the 6 malocclusion categories. This study suggests how university cases could be completed to a higher level of quality and how other samples could be evaluated to raise the level of orthodontic treatment outcome.

  7. Test of the Center for Automated Processing of Hardwoods' Auto-Image Detection and Computer-Based Grading and Cutup System

    Treesearch

    Philip A. Araman; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1995-01-01

    Automated lumber grading and yield optimization using computer controlled saws will be plausible for hardwoods if and when lumber scanning systems can reliably identify all defects by type. Existing computer programs could then be used to grade the lumber, identify the best cut-up solution, and control the sawing machines. The potential value of a scanning grading...

  8. Role of the immune system in the peritoneal tumor spread of high grade serous ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Katharina; Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Schmetterer, Klaus G.; Meier, Samuel M.; Gerner, Christopher; Grimm, Christoph; Horvat, Reinhard; Pils, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    The immune system plays a critical role in cancer progression and overall survival. Still, it is unclear if differences in the immune response are associated with different patterns of tumor spread apparent in high grade serous ovarian cancer patients and previously described by us. In this study we aimed to assess the role of the immune system in miliary (widespread, millet-sized lesions) and non-miliary (bigger, exophytically growing implants) tumor spread. To achieve this we comprehensively analyzed tumor tissues, blood, and ascites from 41 patients using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, RNA sequencing, multiplexed immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that inflammation markers were systemically higher in miliary. In contrast, in non-miliary lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the ascites was higher as well as the levels of PD-1 expression in tumor associated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, in ascites of miliary patients more epithelial tumor cells were present compared to non-miliary, possibly due to the active down-regulation of anti-tumor responses by B-cells and regulatory T-cells. Summarizing, adaptive immune responses prevailed in patients with non-miliary spread, whereas in patients with miliary spread a higher involvement of the innate immune system was apparent while adaptive responses were counteracted by immune suppressive cells and factors. PMID:27665539

  9. Role of the immune system in the peritoneal tumor spread of high grade serous ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Auer, Katharina; Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Sukhbaatar, Nyamdelger; Aust, Stefanie; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Meier, Samuel M; Gerner, Christopher; Grimm, Christoph; Horvat, Reinhard; Pils, Dietmar

    2016-09-20

    The immune system plays a critical role in cancer progression and overall survival. Still, it is unclear if differences in the immune response are associated with different patterns of tumor spread apparent in high grade serous ovarian cancer patients and previously described by us. In this study we aimed to assess the role of the immune system in miliary (widespread, millet-sized lesions) and non-miliary (bigger, exophytically growing implants) tumor spread. To achieve this we comprehensively analyzed tumor tissues, blood, and ascites from 41 patients using immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, RNA sequencing, multiplexed immunoassays, and immunohistochemistry. Results showed that inflammation markers were systemically higher in miliary. In contrast, in non-miliary lymphocyte and monocyte/macrophage infiltration into the ascites was higher as well as the levels of PD-1 expression in tumor associated cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and PD-L1 expression in tumor cells. Furthermore, in ascites of miliary patients more epithelial tumor cells were present compared to non-miliary, possibly due to the active down-regulation of anti-tumor responses by B-cells and regulatory T-cells. Summarizing, adaptive immune responses prevailed in patients with non-miliary spread, whereas in patients with miliary spread a higher involvement of the innate immune system was apparent while adaptive responses were counteracted by immune suppressive cells and factors.

  10. Readmission After Treatment of Grade 3 and 4 Renal Injuries At A Level 1 Trauma Center: Statewide Assessment Using The Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Brian; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose One criticism of the existing renal trauma research is the limited outpatient follow-up after index hospitalization. We assessed readmission rates following treatment for AAST grade 3 and 4 renal injury using the Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System (CHARS). Materials and Methods We evaluated all patients with AAST grade 3 and 4 renal injuries admitted to Harborview Medical Center (HMC) between 1998–2010, the only level 1 trauma center in Washington state. Grade 4 renal injuries were stratified by collecting system laceration (CSL) or segmental vascular injury (SVI). Data was abstracted from the CHARS database for readmissions to any Washington State hospital within six months of renal injury. Clinical variables, diagnoses, and procedures were queried based on ICD-9 codes. Results 477 grade 3 and 159 grade 4 renal injuries were initially treated at HMC. On admission, 111 patients required intervention: 75/477 (16%) grade 3 and 36/159 (23%) grade 4 injuries. Within six months of index hospitalization, 86/477 (18%) grade 3 and 38/159 (24%) grade 4 patients were readmitted to any WA state hospital. 80% of grade 3 injuries and 66% of grade 4 injuries returned to HMC compared to secondary hospitals (p=0.08). At readmission, 19/86 grade 3 (22%) and 16/38 grade 4 (42%) injuries had a urologic diagnosis. Subsequent procedural intervention was required on readmission in 6/86 (7%) of grade 3 and 5/38 (13%) of grade 4 renal injuries (all CSL injuries). Conclusions A subset of patients treated for grade 3 and 4 renal trauma will be readmitted for further management. While urologic diagnoses and additional procedures may be low overall, readmission to outside hospitals may preclude accurate determination of renal trauma outcomes. Based on these data, patients with grade 4 CSL injuries appear to be at the highest risk for readmission and to require a subsequent urologic procedure. PMID:26713978

  11. Impact of the Iranian hospital grading system on hospitals' adherence to audited standards: an examination of possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor A; Mannion, Russell

    2014-04-01

    All Iranian hospitals have been subject to a grading system which determines the payments they can charge. We examined all possible pathways through which the grading system could influence hospitals' adherence to audited standards. Using a mixed methods study we examined five stakeholder groups: hospital staff, patients, general practitioners, health insurance organisations and surveyor organisations. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire survey, observation and documentary analysis. Patients and general practitioners were generally unaware of the hospital grading. Hospital staff and insurance organisations were informed, but this was not found to influence the hospital staff's choice of where to work nor the insurance organisations contracting behaviour. The grading system was criticised for the performance standards' validity and the validity of hospitals' awarded results. Hospitals responded to financial and reputational incentives for achieving better grades, although gaming and misrepresentation was also reported. Pay-for-performance was the main influential factor in shaping hospitals' adherence to audit standards. Other potential mechanisms for influencing hospital behaviour, the selection mechanism and intrinsic motives, were not found to be sufficient to affect hospital behaviour. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization. PMID:28599282

  13. Optimizing a machine learning based glioma grading system using multi-parametric MRI histogram and texture features.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Yan, Lin-Feng; Hu, Yu-Chuan; Li, Gang; Yang, Yang; Han, Yu; Sun, Ying-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Cheng; Tian, Qiang; Han, Zi-Yang; Liu, Le-De; Hu, Bin-Quan; Qiu, Zi-Yu; Wang, Wen; Cui, Guang-Bin

    2017-07-18

    Current machine learning techniques provide the opportunity to develop noninvasive and automated glioma grading tools, by utilizing quantitative parameters derived from multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. However, the efficacies of different machine learning methods in glioma grading have not been investigated.A comprehensive comparison of varied machine learning methods in differentiating low-grade gliomas (LGGs) and high-grade gliomas (HGGs) as well as WHO grade II, III and IV gliomas based on multi-parametric MRI images was proposed in the current study. The parametric histogram and image texture attributes of 120 glioma patients were extracted from the perfusion, diffusion and permeability parametric maps of preoperative MRI. Then, 25 commonly used machine learning classifiers combined with 8 independent attribute selection methods were applied and evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) strategy. Besides, the influences of parameter selection on the classifying performances were investigated. We found that support vector machine (SVM) exhibited superior performance to other classifiers. By combining all tumor attributes with synthetic minority over-sampling technique (SMOTE), the highest classifying accuracy of 0.945 or 0.961 for LGG and HGG or grade II, III and IV gliomas was achieved. Application of Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) attribute selection strategy further improved the classifying accuracies. Besides, the performances of LibSVM, SMO, IBk classifiers were influenced by some key parameters such as kernel type, c, gama, K, etc. SVM is a promising tool in developing automated preoperative glioma grading system, especially when being combined with RFE strategy. Model parameters should be considered in glioma grading model optimization.

  14. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors.

  15. Facial paralysis grading system: a new and simple smile excursion score for evaluating facial reanimation surgery.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Chen, Hsin-Hung

    2015-02-01

    Various facial paralysis grading systems have been introduced to evaluate the results of both spontaneous recovery and facial palsy reconstruction. The aim of the present study was to introduce and evaluate an objective new and quick Smile Excursion Score system which is readily applicable and easy to follow. It has been applied over the past 25 years for preoperative and postoperative result evaluation of smile reconstruction at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. A standardized evaluation method was described for the assessment of the upper lip movement preoperatively and postoperatively with at least 1 year follow-up after functioning muscle transplantation. The evaluation was scored by the number of maxillary teeth exposed when smiling with teeth showing. Reliability of this technique was assessed by using 3 independent examiners who each evaluated the smiles of 34 unilateral facial paralysis patients 4 times, creating 408 sets of measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interrater and intrarater reliability exceeded 0.94, which is considered as excellent and reliable. Chuang's Smile Excursion Score system is simple, quick, and accurate in evaluating smile after reanimation of paralyzed face effecting free functional muscle transplantation with no additional tools.

  16. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  17. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

    2014-05-27

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

  18. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  19. Examining the Validity and Fairness of a State Standards-Based Assessment of English-Language Arts for Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Ling, Guangming; Cook, Linda; Tognatta, Namrata

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the appropriateness of a large-scale state standards-based English-Language Arts (ELA) assessment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing by comparing the internal test structures for these students to students without disabilities. The Grade 4 and 8 ELA assessments were analyzed via a series of parcel-level exploratory…

  20. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  1. A Grading System Combining Tumor Budding and Nuclear Diameter Predicts Prognosis in Resected Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Miyai, Yumi; Katsuki, Naomi; Kushida, Yoshio; Matsunaga, Toru; Okuda, Masaya; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Bandoh, Shuji; Haba, Reiji

    2017-06-01

    For lung squamous cell carcinomas, there are no histologic findings that have been universally accepted as prognostic factors. Tumor budding and nuclear grade have been recognized as prognostic factors in other carcinomas. In this study, we investigated whether pathologic findings could determine clinical outcome in Japanese patients with lung squamous cell carcinomas. Tumor slides from surgically resected lung squamous cell carcinomas (1999 to 2012) were reviewed (n=216). Tumors were evaluated for histologic subtypes, differentiation, tumor budding, nuclear diameter, and mitosis. Recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards model. Tumor budding and large nuclei were independent prognostic factors of a worse RFS (P<0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) and a worse OS (P<0.001 and P=0.038, respectively) on multivariate analysis after adjustment for pathologic stage and lymphatic invasion. However, histologic subtypes, differentiation, and mitotic count did not correlate with prognosis. A grading system combining tumor budding and nuclear diameter was an independent prognostic factors of a worse RFS (grade 2 vs. 1, hazard ratio [HR]=2.91; P<0.001, and grade 3 vs. 1, HR=7.60, P<0.001) and a worse OS (grade 2 vs. 1, HR=2.15; P=0.014, and grade 3 vs. 1, HR=4.54, P<0.001). We found that a grading system combining tumor budding and nuclear diameter was a significant prognostic factor among Japanese patients with resected lung squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Friction Spinning—New Innovative Tool Systems For The Production of Complex Functionally Graded Workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homberg, Werner; Hornjak, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Friction spinning is a new innovative and promising incremental forming technology implying high potential regarding the manufacturing of complex functionally graded workpieces and enhancing existing forming limits of conventional metal spinning processes. The friction spinning process is based on the integration of thermo-mechanical friction subprocesses in this incremental forming process. By choosing the appropriate process parameters, e.g. axial feed rate or relative motion, the contact conditions between tool and workpiece can be influenced in a defined way and, thus, a required temperature profile can be obtained. Friction spinning allows the extension of forming limits compared to conventional metal spinning in order to produce multifunctional components with locally varying properties and the manufacturing of e.g. complex hollow parts made of tubes, profiles, or sheet metals. In this way, it meets the demands regarding efficiency and the manufacturing of functionally graded lightweight components. There is e.g. the possibility of locally increasing the wall thickness in joining zones and, as a consequence, achieving higher quality of the joint at decreased expense. These products are not or only hardly producible by conventional processes so far. In order to benefit from the advantages and potentials of this new innovative process new tooling systems and concepts are indispensable which fulfill the special requirements of this thermo-mechanical process concerning thermal and tribological loads and which allow simultaneous and defined forming and friction operations. An important goal of the corresponding research work at the Chair of Forming and Machining Technology at the University of Paderborn is the development of tool systems that allow the manufacturing of such complex parts by simple uniaxial or sequential biaxial linear tool paths. In the paper, promising tool systems and geometries as well as results of theoretical and experimental research work (e

