Science.gov

Sample records for standby safety systems

  1. Operational reliability of standby safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D.

    1995-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.

  2. Time-independent and time-dependent contributions to the unavailability of standby safety system components

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.V.; Uryasev, S.; Samanta, P.

    1997-02-01

    The unavailability of standby safety system components due to failures in nuclear power plants is considered to involve a time-independent and a time-dependent part. The former relates to the component`s unavailability from demand stresses due to usage, and the latter represents the component`s unavailability due to standby-time stresses related to the environment. In this paper, data from the nuclear plant reliability data system (NPRDS) were used to partition the component`s unavailability into the contributions from standby-time stress (i.e., due to environmental factors) and demand stress (i.e., due to usage). Analyses are presented of motor-operated valves (MOVs), motor-driven pumps (MDPs), and turbine-driven pumps (TDPs). MOVs fail predominantly (approx. 78 %) from environmental factors (standby-time stress failures). MDPs fail slightly more frequently from demand stresses (approx. 63 %) than standby-time stresses, while TDPs fail predominantly from standby-time stresses (approx. 78 %). Such partitions of component unavailability have many uses in risk-informed and performance-based regulation relating to modifications to Technical Specification, in-service testing, precise determination of dominant accident sequences, and implementation of maintenance rules.

  3. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.215 Standby power system. A standby source of power shall...

  4. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.215 Standby power system. A standby source of power shall...

  5. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215... power system. A standby source of power shall be provided with sufficient capacity to operate the warning system for a reasonable length of time during a period of primary power interruption. The...

  6. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215... power system. A standby source of power shall be provided with sufficient capacity to operate the warning system for a reasonable length of time during a period of primary power interruption. The...

  7. 49 CFR 234.215 - Standby power system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standby power system. 234.215 Section 234.215... power system. A standby source of power shall be provided with sufficient capacity to operate the warning system for a reasonable length of time during a period of primary power interruption. The...

  8. Conditioned and battery standby power for traffic light systems

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.N. )

    1989-10-01

    Electronic devices and control systems are found in every facet of our high-tech society. They derive their operating power from conventional utility service or battery power. Included among such high-tech electronics are traffic signal lights and their control systems, which use microprocessors and other sophisticated electronics for their operation. Unfortunately, like most other electrically operated equipment traffic equipment is also at the mercy of the utility company, weather, construction operations, automobile accidents, and a variety of other sources of noise and interruptions to the power source. In addition to the quality of the power (i.e., its regulation and freedom from noise and transients), there are often times when complete outages occur. This article proposes using a ferroresonant transformer combined with a battery standby power system to solve the problems of poor quality utility power and power outages. This system would reduce manpower requirements during short power outages, protect traffic equipment from transients and noise, and minimize possible safety hazards caused by inoperative traffic light systems.

  9. Standby Rates for Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sedano, Richard; Selecky, James; Iverson, Kathryn; Al-Jabir, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Improvements in technology, low natural gas prices, and more flexible and positive attitudes in government and utilities are making distributed generation more viable. With more distributed generation, notably combined heat and power, comes an increase in the importance of standby rates, the cost of services utilities provide when customer generation is not operating or is insufficient to meet full load. This work looks at existing utility standby tariffs in five states. It uses these existing rates and terms to showcase practices that demonstrate a sound application of regulatory principles and ones that do not. The paper also addresses areas for improvement in standby rates.

  10. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    DEHKORDI, N.H.

    2000-04-12

    PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    1999-09-16

    PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

  12. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND...

  13. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOEpatents

    Crispin, Larry G.; Weitzel, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  14. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  15. Aging assessment of the boiling-water reactor (BWR) standby liquid control system

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, R.D.; Johnson, A.B.; Buckley, G.D.; Larson, L.L.

    1992-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a Phase I aging assessment of the standby liquid control (SLC) system used in boiling-water reactors. The study was based on detailed reviews of SLC system component and operating experience information obtained from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Database System, the Nuclear Document System, Licensee Event Reports, and other databases. Sources dealing with sodium pentaborate, borates, boric acid, and the effects of environment and corrosion in the SLC system were reviewed to characterize chemical properties and corrosion characteristics of borated solutions. The leading aging degradation concern to date appears to be setpoint drift in relief valves, which has been discovered during routine surveillance and is thought to be caused by mechanical wear. Degradation was also observed in pump seals and internal valves. In general, however, the results of the Phase I study suggest that age-related degradation of SLC systems has not been serious.

  16. A preventive maintenance policy for a standby system subject to internal failures and external shocks with loss of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy Ruiz-Castro, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In many situations, serious damage and considerable financial losses are caused by non-repairable failures of a system. Redundant systems and maintenance policies are commonly employed to improve reliability. This paper is focused on the modelling of a complex cold standby system by analysing the effectiveness and costs of preventive maintenance, always in an algorithmic form. The online unit of the system is subject to wear failures and external shocks. The online unit can go through an indeterminate number of degradation levels before failure. This one is observed when inspections occur. Inspections are performed at random intervals, and when one takes place, the unit is taken to the preventive maintenance facility if it is necessary. The preventive maintenance time and cost is different depending on the degradation level observed. If only one unit is performing, a minimal maintenance policy is adopted in order to optimise system behaviour. Reliability measures such as the conditional probability of failure are worked out in a well-structured and algebraic form in transient and stationary regimes by using algorithmic methods. The stationary distribution is calculated using matrix analytic methods, and rewards are included in the model. An optimisation example shows the versatility of the model presented.

  17. Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The final rules adopted by the President for a Standby Gasoline Rationing Plan are presented. The plan provides that eligibility for ration allotments will be determined primarily on the basis of motor vehicle registrations, taking into account historical differences in the use of gasoline among states. The regulations also provide authority for supplemental allotments to firms so that their allotment will equal a specified percentage of gasoline use during a base period. Priority classifications, i.e., agriculture, defense, etc., are established to assure adequate gasoline supplies for designated essential services. Ration rights must be provided by end-users to their suppliers for each gallon sold. DOE will regulate the distribution of gasoline at the wholesale level according to the transfer by suppliers of redeemed ration rights and the gasoline allocation regulations. Ration rights are transferable. A ration banking system is created to facilitate transfers of ration rights. Each state will be provided with a reserve of ration rights to provide for hardship needs and to alleviate inequities. (DC)

  18. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) standby plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1997-03-06

    The FFTF Standby Plan, Revision 0, provides changes to the major elements and project baselines to maintain the FFTF plant in a standby condition and to continue washing sodium from irradiated reactor fuel. The Plan is consistent with the Memorandum of Decision approved by the Secretary of Energy on January 17, 1997, which directed that FFTF be maintained in a standby condition to permit the Department to make a decision on whether the facility should play a future role in the Department of Energy`s dual track tritium production strategy. This decision would be made in parallel with the intended December 1998 decision on the selection of the primary, long- term source of tritium. This also allows the Department to review the economic and technical feasibility of using the FFTF to produce isotopes for the medical community. Formal direction has been received from DOE-RL and Fluor 2020 Daniel Hanford to implement the FFTF standby decision. The objective of the Plan is maintain the condition of the FFTF systems, equipment and personnel to preserve the option for plant restart within three and one-half years of a decision to restart, while continuing deactivation work which is consistent with the standby mode.

  19. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel of standby redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach is used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis is also performed, specifically for a 100 kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study is done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  20. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel or standby redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach was used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis was also performed, specifically for a 100-kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study was done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100 K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  1. Operator awareness of system status during Fast Flux Test Facility transition to standby

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    A facility in transition, due to a change in its mission or its operating status, begins to depart from a previously well-defined normal mode of operation. The equipment becomes reconfigured or deactivated. In an environment of transition, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has employed methods to enhance operator awareness of system status. These methods are described in this report.

  2. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  3. Safety Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halligan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Colleges across the country are rising to the task by implementing safety programs, response strategies, and technologies intended to create a secure environment for teachers and students. Whether it is preparing and responding to a natural disaster, health emergency, or act of violence, more schools are making campus safety a top priority. At…

  4. System safety education focused on flight safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, E.

    1971-01-01

    The measures necessary for achieving higher levels of system safety are analyzed with an eye toward maintaining the combat capability of the Air Force. Several education courses were provided for personnel involved in safety management. Data include: (1) Flight Safety Officer Course, (2) Advanced Safety Program Management, (3) Fundamentals of System Safety, and (4) Quantitative Methods of Safety Analysis.

  5. Standby power consumption in U.S. residences

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, W.

    1997-12-01

    {open_quotes}Leaking electricity{close_quotes} is the electricity consumed by appliances while they are switched {open_quotes}off{close_quote} or not performing their principal function. Leaking electricity represents approximately 5 % of U.S. residential electricity. This is a relatively new phenomenon and is a result of proliferation of electronic equipment in homes. The standby losses in TVs, VCRs, compact audio systems, and cable boxes account for almost 40% of all leaking electricity. There is a wide range in standby losses in each appliance group. For example, standby losses in compact audio systems range from 2.1 to 28.6 W, even though their features are identical. In some cases, leaking electricity while switched off was only slightly less than energy consumption in the on mode. New features in these appliances may greatly increase leaking electricity, such as electronic program guides in TVs and cable boxes. In the standby mode, these new features require many extra components energized to permit the downloading of information. Several techniques are available to cut standby losses, most without using any new technologies. Simple redesign of circuits to avoid energizing unused components appears to save the most energy. A separate power supply, precisely designed for the actual power needed, is another solution. A switch mode power supply can substitute for the less efficient linear power supply. Switch mode power supplies cut no-load and standby losses by 60-80%. The combination of these techniques can cut leaking electricity by greater than 75%.

  6. Range Safety Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrock, Kenneth W.; Humphries, Ricky H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The high kinetic and potential energy of a launch vehicle mandates there be a mechanism to minimize possible damage to provide adequate safety for the launch facilities, range, and, most importantly, the general public. The Range Safety System, sometimes called the Flight Termination System or Flight Safety System, provides the required level of safety. The Range Safety System section of the Avionics chapter will attempt to describe how adequate safety is provided, the system's design, operation, and it's interface with the rest of the launch vehicle.

  7. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  8. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system was designed to initiate control procedures to minimize damage to the engine or vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. The features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems are discussed, as well as the specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given, based on recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, the general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  9. Space engine safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Meyer, Claudia M.

    1991-01-01

    A rocket engine safety system is designed to initiate control procedures which will minimize damage to the engine and vehicle or test stand in the event of an engine failure. This report describes the features and the implementation issues associated with rocket engine safety systems. Specific concerns of safety systems applied to a space-based engine and long duration space missions are discussed. Examples of safety system features and architectures are given from recent safety monitoring investigations conducted for the Space Shuttle Main Engine and for future liquid rocket engines. Also, a general design and implementation process for rocket engine safety systems is presented.

  10. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  11. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Inspections and Tests § 234.251 Standby power. Standby power shall be tested at...

  12. Combined Standby Transvenous Defibrillator and Demand Pacemaker.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    AD-A097 441 CARDIAC CARE SYSTEMS INC RED BANK NJ F/B 6/5 COM13INED STANDBY TRANSVENOJS DEFIBRILLATOR AND DEMAND PACEMAKER--ETC(U) DEC 75 L RUBIN...Development Command Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21701 Contract Number DAMD17-74-C-4108. Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 80 E. Front Street Red Bank , NJ...8217 Cardiac Care Systems, Inc. 4I 80 E. Front Street 61 3121A1j0.4 Red Bank , NJ 07701 a .0_ e- /i\\ - -__________ I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 1.)42

  13. Global implications of standby power use

    SciTech Connect

    Lebot, Benoit; Meier, Alan; Anglade, Alain

    2000-05-01

    Separate studies indicate that standby power is responsible for 20-60 W per home in developed countries. Standby power is responsible for about 2% of OECD countries total electricity consumption and the related power generation generates almost 1% of their carbon emissions. Replacement of existing appliances with those appliances having the lowest standby would reduce total standby power consumption by over 70%. The resulting reductions in carbon emissions would meet over 3% of OECD's total Kyoto commitments. Other strategies may cut more carbon emissions, but standby power is unique in that the reductions are best accomplished through international collaboration and whose costs and large benefits would be spread over all countries.

  14. Cold-standby redundancy allocation problem with degrading components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Xiong, Junlin; Xie, Min

    2015-11-01

    Components in cold-standby state are usually assumed to be as good as new when they are activated. However, even in a standby environment, the components will suffer from performance degradation. This article presents a study of a redundancy allocation problem (RAP) for cold-standby systems with degrading components. The objective of the RAP is to determine an optimal design configuration of components to maximize system reliability subject to system resource constraints (e.g. cost, weight). As in most cases, it is not possible to obtain a closed-form expression for this problem, and hence, an approximated objective function is presented. A genetic algorithm with dual mutation is developed to solve such a constrained optimization problem. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed solution methodology.

  15. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standby Support Contract: General provisions. 950.13 Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract Process § 950.13 Standby Support Contract: General provisions. (a) Purpose. Each Standby...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 614.4810 Section 614.4810 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Banks for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810...

  17. Safety system status monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  18. Comparative analysis of different configurations of PLC-based safety systems from reliability point of view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapia, Moiez A.

    1993-01-01

    The study of a comparative analysis of distinct multiplex and fault-tolerant configurations for a PLC-based safety system from a reliability point of view is presented. It considers simplex, duplex and fault-tolerant triple redundancy configurations. The standby unit in case of a duplex configuration has a failure rate which is k times the failure rate of the standby unit, the value of k varying from 0 to 1. For distinct values of MTTR and MTTF of the main unit, MTBF and availability for these configurations are calculated. The effect of duplexing only the PLC module or only the sensors and the actuators module, on the MTBF of the configuration, is also presented. The results are summarized and merits and demerits of various configurations under distinct environments are discussed.

  19. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... power. Standby power shall be tested at least once each month....

  20. 49 CFR 234.251 - Standby power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standby power. 234.251 Section 234.251 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... power. Standby power shall be tested at least once each month....

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Standby agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standby agreements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS FEDERAL PORT CONTROLLERS Sec. 3 Standby agreements. The Director, NSA, may negotiate the standard form of service agreement, specified in...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Standby agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standby agreements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS FEDERAL PORT CONTROLLERS Sec. 3 Standby agreements. The Director, NSA, may negotiate the standard form of service agreement, specified in...

  3. 46 CFR Sec. 3 - Standby agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standby agreements. Sec. 3 Section 3 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS FEDERAL PORT CONTROLLERS Sec. 3 Standby agreements. The Director, NSA, may negotiate the standard form of service agreement, specified in...

  4. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, Bob; Santuro, Steve; Simpson, James; Zoerner, Roger; Bull, Barton; Lanzi, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent flight safety system designed for small to medium sized expendable launch vehicles launching from or needing range safety protection while overlying relatively remote locations. AFSS replaces the need for a man-in-the-loop to make decisions for flight termination. AFSS could also serve as the prototype for an autonomous manned flight crew escape advisory system. AFSS utilizes onboard sensors and processors to emulate the human decision-making process using rule-based software logic and can dramatically reduce safety response time during critical launch phases. The Range Safety flight path nominal trajectory, its deviation allowances, limit zones and other flight safety rules are stored in the onboard computers. Position, velocity and attitude data obtained from onboard global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation system (INS) sensors are compared with these rules to determine the appropriate action to ensure that people and property are not jeopardized. The final system will be fully redundant and independent with multiple processors, sensors, and dead man switches to prevent inadvertent flight termination. AFSS is currently in Phase III which includes updated algorithms, integrated GPS/INS sensors, large scale simulation testing and initial aircraft flight testing.

  5. The procedure safety system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Maureen E.

    1990-01-01

    Telerobotic operations, whether under autonomous or teleoperated control, require a much more sophisticated safety system than that needed for most industrial applications. Industrial robots generally perform very repetitive tasks in a controlled, static environment. The safety system in that case can be as simple as shutting down the robot if a human enters the work area, or even simply building a cage around the work space. Telerobotic operations, however, will take place in a dynamic, sometimes unpredictable environment, and will involve complicated and perhaps unrehearsed manipulations. This creates a much greater potential for damage to the robot or objects in its vicinity. The Procedural Safety System (PSS) collects data from external sensors and the robot, then processes it through an expert system shell to determine whether an unsafe condition or potential unsafe condition exists. Unsafe conditions could include exceeding velocity, acceleration, torque, or joint limits, imminent collision, exceeding temperature limits, and robot or sensor component failure. If a threat to safety exists, the operator is warned. If the threat is serious enough, the robot is halted. The PSS, therefore, uses expert system technology to enhance safety thus reducing operator work load, allowing him/her to focus on performing the task at hand without the distraction of worrying about violating safety criteria.

  6. Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James

    2010-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is an independent self-contained subsystem mounted onboard a launch vehicle. AFSS has been developed by and is owned by the US Government. Autonomously makes flight termination/destruct decisions using configurable software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors using data from redundant GPS/IMU navigation sensors. AFSS implements rules determined by the appropriate Range Safety officials.

  7. Software system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uber, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Software itself is not hazardous, but since software and hardware share common interfaces there is an opportunity for software to create hazards. Further, these software systems are complex, and proven methods for the design, analysis, and measurement of software safety are not yet available. Some past software failures, future NASA software trends, software engineering methods, and tools and techniques for various software safety analyses are reviewed. Recommendations to NASA are made based on this review.

  8. Safety: System Safety Engineering and Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Review system safety status and issues during each milestone decision review ( MDR ) of new or improved Army Acquisition Executive (AAE)-managed systems...under research, development, or modification. (3) Review system safety status and issues during each MDR of new or improved DISC4-managed systems. (4) Act...for acceptance in all MDR packages and forward to the appropriate decision level. Institute risk management procedures as described in appendix B and

  9. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Standby Support Contract Conditions. 950.12 Section 950.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract Process § 950.12 Standby Support Contract Conditions. (a) Conditions Precedent. If Program Administrator...

  10. Whole-house measurements of standby power consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.P.; Meier, Alan

    2000-09-15

    We investigated the variation in standby power consumption in ten California homes. Total standby power in the homes ranged from 14-169W, with an average of 67 W. This corresponded to 5 percent-26 percent of the homes' annual electricity use. The appliances with the largest standby losses were televisions, set-top boxes and printers. The large variation in the standby power of appliances providing the same service demonstrates that manufacturers are able to reduce standby losses without degrading performance. Replacing existing units with appliances with 1 W or less of standby power would reduce standby losses by 68 percent.

  11. Safety Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fido, A. T.; Wood, D. O.

    This document discusses the issues that need to be considered by the education and training system as it responds to the changing needs of industry in Great Britain. Following a general introduction, the development of quality management ideas is traced. The underlying principles of safety and risk management are clarified and the implications of…

  12. Advantages and safety features using foundation fieldbus-H1 based instrumentation & control for cryo system in accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S.; Haneef, K. K. M.; Jayaram, M. N.; Lalsare, D. K.

    2008-05-01

    Large accelerator programme instrumentation and control for monitoring of large no. of parameters for cryogenic/cooling system. The parameters are Cryo Temperature, Vacuum, He Level and He flow etc. The circumference of the accelerator may vary up to several kilometers. Large size accelerators require huge cabling and hardware. The use of foundation fieldbus based Transmitters for measurement and Control valves field positioners for cryo system shall reduce the cabling, hardware, maintenance and enhance data processing and interoperability. Safety is an important requirement for efficient, trouble free and safe operation of any process industry such as cryo used in accelerators. Instrumentation and Control systems can be developed using Foundation Field Bus. The safety features in foundation field bus system can be achieved by use of intrinsic safe devices, fail safe configuration, minimize the hazard by distribution of control function blocks, short circuit preventers. Apart from above features, the significant cable reduction in the fieldbus system reduces the hazard due to electrical cable fire, which is considered one of the major risk in industry. Further the reliability in fieldbus can be improved by hot stand-by redundant power supply, hot stand-by redundant CPU, hot stand-by redundant network capability and use of link active scheduler.

  13. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  14. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  15. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  16. 14 CFR 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby payloads. 1214.808 Section 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab... Spacelab flights....

  17. CONVEYOR SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) surface and subsurface conveyor system (for a list of conveyor subsystems see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the conveyor structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the hazards related to the design of conveyor structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) that occur during normal operation. Hazards occurring during assembly, test and maintenance or ''off normal'' operations have not been included in this analysis. Construction related work activities are specifically excluded per DOE Order 5481.1B section 4. c.

  18. NASA Safety Manual. Volume 3: System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This Volume 3 of the NASA Safety Manual sets forth the basic elements and techniques for managing a system safety program and the technical methods recommended for use in developing a risk evaluation program that is oriented to the identification of hazards in aerospace hardware systems and the development of residual risk management information for the program manager that is based on the hazards identified. The methods and techniques described in this volume are in consonance with the requirements set forth in NHB 1700.1 (VI), Chapter 3. This volume and future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall not be rewritten, reprinted, or reproduced in any manner. Installation implementing procedures, if necessary, shall be inserted as page supplements in accordance with the provisions of Appendix A. No portion of this volume or future volumes of the NASA Safety Manual shall be invoked in contracts.

