Science.gov

Sample records for standby safety systems

  1. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D.

    1995-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.

  2. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.V.; Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P.

    1997-02-01

    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time-independent and a time-dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby-time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby-time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor-operated valves (MOVs), motor-driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine-driven pumps (TDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78 %) from environmental factors (standby-time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63 %) than standby-time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby-time stresses (approx. 78 %). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk-informed and performance-based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  3. A general stochastic approach to unavailability analysis of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Weide, H.; Pandey, M. D.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents a general analytical framework to analyze unavailability caused by latent failures in standby safety systems used in nuclear plants. The proposed approach is general in a sense that it encompasses a variety of inspection and maintenance policies and relaxes restrictive assumptions regarding the distributions of time to failure (or aging) and duration of repair. A key result of the paper is a general integral equation for point unavailability, which can be tailored to any specific maintenance policy. (authors)

  4. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.215 Standby power system. A standby source of power shall... during a period of primary power interruption. The designated capacity shall be specified on the...

  5. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn; Al-Jabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  6. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    DEHKORDI, N.H.

    2000-04-12

    PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    1999-09-16

    PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

  8. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOEpatents

    Crispin, Larry G.; Weitzel, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  9. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  10. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  11. A preventive maintenance policy for a standby system subject to internal failures and external shocks with loss of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy Ruiz-Castro, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In many situations, serious damage and considerable financial losses are caused by non-repairable failures of a system. Redundant systems and maintenance policies are commonly employed to improve reliability. This paper is focused on the modelling of a complex cold standby system by analysing the effectiveness and costs of preventive maintenance, always in an algorithmic form. The online unit of the system is subject to wear failures and external shocks. The online unit can go through an indeterminate number of degradation levels before failure. This one is observed when inspections occur. Inspections are performed at random intervals, and when one takes place, the unit is taken to the preventive maintenance facility if it is necessary. The preventive maintenance time and cost is different depending on the degradation level observed. If only one unit is performing, a minimal maintenance policy is adopted in order to optimise system behaviour. Reliability measures such as the conditional probability of failure are worked out in a well-structured and algebraic form in transient and stationary regimes by using algorithmic methods. The stationary distribution is calculated using matrix analytic methods, and rewards are included in the model. An optimisation example shows the versatility of the model presented.

  12. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  13. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) standby plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1997-03-06

    The FFTF Standby Plan, Revision 0, provides changes to the major elements and project baselines to maintain the FFTF plant in a standby condition and to continue washing sodium from irradiated reactor fuel. The Plan is consistent with the Memorandum of Decision approved by the Secretary of Energy on January 17, 1997, which directed that FFTF be maintained in a standby condition to permit the Department to make a decision on whether the facility should play a future role in the Department of Energy`s dual track tritium production strategy. This decision would be made in parallel with the intended December 1998 decision on the selection of the primary, long- term source of tritium. This also allows the Department to review the economic and technical feasibility of using the FFTF to produce isotopes for the medical community. Formal direction has been received from DOE-RL and Fluor 2020 Daniel Hanford to implement the FFTF standby decision. The objective of the Plan is maintain the condition of the FFTF systems, equipment and personnel to preserve the option for plant restart within three and one-half years of a decision to restart, while continuing deactivation work which is consistent with the standby mode.

  14. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  15. Operator awareness of system status during Fast Flux Test Facility transition to standby

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    A facility in transition, due to a change in its mission or its operating status, begins to depart from a previously well-defined normal mode of operation. The equipment becomes reconfigured or deactivated. In an environment of transition, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has employed methods to enhance operator awareness of system status. These methods are described in this report.

  16. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  17. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  18. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  19. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  20. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  1. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  2. Combined Standby Transvenous Defibrillator and Demand Pacemaker.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    AD-A097 441 CARDIAC CARE SYSTEMS INC RED BANK NJ F/B 6/5 COM13INED STANDBY TRANSVENOJS DEFIBRILLATOR AND DEMAND PACEMAKER--ETC(U) DEC 75 L RUBIN...Development Command Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701 Contract Number DAMD17-74-C-4108. Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 80 E. Front Street Red Bank , NJ...8217 Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 4I 80 E. Front Street 61 3121A1j0.4 Red Bank , NJ 07701 a .0_ e- /i\\ - -__________ I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 1.)42

  3. Global implications of standby power use

    SciTech Connect

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  4. Cold-standby redundancy allocation problem with degrading components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Xiong, Junlin; Xie, Min

    2015-11-01

    Components in cold-standby state are usually assumed to be as good as new when they are activated. However, even in a standby environment, the components will suffer from performance degradation. This article presents a study of a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) for cold-standby systems with degrading components. The objective of the RAP is to determine an optimal design configuration of components to maximize system reliability subject to system resource constraints (e.g. cost, weight). As in most cases, it is not possible to obtain a closed-form expression for this problem, and hence, an approximated objective function is presented. A genetic algorithm with dual mutation is developed to solve such a constrained optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed solution methodology.

  5. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  7. Comparative analysis of different configurations of PLC-based safety systems from reliability point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, Moiez A.

    1993-01-01

    The study of a comparative analysis of distinct multiplex and fault-tolerant configurations for a PLC-based safety system from a reliability point of view is presented. It considers simplex, duplex and fault-tolerant triple redundancy configurations. The standby unit in case of a duplex configuration has a failure rate which is k times the failure rate of the standby unit, the value of k varying from 0 to 1. For distinct values of MTTR and MTTF of the main unit, MTBF and availability for these configurations are calculated. The effect of duplexing only the PLC module or only the sensors and the actuators module, on the MTBF of the configuration, is also presented. The results are summarized and merits and demerits of various configurations under distinct environments are discussed.

  8. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  9. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  10. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810...

  11. Safety: System Safety Engineering and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Review system safety status and issues during each milestone decision review ( MDR ) of new or improved Army Acquisition Executive (AAE)-managed systems...under research, development, or modification. (3) Review system safety status and issues during each MDR of new or improved DISC4-managed systems. (4) Act...for acceptance in all MDR packages and forward to the appropriate decision level. Institute risk management procedures as described in appendix B and

  12. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... power. Standby power shall be tested at least once each month....

  13. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... power. Standby power shall be tested at least once each month....

  14. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... power. Standby power shall be tested at least once each month....

  15. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  16. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  17. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  18. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan

    2000-09-15

    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  20. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  1. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  2. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  3. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  4. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  5. Systems Thinking and Patient Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    1 Prologue Systems Thinking and Patient Safety Paul M. Schyve Patient safety is a prominent theme in health care delivery today. This should...been “unenlightened,” to say the least; we would not have been able to apply systems thinking to patient safety. Even today, preventable patient...in the minds of many, to be met with blame and punishment. But systems thinking is now ubiquitous in health care—due, in large measure, to its

  6. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  7. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  8. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  9. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  10. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  11. Systems safety including DOD standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Donald M.

    The stated purpose of MIL STD 882B (1984), which is currently the basis of all U.S. DOD criteria in the field of systems safety design and analysis, is 'To provide uniform requirements for developing and implementing a system safety program of sufficient comprehensiveness to identify the hazards of a system, and to impose design requirements and management controls to prevent mishaps by eliminating hazards or reducing the associated risk to a level acceptable to the managing activity.' Attention is presently given to safety-related issues in material acquisition activities, as well as over the course of a system's life cycle, together with accounts of current hazard-analysis techniques, risk management and system-safety control methods, human factors, and the role of interfaces.

  12. A worldwide review of standby power use in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan K.

    2001-12-01

    Standby power use is the electricity consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. Results from 21 separate field studies of residential standby power use and eight bottom-up national estimates of standby power use in 17 countries were compiled. Average standby power use in the field measurements ranges from about 30 W in China to over 100 W in New Zealand and the United States. The weighted average of the measurements was about 50 W. The bottom-up estimates found that standby power was responsible for 3-12 percent of residential electricity use. There is insufficient information to determine if standby power use is increasing or declining.

  13. System safety management lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop ''lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  14. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  15. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  16. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  17. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  18. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  19. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  20. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  1. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  2. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  3. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  4. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  5. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  6. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  7. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  8. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  9. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  10. Radiation safety systems at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, T.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes design principles that were used to establish the radiation safety systems at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The author described existing safety systems and the history of partial system failures. 1 fig. (TEM)

  11. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  12. Nuclear Safety for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, Etim

    2010-09-01

    It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.

  13. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  14. System safety approach in the VLT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang

    1997-03-01

    Safety, like quality and reliability, has to be designed into a product and respected during all project phases from the concept definition to the operation and maintenance phases. The VLT approach towards occupational safety and health and equipment safety starts with the definition of realistic safety requirements and applicability of ECC directives and national laws of the ESO Member States. The approach continues with preliminary safety analyses during the early project phases, with hazard analysis and safety verifications during the developmental phases, the training for safe operation, maintenance, and later material disposal. System safety is an integral part of the VLT project.

  15. System Safety in Aircraft Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    principal purpose is the prevention of accidents or deaths/ injuries related thereto. Until a recent meeting cosponsored by SOHP and OUSDRE, communication...results in preventing the loss of a single aircraft ML.214/9OV 83 ($15 million for the AH-64, $25 million for the F-18, $200 million for the B-1B). - An...acquisition program. There- fore, it is essential to have interest and support of system safety by "off-line" management at levels high enough to be effective

  16. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  17. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  18. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  19. Patient Safety and the Malpractice System.

    PubMed

    Swift, James Q

    2017-02-26

    The cost of health care in the United States and malpractice insurance has escalated greatly over the past 30 years. In an ideal world, the goals of the tort system would be aligned with efforts at improving safety. In fact, there is little evidence that the tort system and the processes of risk management and informed consent have improved patient safety. The article explores the disunion between patient safety and the malpractice system.

  20. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  1. Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

    For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

  2. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  3. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  4. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  5. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  6. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  7. The Evolution of System Safety at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and acquisition models, where, for example, NASA will increasingly rely on commercial providers for transportation services to low-earth orbit. A key element of this objectives-driven approach is the use of the risk-informed safety case (RISC): a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is or will be adequately safe for a given application in a given environment. The RISC addresses each of the objectives defined for the system, providing a rational basis for making informed risk acceptance decisions at relevant decision points in the system life cycle.

  8. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 900,000 reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 5,500 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation \\vill discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  9. Argument for a Joint Safety Reporting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    vehicle is overcome by the river forces and overturns; all personnel are lost and the vehicle is heavily damaged . An off-duty Marine, while riding his...approach to illustrate the benefits of selecting the AF Safety Automated System (AFSAS) as the joint-service safety data system for the services and...Alabama. Mr. Nunn was previously assigned as the Chief of the AF (AF) Automated System (AFSAS) Requirements Group, and as the AF Risk Management (RM

  10. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  11. 40 CFR 280.103 - Standby trust fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standby trust fund. 280.103 Section 280.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED... diligence under the circumstances then prevailing which persons of prudence, acting in a like capacity...

  12. 14 CFR § 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standby payloads. § 1214.808 Section § 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement... policy do not apply to Spacelab flights....

  13. Standby rate design: current issues and possible innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Bahceci, Serkan

    2007-05-15

    While options pricing principles have some relevance for the design a standby distribution rates, insurance pricing may provide an even better model. An insurance-based approach using an outage probability methodology also provides powerful incentives to the utility to connect additional DG resources to the grid. (author)

  14. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby letters of credit. (a) The banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks are authorized to issue on... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby letters of credit. (a) The banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks are authorized to issue on... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks...

  16. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Ares I Integrated Vehicle System Safety Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; McNairy, Lisa; Shackelford, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Complex systems require integrated analysis teams which sometimes are divided into subsystem teams. Proper division of the analysis in to subsystem teams is important. Safety analysis is one of the most difficult aspects of integration.

  18. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  19. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  20. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  1. Application of system safety to rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styles, T. D.

    1971-01-01

    Management emphasis on system safety in the rapid transit industry includes the granting and use of funds by the Federal Government according to systematic analysis of safety hazards in advance. Likelihood predictions that those hazards will be activated by exposure of the system to a system failure, a human error, external conditions, or combinations of these aspects determine alternatives to the assumption of risk and recommend corrections before the system is operational. Rigorous safety analyses are projected to assure operational safety for prolonged periods under varied maintenance conditions; these analysis encompass station accident possibilities as well as train-person collisions, car equipment and design, traffic control systems, and tunnel design problems.

  2. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  3. Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

  4. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  5. System Safety in an IT Service Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Mike; Scutt, Simon

    Within Logica UK, over 30 IT service projects are considered safetyrelated. These include operational IT services for airports, railway infrastructure asset management, nationwide radiation monitoring and hospital medical records services. A recent internal audit examined the processes and documents used to manage system safety on these services and made a series of recommendations for improvement. This paper looks at the changes and the challenges to introducing them, especially where the service is provided by multiple units supporting both safety and non-safety related services from multiple locations around the world. The recommendations include improvements to service agreements, improved process definitions, routine safety assessment of changes, enhanced call logging, improved staff competency and training, and increased safety awareness. Progress is reported as of today, together with a road map for implementation of the improvements to the service safety management system. A proposal for service assurance levels (SALs) is discussed as a way forward to cover the wide variety of services and associated safety risks.

  6. Safety assurance of complex integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrignani, Vincent A.; Jordan, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Interface hazard analysis (IHA) is used as a 'tool' to systematically assess safety for the integration of a diverse set of experiments and payload hardware into the Spacelab carrier which flies in the Space Shuttle's Orbiter cargo bay. The IHA when performed by a thorough analysis provides safety assurance of complex integrated systems by systematically linking analysis efforts performed by the organizations thus providing the respective elements to be integrated into an objective, unique analysis. Particular attention is given to verification methods of the safety assurance of the Spacelab carrier and its experiment payload for which the IHA was performed.

  7. Consumer product safety: A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The manufacturer, tester, retailer, consumer, repairer disposer, trade and professional associations, national and international standards bodies, and governments in several roles are all involved in consumer product safety. A preliminary analysis, drawing on system safety techniques, is utilized to distinguish the inter-relations of these many groups and the responsibilities that they are or could take for product safety, including the slow accident hazards as well as the more commonly discussed fast accident hazards. The importance of interactive computer aided information flow among these groups is particularly stressed.

  8. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  9. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  10. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

  11. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  12. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs based on methods used by Sandia to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when Sandia realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident-based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off-normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a large array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  13. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 6: Space base nuclear system safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A qualitative identification of the steps required to assure the incorporation of radiological system safety principles and objectives into all phases of a manned space base program are presented. Specific areas of emphasis include: (1) radiological program management, (2) nuclear system safety plan implementation, (3) impact on program, and (4) summary of the key operation and design guidelines and requirements. The plan clearly indicates the necessity of considering and implementing radiological system safety recommendations as early as possible in the development cycle to assure maximum safety and minimize the impact on design and mission plans.

  14. System safety in Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Project Office has required that contractors make safety considerations an integral part of all phases of the Stirling engine development program. As an integral part of each engine design subtask, analyses are evolved to determine possible modes of failure. The accepted system safety analysis techniques (Fault Tree, FMEA, Hazards Analysis, etc.) are applied in various degrees of extent at the system, subsystem and component levels. The primary objectives are to identify critical failure areas, to enable removal of susceptibility to such failures or their effects from the system and to minimize risk.

  15. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  16. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  17. Safety System Design for Technology Education. A Safety Guide for Technology Education Courses K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is designed to involve both teachers and students in planning and controlling a safety system for technology education classrooms. The safety program involves students in the design and maintenance of the system by including them in the analysis of the classroom environment, job safety analysis, safety inspection, and machine safety…

  18. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the rail transit agency's system safety program plan. The contents of the system safety plan are... included in the affected rail transit agency's system safety program plan relating to the hazard management... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System safety program standard. 659.15 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System safety program plan: contents. 659.19... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.19 System safety program plan: contents. The system safety plan...