  3. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  4. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  5. Automated diabetic macular edema (DME) grading system using DWT, DCT Features and maculopathy index.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Mookiah, Muthu Rama Krishnan; Koh, Joel E W; Tan, Jen Hong; Bhandary, Sulatha V; Rao, A Krishna; Hagiwara, Yuki; Chua, Chua Kuang; Laude, Augustinus

    2017-03-19

    The cause of diabetic macular edema (DME) is due to prolonged and uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) which affects the vision of diabetic subjects. DME is graded based on the exudate location from the macula. It is clinically diagnosed using fundus images which is tedious and time-consuming. Regular eye screening and subsequent treatment may prevent the vision loss. Hence, in this work, a hybrid system based on Radon transform (RT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) are proposed for an automated detection of DME. The fundus images are subjected to RT to obtain sinograms and DWT is applied on these sinograms to extract wavelet coefficients (approximate, horizontal, vertical and diagonal). DCT is applied on approximate coefficients to obtain 2D-DCT coefficients. Further, these coefficients are converted into 1D vector by arranging the coefficients in zig-zag manner. This 1D signal is subjected to locality sensitive discriminant analysis (LSDA). Finally, various supervised classifiers are used to classify the three classes using significant features. Our proposed technique yielded a classification accuracy of 100% and 97.01% using two and seven significant features for private and public (MESSIDOR) databases respectively. Also, a maculopathy index is formulated with two significant parameters to discriminate the three groups distinctly using a single integer. Hence, our obtained results suggest that this system can be used as an eye screening tool for diabetic subjects for DME.

  6. Efficient production of D-tagatose using a food-grade surface display system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Jing; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-16

    D-tagatose, a functional sweetener, is commonly transformed from D-galactose by L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI). In this study, a novel type of biocatalyst, L-AI from Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 displayed on the spore surface of Bacillus subtilis 168, was developed for producing D-tagatose. The anchored L-AI, exhibiting the relatively high bioactivity, suggested that the surface display system using CotX as the anchoring protein was successfully constructed. The stability of the anchored L-AI was significantly improved. Specifically, the consolidation of thermal stability representing 87% of relative activity was retained even at 80 °C for 30 min, which remarkably favored the production of D-tagatose. Under the optimal conditions, the robust spores can convert 75% D-galactose (100 g/L) into D-tagatose after 24 h, and the conversion rate remained at 56% at the third cycle. Therefore, this biocatalysis system, which could express the target enzyme on the food-grade vector, was an alternative method for the value-added production of D-tagatose.

  7. Preparation of stable food-grade double emulsions with a hybrid premix membrane emulsification system.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Juraite, Dovile; Schroën, Karin; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    In this study we demonstrate that food-grade double emulsions can be successfully prepared using a hybrid premix emulsification system. A coarse emulsion containing beetroot juice as inner water phase, sunflower oil as oil phase and 0.5% or 1.0% whey protein isolate solution as outer water phase was prepared using a rotor stator system. This emulsion was further refined, using a bed of glass beads (diameter 71μm), through which the emulsion was pushed at different applied pressure (200-500kPa) and number of passes (1-5). All applied pressures lead to much smaller droplets while the juice remained encapsulated (>98%). The viscosity of the emulsions increased due to swelling of the internal water phase, and this implies that it is possible to encapsulate the components efficiently at relatively low internal water phase fraction at which the emulsions can be handled easily, while allowing them to obtain their final viscosity later. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations.

    PubMed

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit; Toft, Peter B; Homøe, Preben; Lund-Andersen, Henrik

    2017-03-01

    Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. In a prospective study including 1,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven-point grading scale). Unknown to the students, the examiners assessed the students by the seven-point grading scale also in the spring semester. Students at the international classes who were officially assessed by the seven-point grading scale during both semesters served as control group. The grading scores were significantly higher among students who were aware of being evaluated with the seven-point grading scores compared with the pass/fail group (p < 0.0001). In comparison, no significant difference between the exam results was observed from the spring- to the autumn semester for the control group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered-grading should probably be preferred to a simple pass/fail approach. none. not relevant.

  9. British athletics muscle injury classification: a reliability study for a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Chakraverty, J; Pollock, N; Chakraverty, R; Suokas, A K; James, S L

    2015-12-01

    To implement and validate the newly proposed British athletics muscle injury classification in the assessment of hamstring injuries in track and field athletes and to analyse the nature and frequency of the discrepancies. This was a retrospective study analysing hamstring injuries in elite British athletes using the proposed classification system. Classification of 65 hamstring injuries in 45 high-level athletes by two radiologists at two time points 4 months apart to determine interrater variability, intrarater variability, and feasibility of the classification system was undertaken. Interrater Kappa values of 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.92; p<0.0001) for Round 1 and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.76-1.00; p<0.0001) for Round 2 of the review were observed. Percentages of agreement were 85% for Round 1 and 91% for Round 2. The intrarater Kappa value for the two reviewers were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63-0.88; p<0.0001) and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.53-0.76; p<0.0001) and the average was 0.71 suggesting substantial overall agreement. The percentages of agreement were 82% and 72%, respectively. This classification system is straightforward to use and produces both reproducible and consistent results based on interrater and intrarater Kappa values with at least substantial agreement in all groups. Further work is ongoing to investigate whether individual grades within this classification system provide prognostic information and could guide clinical management. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels.

  11. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's…

  12. Allergic sensitization at school age is a systemic low-grade inflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Chawes, B L; Stokholm, J; Schoos, A-M M; Fink, N R; Brix, S; Bisgaard, H

    2017-07-01

    Systemic low-grade inflammation has been demonstrated in a range of the frequent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) proposing a shared mechanism, but is largely unexplored in relation to allergic sensitization. We therefore aimed to investigate the possible association with childhood allergic sensitization. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8) were measured in plasma at age 6 months (N = 214) and 7 years (N = 277) in children from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000 ) birth cohort. Allergic sensitization against common inhalant and food allergens was determined longitudinally at ages ½, 1½, 4 and 6 years by specific IgE assessments and skin prick tests. Associations between inflammatory biomarkers and sensitization phenotypes were tested with logistic regression and principal component analyses (PCAs). Adjusted for gender, recent infections, and a CRP genetic risk score, hs-CRP at 7 years was associated with concurrent elevated specific IgE against any allergen [adjusted OR (aOR) = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14-1.72; P = 0.001], aeroallergens (aOR, 1.43; 1.15-1.77; P = 0.001), food allergens (aOR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.67; P = 0.04), sensitization without any clinical allergy symptoms (aOR = 1.40; 1.06-1.85; P = 0.02), and with similar findings for skin prick tests. The other inflammatory markers were not univariately associated with sensitization, but multiparametric PCA suggested a specific inflammatory response among sensitized children. Inflammatory markers at age 6 months were not associated with subsequent development of sensitization phenotypes. Elevated hs-CRP is associated with allergic sensitization in school-aged children suggesting systemic low-grade inflammation as a phenotypic characteristic of this early-onset NCD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Putting Classroom Grading on the Table: A Reform in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Keni Brayton

    2011-01-01

    In a standards-based instructional program, what does a course grade convey? What should it convey? What is the role of homework in assigning grades? What is the role of common assessments? This case study examined the responses of two groups of high school teachers during a district wide reform of grading practices. The first was a focus group of…

  14. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  15. Programmed Approach vs. Conventional Approach Using highly Consistent Sound-Symbol System of Reading in Three Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Robert Eugene

    The effects of two primary reading programs using a programed format (with and without audio-supplement) and a conventional format (the program format deprogramed) in a highly consistent sound-symbol system of reading at three primary grade levels were compared, using a pretest, post-test control group design. The degree of suitability of…

  16. Evaluating Early Childhood Educators: Prekindergarten through Third Grade. Supplement to the "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Educator Evaluation Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Jana; Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators play a critical role in preparing students for success later in their school experience. The instructional techniques, emotional supports, and assessment approaches for early childhood settings are different from classroom settings in later grades. How can states and districts develop evaluation systems that are tuned to…

  17. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically.

  18. A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform effort…

  19. Validating "Value Added" in the Primary Grades: One District's Attempts to Increase Fairness and Inclusivity in Its Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amrein-Beardsley, Audrey; Polasky, Sarah; Holloway-Libell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    One urban district in the state of Arizona sought to use an alternative achievement test (i.e., the Northwest Evaluation Association's (NWEA) Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades (MAP)) to include more value-added ineligible teachers in the districts' growth and merit pay system. The goal was to allow for its K-2 teachers to be more…

  20. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  1. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  2. Stochastic kinetic model of two component system signalling reveals all-or-none, graded and mixed mode stochastic switching responses.

    PubMed

    Kierzek, Andrzej M; Zhou, Lu; Wanner, Barry L

    2010-03-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are prevalent signal transduction systems in bacteria that control innumerable adaptive responses to environmental cues and host-pathogen interactions. We constructed a detailed stochastic kinetic model of two component signalling based on published data. Our model has been validated with flow cytometry data and used to examine reporter gene expression in response to extracellular signal strength. The model shows that, depending on the actual kinetic parameters, TCSs exhibit all-or-none, graded or mixed mode responses. In accordance with other studies, positively autoregulated TCSs exhibit all-or-none responses. Unexpectedly, our model revealed that TCSs lacking a positive feedback loop exhibit not only graded but also mixed mode responses, in which variation of the signal strength alters the level of gene expression in induced cells while the regulated gene continues to be expressed at the basal level in a substantial fraction of cells. The graded response of the TCS changes to mixed mode response by an increase of the translation initiation rate of the histidine kinase. Thus, a TCS is an evolvable design pattern capable of implementing deterministic regulation and stochastic switches associated with both graded and threshold responses. This has implications for understanding the emergence of population diversity in pathogenic bacteria and the design of genetic circuits in synthetic biology applications. The model is available in systems biology markup language (SBML) and systems biology graphical notation (SBGN) formats and can be used as a component of large-scale biochemical reaction network models.

  3. [Low-grade systemic inflammation and the development of metabolic diseases: from the molecular evidence to the clinical practice].