  19. Radiation Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Vylet, Vaclav; Liu, James C.; Walker, Lawrence S.; /Los Alamos

    2012-04-04

    The goal of this work is to provide an overview of a Radiation safety system (RSS) designed for protection from prompt radiation hazard at accelerator facilities. RSS design parameters, functional requirements and constraints are derived from hazard analysis and risk assessment undertaken in the design phase of the facility. The two main subsystems of a RSS are access control system (ACS) and radiation control system (RCS). In this text, a common approach to risk assessment, typical components of ACS and RCS, desirable features and general design principles applied to RSS are described.

  20. What we learn from surveillance testing of standby turbine driven and motor driven pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of the performance information collected by the author and the respective system engineers from five standby turbine driven pumps at four commercial nuclear electric generating units in the United States and from two standby motor driven pumps at two of these generating units. Information was collected from surveillance testing and from Non-Test actuations. Most of the performance information (97%) came from surveillance testing. {open_quotes}Conditional Probabilities{close_quotes} of the pumps ability to respond to a random demand were calculated for each of the seven standby pumps and compared to the historical record of the Non-Test actuations. It appears that the Conditional Probabilities are comparable to the rate of success for Non-Test actuations. The Conditional Probabilities of the standby motor driven pumps (approximately 99%) are better than the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps (82%-96% range). Recommendations were made to improve the Conditional Probabilities of the standby turbine driven pumps.

  1. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  2. Traceability of Software Safety Requirements in Legacy Safety Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.

    2007-01-01

    How can traceability of software safety requirements be created for legacy safety critical systems? Requirements in safety standards are imposed most times during contract negotiations. On the other hand, there are instances where safety standards are levied on legacy safety critical systems, some of which may be considered for reuse for new applications. Safety standards often specify that software development documentation include process-oriented and technical safety requirements, and also require that system and software safety analyses are performed supporting technical safety requirements implementation. So what can be done if the requisite documents for establishing and maintaining safety requirements traceability are not available?

  3. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement...

  4. 12 CFR 337.2 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit. 337.2 Section 337.2... UNSAFE AND UNSOUND BANKING PRACTICES § 337.2 Standby letters of credit. (a) Definition. As used in this section, the term standby letter of credit means any letter of credit, or similar arrangement however...

  5. Systems Thinking and Patient Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    1 Prologue Systems Thinking and Patient Safety Paul M. Schyve Patient safety is a prominent theme in health care delivery today. This should...been “unenlightened,” to say the least; we would not have been able to apply systems thinking to patient safety. Even today, preventable patient...in the minds of many, to be met with blame and punishment. But systems thinking is now ubiquitous in health care—due, in large measure, to its

  6. System safety engineering analysis handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ijams, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The basic requirements and guidelines for the preparation of System Safety Engineering Analysis are presented. The philosophy of System Safety and the various analytic methods available to the engineering profession are discussed. A text-book description of each of the methods is included.

  7. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  9. Systems safety including DOD standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layton, Donald M.

    The stated purpose of MIL STD 882B (1984), which is currently the basis of all U.S. DOD criteria in the field of systems safety design and analysis, is 'To provide uniform requirements for developing and implementing a system safety program of sufficient comprehensiveness to identify the hazards of a system, and to impose design requirements and management controls to prevent mishaps by eliminating hazards or reducing the associated risk to a level acceptable to the managing activity.' Attention is presently given to safety-related issues in material acquisition activities, as well as over the course of a system's life cycle, together with accounts of current hazard-analysis techniques, risk management and system-safety control methods, human factors, and the role of interfaces.

  10. A worldwide review of standby power use in homes

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Alan K.

    2001-12-01

    Standby power use is the electricity consumed by appliances when they are switched off or not performing their primary purpose. Results from 21 separate field studies of residential standby power use and eight bottom-up national estimates of standby power use in 17 countries were compiled. Average standby power use in the field measurements ranges from about 30 W in China to over 100 W in New Zealand and the United States. The weighted average of the measurements was about 50 W. The bottom-up estimates found that standby power was responsible for 3-12 percent of residential electricity use. There is insufficient information to determine if standby power use is increasing or declining.

  11. System safety education focused on system management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  12. System safety management lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.A.

    1989-05-01

    The Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research, Development and Acquisition directed the Army Safety Center to provide an audit of the causes of accidents and safety of use restrictions on recently fielded systems by tracking residual hazards back through the acquisition process. The objective was to develop ''lessons learned'' that could be applied to the acquisition process to minimize mishaps in fielded systems. System safety management lessons learned are defined as Army practices or policies, derived from past successes and failures, that are expected to be effective in eliminating or reducing specific systemic causes of residual hazards. They are broadly applicable and supportive of the Army structure and acquisition objectives. 29 refs., 7 figs.

  13. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  14. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  15. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  16. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  17. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  18. 10 CFR 950.12 - Standby Support Contract Conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract... construction, testing and full power operation of the advanced nuclear facility. (9) Provided to the Program... construction of the advanced nuclear facility; (5) Documented coverage of insurance required for the project...

  19. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  20. 10 CFR 950.13 - Standby Support Contract: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 950.13 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby... Department shall provide compensation for covered costs incurred by a sponsor for covered events that result in a covered delay of full power operation of an advanced nuclear facility. (b) Covered...

  1. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand-by agreements. The Director NSA, Maritime Administration, in advance of an emergency, may negotiate...

  2. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Stand-by agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stand-by agreements. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION B-CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF PORTS OPERATING CONTRACT Sec. 2 Stand-by agreements. The Director NSA, Maritime Administration, in advance of an emergency, may negotiate...

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  5. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  6. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  7. Placement of the radiochemical processing plant at Oak Ridge National Laboratory into a safe standby condition

    SciTech Connect

    Holladay, D.W.; Bopp, C.D.; Farmer, A.J.; Johnson, J.K.; Miller, C.H.; Powers, B.A.; Collins, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    Extensive upgrade, cleanup, and decontamination efforts are being conducted for appropriate areas in the Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) with the goal of achieving ''safe standby'' condition by the end of FY 1989. The ventilation system must maintain containment; thus, it is being upgraded via demolition and replacement of marginally adequate ductwork, fans, and control systems. Areas that are being decontaminated and stripped of various services (e.g., piping, ductwork, and process tanks) include hot cells, makeup rooms, and pipe tunnels. Operating equipment that is being decontaminated includes glove boxes and hoods. Replacement of the ventilation system and removal of equipment from pipe tunnels, cells, and makeup rooms are accomplished by contact labor by workers using proper attire, safety rules, and shielding. Removal of contaminated ductwork and piping is conducted with containment enclosures that are strategically located at breakpoints, and methods of separation are chosen to conform with health physics requirements. The methods of cutting contaminated piping and ductwork include portable reciprocating saws, pipe cutters, burning, and plasma torch. Specially designed containment enclosures will be used to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination while maintaining adequate ventilation. 6 figs.

  8. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety-critical computer systems must be engineered to meet system and software safety requirements. For legacy safety-critical computer systems, software safety requirements may not have been formally specified during development. When process-oriented software safety requirements are levied on a legacy system after the fact, where software development artifacts don't exist or are incomplete, the question becomes 'how can this be done?' The risks associated with only meeting certain software safety requirements in a legacy safety-critical computer system must be addressed should such systems be selected as candidates for reuse. This paper proposes a method for ascertaining formally, a software safety risk assessment, that provides measurements for software safety for legacy systems which may or may not have a suite of software engineering documentation that is now normally required. It relies upon the NASA Software Safety Standard, risk assessment methods based upon the Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire, and the application of reverse engineering CASE tools to produce original design documents for legacy systems.

  9. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  10. System safety education focused on industrial engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. L.; Morris, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    An educational program, designed to train students with the specific skills needed to become safety specialists, is described. The discussion concentrates on application, selection, and utilization of various system safety analytical approaches. Emphasis is also placed on the management of a system safety program, its relationship with other disciplines, and new developments and applications of system safety techniques.

  11. An Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, James B.; Lanzi, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) being developed by NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center s Wallops Flight Facility and Kennedy Space Center has completed two successful developmental flights and is preparing for a third. AFSS has been demonstrated to be a viable architecture for implementation of a completely vehicle based system capable of protecting life and property in event of an errant vehicle by terminating the flight or initiating other actions. It is capable of replacing current human-in-the-loop systems or acting in parallel with them. AFSS is configured prior to flight in accordance with a specific rule set agreed upon by the range safety authority and the user to protect the public and assure mission success. This paper discusses the motivation for the project, describes the method of development, and presents an overview of the evolving architecture and the current status.

  12. Radiation safety systems at the NSLS

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, T.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes design principles that were used to establish the radiation safety systems at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The author described existing safety systems and the history of partial system failures. 1 fig. (TEM)

  13. Integrated therapy safety management system

    PubMed Central

    Podtschaske, Beatrice; Fuchs, Daniela; Friesdorf, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim is to demonstrate the benefit of the medico-ergonomic approach for the redesign of clinical work systems. Based on the six layer model, a concept for an ‘integrated therapy safety management’ is drafted. This concept could serve as a basis to improve resilience. Methods The concept is developed through a concept-based approach. The state of the art of safety and complexity research in human factors and ergonomics forms the basis. The findings are synthesized to a concept for ‘integrated therapy safety management’. The concept is applied by way of example for the ‘medication process’ to demonstrate its practical implementation. Results The ‘integrated therapy safety management’ is drafted in accordance with the six layer model. This model supports a detailed description of specific work tasks, the corresponding responsibilities and related workflows at different layers by using the concept of ‘bridge managers’. ‘Bridge managers’ anticipate potential errors and monitor the controlled system continuously. If disruptions or disturbances occur, they respond with corrective actions which ensure that no harm results and they initiate preventive measures for future procedures. The concept demonstrates that in a complex work system, the human factor is the key element and final authority to cope with the residual complexity. The expertise of the ‘bridge managers’ and the recursive hierarchical structure results in highly adaptive clinical work systems and increases their resilience. Conclusions The medico-ergonomic approach is a highly promising way of coping with two complexities. It offers a systematic framework for comprehensive analyses of clinical work systems and promotes interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:24007448

  14. Nuclear Safety for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offiong, Etim

    2010-09-01

    It is trite, albeit a truism, to say that nuclear power can provide propulsion thrust needed to launch space vehicles and also, to provide electricity for powering on-board systems, especially for missions to the Moon, Mars and other deep space missions. Nuclear Power Sources(NPSs) are known to provide more capabilities than solar power, fuel cells and conventional chemical means. The worry has always been that of safety. The earliest superpowers(US and former Soviet Union) have designed and launched several nuclear-powered systems, with some failures. Nuclear failures and accidents, however little the number, could be far-reaching geographically, and are catastrophic to humans and the environment. Building on the numerous research works on nuclear power on Earth and in space, this paper seeks to bring to bear, issues relating to safety of space systems - spacecrafts, astronauts, Earth environment and extra terrestrial habitats - in the use and application of nuclear power sources. It also introduces a new formal training course in Space Systems Safety.

  15. Analysis of standby and demand stress failures modes

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.V.; Thaggard, M. )

    1992-10-01

    This report describes work to develop and demonstrates methods for partitioning standby component failure modes into causes that fail the component while it is in standby, and when it changes state, during testing or from other demands. Failure of the component from standby stresses is modeled using a model that explicitly contains the length of the test interval. Failure of the component from demand stresses such as vibration, wind, etc., is modeled using the probability of failure on demand model. Misuse of these models in PRAS, could lead to PRAs that, give misleading results, or that are more useful for decision purposes. A method was developed and demonstrated to partition standby/demand stresses. The method was used on the work maintenance records from two Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) to estimate reliability parameters for Motor Operated Valves And Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs).

  16. System Safety Analysis Application Guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) is committed to performing and documenting safety analyses for facilities it manages for the Department of Energy (DOE). Safety analyses are performed to identify hazards and potential accidents; to analyze the adequacy of measures taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate hazards; and to evaluate potential accidents and determine associated risks. Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) are prepared to document the safety analysis to ensure facilities can be operated safely and in accordance with regulations. SARs include Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), which are specific technical and administrative requirements that prescribe limits and controls to ensure safe operation of DOE facilities. These documented descriptions and analyses contribute to the authorization basis for facility operation. Energy Systems has established a process to perform Unreviewed Safety Question Determinations (USQDs) for planned changes and as-found conditions that are not described and analyzed in existing safety analyses. The process evaluates changes and as-found conditions to determine whether revisions to the authorization basis must be reviewed and approved by DOE. There is an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) if a change introduces conditions not bounded by the facility authorization basis. When it is necessary to request DOE approval to revise the authorization basis, preparation of a System Safety Analysis (SSA) is recommended. This application guide describes the process of preparing an SSA and the desired contents of an SSA. Guidance is provided on how to identify items and practices which are important to safety; how to determine the credibility and significance of consequences of proposed accident scenarios; how to evaluate accident prevention and mitigation features of the planned change; and how to establish special requirements to ensure that a change can be implemented with adequate safety.

  17. System Safety in Aircraft Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    principal purpose is the prevention of accidents or deaths/ injuries related thereto. Until a recent meeting cosponsored by SOHP and OUSDRE, communication...results in preventing the loss of a single aircraft ML.214/9OV 83 ($15 million for the AH-64, $25 million for the F-18, $200 million for the B-1B). - An...acquisition program. There- fore, it is essential to have interest and support of system safety by "off-line" management at levels high enough to be effective

  18. System safety approach in the VLT Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansorge, Wolfgang

    1997-03-01

    Safety, like quality and reliability, has to be designed into a product and respected during all project phases from the concept definition to the operation and maintenance phases. The VLT approach towards occupational safety and health and equipment safety starts with the definition of realistic safety requirements and applicability of ECC directives and national laws of the ESO Member States. The approach continues with preliminary safety analyses during the early project phases, with hazard analysis and safety verifications during the developmental phases, the training for safe operation, maintenance, and later material disposal. System safety is an integral part of the VLT project.

  19. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  20. Comprehensive Lifecycle for Assuring System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, John C.; Rowanhill, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    CLASS is a novel approach to the enhancement of system safety in which the system safety case becomes the focus of safety engineering throughout the system lifecycle. CLASS also expands the role of the safety case across all phases of the system's lifetime, from concept formation to decommissioning. As CLASS has been developed, the concept has been generalized to a more comprehensive notion of assurance becoming the driving goal, where safety is an important special case. This report summarizes major aspects of CLASS and contains a bibliography of papers that provide additional details.

  1. System Design and the Safety Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, Darrel

    2008-05-06

    The objective of this paper is to present the Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC (BJC) Lessons Learned for system design as it relates to safety basis documentation. BJC has had to reconcile incomplete or outdated system description information with current facility safety basis for a number of situations in recent months. This paper has relevance in multiple topical areas including documented safety analysis, decontamination & decommissioning (D&D), safety basis (SB) implementation, safety and design integration, potential inadequacy of the safety analysis (PISA), technical safety requirements (TSR), and unreviewed safety questions. BJC learned that nuclear safety compliance relies on adequate and well documented system design information. A number of PIS As and TSR violations occurred due to inadequate or erroneous system design information. As a corrective action, BJC assessed the occurrences caused by systems design-safety basis interface problems. Safety systems reviewed included the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) Fluorination System, K-1065 fire alarm system, and the K-25 Radiation Criticality Accident Alarm System. The conclusion was that an inadequate knowledge of system design could result in continuous non-compliance issues relating to nuclear safety. This was especially true with older facilities that lacked current as-built drawings coupled with the loss of 'historical knowledge' as personnel retired or moved on in their careers. Walkdown of systems and the updating of drawings are imperative for nuclear safety compliance. System design integration with safety basis has relevance in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This paper presents the BJC Lessons Learned in this area. It will be of benefit to DOE contractors that manage and operate an aging population of nuclear facilities.

  2. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  3. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-05-16

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: {sm_bullet} Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe {sm_bullet} Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts {sm_bullet} Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  4. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  5. A philosophy for space nuclear systems safety

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1992-08-01

    The unique requirements and contraints of space nuclear systems require careful consideration in the development of a safety policy. The Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) for the Space Exploration Initiative has proposed a hierarchical approach with safety policy at the top of the hierarchy. This policy allows safety requirements to be tailored to specific applications while still providing reassurance to regulators and the general public that the necessary measures have been taken to assure safe application of space nuclear systems. The safety policy used by the NSPWG is recommended for all space nuclear programs and missions.

  6. Patient Safety and the Malpractice System.

    PubMed

    Swift, James Q

    2017-02-26

    The cost of health care in the United States and malpractice insurance has escalated greatly over the past 30 years. In an ideal world, the goals of the tort system would be aligned with efforts at improving safety. In fact, there is little evidence that the tort system and the processes of risk management and informed consent have improved patient safety. The article explores the disunion between patient safety and the malpractice system.

  7. Professional Issues in System Safety Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermid, John; Thomas, Martyn; Redmill, Felix

    For many years the profession of system safety engineering has been emerging. This paper argues that the time has now come when it requires recognition, a voice, proper governance and leadership. System safety engineering is an amalgam of many disciplines, in particular, software engineering, safety engineering and management, and systems engineering, and this paper shows that system safety engineering must address the most difficult aspects of all of these. But professional matters extend beyond merely technical considerations, and the paper concludes by showing why there is the need for a new professional body.

  8. Automation for System Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Fleming, Land; Throop, David; Thronesbery, Carroll; Flores, Joshua; Bennett, Ted; Wennberg, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes work to integrate a set of tools to support early model-based analysis of failures and hazards due to system-software interactions. The tools perform and assist analysts in the following tasks: 1) extract model parts from text for architecture and safety/hazard models; 2) combine the parts with library information to develop the models for visualization and analysis; 3) perform graph analysis and simulation to identify and evaluate possible paths from hazard sources to vulnerable entities and functions, in nominal and anomalous system-software configurations and scenarios; and 4) identify resulting candidate scenarios for software integration testing. There has been significant technical progress in model extraction from Orion program text sources, architecture model derivation (components and connections) and documentation of extraction sources. Models have been derived from Internal Interface Requirements Documents (IIRDs) and FMEA documents. Linguistic text processing is used to extract model parts and relationships, and the Aerospace Ontology also aids automated model development from the extracted information. Visualizations of these models assist analysts in requirements overview and in checking consistency and completeness.

  9. Food safety performance indicators to benchmark food safety output of food safety management systems.

    PubMed

    Jacxsens, L; Uyttendaele, M; Devlieghere, F; Rovira, J; Gomez, S Oses; Luning, P A

    2010-07-31

    There is a need to measure the food safety performance in the agri-food chain without performing actual microbiological analysis. A food safety performance diagnosis, based on seven indicators and corresponding assessment grids have been developed and validated in nine European food businesses. Validation was conducted on the basis of an extensive microbiological assessment scheme (MAS). The assumption behind the food safety performance diagnosis is that food businesses which evaluate the performance of their food safety management system in a more structured way and according to very strict and specific criteria will have a better insight in their actual microbiological food safety performance, because food safety problems will be more systematically detected. The diagnosis can be a useful tool to have a first indication about the microbiological performance of a food safety management system present in a food business. Moreover, the diagnosis can be used in quantitative studies to get insight in the effect of interventions on sector or governmental level.

  10. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  11. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  12. Safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-03-20

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems` use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT&T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict? What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems? What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems? How can systems engineers and software engineers work together to address the issues related safety and reliability of computer systems? This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and of upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  13. Software safety and reliability issues in safety-related systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zucconi, L.

    1992-09-01

    The increasing number of accidents attributed to computer-based systems is causing increased public awareness of the risk associated with these systems' use in safety-related applications. Examples include the Therac-25 medical LINAC deaths, the growing number of Airbus A320 crashes, the AT T Long-Lines disaster on Martin Luther King Day in 1990, the spate of regional telephone outages of the summer of 1991, and many more. How do safety and reliability sometimes conflict What practical computer system and software development technologies and processes can be applied to increase the safety and reliability of computer systems What are the technical and managerial issues contributing to the construction of less-than-safe computer-based systems How can systems engineers and software engineers work together. to address the issues related to safety and reliability of computer systems This paper will address these topics and include an assessment of the best current state-of-the-practice and upcoming technologies that will carry us into the 21st century.

  14. The Evolution of System Safety at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Everett, Chris; Groen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The NASA system safety framework is in the process of change, motivated by the desire to promote an objectives-driven approach to system safety that explicitly focuses system safety efforts on system-level safety performance, and serves to unify, in a purposeful manner, safety-related activities that otherwise might be done in a way that results in gaps, redundancies, or unnecessary work. An objectives-driven approach to system safety affords more flexibility to determine, on a system-specific basis, the means by which adequate safety is achieved and verified. Such flexibility and efficiency is becoming increasingly important in the face of evolving engineering modalities and acquisition models, where, for example, NASA will increasingly rely on commercial providers for transportation services to low-earth orbit. A key element of this objectives-driven approach is the use of the risk-informed safety case (RISC): a structured argument, supported by a body of evidence, that provides a compelling, comprehensible and valid case that a system is or will be adequately safe for a given application in a given environment. The RISC addresses each of the objectives defined for the system, providing a rational basis for making informed risk acceptance decisions at relevant decision points in the system life cycle.