  20. Operational Considerations for the Standby Diver in CUMA Dives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    004 Vol 4 Book 2 ( Canadian Underwater Minecountermeasures Apparatus Version 2) Department of National Defence, Canada . [2] Nishi RY and Warlow MRN...Defence R&D Canada Technical Memorandum DRDC Toronto TM 2010-082 November 2010 Operational...Considerations for the Standby Diver in CUMA Dives R.Y. Nishi A.J. Ward D.J. Eaton Defence R&D Canada – Toronto

  1. The African Standby Force: A Premature Enterprise Dictated by Circumstances?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-23

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t THE AFRICAN STANDBY FORCE: A PREMATURE ENTERPRISE DICTATED BY CIRCUMSTANCES? BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL...Force: A Premature Enterprise Dictated by Circumstances? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... effectiveness and sustainability. In order to cope adequately with threats not initially taken into account, the AU should focus mainly on sustainability and

  2. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Low standby leakage 12T SRAM cell characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Arjun; Nakhate, Sangeeta

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low power and variability-aware static random access memory (SRAM) architecture based on a twelve-transistor (12T) cell is proposed. This cell obtains low static power dissipation due to a parallel global latch (G-latch) and storage latch (S-latch), along with a global wordline (GWL), which offer a high cell ratio and pull-up ratio for reliable read and write operations and a low cell ratio and pull-up ratio during idle mode to reduce the standby power dissipation. In the idle state, only the S-latch stores bits, while the G-latch is isolated from the S-latch and the GWL is deactivated. The leakage power consumption of the proposed SRAM cell is thereby reduced by 38.7% compared to that of the conventional six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell. This paper evaluates the impact of the chip supply voltage and surrounding temperature variations on the standby leakage power and observes considerable improvement in the power dissipation. The read/write access delay, read static noise margin (SNM) and write SNM were evaluated, and the results were compared with those of the standard 6T SRAM cell. The proposed cell, when compared with the existing cell using the Monte Carlo method, shows an appreciable improvement in the standby power dissipation and layout area.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of limitations of the Air Traffic Control system in conflict avoidance capabilities is discussed. Assumptions and expectations held by by airmen regarding the capabilities of the system are presented. Limitations related to communication are described and problems associated with visual approaches, airspace configurations, and airport layouts are discussed. A number of pilot and controller reports illustrative of three typical problem types: occurrences involving pilots who have limited experience; reports describing inflight calls for assistance; and flights in which pilots have declined to use available radar services are presented. Examples of Alert Bulletins and the FAA responses to them are included.

  5. System safety as applied to Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinknecht, K. S.; Miller, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Procedural and organizational guidelines used in accordance with NASA safety policy for the Skylab missions are outlined. The basic areas examined in the safety program for Skylab were the crew interface, extra-vehicular activity (EVA), energy sources, spacecraft interface, and hardware complexity. Fire prevention was a primary goal, with firefighting as backup. Studies of the vectorcardiogram and sleep monitoring experiments exemplify special efforts to prevent fire and shock. The final fire control study included material review, fire detection capability, and fire extinguishing capability. Contractors had major responsibility for system safety. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and equipment criticality categories are outlined. Redundancy was provided on systems that were critical to crew survival (category I). The five key checkpoints in Skylab hardware development are explained. Skylab rescue capability was demonstrated by preparations to rescue the Skylab 3 crew after their spacecraft developed attitude control problems.

  6. Improving patient safety by instructional systems design

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J B

    2006-01-01

    Education and training are important elements in patient safety, both as a potential contributing factor to risks and hazards of healthcare associated injury or harm and as an intervention to be used in eliminating or preventing such harm. All too often we have relied on training as the only interventions for patient safety without examining other alternatives or realizing that, in some cases, the training systems themselves are part of the problem. One way to ensure safety by design is to apply established design principles to education and training. Instructional systems design (ISD) is a systematic method of development of education and training programs for improved learner performance. The ISD process involves five integrated steps: analysis, development, design, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE). The application of ISD using the ADDIE approach can eliminate or prevent education and training from being a contributing factor of health associated injury or harm, and can also be effective in preventing injury or harm. PMID:17142604

  7. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A decline in reports concerning small aircraft was noted; more reports involved transport aircraft, professional pilots, instrument meteorological conditions, and weather problems. A study of 136 reports of operational problems in terminal radar service areas was made. Pilot, controller, and system factors were found to be associated with these occurrences. Information transfer difficulties were prominent. Misunderstandings by pilots, and in some cases by controllers, of the policies and limitations of terminal radar programs were observed.

  8. Mine Safety Detection System (MSDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    information would support its use in the fulfillment of the Assess/identify functions. The problem or challenge to IR is that the ocean acts ...away from dedicated or exotic resources. Lastly, the political notions with regard to the perceived endangerment or exploitation of animals are...cabin of the helicopter (in the case of the AN/AQS-20A), and to act as primary data evaluators for the 56 information gathered from both systems. The

  9. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  10. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  11. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Reports describing various types of communication problems are presented along with summaries dealing with judgment and decision making. Concerns relating to the ground proximity warning system are summarized and several examples of true terrain proximity warnings are provided. An analytic study of reports relating to profile descents was performed. Problems were found to be associated with charting and graphic presentation of the descents, with lack of uniformity of the descent procedures among facilities using them, and with the flight crew workload engendered by profile descents, particularly when additional requirements are interposed by air traffic control during the execution of the profiles. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them were reviewed.

  12. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  13. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  14. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  15. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  16. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  17. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  18. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  19. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  20. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  1. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  2. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  3. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  4. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  5. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant's safety review document must identify each flight safety system crew position and the role of...

  6. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the... in the future to consider SMS for other product/service providers. DATES: The advance notice of... July 2012, the FAA has decided not to immediately address SMS for other product/service providers....

  7. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  8. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  9. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  10. Does the concept of safety culture help or hinder systems thinking in safety?

    PubMed

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2014-07-01

    The concept of safety culture has become established in safety management applications in all major safety-critical domains. The idea that safety culture somehow represents a "systemic view" on safety is seldom explicitly spoken out, but nevertheless seem to linger behind many safety culture discourses. However, in this paper we argue that the "new" contribution to safety management from safety culture never really became integrated with classical engineering principles and concepts. This integration would have been necessary for the development of a more genuine systems-oriented view on safety; e.g. a conception of safety in which human, technological, organisational and cultural factors are understood as mutually interacting elements. Without of this integration, researchers and the users of the various tools and methods associated with safety culture have sometimes fostered a belief that "safety culture" in fact represents such a systemic view about safety. This belief is, however, not backed up by theoretical or empirical evidence. It is true that safety culture, at least in some sense, represents a holistic term-a totality of factors that include human, organisational and technological aspects. However, the departure for such safety culture models is still human and organisational factors rather than technology (or safety) itself. The aim of this paper is to critically review the various uses of the concept of safety culture as representing a systemic view on safety. The article will take a look at the concepts of culture and safety culture based on previous studies, and outlines in more detail the theoretical challenges in safety culture as a systems concept. The paper also presents recommendations on how to make safety culture more systemic.

  11. Active-standby servovalue/actuator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masm, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A redundant, fail/operate fail/fixed servoactuator was constructed and tested along with electronic models of a servovalve. It was found that a torque motor switch is satisfactory for the space shuttle main engine hydraulic actuation system, and that this system provides an effective failure monitoring technique.

  12. Safety Aspects of Big Cryogenic Systems Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Fydrych, J.; Poliński, J.

    2010-04-01

    Superconductivity and helium cryogenics are key technologies in the construction of large scientific instruments, like accelerators, fusion reactors or free electron lasers. Such cryogenic systems may contain more than hundred tons of helium, mostly in cold and high-density phases. In spite of the high reliability of the systems, accidental loss of the insulation vacuum, pipe rupture or rapid energy dissipation in the cold helium can not be overlooked. To avoid the danger of over-design pressure rise in the cryostats, they need to be equipped with a helium relief system. Such a system is comprised of safety valves, bursting disks and optionally cold or warm quench lines, collectors and storage tanks. Proper design of the helium safety relief system requires a good understanding of worst case scenarios. Such scenarios will be discussed, taking into account different possible failures of the cryogenic system. In any case it is necessary to estimate heat transfer through degraded vacuum superinsulation and mass flow through the valves and safety disks. Even if the design of the helium relief system does not foresee direct helium venting into the environment, an occasional emergency helium spill may happen. Helium propagation in the atmosphere and the origins of oxygen-deficiency hazards will be discussed.

  13. Integrating quality, safety, and environment management systems.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment or safety. In many respects the process of developing management systems for these matters contains a number of common elements, including obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a policy; identifying components of the management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organization's strategic plan. The necessity of developing separate management systems for different organizational aspects is wasteful and inefficient. Better management systems will be developed if they are integrated into a single management structure.

  14. 12 CFR 960.5 - Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit. 960.5 Section 960.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.5 Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit....

  15. 12 CFR 960.4 - Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. 960.4 Section 960.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.4 Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. (a) Obligation...

  16. Security for safety critical space borne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station contains safety critical computer software components in systems that can affect life and vital property. These components require a multilevel secure system that provides dynamic access control of the data and processes involved. A study is under way to define requirements for a security model providing access control through level B3 of the Orange Book. The model will be prototyped at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  17. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  18. Implementation Procedure for STS Payloads, System Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and instructions for the implementation of the SP&R system safety requirements applicable to STS payloads are provided. The initial contact meeting with the payload organization and the subsequent safety reviews necessary to comply with the system safety requirements of the SP&R document are described. Waiver instructions are included for the cases in which a safety requirement cannot be met.

  19. Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Climate Orbiter ($125 million) English vs. Metric units mismatch Mars Polar Lander Missing requirement concerning touchdown sensor behavior Therac – 25 ...Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems 25 Corresponding Safety Subfactors Safety SubfactorSafety Safety Problem Type Safety...station with the doors open for boarding, the horizontal gap between the station platform and the vehicle door threshold shall be no greater than 25 mm

  20. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  1. Using government purchasing power to reduce equipment standby power

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Jeffrey; Meier, Alan; Bartholomew, Emily; Thomas, Alison; Glickman, Joan; Ware Michelle

    2003-03-03

    Although the government sector represents only 10 to 15 percent of the economy in most countries, carefully targeted public procurement can play a significant role in market transformation through its influence on both buyers and suppliers. Government leadership in energy-efficient purchasing can set an example for other buyers, while creating opportunities for leading manufacturers and distributors to increase their sales and market share by offering energy-efficient products at competitive prices. Under proper circumstances, a highly visible government purchasing policy can have a disproportionately large influence on the market for efficient products. In the United States, President Bush signed an Executive Order in 2001 directing all federal agencies to buy products with low standby power (1 watt or less where possible). This represents a deliberate choice to use government purchasing - rather than regulations or incentives - as a market-based strategy to encourage energy savings. It also builds upon existing efforts to encourage Federal purchase of energy-efficient products (Energy Star products and others in the top 25th percentile of efficiency). This paper summarizes the Federal Energy Management Program s first 18 months of experience in implementing this Executive Order, including analysis of data on standby power, interactions with manufacturers and industry groups, and the relationship between these efforts and other federal programs concerning product labelling, testing, rating, and efficiency standards. After five years of implementing low-standby power purchasing, we estimate energy savings for federal agencies alone at about 230 GWh/year (worth US$14 million), with spillover effects on the broader market that will save all US consumers nearly 4000 GWh/year (US$300 million).

  2. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  3. 77 FR 11120 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and... relinquishment from the UAB Health System Patient Safety Organization of its status as a Patient...

  4. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  5. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  6. High-performance work systems and occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Zacharatos, Anthea; Barling, Julian; Iverson, Roderick D

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and occupational safety. In Study 1, data were obtained from company human resource and safety directors across 138 organizations. LISREL VIII results showed that an HPWS was positively related to occupational safety at the organizational level. Study 2 used data from 189 front-line employees in 2 organizations. Trust in management and perceived safety climate were found to mediate the relationship between an HPWS and safety performance measured in terms of personal-safety orientation (i.e., safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance, and safety initiative) and safety incidents (i.e., injuries requiring first aid and near misses). These 2 studies provide confirmation of the important role organizational factors play in ensuring worker safety.

  7. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  8. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  9. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  10. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  11. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  12. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  13. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.703 Section 385.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  14. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.703 Section 385.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  15. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  16. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... basic components with embedded digital devices. DATES: Submit comments by July 19, 2013....

  17. Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

    2005-01-01

    On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

  18. Standby Generators for North Portal Electrical Loads (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    Y.D. Shane

    1995-03-31

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis is to establish the best and most economical way to provide standby power generation required for the North Portal loads. This analysis calculates the size and number of the new standby generators that will supplement the already-specified four 500 kW diesel generator units (7007-GN-401, -402, -403, and -404).

  19. Evolution of Energy Efficiency Programs Over Time: The Case of Standby Power

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Chung, Iris; Fisher, Emily

    2014-08-17

    Issued in 2001, Presidential Executive Order 13221 directed federal agencies to purchase products with low standby power, with the goal of 1) reducing energy consumption in federal facilities, and 2) drawing attention to the problem of high standby power consumption, with guidance provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). At that time, standby power was newly recognized as an increasing building energy load. Since then, procurement of products with low standby power have been set in place in acquisition processes, and the purchasing power of the federal government continues to influence manufacturers design decisions related to standby power. In recent years, FEMP has shifted effort from direct manufacturer outreach for data collection, to integrating low standby requirement into broader acquisition programs including Energy Star and Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT). Another milestone has been the labeling of low standby products on the GSA Advantage website to simplify and enhance compliance. Looking forward into the program?s future, this question arises How do we design programs over time to reflect market and technology changes, by adjusting programmatic requirements while maintaining effectiveness? This paper discusses that question for the case of standby power, which transitioned from covering a single to multiple environmental attributes, both in the context of the program's past and future.

  20. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... manual safety trip controls must be provided for all main boilers, turbines, and internal combustion... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  1. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... manual safety trip controls must be provided for all main boilers, turbines, and internal combustion... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  2. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... manual safety trip controls must be provided for all main boilers, turbines, and internal combustion... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  3. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1; System Safety Framework and Concepts for Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Smith, Curtis; Stamatelatos, Michael; Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    System safety assessment is defined in NPR 8715.3C, NASA General Safety Program Requirements as a disciplined, systematic approach to the analysis of risks resulting from hazards that can affect humans, the environment, and mission assets. Achievement of the highest practicable degree of system safety is one of NASA's highest priorities. Traditionally, system safety assessment at NASA and elsewhere has focused on the application of a set of safety analysis tools to identify safety risks and formulate effective controls.1 Familiar tools used for this purpose include various forms of hazard analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and probabilistic safety assessment (commonly also referred to as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)). In the past, it has been assumed that to show that a system is safe, it is sufficient to provide assurance that the process for identifying the hazards has been as comprehensive as possible and that each identified hazard has one or more associated controls. The NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) has made several statements in its annual reports supporting a more holistic approach. In 2006, it recommended that "... a comprehensive risk assessment, communication and acceptance process be implemented to ensure that overall launch risk is considered in an integrated and consistent manner." In 2009, it advocated for "... a process for using a risk-informed design approach to produce a design that is optimally and sufficiently safe." As a rationale for the latter advocacy, it stated that "... the ASAP applauds switching to a performance-based approach because it emphasizes early risk identification to guide designs, thus enabling creative design approaches that might be more efficient, safer, or both." For purposes of this preface, it is worth mentioning three areas where the handbook emphasizes a more holistic type of thinking. First, the handbook takes the position that it is important to not just focus on risk on an individual

  4. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

  5. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 2: System safety guidelines and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed system safety guidelines/requirements were developed. Each one describes a safety measure which is suggested as a means of eliminating or reducing a particular hazard, or group of hazards, to an acceptable level, and which, if followed would tend to increase the level of safety in supplying propellants to a user in orbit. The first goal was to identify those actions that should be taken to make propellant logistics operations as safe as possible. The second was to serve as a checklist to verify that these actions had been taken in the design and operation of this and similar programs, or that they had been considered and rejected. The safety measures described in the GLR's are directed toward the prevention of hazards, the avoidance of undesired events, and the protection of the crew.

  6. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C

    2001-10-17

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  7. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

    2001-10-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  8. The adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haiying; Allanach, Jeffrey; Singh, Satnam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The Adaptive Safety Analysis and Monitoring (ASAM) system is a hybrid model-based software tool for assisting intelligence analysts to identify terrorist threats, to predict possible evolution of the terrorist activities, and to suggest strategies for countering terrorism. The ASAM system provides a distributed processing structure for gathering, sharing, understanding, and using information to assess and predict terrorist network states. In combination with counter-terrorist network models, it can also suggest feasible actions to inhibit potential terrorist threats. In this paper, we will introduce the architecture of the ASAM system, and discuss the hybrid modeling approach embedded in it, viz., Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to detect and provide soft evidence on the states of terrorist network nodes based on partial and imperfect observations, and Bayesian networks (BNs) to integrate soft evidence from multiple HMMs. The functionality of the ASAM system is illustrated by way of application to the Indian Airlines Hijacking, as modeled from open sources.