    PubMed

    León-Pedroza, José Israel; González-Tapia, Luis Alonso; del Olmo-Gil, Esteban; Castellanos-Rodríguez, Diana; Escobedo, Galileo; González-Chávez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation is characterised by high circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and increased macrophage infiltration in peripheral tissues. Most importantly, this inflammatory state does not involve damage or loss of function of the infiltrated tissue, which is a distinctive feature of the low-grade systemic inflammation. The term "meta-inflammation" has also been used to refer to the low-grade systemic inflammation due to its strong relationship with the development of cardio-metabolic diseases in obesity. A review is presented on the recent clinical and experimental evidence concerning the role of adipose tissue inflammation as a key mediator of low-grade systemic inflammation. Furthermore, the main molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory polarization of macrophages with the ability to infiltrate both the adipose tissue and the vascular endothelium via activation of toll-like receptors by metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns, such as advanced glycation-end products and oxidized lipoproteins, is discussed. Finally, a review is made of the pathogenic mechanisms through which the low-grade systemic inflammation contributes to develop insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, atherogenesis, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension in obese individuals. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of low-grade systemic inflammation in promoting cardio-metabolic diseases is necessary, in order to further design novel anti-inflammatory therapies that take into consideration clinical data, as well as the circulating levels of cytokines, immune cells, and metabolic damage-associated molecular patterns in each patient. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel System for the Surgical Staging of Primary High-grade Osteosarcoma: The Birmingham Classification.

    PubMed

    Jeys, Lee M; Thorne, Chris J; Parry, Michael; Gaston, Czar Louie L; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri P; Grimer, J Robert

    2017-03-01

    Chemotherapy response and surgical margins have been shown to be associated with the risk of local recurrence in patients with osteosarcoma. However, existing surgical staging systems fail to reflect the response to chemotherapy or define an appropriate safe metric distance from the tumor that will allow complete excision and closely predict the chance of disease recurrence. We therefore sought to review a group of patients with primary high-grade osteosarcoma treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgical resection and analyzed margins and chemotherapy response in terms of local recurrence. (1) What predictor or combination of predictors available to the clinician can be assessed that more reliably predict the likelihood of local recurrence? (2) Can we determine a better predictor of local recurrence-free survival than the currently applied system of surgical margins? (3) Can we determine a better predictor of overall survival than the currently applied system of surgical margins? This retrospective study included all patients with high-grade conventional osteosarcomas without metastasis at diagnosis treated at one center between 1997 and 2012 with preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection or amputation of the primary tumor who were younger than age 50 years with minimum 24-month followup for those still alive. A total of 389 participants matched the inclusion criteria. Univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of local recurrence-free survival (LRFS). The Birmingham classification was devised on the basis of two stems: the response to chemotherapy (good response = ≥ 90% necrosis; poor response = < 90% necrosis) and margins (< 2 mm or ≥ 2 mm). The 5-year overall survival rate was 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61%-71%) and 47 patients developed local recurrence (12%). Intralesional margins (hazard ratio [HR], 9.9; 95% CI, 1.2-82; p = 0.03 versus radical margin HR, 1) and a poor response to

  5. Integrative Systemic and Local Metabolomics with Impact on Survival in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bachmayr-Heyda, Anna; Aust, Stefanie; Auer, Katharina; Meier, Samuel M; Schmetterer, Klaus G; Dekan, Sabine; Gerner, Christopher; Pils, Dietmar

    2017-04-15

    Purpose: Cancer metabolism is characterized by alterations including aerobic glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation, and need of fuels and building blocks.Experimental Design: Targeted metabolomics of preoperative and follow-up sera, ascites, and tumor tissues, RNA sequencing of isolated tumor cells, local and systemic chemokine, and local immune cell infiltration data from up to 65 high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients and 62 healthy controls were correlated to overall survival and integrated in a Systems Medicine manner.Results: Forty-three mainly (poly)unsaturated glycerophospholipids and four essential amino acids (citrulline) were significantly reduced in patients with short compared with long survival and healthy controls. The glycerophospholipid fingerprint is identical to the fingerprint from isolated (very) low-density lipoproteins (vLDL), indicating that the source of glycerophospholipids consumed by tumors is (v)LDL. A glycerophospholipid-score (HR, 0.46; P = 0.007) and a 100-gene signature (HR, 0.65; P = 0.004) confirmed the independent impact on survival in training (n = 65) and validation (n = 165) cohorts. High concentrations of LDLs and glycerophospholipids were independently predictors for favorable survival. Patients with low glycerophospholipids presented with more systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen negatively and albumin positively correlated) but less adaptive immune cell tumor infiltration (lower tumor and immune cell PD-L1 expression), less oxygenic respiration and increased triglyceride biosynthesis in tumor cells, and lower histone expressions, correlating with higher numbers of expressed genes and more transcriptional noise, a putative neo-pluripotent tumor cell phenotype.Conclusions: Low serum phospholipids and essential amino acids are correlated with worse outcome in ovarian cancer, accompanied by a specific tumor cell phenotype. Clin Cancer Res; 23(8); 2081-92. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Performance Analysis of Global Navigation Satellite System Signal Acquisition Aided by Different Grade Inertial Navigation System under Highly Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunxi; Li, Xianmu; Gao, Shuang; Lin, Tie; Wang, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Under the high dynamic conditions, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals produce great Doppler frequency shifts, which hinders the fast acquisition of signals. Inertial Navigation System (INS)-aided acquisition can improve the acquisition performance, whereas the accuracy of Doppler shift and code phase estimation are mainly determined by the INS precision. The relation between the INS accuracy and Doppler shift estimation error has been derived, while the relation between the INS accuracy and code phase estimation error has not been deduced. In this paper, in order to theoretically analyze the effects of INS errors on the performance of Doppler shift and code phase estimations, the connections between them are re-deduced. Moreover, the curves of the corresponding relations are given for the first time. Then, in order to have a better verification of the INS-aided acquisition, a high dynamic scenario is designed. Furthermore, by using the deduced mathematical relation, the effects of different grade INS on the GNSS (including Global Positioning System (GPS) and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS)) signal acquisition are analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the INS-aided acquisition can reduce the search range of local frequency and code phase, and achieve fast acquisition. According to the experimental results, a suitable INS can be chosen for the deeply coupled integration. PMID:28452933

  7. Effect of fascia dry needling on non-specific thoracic pain - A proposed dry needling grading system.

    PubMed

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Manivasagam, Murugavel

    2017-05-01

    This case report describes a 42-year-old female who presented with complaints of diffuse pain in her thoracic paraspinal region from T2 to T7. Physical examination revealed tenderness, increased turgor and restriction of her superficial fascia. A potential first time description of successful management utilizing fascia dry needling is described in this report with improvements noted in pain, range of motion, and functional activities. The patient was discharged from physiotherapy after four treatment sessions, and a follow-up after 3 months revealed that she was pain free and fully functional. A grading system (Sudarshan and Murugavel Dry Needling Grading Scale(©)) is proposed describing the various grades of dry needling to guide clinical reasoning and decision-making.

  8. Using multiple chemical systems in zircon to unravel the evolution of high-grade terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Chris; Taylor, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Since the turn of the century the rare earth element (REE) partitioning between zircon and garnet has facilitated the coupling of U-Pb ages to metamorphism, particularly in the granulite facies. The combination of in situ analysis and rapid data acquisition, particularly through combined techniques such as Laser Ablation Split Stream (LASS), means that complex terranes can be interrogated with increasing detail. However this detail provided by large datasets must also be combined with an understanding of the processes involved, for example the relative mobility of the REE and U-Pb systems with zircon grains that have withstood intense P-T conditions to varying degrees. For example, some high-temperature metapelites that seem to have all the right ingredients for the "equilibrium" to be achieved (e.g. they contain garnet, zircon, monazite and rutile, they've melted and experienced temperatures in excess of 900 °C) display variations in the REE partitioning between zircon and garnet that varies over the length-scale of a single thin section. This presentation seeks to highlight some complexities in the application of these undoublty useful techniques to high-temperature metamorphic rocks from a number of terranes and hopefully provide some useful comments on developing more efficient strategies to characterise the P-T-t evolution of high-grade terranes.

  9. [Validation of the German Version of the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System].

    PubMed

    Neumann, T; Lorenz, A; Volk, G F; Hamzei, F; Schulz, S; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2017-03-01

    Background: The Sunnybrook facial grading system (SFGS) is frequently applied to evaluate facial function in patients with facial palsy, but still now there is no validated German version of this evaluation sheet. Methods: The original English version of the SFGS was translated and validated in accordance with international standards. The interrater reliability from 5 raters (speech therapy students) and the intrarater reliability from repeated ratings at 2 time points using video tapes of 18 patients with different types of facial palsy were analyzed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and other reliability measures. Results: ICC for the interrater reliability for the 4 components of the SFGS, resting symmetry, symmetry during voluntary movements, synkinesis, and the composite score were ICC 0.845; 0.903; 0.731 and 0.918, respectively, for the first evaluation and ICC 0.881; 0.932; 0.818 and 0.940, respectively, for the second evaluation. The mean intrarater reliability for the 4 SFGS scores was ICC=0.791; 0.906; 0.770 and 0.905. Discussion: There is now a valid German version of the SFGS available that can be used even by novices. The German version is suitable for evaluation of facial palsies in clinical routine and studies to allow a better comparability of German patients with results of the international literature. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3′ end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, β-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

  11. Outcomes of different Class II treatments : Comparisons using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System.

    PubMed

    Akinci Cansunar, Hatice; Uysal, Tancan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of three different Class II treatment modalities followed by fixed orthodontic therapy, using the American Board of Orthodontics Model Grading System (ABO-MGS). As a retrospective study, files of patients treated at postgraduate orthodontic  clinics in different cities in Turkey was randomly selected. From 1684 posttreatment records, 669 patients were divided into three groups: 269 patients treated with extraction of two upper premolars, 198 patients treated with cervical headgear, and 202 patients treated with functional appliances. All the cases were evaluated by one researcher using ABO-MGS. The χ (2), Z test, and multivariate analysis of variance were used for statistical evaluation (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the groups in buccolingual inclination, overjet, occlusal relationship, and root angulation. However, there were significant differences in alignment, marginal ridge height, occlusal contact, interproximal contact measurements, and overall MGS average scores. The mean treatment time between the extraction and functional appliance groups was significantly different (p = 0.017). According to total ABO-MGS scores, headgear treatment had better results than functional appliances. The headgear group had better tooth alignment than the extraction group. Headgear treatment resulted in better occlusal contacts than the functional appliances and had lower average scores for interproximal contact measurements. Functional appliances had the worst average scores for marginal ridge height. Finally, the functional appliance group had the longest treatment times.

  12. The effect of biomicroscope illumination system on grading anterior chamber inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ira G; Nugent, Alex K; Vargas-Martín, Fernando

    2009-10-01

    To determine how a biomicroscope illumination system affects the grading of anterior chamber (AC) inflammation. Laboratory investigation. An artificial AC was designed to replicate optically a human AC and was filled with 5-mum polystyrene beads suspended in ethanol. A high-definition video eyepiece camera recorded the moving beads. Using image processing software, the main outcomes measures determined were the average number of beads in a 1 x 1-mm field at varying widths of the slit-beam. The volume of light and number of beads observed increased significantly as the slit-beam widened. Additionally, 3 separate biomicroscopes of identical make and model were found to produce different levels of luminance at the same aperture dial settings, influencing the number of beads observed, with the brighter biomicroscope yielding higher bead counts. Ability to count beads and perhaps the ability to count inflammatory cells in an inflamed eye depend on a number of factors, including the level of illumination and width of the slit-beam. This study demonstrated that the brighter the illumination and the wider the beam, the more beads were observed. This illustrates the importance of standardizing biomicroscopy, particularly where consecutive observations are used to make clinical decisions and in cases of multicenter clinical trials where clinical data are evaluated across different facilities.

  13. Music--A Resource Guide for Standards-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This guide is designed to provide guidance to New York state school districts and teachers to help students achieve the music standards. Teachers throughout New York state met to compile these field-tested lesson plans, teaching strategies, assessments, and resources for teachers of students in pre-kindergarten through grade 12, in all areas of…

  14. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

  15. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

  16. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Jean de la Lune"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Eileen; Magurn, Lisa; Schwester, Jennifer Applegate

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  17. System 6 used to make kitchen cabinet C2F blanks from small-diameter, low-grade red oak

    Treesearch

    Hugh W. Reynolds; Philip A. Araman; Charles J. Gatchell; Bruce G. Hansen

    1983-01-01

    Hardwood dimension manufacturers can make profitable use of plentiful small-diameter, low-grade timber when System 6 technology is used. We describe a System 6 plant designed to make clear-two-face (C2F) blanks for the kitchen cabinet industry. Data for plant operation are taken from a study in which red oak bolts (from a reforestation clearcut) were used to make 33-,...