  15. Supplementary safety system corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.H.; Wiersma, B.J.

    1991-05-21

    This memorandum presents experimental data from electrochemical and immersion tests to support the continued use of two sections of nonconforming steel in the Supplementary Safety System. The Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee met on May 16, 1991 to evaluate materials that had been installed in the SSS. The materials lacked complete Corrosion Evaluation (CE) and/or Certified Mill Test Reports and had been installed during recent modifications (Project S-4332). Items that lacked proper documentation included AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304) instrument tubing (0.375'' OD) associated with the pressure transmitters and a two-foot section of 304 pipe located on the far side of the system downstream of the pneumatic valves. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans were performed on sensitized and solution-annealed 304 samples in as-mixed and acidified Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or ink'', solutions at room temperature to determine the susceptibility of 304 to localized corrosion in this environment. No localized attack was observed on the solution annealed or sensitized 304 in the Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution. These tests revealed no significant differences in the behavior of the sensitized and solution-annealed 304 in gadolinium nitrate solution. Therefore, localized corrosion of the nonconforming components is not anticipated, and the performance of the nonconforming components should not differ from that of corrosion evaluated and certified materials. Previous studies have shown that AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) did not pit during a three-month exposure in gadolinium nitrate solutions of pH 2 or 5. These combined results support the continued use of the nonconforming steels until replacement can be made at the next scheduled long shut-down.

  16. Supplementary safety system corrosion studies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.H.; Wiersma, B.J.

    1991-05-21

    This memorandum presents experimental data from electrochemical and immersion tests to support the continued use of two sections of nonconforming steel in the Supplementary Safety System. The Reactor Corrosion Mitigation Committee met on May 16, 1991 to evaluate materials that had been installed in the SSS. The materials lacked complete Corrosion Evaluation (CE) and/or Certified Mill Test Reports and had been installed during recent modifications (Project S-4332). Items that lacked proper documentation included AISI Type 304 stainless steel (304) instrument tubing (0.375`` OD) associated with the pressure transmitters and a two-foot section of 304 pipe located on the far side of the system downstream of the pneumatic valves. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans were performed on sensitized and solution-annealed 304 samples in as-mixed and acidified Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}, or ``ink``, solutions at room temperature to determine the susceptibility of 304 to localized corrosion in this environment. No localized attack was observed on the solution annealed or sensitized 304 in the Gd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} solution. These tests revealed no significant differences in the behavior of the sensitized and solution-annealed 304 in gadolinium nitrate solution. Therefore, localized corrosion of the nonconforming components is not anticipated, and the performance of the nonconforming components should not differ from that of corrosion evaluated and certified materials. Previous studies have shown that AISI Type 304L stainless steel (304L) did not pit during a three-month exposure in gadolinium nitrate solutions of pH 2 or 5. These combined results support the continued use of the nonconforming steels until replacement can be made at the next scheduled long shut-down.

  17. 77 FR 70409 - System Safety Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 270 2130-AC31 System Safety Program AGENCY: Federal Railroad... commuter and intercity passenger railroads to develop and implement a system safety program (SSP) to...

  18. Standby rate design: current issues and possible innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.J.; Bahceci, Serkan

    2007-05-15

    While options pricing principles have some relevance for the design a standby distribution rates, insurance pricing may provide an even better model. An insurance-based approach using an outage probability methodology also provides powerful incentives to the utility to connect additional DG resources to the grid. (author)

  19. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby letters of credit. (a) The banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks are authorized to issue on... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks...

  20. 12 CFR 614.4810 - Standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for Cooperatives and Agricultural Credit Banks Financing International Trade § 614.4810 Standby letters of credit. (a) The banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks are authorized to issue on... party in the performance of an obligation. (b) As a matter of sound banking practice, banks...

  1. 14 CFR § 1214.808 - Standby payloads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Standby payloads. § 1214.808 Section § 1214.808 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement... policy do not apply to Spacelab flights....

  2. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. The changing world of standby batteries in telecoms applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, A. I.

    This paper considers three areas of activity that are directly affecting utilisation of standby batteries in european telecom applications. (1) Cell-phone licences agreements, (2) changes in centralised power and (3) harmonisation of standards. Cell-phone licence agreements: The change from Utopian optimism to concern and restraint has been well documented in the financial press. The paper will outline recent proposals from the Telecom Industry to resolve these problems, and will suggest possible implications to the future supply of VRLA Standby Power Batteries. Changes in centralised power: For many years now there has been a transfer of battery electrical capacity from Centralised Standby Power Batteries to "New Technology" batteries. This has arisen from the simple fact that power cannot be transferred to 'End User connected equipment' by means of 'wireless' or 'optical fibre' transmission. In addition, and more recently, the concept has been introduced that as modern network switches are in fact computers, they should be powered as computers, which has brought about the introduction of standard UPS power in contrast to the traditional low voltage dc power. Both these issues are explored to indicate the possible effects upon VRLA Centralised Power. Harmonisation of standards: In order to eliminate 'restrictions to trade' within the European region, harmonisation of industrial standards has been for many years a central platform of European legislation. However, in reality, the application of this concept to Telecoms Standby Power batteries has not been so successful, arising largely because it has been difficult to harmonise the requirements of users. These problems are now being addressed, and this paper will provide an update on recent standards development for VRLA Standby Power Batteries.

  4. System safety management: A new discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    The systems theory is discussed in relation to safety management. It is suggested that systems safety management, as a new discipline, holds great promise for reducing operating errors, conserving labor resources, avoiding operating costs due to mistakes, and for improving managerial techniques. It is pointed out that managerial failures or system breakdowns are the basic reasons for human errors and condition defects. In this respect, a recommendation is made that safety engineers stop visualizing the problem only with the individual (supervisor or employee) and see the problem from the systems point of view.

  5. Safety features of subcritical fluid fueled systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, C.R.

    1995-10-01

    Accelerator-driven transmutation technology has been under study at Los Alamos for several years for application to nuclear waste treatment, tritium production, energy generation, and recently, to the disposition of excess weapons plutonium. Studies and evaluations performed to date at Los Alamos have led to a current focus on a fluid-fuel, fission system operating in a neutron source-supported subcritical mode, using molten salt reactor technology and accelerator-driven proton-neutron spallation. In this paper, the safety features and characteristics of such systems are explored from the perspective of the fundamental nuclear safety objectives that any reactor-type system should address. This exploration is qualitative in nature and uses current vintage solid-fueled reactors as a baseline for comparison. Based on the safety perspectives presented, such systems should be capable of meeting the fundamental nuclear safety objectives. In addition, they should be able to provide the safety robustness desired for advanced reactors. However, the manner in which safety objectives and robustness are achieved is very different from that associated with conventional reactors. Also, there are a number of safety design and operational challenges that will have to be addressed for the safety potential of such systems to be credible.

  6. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 900,000 reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 5,500 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation \\vill discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  7. Argument for a Joint Safety Reporting System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-13

    vehicle is overcome by the river forces and overturns; all personnel are lost and the vehicle is heavily damaged . An off-duty Marine, while riding his...approach to illustrate the benefits of selecting the AF Safety Automated System (AFSAS) as the joint-service safety data system for the services and...Alabama. Mr. Nunn was previously assigned as the Chief of the AF (AF) Automated System (AFSAS) Requirements Group, and as the AF Risk Management (RM

  8. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  9. Safety status system for operating room devices.

    PubMed

    Guédon, Annetje C P; Wauben, Linda S G L; Overvelde, Marlies; Blok, Joleen H; van der Elst, Maarten; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2014-01-01

    Since the increase of the number of technological aids in the operating room (OR), equipment-related incidents have come to be a common kind of adverse events. This underlines the importance of adequate equipment management to improve the safety in the OR. A system was developed to monitor the safety status (periodic maintenance and registered malfunctions) of OR devices and to facilitate the notification of malfunctions. The objective was to assess whether the system is suitable for use in an busy OR setting and to analyse its effect on the notification of malfunctions. The system checks automatically the safety status of OR devices through constant communication with the technical facility management system, informs the OR staff real-time and facilitates notification of malfunctions. The system was tested for a pilot period of six months in four ORs of a Dutch teaching hospital and 17 users were interviewed on the usability of the system. The users provided positive feedback on the usability. For 86.6% of total time, the localisation of OR devices was accurate. 62 malfunctions of OR devices were reported, an increase of 12 notifications compared to the previous year. The safety status system was suitable for an OR complex, both from a usability and technical point of view, and an increase of reported malfunctions was observed. The system eases monitoring the safety status of equipment and is a promising tool to improve the safety related to OR devices.

  10. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  11. Ares I Integrated Vehicle System Safety Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; McNairy, Lisa; Shackelford, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Complex systems require integrated analysis teams which sometimes are divided into subsystem teams. Proper division of the analysis in to subsystem teams is important. Safety analysis is one of the most difficult aspects of integration.

  12. Autonomous Flight Safety System - Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that uses tracking and attitude data from onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and configurable rule-based algorithms to make flight termination decisions. AFSS objectives are to increase launch capabilities by permitting launches from locations without range safety infrastructure, reduce costs by eliminating some downrange tracking and communication assets, and reduce the reaction time for flight termination decisions.

  13. Application of system safety to rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styles, T. D.

    1971-01-01

    Management emphasis on system safety in the rapid transit industry includes the granting and use of funds by the Federal Government according to systematic analysis of safety hazards in advance. Likelihood predictions that those hazards will be activated by exposure of the system to a system failure, a human error, external conditions, or combinations of these aspects determine alternatives to the assumption of risk and recommend corrections before the system is operational. Rigorous safety analyses are projected to assure operational safety for prolonged periods under varied maintenance conditions; these analysis encompass station accident possibilities as well as train-person collisions, car equipment and design, traffic control systems, and tunnel design problems.

  14. Application of system safety to rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styles, T. D.

    1971-01-01

    Management emphasis on system safety in the rapid transit industry includes the granting and use of funds by the Federal Government according to systematic analysis of safety hazards in advance. Likelihood predictions that those hazards will be activated by exposure of the system to a system failure, a human error, external conditions, or combinations of these aspects determine alternatives to the assumption of risk and recommend corrections before the system is operational. Rigorous safety analyses are projected to assure operational safety for prolonged periods under varied maintenance conditions; these analysis encompass station accident possibilities as well as train-person collisions, car equipment and design, traffic control systems, and tunnel design problems.

  15. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  16. The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Peter E.

    1990-08-01

    The Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) is discussed with respect to its initial planning, the communication network, and other details, including the fully automated Maritime Safety Information service and the implementation of the whole system. GMDSS is the result of international cooperation over a period of about 10 years and provides the maritime community with an integrated distress and safety communication system which significantly enhances the safety of life and property in the harsh environment of the sea. Probably the most essential element of the GMDSS is the provision of an adequate communication network which will permit ships in need of assistance to notify responsible authorities, discuss the help they need, and allow the search and rescue activities to be coordinated by the most appropriate center.

  17. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  18. Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

  19. STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STANDBY TOP AND BOTTOM ROTARY MILLING CUTTERS FOR TORIN LINE. SOME PRODUCT FROM THE #43 HOT ROLL IS PROCESSED ON THE TORIN LINE TO REMOVE OXIDIZED SURFACE MATERIAL. IN PRACTICE 15-20/1000 IS CUT FROM THE UPPER AND LOWER SURFACES OF THE STRIP AND RECYCLED TO THE CASTING SHOP. TORIN LINE ADDED AS PART OF 1981 EXPANSION PROGRAM. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  20. A redundant regulator control with low standby losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andryczyk, R. W.; Peck, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    Shunt regulator circuit for outer-planet-spacecraft radiosotope thermoelectric generator minimizes power-conditioning losses. Unit consists of bank of duplicate regulator control amplifiers and their associated shunt transistors connecter across power supply line. Its high-gain circuitry arranged in redundant configuration in very reliable and is characterized by low standby loss. Circuit can be used on other power-supply applications where size, weight, and reliability are important.

  1. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  2. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 2: System Safety Concepts, Guidelines, and Implementation Examples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Feather, Martin; Rutledge, Peter; Sen, Dev; Youngblood, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This is the second of two volumes that collectively comprise the NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1 (NASASP-210-580) was prepared for the purpose of presenting the overall framework for System Safety and for providing the general concepts needed to implement the framework. Volume 2 provides guidance for implementing these concepts as an integral part of systems engineering and risk management. This guidance addresses the following functional areas: 1.The development of objectives that collectively define adequate safety for a system, and the safety requirements derived from these objectives that are levied on the system. 2.The conduct of system safety activities, performed to meet the safety requirements, with specific emphasis on the conduct of integrated safety analysis (ISA) as a fundamental means by which systems engineering and risk management decisions are risk-informed. 3.The development of a risk-informed safety case (RISC) at major milestone reviews to argue that the systems safety objectives are satisfied (and therefore that the system is adequately safe). 4.The evaluation of the RISC (including supporting evidence) using a defined set of evaluation criteria, to assess the veracity of the claims made therein in order to support risk acceptance decisions.

  3. Low standby leakage 12T SRAM cell characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Arjun; Nakhate, Sangeeta

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a low power and variability-aware static random access memory (SRAM) architecture based on a twelve-transistor (12T) cell is proposed. This cell obtains low static power dissipation due to a parallel global latch (G-latch) and storage latch (S-latch), along with a global wordline (GWL), which offer a high cell ratio and pull-up ratio for reliable read and write operations and a low cell ratio and pull-up ratio during idle mode to reduce the standby power dissipation. In the idle state, only the S-latch stores bits, while the G-latch is isolated from the S-latch and the GWL is deactivated. The leakage power consumption of the proposed SRAM cell is thereby reduced by 38.7% compared to that of the conventional six-transistor (6T) SRAM cell. This paper evaluates the impact of the chip supply voltage and surrounding temperature variations on the standby leakage power and observes considerable improvement in the power dissipation. The read/write access delay, read static noise margin (SNM) and write SNM were evaluated, and the results were compared with those of the standard 6T SRAM cell. The proposed cell, when compared with the existing cell using the Monte Carlo method, shows an appreciable improvement in the standby power dissipation and layout area.

  4. System Safety in an IT Service Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Mike; Scutt, Simon

    Within Logica UK, over 30 IT service projects are considered safetyrelated. These include operational IT services for airports, railway infrastructure asset management, nationwide radiation monitoring and hospital medical records services. A recent internal audit examined the processes and documents used to manage system safety on these services and made a series of recommendations for improvement. This paper looks at the changes and the challenges to introducing them, especially where the service is provided by multiple units supporting both safety and non-safety related services from multiple locations around the world. The recommendations include improvements to service agreements, improved process definitions, routine safety assessment of changes, enhanced call logging, improved staff competency and training, and increased safety awareness. Progress is reported as of today, together with a road map for implementation of the improvements to the service safety management system. A proposal for service assurance levels (SALs) is discussed as a way forward to cover the wide variety of services and associated safety risks.

  5. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-08-26

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only an inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window. 5 figs.

  6. Window-closing safety system

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A safety device includes a wire loop embedded in the glass of a passenger car window and routed near the closing leading-edge of the window. The wire loop carries microwave pulses around the loop to and from a transceiver with separate output and input ports. An evanescent field only and inch or two in radius is created along the wire loop by the pulses. Just about any object coming within the evanescent field will dramatically reduce the energy of the microwave pulses received back by the transceiver. Such a loss in energy is interpreted as a closing area blockage, and electrical interlocks are provided to halt or reverse a power window motor that is actively trying to close the window.

  7. Safety assurance of complex integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrignani, Vincent A.; Jordan, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Interface hazard analysis (IHA) is used as a 'tool' to systematically assess safety for the integration of a diverse set of experiments and payload hardware into the Spacelab carrier which flies in the Space Shuttle's Orbiter cargo bay. The IHA when performed by a thorough analysis provides safety assurance of complex integrated systems by systematically linking analysis efforts performed by the organizations thus providing the respective elements to be integrated into an objective, unique analysis. Particular attention is given to verification methods of the safety assurance of the Spacelab carrier and its experiment payload for which the IHA was performed.

  8. Consumer product safety: A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The manufacturer, tester, retailer, consumer, repairer disposer, trade and professional associations, national and international standards bodies, and governments in several roles are all involved in consumer product safety. A preliminary analysis, drawing on system safety techniques, is utilized to distinguish the inter-relations of these many groups and the responsibilities that they are or could take for product safety, including the slow accident hazards as well as the more commonly discussed fast accident hazards. The importance of interactive computer aided information flow among these groups is particularly stressed.

  9. Space transportation system payload safety policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description of the Space Transportation System (STS) is given, and the evolution of a payload safety policy for it is described. The policy adopted in June, 1976, minimizes STS involvement in the payload design process while maintaining the assurance of a safe operation. The payload developer is responsible for assurance of safety and verification of compliance with the requirements. The STS will exercise reviews to ensure that interaction between payloads does not create hazards.

  10. Reflections on system safety and the law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, D. F., Sr.

    1971-01-01

    The application of law to the determination of what constitutes safeness is discussed. The numerous factors are analyzed which enter into the decisions of courts in deciding what is safe and what is unsafe. It is pointed out that as technology changes, legal interpretations of safety also change. Arguements are given for the use of system safety techniques and better engineering analyses as instruments of defense against liability.

  11. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

  12. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs, based on methods used by the Laboratories to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when the Laboratories realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a bewildering and virtually infinite array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  13. A thematic approach to system safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ekman, M.E.; Werner, P.W.; Covan, J.M.; D`Antonio, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) has refined a process for developing inherently safer system designs based on methods used by Sandia to design detonation safety into nuclear weapons. The process was created when Sandia realized that standard engineering practices did not provide the level of safety assurance necessary for nuclear weapon operations, with their potential for catastrophic accidents. A systematic approach, which relies on mutually supportive design principles integrated through fundamental physical principles, was developed to ensure a predictably safe system response under a variety of operational and accident-based stresses. Robust, safe system designs result from this thematic approach to safety, minimizing the number of safety critical features. This safety assurance process has two profound benefits: the process avoids the need to understand or limit the ultimate intensity of off-normal environments and it avoids the requirement to analyze and test a large array of accident environment scenarios (e.g., directional threats, sequencing of environments, time races, etc.) to demonstrate conformance to all safety requirements.

  14. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Safety problems connected with in-space propellant logistics operations are considered. Safety considerations resulting from the system safety analysis in the trade studies and evaluations of alternate operating concepts in the systems operations analysis are presented.

  15. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 6: Space base nuclear system safety plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A qualitative identification of the steps required to assure the incorporation of radiological system safety principles and objectives into all phases of a manned space base program are presented. Specific areas of emphasis include: (1) radiological program management, (2) nuclear system safety plan implementation, (3) impact on program, and (4) summary of the key operation and design guidelines and requirements. The plan clearly indicates the necessity of considering and implementing radiological system safety recommendations as early as possible in the development cycle to assure maximum safety and minimize the impact on design and mission plans.

  16. 14 CFR 417.309 - Flight safety system analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system analysis. 417.309..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety System § 417.309 Flight safety system analysis. (a) General. (1) Each flight termination system and command control system, including each of...

  17. A guide for performing system safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brush, J. M.; Douglass, R. W., III.; Williamson, F. R.; Dorman, M. C. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A general guide is presented for performing system safety analyses of hardware, software, operations and human elements of an aerospace program. The guide describes a progression of activities that can be effectively applied to identify hazards to personnel and equipment during all periods of system development. The general process of performing safety analyses is described; setting forth in a logical order the information and data requirements, the analytical steps, and the results. These analyses are the technical basis of a system safety program. Although the guidance established by this document cannot replace human experience and judgement, it does provide a methodical approach to the identification of hazards and evaluation of risks to the system.

  18. System safety in Stirling engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The DOE/NASA Stirling Engine Project Office has required that contractors make safety considerations an integral part of all phases of the Stirling engine development program. As an integral part of each engine design subtask, analyses are evolved to determine possible modes of failure. The accepted system safety analysis techniques (Fault Tree, FMEA, Hazards Analysis, etc.) are applied in various degrees of extent at the system, subsystem and component levels. The primary objectives are to identify critical failure areas, to enable removal of susceptibility to such failures or their effects from the system and to minimize risk.

  19. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalization of an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR, 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS). Guidance and expectations have been provided to PNNL by incorporation into the operating contract (Contract DE-ACM-76FL0 1830) and by letter. The contract requires that the contractor submit a description of their ISMS for approval by DOE. PNNL submitted their proposed Safety Management System Description for approval on November 25,1997. RL tentatively approved acceptance of the description pursuant to a favorable recommendation from this review. The Integrated Safety Management System Verification is a review of the adequacy of the ISMS description in fulfilling the requirements of the DEAR and the DOE Policy. The purpose of this review is to provide the Richland Operations Office Manager with a recommendation for approval of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and to verify the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further the review will provide a model for other DOE laboratories managed by the Office of Assistant Secretary for Energy Research.

  20. Active-standby servovalue/actuator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masm, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    A redundant, fail/operate fail/fixed servoactuator was constructed and tested along with electronic models of a servovalve. It was found that a torque motor switch is satisfactory for the space shuttle main engine hydraulic actuation system, and that this system provides an effective failure monitoring technique.