  9. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  10. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Teasdale, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these safety features.

  11. System Safety and the Unintended Consequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and identification of risks often result in design changes or modification of operational steps. This paper identifies the potential of unintended consequences as an over-looked result of these changes. Examples of societal changes such as prohibition, regulatory changes including mandating lifeboats on passenger ships, and engineering proposals or design changes to automobiles and spaceflight hardware are used to demonstrate that the System Safety Engineer must be cognizant of the potential for unintended consequences as a result of an analysis. Conclusions of the report indicate the need for additional foresight and consideration of the potential effects of analysis-driven design, processing changes, and/or operational modifications.

  12. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  13. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  14. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-12-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ``B`` package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ``TRANSCOM``.

  15. Patient safety, systems design and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Buckle, P; Clarkson, P J; Coleman, R; Ward, J; Anderson, J

    2006-07-01

    The complexity of the health care environments necessitates an holistic and systematic ergonomics approach to understand the potential for accidents and errors to occur. The health service is also a socio-technical system, and design needs must be met within this context. This paper aims to present the design challenges and emphasises the specialised needs of the health care sector, when dealing with patient safety. It also provides examples of approaches and methods that ergonomists can bring to help inform our knowledge of these systems and the potential towards improving their safety. Mapping workshops provide an example of such methods. Results from these are used to illustrate how the knowledge base required for better design requirements can be generated. The workshops were developed specifically to help improve the design of medication packaging and thereby reduce the probability of medication error. The issues raised are now the subject of further research, design requirements guidance and new design concepts. The paper illustrates the need to engage with the design community and, through the use of robust scientific methods, to generate appropriate design requirements.

  16. Identifying behaviour patterns of construction safety using system archetypes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2015-07-01

    Construction safety management involves complex issues (e.g., different trades, multi-organizational project structure, constantly changing work environment, and transient workforce). Systems thinking is widely considered as an effective approach to understanding and managing the complexity. This paper aims to better understand dynamic complexity of construction safety management by exploring archetypes of construction safety. To achieve this, this paper adopted the ground theory method (GTM) and 22 interviews were conducted with participants in various positions (government safety inspector, client, health and safety manager, safety consultant, safety auditor, and safety researcher). Eight archetypes were emerged from the collected data: (1) safety regulations, (2) incentive programs, (3) procurement and safety, (4) safety management in small businesses (5) production and safety, (6) workers' conflicting goals, (7) blame on workers, and (8) reactive and proactive learning. These archetypes capture the interactions between a wide range of factors within various hierarchical levels and subsystems. As a free-standing tool, they advance the understanding of dynamic complexity of construction safety management and provide systemic insights into dealing with the complexity. They also can facilitate system dynamics modelling of construction safety process.

  17. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  18. System safety checklist Skylab program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnail, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Design criteria statement applicable to a wide variety of flight systems, experiments and other payloads, associated ground support equipment and facility support systems are presented. The document reflects a composite of experience gained throughout the aerospace industry prior to Skylab and additional experience gained during the Skylab Program. It has been prepared to provide current and future program organizations with a broad source of safety-related design criteria and to suggest methods for systematic and progressive application of the criteria beginning with preliminary development of design requirements and specifications. Recognizing the users obligation to shape the checklist to his particular needs, a summary of the historical background, rationale, objectives, development and implementation approach, and benefits based on Skylab experience has been included.

  19. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inhibiting the proper operation of the system. (f) Radio frequency link. (1) The flight safety system must... system and airborne system radio frequency characteristics; and (iv) The antenna gain value that ensures... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis....

  20. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  1. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Software plays an increasingly larger role in all aspects of NASA's science missions. This has been extended to the identification, management and control of faults which affect safety-critical functions and by default, the overall success of the mission. Traditionally, the analysis of fault identification, management and control are hardware based. Due to the increasing complexity of system, there has been a corresponding increase in the complexity in fault management software. The NASA Independent Validation & Verification (IV&V) program is creating processes and procedures to identify, and incorporate safety-critical software requirements along with corresponding software faults so that potential hazards may be mitigated. This Specific to Generic ... A Case for Reuse paper describes the phases of a dependability and safety study which identifies a new, process to create a foundation for reusable assets. These assets support the identification and management of specific software faults and, their transformation from specific to generic software faults. This approach also has applications to other systems outside of the NASA environment. This paper addresses how a mission specific dependability and safety case is being transformed to a generic dependability and safety case which can be reused for any type of space mission with an emphasis on software fault conditions.

  2. Monitoring circuit for reactor safety systems

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio between the output signals of a pair of reactor safety channels is monitored. When ratio falls outside of a predetermined range, it indicates that one or more of the safety channels has malfunctioned.

  3. A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

  4. System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a 'vision zero', or 'safe system' style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  5. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the..., policies, and roles and responsibilities for providing safety and security oversight of the rail transit... safety and security reviews. This section shall specify the role of the oversight agency in...

  6. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the..., policies, and roles and responsibilities for providing safety and security oversight of the rail transit... safety and security reviews. This section shall specify the role of the oversight agency in...

  7. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  8. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  9. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  10. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  11. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  12. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-01-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  13. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-12-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  14. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  15. 40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H-7, September, 1940. File no. SA 342/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  16. Basis for Interim Operation for the K-Reactor in Cold Standby

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) document for K Reactor in Cold Standby and the L- and P-Reactor Disassembly Basins was prepared in accordance with the draft DOE standard for BIO preparation (dated October 26, 1993).

  17. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems and Air Traffic Management Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new ICAO Policy on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems is needed, which recognizes it to be an integrated part of the air traffic management system's safety defences; and that should be fully included in hazard analyses for the total system's design safety targets.

  18. A safety-based decision making architecture for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musto, Joseph C.; Lauderbaugh, L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Engineering systems designed specifically for space applications often exhibit a high level of autonomy in the control and decision-making architecture. As the level of autonomy increases, more emphasis must be placed on assimilating the safety functions normally executed at the hardware level or by human supervisors into the control architecture of the system. The development of a decision-making structure which utilizes information on system safety is detailed. A quantitative measure of system safety, called the safety self-information, is defined. This measure is analogous to the reliability self-information defined by McInroy and Saridis, but includes weighting of task constraints to provide a measure of both reliability and cost. An example is presented in which the safety self-information is used as a decision criterion in a mobile robot controller. The safety self-information is shown to be consistent with the entropy-based Theory of Intelligent Machines defined by Saridis.

  19. Space transportation system payload safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This handbook provides the payload developer with a uniform description and interpretation of the potential hazards which may be caused by or associated with a payload element, operation, or interface with other payloads or with the STS. It also includes guidelines describing design or operational safety measures which suggest means of alleviating a particular hazard or group of hazards, thereby improving payload safety.

  20. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  1. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  2. Models Extracted from Text for System-Software Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes extraction and integration of requirements information and safety information in visualizations to support early review of completeness, correctness, and consistency of lengthy and diverse system safety analyses. Software tools have been developed and extended to perform the following tasks: 1) extract model parts and safety information from text in interface requirements documents, failure modes and effects analyses and hazard reports; 2) map and integrate the information to develop system architecture models and visualizations for safety analysts; and 3) provide model output to support virtual system integration testing. This presentation illustrates the methods and products with a rocket motor initiation case.

  3. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  4. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  5. Emerging standards with application to accelerator safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, K.L.; Robertson, H.P.

    1997-08-01

    This paper addresses international standards which can be applied to the requirements for accelerator personnel safety systems. Particular emphasis is given to standards which specify requirements for safety interlock systems which employ programmable electronic subsystems. The work draws on methodologies currently under development for the medical, process control, and nuclear industries.

  6. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowable low water level. Run the engine until the exhaust gas temperature sensor activates the safety... shutdown system and stop the engine at or above the minimum allowable low water level established from... the engine until the low water sensor activates the safety shutdown system and stops the...

  7. Striving for safety: communicating and deciding in sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Flach, John M.; Carroll, John S.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Hamilton, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    How do communications and decisions impact the safety of sociotechnical systems? This paper frames this question in the context of a dynamic system of nested sub-systems. Communications are related to the construct of observability (i.e. how components integrate information to assess the state with respect to local and global constraints). Decisions are related to the construct of controllability (i.e. how component sub-systems act to meet local and global safety goals). The safety dynamics of sociotechnical systems are evaluated as a function of the coupling between observability and controllability across multiple closed-loop components. Two very different domains (nuclear power and the limited service food industry) provide examples to illustrate how this framework might be applied. While the dynamical systems framework does not offer simple prescriptions for achieving safety, it does provide guides for exploring specific systems to consider the potential fit between organisational structures and work demands, and for generalising across different systems regarding how safety can be managed. Practitioner Summary: While offering no simple prescriptions about how to achieve safety in sociotechnical systems, this paper develops a theoretical framework based on dynamical systems theory as a practical guide for generalising from basic research to work domains and for generalising across alternative work domains to better understand how patterns of communication and decision-making impact system safety. PMID:25761155

  8. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  9. Health and safety management systems: liability or asset?

    PubMed

    Bennett, David

    2002-01-01

    Health and safety management systems have a background in theory and in various interests among employers and workplace health and safety professionals. These have resulted in a number of national systems emanating from national standard-writing centres and from employers' organizations. In some cases these systems have been recognized as national standards. The contenders for an international standard have been the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The quality and environmental management systems of ISO indicate what an ISO health and safety management standard would look like. The ILO Guidelines on Safety and Health Management Systems, by contrast, are stringent, specific and potentially effective in improving health and safety performance in the workplace.

  10. Influence Map Methodology for Evaluating Systemic Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "Raising the bar" in safety performance is a critical challenge for many organizations, including Kennedy Space Center. Contributing-factor taxonomies organize information about the reasons accidents occur and therefore are essential elements of accident investigations and safety reporting systems. Organizations must balance efforts to identify causes of specific accidents with efforts to evaluate systemic safety issues in order to become more proactive about improving safety. This project successfully addressed the following two problems: (1) methods and metrics to support the design of effective taxonomies are limited and (2) influence relationships among contributing factors are not explicitly modeled within a taxonomy.

  11. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  12. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.

  13. Standby Power Management Architecture for Deep-Submicron Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-19

    59 starvation is to use an arbiter than implements a fair arbitration scheme, such as round - robin , token-passing, or time-slotting. Power control...dw8051 port includes a small wrapper to convert the interface into BIF format. Since the neighbor table is a shared resource, a round - robin arbiter...between domains when there are multiple pending commands. The PNI uses a hybrid tree and round - robin arbitration scheme to ensure fairness and speed. The

  14. Applying Systems Thinking to Law Enforcement Safety: Recommendation for a Comprehensive Safety Management Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    built on an understanding of the cause of unsafe acts within the workplace.”34 Two academic but opposing theories of safety management systems have...many of these fatalities were preventable. The Below 100 program has evolved over time and is now managed by a non-profit organization that provides...well as academic journal articles on safety management systems and programs in both private and public organizations. This researcher also possesses

  15. Confidential incident reporting systems create vital awareness of safety problems.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M; Chappell, S L

    1996-10-01

    The aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) developed by NASA is discussed as an example of aviation incident reporting. Approaches which encourage reporting include trust and confidentiality. Reporting and analysis systems and their administration at organizational and national levels are reviewed.

  16. Acceptance test report for the safety class shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuroff, W.F.

    1996-10-17

    This document provides the Acceptance Test Report for the successful testing of the Safety Shutdown Circuit. The test was done in accordance with the requirements that were defined in WHC-SD-WM-SCH-003, Interim Stabilization Safety Class Trip Circuit CGI Dedication Criteria. The actual test procedure document was contained in WHC-SD-WM-ATP-185, Acceptance Test Procedure for the Safety Class Shutdown System.

  17. Improving Medication Safety Based on Reports in Computerized Patient Safety Systems.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Anneli; Teuho, Susanna; Uusitalo, Marjo; Kaunonen, Marja

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, patient safety has been a serious concern internationally. Medication in particular is a significant area in improving patient safety because medication errors are a crucial clinical problem. This study aimed to explore suggestions to improve medication safety reported via computerized patient safety systems in hospitals. The research data were retrospectively collected from the computerized patient safety incident reporting systems in one university hospital and two regional hospitals in Finland. Open-ended records concerning prescribing medicines (n = 136), dispensing medicines (n = 362), administering medicines to patients (n = 538), and documenting medication (n = 434) were included in the analysis. The data were analyzed by using inductive content analysis. Based on the study findings, there is a need to develop and standardize procedures related to all four parts of medication management process. Moreover, working environment, multiprofessional collaboration, and knowledge and skills of the professionals should be developed. Promoting medication safety in hospitals is an urgent challenge. The study results indicated that computerized patient safety incident reporting systems can provide important qualitative information to improve medication process to be safer.

  18. Rural Hospital Patient Safety Systems Implementation in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Daniel R.; Hewett, John E.; Ge, Bin; Schubert, Shari

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: With heightened attention to medical errors and patient safety, we surveyed Utah and Missouri hospitals to assess the "state of the art" in patient safety systems and identify changes over time. This study examines differences between urban and rural hospitals. Methods: Survey of all acute care hospitals in Utah and…

  19. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensors which will automatically activate the safety shutdown system and stop the engine before the... the temperature sensor in the exhaust gas stream which will automatically activate the safety shutdown... using a wet exhaust conditioner, determine the effectiveness of the temperature sensor in the...

  20. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  1. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening. PMID:26167531

  2. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst.

    PubMed

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  3. Computer Aided Method for System Safety and Reliability Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information...aspects of safety within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time and cost throughout all phases of the system life cycle.” Often there...contributes to systems engineering objectives by applying a set of safety design requirements throughout all life cycle phases of a system, whether

  4. Work system design for patient safety: the SEIPS model

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, P; Hundt, A Schoofs; Karsh, B‐T; Gurses, A P; Alvarado, C J; Smith, M; Brennan, P Flatley

    2006-01-01

    Models and methods of work system design need to be developed and implemented to advance research in and design for patient safety. In this paper we describe how the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model of work system and patient safety, which provides a framework for understanding the structures, processes and outcomes in health care and their relationships, can be used toward these ends. An application of the SEIPS model in one particular care setting (outpatient surgery) is presented and other practical and research applications of the model are described. PMID:17142610

  5. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

  6. Impact of safety management systems on 14 CFR, Part 135 safety performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Matthew J.

    Safety Management Systems (SMS) are currently required at all U.S. scheduled air carriers operating under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 121, but are not currently required for air carriers operating under 14 CFR, Part 135. Therefore, some Part 135 operators adopted SMS, and some did not. This study determined the impact of SMS on 14 CFR, Part 135 operator's safety performance. A simple random sample (SRS) of Part 135 operators was chosen, and then divided into two different categories including operators with, and without, an SMS. The safety performance of each group was measured by the aircraft accident and incident rate of the two groups. SMS databases from International Standard for Business Aircraft Operations (IS-BAO), Wyvern Consulting LLC (WYVERN), and ARGUS International, Inc (ARGUS) were used to determine which Part 135 operators had an SMS. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) databases were used to determine the accident and incident rate of each group. A plus four confidence interval analysis was performed, and it was determined that the operators with an SMS did not have better safety performance than the operators without an SMS. The safety performance of the group with an SMS was then compared before and after SMS implementation. A significance test for comparing two proportions and a plus four confidence interval analysis were performed, and it was determined that the implementation of SMS did improve an operator's safety performance.