  18. Treatment delivery software for a new clinical grade ultrasound system for thermoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    A detailed description of a clinical grade Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) applicator was given in a previous paper [Med. Phys. 32, 230-240 (2005)]. In this paper we concentrate on the design, development, and testing of the personal computer (PC) based treatment delivery software that runs the therapy system. The SURLAS requires the coordinated interaction between the therapy applicator and several peripheral devices for its proper and safe operation. One of the most important tasks was the coordination of the input power sequences for the elements of two parallel opposed ultrasound arrays (eight 1.5 cm x 2 cm elements/array, array 1 and 2 operate at 1.9 and 4.9 MHz, respectively) in coordination with the position of a dual-face scanning acoustic reflector. To achieve this, the treatment delivery software can divide the applicator's treatment window in up to 64 sectors (minimum size of 2 cm x 2 cm), and control the power to each sector independently by adjusting the power output levels from the channels of a 16-channel radio-frequency generator. The software coordinates the generator outputs with the position of the reflector as it scans back and forth between the arrays. Individual sector control and dual frequency operation allows the SURLAS to adjust power deposition in three dimensions to superficial targets coupled to its treatment window. The treatment delivery software also monitors and logs several parameters such as temperatures acquired using a 16-channel thermocouple thermometry unit. Safety (in particular to patients) was the paramount concern and design criterion. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the applicator as well as to the entire therapy system in order to identify safety issues and rank their relative importance. This analysis led to the implementation of several safety mechanisms and a software structure where each device communicates with the controlling PC independently of the others. In case

  19. DNA methylation-based classification and grading system for meningioma: a multicentre, retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Felix; Schrimpf, Daniel; Stichel, Damian; Jones, David T W; Hielscher, Thomas; Schefzyk, Sebastian; Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Koelsche, Christian; Reuss, David E; Capper, David; Sturm, Dominik; Wirsching, Hans-Georg; Berghoff, Anna Sophie; Baumgarten, Peter; Kratz, Annekathrin; Huang, Kristin; Wefers, Annika K; Hovestadt, Volker; Sill, Martin; Ellis, Hayley P; Kurian, Kathreena M; Okuducu, Ali Fuat; Jungk, Christine; Drueschler, Katharina; Schick, Matthias; Bewerunge-Hudler, Melanie; Mawrin, Christian; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel; Ketter, Ralf; Simon, Matthias; Westphal, Manfred; Lamszus, Katrin; Becker, Albert; Koch, Arend; Schittenhelm, Jens; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Collins, V Peter; Brehmer, Stefanie; Chavez, Lukas; Platten, Michael; Hänggi, Daniel; Unterberg, Andreas; Paulus, Werner; Wick, Wolfgang; Pfister, Stefan M; Mittelbronn, Michel; Preusser, Matthias; Herold-Mende, Christel; Weller, Michael; von Deimling, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    The WHO classification of brain tumours describes 15 subtypes of meningioma. Nine of these subtypes are allotted to WHO grade I, and three each to grade II and grade III. Grading is based solely on histology, with an absence of molecular markers. Although the existing classification and grading approach is of prognostic value, it harbours shortcomings such as ill-defined parameters for subtypes and grading criteria prone to arbitrary judgment. In this study, we aimed for a comprehensive characterisation of the entire molecular genetic landscape of meningioma to identify biologically and clinically relevant subgroups. In this multicentre, retrospective analysis, we investigated genome-wide DNA methylation patterns of meningiomas from ten European academic neuro-oncology centres to identify distinct methylation classes of meningiomas. The methylation classes were further characterised by DNA copy number analysis, mutational profiling, and RNA sequencing. Methylation classes were analysed for progression-free survival outcomes by the Kaplan-Meier method. The DNA methylation-based and WHO classification schema were compared using the Brier prediction score, analysed in an independent cohort with WHO grading, progression-free survival, and disease-specific survival data available, collected at the Medical University Vienna (Vienna, Austria), assessing methylation patterns with an alternative methylation chip. We retrospectively collected 497 meningiomas along with 309 samples of other extra-axial skull tumours that might histologically mimic meningioma variants. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation data clearly segregated all meningiomas from other skull tumours. We generated genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from all 497 meningioma samples. DNA methylation profiling distinguished six distinct clinically relevant methylation classes associated with typical mutational, cytogenetic, and gene expression patterns. Compared with WHO grading, classification by

  20. Comparison of A-B-C-F and H-P-F Grading Systems in Graduate Education Courses at Herbert H. Lehman College. Final Complete Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Edward

    Traditional grading was replaced with the Honors-Pass-Fail (H-P-F) grading system in graduate education courses at Herbert H. Lehman College in the fall 1971 semester. The purpose of that action was to determine if the H-P-F system might differentiate more effectively between exceptional and average student achievement. The general findings of the…

  1. Correlation of lens density measured using the Pentacam Scheimpflug system with the Lens Opacities Classification System III grading score and visual acuity in age-related nuclear cataract.

    PubMed

    Pei, X; Bao, Y; Chen, Y; Li, X

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the relationship between lens density measured with the Pentacam Scheimpflug System and grading score using the Lens Opacities Classification System (LOCS) III as well as that between lens density and visual acuity in age-related nuclear cataract patients. Lens density and grading score were evaluated in 138 cases (180 eyes) with age-related nuclear cataract. LogMAR visual acuity was tested with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart. The correlations between lens density value and LOCS III nuclear opacity (NO) and nuclear colour (NC) grading score and that between lens density value and logMAR visual acuity were analysed. There was a linear increasing relationship between lens density value and LOCS III grading score in nuclear cataract patients. Lens density value had a stronger significant correlation with LOCS III NO score than that with NC score. The correlation between the nuclear lens density value and logMAR visual acuity was stronger than that between NO score and logMAR visual acuity or between NC score and logMAR visual acuity. Lens density as a quantitative and objective parameter can present the degree of NO and associated visual impairment due to nuclear cataract. The LOCS III criterion as an economic cataract grading system provides data that are in satisfactory concordance with the results obtained using the Pentacam Scheimpflug system.

  2. Fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles on pre- and postoperative CT arthrography (CTA): is the Goutallier grading system reliable?

    PubMed

    Lee, Eugene; Choi, Jung-Ah; Oh, Joo Han; Ahn, Soyeon; Hong, Sung Hwan; Chai, Jee Won; Kang, Heung Sik

    2013-09-01

    To retrospectively evaluate fatty degeneration (FD) of rotator cuff muscles on CTA using Goutallier's grading system and quantitative measurements with comparison between pre- and postoperative states. IRB approval was obtained for this study. Two radiologists independently reviewed pre- and postoperative CTAs of 43 patients (24 males and 19 females, mean age, 58.1 years) with 46 shoulders confirmed as full-thickness tears with random distribution. FD of supraspinatus, infraspinatus/teres minor, and subscapularis was assessed using Goutallier's system and by quantitative measurements of Hounsfield units (HUs) on sagittal images. Changes in FD grades and HUs were compared between pre- and postoperative CTAs and analyzed with respect to preoperative tear size and postoperative cuff integrity. The correlations between qualitative grades and quantitative measurements and their inter-observer reliabilities were also assessed. There was statistically significant correlation between FD grades and HU measurements of all muscles on pre- and postoperative CTA (p < 0.05). Inter-observer reliability of fatty degeneration grades were excellent to substantial on both pre- and postoperative CTA in supraspinatus (0.8685 and 0.8535) and subscapularis muscles (0.7777 and 0.7972), but fair in infraspinatus/teres minor muscles (0.5791 and 0.5740); however, quantitative Hounsfield units measurements showed excellent reliability for all muscles (ICC: 0.7950 and 0.9346 for SST, 0.7922 and 0.8492 for SSC, and 0.9254 and 0.9052 for IST/TM). No muscle showed improvement of fatty degeneration after surgical repair on qualitative and quantitative assessments; there was no difference in changes of fatty degeneration after surgical repair according to preoperative tear size and post-operative cuff integrity (p > 0.05). The average dose-length product (DLP, mGy · cm) was 365.2 mGy · cm (range, 323.8-417.2 mGy · cm) and estimated average effective dose was 5.1 mSv. Goutallier

  3. The predictive validity of grade point average scores in a partial lottery medical school admission system.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Reinders, Jan J; Agsteribbe, Jessica; van Rossum, Herman J M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2006-10-01

    To ascertain whether the grade point average (GPA) of school-leaving examinations is related to study success, career development and scientific performance. The problem of restriction of range was expected to be partially reduced due to the use of a national lottery system weighted in favour of students with higher GPAs. We studied the students (n = 398) admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, University of Groningen, the Netherlands in 1982 and 1983. Data concerning drop-out and study progress were derived from the student administration. Data about career development were obtained from annual interviews with graduates (n = 318) between 1993 and 2000. Literature searches yielded data concerning scientific performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyse the data. The variables 'gender' and 'cohort' and their interaction were included in the analyses to account for variation in the general level of the dependent variable and the effect of GPA on the dependent variable. GPA scores had no effect on drop-out rate. High GPA scores were associated with significantly less time to graduation, more chance of a preferred placement for specialist training and higher scientific output. GPA was not related to income. Gender differences were found for study duration and scientific output. Women graduated earlier and published less. The GPA of school-leaving examinations was found to be related to study success, career development and scientific performance. In this study the usual problem of restriction of range was shown to be absent. The weighted lottery procedure even resulted in an over-dispersion of candidates relative to the applicants. The resulting effect sizes were in agreement with those reported in other studies.

  4. Histologic grading of noninvasive papillary urothelial tumors: validation of the 1998 WHO/ISUP system by immunophenotyping and follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hui; Leong, Anthony S Y

    2004-05-01

    Cytokeratin (CK) 20, Ki-67, and p53 were applied to 84 noninvasive papillary urothelial tumors graded by the 1973 World Health Organization (WHO) and 1998 WHO/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) systems. In the WHO/ISUP classification, all benign lesions showed normal CK20 staining and all carcinomas showed abnormal staining. The Ki-67 index was significantly different between benign and malignant lesions (P < .05) and between low- and high-grade carcinomas (P < .001). p53 was negative in all benign lesions, with a significant difference between low- and high-grade carcinomas (P < .001). Tumor recurrence was significantly different between low- and high-grade carcinomas (no recurrences among the papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential). By the 1973 WHO classification, normal CK20 staining was present both in benign lesions and in carcinomas. Ki-67 staining did not distinguish between grade 2 and grade 3 carcinomas (P > .05), and there was no difference in p53 staining in grades 1 and 2 carcinomas (P > .05). Recurrences were not different between grades 1, 2, and 3 carcinomas. All biologic markers studied and tumor recurrences were significantly different among papillary lesions classified by the WHO/ISUP system but not by the 1973 WHO system, validating the predictive value of the WHO/ISUP system and providing objective markers for the grading of papillary urothelial tumors.