  1. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study of reports relating to cockpit altitude alert systems was performed. A recent change in the Federal Air Regulation permits the system to be modified so that the alerting signal approaching altitude has only a visual component; the auditory signal would continue to be heard if a deviation from an assigned altitude occurred. Failure to observe altitude alert signals and failure to reset the system were the commonest cause of altitude deviations related to this system. Cockpit crew distraction was the most frequent reason for these failures. It was noted by numerous reporters that the presence of altitude alert system made them less aware of altitude; this lack of altitude awareness is discussed. Failures of crew coordination were also noted. It is suggested that although modification of the altitude alert system may be highly desirable in short-haul aircraft, it may not be desirable for long-haul aircraft in which cockpit workloads are much lower for long periods of time. In these cockpits, the aural alert approaching altitudes is perceived as useful and helpful. If the systems are to be modified, it appears that additional emphasis on altitude awareness during recurrent training will be necessary; it is also possible that flight crew operating procedures during climb and descent may need examination with respect to monitoring responsibilities. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  2. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-01

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive "m out of n: F" is presented as well.

  3. 12 CFR 960.5 - Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit. 960.5 Section 960.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.5 Additional provisions applying to all standby letters of credit....

  4. 12 CFR 960.4 - Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. 960.4 Section 960.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS AND OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS STANDBY LETTERS OF CREDIT § 960.4 Obligation to Bank under all standby letters of credit. (a) Obligation...

  5. Safety of high speed magnetic levitation transportation systems. Preliminary safety review of the transrapid maglev system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorer, R. M.; Hathaway, W. T.

    1990-11-01

    The safety of various magnetically levitated trains under development for possible implementation in the United States is of direct concern to the Federal Railroad Administration. Safety issues are addressed related to a specific maglev technology. The Transrapid maglev system was under development by the German Government over the last 10 to 15 years and was evolved into the current system with the TR-07 vehicle. A technically based safety review was under way over the last year by the U.S. Department of Transportation. The initial results of the review are presented to identify and assess potential maglev safety issues.

  6. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Knowledge of limitations of the Air Traffic Control system in conflict avoidance capabilities is discussed. Assumptions and expectations held by by airmen regarding the capabilities of the system are presented. Limitations related to communication are described and problems associated with visual approaches, airspace configurations, and airport layouts are discussed. A number of pilot and controller reports illustrative of three typical problem types: occurrences involving pilots who have limited experience; reports describing inflight calls for assistance; and flights in which pilots have declined to use available radar services are presented. Examples of Alert Bulletins and the FAA responses to them are included.

  7. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in the rail transit agency's system safety program plan. The contents of the system safety plan are... included in the affected rail transit agency's system safety program plan relating to the hazard management... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System safety program standard. 659.15 Section...

  8. DESIGN PACKAGE 1D SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    L.R. Eisler

    1995-02-02

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1D, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1D system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component (S/S/C) design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions. The scope of this analysis is limited to the Design Package 1D structures/systems/components (S/S/Cs) during normal operations excluding hazards occurring during maintenance and ''off normal'' operations.

  9. Safety Requirements for Human Rated Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, M.; Sgobba, T.

    2010-09-01

    Human rated space systems are those that, to the maximum extent practical, ensure the safety of humans(i.e.: public, ground and crew personnel) from any critical or catastrophic hazards and/or safely recovery from them, ensure that human needs are covered and their capabilities are effectively utilized. The need to define these safety considerations has been the result of previous space accidents and lessons learnt onboard the International Space Station(ISS). In 2003, NASA released programmatic and technical requirements for human rating certification, which were reviewed and updated in 2008. In 2009, ESA launched an activity to identify safety technical requirements for human rated space systems in support of future European crewed space vehicles. Within this framework, ESA has reviewed and evaluated a comprehensive list of documentation, literature and identified a number of proven safety requirements for future crewed vehicles. This paper firstly presents an historical perspective of human spaceflight and European space activities. Secondly, human rating is introduced. Then, it describes the development of ESA safety requirements for human rated space systems and it provides details about its scope, requirements heritage and its applicability for European human spaceflight initiatives.

  10. Toward learning from patient safety reporting systems.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Thompson, David A; Holzmueller, Christine G; Lubomski, Lisa H; Dorman, Todd; Dickman, Fern; Fahey, Maureen; Steinwachs, Donald M; Engineer, Lilly; Sexton, J Bryan; Wu, Albert W; Morlock, Laura L

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the frequency and type of factors involved in incidents reported to a patient safety reporting system and answer specific questions to enhance the value of PSRS data to improve patient safety. Prospective cohort study of incidents reported from adult and pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in the United States to the web-based, voluntary, and anonymous Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System. Results from July 1, 2002, to June 30, 2004. Main outcome variables were incidents that could or did lead to patient harm. Analysis includes 2075 incidents from 23 ICUs. Median number of reports/ICU/month was 3; 5 hospitals submitted 58% of reports. Harm was reported in 42% of incidents with 18 deaths. Common event types: medication/therapeutics (42%) and incorrect/incomplete care delivery (20%); 48% of line/tube/drain incidents led to physical harm. Deficiencies in training/education contributed to 49% of incidents and teamwork issues 32%; 42% of incidents had 2 or more contributing factors. As the number of contributing factors per incident increased, so did risk of harm. The Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System provides a mechanism for multiple ICUs to identify hazards. Data trends show a correlation between multiple contributing factors and higher rates of harm. Further research is needed to help determine how to use PSRS data to improve patient safety.

  11. Safety System Design for Technology Education. A Safety Guide for Technology Education Courses K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This manual is designed to involve both teachers and students in planning and controlling a safety system for technology education classrooms. The safety program involves students in the design and maintenance of the system by including them in the analysis of the classroom environment, job safety analysis, safety inspection, and machine safety…

  12. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A decline in reports concerning small aircraft was noted; more reports involved transport aircraft, professional pilots, instrument meteorological conditions, and weather problems. A study of 136 reports of operational problems in terminal radar service areas was made. Pilot, controller, and system factors were found to be associated with these occurrences. Information transfer difficulties were prominent. Misunderstandings by pilots, and in some cases by controllers, of the policies and limitations of terminal radar programs were observed.

  13. Expert systems applied to spacecraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Richard L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    1989-01-01

    Expert systems are problem-solving programs that combine a knowledge base and a reasoning mechanism to simulate a human expert. The development of an expert system to manage fire safety in spacecraft, in particular the NASA Space Station Freedom, is difficult but clearly advantageous in the long-term. Some needs in low-gravity flammability characteristics, ventilating-flow effects, fire detection, fire extinguishment, and decision models, all necessary to establish the knowledge base for an expert system, are discussed.

  14. Improving patient safety by instructional systems design

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J B

    2006-01-01

    Education and training are important elements in patient safety, both as a potential contributing factor to risks and hazards of healthcare associated injury or harm and as an intervention to be used in eliminating or preventing such harm. All too often we have relied on training as the only interventions for patient safety without examining other alternatives or realizing that, in some cases, the training systems themselves are part of the problem. One way to ensure safety by design is to apply established design principles to education and training. Instructional systems design (ISD) is a systematic method of development of education and training programs for improved learner performance. The ISD process involves five integrated steps: analysis, development, design, implementation, and evaluation (ADDIE). The application of ISD using the ADDIE approach can eliminate or prevent education and training from being a contributing factor of health associated injury or harm, and can also be effective in preventing injury or harm. PMID:17142604

  15. System safety as applied to Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinknecht, K. S.; Miller, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Procedural and organizational guidelines used in accordance with NASA safety policy for the Skylab missions are outlined. The basic areas examined in the safety program for Skylab were the crew interface, extra-vehicular activity (EVA), energy sources, spacecraft interface, and hardware complexity. Fire prevention was a primary goal, with firefighting as backup. Studies of the vectorcardiogram and sleep monitoring experiments exemplify special efforts to prevent fire and shock. The final fire control study included material review, fire detection capability, and fire extinguishing capability. Contractors had major responsibility for system safety. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and equipment criticality categories are outlined. Redundancy was provided on systems that were critical to crew survival (category I). The five key checkpoints in Skylab hardware development are explained. Skylab rescue capability was demonstrated by preparations to rescue the Skylab 3 crew after their spacecraft developed attitude control problems.

  16. DESIGN PACKAGE 1E SYSTEM SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Salem

    1995-06-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Project Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package 1E, Surface Facilities, (for a list of design items included in the package 1E system safety analysis see section 3). This process is an integral part of the systems engineering process; whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach was used since a radiological System Safety Analysis is not required. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the accident scenarios associated with the Design Package 1E structures/systems/components(S/S/Cs) in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified risks. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate measures to reduce risks and hazards into the structure/system/component design, (2) add safety devices and capabilities to the designs that reduce risk, (3) provide devices that detect and warn personnel of hazardous conditions, and (4) develop procedures and conduct training to increase worker awareness of potential hazards, on methods to reduce exposure to hazards, and on the actions required to avoid accidents or correct hazardous conditions.

  17. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Reports describing various types of communication problems are presented along with summaries dealing with judgment and decision making. Concerns relating to the ground proximity warning system are summarized and several examples of true terrain proximity warnings are provided. An analytic study of reports relating to profile descents was performed. Problems were found to be associated with charting and graphic presentation of the descents, with lack of uniformity of the descent procedures among facilities using them, and with the flight crew workload engendered by profile descents, particularly when additional requirements are interposed by air traffic control during the execution of the profiles. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them were reviewed.

  18. Integrated safety management system verification: Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, R.F.

    1998-08-12

    Department of Energy (DOE) Policy (P) 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex. The DOE Acquisition Regulations (DEAR 48 CFR 970) requires contractors to manage and perform work in accordance with a documented Integrated Safety Management System. The Manager, Richland Operations Office (RL), initiated a combined Phase 1 and Phase 2 Integrated Safety Management Verification review to confirm that PNNL had successfully submitted a description of their ISMS and had implemented ISMS within the laboratory facilities and processes. A combined review was directed by the Manager, RL, based upon the progress PNNL had made in the implementation of ISM. This report documents the results of the review conducted to verify: (1) that the PNNL integrated safety management system description and enabling documents and processes conform to the guidance provided by the Manager, RL; (2) that corporate policy is implemented by line managers; (3) that PNNL has provided tailored direction to the facility management; and (4) the Manager, RL, has documented processes that integrate their safety activities and oversight with those of PNNL. The general conduct of the review was consistent with the direction provided by the Under Secretary`s Draft Safety Management System Review and Approval Protocol. The purpose of this review was to provide the Manager, RL, with a recommendation to the adequacy of the ISMS description of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory based upon compliance with the requirements of 49 CFR 970.5204(-2 and -78); and, to provide an evaluation of the extent and maturity of ISMS implementation within the Laboratory. Further, this review was intended to provide a model for other DOE Laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time and travel costs associated with ISM verification the team agreed to conduct preliminary training and orientation electronically and by phone. These

  19. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  20. Using government purchasing power to reduce equipment standby power

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Jeffrey; Meier, Alan; Bartholomew, Emily; Thomas, Alison; Glickman, Joan; Ware Michelle

    2003-03-03

    Although the government sector represents only 10 to 15 percent of the economy in most countries, carefully targeted public procurement can play a significant role in market transformation through its influence on both buyers and suppliers. Government leadership in energy-efficient purchasing can set an example for other buyers, while creating opportunities for leading manufacturers and distributors to increase their sales and market share by offering energy-efficient products at competitive prices. Under proper circumstances, a highly visible government purchasing policy can have a disproportionately large influence on the market for efficient products. In the United States, President Bush signed an Executive Order in 2001 directing all federal agencies to buy products with low standby power (1 watt or less where possible). This represents a deliberate choice to use government purchasing - rather than regulations or incentives - as a market-based strategy to encourage energy savings. It also builds upon existing efforts to encourage Federal purchase of energy-efficient products (Energy Star products and others in the top 25th percentile of efficiency). This paper summarizes the Federal Energy Management Program s first 18 months of experience in implementing this Executive Order, including analysis of data on standby power, interactions with manufacturers and industry groups, and the relationship between these efforts and other federal programs concerning product labelling, testing, rating, and efficiency standards. After five years of implementing low-standby power purchasing, we estimate energy savings for federal agencies alone at about 230 GWh/year (worth US$14 million), with spillover effects on the broader market that will save all US consumers nearly 4000 GWh/year (US$300 million).

  1. 76 FR 14592 - Safety Management System; Withdrawal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... (``product/ service providers'') to develop a Safety Management System (SMS). The FAA is withdrawing the... in the future to consider SMS for other product/service providers. DATES: The advance notice of... July 2012, the FAA has decided not to immediately address SMS for other product/service providers....

  2. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  3. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  4. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  5. EVA safety: Space suit system interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.; McBarron, J. W.; Abramov, L. P.; Zvezda, A. O.

    1995-01-01

    The results and the recommendations of the International Academy of Astronautics extravehicular activities (IAA EVA) Committee work are presented. The IAA EVA protocols and operation were analyzed for harmonization procedures and for the standardization of safety critical and operationally important interfaces. The key role of EVA and how to improve the situation based on the identified EVA space suit system interoperability deficiencies were considered.

  6. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant's safety review document must identify each flight safety system crew position and the role of that...

  7. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant's safety review document must identify each flight safety system crew position and the role of that...

  8. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  9. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  10. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  11. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  12. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  13. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  14. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  15. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  16. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  17. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103... Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.103 Safety monitoring system. (a) General... Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSSs), and Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMRs). (b) Roadside...

  18. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  19. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  20. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  1. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant's safety review document must identify each flight safety system crew position and the role of...

  2. Safety Aspects of Big Cryogenic Systems Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Fydrych, J.; Poliński, J.

    2010-04-01

    Superconductivity and helium cryogenics are key technologies in the construction of large scientific instruments, like accelerators, fusion reactors or free electron lasers. Such cryogenic systems may contain more than hundred tons of helium, mostly in cold and high-density phases. In spite of the high reliability of the systems, accidental loss of the insulation vacuum, pipe rupture or rapid energy dissipation in the cold helium can not be overlooked. To avoid the danger of over-design pressure rise in the cryostats, they need to be equipped with a helium relief system. Such a system is comprised of safety valves, bursting disks and optionally cold or warm quench lines, collectors and storage tanks. Proper design of the helium safety relief system requires a good understanding of worst case scenarios. Such scenarios will be discussed, taking into account different possible failures of the cryogenic system. In any case it is necessary to estimate heat transfer through degraded vacuum superinsulation and mass flow through the valves and safety disks. Even if the design of the helium relief system does not foresee direct helium venting into the environment, an occasional emergency helium spill may happen. Helium propagation in the atmosphere and the origins of oxygen-deficiency hazards will be discussed.

  3. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 5: Nuclear System safety guidelines. Part 1: Space base nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space base nuclear system safety are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the space base subsystems, nuclear hardware (reactor, isotope sources, dynamic generator equipment), experiments, interfacing vehicles, ground support systems, range safety and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  4. Integrating quality, safety, and environment management systems.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment or safety. In many respects the process of developing management systems for these matters contains a number of common elements, including obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a policy; identifying components of the management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organization's strategic plan. The necessity of developing separate management systems for different organizational aspects is wasteful and inefficient. Better management systems will be developed if they are integrated into a single management structure.

  5. Does the concept of safety culture help or hinder systems thinking in safety?

    PubMed

    Reiman, Teemu; Rollenhagen, Carl

    2014-07-01

    The concept of safety culture has become established in safety management applications in all major safety-critical domains. The idea that safety culture somehow represents a "systemic view" on safety is seldom explicitly spoken out, but nevertheless seem to linger behind many safety culture discourses. However, in this paper we argue that the "new" contribution to safety management from safety culture never really became integrated with classical engineering principles and concepts. This integration would have been necessary for the development of a more genuine systems-oriented view on safety; e.g. a conception of safety in which human, technological, organisational and cultural factors are understood as mutually interacting elements. Without of this integration, researchers and the users of the various tools and methods associated with safety culture have sometimes fostered a belief that "safety culture" in fact represents such a systemic view about safety. This belief is, however, not backed up by theoretical or empirical evidence. It is true that safety culture, at least in some sense, represents a holistic term-a totality of factors that include human, organisational and technological aspects. However, the departure for such safety culture models is still human and organisational factors rather than technology (or safety) itself. The aim of this paper is to critically review the various uses of the concept of safety culture as representing a systemic view on safety. The article will take a look at the concepts of culture and safety culture based on previous studies, and outlines in more detail the theoretical challenges in safety culture as a systems concept. The paper also presents recommendations on how to make safety culture more systemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  7. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  8. Security for safety critical space borne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legrand, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station contains safety critical computer software components in systems that can affect life and vital property. These components require a multilevel secure system that provides dynamic access control of the data and processes involved. A study is under way to define requirements for a security model providing access control through level B3 of the Orange Book. The model will be prototyped at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  9. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  10. Evolution of Energy Efficiency Programs Over Time: The Case of Standby Power

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Chung, Iris; Fisher, Emily

    2014-08-17

    Issued in 2001, Presidential Executive Order 13221 directed federal agencies to purchase products with low standby power, with the goal of 1) reducing energy consumption in federal facilities, and 2) drawing attention to the problem of high standby power consumption, with guidance provided by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). At that time, standby power was newly recognized as an increasing building energy load. Since then, procurement of products with low standby power have been set in place in acquisition processes, and the purchasing power of the federal government continues to influence manufacturers design decisions related to standby power. In recent years, FEMP has shifted effort from direct manufacturer outreach for data collection, to integrating low standby requirement into broader acquisition programs including Energy Star and Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT). Another milestone has been the labeling of low standby products on the GSA Advantage website to simplify and enhance compliance. Looking forward into the program?s future, this question arises How do we design programs over time to reflect market and technology changes, by adjusting programmatic requirements while maintaining effectiveness? This paper discusses that question for the case of standby power, which transitioned from covering a single to multiple environmental attributes, both in the context of the program's past and future.

  11. Standby Generators for North Portal Electrical Loads (SCPB:N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    Y.D. Shane

    1995-03-31

    The purpose and objective of this design analysis is to establish the best and most economical way to provide standby power generation required for the North Portal loads. This analysis calculates the size and number of the new standby generators that will supplement the already-specified four 500 kW diesel generator units (7007-GN-401, -402, -403, and -404).

  12. Implementation Procedure for STS Payloads, System Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and instructions for the implementation of the SP&R system safety requirements applicable to STS payloads are provided. The initial contact meeting with the payload organization and the subsequent safety reviews necessary to comply with the system safety requirements of the SP&R document are described. Waiver instructions are included for the cases in which a safety requirement cannot be met.

  13. EUTEF Integrated Payload System Safety Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laplena, D.; Pagnoni, S.

    2005-12-01

    Carlo Gavazzi Space (CGS) has developed the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). EuTEF, see Fig.1, is a facility which provides scientific users with the means to collect scientific/technological data in the fields of: electrostatic discharge phenomena, materials property degradation in space environment, impact of micrometeorids/debris on materials, oxygen measurement in space environment, UV effects, solid lubricants fundamental properties, radiation environment. The facility accommodates Instruments providing them with standardised mechanical accommodation and electrical and data handling services. Each Instrument has been developed by different Experimenters and is integrated in the EuTEF facility by CGS. The integration of different Instruments leads CGS to consider not only the hazards coming from each Instrument itself but the possible hazards which can arise from the interaction between 1) two or more experiments or 2) an experiment and the carrier, orbiter or ISS. The effort of CGS as EuTEF Payload integrator is to: * Identify the hazards of the facility (DHPU, ARS, Support Structure, CEPA) * Verify completeness and compliance of the safety data coming from each Instrument (EXPOSE, PLEGPAY, TriboLAB, EVC, EuTEMP, DOSTEL, MEDET, FIPEX, DEBIE-2) * Identify the "integrated hazards" in an overall safety analysis and document the compliance to safety requirements of the Integrated EuTEF Payload * Address the complete payload assembly together with an integrated safety review. The purpose of this paper is to describe CGS's system safety methodology used to address the complete payload assembly in an integrated safety analysis.

  14. Safer Systems: A NextGen Aviation Safety Strategic Goal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darr, Stephen T.; Ricks, Wendell R.; Lemos, Katherine A.

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO), is charged by Congress with developing the concepts and plans for the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP), developed by the Safety Working Group of the JPDO, focuses on establishing the goals, objectives, and strategies needed to realize the safety objectives of the NextGen Integrated Plan. The three goal areas of the NASSP are Safer Practices, Safer Systems, and Safer Worldwide. Safer Practices emphasizes an integrated, systematic approach to safety risk management through implementation of formalized Safety Management Systems (SMS) that incorporate safety data analysis processes, and the enhancement of methods for ensuring safety is an inherent characteristic of NextGen. Safer Systems emphasizes implementation of safety-enhancing technologies, which will improve safety for human-centered interfaces and enhance the safety of airborne and ground-based systems. Safer Worldwide encourages coordinating the adoption of the safer practices and safer systems technologies, policies and procedures worldwide, such that the maximum level of safety is achieved across air transportation system boundaries. This paper introduces the NASSP and its development, and focuses on the Safer Systems elements of the NASSP, which incorporates three objectives for NextGen systems: 1) provide risk reducing system interfaces, 2) provide safety enhancements for airborne systems, and 3) provide safety enhancements for ground-based systems. The goal of this paper is to expose avionics and air traffic management system developers to NASSP objectives and Safer Systems strategies.