  7. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; Sandys, Sean; Shaw, Alan; Zabinsky, Zelda

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  8. Submersible pump installation, methods and safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayh, R.I. III

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a well completion having a hydraulically powered submersible pump with an intake and a discharge disposed within a first well flow conductor, comprising: a. well packer means for forming a fluid seal with the interior of the first well flow conductor at a downhole location to direct formation fluid flow to the pump intake; b. a landing nipple releasable secured to the upper portion of the well packer means; c. a longitudinal passageway extending through the landing nipple; d. a safety valve releasable secured within the longitudinal passageway for controlling fluid flow therethrough; e. means for attaching the submersible pump to the landing nipple above the safety valve; f. the longitudinal passageway providing a portion of the means for directing formation fluid flow to the pump intake; g. the landing nipple further comprising a tubular housing means with the longitudinal passageway extending therethrough; h. locking grooves formed on the interior of the longitudinal passageway intermediate the ends thereof; i. the locking grooves providing means for releasably securing the safety valve within the longitudinal passageway; j. a second flow conductor extending from the well surface and coaxially disposed within the first flow conductor to form an annulus therebetween; and k. the second flow conductor and the annulus cooperating to provide separate flow paths for supplying input power fluid to the submersible pump and for returning fluid discharged from the pump to the well surface.

  9. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  10. Data requirements analysis in support of system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a user-oriented safety data bank is reported and its data requirements are outlined. The information retrieval system employed is described along with the problems involved in its establishment and operation.

  11. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  12. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  13. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  14. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper.

  15. SCWR - Safety Systems and Containment Investigations - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nils-Olov Jonsson

    2004-09-08

    The design of the Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) was reviewed. The general design criteria and safety requirements were specified to provide a basis for the design of the safety systems and the containment. A combination of the most stringent requirements applied today is used. The majority of the effort was devoted to developing the preliminary design of a reactor core cooling system that mitigates the consequences of loss of feedwater events.

  16. Why System Safety Professionals Should Read Accident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety professionals, both researchers and practitioners, who regularly read accident reports reap important benefits. These benefits include an improved ability to separate myths from reality, including both myths about specific accidents and ones concerning accidents in general; an increased understanding of the consequences of unlikely events, which can help inform future designs; a greater recognition of the limits of mathematical models; and guidance on potentially relevant research directions that may contribute to safety improvements in future systems.

  17. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  18. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  19. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  20. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  1. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  2. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  3. Jefferson Lab IEC 61508/61511 Safety PLC Based Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Mahoney, Henry Robertson

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the design of the new 12 GeV Upgrade Personnel Safety System (PSS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The new PSS design is based on the implementation of systems designed to meet international standards IEC61508 and IEC 61511 for programmable safety systems. In order to meet the IEC standards, TJNAF engineers evaluated several SIL 3 Safety PLCs before deciding on an optimal architecture. In addition to hardware considerations, software quality standards and practices must also be considered. Finally, we will discuss R&D that may lead to both high safety reliability and high machine availability that may be applicable to future accelerators such as the ILC. Key words: PLC, Safety, TJNAF, SIL, PSS, PPS, Software, ILC Notice: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  4. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  5. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-08-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity of the model's implementation allows rapid {open_quotes}what if{open_quotes} case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer's data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model's utility and ease of use.

  6. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-08-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity os the model`s implementation allows rapid {open_quotes}what if{open_quotes} case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer`s data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model`s utility and ease of use.

  7. Safety Cases for Global Navigation Satellite Systems' Safety of Life(SOL) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Yepez, Amaya Atencia

    2010-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) have recently been enhanced to provide additional guarantees for the accuracy, integrity, reliability and coverage of their services. These infrastructures are intended to be robust against jamming. They support real-time self-diagnostic error detection and provide end-users with detailed information about precision and integrity. In consequence, they are gradually being introduced into safety-related applications. This paper argues that greater attention needs to be paid to the ways in which these navigation infrastructures are being integrated into the safety cases that support Safety of Life(SoL) applications. In particular, we contrast the significant investments that have been made in analysing the safety of GNSS aviation applications, such as en-route operations and non-precision approaches, with the relative lack of progress in other industries. There is also a need for greater consistency between the safety arguments that support similar GNSS applications. This helps to ensure that safety managers and regulators consider a similar set of hazards when seeking to integrate these new navigation infrastructures into SoL systems. While international aviation organisations have taken important steps to establish communication mechanisms within their industry, the same cannot be said for other industries. The ad hoc nature of the safety arguments supporting many recent proposals creates a danger that technological innovation will outstrip our commitment to mitigate or avoid future hazards. Unless these issues are addressed then accidents involving the first wave of SoL applications will further jeopardise the development of GNSS infrastructures.

  8. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Y. Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G.; Robertson, Michelle M.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges. PMID:25819595

  9. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  10. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  11. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  12. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  13. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-12-28

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  14. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  15. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    PubMed Central

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  16. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 12 CFR 960.3 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates. 960.3 Section 960.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS... housing associates. (a) Housing associates. Each Bank is authorized to issue or confirm on behalf...

  18. 12 CFR 960.2 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... members with liquidity or other funding. (b) Fully secured. A Bank, at the time it issues or confirms a... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of members. 960.2 Section 960.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS...

  19. Future Data Communication Architectures for Safety Critical Aircraft Cabin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhahn, Sven-Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The cabin of modern aircraft is subject to increasing demands for fast reconfiguration and hence flexibility. These demands require studies for new network architectures and technologies of the electronic cabin systems, which consider also weight and cost reductions as well as safety constraints. Two major approaches are in consideration to reduce the complex and heavy wiring harness: the usage of a so called hybrid data bus technology, which enables the common usage of the same data bus for several electronic cabin systems with different safety and security requirements and the application of wireless data transfer technologies for electronic cabin systems.

  20. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  1. Safety characteristics of potential waste transmutation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.

    1993-06-01

    For nuclear waste transmutation to alter significantly the need for geologic disposal of spent fuel from US Light-water reactors (LWRs), about 1.4% of the spent fuel (by mass) must be separated and transmuted. This includes the plutonium, the minor actinides, and four fission products: iodine. technetium, cesium and strontium. Regarding the actinides, fissioning of the plutonium, neptunium, americium, and curium generates a great deal of heat, so much so that most of the plutonium should be used to produce power. However, these actinides have some undesirable neutronic characteristics, and their utilization in reactors or subcritical (proton-accelerator) targets requires either a fast neutronic spectrum or a very high thermal-neutron flux. Transmutation of the fission products is generally by neutron capture, although this is difficult in the case of cesium and strontium. In this paper, various proposed means of transmuting the actinides and fission products are discussed, with the main focus being on the safety characteristics of each approach.

  2. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    DOEpatents

    Darimont, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member's second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock.

  3. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    DOEpatents

    Darimont, D.E.

    1995-10-31

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

  4. Systems Approaches to Surgical Quality and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Charles; Moorthy, Krishna; Sarker, Sudip K.; Chang, Avril; Darzi, Ara W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This approach provides the basis of our research program, which aims to expand operative assessment beyond patient factors and the technical skills of the surgeon; to extend assessment of surgical skills beyond bench models to the operating theater; to provide a basis for assessing interventions; and to provide a deeper understanding of surgical outcomes. Summary Background Data: Research into surgical outcomes has primarily focused on the role of patient pathophysiological risk factors and on the skills of the individual surgeon. However, this approach neglects a wide range of factors that have been found to be of important in achieving safe, high-quality performance in other high-risk environments. The outcome of surgery is also dependent on the quality of care received throughout the patient's stay in hospital and the performance of a considerable number of health professionals, all of whom are influenced by the environment in which they work. Methods: Drawing on the wider literature on safety and quality in healthcare, and recent papers on surgery, this article argues for a much wider assessment of factors that may be relevant to surgical outcome. In particular, we suggest the development of an “operation profile” to capture all the salient features of a surgical operation, including such factors as equipment design and use, communication, team coordination, factors affecting individual performance, and the working environment. Methods of assessing such factors are outlined, and ethical issues and other potential concerns are discussed. PMID:15024308

  5. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The presentation reviews the dependability and safety effort of NASA's Independent Verification and Validation Facility. Topics include: safety engineering process, applications to non-space environment, Phase I overview, process creation, sample SRM artifact, Phase I end result, Phase II model transformation, fault management, and applying Phase II to individual projects.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Garcia, Michael P.; Corley, Douglas A.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P.; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level income The study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings. Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. PMID:28296752

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Garcia, Michael P; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Haas, Jennifer S; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-03-01

    Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings.Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

  8. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  9. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  10. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  11. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  12. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  13. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  14. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  15. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  16. Parents' knowledge about and use of child safety systems.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne W; Polgar, Jan; Patrick, Linda; Stamler, Lynnette

    2006-06-01

    Road crashes are the leading cause of death and injury in children under 14 years of age in Canada, despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints. A survey design was used to examine parental knowledge and perceptions of the use of safety systems for children in 2 communities in the province of Ontario. Parents of children aged newborn to 9 years were recruited from 3 urban/rural school boards and from daycare centres and hospitals. A total of 1,263 parents reported on 2,199 children's use of safety systems. Data analysis revealed that only 68% of children used correct seats for their weight and that as the child advanced in age the rate of misuse increased significantly due to high rates of premature transitioning into safety seats inappropriate for the child's height and weight. The results also revealed that parents had limited knowledge concerning the correct use of safety seats and frequently used non-professional sources of information for vehicle safety information. The authors recommend that nurses develop a comprehensive and systematic strategy to ensure that families understand how to secure children in vehicles using the correct safety seat for the child's height, weight, and age.

  17. Lithium-thionyl chloride cell system safety hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dampier, F. W.

    1985-03-01

    This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell is a critical review of the technical literature pertaining to cell safety and draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on this data. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring during discharge are discussed with particular attention given to unstable SOCl2 reduction intermediates. Potentially hazardous reactions between the various cell components and discharge products or impurities that could occur during electrical or thermal abuse are described and the most hazardous conditions and reactions identified. Design factors influencing the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells, shipping and disposal methods and the toxicity of Li/SOCl2 battery components are additional safety issues that are also addressed.

  18. A Framework for Software Reuse in Safety-Critical System of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Safeware: System Safety and Computers. Addison Wesley, Boston, 1995. 21 V. Basili., K. Dangle., L. Esker ., F. Marotta., Gaining Early Insight into...2006. 65 V. Basili., K. Dangle., L. Esker ., F. Marotta., Gaining Early Insight into Software Safety: Measures of Potential Problems and Risks, in...are: 67 V. Basili., K. Dangle., L. Esker ., F. Marotta., Gaining Early Insight into Software Safety

  19. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-06

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  20. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  1. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell System Safety Hazard Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    d0O0U Sc V . S 4O*2 3il ,N I.V AFWAL-TR-84-2112 * LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELL SYSTEM SAFETY HAZARD ANALYSIS *I F. W. DAMPIER GTE LABORATORIES, INC...BATTERIES 13. ABSTRACT (Continue on rev~erse if neceua-j and identify by block number) --This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell...REACTIONS OCCURRING DURING LOW RATE DISCHARGE OF LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS .......... ..................... 3 2.1 The Major Cell Reactions

  2. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  3. Advanced Control System Increases Helicopter Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    With support and funding from a Phase II NASA SBIR project from Ames Research Center, Hoh Aeronautics Inc. (HAI), of Lomita, California, produced HeliSAS, a low-cost, lightweight, attitude-command-attitude-hold stability augmentation system (SAS) for civil helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. HeliSAS proved itself in over 160 hours of flight testing and demonstrations in a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter, a commercial helicopter popular with news broadcasting and police operations. Chelton Flight Systems, of Boise, Idaho, negotiated with HAI to develop, market, and manufacture HeliSAS, now available as the Chelton HeliSAS Digital Helicopter Autopilot.

  4. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  5. Safety monitoring system for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, A.

    1973-01-01

    System alerts personnel of hazards which may develop while they are performing tests on radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Remedial action is initiated to minimize damage. Five operating conditions are monitored: hot junction temperature, cold junction temperature, thermal shroud coolant flow, vacuum in test chamber, and alpha radiation.

  6. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  7. Safety issues of manipulator systems under computer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andary, James F.; Carter, Ruth C.; Halterman, Karen; Spidaliere, Peter D.; Tasevoli, Michael; Rad, Adrian L.

    1992-11-01

    Since 1986 NASA has been developing a telerobotic system as a part of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project was formed to meet the national objectives of identifying and developing technologies for automation and robotics. The overall approach is to adapt current teleoperational and robotic technologies into a lightweight, dexterous telerobotic device that could operate efficiently and safely in space and that would evolve into an autonomous space robot. The concept behind this device is that it (1) operate in space, a much less structured and more hostile environment than industrial robots normally operate in and (2) perform varied dexterous tasks which increase in complexity with time. The design must also allow for growth and increased capabilities as new technologies become available. These top-level system goals significantly influenced system design, architecture, controls implementation, and manipulator packaging design. If the FTS is to be considered as a credible tool for work in space, its fundamental building blocks must be tested in space. An early development test flight (DTF-1) was conceived to fly as an attached payload on the Shuttle in order to validate the FTS hardware design. While the funding for the FTS was eliminated in September 1991, the DTF-1 system design has been completed with major flight hardware elements in different stages of fabrication and qualification. Safety was a design driver for the DTF-1. System safety engineering was implemented with the system safety requirements and design criteria established by NASA's National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Program and defined in the Safety Policy and Requirements for Payloads Using the Space Transportation System, NSTS, 1700.7B. Satisfying these safety requirements presented significant challenges to the system designers. In an effort to capture some of the knowledge gained from the program, this paper gives an overview of the DTF

  8. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  9. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  10. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  11. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  12. MDS system increases drilling safety and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chevallier, J.; Turner, L. )

    1989-09-01

    There's a great deal of data recorded during drilling operations on rigs these days, but it is seldom well utilized. The operator's company person relies upon mud loggers for collecting and recording most information. The methods used to process and display this information are often inadequate for those who need it the most the driller and toolpusher. Drilling contractor personnel usually have only rudimentary displays of drilling parameters, and practically no serious method of analysis except for daily paper reports. These are cumbersome to use and provide only incomplete data, after the fact. The MDS system, presented in this article, is a new information and alarm network, which rectifies this situation by bringing to the rig, for the first time, the latest in sensor and computer technologies. This system acquires key drilling data on the rig floor, pump room, and return line, and displays it in a clear graphical format to both the driller and the toolpusher in real time. It also provides the toolpusher with a workstation for easy access to the same information for evaluation and planning of the drilling program.

  13. Electronic Clinical Safety Reporting System: A Benefits Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Desmond; Neville, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Background Eastern Health, a large health care organization in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), started a staged implementation of an electronic occurrence reporting system (used interchangeably with “clinical safety reporting system”) in 2008, completing Phase One in 2009. The electronic clinical safety reporting system (CSRS) was designed to replace a paper-based system. The CSRS involves reporting on occurrences such as falls, safety/security issues, medication errors, treatment and procedural mishaps, medical equipment malfunctions, and close calls. The electronic system was purchased from a vendor in the United Kingdom that had implemented the system in the United Kingdom and other places, such as British Columbia. The main objective of the new system was to improve the reporting process with the goal of improving clinical safety. The project was funded jointly by Eastern Health and Canada Health Infoway. Objective The objectives of the evaluation were to: (1) assess the CSRS on achieving its stated objectives (particularly, the benefits realized and lessons learned), and (2) identify contributions, if any, that can be made to the emerging field of electronic clinical safety reporting. Methods The evaluation involved mixed methods, including extensive stakeholder participation, pre/post comparative study design, and triangulation of data where possible. The data were collected from several sources, such as project documentation, occurrence reporting records, stakeholder workshops, surveys, focus groups, and key informant interviews. Results The findings provided evidence that frontline staff and managers support the CSRS, identifying both benefits and areas for improvement. Many benefits were realized, such as increases in the number of occurrences reported, in occurrences reported within 48 hours, in occurrences reported by staff other than registered nurses, in close calls reported, and improved timelines for notification. There was also user satisfaction

  14. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  15. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What makes up a safety...

  16. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What makes up a safety...

  17. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  18. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  20. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-02-27

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel.

  1. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety system control test. 7.103 Section 7.103... control test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prior to testing, perform the tasks specified in § 7.101(a)(1) and... control that might interfere with the evaluation of the operation of the exhaust gas temperature...

  2. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... representatives are included in the rail transit agency's procurement process. ... the rail transit agency to manage safety issues. (d) The process used to control changes to the system... accountability, specified in matrices and/or narrative format. (f) A description of the process used by the...