  5. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  6. Completeness and concordancy of WHO grade assignment for brain and central nervous system tumors in the United States, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Lym, Ryan L; Ostrom, Quinn T; Kruchko, Carol; Couce, Marta; Brat, Daniel J; Louis, David N; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are categorized and graded for clinical and research purposes according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scheme which segregates tumors by histological type and predicted biological behavior. However, reporting of WHO grade in pathological reports is inconsistent despite its collection in cancer registration. We studied the completeness, concordancy, and yearly trends in the collection of WHO grade for primary CNS tumors between 2004 and 2011. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program were analyzed for the percentage of histologically diagnosed primary CNS tumor cases with concordantly documented WHO grades between 2004 and 2011. Yearly trends were calculated with annual percentage changes (APC) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Completeness and concordancy of the collection of WHO grade varied significantly by histological type and year. The percentage of cases with documented WHO grade increased significantly from 2004 to 2011: 39.0% of cases in 2004 had documented WHO grade, while 77.5% of cases had documented grade in 2011 (APC, 10.3; 95% CI: 9.0, 11.5). Among cases with documented WHO grade, the percentage graded concordantly increased significantly from 89.1% in 2004 to 93.7% in 2007 (APC, 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6) and these values varied over time by histological type. One common trend among all histologies was a significant increase in the percentage of cases with documented WHO grade. A sizeable proportion of reported CNS tumors collected by cancer registrars have undocumented WHO grade, while a much smaller proportion are graded discordantly. Data collection on grade has improved in completeness and concordancy over time. Efforts to further improve collection of this variable are essential for clinical care and the epidemiological surveillance of CNS tumors.

  7. Completeness and concordancy of WHO grade assignment for brain and central nervous system tumors in the United States, 2004–2011

    PubMed Central

    Ostrom, Quinn T.; Kruchko, Carol; Couce, Marta; Brat, Daniel J.; Louis, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are categorized and graded for clinical and research purposes according to the World Health Organization (WHO) scheme which segregates tumors by histological type and predicted biological behavior. However, reporting of WHO grade in pathological reports is inconsistent despite its collection in cancer registration. We studied the completeness, concordancy, and yearly trends in the collection of WHO grade for primary CNS tumors between 2004 and 2011. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program were analyzed for the percentage of histologically diagnosed primary CNS tumor cases with concordantly documented WHO grades between 2004 and 2011. Yearly trends were calculated with annual percentage changes (APC) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Completeness and concordancy of the collection of WHO grade varied significantly by histological type and year. The percentage of cases with documented WHO grade increased significantly from 2004 to 2011: 39.0 % of cases in 2004 had documented WHO grade, while 77.5 % of cases had documented grade in 2011 (APC, 10.3; 95 % CI: 9.0, 11.5). Among cases with documented WHO grade, the percentage graded concordantly increased significantly from 89.1 % in 2004 to 93.7 % in 2007 (APC, 1.8; 95 % CI: 1.0, 2.6) and these values varied over time by histological type. One common trend among all histologies was a significant increase in the percentage of cases with documented WHO grade. A sizeable proportion of reported CNS tumors collected by cancer registrars have undocumented WHO grade, while a much smaller proportion are graded discordantly. Data collection on grade has improved in completeness and concordancy over time. Efforts to further improve collection of this variable are essential for clinical care and the epidemiological surveillance of CNS tumors. PMID:25864099

  8. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0 g L(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prospective evaluation of Ki-67 system in histological grading of soft tissue sarcomas in the Japan Clinical Oncology Group Study JCOG0304.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Nojima, Takayuki; Oda, Yoshinao; Mizusawa, Junki; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-04-18

    The correct clinical staging of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is critical for the selection of treatments. The staging system consists of histological grade of the tumors and French Federation of Cancer Center (FNCLCC) system based on mitotic count is widely used for the grading. In this study, we compared the validity and usefulness of Ki-67 grading system with FNCLCC system in JCOG0304 trial which investigated the efficacy and safety of perioperative chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide for STS. All 70 eligible patients with STS in the extremities treated by perioperative chemotherapy in JCOG0304 were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were conducted to investigate an influence on overall survival. The reproducibility of Ki-67 grading system in the histological grading of STS was higher than FNCLCC system (κ = 0.54 [95 % CI 0.39-0.71], and 0.46 [0.32-0.62], respectively). Although FNCLCC grade was not associated with overall survival (OS) in univariate analysis (HR 2.80 [0.74-10.55], p = 0.13), Ki-67 grading system had a tendency to associate with OS in univariate analysis (HR 4.12 [0.89-19.09], p = 0.07) and multivariate analysis with backward elimination (HR 3.51 [0.75-16.36], p = 0.11). This is the first report demonstrating the efficacy of Ki-67 grading system for the patients with STS in the prospective trial. The results indicate that Ki-67 grading system might be useful for the evaluation of histological grade of STS.

  10. Correlation of age-related cataract density graded by the Scheimpflug Imaging System with visual function and phacoemulsification energy.

    PubMed

    Belíkova, Jitka; Synek, Svatopluk

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between lens density in age-related cataract and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the impact of cataract grade assessed via 3D lens densitometry by Pentacam Nucleus Grading System (PNS) on Phacodynamics (phaco-time and phaco-energy). To achieve the aim 55 patients with age-related cataract were evaluated. Lens density was assessed using the PNS. BCVA was tested with Snellen chart. Surgery was performed with no adjustment of parameters and phaco-energy-time was monitored. The correlations between the lens density, BCVA and phaco-energy/time were analyzed. There was a negative linear correlation between lens density and BCVA and positive correlation between density and total dissipated phaco-energy. The cataract PNS grade negatively correlated with the visual function. The positive correlation was found between the lens density and phacoemulsification time and energy. The Scheimpflug optical densitometry offers objective grading and can be used both for prediction and for monitoring of the condition. PNS enables to predict phacodynamics and the most suitable phaco settings to minimize the disturbance of the eye during surgery.

  11. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under

  12. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  13. Contemporary Gleason grading and novel Grade Groups in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Montironi, Rodolfo; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-09-01

    The Gleason grading system provides important information for guiding prostate cancer patients' management and prognostication. The grading system underwent significant modifications over the past decade. In 2005 and more recently in 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) held two consensus conferences to update prostate cancer grading. Recently, five prognostic grade groups have been proposed to be used in parallel to the Gleason grading system. The purpose of this review is to highlight the key changes in the Gleason grading system and the utility of the grade groups to better reflect biologic behavior for both patients and clinicians. At the 2014 ISUP consensus conference, prostate cancer Gleason grading was updated and a previously proposed concept of five prognostic grade groups, from 1 to 5 was supported. The Grade Groups, used in parallel to the modified Gleason grading system, translate Gleason scores in five distinct risk categories where Grade Group 1 is defined as Gleason score 6 or less, Grade Group 2 as Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7, Grade Group 3 as Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, Grade Group 4 as Gleason score 4 + 4 = 8, and Grade Group 5 as Gleason score 9/10. This 5-tiered grade group system better reflects biologic behavior and guides clinical care. The Grade Groups have been endorsed by the ISUP and the World Health Organization. The performance of the Grade Groups has been examined in several recent studies. This review summarizes developments over the last year in the use of grade groups and outlines their value in clinical practice.

  14. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  15. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  16. An Investigation of the Factors which Affect the Career Selection Process of Air Force Systems Command Company Grade Officers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    person’s motivation to comply with the expectations of others and (2) the effect of a person’s current job satisfaction. The purpose was to operationalize...the aforementioned concepts in a single model which explained the most variance in individual career intentions. A survey was completed by 2200...company grade officers throughout Systems Command. The results of the data analyses showed that a model which addressed not only the perceived attraction of

  17. Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

  18. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  19. D-dimer Level Changes During Systemic Chemotherapy Can Predict Prognosis of High-grade Musculoskeletal Sarcoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Morii, Takeshi; Tajima, Takashi; Aoyagi, Takayuki; Ichimura, Shoichi

    2015-12-01

    Plasma D-dimer levels have been known to be associated with tumor progression; we, therefore, investigated whether the D-dimer levels during preoperative systemic chemotherapy can be prognostic indicators in patients with high-grade musculoskeletal sarcoma. We investigated 28 cases of high-grade sarcomas, and evaluated the utility of D-dimer levels for preoperative evaluation of the effects of systemic chemotherapy. Among the candidate parameters determined based on D-dimer levels at several time-points of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and several oncological outcomes, the plasma D-dimer level completion of the second course of chemotherapy and the ratio of plasma D-dimer levels at completion of preoperative chemotherapy to the level of plasma D-dimer on referral, could significantly predict patient prognosis (p=0.049 and p=0.02, respectively). D-dimer level changes could be a helpful marker for preoperative evaluation of the effect of systemic chemotherapy in terms of prognosis prediction in high-grade musculoskeletal sarcoma patients. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a classification system for extrinsic hair damage: standard grading of electron microscopic findings of damaged hairs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youn-Duk; Jeon, Soo-Young; Ji, Jae Hong; Lee, Won-Soo

    2010-07-01

    Human hairs experience damage and restoration processes consistently because of various external and internal factors. To analyze degrees of hair damage, morphological studies based on electron microscopy (EM), and biochemical studies based on protein and lipid analysis have been proposed and are widely used. Among them, morphological analysis through EM is a fundamental method in understanding the degree of damage and restoration. EM has been very useful in assessing extrinsic and intrinsic damage of hair and various pathological alopecias and also in estimating the efficacy of various kinds of products related to hair care. However, morphological studies have some limitations because they have been described using varying terms and subjective descriptions by different researchers. To establish an objective classification of damaged hair using uniform terms and standardizations. We analyzed over 2000 scanning electron microscopic and transmission electron microscopic findings of normal and of various kinds of damaged hairs to develop a standard grading system for the damaged hairs. After reviewing the results of the electron microscopic pictures, we proposed a standard grading system based on scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. We developed and proposed an easy, objective, and useful standard grading system of damaged hairs.

  1. Assessment: How Do I "Grade" without Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazer, Susan Mandel

    1993-01-01

    Examines the A through F system of letter grades used in most schools, suggesting reasons why this framework is inadequate. Proposes a new assessment model which has children demonstrate that they can accomplish a given task on their own. (MDM)

  2. Gold grade distribution within an epithermal quartz vein system, Kestanelik, NW Turkey: implications for gold exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyuz, Nilay; Shipton, Zoe; Gulyuz, Erhan; Lord, Richard; Kaymakci, Nuretdin; Kuscu, İlkay

    2017-04-01

    Vein-hosted gold deposits contribute a large part to the global gold production. Discovery of these deposits mainly include drilling of hundreds of holes, collecting thousands of soil and rock samples and some geophysical surveys which are expensive and time consuming. Understanding the structures hosting the veins and the variations in gold concentrations within the veins is crucial to constrain a more economic exploration program. The main aim of this study is to investigate the gold grade distribution in the mineralized quartz veins of a well exposed epithermal gold deposit hosted by Paleozoic schist and Eocene quartz-feldspar-hornblende porphyry in Lapseki, NW Turkey. We have constructed 3D architecture of the vein surfaces by mapping their outcrop geometries using a highly sensitive Trimble GPS, collecting detailed field data, well-logs and geochemistry data from 396 drill holes (255 diamond cut and 141 reverse circulation holes). Modelling was performed in MOVE Structural Modelling and Analysis software granted by Midland Valley's Academic Software Initiative, and GIS application softwares Global Mapper and Esri-ArcGIS. We envisaged that while fluid entering the conduit ascents, a sudden thickness increase in the conduit would lead to a drop in the fluid pressure causing boiling (the most dominant gold precipitation mechanism) and associated gold precipitation. Regression analysis was performed between the orthogonal thickness values and gold grades of each vein, and statistical analyses were performed to see if the gold is concentrated at specific structural positions along dip. Gold grades in the alteration zones were compared to those in the adjacent veins to understand the degree of mineralization in alteration zones. A possible correlation was also examined between the host rock type and the gold grades in the veins. These studies indicated that gold grades are elevated in the adjacent alteration zones where high gold grades exist in the veins. Schist

  3. Testing different brain metastasis grading systems in stereotactic radiosurgery: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's RPA, SIR, BSBM, GPA, and modified RPA.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Hirai, Tatsuo; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Miyakawa, Akifumi