  15. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  16. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  17. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15... AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a) Minimum safety trip controls required for specific types of automated vital systems are listed in Table...

  18. Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope system safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Robert P.; Bulau, Scott E.; Shimko, Steve; Williams, Timothy R.

    2014-08-01

    System safety for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) is the joint responsibility of a Maui-based safety team and the Tucson-based systems engineering group. The DKIST project is committed to the philosophy of "Safety by Design". To that end the project has implemented an aggressive hazard analysis, risk assessment, and mitigation system. It was initially based on MIL-STD-882D, but has since been augmented in a way that lends itself to direct application to the design of our Global Interlock System (GIS). This was accomplished by adopting the American National Standard for Industrial Robots and Robot Systems (ANSI/RIA R15.06) for all identified hazards that involve potential injury to personnel. In this paper we describe the details of our augmented hazard analysis system and its use by the project. Since most of the major hardware for the DKIST (e.g., the enclosure, and telescope mount assembly) has been designed and is being constructed by external contractors, the DKIST project has required our contractors to perform a uniform hazard analysis of their designs using our methods. This paper also describes the review and follow-up process implemented by the project that is applied to both internal and external subsystem designs. Our own weekly hazard analysis team meetings have now largely turned to system-level hazards and hazards related to specific tasks that will be encountered during integration, test, and commissioning and maintenance operations. Finally we discuss a few lessons learned, describing things we might do differently if we were starting over today.

  19. High-performance work systems and occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Zacharatos, Anthea; Barling, Julian; Iverson, Roderick D

    2005-01-01

    Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between high-performance work systems (HPWS) and occupational safety. In Study 1, data were obtained from company human resource and safety directors across 138 organizations. LISREL VIII results showed that an HPWS was positively related to occupational safety at the organizational level. Study 2 used data from 189 front-line employees in 2 organizations. Trust in management and perceived safety climate were found to mediate the relationship between an HPWS and safety performance measured in terms of personal-safety orientation (i.e., safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance, and safety initiative) and safety incidents (i.e., injuries requiring first aid and near misses). These 2 studies provide confirmation of the important role organizational factors play in ensuring worker safety.

  20. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  1. Total Quality Management and the System Safety Secretary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Suzan E.

    1993-01-01

    The system safety secretary is a valuable member of the system safety team. As downsizing occurs to meet economic constraints, the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach is frequently adopted as a formula for success and, in some cases, for survival.

  2. ESSAA: Embedded system safety analysis assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Peter; Holzer, Joseph; Guarro, Sergio; Hyatt, Larry

    1987-01-01

    The Embedded System Safety Analysis Assistant (ESSAA) is a knowledge-based tool that can assist in identifying disaster scenarios. Imbedded software issues hazardous control commands to the surrounding hardware. ESSAA is intended to work from outputs to inputs, as a complement to simulation and verification methods. Rather than treating the software in isolation, it examines the context in which the software is to be deployed. Given a specified disasterous outcome, ESSAA works from a qualitative, abstract model of the complete system to infer sets of environmental conditions and/or failures that could cause a disasterous outcome. The scenarios can then be examined in depth for plausibility using existing techniques.

  3. Safety Evaluation of Fail-Safe Fieldbus in Safety Related Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franeková, Mária; Rástočný, Karol

    2010-11-01

    The paper deals with the problem of modelling safety features of the safety Fieldbus transmission system used within safety related control systems. The basic principles of the modelling failures effect upon the safety of closed transmission system and standards used in the process of safety evaluation are summarized in the paper. The practical part is oriented to a description of a realized Markov model for determination of the random failures effect on the safety of a closed transmission system. The model reflects the safety analysis of failures effect caused by electromagnetic interference in the communication channel and random HW failures of the transmission system. In the paper the results of simulation of parameters of the transmission system are discussed, such as the probability of an undetected corrupted message.

  4. Autonomous Flight Safety System Road Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.; Zoemer, Roger D.; Forney, Chris S.

    2005-01-01

    On February 3, 2005, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) conducted the first Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS) test on a moving vehicle -- a van driven around the KSC industrial area. A subset of the Phase III design was used consisting of a single computer, GPS receiver, and UPS antenna. The description and results of this road test are described in this report.AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations.

  5. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... basic components with embedded digital devices. DATES: Submit comments by July 19, 2013....

  6. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  7. 49 CFR 385.103 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.103 Section 385.103 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  8. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.703 Section 385.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  9. 49 CFR 385.703 - Safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety monitoring system. 385.703 Section 385.703 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS...

  10. Eye safety for scanning laser projection systems.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Annette; Fiess, Reinhold; Stork, Wilhelm; Bogatscher, Siegwart; Heussner, Nico

    2012-05-31

    In the growing field of pico-projectors, laser-based scanning systems may be advantageous over DLP- or LCoS-based imagers due to their potential for miniaturization, enhanced optical efficiency and cost reduction. The high energy density of a combined laser beam can, however, be hazardous to the human eye. Laser projection systems must therefore be identified with the laser class, depending on their maximum optical output power. This power limits the brightness of the displayed image, which is of particular interest for mobile applications. Various approaches to classifying laser devices by their wavelength and output power are described within the standards for laser safety. It is found that actual safety regulations cannot be directly applied to scanning systems. A detailed analysis of the optical conditions in terms of a two-dimensional extended light source is appropriate for the consideration of laser scanner devices. In this article, alternative ways of applying laser standards for scanning systems are discussed. The dependencies of maximum luminous flux from scanning system parameters are reviewed. It is shown that the evaluation of retinal light exposure in terms of existing laser regulations leads to an overestimation of the hazardous potential. Advanced investigations are proposed to support the definition of suitable criteria for the classification of laser scanning projectors.

  11. NASA System Safety Handbook. Volume 1; System Safety Framework and Concepts for Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon; Benjamin, Allan; Everett, Christopher; Smith, Curtis; Stamatelatos, Michael; Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    System safety assessment is defined in NPR 8715.3C, NASA General Safety Program Requirements as a disciplined, systematic approach to the analysis of risks resulting from hazards that can affect humans, the environment, and mission assets. Achievement of the highest practicable degree of system safety is one of NASA's highest priorities. Traditionally, system safety assessment at NASA and elsewhere has focused on the application of a set of safety analysis tools to identify safety risks and formulate effective controls.1 Familiar tools used for this purpose include various forms of hazard analyses, failure modes and effects analyses, and probabilistic safety assessment (commonly also referred to as probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)). In the past, it has been assumed that to show that a system is safe, it is sufficient to provide assurance that the process for identifying the hazards has been as comprehensive as possible and that each identified hazard has one or more associated controls. The NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) has made several statements in its annual reports supporting a more holistic approach. In 2006, it recommended that "... a comprehensive risk assessment, communication and acceptance process be implemented to ensure that overall launch risk is considered in an integrated and consistent manner." In 2009, it advocated for "... a process for using a risk-informed design approach to produce a design that is optimally and sufficiently safe." As a rationale for the latter advocacy, it stated that "... the ASAP applauds switching to a performance-based approach because it emphasizes early risk identification to guide designs, thus enabling creative design approaches that might be more efficient, safer, or both." For purposes of this preface, it is worth mentioning three areas where the handbook emphasizes a more holistic type of thinking. First, the handbook takes the position that it is important to not just focus on risk on an individual

  12. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 3: System safety analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The primary objective was to examine from a system safety viewpoint in-space propellant logistic elements and operations to define the potential hazards and to recommend means to reduce, eliminate or control them. A secondary objective was to conduct trade studies of specific systems or operations to determine the safest of alternate approaches.

  13. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, James C

    2001-10-17

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  14. Radiation Safety Systems for Accelerator Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Liu; Jeffrey S. Bull; John Drozdoff; Robert May; Vaclav Vylet

    2001-10-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) of an accelerator facility is used to protect people from prompt radiation hazards associated with accelerator operation. The RSS is a fully interlocked, engineered system with a combination of passive and active elements that are reliable, redundant, and fail-safe. The RSS consists of the Access Control System (ACS) and the Radiation Containment System (RCS). The ACS is to keep people away from the dangerous radiation inside the shielding enclosure. The RCS limits and contains the beam/radiation conditions to protect people from the prompt radiation hazards outside the shielding enclosure in both normal and abnormal operations. The complexity of a RSS depends on the accelerator and its operation, as well as associated hazard conditions. The approaches of RSS among different facilities can be different. This report gives a review of the RSS for accelerator facilities.

  15. The adaptive safety analysis and monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Haiying; Allanach, Jeffrey; Singh, Satnam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Willett, Peter

    2004-09-01

    The Adaptive Safety Analysis and Monitoring (ASAM) system is a hybrid model-based software tool for assisting intelligence analysts to identify terrorist threats, to predict possible evolution of the terrorist activities, and to suggest strategies for countering terrorism. The ASAM system provides a distributed processing structure for gathering, sharing, understanding, and using information to assess and predict terrorist network states. In combination with counter-terrorist network models, it can also suggest feasible actions to inhibit potential terrorist threats. In this paper, we will introduce the architecture of the ASAM system, and discuss the hybrid modeling approach embedded in it, viz., Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to detect and provide soft evidence on the states of terrorist network nodes based on partial and imperfect observations, and Bayesian networks (BNs) to integrate soft evidence from multiple HMMs. The functionality of the ASAM system is illustrated by way of application to the Indian Airlines Hijacking, as modeled from open sources.

  16. In-space propellant systems safety. Volume 2: System safety guidelines and requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Detailed system safety guidelines/requirements were developed. Each one describes a safety measure which is suggested as a means of eliminating or reducing a particular hazard, or group of hazards, to an acceptable level, and which, if followed would tend to increase the level of safety in supplying propellants to a user in orbit. The first goal was to identify those actions that should be taken to make propellant logistics operations as safe as possible. The second was to serve as a checklist to verify that these actions had been taken in the design and operation of this and similar programs, or that they had been considered and rejected. The safety measures described in the GLR's are directed toward the prevention of hazards, the avoidance of undesired events, and the protection of the crew.

  17. Improving the safety features of general practice computer systems.

    PubMed

    Avery, Anthony J; Savelyich, Boki S P; Teasdale, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    General practice computer systems already have a number of important safety features. However, there are problems in that general practitioners (GPs) have come to rely on hazard alerts when they are not foolproof. Furthermore, GPs do not know how to make best use of safety features on their systems. There are a number of solutions that could help to improve the safety features of general practice computer systems and also help to improve the abilities of healthcare professionals to use these safety features.

  18. System Safety and the Unintended Consequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    The analysis and identification of risks often result in design changes or modification of operational steps. This paper identifies the potential of unintended consequences as an over-looked result of these changes. Examples of societal changes such as prohibition, regulatory changes including mandating lifeboats on passenger ships, and engineering proposals or design changes to automobiles and spaceflight hardware are used to demonstrate that the System Safety Engineer must be cognizant of the potential for unintended consequences as a result of an analysis. Conclusions of the report indicate the need for additional foresight and consideration of the potential effects of analysis-driven design, processing changes, and/or operational modifications.

  19. Information systems in food safety management.

    PubMed

    McMeekin, T A; Baranyi, J; Bowman, J; Dalgaard, P; Kirk, M; Ross, T; Schmid, S; Zwietering, M H

    2006-12-01

    Information systems are concerned with data capture, storage, analysis and retrieval. In the context of food safety management they are vital to assist decision making in a short time frame, potentially allowing decisions to be made and practices to be actioned in real time. Databases with information on microorganisms pertinent to the identification of foodborne pathogens, response of microbial populations to the environment and characteristics of foods and processing conditions are the cornerstone of food safety management systems. Such databases find application in: Identifying pathogens in food at the genus or species level using applied systematics in automated ways. Identifying pathogens below the species level by molecular subtyping, an approach successfully applied in epidemiological investigations of foodborne disease and the basis for national surveillance programs. Predictive modelling software, such as the Pathogen Modeling Program and Growth Predictor (that took over the main functions of Food Micromodel) the raw data of which were combined as the genesis of an international web based searchable database (ComBase). Expert systems combining databases on microbial characteristics, food composition and processing information with the resulting "pattern match" indicating problems that may arise from changes in product formulation or processing conditions. Computer software packages to aid the practical application of HACCP and risk assessment and decision trees to bring logical sequences to establishing and modifying food safety management practices. In addition there are many other uses of information systems that benefit food safety more globally, including: Rapid dissemination of information on foodborne disease outbreaks via websites or list servers carrying commentary from many sources, including the press and interest groups, on the reasons for and consequences of foodborne disease incidents. Active surveillance networks allowing rapid dissemination

  20. Safety drain system for fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A safety drain system includes a plurality of drain sections, each of which defines distinct fluid flow paths. At least a portion of the fluid flow paths commence at a side of the drain section that is in fluid communication with a reservoir's fluid. Each fluid flow path at the side communicating with the reservoir's fluid defines an opening having a smallest dimension not to exceed approximately one centimeter. The drain sections are distributed over at least one surface of the reservoir. A manifold is coupled to the drain sections.

  1. Overview of Energy Systems` safety analysis report programs. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility`s safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This ``Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs`` Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  2. Modelling safety of multistate systems with ageing components

    SciTech Connect

    Kołowrocki, Krzysztof; Soszyńska-Budny, Joanna

    2016-06-08

    An innovative approach to safety analysis of multistate ageing systems is presented. Basic notions of the ageing multistate systems safety analysis are introduced. The system components and the system multistate safety functions are defined. The mean values and variances of the multistate systems lifetimes in the safety state subsets and the mean values of their lifetimes in the particular safety states are defined. The multi-state system risk function and the moment of exceeding by the system the critical safety state are introduced. Applications of the proposed multistate system safety models to the evaluation and prediction of the safty characteristics of the consecutive “m out of n: F” is presented as well.

  3. The WIPP transportation system: Dedicated to safety

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, T.; McFadden, M.

    1993-12-01

    When developing a transportation system to transport transuranic (TRU) waste from ten widely-dispersed generator sites, the Department of Energy (DOE) recognized and addressed many challenges. Shipments of waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were to cover a twenty-five year period and utilize routes covering over twelve thousand miles in twenty-three states. Enhancing public safety by maximizing the payload, thus reducing the number of shipments, was the primary objective. To preclude the requirement for overweight permits, the DOE started with a total shipment weight limit of 80,000 pounds and developed an integrated transportation system consisting of a Type ``B`` package to transport the material, a lightweight tractor and trailer, stringent driver requirements, and a shipment tracking system referred to as ``TRANSCOM``.

  4. Range Safety for an Autonomous Flight Safety System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzi, Raymond J.; Simpson, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The Range Safety Algorithm software encapsulates the various constructs and algorithms required to accomplish Time Space Position Information (TSPI) data management from multiple tracking sources, autonomous mission mode detection and management, and flight-termination mission rule evaluation. The software evaluates various user-configurable rule sets that govern the qualification of TSPI data sources, provides a prelaunch autonomous hold-launch function, performs the flight-monitoring-and-termination functions, and performs end-of-mission safing

  5. Patient safety, systems design and ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Buckle, P; Clarkson, P J; Coleman, R; Ward, J; Anderson, J

    2006-07-01

    The complexity of the health care environments necessitates an holistic and systematic ergonomics approach to understand the potential for accidents and errors to occur. The health service is also a socio-technical system, and design needs must be met within this context. This paper aims to present the design challenges and emphasises the specialised needs of the health care sector, when dealing with patient safety. It also provides examples of approaches and methods that ergonomists can bring to help inform our knowledge of these systems and the potential towards improving their safety. Mapping workshops provide an example of such methods. Results from these are used to illustrate how the knowledge base required for better design requirements can be generated. The workshops were developed specifically to help improve the design of medication packaging and thereby reduce the probability of medication error. The issues raised are now the subject of further research, design requirements guidance and new design concepts. The paper illustrates the need to engage with the design community and, through the use of robust scientific methods, to generate appropriate design requirements.

  6. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Voluem 5: Nuclear system safety guidelines. Part 2: Space shuttle/nuclear payloads safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design and operations guidelines and requirements developed in the study of space shuttle nuclear system transportation are presented. Guidelines and requirements are presented for the shuttle, nuclear payloads (reactor, isotope-Brayton and small isotope sources), ground support systems and facilities. Cross indices and references are provided which relate guidelines to each other, and to substantiating data in other volumes. The guidelines are intended for the implementation of nuclear safety related design and operational considerations in future space programs.

  7. Occupational Health and Safety of Finnish Dairy Farmers Using Automatic Milking Systems.

    PubMed

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H; Lunner-Kolstrup, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Conventional pipeline and parlor milking expose dairy farmers and workers to adverse health outcomes. In recent years, automatic milking systems (AMS) have gained much popularity in Finland, but the changes in working conditions when changing to AMS are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the occupational health and safety risks in using AMS, compared to conventional milking systems (CMS). An anonymous online survey was sent to each Finnish dairy farm with an AMS in 2014. Only those dairy farmers with prior work experience in CMS were included in the final analysis consisting of frequency distributions and descriptive statistics. We received 228 usable responses (131 male and 97 female; 25.2% response rate). The majority of the participants found that AMS had brought flexibility to the organization of farm work, and it had increased leisure time, quality of life, productivity of dairy work, and the attractiveness of dairy farming among the younger generation. In addition, AMS reduced the perceived physical strain on the musculoskeletal system as well as the risk of occupational injuries and diseases, compared to CMS. However, working in close proximity to the cattle, particularly training of heifers to use the AMS, was regarded as a high-risk work task. In addition, the daily cleaning of the AMS and manual handling of rejected milk were regarded as physically demanding. The majority of the participants stated that mental stress caused by the monotonous, repetitive, paced, and hurried work had declined after changing to AMS. However, many indicated increased mental stress because of the demanding management of the AMS. Nightly alarms caused by the AMS, lack of adequately skilled hired labor or farm relief workers, and the 24/7 standby for the AMS were issues that also caused mental stress. Based on this study, AMS may have significant potential in the prevention of adverse health outcomes in milking of dairy cows. In addition, AMS may improve

  8. System safety checklist Skylab program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnail, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Design criteria statement applicable to a wide variety of flight systems, experiments and other payloads, associated ground support equipment and facility support systems are presented. The document reflects a composite of experience gained throughout the aerospace industry prior to Skylab and additional experience gained during the Skylab Program. It has been prepared to provide current and future program organizations with a broad source of safety-related design criteria and to suggest methods for systematic and progressive application of the criteria beginning with preliminary development of design requirements and specifications. Recognizing the users obligation to shape the checklist to his particular needs, a summary of the historical background, rationale, objectives, development and implementation approach, and benefits based on Skylab experience has been included.

  9. Identifying behaviour patterns of construction safety using system archetypes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2015-07-01

    Construction safety management involves complex issues (e.g., different trades, multi-organizational project structure, constantly changing work environment, and transient workforce). Systems thinking is widely considered as an effective approach to understanding and managing the complexity. This paper aims to better understand dynamic complexity of construction safety management by exploring archetypes of construction safety. To achieve this, this paper adopted the ground theory method (GTM) and 22 interviews were conducted with participants in various positions (government safety inspector, client, health and safety manager, safety consultant, safety auditor, and safety researcher). Eight archetypes were emerged from the collected data: (1) safety regulations, (2) incentive programs, (3) procurement and safety, (4) safety management in small businesses (5) production and safety, (6) workers' conflicting goals, (7) blame on workers, and (8) reactive and proactive learning. These archetypes capture the interactions between a wide range of factors within various hierarchical levels and subsystems. As a free-standing tool, they advance the understanding of dynamic complexity of construction safety management and provide systemic insights into dealing with the complexity. They also can facilitate system dynamics modelling of construction safety process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  11. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Software plays an increasingly larger role in all aspects of NASA's science missions. This has been extended to the identification, management and control of faults which affect safety-critical functions and by default, the overall success of the mission. Traditionally, the analysis of fault identification, management and control are hardware based. Due to the increasing complexity of system, there has been a corresponding increase in the complexity in fault management software. The NASA Independent Validation & Verification (IV&V) program is creating processes and procedures to identify, and incorporate safety-critical software requirements along with corresponding software faults so that potential hazards may be mitigated. This Specific to Generic ... A Case for Reuse paper describes the phases of a dependability and safety study which identifies a new, process to create a foundation for reusable assets. These assets support the identification and management of specific software faults and, their transformation from specific to generic software faults. This approach also has applications to other systems outside of the NASA environment. This paper addresses how a mission specific dependability and safety case is being transformed to a generic dependability and safety case which can be reused for any type of space mission with an emphasis on software fault conditions.