  3. A System for Integrated Reliability and Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter; Shapiro, Gerald; Hanson, Dave; Kolitz, Stephan; Leong, Frank; Rosch, Gene; Coumeri, Marc; Scheidler, Peter, Jr.; Bonesteel, Charles

    1999-01-01

    We present an integrated reliability and aviation safety analysis tool. The reliability models for selected infrastructure components of the air traffic control system are described. The results of this model are used to evaluate the likelihood of seeing outcomes predicted by simulations with failures injected. We discuss the design of the simulation model, and the user interface to the integrated toolset.

  4. Toxic Substances Registry System Index of Material Safety Data Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The July 1997 revision of the Index of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) is presented. The MSDS lists toxic substances by manufacturer, trade name, stock number, and distributor. The index provides information on hazards, use, and chemical composition of materials stored at KSC.

  5. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

  6. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  7. Functional Safety of Hybrid Laser Safety Systems - How can a Combination between Passive and Active Components Prevent Accidents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, F. P.; Stiehl, T. H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Modern laser systems are widely used in industry due to their excellent flexibility and high beam intensities. This leads to an increased hazard potential, because conventional laser safety barriers only offer a short protection time when illuminated with high laser powers. For that reason active systems are used more and more to prevent accidents with laser machines. These systems must fulfil the requirements of functional safety, e.g. according to IEC 61508, which causes high costs. The safety provided by common passive barriers is usually unconsidered in this context. In the presented approach, active and passive systems are evaluated from a holistic perspective. To assess the functional safety of hybrid safety systems, the failure probability of passive barriers is analysed and added to the failure probability of the active system.

  8. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  9. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  10. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  12. Lightning accommodation systems for wind turbine generator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind turbine safety program identifies the naturally occurring lightning phenomenon as a hazard with the potential to cause loss of program objectives, injure personnel, damage system instrumentation, structure or support equipment and facilities. Several candidate methods of lightning accommodation for each blade were designed, analyzed, and tested by submitting sample blade sections to simulated lightning. Lightning accommodation systems for composite blades were individually developed. Their effectiveness was evaluated by submitting the systems to simulated lightning strikes. The test data were analyzed and system designs were reviewed on the basis of the analysis. This activity is directed at defining design and procedural constraints, requirements for safety devices and warning methods, special procedures, protective equipment and personnel training.

  13. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  14. Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

  15. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period.

  16. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  17. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  19. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  20. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  1. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  2. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  3. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a safety management system meet? The safety management system must: (a) Provide for safe practices in vessel operation... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  4. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.

  5. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc.

  6. European Workshop Industrical Computer Science Systems approach to design for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines on designing systems for safety, developed by the Technical Committee 7 on Reliability and Safety of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems. The focus is on complementing the traditional development process by adding the following four steps: (1) overall safety analysis; (2) analysis of the functional specifications; (3) designing for safety; (4) validation of design. Quantitative assessment of safety is possible by means of a modular questionnaire covering various aspects of the major stages of system development.

  7. Air Force System Safety Handbook, Designing the Safest Possible Systems Consistent with Mission Requirements and Cost Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    PLUS TRAINING IN SYSTEM SAFETY TWO YEARS IN SYSTEM SAFETY OR RELATED DISCIPLINE DESIRED CSP IN SYSTEM SAFETY, PE IN SAFETY OR OTHER* LOW HIGH SCHOOL ...used to describe a safety concern is the high accident potential (HAP). HAPs are events which have a high potential for causing injury , occupational...criteria: It must be shown that the modification can prevent loss of or serious injury to systems or personnel, and this must be agreed upon by the

  8. Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' (Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety) is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document.

  9. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  10. Simulation of the modified K reactor supplementary safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, I.K.; Canas, L.R. ); Peterson, P.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The supplementary safety system (SSS) of the K reactor provides a second line of defense to shut down the reactor if the safety and control rods fail to scram. The SSS was originally designed to inject a neutron poison solution (ink) into the reactor tank via spargers. Recently, concerns arose that the ink inventory might run out before the ink front returned to the moderator during a loss-of-ac-power transient in which the coolant pumps coast down. Thus, a new system has been added to inject additional ink through the pump suctions so that ink will arrive in the core before depletion of the sparger ink. The MODFLOW code was developed to calculate the moderator flow distribution in Savannah River site (SRS) reactors, including the effects of inertia and stratification from buoyancy forces.

  11. Could changes in the wheelchair delivery system improve safety?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R L; Coughlan, S G; Christie, M

    1995-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of wheelchair-related injuries, regulations governing wheelchair safety are almost nonexistent in Canada. The authors believe that, to improve wheelchair safety, a concerted effort by government, manufacturers, purchasing groups, users and clinicians is needed. Health Canada's Health Protection Branch should treat wheelchairs as medical devices (as defined in the Food and Drugs Act 1985) and improve its injury-reporting network. Manufacturers should give a higher priority to safety in wheelchair design, improve their educational materials and formalize postmarketing surveillance. Purchasing groups should try to ensure that they do not stifle innovation in wheelchair design by setting unrealistic reimbursement ceilings and should use their market power more effectively. Users should obtain their wheelchairs in specialized settings, heed safety warnings and make more effective use of litigation when such action is warranted. Clinicians should ensure that patients are equipped with the most appropriate wheelchair for their needs, that they are given adequate training in safe wheelchair use and that they understand the dangers involved. Rapid changes in wheelchair technology and emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of injuries related to wheelchair use suggest that such changes are needed in the wheelchair delivery system. PMID:7489551

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  13. Safety Analysis of Heterogeneous-Multiprocessor Control System Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California LD 00 N I DTIC G OE ECTE THESIS SAFETY ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS-MULTPROCESSOR CONTROL SYSTEM SOFTWARE...NAMEOFMONIURING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School (If Applicable) Naval Postgraduae- -- School 37 _ • 6c- ADDRESS (city, state, and ZIP code) 7b. ADDRESS...partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December, 1990

  14. Toxic Substances Registry System. Index of Material Safety Data Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The October 1994 revision of the KSC Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSD's) is presented. The listed MSD's which were submitted to the TSRS are maintained by the Base Operations Contractors of the Biomedical Operations and Research Office of KSC. The purpose of the index is to provide a means of accessing information on the hazards associated with the toxic and otherwise hazardous chemicals stored and used at KSC. Indices are provided for manufacturers, trademarks, and stock numbers.

  15. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  16. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  17. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  18. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  19. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  20. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  1. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  2. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  4. Safety inspections in construction sites: A systems thinking perspective.

    PubMed

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-08-01

    Although safety inspections carried out by government officers are important for the prevention of accidents, there is little in-depth knowledge on their outcomes and processes leading to these. This research deals with this gap by using systems thinking (ST) as a lens for obtaining insights into safety inspections in construction sites. Thirteen case studies of sites with prohibited works were carried out, discussing how four attributes of ST were used in the inspections. The studies were undertaken over 6 years, and sources of evidence involved participant observation, direct observations, analysis of documents and interviews. Two complementary ways for obtaining insights into inspections, based on ST, were identified: (i) the design of the study itself needs to be in line with ST; and (ii) data collection and analysis should focus on the agents involved in the inspections, the interactions between agents, the constraints and opportunities faced by agents, the outcomes of interactions, and the recommendations for influencing interactions.

  5. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  6. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Analytical methodology for safety validation of computer controlled subsystems. Volume 2. Development of a safety validation methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luedeke, J.F.

    1995-09-01

    The evolution in the implementations of safety critical systems in the railroad industry from simple vital relays to more complex computer-based configurations has raised many issues among users as well as the Federal Railraod Authority (FRA). Foremost among these issues is the need to assure similar or improved levels of safety those currently provided by conventional fail-safe technology. This concern is heightened in newer high-speed rail and maglev systems which operate or are being designed to operate at considerably higher speeds and levels of automation than conventional rail systems. The overall objective of this program was to develop a safety validation methodology that could be considered (by the FRA) for use as a standard for manufacturers and users to help ensure the safe operation of safety critical computer-based system.

  7. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  8. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) B Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. B Appendix B to Part 1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) 1. General. This Appendix B contains information on the Fire-safety Detection...

  9. 36 CFR Appendix B to Part 1234 - Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) B Appendix B to Part 1234 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... FACILITIES Pt. 1234, App. B Appendix B to Part 1234—Alternative Certified Fire-Safety Detection and Suppression System(s) 1. General. This Appendix B contains information on the Fire-safety Detection...

  10. Photovoltaic system criteria documents. Volume 5: Safety criteria for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, John C.; Billitti, Joseph W.; Tallon, John M.

    1979-01-01

    Methodology is described for determining potential safety hazards involved in the construction and operation of photovoltaic power systems and provides guidelines for the implementation of safety considerations in the specification, design and operation of photovoltaic systems. Safety verification procedures for use in solar photovoltaic systems are established.

  11. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... control of all documents and data relevant to the safety management system. (2) Documents are available at... pollution prevention activities (1) Periodic evaluation of the safety management system's efficiency and... safety management system have? 96.250 Section 96.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  12. 76 FR 12300 - Safety Management System for Certificated Airports; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 139 RIN 2120-AJ38 Safety Management System for Certificated... safety management system (SMS) for its entire airfield environment (including movement and non- movement...: Background On October 7, 2010, the FAA published Notice No. 10-14, entitled ``Safety Management System...

  13. 75 FR 76928 - Safety Management System for Certificated Airports; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 139 RIN 2120-AJ38 Safety Management System for Certificated... certificate holder to establish a safety management system (SMS) for its entire airfield environment... ``Safety Management System for Certificated Airports'' (75 FR 62008). Comments to that document were to...

  14. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  15. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.240 What functional... operation of the company and vessel(s) safety management system; and (g) Procedures and processes for management review of company internal audit reports and correction of non-conformities that are reported...

  16. 33 CFR 96.240 - What functional requirements must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.240 What functional... operation of the company and vessel(s) safety management system; and (g) Procedures and processes for management review of company internal audit reports and correction of non-conformities that are reported...

  17. 46 CFR 62.35-50 - Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for specific systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for... Systems § 62.35-50 Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for specific systems. The minimum instrumentation, alarms, and safety controls required for specific types of systems are listed in Table...

  18. Rearrangement of boundary, stand-by, and fluid lipids during the formation of two-dimensional crystals of Ca 2+-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakonyi, G.; Dux, L.; Horváth, L. I.

    1999-05-01

    Ca 2+-transport ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal and carp abdominal muscle is essential for the removal of large amounts of Ca 2+ ions during the relaxation of the muscle. As in the case of other lipid-protein systems, fluid lipid and motionally restricted boundary lipid sites lead to multicomponent spin label EPR spectra. Having subtracted the dominating fluid component a two-component lineshape is recovered as a subtraction endpoint, suggesting the presence of a third, motionally less restricted stand-by lipid shell as fraction of boundary lipids. On adding 5 mM decavanadate the phosphate binding site is blocked and the protein dimers form a two dimensional array, at least in the case of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit. During two-dimensional crystal formation of rabbit Ca 2+-ATPase an increase of lipids was found in boundary and stand-by shells. No such change was observed in the case of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of carp abdominal muscle.

  19. Operating Standby Redundant Controller to Improve Voltage Source Inverter Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    was built with two FPGAs programmed using XILINX System Generator and ISE foundation with a discrete algorithm representing the controller...additions to SIMULINK that generate the VHDL code required to load the design on the FPGA while the SIMULINK blocks provided a mathematical representation...that generated the code for the FPGA and the SIMULINK blocks that simulated the behavior of the external elements in the hardware, is shown in Figure 23

  20. Protecting worker health and safety using remote handling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Merrill, R.D.; Reed, R.K.

    1995-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently developing and installing two large-scale, remotely controlled systems for use in improving worker health and safety by minimizing exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials. The first system is a full-scale liquid feed system for use in delivering chemical reagents to LLNL`s existing aqueous low-level radioactive and mixed waste treatment facility (Tank Farm). The Tank Farm facility is used to remove radioactive and toxic materials in aqueous wastes prior to discharge to the City of Livermore Water Reclamation Plant (LWRP), in accordance with established discharge limits. Installation of this new reagent feed system improves operational safety and process efficiency by eliminating the need to manually handle reagents used in the treatment processes. This was done by installing a system that can inject precisely metered amounts of various reagents into the treatment tanks and can be controlled either remotely or locally via a programmable logic controller (PLC). The second system uses a robotic manipulator to remotely handle, characterize, process, sort, and repackage hazardous wastes containing tritium. This system uses an IBM-developed gantry robot mounted within a special glove box enclosure designed to isolate tritiated wastes from system operators and minimize the potential for release of tritium to the atmosphere. Tritiated waste handling is performed remotely, using the robot in a teleoperational mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive operations. The system is compatible with an existing portable gas cleanup unit designed to capture any gas-phase tritium inadvertently released into the glove box during waste handling.

  1. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... system security plan. 659.25 Section 659.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... and system security plan. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to conduct an annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the...

  2. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... system security plan. 659.25 Section 659.25 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... and system security plan. (a) The oversight agency shall require the rail transit agency to conduct an annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the...

  3. Supplementary safety system 1/4 scale testing

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, R.L.; Paik, I.K.

    1993-09-01

    During the course of updating the K-Reactor Safety Analysis Report Chapter 15 in 1990, it was identified that the current Supplementary Safety System (SSS) may not be adequate in protecting the reactor during the process water pump coastdown initiated by a loss of AC power when the safety rods are assumed to fail. A SSS modification project was initiated to add an additional ink injection pathway near the pump suction. In addition, the Department of Energy raised a question on the thermal buoyancy effects on moderator flow pattern and ink dispersion in the moderator space. The development and documentation of a two-dimensional code called MODFLOW was undertaken to describe the problem. This report discusses the results of the moderator flow and ink (Gadolinium Poison Solution - GPS) dispersion tests designed to provide qualified data for validation and benchmarking of the MODFLOW computer code with the secondary objectives being the development of concentration profiles and video footage of simulated GPS dispersion under steady-state and transient flow conditions.

  4. Radiation Safety System for Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J

    2004-03-12

    Radiation Safety System (RSS) at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory is summarized and reviewed. The RSS, which is designed to protect people from prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operation, consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Beam Containment System (BCS). The ACS prevents people from being exposed to the lethal radiation level inside the shielding housing (called a PPS area at SLAC). The ACS for a PPS area consists of the shielding housing, beam inhibiting devices, and a standard entry module at each entrance. The BCS protects people from the prompt radiation hazards outside a PPS area under both normal and abnormal beam loss situations. The BCS consists of the active power (current/energy) limiting devices, beam stoppers, shielding, and an active radiation monitor system. The policies and practices in setting up the RSS at SLAC are illustrated.

  5. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  6. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) doorstop samplecarrier system

    SciTech Connect

    Obrien, J.H.

    1997-02-24

    The Doorstop Sample Carrier System consists of a Type B certified N-55 overpack, U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) specification or performance-oriented 208-L (55-gal) drum (DOT 208-L drum), and Doorstop containers. The purpose of the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is to transport samples onsite for characterization. This safety analysis report for packaging (SARP) provides the analyses and evaluation necessary to demonstrate that the Doorstop Sample Carrier System meets the requirements and acceptance criteria for both Hanford Site normal transport conditions and accident condition events for a Type B package. This SARP also establishes operational, acceptance, maintenance, and quality assurance (QA) guidelines to ensure that the method of transport for the Doorstop Sample Carrier System is performed safely in accordance with WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping.

  7. Advancing a sociotechnical systems approach to workplace safety – developing the conceptual framework

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Hancock, Peter; Leveson, Nancy; Noy, Ian; Sznelwar, Laerte; van Hootegem, Geert

    2015-01-01

    Traditional efforts to deal with the enormous problem of workplace safety have proved insufficient, as they have tended to neglect the broader sociotechnical environment that surrounds workers. Here, we advocate a sociotechnical systems approach that describes the complex multi-level system factors that contribute to workplace safety. From the literature on sociotechnical systems, complex systems and safety, we develop a sociotechnical model of workplace safety with concentric layers of the work system, socio-organisational context and the external environment. The future challenges that are identified through the model are highlighted. Practitioner Summary: Understanding the environmental, organisational and work system factors that contribute to workplace safety will help to develop more effective and integrated solutions to deal with persistent workplace safety problems. Solutions to improve workplace safety need to recognise the broad sociotechnical system and the respective interactions between the system elements and levels. PMID:25831959

  8. Quantitative Evaluation of the Effect on System Safety Engineer Training Course for the Aerospace Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekita, Ryuichi; Yamada, Shu

    The system safety has been being applied in Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) ‧s launch vehicle and satellite development projects. The engineering state of system safety has some room for improvement. Therefore, JAXA is continuously working for system safety improvement. The system safety engineer training course is the top priority for the improvement. This paper represents the practical training evaluation way using Kirkpatrick‧s 4-level approach and the actual results in JAXA system safety engineer training course. Also this paper represents the importance of the engineer training evaluation as a part of PDCA cycle in the industry field.