    2012-12-01

    The authors conducted validity testing of the 5 major reported indices for radiosurgically treated brain metastases- the original Radiation Therapy Oncology Group's Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA), the Score Index for Radiosurgery in Brain Metastases (SIR), the Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM), the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA), and the subclassification of RPA Class II proposed by Yamamoto-in nearly 2500 cases treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), focusing on the preservation of neurological function as well as the traditional endpoint of overall survival. The authors analyzed data from 2445 cases treated with GKS by the first author (T.S.), the primary surgeon. The patient group consisted of 1716 patients treated between January 1998 and March 2008 (the Chiba series) and 729 patients treated between April 2008 and December 2011 (the Tokyo series). The interval from the date of GKS until the date of the patient's death (overall survival) and impaired activities of daily living (qualitative survival) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, while the absolute risk for two adjacent classes of each grading system and both hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. For overall survival, there were highly statistically significant differences between each two adjacent patient groups characterized by class or score (all p values < 0.001), except for GPA Scores 3.5-4.0 and 3.0. The SIR showed the best statistical results for predicting preservation of neurological function. Although no other grading systems yielded statistically significant differences in qualitative survival, the BSBM and the modified RPA appeared to be better than the original RPA and GPA. The modified RPA subclassification, proposed by Yamamoto, is well balanced in scoring simplicity with respect to case number distribution and statistical results for overall survival. However, a new or revised grading system is

  4. The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

    2012-01-01

    The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

  5. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Middle and High School Age Groupings (Grades 7-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  6. Massachusetts Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS). "Technical Descriptions of Risk Model Development": Early and Late Elementary Age Groupings (Grades 1-6)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (Department) created the grades 1-12 Early Warning Indicator System (EWIS) in response to district interest in the Early Warning Indicator Index (EWII) that the Department previously created for rising grade 9 students. Districts shared that the EWII data were helpful, but also…

  7. Validation of the Supplemented Spetzler-Martin Grading System for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations in a Multicenter Cohort of 1009 Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Helen; Abla, Adib A.; Nelson, Jeffrey; McCulloch, Charles E.; Bervini, David; Morgan, Michael K.; Stapleton, Christopher; Walcott, Brian P.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Spetzler, Robert F.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Background The supplementary grading system for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) was introduced in 2010 as a tool for improving preoperative risk prediction and selecting surgical patients. Objective To demonstrate, in this multicenter validation study, that supplemented Spetzler-Martin grades have greater predictive accuracy than Spetzler-Martin grades alone. Methods Data collected from 1009 AVM patients who underwent AVM resection were used to compare predictive powers of Spetzler-Martin grades (SM) and supplemented Spetzler-Martin grades (SM-Supp). Patients included the original 300 UCSF patients plus those treated thereafter (N=117), and an additional 592 patients from three other centers. Results In the combined cohort, the SM-Supp system performed better than SM system alone: AUROC=0.75 (95% CI: 0.71 - 0.78) for SM-Supp and AUROC=0.69 (95% CI: 0.65 - 0.73) for SM (p < 0.001). Stratified analysis fitting models within three different follow-up groupings (< 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and > 2 years) demonstrated that the SM-Supp system performed better than SM system for both medium (AUROC=0.71 vs. 0.62, p=0.003) and long follow-up (AUROC=0.69 vs. 0.58, p=0.001). Patients with SM-Supp grades ≤ 6 had acceptably low surgical risks (0 – 24%), with a significant increase in risk for grades above 6 (39% – 63%). Conclusion This study validates the predictive accuracy of the supplementary grading system in a multicenter cohort. SM-Supp grade of 6 is a cut-off or boundary for AVM operability. Supplemented grading is currently the best method of estimating neurological outcomes after AVM surgery, and we recommend it as a starting point in the evaluation of AVM operability. PMID:25251197

  8. Determination of water environment standards based on water quality criteria in China: Limitations and feasibilities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tieyu; Zhou, Yunqiao; Bi, Cencen; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Giesy, John P

    2017-07-01

    There is a need to formulate water environment standards (WESs) from the current water quality criteria (WQC) in China. To this end, we briefly summarize typical mechanisms applied in several countries with longer histories of developing WESs, and three limitations to formulating WESs in China were identified. After analyzing the feasibility factors including economic development, scientific support capability and environmental policies, we realized that China is still not ready for a complete change from its current nation-wide unified WES system to a local-standard-based system. Thus, we proposed a framework for transformation from WQC to WESs in China. The framework consists of three parts, including responsibilities, processes and policies. The responsibilities include research authorization, development of guidelines, and collection of information, at both national and local levels; the processes include four steps and an impact factor system to establish water quality standards; and the policies include seven specific proposals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  10. A Traffic Light Grading System of Hip Dysplasia to Predict the Success of Arthroscopic Hip Surgery.

    PubMed

    Grammatopoulos, George; Davies, Owain L I; El-Bakoury, Ahmed; Gill, Harinderjit S; Pollard, Tom C B; Andrade, Antonio J

    2017-10-01

    The role of hip arthroscopic surgery in dysplasia is controversial. To determine the 7-year joint preservation rate after hip arthroscopic surgery in hip dysplasia and identify anatomic and intraoperative features that predict the success of hip preservation with arthroscopic surgery, allowing the formulation of an evidence-based classification system. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Between 2008 and 2013, 111 hips with dysplastic features (acetabular index [AI] >10° and/or lateral center-edge angle [LCEA] <25°) that underwent arthroscopic surgery were identified. Clinical, radiological, and operative findings and the type of procedure performed were reviewed. Radiographic evaluations of the operated hip (AI, LCEA, extrusion index) were performed. Outcome measures included whether the hip was preserved (ie, did not require arthroplasty) at follow-up and the preoperative and postoperative Non-Arthritic Hip Score (NAHS) and Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS). The AI and LCEA were calculated, factored by a measure of articular wear (AIf and LCEAf, respectively), according to the University College Hospital, London (UCL) grading system as follows: AIf = AI × (number of UCL wear zones + 1), and LCEAf = LCEA / (number of UCL wear zones + 1). A contour plot of the resulting probability value of failure for every combination of AIf and LCEAf allowed for the determination of the zones with the lowest and highest incidences of failure to preserve the hip. The mean AI and LCEA were 9.8° and 18.0°, respectively. At a mean follow-up of 4.5 years (range, 0.4-8.3 years), 33 hips had failed, requiring hip arthroplasty. The 7-year joint survival rate was 68%. The mean improvements in the NAHS and HOOS were 11 ( P = .001) and 22.8 ( P < .001) points, respectively. The zone with the greatest chance of joint preservation (odds ratio, 10; P < .001) was the green zone, with an AIf of 0° to 15° and an LCEAf of 15° to 25°; in contrast, the zone with

  11. Molecular genetics of adult grade II gliomas: towards a comprehensive tumor classification system.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Bouvier, Corinne; de Paula, André Maues; Mokhtari, Karima; Colin, Carole; Loundou, Anderson; Chinot, Olivier; Metellus, Philippe

    2012-11-01

    Adult grade II low-grade gliomas (LGG) are classified according to the WHO as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas or mixed gliomas. TP53 mutations and 1p19q codeletion are the main molecular abnormalities recorded, respectively, in astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas and in mixed gliomas. Although IDH mutations (IDH1 or IDH2) are recorded in up to 85 % of low-grade gliomas, IDH negative gliomas do occur. We have searched for p53 expression, 1p19q codeletion and IDH status (immunohistochemical detection of the common R132H IDH1 mutation and IDH direct sequencing). Internexin alpha (INA) expression previously recorded to be associated with 1p19q codeletion (1p19q+) gliomas was also analysed. Low-grade gliomas were accurately classified into four groups: group 1, IDH+/p53-/1p19q-; group 2, IDH+/p53-/1p19q+; group 3, IDH+/p53+/1p19q-; and group 4, triple negative gliomas. In contrast to the WHO classification, this molecular classification predicts overall survival on uni- and multivariate analysis (P = 0.001 and P = 0.007, respectively). Group 4 carries the worst prognosis and group 2 the best. Interestingly, p53 +/INA- expression predicts lack of 1p19q codeletion (specificity 100 %, VPP 100 %). The combined use of these three molecular markers allow for an accurate prediction of survival in LGG. These findings could significantly modify LGG classification and may represent a new tool to guide patient-tailored therapy. Moreover, immunohistochemical detection of p53, INA and mR132H IDH1 expression could represent an interesting prescreening test to be performed before 1p19q codeletion, IDH1 minor mutation and IDH2 mutation detection.

  12. Integration proposal through standard-based design of an end-to-end platform for p-Health environments.

    PubMed

    Martíínez, I; Trigo, J D; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Escayola, J; Muñoz, P; Serrano, L; García, J

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability among medical devices and compute engines in the personal environment of the patient, and with healthcare information systems in the remote monitoring and management process is a key need that requires developments supported on standard-based design. Even though there have been some international initiatives to combine different standards, the vision of an entire end-to-end standard-based system is the next challenge. This paper presents the implementation guidelines of a ubiquitous platform for Personal Health (p-Health). It is standard-based using the two main medical norms in this context: ISO/IEEE11073 in the patient environment for medical device interoperability, and EN13606 to allow the interoperable communication of the Electronic Healthcare Record of the patient. Furthermore, the proposal of a new protocol for End-to-End Standard Harmonization (E2ESHP) is presented in order to make possible the end-to-end standard integration. The platform has been designed to comply with the last ISO/IEEE11073 and EN13606 available versions, and tested in a laboratory environment as a proof-of-concept to illustrate its feasibility as an end-to-end standard-based solution.

  13. The impact on dental students of changes to the National Board Dental Examination grading system.

    PubMed

    Fagin, Adam P; Howell, T Howard; Da Silva, John; Park, Sang E

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how the change to pass/fail grading of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part I has impacted dental students' study habits and their perspectives on pursuit of postdoctoral specialty education. This cross-sectional survey-based study included over 75 percent of U.S. dental schools and a total of 1,843 responses. This sample was 18.5 percent of all potentially eligible U.S. dental students. Participating schools distributed the electronic survey to their last class to take the NBDE Part I for a numerical score and the first class to take the NBDE Part I pass/fail. Respondents who took the exam for a numerical score and were interested in a specialty reported studying the most (average 167 hours) compared to respondents who took the exam pass/fail (average 114 hours). Respondents who took the exam pass/fail and reported feeling that this change decreased their chances of getting into a specialty program outnumbered those who thought the change increased their chances (3:1). This study observed a correlation between the recent grading changes to the NBDE Part I and decreased reported study time. Eighty percent of the respondents preferred a standardized, objective measure to help differentiate them when applying to specialty programs, and the majority reported feeling that the change in grading practices negatively affected their chances of pursuing a specialty.

  14. The role of low-grade inflammation and metabolic flexibility in aging and nutritional modulation thereof: a systems biology approach.

    PubMed

    Calçada, Dulce; Vianello, Dario; Giampieri, Enrico; Sala, Claudia; Castellani, Gastone; de Graaf, Albert; Kremer, Bas; van Ommen, Ben; Feskens, Edith; Santoro, Aurelia; Franceschi, Claudio; Bouwman, Jildau

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a biological process characterized by the progressive functional decline of many interrelated physiological systems. In particular, aging is associated with the development of a systemic state of low-grade chronic inflammation (inflammaging), and with progressive deterioration of metabolic function. Systems biology has helped in identifying the mediators and pathways involved in these phenomena, mainly through the application of high-throughput screening methods, valued for their molecular comprehensiveness. Nevertheless, inflammation and metabolic regulation are dynamical processes whose behavior must be understood at multiple levels of biological organization (molecular, cellular, organ, and system levels) and on multiple time scales. Mathematical modeling of such behavior, with incorporation of mechanistic knowledge on interactions between inflammatory and metabolic mediators, may help in devising nutritional interventions capable of preventing, or ameliorating, the age-associated functional decline of the corresponding systems.