  12. 40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. OUTLET WORKS: VIBRATION ABSORBER FOR STANDBY UNIT, Sheet H-7, September, 1940. File no. SA 342/79. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  13. Analysis of standby and demand stress failures modes. Methodology and applications to EDGs and MOVs

    SciTech Connect

    Lofgren, E.V.; Thaggard, M.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes work to develop and demonstrates methods for partitioning standby component failure modes into causes that fail the component while it is in standby, and when it changes state, during testing or from other demands. Failure of the component from standby stresses is modeled using a model that explicitly contains the length of the test interval. Failure of the component from demand stresses such as vibration, wind, etc., is modeled using the probability of failure on demand model. Misuse of these models in PRAS, could lead to PRAs that, give misleading results, or that are more useful for decision purposes. A method was developed and demonstrated to partition standby/demand stresses. The method was used on the work maintenance records from two Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) to estimate reliability parameters for Motor Operated Valves And Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs).

  14. Dealing with stable structures at ribosome binding sites: bacterial translation and ribosome standby.

    PubMed

    Unoson, Cecilia; Wagner, E Gerhart H

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial ribosomes have great difficulties to initiate translation on stable structures within mRNAs. Translational coupling and induced structure changes are strategies to open up inhibitory RNA structures encompassing ribosome binding sites (RBS). There are, however, mRNAs in which stable structures are not unfolded, but that are nevertheless efficiently initiated at high rates. de Smit and van Duin(1) proposed a "ribosome standby" model to theoretically solve this paradox: the 30S ribosome binds nonspecifically to an accessible site on the mRNA (standby site), waiting for a transient opening of a stable RBS hairpin. Upon unfolding, the 30S subunit relocates to form a productive initiation complex. Recent reports have provided experimental support for this model. This review will describe and compare two different flavors of standby sites, their properties, and their likely implications. We also discuss the possibility that ribosome standby may be a more general strategy to obtain high translation rates.

  15. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Crash/Rescue Standby Support GPS Buildings, East side of Runway 17/35, approximately 2,650 feet north of intersection with Runway 23/05, White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  16. Basis for Interim Operation for the K-Reactor in Cold Standby

    SciTech Connect

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) document for K Reactor in Cold Standby and the L- and P-Reactor Disassembly Basins was prepared in accordance with the draft DOE standard for BIO preparation (dated October 26, 1993).

  17. Monitoring circuit for reactor safety systems

    DOEpatents

    Keefe, Donald J.

    1976-01-01

    The ratio between the output signals of a pair of reactor safety channels is monitored. When ratio falls outside of a predetermined range, it indicates that one or more of the safety channels has malfunctioned.

  18. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  19. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Approximately 115 lessons for increasing third grade students' safety knowledge and skills as pedestrians, as auto and school bus passengers, and as operators of bicycles are provided in this traffic safety curriculum. One third of the curriculum focuses on perceptual safety activities for young pedestrians, including lessons on visual and…

  20. A Taxonomy of Fallacies in System Safety Arguments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwell, William S.; Knight, John C.; Holloway, C. Michael; Pease, Jacob J.

    2006-01-01

    Safety cases are gaining acceptance as assurance vehicles for safety-related systems. A safety case documents the evidence and argument that a system is safe to operate; however, logical fallacies in the underlying argument may undermine a system s safety claims. Removing these fallacies is essential to reduce the risk of safety-related system failure. We present a taxonomy of common fallacies in safety arguments that is intended to assist safety professionals in avoiding and detecting fallacious reasoning in the arguments they develop and review. The taxonomy derives from a survey of general argument fallacies and a separate survey of fallacies in real-world safety arguments. Our taxonomy is specific to safety argumentation, and it is targeted at professionals who work with safety arguments but may lack formal training in logic or argumentation. We discuss the rationale for the selection and categorization of fallacies in the taxonomy. In addition to its applications to the development and review of safety cases, our taxonomy could also support the analysis of system failures and promote the development of more robust safety case patterns.

  1. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a...

  2. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a...

  3. 46 CFR 62.25-15 - Safety control systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety control systems. 62.25-15 Section 62.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION General Requirements for All Automated Vital Systems § 62.25-15 Safety control systems. (a...

  4. Mercury contamination study for flight system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorzynski, C. S., Jr.; Maycock, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    The effects and prevention of possible mercury pollution from the failure of solar electric propulsion spacecraft using mercury propellant were studied from tankage loading of post launch trajector injection. During preflight operations and initial flight mode there is little danger of mercury pollution if proper safety precautions are taken. Any spillage on the loading, mating, transportation, or launch pad areas is obvious and can be removed by vacuum cleaning soil and chemical fixing. Mercury spilled on Cape Kennedy ground soil will be chemically complexed and retained by the sandstone subsoil. A cover layer of sand or gravel on spilled mercury which has settled to the bottom of a water body adjacent to the system operation will control and eliminate the formation of toxic organic mercurials. Mercury released into the earth's atmosphere through leakage of a fireball will be diffused to low concentration levels. However, gas phase reactions of mercury with ozone could cause a local ozone depletion and result in serious ecological hazards.

  5. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the..., policies, and roles and responsibilities for providing safety and security oversight of the rail transit... safety and security reviews. This section shall specify the role of the oversight agency in...

  6. 49 CFR 659.15 - System safety program standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the..., policies, and roles and responsibilities for providing safety and security oversight of the rail transit... safety and security reviews. This section shall specify the role of the oversight agency in...

  7. Plutonium finishing plant safety systems and equipment list

    SciTech Connect

    Bergquist, G.G.

    1995-01-06

    The Safety Equipment List (SEL) supports Analysis Report (FSAR), WHC-SD-CP-SAR-021 and the Plutonium Finishing Plant Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), WHC-SD-CP-OSR-010. The SEL is a breakdown and classification of all Safety Class 1, 2, and 3 equipment, components, or system at the Plutonium Finishing Plant complex.

  8. System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies.

    PubMed

    Hughes, B P; Anund, A; Falkmer, T

    2015-01-01

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a 'vision zero', or 'safe system' style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  9. Overview of Energy Systems' safety analysis report programs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The primary purpose of an Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is to provide a basis for judging the adequacy of a facility's safety. The SAR documents the safety analyses that systematically identify the hazards posed by the facility, analyze the consequences and risk of potential accidents, and describe hazard control measures that protect the health and safety of the public and employees. In addition, some SARs document, as Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs, which include Technical Specifications and Operational Safety Requirements), technical and administrative requirements that ensure the facility is operated within prescribed safety limits. SARs also provide conveniently summarized information that may be used to support procedure development, training, inspections, and other activities necessary to facility operation. This Overview of Energy Systems Safety Analysis Report Programs'' Provides an introduction to the programs and processes used in the development and maintenance of the SARs. It also summarizes some of the uses of the SARs within Energy Systems and DOE.

  10. Asymptotic safety of gravity-matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibohm, J.; Pawlowski, J. M.; Reichert, M.

    2016-04-01

    We study the ultraviolet stability of gravity-matter systems for general numbers of minimally coupled scalars and fermions. This is done within the functional renormalization group setup put forward in [N. Christiansen, B. Knorr, J. Meibohm, J. M. Pawlowski, and M. Reichert, Phys. Rev. D 92, 121501 (2015).] for pure gravity. It includes full dynamical propagators and a genuine dynamical Newton's coupling, which is extracted from the graviton three-point function. We find ultraviolet stability of general gravity-fermion systems. Gravity-scalar systems are also found to be ultraviolet stable within validity bounds for the chosen generic class of regulators, based on the size of the anomalous dimension. Remarkably, the ultraviolet fixed points for the dynamical couplings are found to be significantly different from those of their associated background counterparts, once matter fields are included. In summary, the asymptotic safety scenario does not put constraints on the matter content of the theory within the validity bounds for the chosen generic class of regulators.

  11. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-01-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  12. A review of wiring system safety in space power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.

    1993-12-01

    Wiring system failures have resulted from arc propagation in the wiring harnesses of current aerospace vehicles. These failures occur when the insulation becomes conductive upon the initiation of an arc. In some cases, the conductive path of the carbon arc track displays a high enough resistance such that the current is limited, and therefore may be difficult to detect using conventional circuit protection. Often, such wiring failures are not simply the result of insulation failure, but are due to a combination of wiring system factors. Inadequate circuit protection, unforgiving system designs, and careless maintenance procedures can contribute to a wiring system failure. This paper approaches the problem with respect to the overall wiring system, in order to determine what steps can be taken to improve the reliability, maintainability, and safety of space power systems. Power system technologies, system designs, and maintenance procedures which have led to past wiring system failures will be discussed. New technologies, design processes, and management techniques which may lead to improved wiring system safety will be introduced.

  13. Safety climate and culture: Integrating psychological and systems perspectives.

    PubMed

    Casey, Tristan; Griffin, Mark A; Flatau Harrison, Huw; Neal, Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Safety climate research has reached a mature stage of development, with a number of meta-analyses demonstrating the link between safety climate and safety outcomes. More recently, there has been interest from systems theorists in integrating the concept of safety culture and to a lesser extent, safety climate into systems-based models of organizational safety. Such models represent a theoretical and practical development of the safety climate concept by positioning climate as part of a dynamic work system in which perceptions of safety act to constrain and shape employee behavior. We propose safety climate and safety culture constitute part of the enabling capitals through which organizations build safety capability. We discuss how organizations can deploy different configurations of enabling capital to exert control over work systems and maintain safe and productive performance. We outline 4 key strategies through which organizations to reconcile the system control problems of promotion versus prevention, and stability versus flexibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Evaluation of JET 2-in Standby Flight Instrument System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-05

    attitude indicator, airspeed/mach indicator, and altimeter, are acceptable for installation in US Air Force aircraft with only minor cosmetic changes...evaluation can be accomplished. Some cosmetic changes are also required on this indicator. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(When Data Entered...the size of the instrument. It was also noted that cardinal headings need to be cosmetically emphasized for easy reference. It was impossible to tell

  15. Standby Power Management Architecture for Deep-Submicron Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-19

    59 starvation is to use an arbiter than implements a fair arbitration scheme, such as round - robin , token-passing, or time-slotting. Power control...dw8051 port includes a small wrapper to convert the interface into BIF format. Since the neighbor table is a shared resource, a round - robin arbiter...between domains when there are multiple pending commands. The PNI uses a hybrid tree and round - robin arbitration scheme to ensure fairness and speed. The

  16. Managing Safety and Operations: The Effect of Joint Management System Practices on Safety and Operational Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Emile; Robson, Lynda; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Klassen, Robert; Shevchenko, Anton; Sharma, Sharvani; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Amick, Benjamin C; Johnston, David A; Veltri, Anthony; Pagell, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether management system practices directed at both occupational health and safety (OHS) and operations (joint management system [JMS] practices) result in better outcomes in both areas than in alternative practices. Separate regressions were estimated for OHS and operational outcomes using data from a survey along with administrative records on injuries and illnesses. Organizations with JMS practices had better operational and safety outcomes than organizations without these practices. They had similar OHS outcomes as those with operations-weak practices, and in some cases, better outcomes than organizations with safety-weak practices. They had similar operational outcomes as those with safety-weak practices, and better outcomes than those with operations-weak practices. Safety and operations appear complementary in organizations with JMS practices in that there is no penalty for either safety or operational outcomes.

  17. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-01

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  18. Design an optimum safety policy for personnel safety management - A system dynamic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Balaji, P.

    2014-10-06

    Personnel safety management (PSM) ensures that employee's work conditions are healthy and safe by various proactive and reactive approaches. Nowadays it is a complex phenomenon because of increasing dynamic nature of organisations which results in an increase of accidents. An important part of accident prevention is to understand the existing system properly and make safety strategies for that system. System dynamics modelling appears to be an appropriate methodology to explore and make strategy for PSM. Many system dynamics models of industrial systems have been built entirely for specific host firms. This thesis illustrates an alternative approach. The generic system dynamics model of Personnel safety management was developed and tested in a host firm. The model was undergone various structural, behavioural and policy tests. The utility and effectiveness of model was further explored through modelling a safety scenario. In order to create effective safety policy under resource constraint, DOE (Design of experiment) was used. DOE uses classic designs, namely, fractional factorials and central composite designs. It used to make second order regression equation which serve as an objective function. That function was optimized under budget constraint and optimum value used for safety policy which shown greatest improvement in overall PSM. The outcome of this research indicates that personnel safety management model has the capability for acting as instruction tool to improve understanding of safety management and also as an aid to policy making.

  19. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  20. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  1. Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems and Air Traffic Management Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A new ICAO Policy on Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems is needed, which recognizes it to be an integrated part of the air traffic management system's safety defences; and that should be fully included in hazard analyses for the total system's design safety targets.

  2. Applying Systems Thinking to Law Enforcement Safety: Recommendation for a Comprehensive Safety Management Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    communication and problem solving skills; creates an operating environment where team member input is both welcome and expected, while maintaining legal... comprehensive framework to safety management and reducing line-of-duty accidents and injuries. 37 IV. IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM A. SAFETY CULTURE...recent study, Destination Zero, supported this research by revealing the lack of a comprehensive safety management system in the law enforcement

  3. Space transportation system payload safety guidelines handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This handbook provides the payload developer with a uniform description and interpretation of the potential hazards which may be caused by or associated with a payload element, operation, or interface with other payloads or with the STS. It also includes guidelines describing design or operational safety measures which suggest means of alleviating a particular hazard or group of hazards, thereby improving payload safety.

  4. A safety-based decision making architecture for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musto, Joseph C.; Lauderbaugh, L. K.

    1991-01-01

    Engineering systems designed specifically for space applications often exhibit a high level of autonomy in the control and decision-making architecture. As the level of autonomy increases, more emphasis must be placed on assimilating the safety functions normally executed at the hardware level or by human supervisors into the control architecture of the system. The development of a decision-making structure which utilizes information on system safety is detailed. A quantitative measure of system safety, called the safety self-information, is defined. This measure is analogous to the reliability self-information defined by McInroy and Saridis, but includes weighting of task constraints to provide a measure of both reliability and cost. An example is presented in which the safety self-information is used as a decision criterion in a mobile robot controller. The safety self-information is shown to be consistent with the entropy-based Theory of Intelligent Machines defined by Saridis.

  5. Enigmatic central canal contacting cells: immature neurons in "standby mode"?

    PubMed

    Marichal, Nicolás; García, Gabriela; Radmilovich, Milka; Trujillo-Cenóz, Omar; Russo, Raúl E

    2009-08-12

    The region that surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord derives from the neural tube and retains a substantial degree of plasticity. In turtles, this region is a neurogenic niche where newborn neurons coexist with precursors, a fact that may be related with the endogenous repair capabilities of low vertebrates. Immunohistochemical evidence suggests that the ependyma of the mammalian spinal cord may contain cells with similar properties, but their actual nature remains unsolved. Here, we combined immunohistochemistry for cell-specific markers with patch-clamp recordings to test the hypothesis that the ependyma of neonatal rats contains immature neurons similar to those in low vertebrates. We found that a subclass of cells expressed HuC/D neuronal proteins, doublecortin, and PSA-NCAM (polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule) but did not express NeuN (anti-neuronal nuclei). These immature neurons displayed electrophysiological properties ranging from slow Ca(2+)-mediated responses to fast repetitive Na(+) spikes, suggesting different stages of maturation. These cells originated in the embryo, because we found colocalization of neuronal markers with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine when injected during embryonic day 7-17 but not in postnatal day 0-5. Our findings represent the first evidence that the ependyma of the rat spinal cord contains cells with molecular and functional features similar to immature neurons in adult neurogenic niches. The fact that these cells retain the expression of molecules that participate in migration and neuronal differentiation raises the possibility that the ependyma of the rat spinal cord is a reservoir of immature neurons in "standby mode," which under some circumstances (e.g., injury) may complete their maturation to integrate spinal circuits.

  6. Models Extracted from Text for System-Software Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes extraction and integration of requirements information and safety information in visualizations to support early review of completeness, correctness, and consistency of lengthy and diverse system safety analyses. Software tools have been developed and extended to perform the following tasks: 1) extract model parts and safety information from text in interface requirements documents, failure modes and effects analyses and hazard reports; 2) map and integrate the information to develop system architecture models and visualizations for safety analysts; and 3) provide model output to support virtual system integration testing. This presentation illustrates the methods and products with a rocket motor initiation case.

  7. Cushion System for Multi-Use Child Safety Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  8. Cushion system for multi-use child safety seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A cushion system for use with a child safety seat has a plurality of bladders assembled to form a seat cushion that cooperates with the seat's safety harness. One or more sensors coupled to the safety harness sense tension therein and generate a signal indicative of the tension. Each of the bladders is individually pressurized by a pressurization system to define a support configuration of the seat cushion. The pressurization system is disabled when tension in the safety harness has attained a threshold level.

  9. Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary lunch and open house at the Sunnyvale office. Thomas A Edwards, Deputy Center Director NASA Ames (Left), presents a plaque On the anniversary of the aviation safety reporting system, this award is in recognition of 18 years of outstanding leadership as Program Director, resulting in strong program growth, expanded partnership and a widely recognized impact on National and Global transportation safety. Presented to Linda J. Connell, ASRS Program Director (Right)

  10. On the Provision of Safety Assurance via Safety Kernels for Modern Weapon Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-22

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP022173 TITLE: On the Provision of Safety Assurance via Safety Kernels...for Modern Weapon Systems DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE...The component part is provided here to allow users access to individually authored sections f proceedings, annals, symposia, etc. However, the

  11. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131 Section 415.131 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant...

  12. 14 CFR 415.131 - Flight safety system crew data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight safety system crew data. 415.131 Section 415.131 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.131 Flight safety system crew data. (a) An applicant...

  13. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  14. Emerging standards with application to accelerator safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, K.L.; Robertson, H.P.

    1997-08-01

    This paper addresses international standards which can be applied to the requirements for accelerator personnel safety systems. Particular emphasis is given to standards which specify requirements for safety interlock systems which employ programmable electronic subsystems. The work draws on methodologies currently under development for the medical, process control, and nuclear industries.

  15. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  16. New Automated System Available for Reporting Safety Concerns | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    A new system has been developed for reporting safety issues in the workplace. The Environment, Health, and Safety’s (EHS’) Safety Inspection and Issue Management System (SIIMS) is an online resource where any employee can report a problem or issue, said Siobhan Tierney, program manager at EHS.

  17. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... allowable low water level. Run the engine until the exhaust gas temperature sensor activates the safety... shutdown system and stop the engine at or above the minimum allowable low water level established from... the engine until the low water sensor activates the safety shutdown system and stops the...

  18. Striving for safety: communicating and deciding in sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Flach, John M.; Carroll, John S.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Hamilton, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    How do communications and decisions impact the safety of sociotechnical systems? This paper frames this question in the context of a dynamic system of nested sub-systems. Communications are related to the construct of observability (i.e. how components integrate information to assess the state with respect to local and global constraints). Decisions are related to the construct of controllability (i.e. how component sub-systems act to meet local and global safety goals). The safety dynamics of sociotechnical systems are evaluated as a function of the coupling between observability and controllability across multiple closed-loop components. Two very different domains (nuclear power and the limited service food industry) provide examples to illustrate how this framework might be applied. While the dynamical systems framework does not offer simple prescriptions for achieving safety, it does provide guides for exploring specific systems to consider the potential fit between organisational structures and work demands, and for generalising across different systems regarding how safety can be managed. Practitioner Summary: While offering no simple prescriptions about how to achieve safety in sociotechnical systems, this paper develops a theoretical framework based on dynamical systems theory as a practical guide for generalising from basic research to work domains and for generalising across alternative work domains to better understand how patterns of communication and decision-making impact system safety. PMID:25761155

  19. Safety Characteristics in System Application Software for Human Rated Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mango, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and its industry and international partners are embarking on a bold and inspiring development effort to design and build an exploration class space system. The space system is made up of the Orion system, the Space Launch System (SLS) and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) system. All are highly coupled together and dependent on each other for the combined safety of the space system. A key area of system safety focus needs to be in the ground and flight application software system (GFAS). In the development, certification and operations of GFAS, there are a series of safety characteristics that define the approach to ensure mission success. This paper will explore and examine the safety characteristics of the GFAS development.

  20. Health and safety management systems: liability or asset?

    PubMed

    Bennett, David

    2002-01-01

    Health and safety management systems have a background in theory and in various interests among employers and workplace health and safety professionals. These have resulted in a number of national systems emanating from national standard-writing centres and from employers' organizations. In some cases these systems have been recognized as national standards. The contenders for an international standard have been the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the International Labour Organization (ILO). The quality and environmental management systems of ISO indicate what an ISO health and safety management standard would look like. The ILO Guidelines on Safety and Health Management Systems, by contrast, are stringent, specific and potentially effective in improving health and safety performance in the workplace.

  1. How good are experienced interventional cardiologists in predicting the risk and difficulty of a coronary angioplasty procedure? A prospective study to optimize surgical standby.