  9. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Jan. 1993 Revision of the KSC Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) Index of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) is presented. The listed MSDS's reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substance Registry Data Base maintained by the Base Operations Contractors of the Biomedical Operations and Research Office of KSC. The purpose of the index is to provide a means of accessing information on the hazards associated with the toxic and otherwise hazardous chemicals stored and used at KSC. Indices are provided for manufacturers, trademarks, and stock numbers.

  10. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Oct. 1992 Revision of the KSC Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) Index of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) is presented. The listed MSDS's reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substance Registry Data Base maintained by the Base Operations Contractors of the Biomedical Operations and Research Office of KSC. The purpose of the index is to provide a means of accessing information on the hazards associated with the toxic and otherwise hazardous chemicals stored and used at KSC. Indices are provided for manufacturers, trademarks, and stock numbers.

  11. Safety-Enclosure System For MOCVD Process Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singletery, James, Jr.; Velasquez, Hugo; Warner, Joseph

    1995-01-01

    Safety-enclosure system filled with nitrogen surrounds reaction chamber in which metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) performed. Designed to protect against explosions and/or escaping toxic gases and particulates. Gas-purification subsystem ensures during loading and unloading of process materials, interior of MOCVD chamber exposed to less than 1 ppm of oxygen and less than 5 ppm of water in nitrogen atmosphere. Toxic byproducts of MOCVD process collected within inert atmosphere. Enclosure strong enough to contain any fragments in unlikely event of explosion.

  12. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Jul. 1992 Revision of the KSC Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) Index of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) is presented. The listed MSDS's reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substance Registry Data Base maintained by the Base Operations Contractors of the Biomedical Operations and Research Office of KSC. The purpose of the index is to provide a means of accessing information on the hazards associated with the toxic and otherwise hazardous chemicals stored and used at KSC. Indices are provided for manufacturers, trademarks, and stock numbers.

  13. Missile tracking and range safety: Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowgiallo, David J.; Rauen, Stephen; Peters, Wendy M.; Polisensky, Emil J.

    2013-05-01

    The tracking of missiles at close range proximity has been an ongoing challenge for many launch environments. The ability to provide accurate missile trajectory information is imperative for range safety and early termination of flight. In an effort to provide a potential solution to tracking issues that have plagued many traditional techniques, the Tracking Interferometer Pathfinder System (TIPS) was developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. The paper herein describes the design, field test, and results of an interferometer deployed for missile tracking.

  14. Integrating Windblown Dust Forecasts with Public Safety and Health Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in real-time prediction of desert dust emissions and downstream plume concentrations (~ 3.5 km near-surface spatial resolution) succeed to the point of challenging public safety and public health services to beta test a dust storm warning and advisory system in lowering risks of highway and airline accidents and illnesses such as asthma and valley fever. Key beta test components are: high-resolution models of dust emission, entrainment and diffusion, integrated with synoptic weather observations and forecasts; satellite-based detection and monitoring of soil properties on the ground and elevated above; high space and time resolution for health surveillance and transportation advisories.

  15. Reviewing real-time performance of nuclear reactor safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to recommend regulatory guidance for reviewers examining real-time performance of computer-based safety systems used in nuclear power plants. Three areas of guidance are covered in this report. The first area covers how to determine if, when, and what prototypes should be required of developers to make a convincing demonstration that specific problems have been solved or that performance goals have been met. The second area has recommendations for timing analyses that will prove that the real-time system will meet its safety-imposed deadlines. The third area has description of means for assessing expected or actual real-time performance before, during, and after development is completed. To ensure that the delivered real-time software product meets performance goals, the paper recommends certain types of code-execution and communications scheduling. Technical background is provided in the appendix on methods of timing analysis, scheduling real-time computations, prototyping, real-time software development approaches, modeling and measurement, and real-time operating systems.

  16. A novel standby mode detection scheme with light load efficiency improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiajun; Chen, Houpeng; Wang, Qian; Li, Xi; Fan, Xi; Miao, Jie; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    A novel standby mode scheme with light load efficiency improvement is proposed in this paper, which is especially suitable for modern boost dc-dc converters powered by Li-ion battery. The proposed output load estimator is able to accurately reflect the output load current under light load condition once inductor current enters in the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Our experimental results show that the proposed boost dc-dc converter can automatically select approximate PWM switching frequency according to the detected information of the proposed output load estimator, regardless of power supply and inductor value.

  17. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  18. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam; Callahan, Michael R.; Okon, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible".1 To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) chose a development approach that explicitly incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 preliminary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigation strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  19. Cascade Distillation System Design for Safety and Mission Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Callahan, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Per the NASA Human Health, Life Support and Habitation System Technology Area 06 report "crewed missions venturing beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) will require technologies with improved reliability, reduced mass, self-sufficiency, and minimal logistical needs as an emergency or quick-return option will not be feasible." To meet this need, the development team of the second generation Cascade Distillation System (CDS 2.0) opted a development approach that explicitely incorporate consideration of safety, mission assurance, and autonomy. The CDS 2.0 prelimnary design focused on establishing a functional baseline that meets the CDS core capabilities and performance. The critical design phase is now focused on incorporating features through a deliberative process of establishing the systems failure modes and effects, identifying mitigative strategies, and evaluating the merit of the proposed actions through analysis and test. This paper details results of this effort on the CDS 2.0 design.

  20. System safety analysis of well-control equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.H.; Roche, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    In the wake of recent disasters in the oil and gas E and P and petrochemical industries, the importance of system safety analysis is becoming recognized. Reliability assessment techniques, which were developed in the nuclear-power-generation and defense industries, are potentially valuable tools for engineers in the offshore oil and gas business. BOP's and their control systems used on offshore rigs are typically made up of several subsystems. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and electronic modules are interfaced to provide functional control and monitoring of the mechanical BOP's and valves. Two techniques are used for reliability analysis of a blowout preventer (BOP) and a hydraulic control system. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) examines each part and the consequences of its malfunction. Fault tree analysis (FTA) traces undesired events to their causes. Reliability calculations and data sources are addressed.

  1. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety management system have? 96.250 Section 96.250 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... reports must a safety management system have? The documents and reports required for a safety management... vessel(s) (1) Have direct access to communicate with the highest levels of the company and with...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety-system testing and records. 250.1630 Section 250.1630 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.1630 Safety-system testing and records. (a) Inspection and testing. You must inspect...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety-system testing and records. 250.1630 Section 250.1630 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.1630 Safety-system testing and records. (a) Inspection and testing. You must inspect...

  4. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety-system testing and records. 250.1630 Section 250.1630 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... § 250.1630 Safety-system testing and records. (a) Inspection and testing. You must inspect...

  5. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  6. System interface for an integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) for vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  7. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  8. Proposed system safety design and test requirements for the microlaser ordnance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltz, Barb A.; Waldo, Dale F.

    1993-01-01

    Safety for pyrotechnic ignition systems is becoming a major concern for the military. In the past twenty years, stray electromagnetic fields have steadily increased during peacetime training missions and have dramatically increased during battlefield missions. Almost all of the ordnance systems in use today depend on an electrical bridgewire for ignition. Unfortunately, the bridgewire is the cause of the majority of failure modes. The common failure modes include the following: broken bridgewires; transient RF power, which induces bridgewire heating; and cold temperatures, which contracts the explosive mix away from the bridgewire. Finding solutions for these failure modes is driving the costs of pyrotechnic systems up. For example, analyses are performed to verify that the system in the environment will not see more energy than 20 dB below the 'No-fire' level. Range surveys are performed to determine the operational, storage, and transportation RF environments. Cryogenic tests are performed to verify the bridgewire to mix interface. System requirements call for 'last minute installation,' 'continuity checks after installation,' and rotating safety devices to 'interrupt the explosive train.' As an alternative, MDESC has developed a new approach based upon our enabling laser diode technology. We believe that Microlaser initiated ordnance offers a unique solution to the bridgewire safety concerns. For this presentation, we will address, from a system safety viewpoint, the safety design and the test requirements for a Microlaser ordnance system. We will also review how this system could be compliant to MIL-STD-1576 and DOD-83578A and the additional necessary requirements.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  10. Food Safety and Quality. Uniform, Risk-Based Inspection System Needed to Ensure Safe Food Supply,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Concerned about the effectiveness of the federal food safety inspection system, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House...federal resources for inspection, and (3) agencies are effectively coordinating their food safety and quality inspection efforts.

  11. Improvement of the safety systems in cell separators. The new safety concept for the cell separator AS 104 (Fresenius).

    PubMed

    Neumann, H J; Meisberger, A; Mathieu, B

    1987-09-01

    The new, extended safety requirements for cell separators call for a new generation of machines to address current safety needs. In order to ensure safe treatment, the complete safety concept is of decisive importance - this includes closed seal-less systems, continuous operation, fractions collected externally to the centrifuge, and pump tubings, connections and clamps which are color and direction coded. 'Human failure' as a cause of fault should be excluded for these highly technical appliances - for example, through the use of 'fail-safe' circuits, drip-controlled ACD flow by a separate adjustable pump, detection of damages to blood components by hemolysis control.

  12. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2016-06-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  13. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  14. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries.

  15. Monitoring system of arch bridge for safety network management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Bong Chul; Yoo, Young Jun; Lee, Chin Hyung; Park, Ki Tae; Hwang, Yoon Koog

    2010-03-01

    Korea has constructed the safety management network monitoring test systems for the civil infrastructure since 2006 which includes airport structure, irrigation structure, railroad structure, road structure, and underground structure. Bridges among the road structure include the various superstructure types which are Steel box girder bridge, suspension bridge, PSC-box-girder bridge, and arch bridge. This paper shows the process of constructing the real-time monitoring system for the arch bridge and the measured result by the system. The arch type among various superstructure types has not only the structural efficiency but the visual beauty, because the arch type superstructure makes full use of the feature of curve. The main measuring points of arch bridges composited by curved members make a difference to compare with the system of girder bridges composited by straight members. This paper also shows the method to construct the monitoring system that considers the characteristic of the arch bridge. The system now includes strain gauges and thermometers, and it will include various sensor types such as CCTV, accelerometers and so on additionally. For the long term and accuracy monitoring, the latest optical sensors and equipments are applied to the system.

  16. Safety management of a complex R and D ground operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management was developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated-area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  17. Safety management of a complex R&D ground operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, J. F.; Maurer, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A perspective on safety program management has been developed for a complex R&D operating system, such as the NASA-Lewis Research Center. Using a systems approach, hazardous operations are subjected to third-party reviews by designated area safety committees and are maintained under safety permit controls. To insure personnel alertness, emergency containment forces and employees are trained in dry-run emergency simulation exercises. The keys to real safety effectiveness are top management support and visibility of residual risks.

  18. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...: flight termination system; command control system; tracking; telemetry; communications; flight safety... demonstration of the compatibility of the onboard launch vehicle flight termination system with the command control system. (7) Flight termination system component storage, operating, and service life. A......

  19. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...: flight termination system; command control system; tracking; telemetry; communications; flight safety... demonstration of the compatibility of the onboard launch vehicle flight termination system with the command control system. (7) Flight termination system component storage, operating, and service life. A......

  20. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...: flight termination system; command control system; tracking; telemetry; communications; flight safety... demonstration of the compatibility of the onboard launch vehicle flight termination system with the command control system. (7) Flight termination system component storage, operating, and service life. A......

  1. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  2. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Van B; Spampinato, Philip Thomas

    2007-09-01

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  3. Flying Standby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    The plight of graduate assistants in the academy has repeatedly made headlines in recent years. Low pay, long hours, numerous teaching responsibilities and few if any health benefits have led these students to strategize, and in some cases unionize, to improve their working conditions. But many of these teaching assistants have discovered that…

  4. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  5. Equivalency Evaluation between IAEA Safety Guidelines and Codes and Standards for Computer-Based Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, S.H.; Kim, DAI. I.; Park, H.S.; Kim, B.R.; Kang, Y.D.; Oh, S.H.

    2002-07-01

    Computer based systems are used in safety related applications in safety critical applications as well as safety related applications, such as reactor protection or actuation of safety features, certain functions of the process control and monitoring system. In this context, the IAEA released the safety standard series, NS-G-1.11 (hereafter: IAEA Guideline), 'Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in NPPs', in 2000 as a guideline for evaluating the software of digitalized computer based system applied in instrumentation and control system of nuclear plants. This paper discusses about the equivalency between IAEA Guideline and codes and standards adopted by Korea Institute Nuclear Safety (hereafter: KINS Guideline) as regulatory basis. (authors)

  6. A system safety model for developmental aircraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amberboy, E. J.; Stokeld, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Basic tenets of safety as applied to developmental aircraft programs are presented. The integration of safety into the project management aspects of planning, organizing, directing and controlling is illustrated by examples. The basis for project management use of safety and the relationship of these management functions to 'real-world' situations is presented. The rationale which led to the safety-related project decision and the lessons learned as they may apply to future projects are presented.

  7. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  8. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  9. Software System Safety and the NASA Aeronautics Blueprint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. Michael; Hayhurst, Kelly J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Blueprint lays out a research agenda for the Agency s aeronautics program. The word software appears only four times in this Blueprint, but the critical importance of safe and correct software to the fulfillment of the proposed research is evident on almost every page. Most of the technology solutions proposed to address challenges in aviation are software dependent technologies. Of the fifty-two specific technology solutions described in the Blueprint, forty-one depend, at least in part, on software for success. For thirty-five of these forty-one, software is not only critical to success, but also to human safety. That is, implementing the technology solutions will require using software in such a way that it may, if not specified, designed, and implemented properly, lead to fatal accidents. These results have at least two implications for the research based on the Blueprint: (1) knowledge about the current state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in software engineering and software system safety is essential, and (2) research into current unsolved problems in these software disciplines is also essential.

  10. The dual axis radiographic hydrodynamic test (DARHT) facility personnel safety system (PSS) control system

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquez, Edward B

    2008-01-01

    The mission of the Dual Axis Radiograph Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT) Facility is to conduct experiments on dynamic events of extremely dense materials. The PSS control system is designed specifically to prevent personnel from becoming exposed to radiation and explosive hazards during machine operations and/or the firing site operation. This paper will outline the Radiation Safety System (RSS) and the High Explosive Safety System (HESS) which are computer-controlled sets of positive interlocks, warning devices, and other exclusion mechanisms that together form the PSS.

  11. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  12. Safety Psychology Applicating on Coal Mine Safety Management Based on Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Baoyue; Chen, Fei

    In recent years, with the increase of intensity of coal mining, a great number of major accidents happen frequently, the reason mostly due to human factors, but human's unsafely behavior are affected by insecurity mental control. In order to reduce accidents, and to improve safety management, with the help of application security psychology, we analyse the cause of insecurity psychological factors from human perception, from personality development, from motivation incentive, from reward and punishment mechanism, and from security aspects of mental training , and put forward countermeasures to promote coal mine safety production,and to provide information for coal mining to improve the level of safety management.

  13. Spaceflight Ground Support Equipment Reliability & System Safety Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Rene; Riddlebaugh, Jeffrey; Brinkman, John; Wilkinson, Myron

    2012-01-01

    Presented were Reliability Analysis, consisting primarily of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), and System Safety Analysis, consisting of Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA), performed to ensure that the CoNNeCT (Communications, Navigation, and Networking re- Configurable Testbed) Flight System was safely and reliably operated during its Assembly, Integration and Test (AI&T) phase. A tailored approach to the NASA Ground Support Equipment (GSE) standard, NASA-STD-5005C, involving the application of the appropriate Requirements, S&MA discipline expertise, and a Configuration Management system (to retain a record of the analysis and documentation) were presented. Presented were System Block Diagrams of selected GSE and the corresponding FMEA, as well as the PHAs. Also discussed are the specific examples of the FMEAs and PHAs being used during the AI&T phase to drive modifications to the GSE (via "redlining" of test procedures, and the placement of warning stickers to protect the flight hardware) before being interfaced to the Flight System. These modifications were necessary because failure modes and hazards were identified during the analysis that had not been properly mitigated. Strict Configuration Management was applied to changes (whether due to upgrades or expired calibrations) in the GSE by revisiting the FMEAs and PHAs to reflect the latest System Block Diagrams and Bill Of Material. The CoNNeCT flight system has been successfully assembled, integrated, tested, and shipped to the launch site without incident. This demonstrates that the steps taken to safeguard the flight system when it was interfaced to the various GSE were successful.