  15. Risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer in women with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving immunosuppressive drugs.

    PubMed

    Feldman, C H; Liu, J; Feldman, S; Solomon, D H; Kim, S C

    2017-06-01

    Objective Prior studies suggest an increased risk of cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the relationship with immunosuppressive drugs is not well studied in US nationwide cohorts. We compared the risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer among women with systemic lupus erythematosus who started immunosuppressive drugs versus hydroxychloroquine. Methods We identified systemic lupus erythematosus patients initiating immunosuppressive drugs or hydroxychloroquine using claims data from two US commercial health plans and Medicaid (2000-2012). We used a validated claims-based algorithm to identify high-grade cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer. To account for potential confounders, including demographic factors, comorbidities, medication use, HPV vaccination status, and health care utilization, immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine initiators were 1:1 matched on the propensity score. We used inverse variance-weighted, fixed effect models to pool hazard ratios from the propensity score-matched Medicaid and commercial cohorts. Results We included 2451 matched pairs of immunosuppressive drugs and hydroxychloroquine new users in the commercial cohort and 7690 matched pairs in Medicaid. In the commercial cohort, there were 14 cases of cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer among immunosuppressive drugs users and five cases among hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 2.47, 95% CI 0.89-6.85, hydroxychloroquine = ref). In Medicaid, there were 46 cases among immunosuppressive drugs users and 29 cases in hydroxychloroquine users (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.78-1.98, hydroxychloroquine = ref). The pooled hazard ratio of immunosuppressive drugs was 1.40 (95% CI 0.92-2.12). Conclusion Among women with systemic lupus erythematosus, immunosuppressive drugs may be associated with a greater, albeit not statistically significant, risk of high-grade cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer compared to patients receiving

  16. Predictive value of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology grading system for prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Judith; Gupta, Ruta; Mahon, Kate L; Stricker, Phillip D; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Delprado, Warick; Turner, Jennifer; Horvath, Lisa G; Kench, James G

    2017-03-28

    To assess the relationship between the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2014 grading system, biochemical recurrence (BCR) and clinical recurrence (CLR) after radical prostatectomy (RP), to determine whether the 2014 ISUP grading system is a better predictor of survival compared with the previous Gleason scoring systems, and to investigate whether incorporation of the tertiary pattern/grade into the ISUP scoring system significantly improves its efficacy. A total of 635 RP cases (1991-1999) were identified from a database at a single institution. A histopathology review was performed to re-grade the cases as per the ISUP 2014 grading system. All relevant clinicopathological data and clinical follow-up (median [range] 15.25 [0.3-26] years) were obtained. Log-rank, Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression and Harrell's concordance c-indices analyses were performed. At a median follow-up of 15 years, 276 patients (44%) had BCR and 41 (7%) had CLR. Grade Groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were seen in 112 (18%), 307 (48%), 129 (20%), 33 (5%) and 54 patients (9%), respectively: 337 (53%) were upgraded, while 70 (11%) were downgraded compared with the 1992 Gleason system. Grade Group (hazard ratio [HR] 4.9; P < 0.001) and preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (HR 1.4; P < 0.001) were independent predictors of BCR. Only Grade Group 5 (HR 12.3; P = 0.02), preoperative PSA (HR 1.6; P < 0.001), stage pT3b (HR 3.1; P = 0.03) and pT4 (HR 12.4; P < 0.001) independently predicted CLR. Harrell's c-indices showed that the 2014 ISUP grading system was a significantly better predictor of BCR and CLR as well as prostate cancer-specific death, compared with the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system. The replacement of the secondary pattern by the tertiary pattern did not alter the prognostic efficacy of the ISUP 2014 grading system. The ISUP 2014 grading system is a significant independent predictor of both BCR and CLR, outperforming the 2005 ISUP modified Gleason system. This

  17. Multicenter validation of American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grading system for acute colonic diverticulitis and its use for emergency general surgery quality improvement program.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Shahid; Priest, Elisa L; Crandall, Marie L; Klekar, Christopher S; Nazim, Ali; Aboutanos, Michel; Agarwal, Suresh; Bhattacharya, Bishwajit; Byrge, Nickolas; Dhillon, Tejveer S; Eboli, Dominick J; Fielder, Drew; Guillamondegui, Oscar; Gunter, Oliver; Inaba, Kenji; Mowery, Nathan T; Nirula, Raminder; Ross, Steven E; Savage, Stephanie A; Schuster, Kevin M; Schmoker, Ryan K; Siboni, Stefano; Siparsky, Nicole; Trust, Marc D; Utter, Garth H; Whelan, James; Feliciano, David V; Rozycki, Grace

    2016-03-01

    The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) has developed a new grading system for uniform description of anatomic severity of emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases, ranging from Grade I (mild) to Grade V (severe). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of AAST grades for acute colonic diverticulitis with patient outcomes. A secondary purpose was to propose an EGS quality improvement program using risk-adjusted center outcomes, similar to National Surgical Quality Improvement Program and Trauma Quality Improvement Program methodologies. This was a retrospective study of 1,105 patients (one death) from 13 centers. At each center, two reviewers (blinded to each other's assignments) assigned AAST grades. Interrater reliability was measured using κ coefficient. Relationship between AAST grade and clinical events (complications, intensive care unit use, surgical intervention, and 30-day readmission) as well as length of stay was measured using regression analyses to control for age, comorbidities, and physiologic status at the time of admission. Final model was also used to calculate observed-to-expected (O-E) ratios for adverse outcomes (death, complications, readmissions) for each center. Median age was 54 years, 52% were males, 43% were minorities, and 22% required a surgical intervention. Almost two thirds had Grade I or II disease. There was a high level of agreement for grades between reviewers (κ = 0.81). Adverse events increased from 13% for Grade I, to 18% for Grade II, 28% for Grade III, 44% for Grade IV, and 50% for Grade V. Regression analysis showed that higher disease grades were independently associated with all clinical events and length of stay, after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and physiology. O-E ratios showed statistically insignificant variations in risk of death, complications, or readmissions. AAST grades for acute colonic diverticulitis are independently associated with clinical outcomes and resource

  18. Analysis of factors that contribute to cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by graded levels of systemic hypoxia.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J M; Metcalfe, J D

    1989-01-01

    1. In cats anaesthetized with Saffan, which does not block afferent activation of the brain stem defence areas, we have analysed the cardiovascular changes induced by 3 min periods of graded systemic hypoxia (fraction of O2 in inspirate, Fi,O2, 0.15, 0.12, 0.08, 0.06). 2. At light levels of Saffan anaesthesia, hypoxia (particularly Fi, O2 0.08 and 0.06) or selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors evoked the pattern of tachycardia, decrease in renal and mesenteric vascular conductance (RVC, MVC), but increase in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) which is characteristic of the alerting-defence response. This supports our view that activation of the defence areas is an integral part of the response to systemic hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia also induced an increase in frequency of augmented breaths which was graded with the level of hypoxia: 0.6 min-1 at Fi, O2 0.21 to 1.1 min-1 at Fi, O2 0.06; in some cats each of these was accompanied by a transient fall in arterial pressure (ABP) and increase in FVC. It is proposed that these responses were all part of a reflex elicited by lung irritant receptors and facilitated by peripheral chemoreceptors. However, their low rate of occurrence and the liability of the vasodilatation suggests they do not make major contributions to the overall response. 4. The above short-lasting responses were superimposed upon gradual changes whose magnitudes were graded with the level of hypoxia: hyperventilation, slight tachycardia, but bradycardia at Fi, O2 0.6, small increases in ABP, FVC and MVC allowing femoral and mesenteric blood flow to increase, but decreases in RVC which maintained renal blood flow constant. 5. Vagotomy had no significant effect on these changes. Further, hyperinflation of the lungs with pressures of 10 mmHg evoked the Breuer-Hering reflex but had no noticeable cardiovascular effect. It is proposed that, in the cat, reflex tachycardia and vasodilatation elicited by lung stretch receptors play no significant part in the

  19. Analysis of factors that contribute to cardiovascular changes induced in the cat by graded levels of systemic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J M; Metcalfe, J D

    1989-05-01

    1. In cats anaesthetized with Saffan, which does not block afferent activation of the brain stem defence areas, we have analysed the cardiovascular changes induced by 3 min periods of graded systemic hypoxia (fraction of O2 in inspirate, Fi,O2, 0.15, 0.12, 0.08, 0.06). 2. At light levels of Saffan anaesthesia, hypoxia (particularly Fi, O2 0.08 and 0.06) or selective stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors evoked the pattern of tachycardia, decrease in renal and mesenteric vascular conductance (RVC, MVC), but increase in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) which is characteristic of the alerting-defence response. This supports our view that activation of the defence areas is an integral part of the response to systemic hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia also induced an increase in frequency of augmented breaths which was graded with the level of hypoxia: 0.6 min-1 at Fi, O2 0.21 to 1.1 min-1 at Fi, O2 0.06; in some cats each of these was accompanied by a transient fall in arterial pressure (ABP) and increase in FVC. It is proposed that these responses were all part of a reflex elicited by lung irritant receptors and facilitated by peripheral chemoreceptors. However, their low rate of occurrence and the liability of the vasodilatation suggests they do not make major contributions to the overall response. 4. The above short-lasting responses were superimposed upon gradual changes whose magnitudes were graded with the level of hypoxia: hyperventilation, slight tachycardia, but bradycardia at Fi, O2 0.6, small increases in ABP, FVC and MVC allowing femoral and mesenteric blood flow to increase, but decreases in RVC which maintained renal blood flow constant. 5. Vagotomy had no significant effect on these changes. Further, hyperinflation of the lungs with pressures of 10 mmHg evoked the Breuer-Hering reflex but had no noticeable cardiovascular effect. It is proposed that, in the cat, reflex tachycardia and vasodilatation elicited by lung stretch receptors play no significant part in the

  20. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic

  1. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  2. Pallet part grading trainer

    Treesearch

    Deborah F. Cook; Philip A. Araman; Matthew F. Winn

    2000-01-01

    A computerized pallet grading training system was developed to facilitate the production of higher quality pallets. Higher quality pallets would be more durable and could be re-used many times, resulting in long-term savings. Schmoldt et al. (1993) evaluated the economic impact of grading and sorting pallet parts. They determined that higher quality pallets produced by...

  3. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  4. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the

  5. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Evidence for amphibolite grade contact metamorphism in an active geothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Franzson, H.