    PubMed

    Brueren, B R; Mast, E G; Suttorp, M J; Ernst, J M; Bal, E T; Plokker, H W

    1999-03-01

    The prediction of the risk of a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has either been based on coronary lesion morphology or on clinical parameters, but a combined angiographic and clinical risk assessment system has not yet been evaluated prospectively. Five experienced interventionalists categorized 7,144 patients with 10,081 stenoses (1.4 lesion/patient) for both the risk and the difficulty of the procedure. Risk categories are as follows: 1 = low risk; 2 = intermediate risk; 3 = high risk. This division was made for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty planning purposes. Category 1 patients denotes those in whom surgical standby is not required; category 2 patients, surgical standby not required but available within 1 hr; category 3 patients, surgical standby required. Difficulty categories are as follows: 1 = easy lesion; 2 = moderately difficult lesion; 3 = difficult lesion. Success was defined as a reduction of the degree of stenosis to less than 50%, without acute myocardial infarction, emergency redilatation, emergency bypass grafting, or death within 1 week. The procedure was not successful in difficulty category 1 in 1.6%, in category 2 in 3.5%, and in category 3 in 9.9%. Complications occurred in risk category 1 in 3.5%, in category 2 in 5.2%, and in category 3 in 12.4%. All differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Experienced cardiologists can well predict the risk and success of a coronary angioplasty procedure. This helps to optimize surgical standby, although even in the lowest-risk category complications can occur.

  2. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fenghong; Chi, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China's regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined.

  3. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  4. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  5. Influence Map Methodology for Evaluating Systemic Safety Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    "Raising the bar" in safety performance is a critical challenge for many organizations, including Kennedy Space Center. Contributing-factor taxonomies organize information about the reasons accidents occur and therefore are essential elements of accident investigations and safety reporting systems. Organizations must balance efforts to identify causes of specific accidents with efforts to evaluate systemic safety issues in order to become more proactive about improving safety. This project successfully addressed the following two problems: (1) methods and metrics to support the design of effective taxonomies are limited and (2) influence relationships among contributing factors are not explicitly modeled within a taxonomy.

  6. Confidential incident reporting systems create vital awareness of safety problems.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, M; Chappell, S L

    1996-10-01

    The aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) developed by NASA is discussed as an example of aviation incident reporting. Approaches which encourage reporting include trust and confidentiality. Reporting and analysis systems and their administration at organizational and national levels are reviewed.

  7. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-05-25

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Class (SC) or Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common radiation area monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF), in safety class, safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the instructions provided on ECN 658230. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  8. Acceptance test report for the safety class shutdown system

    SciTech Connect

    Zuroff, W.F.

    1996-10-17

    This document provides the Acceptance Test Report for the successful testing of the Safety Shutdown Circuit. The test was done in accordance with the requirements that were defined in WHC-SD-WM-SCH-003, Interim Stabilization Safety Class Trip Circuit CGI Dedication Criteria. The actual test procedure document was contained in WHC-SD-WM-ATP-185, Acceptance Test Procedure for the Safety Class Shutdown System.

  9. Improving Medication Safety Based on Reports in Computerized Patient Safety Systems.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Anneli; Teuho, Susanna; Uusitalo, Marjo; Kaunonen, Marja

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, patient safety has been a serious concern internationally. Medication in particular is a significant area in improving patient safety because medication errors are a crucial clinical problem. This study aimed to explore suggestions to improve medication safety reported via computerized patient safety systems in hospitals. The research data were retrospectively collected from the computerized patient safety incident reporting systems in one university hospital and two regional hospitals in Finland. Open-ended records concerning prescribing medicines (n = 136), dispensing medicines (n = 362), administering medicines to patients (n = 538), and documenting medication (n = 434) were included in the analysis. The data were analyzed by using inductive content analysis. Based on the study findings, there is a need to develop and standardize procedures related to all four parts of medication management process. Moreover, working environment, multiprofessional collaboration, and knowledge and skills of the professionals should be developed. Promoting medication safety in hospitals is an urgent challenge. The study results indicated that computerized patient safety incident reporting systems can provide important qualitative information to improve medication process to be safer.

  10. Safety system for moving coil pressure algometer.

    PubMed

    Adnadjevic, Djordje; Lorrain, Thomas; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The threat of safety failure during use of potent actuators is a known problem. The use of such actuators in the field of pressure algometry requires adaptation of safety measures since stimulation is applied to human beings. This design provides an additional safety level required in the field of computer-controlled pressure algometry but in principle its usage is not restricted just to this area. The fuse consists of four parts (inner cylinder, outer cylinder lid, outer cylinder guide, and the gauge screw) which are simple and cheap to manufacture, easy to reassemble once the fuse has been triggered, and gaugeable with commercially available tools. The prototype showed acceptable levels of performance given the intended usage of the stimulation setup, namely increasing and repeated musculoskeletal stimulation. Repeatable range of holding force has been attained for the particular application against a rubber mat surface mimicking musculoskeletal tissue (96% for forces F < 20 kg, and 30% for forces 25 kg < F ≤ 35 kg).

  11. Design study on safety protection system of JSFR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, N.; Chikazawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okazaki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2012-07-01

    Development of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been progressed in Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project aiming at realizing high level of safety, reliability and economic competitiveness. For JSFR, design consideration on safety protection system has also been performed, which is essential for reactor shutdown in the case of design basis events (DBEs). In the design activity, consideration of safety protection system includes logic circuits configuration, selection of trip signals, and its setting values for reactor trip. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the safety protection system by safety analysis taking into account the comprehensive parameter ranges. For this purpose, it has been evaluated whether adequate reactor trip signals can be ensured for satisfying safety standard regarding the fuel integrity (e.g., maximum fuel clad temperature) for DBEs. In this paper, results obtained from the design study on safety protection system of JSFR is presented focusing on the evaluation results of satisfaction of safety protection system for representative events of transient over power (TOP), loss of coolant flow (LOF) and loss of heat sink (LOHS). (authors)

  12. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  14. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  15. 10 CFR 431.324 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. 431.324 Section 431.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL... measurement of energy efficiency and standby mode energy consumption of metal halide lamp ballasts. (a)......

  16. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract Process § 950.14 Standby Support..., including but not limited to delays attributable to the following types of events: (i) Project planning and... criteria in accordance with its schedule; or (iv) The lack of adequate funding for construction and testing...

  17. 10 CFR 950.14 - Standby Support Contract: Covered events, exclusions, covered delay and covered cost provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Standby Support Contract Process § 950.14 Standby Support... of the advanced nuclear facility. (3) Normal business risks, including but not limited to the... meaning the seizure or destruction of property by order of governmental authority; (iii) War or military...

  18. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  19. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  20. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  1. 5 CFR 551.431 - Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 551.431 Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. (a)(1) An employee is on duty, and time... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time spent on standby duty or in an on-call status. 551.431 Section 551.431 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  2. 17 CFR 270.2a41-1 - Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... commitments by registered investment companies. 270.2a41-1 Section 270.2a41-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.2a41-1 Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies. (a) A standby...

  3. 17 CFR 270.2a41-1 - Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... commitments by registered investment companies. 270.2a41-1 Section 270.2a41-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.2a41-1 Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies. (a) A standby...

  4. 17 CFR 270.2a41-1 - Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... commitments by registered investment companies. 270.2a41-1 Section 270.2a41-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.2a41-1 Valuation of standby commitments by registered investment companies. (a) A standby...

  5. Rural Hospital Patient Safety Systems Implementation in Two States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Daniel R.; Hewett, John E.; Ge, Bin; Schubert, Shari

    2007-01-01

    Context and Purpose: With heightened attention to medical errors and patient safety, we surveyed Utah and Missouri hospitals to assess the "state of the art" in patient safety systems and identify changes over time. This study examines differences between urban and rural hospitals. Methods: Survey of all acute care hospitals in Utah and…

  6. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sensors which will automatically activate the safety shutdown system and stop the engine before the... the temperature sensor in the exhaust gas stream which will automatically activate the safety shutdown... using a wet exhaust conditioner, determine the effectiveness of the temperature sensor in the...

  7. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensors which will automatically activate the safety shutdown system and stop the engine before the... the temperature sensor in the exhaust gas stream which will automatically activate the safety shutdown... using a wet exhaust conditioner, determine the effectiveness of the temperature sensor in the...

  8. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... allowable low water level. Run the engine until the exhaust gas temperature sensor activates the safety... activate the safety shutdown system and stop the engine before the water temperature in the cooling jackets... install sufficient temperature measuring devices to measure the highest coolant temperature and exhaust...

  9. Occupational Safety and Health Systems: A Three-Country Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    This article compares the occupational safety and health systems of Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States, looking at the origins of their legislation and its effects on occupational safety and health, with a view to determining what lessons may emerge, particularly for developing countries. (Author/SSH)

  10. Interdisciplinary Traffic Safety Instructional System: Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    This traffic safety curriculum for second grade students provides directions and materials for approximately 132 activities. Intended to develop pedestrian perceptual skills and to train children in safe conduct on the school bus, in an auto and in the school environment, the curriculum features concepts and skills taught through activities from…

  11. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening. PMID:26167531

  12. Development of a Comprehensive Database System for Safety Analyst.

    PubMed

    Paz, Alexander; Veeramisti, Naveen; Khanal, Indira; Baker, Justin; de la Fuente-Mella, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    This study addressed barriers associated with the use of Safety Analyst, a state-of-the-art tool that has been developed to assist during the entire Traffic Safety Management process but that is not widely used due to a number of challenges as described in this paper. As part of this study, a comprehensive database system and tools to provide data to multiple traffic safety applications, with a focus on Safety Analyst, were developed. A number of data management tools were developed to extract, collect, transform, integrate, and load the data. The system includes consistency-checking capabilities to ensure the adequate insertion and update of data into the database. This system focused on data from roadways, ramps, intersections, and traffic characteristics for Safety Analyst. To test the proposed system and tools, data from Clark County, which is the largest county in Nevada and includes the cities of Las Vegas, Henderson, Boulder City, and North Las Vegas, was used. The database and Safety Analyst together help identify the sites with the potential for safety improvements. Specifically, this study examined the results from two case studies. The first case study, which identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, included all roadway elements and used default and calibrated Safety Performance Functions (SPFs). The second case study identified sites having a potential for safety improvements with respect to fatal and all injury crashes, specifically regarding intersections; it used default and calibrated SPFs as well. Conclusions were developed for the calibration of safety performance functions and the classification of site subtypes. Guidelines were provided about the selection of a particular network screening type or performance measure for network screening.

  13. Work system design for patient safety: the SEIPS model

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, P; Hundt, A Schoofs; Karsh, B‐T; Gurses, A P; Alvarado, C J; Smith, M; Brennan, P Flatley

    2006-01-01

    Models and methods of work system design need to be developed and implemented to advance research in and design for patient safety. In this paper we describe how the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model of work system and patient safety, which provides a framework for understanding the structures, processes and outcomes in health care and their relationships, can be used toward these ends. An application of the SEIPS model in one particular care setting (outpatient surgery) is presented and other practical and research applications of the model are described. PMID:17142610

  14. Safety of high speed ground transportation systems: Safety of advanced braking concepts for high speed ground transportation systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.P.; Ahlbeck, D.R.; Luedeke, J.F.; Cook, S.D.; Dielman, M.A.

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this study is to develop qualitative and quantitative information on the various braking strategies used in high-speed ground transportation systems in support of the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). The approach employed in this study is composed of two steps: first, build a technical understanding of the various braking strategies, and second, perform a safety analysis for each system. The systems considered in this study include seven operating high-speed rail transportation systems and three existing magnetic levitation systems. The principal technique used in the system safety analysis is Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), an inductive approach to identifying system failure modes that depends on a thorough understanding of the system design and operation. Key elements derived from the system safety analysis are the fault-tolerant and fail-safe characteristics of the braking systems. The report concludes with recommended guidance on the structure of potential future regulations governing high-speed rail braking systems.

  15. System safety based on a coordinated principle-based theme

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.A.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a logical progression for the identification of assets, threats, vulnerabilities, and protective measures, based on a structured approach that incorporates the results of the previous paper. The authors utilize a logical structure for identifying the constituents of the problem, derive appropriate applicable principles, and demonstrate a technique for incorporating the principles into a coordinated safety theme. They also show how to qualitatively assess such generally non-quantifiable items such as safety-component and safety-system response to severe abnormal environments. An illustrative example is followed step-by-step through to a safety system design approach and a safety assessment approach. The general approach is illustrated here through an example, generally representing a test rocket launch scenario, where the concern is the potential for loss of life.

  16. Spacelabs Innovative Project Award winner--2007. Solar system of safety.

    PubMed

    Plouffe, Jannell A

    2010-01-01

    In 2004, the pediatric intensive unit at the Winnipeg Children's Hospital began a journey into space, engaging in the evolving culture of safety emerging in Canada. This process started with the joining of the Canadian ICU Collaborative on Patient Safety, where the first project focused on decreasing catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSIs). This single project created the impetus for the mission: 2007 Solar system of safety. The solar system analogy was a powerful methodology to engage staff to travel to the different planets (projects) and step outside of their comfort zone into what some perceived as zero gravity. Planets (projects), in addition to CRBSIs, included safety huddles, safety newsletter, ventilator-associated pneumonia reduction, pediatric rapid response team, and executive walk rounds.

  17. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; Sandys, Sean; Shaw, Alan; Zabinsky, Zelda

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  18. Demonstration of a Safety Analysis on a Complex System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy; Alfaro, Liliana; Alvarado, Christine; Brown, Molly; Hunt, Earl B.; Jaffe, Matt; Joslyn, Susan; Pinnell, Denise; Reese, Jon; Samarziya, Jeffrey; hide

    1997-01-01

    For the past 17 years, Professor Leveson and her graduate students have been developing a theoretical foundation for safety in complex systems and building a methodology upon that foundation. The methodology includes special management structures and procedures, system hazard analyses, software hazard analysis, requirements modeling and analysis for completeness and safety, special software design techniques including the design of human-machine interaction, verification, operational feedback, and change analysis. The Safeware methodology is based on system safety techniques that are extended to deal with software and human error. Automation is used to enhance our ability to cope with complex systems. Identification, classification, and evaluation of hazards is done using modeling and analysis. To be effective, the models and analysis tools must consider the hardware, software, and human components in these systems. They also need to include a variety of analysis techniques and orthogonal approaches: There exists no single safety analysis or evaluation technique that can handle all aspects of complex systems. Applying only one or two may make us feel satisfied, but will produce limited results. We report here on a demonstration, performed as part of a contract with NASA Langley Research Center, of the Safeware methodology on the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) portion of the air traffic control (ATC) system and procedures currently employed at the Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) TRACON (Terminal Radar Approach CONtrol). CTAS is an automated system to assist controllers in handling arrival traffic in the DFW area. Safety is a system property, not a component property, so our safety analysis considers the entire system and not simply the automated components. Because safety analysis of a complex system is an interdisciplinary effort, our team included system engineers, software engineers, human factors experts, and cognitive psychologists.

  19. Submersible pump installation, methods and safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayh, R.I. III

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes a well completion having a hydraulically powered submersible pump with an intake and a discharge disposed within a first well flow conductor, comprising: a. well packer means for forming a fluid seal with the interior of the first well flow conductor at a downhole location to direct formation fluid flow to the pump intake; b. a landing nipple releasable secured to the upper portion of the well packer means; c. a longitudinal passageway extending through the landing nipple; d. a safety valve releasable secured within the longitudinal passageway for controlling fluid flow therethrough; e. means for attaching the submersible pump to the landing nipple above the safety valve; f. the longitudinal passageway providing a portion of the means for directing formation fluid flow to the pump intake; g. the landing nipple further comprising a tubular housing means with the longitudinal passageway extending therethrough; h. locking grooves formed on the interior of the longitudinal passageway intermediate the ends thereof; i. the locking grooves providing means for releasably securing the safety valve within the longitudinal passageway; j. a second flow conductor extending from the well surface and coaxially disposed within the first flow conductor to form an annulus therebetween; and k. the second flow conductor and the annulus cooperating to provide separate flow paths for supplying input power fluid to the submersible pump and for returning fluid discharged from the pump to the well surface.

  20. Analysis of Aviation Safety Reporting System Incident Data Associated With the Technical Challenges of the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withrow, Colleen A.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    This analysis was conducted to support the Vehicle Systems Safety Technology (VSST) Project of the Aviation Safety Program (AVsP) milestone VSST4.2.1.01, "Identification of VSST-Related Trends." In particular, this is a review of incident data from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The following three VSST-related technical challenges (TCs) were the focus of the incidents searched in the ASRS database: (1) Vechicle health assurance, (2) Effective crew-system interactions and decisions in all conditions; and (3) Aircraft loss of control prevention, mitigation, and recovery.

  1. Data requirements analysis in support of system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I.

    1971-01-01

    The development of a user-oriented safety data bank is reported and its data requirements are outlined. The information retrieval system employed is described along with the problems involved in its establishment and operation.

  2. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  3. 49 CFR 659.19 - System safety program plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... projects to extend, rehabilitate, or modify an existing system, or to replace vehicles and equipment. (i) A... notifying all involved departments. (r) A description of the safety program for employees and...

  4. Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary lunch and open house at the Sunnyvale office. Linda J. Connell, ASRS Program Director (left); Dr. John Lauber, Resident Scientist and early pioneer of the ASRS at Ames, 1972-1985 (Right).

  5. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  6. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    To develop a strategy for incorporating and demonstrating safety, it is necessary to enumerate the unique aspects of space power reactor systems from a safety standpoint. These features must be differentiated from terrestrial nuclear power plants so that our experience can be applied properly. Some ideas can then be developed on how safe designs can be achieved so that they are safe and perceived to be safe by the public. These ideas include operating only after achieving a stable orbit, developing an inherently safe design, ''designing'' in safety from the start and managing the system development (design) so that it is perceived safe. These and other ideas are explored further in this paper.

  7. What is Clinical Safety in Electronic Health Care Record Systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, George

    There is mounting public awareness of an increasing number of adverse clinical incidents within the National Health Service (NHS), but at the same time, large health care projects like the National Programme for IT (NPFIT) are claiming that safer care is one of the benefits of the project and that health software systems in particular have the potential to reduce the likelihood of accidental or unintentional harm to patients. This paper outlines the approach to clinical safety management taken by CSC, a major supplier to NPFIT; discusses acceptable levels of risk and clinical safety as an end-to-end concept; and touches on the future for clinical safety in health systems software.

  8. SCWR - Safety Systems and Containment Investigations - Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nils-Olov Jonsson

    2004-09-08

    The design of the Generation IV Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) was reviewed. The general design criteria and safety requirements were specified to provide a basis for the design of the safety systems and the containment. A combination of the most stringent requirements applied today is used. The majority of the effort was devoted to developing the preliminary design of a reactor core cooling system that mitigates the consequences of loss of feedwater events.

  9. Why System Safety Professionals Should Read Accident Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2006-01-01

    System safety professionals, both researchers and practitioners, who regularly read accident reports reap important benefits. These benefits include an improved ability to separate myths from reality, including both myths about specific accidents and ones concerning accidents in general; an increased understanding of the consequences of unlikely events, which can help inform future designs; a greater recognition of the limits of mathematical models; and guidance on potentially relevant research directions that may contribute to safety improvements in future systems.

  10. 12 CFR 960.3 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates. 960.3 Section 960.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS... housing associates. (a) Housing associates. Each Bank is authorized to issue or confirm on behalf...

  11. 12 CFR 960.2 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... members with liquidity or other funding. (b) Fully secured. A Bank, at the time it issues or confirms a... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standby letters of credit on behalf of members. 960.2 Section 960.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS...

  12. ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING, TRA-648. EMERGENCY STANDBY GENERATOR AND DIESEL UNIT. METAL ROOF AND PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. CAMERA FACING SOUTHWEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-3708. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 11/13/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 31 CFR 585.518 - Certain standby letters of credit and performance bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standby letter of credit in favor of a beneficiary that is the Government of the FRY (S&M) or a person in the FRY (S&M) is prohibited by § 585.201 and not authorized, notwithstanding the provisions of § 585... license authorizing the account party to establish a blocked account on its books in the name of the FRY...

  14. Software Systems Safety Design Guidelines and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    Dr. Louis Huang) 1 SD/SE (Roger Lockwood) 1 P.O. Box 92960 Los Angeles, CA 90009-2960 Commanding Officer Wright Patterson Aeronautics Laboratory Attn...AFWAL-SES (Randy Janssen) 1 Wright Patterson AFB, OH 45433 Headquarters, Air Force Inspection and Safety Center Attn: AFISC/SE 1 AFISC/SESD 2 Norton...AFB, CA 92409-7001 Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Command Attn: AFOTEC/SE Capt. Steven Mattern 2 Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-7001

  15. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, L.G.

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  16. Passive modular gas safety system for a reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Abalin, S.S.; Isaev, I.F.; Kulakov, A.A.; Sivokon, V.P.; Udovenko, A.N.; Ionaitis, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Reactor safety systems have developed gradually. Today in particular, auxiliary systems are being developed which are based on nontraditional operational concepts, by using gaseous neutron absorbers. The Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Power Technology (NIKIET) and the Institute of Nuclear Reactors, Kurchatov Institute Reactor Science Center (RNTs), have done preliminary development and experimental verification of separate elements of this system, in which helium is used as the absorber. This article presents a rapid passive safety system based on gaseous absorber, which is made as autonomous modules as the final stage of reactor safety. Its effectiveness is discussed by using an RBMK reactor as an example. As opposed to traditional active, systems, it does not require a functioning power supply and information signals from outside the reactors system, which makes it stable against unsanctioned actions by personnel, the influence of other systems, and also outside actions (sabotage and natural calamities which could destroy the the nuclear power plant structure). Because the gas safety system can operate instantaneously (0.1-0.3 sec), in principle, it can shut down the reactor even with fast-neutron runaway, where traditional safety systems are ineffective.