  14. 23 CFR 973.212 - Indian lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indian lands safety management system (SMS). 973.212... HIGHWAYS MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS PERTAINING TO THE BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS AND THE INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Bureau of Indian Affairs Management Systems § 973.212 Indian lands safety management system...

  15. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  16. 23 CFR 972.212 - Federal lands safety management system (SMS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal lands safety management system (SMS). 972.212... HIGHWAYS FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Fish and Wildlife Service Management Systems § 972.212 Federal lands safety management system (SMS). In addition to the requirements provided in §...

  17. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  18. Aircraft as adaptive nonlinear system which must be in the adaptational maximum zone for safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ignative, M.; Simatos, N.; Sivasundaram, S.

    1994-12-31

    Safety is a main problem in aircraft. We are considering this problem from the point of view related to existence of the adaptational maximum in complex developing systems. Safety space of aircraft parameters are determined. This space is transformed to different regimes of flight, when one engine malfunctions etc., are considered. Also it is shown that maximum safety is in adaptational maximum zone.

  19. 30 CFR 250.1630 - Safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... components, and the following: (1) Safety relief valves on the natural gas feed system for power plant... source. (2) The following safety devices (excluding electronic pressure transmitters and level sensors... and level safety low controls. (3) The following electronic pressure transmitters and level...

  20. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  1. Safety System for Controlling Fluid Flow into a Suction Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A safety system includes a sleeve fitted within a pool's suction line at the inlet thereof. An open end of the sleeve is approximately aligned with the suction line's inlet. The sleeve terminates with a plate that resides within the suction line. The plate has holes formed therethrough. A housing defining a plurality of distinct channels is fitted in the sleeve so that the distinct channels lie within the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels has a first opening on one end thereof and a second opening on another end thereof. The second openings reside in the sleeve. Each of the distinct channels is at least approximately three feet in length. The first openings are in fluid communication with the water in the pool, and are distributed around a periphery of an area of the housing that prevents coverage of all the first openings when a human interacts therewith.

  2. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases. supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  3. The Art World's Concept of Negative Space Applied to System Safety Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Tools from several different disciplines can improve system safety management. This paper relates the Art World with our system safety world, showing useful art schools of thought applied to system safety management, developing an art theory-system safety bridge. This bridge is then used to demonstrate relations with risk management, the legal system, personnel management and basic management (establishing priorities). One goal of this presentation/paper is simply to be a fun diversion from the many technical topics presented during the conference.

  4. SITE ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    E.P. McCann

    1999-04-16

    The Site Electrical Power System receives and distributes utility power to all North Portal site users. The major North Portal users are the Protected Area including the subsurface facility and Balance of Plant areas. The system is remotely monitored and controlled from the Surface Operations Monitoring and Control System. The system monitors power quality and provides the capability to transfer between Off-Site Utility and standby power (including dedicated safeguards and security power). Standby power is only distributed to selected loads for personnel safety and essential operations. Security power is only distributed to essential security operations. The standby safeguards and security power is independent from all other site power. The system also provides surface lighting, grounding grid, and lightning protection for the North Portal. The system distributes power during construction, operation, caretaker, and closure phases of the repository. The system consists of substation equipment (disconnect switches, breakers, transformers and grounding equipment) and power distribution cabling from substation to the north portal switch gear building. Additionally, the system includes subsurface facility substation (located on surface), switch-gear, standby diesel generators, underground duct banks, power cables and conduits, switch-gear building and associated distribution equipment for power distribution. Each area substation distributes power to the electrical loads and includes the site grounding, site lighting and lightning protection equipment. The site electrical power system distributes power of sufficient quantity and quality to meet users demands. The Site Electrical Power System interfaces with the North Portal surface systems requiring electrical power. The system interfaces with the Subsurface Electrical Distribution System which will supply power to the underground facilities from the North Portal. Power required for the South Portal and development side

  5. Health and safety management system audit reliability pilot project.

    PubMed

    Dyjack, D T; Redinger, C F; Ridge, R S

    2003-01-01

    This pilot study assessed occupational health and safety (OHS) management system audit finding reliability using a modified test-retest method. Two industrial hygienists with similar training and education conducted four, 1-day management system audits in four dissimilar organizational environments. The researchers examined four auditable sections (employee participation, training, controls, and communications) contained in a publicly available OHS management system assessment instrument. At each site, 102 auditable clauses were evaluated using a progressive 6-point scale. The team examined both the consistency of and agreement between the scores of the two auditors. Consistency was evaluated by calculating the Pearson r correlations for the two auditors' scores at each site and for each section within each site. Pearson correlations comparing overall scores for each site were all very low, ranging from 0.206 to 0.543. Training and communication system assessments correlated the highest, whereas employee participation and control system scores correlated the least. To measure agreement, t-tests were first calculated to determine whether the differences were statistically significant. Aggregate mean scores for two of the four sites were significantly different. Of the 16 total sections evaluated (i.e., 4 sections per site), seven scores were significantly different. Finally, the agreement of the scores between the two auditors for the four sites was evaluated by calculating two types of intraclass correlation coefficients, all of which failed to meet the minimum requirement for agreement. These findings suggest that opportunities for improving the reliability of the instrument and the audit process exist. Future research should include governmental and commercial OHS program assessments and related environmental management systems and their attendant audit protocols.

  6. Four Pillars for Improving the Quality of Safety-Critical Software-Reliant Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    the use of ISO 9001 /CMMI®,1 the suite of ISO -IEC SC 7 process standards, and standards and practices specific to the certification of safety...Four Pillars for Improving the Quality of Safety-Critical Software- Reliant Systems Studies of safety-critical software-reliant systems...many system level related to operational quality attributes, and 80% of these defects are discovered late in the development life cycle [Redman

  7. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... environmental laws or regulations such as those related to pollution abatement or human health and the... of power or other utility services supplied to the location, or natural events such as severe weather.... (c) Covered delay. Each Standby Support Contract shall include a provision for the payment of...

  8. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental laws or regulations such as those related to pollution abatement or human health and the... of power or other utility services supplied to the location, or natural events such as severe weather.... (c) Covered delay. Each Standby Support Contract shall include a provision for the payment of...

  9. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Special Situations... spent on standby duty is hours of work if, for work-related reasons, the employee is restricted by official order to a designated post of duty and is assigned to be in a state of readiness to perform...

  10. Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

  11. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated with the Technical Challenges of the System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) System-Wide Safety and Assurance Technologies (SSAT) Project asked the AvSP Systems and Portfolio Analysis Team to identify SSAT-related trends. SSAT had four technical challenges: advance safety assurance to enable deployment of NextGen systems; automated discovery of precursors to aviation safety incidents; increasing safety of human-automation interaction by incorporating human performance, and prognostic algorithm design for safety assurance. This report reviews incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) for system-component-failure- or-malfunction- (SCFM-) related and human-factor-related incidents for commercial or cargo air carriers (Part 121), commuter airlines (Part 135), and general aviation (Part 91). The data was analyzed by Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) part, phase of flight, SCFM category, human factor category, and a variety of anomalies and results. There were 38 894 SCFM-related incidents and 83 478 human-factorrelated incidents analyzed between January 1993 and April 2011.

  12. Information system equality for food security--implementation of the food safety control system in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaun C; Hsu, Guoo-Shyng Wang; Chiu, Chihwei P

    2009-01-01

    Food security plays a central role in governing agricultural policies in Taiwan. In addition to overuse or the illegal use of pesticide, meat leanness promoters, animal drugs and melamine in the food supply; as well as foodborne illness draws the greatest public concern due to incidents that occur every year in Taiwan. The present report demonstrates the implementation of a food safety control system in Taiwan. In order to control foodborne outbreaks effectively, the central government of the Department of Health of Taiwan launched the food safety control system which includes both the good hygienic practice (GHP) and the HACCP plan, in the last decade. From 1998 to the present, 302 food affiliations that implemented the system have been validated and accredited by a well-established audit system. The implementation of a food safety control system in compliance with international standards is of crucial importance to ensure complete safety and the high quality of foods, not only for domestic markets, but also for international trade.

  13. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard vessels, including preparation for... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a...

  14. 33 CFR 96.250 - What documents and reports must a safety management system have?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... system under § 96.330 or § 96.340 must include the written documents and reports itemized in Table 96.250...: Table 96.250—Safety Management System Documents and Reports Type of documents and reports Specific... pollution prevention activities (1) Periodic evaluation of the safety management system's efficiency...

  15. 78 FR 47014 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... 1 of RG 1.169, ``Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems... those systems include software. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing computer...

  16. ANALYSIS OF SEQUENTIAL FAILURES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY AND SAFETY OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS. (R828541)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of reliability and safety of a manufacturing system with sequential failures is an important issue in industry, since the reliability and safety of the system depend not only on all failed states of system components, but also on the sequence of occurrences of those...

  17. 23 CFR 1200.22 - State traffic safety information system improvements grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State traffic safety information system improvements... traffic safety information system improvements grants. (a) Purpose. This section establishes criteria, in... Information System (MIDRIS), the Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE) or the National Emergency...

  18. 23 CFR 1200.22 - State traffic safety information system improvements grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State traffic safety information system improvements... traffic safety information system improvements grants. (a) Purpose. This section establishes criteria, in... Information System (MIDRIS), the Model Inventory of Roadway Elements (MIRE) or the National Emergency...

  19. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... expendable launch vehicle that uses a flight safety system to protect public safety as required by § 417.107... points used for integrated testing and checkout. (10) Flight termination system batteries. A description of each flight termination system battery and cell, the name of the battery or cell manufacturer,...

  20. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  1. Safety evaluation of a Medical Device Data System.

    PubMed

    Liddle, Stephanie; Grover, Lata; Zhang, Rachel; Khitrov, Maxim; Brown, Joan C; Cobb, J Perren; Goldman, Julian; Chou, Joseph; Yagoda, Daniel; Westover, Brandon; Reisner, Andrew T

    2012-01-01

    Our hospital became interested in the extraction of electronic data from our bedside monitor network to enrich clinical care, and enable various quality improvement projects, research projects, and future applications involving advanced decision-support. We conducted a range of tests to confirm the safety of deploying BedMaster (Excel Medical Electronics, Jupiter FL, USA), which is third-party software sold expressly to provide electronic data extraction and storage from networked General Electric Healthcare bedside patient monitors. We conducted a series of tests examining the changes in network performance when the BedMaster system was on our isolated patient monitor network. We found that use of BedMaster led to measurable, but trivial increases in network traffic and latency. We did not identify any failure scenarios in our analysis and testing. The major value of this report is to highlight potential challenges inherent in data and electronic device integration within the healthcare setting. In describing our strategy for testing the BedMaster system, it is our intention to present one testing protocol and to generate thought and discussion in the broader community about what types of problems can arise with inter-operability, and what types of testing are necessary to mitigate against these risks. Standards for inter-operability would surely reduce the inherent risks.

  2. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... electronic stability control systems. In that final rule, the agency stated that it had previously fulfilled... Regulation A. Benefits of ESC Electronic stability control (ESC) systems use automatic computer-...

  3. Study of a safety margin system for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a safety margin system for powered-lift aircraft which require a backside piloting technique. The objective of the safety margin system was to present multiple safety margin criteria as a single variable which could be tracked manually or automatically and which could be monitored for the purpose of deriving safety margin status. The study involved a pilot-in-the-loop analysis of several safety margin system concepts and a simulation experiment to evaluate those concepts which showed promise of providing a good solution. A system was ultimately configured which offered reasonable compromises in controllability, status information content, and the ability to regulate the safety margin at some expense of the allowable low speed flight path envelope.

  4. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... satisfactory North American Standard Commercial Vehicle inspection by a certified FMCSA or State inspector... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside monitoring... frequent roadside inspections. (c) Safety decal. Each non-North America-domiciled carrier must have...

  5. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... satisfactory North American Standard Commercial Vehicle inspection by a certified FMCSA or State inspector... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside monitoring... frequent roadside inspections. (c) Safety decal. Each non-North America-domiciled carrier must have...

  6. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... satisfactory North American Standard Commercial Vehicle inspection by a certified FMCSA or State inspector... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside monitoring... frequent roadside inspections. (c) Safety decal. Each non-North America-domiciled carrier must have...

  7. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... training for public safety organizations; and (7) Employee training. (l) A description of the process used..., including: (1) An organization chart; (2) A description of how the safety function is integrated into the rest of the rail transit organization; and (3) Clear identification of the lines of authority used...

  8. Vaccine safety monitoring systems in developing countries: an example of the Vietnam model.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Rath, Barbara; Thiem, Vu Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Only few health intervention programs have been as successful as vaccination programs with respect to preventing morbidity and mortality in developing countries. However, the success of a vaccination program is threatened by rumors and misunderstanding about the risks of vaccines. It is short-sighted to plan the introduction of vaccines into developing countries unless effective vaccine safety monitoring systems are in place. Such systems that track adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is currently lacking in most developing countries. Therefore, any rumor may affect the entire vaccination program. Public health authorities should implement the safety monitoring system of vaccines, and disseminate safety issues in a proactive mode. Effective safety surveillance systems should allow for the conduct of both traditional and alternative epidemiologic studies through the use of prospective data sets. The vaccine safety data link implemented in Vietnam in mid-2002 indicates that it is feasible to establish a vaccine safety monitoring system for the communication of vaccine safety in developing countries. The data link provided the investigators an opportunity to evaluate AEFI related to measles vaccine. Implementing such vaccine safety monitoring system is useful in all developing countries. The system should be able to make objective and clear communication regarding safety issues of vaccines, and the data should be reported to the public on a regular basis for maintaining their confidence in vaccination programs.

  9. [Role of reporting and learning systems in the improvement of patient safety].

    PubMed

    Lám, Judit; Sümegi, Viktória; Surján, Cecília; Kullmann, Lajos; Belicza, Éva

    2016-06-26

    The principles and requirements of a patient safety related reporting and learning system were defined by the World Health Organization Draft Guidelines for Adverse Event Reporting and Learning Systems published in 2005. Since then more and more Hungarian health care organizations aim to improve their patient safety culture. In order to support this goal the NEVES reporting and learning system and the series of Patient Safety Forums for training and consultation were launched in 2006 and significantly renewed recently. Current operative modifications to the Health Law emphasize patient safety, making the introduction of these programs once again necessary.

  10. Development of safety concept of electric wheelchair driving support system based on assessment of risk.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Toru; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we pay attention to the electric wheelchair driving support. We look at the functional safety of the electric wheelchair. Based on intrinsically-safe electric wheelchair, we add driving support system to increase functional safety. The driving support system processes the environmental information sensor data including the 3D laser Range scanner and biological monitoring sensor data including electrooculogram, and assists avoidance of dangerous objects. We have developed safety concept that based on assessment of risk.

  11. Space safety and rescue 1979-1981: Worldwide disaster response, rescue and safety employing space-borne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. W. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Selected papers from the 1979, 1980, and 1981 IAA symposia on space safety and rescue and on worldwide disaster response, safety, and rescue employing spaceborne systems are presented. Available papers published elsewhere and those presented at the 1976, 1977, and 1978 symposia are presented in abstract form. Subjects discussed include man-made space debris, nuclear-waste disposal in space, space-station safety design, psychological training, the introduction of female crewmembers, analysis of the November 23, 1980 earthquake as a design basis for satellite emergency communication, disaster warning using the GOES satellite, and satellite communications for disaster relief operations. Three reviews of the application of space technology to emergency and disaster relief and prevention, given at other symposia in 1981, are presented in an appendix. No individual items are abstracted in this volume

  12. Human-System Safety Methods for Development of Advanced Air Traffic Management Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1999-05-24

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is supporting the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the development of advanced air traffic management (ATM) systems as part of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program. As part of this program INEEL conducted a survey of human-system safety methods that have been applied to complex technical systems, to identify lessons learned from these applications and provide recommendations for the development of advanced ATM systems. The domains that were surveyed included offshore oil and gas, commercial nuclear power, commercial aviation, and military. The survey showed that widely different approaches are used in these industries, and that the methods used range from very high-level, qualitative approaches to very detailed quantitative methods such as human reliability analysis (HRA) and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). In addition, the industries varied widely in how effectively they incorporate human-system safety assessment in the design, development, and testing of complex technical systems. In spite of the lack of uniformity in the approaches and methods used, it was found that methods are available that can be combined and adapted to support the development of advanced air traffic management systems.