    2008-12-01

    One of the scientific goals of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project is to reach the depths of transition from greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism in an active geothermal system. The deepest borehole to date in the Reykjanes system is RN-17, which was drilled to a depth of 3082 m. This well had been considered as a candidate for deepening by the IDDP until it collapsed during a flow test in November 2005. Temperatures in the lower portion of the borehole were never recorded due to an obstruction at 2100 m depth, but are estimated to be approximately 340°C. Epidote, albite, and actinolite are ubiquitous within pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, and in veins, implying that greenschist grade conditions have been attained throughout much of the well below approximately 1200 m. Intrusive lithologies constitute approximately 50% of the observed cuttings between 2600 and 2700 m. These intrusive rocks have produced small, but recognizable contact metamorphic effects characterized by granoblastic hornfels consisting of amphibolite grade assemblages of quartz + anorthite + diopside + magnetite + titanite. These have, in turn, been locally cut by actinolite veins, presumably reflective of the present-day, thermal state of the hydrothermal system at these depths. Based on their siliceous bulk composition, we believe the hornfels represent the thermally- recrystallized products of earlier-formed, hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz, epidote, and actinolite. The metamorphic plagioclase is distinctly more anorthitic (An90 to An98) than igneous plagioclase in adjacent mafic intrusives (An33 to An80) and also exhibits consistently lower Mg content and higher iron (up to 2.07 wt.% as Fe2O3). Stoichiometry implies that much of the iron in hydrothermal anorthite is Fe3+, which may imply recrystallization from precursor epidote under relatively oxidizing conditions. Diopside compositions (average Wo0.48En0.27Fs0.25) are consistently less calcic than hydrothermal clinopyroxenes

  6. Morphodynamics modelling of bars in channels with graded sediment and sediment supply variation with the Telemac-Mascaret System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordier, Florian; Tassi, Pablo; Claude, Nicolas; Crosato, Alessandra; Rodrigues, Stéphane; Pham van Bang, Damien

    2017-04-01

    Numerical modelling of graded sediment transport in rivers remains a challenge [Siviglia and Crosato, 2016] and only few studies have considered the non-uniform distribution of sediment, although sediment grading is an inherent characteristic of natural rivers. The present work aims at revisiting the morphodynamics module of the Telemac-Mascaret modelling system and to integrate the latest developments to model the effects of non-uniform sediment on i) the sediment transport capacity estimated at the interface between the flow and the riverbed and on ii) the vertical sorting of sediment deposits in response to sediment supply changes. The implementation of these two processes has a key role on the modelling of bar dynamics in aggrading/degrading channels [Blom, 2008]. Numerical modelling of graded sediment transport remains a challenge due to the difficulty to reproduce the non-linear interactions between grains of different shape and size. Application of classical bedload equations usually fails in reproducing relevant transport rates [Recking, 2010 and references therein]. In this work, the graded sediment transport model of Wilcock and Crowe [2003] and the active layer concept of Hirano [1971] for the formulation of the exchange layer are implemented. The ability to reproduce the formation and evolution of graded-sediment bars is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiences from the literature. References: Blom, A., Ribberink, J. S., and Parker, G. 2008. Vertical sorting and the morphodynamics of bed form-dominated rivers: A sorting evolution model. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 113(F1). Lauer, J. W., Viparelli, E., and Piégay, H. 2016. Morphodynamics and sediment tracers in 1-d (mast-1d): 1-d sediment transport that includes exchange with an off-channel sediment reservoir. Advances in Water Resources. Recking, A. 2010. A comparison between flume and field bed load transport data and consequences for surface-based bed load transport

  7. The Exicor DUV birefringence measurement system and its application to measuring lithography-grade CaF2 lens blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoliang; Griffiths, C. O.; Rockwell, Rick R.; List, Jennifer; Mark, Doug

    2003-11-01

    Optical lithography continues its transition to shorter wavelengths to support the semiconductor industry"s production of faster microchips to meet evolving market demands. The next step for optical lithography is likely to use the F2 excimer laser at 157.63 nm (157 nm,according to the industry" s naming convention).At 157 nm, among the limited number of fluoride crystals with acceptable optical properties calcium fluoride is the only practical lens material for step and scan systems due to its readiness for mass production. Since the discovery of intrinsic birefringence in CaF2 at deep ultraviolet (DUV)wavelengths,the optical lithography industry has developed a critical interest in measuring birefringence at 157 nm. In response to this need, we have developed a DUV birefringence measurement system. In this article,we describe the working principle, system construction, technical performance and selected applications for measuring lithography grade calcium fluoride lens blanks at DUV wavelengths.

  8. Isolation and generation of clinical-grade dendritic cells using the CliniMACS system.

    PubMed

    Campbell, John D M; Piechaczek, Christoph; Winkels, Gregor; Schwamborn, Edith; Micheli, Daniela; Hennemann, Sonja; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) can either be generated from progenitors such as stem cells or CD14+ monocytes, or isolated directly from the blood. Blood-derived DC are present as at least two distinct populations-myeloid and plasmacytoid DC. Here we describe methods for the clinical-grade isolation of blood DC and DC precursors using the CliniMACS. We describe the isolation of ultra-pure monocytes in order to generate large numbers of monocyte-derived DC, and also new methods for the direct isolation of blood DC. Isolation of blood DC in large numbers means that natural DC with different properties can be investigated for their clinical function for the first time.

  9. Prospect of optical frequency standard based on a {sup 43}Ca{sup +} ion

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Masatoshi; Li Ying; Matsubara, Kensuke; Hayasaka, Kazuhiro; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko

    2005-10-15

    An optical frequency standard based on the S-D transition of trapped {sup 43}Ca{sup +} is possible by using just laser diodes for cooling and probing. We discuss two open problems related to the feasibility of this frequency standard, the attainable frequency uncertainty and the method of initial-state preparation. The uncertainty of the clock transition frequency can be so small as 1x10{sup -15}. Using a laser system consisting of three lasers at different detunings and polarizations, the ion can be cooled down to the Lamb-Dicke regime and then prepared in the m=0 state within a period much shorter than the cooling period without being heated. The details of our numerical simulation are described.

  10. Combinatorics of transformations from standard to non-standard bases in Brauer algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilla, Vincenzo

    2007-05-01

    Transformation coefficients between standard bases for irreducible representations of the Brauer centralizer algebra \\mathfrak{B}_f(x) and split bases adapted to the \\mathfrak{B}_{f_1} (x) \\times \\mathfrak{B}_{f_2} (x) \\subset \\mathfrak{B}_f (x) subalgebra (f1 + f2 = f) are considered. After providing the suitable combinatorial background, based on the definition of the i-coupling relation on nodes of the subduction grid, we introduce a generalized version of the subduction graph which extends the one given in Chilla (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 7657) for symmetric groups. Thus, we can describe the structure of the subduction system arising from the linear method and give an outline of the form of the solution space. An ordering relation on the grid is also given and then, as in the case of symmetric groups, the choices of the phases and of the free factors governing the multiplicity separations are discussed.

  11. Assessment of clinical outcomes of Roth and MBT bracket prescription using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System.

    PubMed

    Jain, Mahesh; Varghese, Joseph; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Siddarth; Dhakar, Nidhi

    2013-07-01

    There is always a need to assess whether small changes in bracket prescription can lead to visually detectable differences in tooth positions. However, with little clinical evidence to show advantages of any of the popularly used bracket systems, orthodontists are forced to make clinical decisions with little scientific guidance. To compare the orthodontic cases finished with Roth and MBT prescription using American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS). Department of Orthodontics, Post-graduate dental college, retrospective cross-sectional study. Forty patients selected were divided into two groups of 20 patients each finished with straight wire appliance using Roth and MBT prescription, respectively. The examiner ability was assessed and calibrated by one of the ABO certified clinician to grade cases using the OGS. Unpaired student t-test was used and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. MBT bracket group had a lower score of 2.60 points in buccolingual inclination and lower score of 1.10 points in occlusal contact category that was statistically significant when compared with Roth group. The difference in total ABO-OGS score was 2.65 points showing that the outcome for the MBT prescription was better than that of the Roth prescription, which is statistically significant, but with little or no clinical significance. It can be concluded that use of either one of the Roth and MBT bracket prescriptions have no impact to the overall clinical outcome and quality of treatment entirely depends on clinician judgment and experience.

  12. A food-grade fimbrial adhesin FaeG expression system in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Lu, W W; Wang, T; Wang, Y; Xin, M; Kong, J

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is the major cause of diarrhea in neonatal piglets. The fimbriae as colonizing factor in the pathogenesis of ETEC constitute a primary target for vaccination against ETEC. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are attractive tools to deliver antigens at the mucosal level. With the safety of genetically modified LAB in mind, a food-grade secretion vector (pALRc or pALRb) was constructed with DNA entirely from LAB, including the replicon, promoter, signal peptide, and selection marker alanine racemase gene (alr). To evaluate the feasibility of the system, the nuclease gene (nuc) from Staphylococcus aureus was used as a reporter to be expressed in both Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei. Subsequently, the extracellular secretion of the fimbrial adhesin FaeG of ETEC was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results showed that this food-grade expression system has potential as the delivery vehicle for the safe use of genetically modified LAB for the development of vaccines against ETEC infection.

  13. Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

  14. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations.

  15. Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

    This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

  16. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  17. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  18. Combined Oral Medroxyprogesterone/Levonorgestrel-Intrauterine System Treatment for Women With Grade 2 Stage IA Endometrial Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Da Hee; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Yun, Bo Seong; Seong, Seok Ju; Shin, Eunah; Kim, Mi Kyoung

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic and pregnancy outcomes of combined oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)/levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) treatment in young women with grade 2-differentiated stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma who wish to preserve fertility. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with grade 2 stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma who had received fertility-sparing treatment at CHA Gangnam Medical Center between 2011 and 2015. All of the patients were treated with combined oral MPA (500 mg/d)/LNG-IUS, and follow-up dilatation and curettage were performed every 3 months. A total of 5 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 30.4 ± 5.3 years (range, 25-39 years). After a mean treatment duration of 11.0 ± 6.2 months (range, 6-18 months), complete response (CR) was shown in 3 of the 5 patients, with partial response (PR) in the other 2 patients. One case of recurrence was reported 14 months after achieving CR. This patient was treated again with combined oral MPA/LNG-IUS and achieved CR by 6 months. The average follow-up period was 44.4 ± 26.2 months (range, 12-71 months). There were no cases of progressive disease. No treatment-related complications arose. Combined oral MPA/LNG-IUS treatment is considered to be a reasonably effective fertility-sparing treatment of grade 2 stage IA endometrial cancer. Although our results are encouraging, it is preliminary and should be considered with experienced oncologists in well-defined protocol and with close follow-up.

  19. Validation of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System for assessing the treatment outcomes of Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Song, Guang-Ying; Baumrind, Sheldon; Zhao, Zhi-He; Ding, Yin; Bai, Yu-Xing; Wang, Lin; He, Hong; Shen, Gang; Li, Wei-Ran; Wu, Wei-Zi; Ren, Chong; Weng, Xuan-Rong; Geng, Zhi; Xu, Tian-Min

    2013-09-01

    Orthodontics in China has developed rapidly, but there is no standard index of treatment outcomes. We assessed the validity of the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS) for the classification of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. We randomly selected 108 patients who completed treatment between July 2005 and September 2008 in 6 orthodontic treatment centers across China. Sixty-nine experienced Chinese orthodontists made subjective assessments of the end-of-treatment casts for each patient. Three examiners then used the ABO-OGS to measure the casts. Pearson correlation analysis and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted to evaluate the correspondence between the ABO-OGS cast measurements and the orthodontists' subjective assessments. The average subjective grading scores were highly correlated with the ABO-OGS scores (r = 0.7042). Four of the 7 study cast components of the ABO-OGS score-occlusal relationship, overjet, interproximal contact, and alignment-were statistically significantly correlated with the judges' subjective assessments. Together, these 4 accounted for 58% of the variability in the average subjective grading scores. The ABO-OGS cutoff score for cases that the judges deemed satisfactory was 16 points; the corresponding cutoff score for cases that the judges considered acceptable was 21 points. The ABO-OGS is a valid index for the assessment of treatment outcomes in Chinese patients. By comparing the objective scores on this modification of the ABO-OGS with the mean subjective assessment of a panel of highly qualified Chinese orthodontists, a cutoff point for satisfactory treatment outcome was defined as 16 points or fewer, with scores of 16 to 21 points denoting less than satisfactory but still acceptable treatment. Cases that scored greater than 21 points were considered unacceptable. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the Impact of Standards-Based Curricula: Investigating Students' Epistemological Conceptions of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda Jansen

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of the NCTM "Standards" (1989), mathematics educators have been faced with the challenge of assessing the impact of "Standards"-based (or "reform") curricula. Research on the impact of "Standards"-based curricula has predominantly focused on student achievement; here we consider an alternative: Students' epistemological…