  13. Understanding Safety in Healthcare: The System Evolution, Erosion and Enhancement Model

    PubMed Central

    Carthey, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The paper summarises previous theories of accident causation, human error, foresight, resilience and system migration. Five lessons from these theories are used as the foundation for a new model which describes how patient safety emerges in complex systems like healthcare: the System Evolution Erosion and Enhancement model. It is concluded that to improve patient safety, healthcare organisations need to understand how system evolution both enhances and erodes patient safety. Significance for public health The article identifies lessons from previous theories of human error and accident causation, foresight, resilience engineering and system migration and introduces a new framework for understanding patient safety in healthcare; the System Evolution, Erosion and Enhancement (SEEE) model. The article is significant for public health because healthcare organizations around the world need to understand how safety evolves and erodes to develop and implement interventions to reduce patient harm. PMID:25170496

  14. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below [minus]9[degrees]F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  15. SRS supplemental safety system injection (gas pressurizer) test

    SciTech Connect

    Howarth, W.L.; Dimenna, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    An evaluation and validation of an existing version of the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics computer code was undertaken for the purpose of certification for use in the new production reactor - heavy water reactor (NPR-HWR) program. This version of the code was RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5q, designated for the purposes of the NPR-HWR program as RELAP5/NPR Version 0. As part of the evaluation and assessment, test data from theSRS Supplemental Safety System Injection (Gas Pressurizer) was used to verify and assess the ability of RELAP5/NPR Version 0 to perform thermal-hydraulic model analysis using the test data. Specifically, the assessment determines RELAP5/NPR Version 0 capability in modeling sudden depressurization phenomena. Two RELAP5/NPR Version 0 components (pipe and accumulator) were used to compare calculated pressure and temperature against test data. The code deficiencies are a temperature clamp in the accumulator component prevents the gas temperature from going below {minus}9{degrees}F, and RELAP5 accumulator and pipe components wall-to-fluid heat transfer correlation and interfacial vapor heat transfer correlation need substantial improvement. Only the code pipe component calculated pressures and temperatures within the specified 10 percent accuracy.

  16. Performance and safety aspects of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicke, K. G.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft performance is presented illustrating the flexibility and capability of the XV-15 to conduct its planned proof-of-concept flight research in the areas of dynamics, stability and control, and aerodynamics. Additionally, the aircraft will demonstrate mission-type performance typical of future operational aircraft. The aircraft design is described and discussed with emphasis on the safety and fail-operate features of the aircraft and its systems. Two or more levels of redundancy are provided in the dc and ac electrical systems, hydraulics, conversion, flaps, landing gear extension, SCAS, and force-feel. RPM is maintained by a hydro-electrical blade pitch governor that consists of a primary and standby governor with a cockpit wheel control for manual backup. The two engines are interconnected for operation on a single engine. In the event of total loss of power, the aircraft can enter autorotation starting from the airplane as well as the helicopter mode of flight.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  18. Economic and environmental benefits of reducing standby power lossin DVD/VCD players and copiers in China

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Li, Tienan; Li, Aizhen; Zhang, Guoqing

    2004-06-01

    With the popularization of household electrical appliances and the rapid development of office automation and networking, a huge number of consumer electronic devices, computers, copiers, and fax machines have been put into use in China over the last two decades. These products almost all use a certain amount of standby power--the power that is consumed when a device is connected but not performing its primary function. The rapid growth of standby energy consumption due to these products--and the consequent environmental problems--has attracted more and more attentions from researchers and from many government and international agencies. Numerous countries have developed policies and measures to restrict and reduce standby energy consumption (US EPA, 2004, IEA, 2001, and GEEA, 2004). However, standby energy consumption is still a new concept for Chinese consumers and the phenomenon of ''unconscious waste of energy'' is still very common in the people's daily life and work. With the goal of reducing China's standby energy consumption, China Certification Center for Energy Conservation Products (CECP) and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) have, under the sponsorship of the Energy Foundation (EF), entered into a collaboration to develop technical requirements for CECP's labeling program for consumer electronics and office equipment. These technical requirements will be used to qualify products for CECP's energy efficiency endorsement label in China. In the phase I of this collaborative project, CECP and LBNL conducted technical and economic research on televisions and printers in China. Based on the results of this research, CECP developed specifications for, and carried out corresponding energy conservation certifications for these two products. CECP's standby power certification program has made impressive gains in China. Leading manufacturers, such as Haier, Hesons, TCL, Chuangwei, Lenovo, EPSON, Fujitsu, and Brother have participated in CECP

  19. 14 CFR 415.127 - Flight safety system design and operation data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interfaces with other systems or subsystems. (2) Subsystem diagram. A physical and functional diagram of each... to derive the maximum predicted environment levels. The safety review document must contain a matrix... system compliance matrix. An applicant's safety review document must contain a compliance matrix of...

  20. Overview of Design, Lifecycle, and Safety for Computer-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the need and justification for the development of a design guide for safety-relevant computer-based systems. This document also makes a contribution toward the design guide by presenting an overview of computer-based systems design, lifecycle, and safety.

  1. Design of the NSLS-II Top-Off Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller, III R.; Doom, L.; Ganetis, G.; Hetzel, C.; Job, P. K.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Singh, O.; Wang, G. M.; Xia, Z.

    2015-05-03

    The NSLS-II accelerators finished commissioning in the fall of 2014, with beamline commissioning underway. Part of the design for the NSLS-II is to operate in top off mode. The Top Off Safety System (TOSS) is presently being installed. In this report we discuss the Top Off Safety System design and implementation, along with the necessary tracking results and radiological calculations.

  2. 77 FR 50727 - Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Configuration Management Plans for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear... draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-1206, ``Configuration Management Plan for Digital Computer Software Used... Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants'' is temporarily identified...

  3. 78 FR 47015 - Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of... 1 of RG 1.172, ``Software Requirement Specifications for Digital Computer Software used in Safety... well as the software elements of those systems. This RG is one of six RG revisions addressing...

  4. 78 FR 76391 - Proposed Enhancements to the Motor Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) Public Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... System (SMS) Public Web Site AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... Safety Measurement System (SMS) public Web site. On December 6, 2013, Advocates ] for Highway and Auto...://www.regulations.gov Web site is generally available 24 hours each day, 365 days each year. You can...

  5. 78 FR 66420 - Proposed Enhancements to the Motor Carrier Safety Measurement System (SMS) Public Web Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... System (SMS) Public Web Site AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION... enhancements to the display of information on the Agency's Safety Measurement System (SMS) public Web site... changes to the design of the SMS public Web site that are the direct result of feedback from...

  6. 30 CFR 285.811 - When must I follow my Safety Management System?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Activities Conducted Under SAPs, COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.811 When must I follow my... activities described in your approved COP, SAP, or GAP. You must conduct all activities described in your approved COP, SAP, or GAP in accordance with the Safety Management System you described, as required...

  7. 46 CFR 62.35-50 - Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for specific systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Gas turbine (8) (8) (8) (8) (5) Engines and turbines Jacking/turning gear Engaged (8) Fuel oil (9) (9... instrumentation, alarms, and safety controls required for specific types of systems are listed in Table 62.35-50...) System Service Instrumentation Alarm Safety control Notes Main (Propulsion) boiler (1) (1) (1) (2)...

  8. Design considerations in an active medical product safety monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Gagne, Joshua J; Fireman, Bruce; Ryan, Patrick B; Maclure, Malcolm; Gerhard, Tobias; Toh, Sengwee; Rassen, Jeremy A; Nelson, Jennifer C; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Active medical product monitoring systems, such as the Sentinel System, will utilize electronic healthcare data captured during routine health care. Safety signals that arise from these data may be spurious because of chance or bias, particularly confounding bias, given the observational nature of the data. Applying appropriate monitoring designs can filter out many false-positive and false-negative associations from the outset. Designs can be classified by whether they produce estimates based on between-person or within-person comparisons. In deciding which approach is more suitable for a given monitoring scenario, stakeholders must consider the characteristics of the monitored product, characteristics of the health outcome of interest (HOI), and characteristics of the potential link between these. Specifically, three factors drive design decisions: (i) strength of within-person and between-person confounding; (ii) whether circumstances exist that may predispose to misclassification of exposure or misclassification of the timing of the HOI; and (iii) whether the exposure of interest is predominantly transient or sustained. Additional design considerations include whether to focus on new users, the availability of appropriate active comparators, the presence of an exposure time trend, and the measure of association of interest. When the key assumptions of self-controlled designs are fulfilled (i.e., lack of within-person, time-varying confounding; abrupt HOI onset; and transient exposure), within-person comparisons are preferred because they inherently avoid confounding by fixed factors. The cohort approach generally is preferred in other situations and particularly when timing of exposure or outcome is uncertain because cohort approaches are less vulnerable to biases resulting from misclassification.

  9. Case study: on the leading edge of new curricula concepts: systems and safety in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Dick, Diana Davidson; Weisbrod, Lorna; Gregory, David; Dyck, Netha; Neudorf, Kim

    2006-09-01

    The Nursing Division of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) first included systems and patient safety as a priority in its institutional business and strategic plan in 2003. Three interrelated leading-edge, two-year projects (2004-2006) were launched: Best Practice, Mentorship and Patient Safety, with the intent that each project would enhance the others. This case study focuses on the work of the Patient Safety Project Team. The team developed a project framework and strategic plan, conducted a literature review and identified key concepts related to systems and patient safety. Strategies to integrate these concepts into the school's 15 nursing education programs are being implemented.

  10. 76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Systems and Liquefied Natural Gas Annual Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... operators of gas transmission and gathering systems and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) facilities that they... to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...

  11. Open-type ferry safety system design for using LNG fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonis, D. N.; Livanos, G.; Theotokatos, G.; Peppa, S.; Themelis, N.

    2016-12-01

    In this feasibility study, we investigate the viability of using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel in an open type Ro-Ro passenger ferry and the associated potential challenges with regard to the vessel safety systems. We recommend an appropriate methodology for converting existing ships to run on LNG fuel, discuss all the necessary modifications to the ship's safety systems, and also evaluate the relevant ship evacuation procedures. We outline the basic requirements with which the ship already complies for each safety system and analyze the additional restrictions that must be taken into consideration for the use of LNG fuel. Appropriate actions are recommended. Furthermore, we carry out a hazard identification study. Overall, we clearly demonstrate the technical feasibility of the investigated scenario. Minimal modifications to the ship's safety systems are required to comply with existing safety rules for this specific type of ship.

  12. Assessing the safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems: A bowtie analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Ute Christine; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen; McCormack, Edward; Khan, Faisal; Ehlers, Sören

    2017-02-01

    The safety effects of cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) are mostly unknown and associated with uncertainties, because these systems represent emerging technology. This study proposes a bowtie analysis as a conceptual framework for evaluating the safety effect of cooperative intelligent transport systems. These seek to prevent road traffic accidents or mitigate their consequences. Under the assumption of the potential occurrence of a particular single vehicle accident, three case studies demonstrate the application of the bowtie analysis approach in road traffic safety. The approach utilizes exemplary expert estimates and knowledge from literature on the probability of the occurrence of accident risk factors and of the success of safety measures. Fuzzy set theory is applied to handle uncertainty in expert knowledge. Based on this approach, a useful tool is developed to estimate the effects of safety-related cooperative intelligent transport systems in terms of the expected change in accident occurrence and consequence probability.

  13. Nuclear Safety Functions of ITER Gas Injection System Instrumentation and Control and the Concept Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Maruyama, S.; Fossen, A.; Villers, F.; Kiss, G.; Zhang, Bo; Li, Bo; Jiang, Tao; Huang, Xiangmei

    2016-08-01

    The ITER Gas Injection System (GIS) plays an important role on fueling, wall conditioning and distribution for plasma operation. Besides that, to support the safety function of ITER, GIS needs to implement three nuclear safety Instrumentation and Control (I&C) functions. In this paper, these three functions are introduced with the emphasis on their latest safety classifications. The nuclear I&C design concept is briefly discussed at the end.

  14. The Application of Software Safety to the Constellation Program Launch Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, James; Hill, Janice

    2011-01-01

    The application of software safety practices on the LCS project resulted in the successful implementation of the NASA Software Safety Standard NASA-STD-8719.138 and CxP software safety requirements. The GOP-GEN-GSW-011 Hazard Report was the first report developed at KSC to identify software hazard causes and their controls. This approach can be applied to similar large software - intensive systems where loss of control can lead to a hazard.

  15. Aging of safety class 1E transformers in safety systems of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, E.W.; Edson, J.L.; Udy, A.C.

    1996-02-01

    This report discusses aging effects on safety-related power transformers in nuclear power plants. It also evaluates maintenance, testing, and monitoring practices with respect to their effectiveness in detecting and mitigating the effects of aging. The study follows the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s) Nuclear Plant-Aging Research approach. It investigates the materials used in transformer construction, identifies stressors and aging mechanisms, presents operating and testing experience with aging effects, analyzes transformer failure events reported in various databases, and evaluates maintenance practices. Databases maintained by the nuclear industry were analyzed to evaluate the effects of aging on the operation of nuclear power plants.

  16. Engineering Safety- and Security-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    malicious Agents ( humans , systems , and the environment) • Safety Risks are kept acceptably low • The preceding Problems are Prevented, Detected...consequence mitigated • Threats (i.e., Threatening Conditions) are eliminated or mitigated: — System Vulnerabilities — Malicious Agents ( humans , systems ...Agent (Security) Malware Non-malicious Human Agent User System Developer System Operator System Maintainer Foreign Government Cracker Disgruntled

  17. RICIS Symposium 1992: Mission and Safety Critical Systems Research and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This conference deals with computer systems which control systems whose failure to operate correctly could produce the loss of life and or property, mission and safety critical systems. Topics covered are: the work of standards groups, computer systems design and architecture, software reliability, process control systems, knowledge based expert systems, and computer and telecommunication protocols.

  18. The Reliability and Safety of Railway Control Systems Based on New Information Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewiński, Andrzej; Perzyński, Tomasz

    The paper contains the safety analysis of the new generation of railway control systems designed with respect to new technologies: microcomputers connected via cable and wireless transmission networks. In the paper the THR and global safety criteria are introduced to designed, tested and exploited railway control systems. For one of the systems the verification of safety parameters was possible in the form of both forecasting estimation and exploitation result. The authors presented in the paper one of the methods of forecasting estimation of control and management railway systems.

  19. System Safety in Early Manned Space Program: A Case Study of NASA and Project Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Frederick D.; Pitts, Donald

    2005-01-01

    This case study provides a review of National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) involvement in system safety during research and evolution from air breathing to exo-atmospheric capable flight systems culminating in the successful Project Mercury. Although NASA has been philosophically committed to the principals of system safety, this case study points out that budget and manpower constraints-as well as a variety of internal and external pressures can jeopardize even a well-designed system safety program. This study begins with a review of the evolution and early years of NASA's rise as a project lead agency and ends with the lessons learned from Project Mercury.

  20. Inherent safety key performance indicators for hydrogen storage systems.

    PubMed

    Landucci, Gabriele; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-11-30

    The expected inherent safety performance of hydrogen storage technologies was investigated. Reference schemes were defined for alternative processes proposed for hydrogen storage, and several storage potentialities were considered. The expected safety performance of alternative process technologies was explored estimating key performance indicators based on consequence assessment and credit factors of possible loss of containment events. The results indicated that the potential hazard is always lower for the innovative technologies proposed for hydrogen storage, as metal or complex hydrides. This derived mainly from the application of the inherent safety principles of "substitution" and "moderation", since in these processes hydrogen is stored as a less hazardous hydride. However, the results also evidenced that in the perspective of an industrial implementation of these technologies, the reliability of the auxiliary equipment will be a critical issue to be addressed.