  17. Systems Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program: Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Evans, Joni K.; Barr, Lawrence; Leone, Karen

    2013-01-01

    A three-month study (February to April 2010) of the NASA Aviation Safety (AvSafe) program was conducted. This study comprised three components: (1) a statistical analysis of currently available civilian subsonic aircraft data from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) system to identify any significant or overlooked aviation safety issues; (2) a high-level qualitative identification of future safety risks, with an assessment of the potential impact of the NASA AvSafe research on the National Airspace System (NAS) based on these risks; and (3) a detailed, top-down analysis of the NASA AvSafe program using an established and peer-reviewed systems analysis methodology. The statistical analysis identified the top aviation "tall poles" based on NTSB accident and FAA incident data from 1997 to 2006. A separate examination of medical helicopter accidents in the United States was also conducted. Multiple external sources were used to develop a compilation of ten "tall poles" in future safety issues/risks. The top-down analysis of the AvSafe was conducted by using a modification of the Gibson methodology. Of the 17 challenging safety issues that were identified, 11 were directly addressed by the AvSafe program research portfolio.

  18. Evaluating software for safety systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.; Persons, W.L.; Preckshot, G.G.; Gallagher, J.

    1994-01-11

    In 1991, LLNL was asked by the NRC to provide technical assistance in various aspects of computer technology that apply to computer-based reactor protection systems. This has involved the review of safety aspects of new reactor designs and the provision of technical advice on the use of computer technology in systems important to reactor safety. The latter includes determining and documenting state-of-the-art subjects that require regulatory involvement by the NRC because of their importance in the development and implementation of digital computer safety systems. These subjects include data communications, formal methods, testing, software hazards analysis, verification and validation, computer security, performance, software complexity and others. One topic software reliability and safety is the subject of this paper.

  19. EHR safety: the way forward to safe and effective systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, James M; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy; Paulus, Ronald A; Tooker, John; Chin, Homer; Bothe, Albert; Stewart, Walter F

    2008-01-01

    Diverse stakeholders--clinicians, researchers, business leaders, policy makers, and the public--have good reason to believe that the effective use of electronic health care records (EHRs) is essential to meaningful advances in health care quality and patient safety. However, several reports have documented the potential of EHRs to contribute to health care system flaws and patient harm. As organizations (including small hospitals and physician practices) with limited resources for care-process transformation, human-factors engineering, software safety, and project management begin to use EHRs, the chance of EHR-associated harm may increase. The authors propose a coordinated set of steps to advance the practice and theory of safe EHR design, implementation, and continuous improvement. These include setting EHR implementation in the context of health care process improvement, building safety into the specification and design of EHRs, safety testing and reporting, and rapid communication of EHR-related safety flaws and incidents.

  20. EHR Safety: The Way Forward to Safe and Effective Systems

    PubMed Central

    Walker, James M.; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy; Paulus, Ronald A.; Tooker, John; Chin, Homer; Bothe, Albert; Stewart, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    Diverse stakeholders—clinicians, researchers, business leaders, policy makers, and the public—have good reason to believe that the effective use of electronic health care records (EHRs) is essential to meaningful advances in health care quality and patient safety. However, several reports have documented the potential of EHRs to contribute to health care system flaws and patient harm. As organizations (including small hospitals and physician practices) with limited resources for care-process transformation, human-factors engineering, software safety, and project management begin to use EHRs, the chance of EHR-associated harm may increase. The authors propose a coordinated set of steps to advance the practice and theory of safe EHR design, implementation, and continuous improvement. These include setting EHR implementation in the context of health care process improvement, building safety into the specification and design of EHRs, safety testing and reporting, and rapid communication of EHR-related safety flaws and incidents. PMID:18308981

  1. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-08-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity os the model`s implementation allows rapid {open_quotes}what if{open_quotes} case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer`s data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model`s utility and ease of use.

  2. Modular reliability modeling of the TJNAF personnel safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Cinnamon, J.; Mahoney, K.

    1997-08-01

    A reliability model for the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (formerly CEBAF) personnel safety system has been developed. The model, which was implemented using an Excel spreadsheet, allows simulation of all or parts of the system. Modularity of the model's implementation allows rapid {open_quotes}what if{open_quotes} case studies to simulate change in safety system parameters such as redundancy, diversity, and failure rates. Particular emphasis is given to the prediction of failure modes which would result in the failure of both of the redundant safety interlock systems. In addition to the calculation of the predicted reliability of the safety system, the model also calculates availability of the same system. Such calculations allow the user to make tradeoff studies between reliability and availability, and to target resources to improving those parts of the system which would most benefit from redesign or upgrade. The model includes calculated, manufacturer's data, and Jefferson Lab field data. This paper describes the model, methods used, and comparison of calculated to actual data for the Jefferson Lab personnel safety system. Examples are given to illustrate the model's utility and ease of use.

  3. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: Executive summary. Part 2: Space shuttle nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The nuclear safety integration and operational aspects of transporting nuclear payloads to and from an earth orbiting space base by space shuttle are discussed. The representative payloads considered were: (1) zirconium hydride-Brayton power module, (2) isotope-Brayton power module, and (3) small isotope power systems or heat sources. Areas of investigation also include nuclear safety related integration and packaging as well as operational requirements for the shuttle and payload systems for all phases of the mission.

  4. Jefferson Lab IEC 61508/61511 Safety PLC Based Safety System

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly Mahoney, Henry Robertson

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the design of the new 12 GeV Upgrade Personnel Safety System (PSS) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF). The new PSS design is based on the implementation of systems designed to meet international standards IEC61508 and IEC 61511 for programmable safety systems. In order to meet the IEC standards, TJNAF engineers evaluated several SIL 3 Safety PLCs before deciding on an optimal architecture. In addition to hardware considerations, software quality standards and practices must also be considered. Finally, we will discuss R&D that may lead to both high safety reliability and high machine availability that may be applicable to future accelerators such as the ILC. Key words: PLC, Safety, TJNAF, SIL, PSS, PPS, Software, ILC Notice: Authored by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177. The U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce this manuscript for U.S. Government purposes.

  5. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  6. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  7. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  8. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  9. The establishment of the safety factors system of railway operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Xiao, Xuemei; Xie, Wei

    2011-12-01

    In order to prevent accidents and improve the safety level of the railway operations, based on the statistical analysis of railway operation accidents at home and abroad over the years, the safety factors set of railway operation was built in the paper by researching the evolution laws of human, equipment, environment and management in railway transport system. And then, through analyzing the interaction relationships of safety factors from the systematic view, a network which reflected the complex interaction relationships between the safety factors was established, and based on ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling) method, a hierarchical structure model of safety factors of railway operation in which the complex interaction relationships were divided hierarchically as to explain the deep causes of the railway accidents, then a comprehensive safety factors system of railway operations was established, in order to control and prevent the railway operation accident, to lay the foundation for quantitative analysis and prediction of railway operation accident, and to guide the scientific safety management of railway operation.

  10. The establishment of the safety factors system of railway operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Xiao, Xuemei; Xie, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents and improve the safety level of the railway operations, based on the statistical analysis of railway operation accidents at home and abroad over the years, the safety factors set of railway operation was built in the paper by researching the evolution laws of human, equipment, environment and management in railway transport system. And then, through analyzing the interaction relationships of safety factors from the systematic view, a network which reflected the complex interaction relationships between the safety factors was established, and based on ISM (Interpretative Structural Modeling) method, a hierarchical structure model of safety factors of railway operation in which the complex interaction relationships were divided hierarchically as to explain the deep causes of the railway accidents, then a comprehensive safety factors system of railway operations was established, in order to control and prevent the railway operation accident, to lay the foundation for quantitative analysis and prediction of railway operation accident, and to guide the scientific safety management of railway operation.

  11. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  12. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  13. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  14. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety

    PubMed Central

    Noy, Y. Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J.; Dainoff, Marvin J.; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G.; Robertson, Michelle M.; Courtney, Theodore K.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Practitioner Summary: Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges. PMID:25819595

  15. Editorial: emerging issues in sociotechnical systems thinking and workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Noy, Y Ian; Hettinger, Lawrence J; Dainoff, Marvin J; Carayon, Pascale; Leveson, Nancy G; Robertson, Michelle M; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    The burden of on-the-job accidents and fatalities and the harm of associated human suffering continue to present an important challenge for safety researchers and practitioners. While significant improvements have been achieved in recent decades, the workplace accident rate remains unacceptably high. This has spurred interest in the development of novel research approaches, with particular interest in the systemic influences of social/organisational and technological factors. In response, the Hopkinton Conference on Sociotechnical Systems and Safety was organised to assess the current state of knowledge in the area and to identify research priorities. Over the course of several months prior to the conference, leading international experts drafted collaborative, state-of-the-art reviews covering various aspects of sociotechnical systems and safety. These papers, presented in this special issue, cover topics ranging from the identification of key concepts and definitions to sociotechnical characteristics of safe and unsafe organisations. This paper provides an overview of the conference and introduces key themes and topics. Sociotechnical approaches to workplace safety are intended to draw practitioners' attention to the critical influence that systemic social/organisational and technological factors exert on safety-relevant outcomes. This paper introduces major themes addressed in the Hopkinton Conference within the context of current workplace safety research and practice challenges.

  16. Medical safety and community practice: necessary elements and barriers to implement a safety learning system.

    PubMed

    O'Beirne, Maeve; Sterling, Pam D

    2009-01-01

    A safety learning system (SLS) is a system that monitors patient safety incident information and analyzes it to develop and implement improvement strategies to increase patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the necessary elements of a community-based family medicine practice SLS in Alberta Health Services - Calgary zone, and barriers to, and facilitators of, the implementation of this system. An SLS was developed in the research program Medical Safety in Community Practice. To determine the elements necessary to implement an SLS in community-based family medicine practice, we performed a comprehensive literature review, internal investigator discussions and internal investigator and external stakeholder reviews of key design elements. The system is currently being implemented and tested in community-based family practices as part of the program. Steps identified for implementation: included determining key design elements including creating a website and ascertaining a classification system or taxonomy; developing recruitment strategies; establishing an incident analysis methodology; building a knowledge translation strategy; and pursuing sustainability. These elements produced an SLS that is easily incorporated into community-based family medicine clinics.

  17. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-12-28

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  18. Regulatory system reform of occupational health and safety in China

    PubMed Central

    WU, Fenghong; CHI, Yan

    2015-01-01

    With the explosive economic growth and social development, China’s regulatory system of occupational health and safety now faces more and more challenges. This article reviews the history of regulatory system of occupational health and safety in China, as well as the current reform of this regulatory system in the country. Comprehensive, a range of laws, regulations and standards that promulgated by Chinese government, duties and responsibilities of the regulatory departments are described. Problems of current regulatory system, the ongoing adjustments and changes for modifying and improving regulatory system are discussed. The aim of reform and the incentives to drive forward more health and safety conditions in workplaces are also outlined. PMID:25843565

  19. Epistemic Questions and Answers for Software System Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, Chris W.

    2010-01-01

    System safety is primarily concerned with epistemic questions, that is, questions concerning knowledge and the degree of confidence that can be placed in that knowledge. For systems with which human experience is long, such as roads, bridges, and mechanical devices, knowledge about what is required to make the systems safe is deep and detailed. High confidence can be placed in the validity of that knowledge. For other systems, however, with which human experience is comparatively short, such as those that rely in part or in whole on software, knowledge about what is required to ensure safety tends to be shallow and general. The confidence that can be placed in the validity of that knowledge is consequently low. In a previous paper, we enumerated a collection of foundational epistemic questions concerning software system safety. In this paper, we review and refine the questions, discuss some difficulties that attend to answering the questions today, and speculate on possible research to improve the situation.

  20. Failure and factors of safety in piping system design

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.

    1993-06-01

    An important body of test and performance data on the behavior of piping systems has led to an ongoing reassessment of the code stress allowables and their safety margin. The codes stress allowables, and their factors of safety, are developed from limits on the incipient yield (for ductile materials), or incipient rupture (for brittle materials), of a test specimen loaded in simple tension. In this paper, we examine the failure theories introduced in the B31 and ASME III codes for piping and their inherent approximations compared to textbook failure theories. We summarize the evolution of factors of safety in ASME and B31 and point out that, for piping systems, it is appropriate to reconsider the concept and definition of factors of safety.

  1. Safety Cases for Global Navigation Satellite Systems' Safety of Life(SOL) Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. W.; Yepez, Amaya Atencia

    2010-09-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) have recently been enhanced to provide additional guarantees for the accuracy, integrity, reliability and coverage of their services. These infrastructures are intended to be robust against jamming. They support real-time self-diagnostic error detection and provide end-users with detailed information about precision and integrity. In consequence, they are gradually being introduced into safety-related applications. This paper argues that greater attention needs to be paid to the ways in which these navigation infrastructures are being integrated into the safety cases that support Safety of Life(SoL) applications. In particular, we contrast the significant investments that have been made in analysing the safety of GNSS aviation applications, such as en-route operations and non-precision approaches, with the relative lack of progress in other industries. There is also a need for greater consistency between the safety arguments that support similar GNSS applications. This helps to ensure that safety managers and regulators consider a similar set of hazards when seeking to integrate these new navigation infrastructures into SoL systems. While international aviation organisations have taken important steps to establish communication mechanisms within their industry, the same cannot be said for other industries. The ad hoc nature of the safety arguments supporting many recent proposals creates a danger that technological innovation will outstrip our commitment to mitigate or avoid future hazards. Unless these issues are addressed then accidents involving the first wave of SoL applications will further jeopardise the development of GNSS infrastructures.

  2. Model Transformation for a System of Systems Dependability Safety Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Judy; Driskell, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The presentation reviews the dependability and safety effort of NASA's Independent Verification and Validation Facility. Topics include: safety engineering process, applications to non-space environment, Phase I overview, process creation, sample SRM artifact, Phase I end result, Phase II model transformation, fault management, and applying Phase II to individual projects.

  3. Landing System Reliability and Safety Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    AERONAUTICAL LABORATORIES A Laz~ AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND *i - WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE , OHIO 45433 80 8 4 025 NOTICE When Government...Dynamics Laboratory A779 Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories loPk&Gu",-be-) Air Force Systems CommandgWright-Patterson Air Force Base - Ohio 4541 3 14...conducted by the 4950th Test Wing of the Aeronautical Systems Division at Wright Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION PAGE I

  4. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    DOEpatents

    Darimont, D.E.

    1995-10-31

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member`s second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock. 7 figs.

  5. Captured key electrical safety lockout system

    DOEpatents

    Darimont, Daniel E.

    1995-01-01

    A safety lockout apparatus for an electrical circuit includes an electrical switch, a key, a lock and a blocking mechanism. The electrical switch is movable between an ON position at which the electrical circuit is energized and an OFF position at which the electrical circuit is deactivated. The lock is adapted to receive the key and is rotatable among a plurality of positions by the key. The key is only insertable and removable when the lock is at a preselected position. The lock is maintained in the preselected position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism physically maintains the switch in its OFF position when the key is removed from the lock. The blocking mechanism preferably includes a member driven by the lock between a first position at which the electrical switch is movable between its ON and OFF positions and a second position at which the member physically maintains the electrical switch in its OFF position. Advantageously, the driven member's second position corresponds to the preselected position at which the key can be removed from and inserted into the lock.

  6. Systems Approaches to Surgical Quality and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Charles; Moorthy, Krishna; Sarker, Sudip K.; Chang, Avril; Darzi, Ara W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This approach provides the basis of our research program, which aims to expand operative assessment beyond patient factors and the technical skills of the surgeon; to extend assessment of surgical skills beyond bench models to the operating theater; to provide a basis for assessing interventions; and to provide a deeper understanding of surgical outcomes. Summary Background Data: Research into surgical outcomes has primarily focused on the role of patient pathophysiological risk factors and on the skills of the individual surgeon. However, this approach neglects a wide range of factors that have been found to be of important in achieving safe, high-quality performance in other high-risk environments. The outcome of surgery is also dependent on the quality of care received throughout the patient's stay in hospital and the performance of a considerable number of health professionals, all of whom are influenced by the environment in which they work. Methods: Drawing on the wider literature on safety and quality in healthcare, and recent papers on surgery, this article argues for a much wider assessment of factors that may be relevant to surgical outcome. In particular, we suggest the development of an “operation profile” to capture all the salient features of a surgical operation, including such factors as equipment design and use, communication, team coordination, factors affecting individual performance, and the working environment. Methods of assessing such factors are outlined, and ethical issues and other potential concerns are discussed. PMID:15024308

  7. Future Data Communication Architectures for Safety Critical Aircraft Cabin Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkhahn, Sven-Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The cabin of modern aircraft is subject to increasing demands for fast reconfiguration and hence flexibility. These demands require studies for new network architectures and technologies of the electronic cabin systems, which consider also weight and cost reductions as well as safety constraints. Two major approaches are in consideration to reduce the complex and heavy wiring harness: the usage of a so called hybrid data bus technology, which enables the common usage of the same data bus for several electronic cabin systems with different safety and security requirements and the application of wireless data transfer technologies for electronic cabin systems.

  8. Patient Safety Learning Systems: A Systematic Review and Qualitative Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lambrinos, Anna; Holubowich, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Background A patient safety learning system (sometimes called a critical incident reporting system) refers to structured reporting, collation, and analysis of critical incidents. To inform a provincial working group's recommendations for an Ontario Patient Safety Event Learning System, a systematic review was undertaken to determine design features that would optimize its adoption into the health care system and would inform implementation strategies. Methods The objective of this review was to address two research questions: (a) what are the barriers to and facilitators of successful adoption of a patient safety learning system reported by health professionals and (b) what design components maximize successful adoption and implementation? To answer the first question, we used a published systematic review. To answer the second question, we used scoping study methodology. Results Common barriers reported in the literature by health care professionals included fear of blame, legal penalties, the perception that incident reporting does not improve patient safety, lack of organizational support, inadequate feedback, lack of knowledge about incident reporting systems, and lack of understanding about what constitutes an error. Common facilitators included a non-accusatory environment, the perception that incident reporting improves safety, clarification of the route of reporting and of how the system uses reports, enhanced feedback, role models (such as managers) using and promoting reporting, legislated protection of those who report, ability to report anonymously, education and training opportunities, and clear guidelines on what to report. Components of a patient safety learning system that increased successful adoption and implementation were emphasis on a blame-free culture that encourages reporting and learning, clear guidelines on how and what to report, making sure the system is user-friendly, organizational development support for data analysis to generate

  9. 49 CFR 659.25 - Annual review of system safety program plan and system security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... annual review of its system safety program plan and system security plan. (b) In the event the rail transit agency's system safety program plan is modified, the rail transit agency must submit the modified... agency. (c) In the event the rail transit agency's system security plan is modified, the rail transit...

  10. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  11. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  12. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  13. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  14. 14 CFR 415.129 - Flight safety system test data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... list of all flight termination system test procedures and a synopsis of the procedures that... flight termination system components. An applicant's safety review document must contain a reuse qualification test, refurbishment plan, and acceptance test plan for the use of any flight termination...

  15. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  16. Parents' knowledge about and use of child safety systems.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, Anne W; Polgar, Jan; Patrick, Linda; Stamler, Lynnette

    2006-06-01

    Road crashes are the leading cause of death and injury in children under 14 years of age in Canada, despite mandatory use of vehicle restraints. A survey design was used to examine parental knowledge and perceptions of the use of safety systems for children in 2 communities in the province of Ontario. Parents of children aged newborn to 9 years were recruited from 3 urban/rural school boards and from daycare centres and hospitals. A total of 1,263 parents reported on 2,199 children's use of safety systems. Data analysis revealed that only 68% of children used correct seats for their weight and that as the child advanced in age the rate of misuse increased significantly due to high rates of premature transitioning into safety seats inappropriate for the child's height and weight. The results also revealed that parents had limited knowledge concerning the correct use of safety seats and frequently used non-professional sources of information for vehicle safety information. The authors recommend that nurses develop a comprehensive and systematic strategy to ensure that families understand how to secure children in vehicles using the correct safety seat for the child's height, weight, and age.

  17. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  18. A Framework for Software Reuse in Safety-Critical System of Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    an increasingly advancing global environment. System software needs to be designed for both reuse and safety and available information shared ...safety, and available information needs to be shared effectively. We introduce a process neutral framework for software reuse in safety-critical...73 A. EXAMPLE SOFTWARE LEVEL OF RIGOR (LOR) MATRIX AND REQUIRED LEVEL OF RIGOR SOFTWARE PRODUCTS .................73 B. SOFTWARE RISK

  19. Lithium-thionyl chloride cell system safety hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dampier, F. W.

    1985-03-01

    This system safety analysis for the lithium thionyl chloride cell is a critical review of the technical literature pertaining to cell safety and draws conclusions and makes recommendations based on this data. The thermodynamics and kinetics of the electrochemical reactions occurring during discharge are discussed with particular attention given to unstable SOCl2 reduction intermediates. Potentially hazardous reactions between the various cell components and discharge products or impurities that could occur during electrical or thermal abuse are described and the most hazardous conditions and reactions identified. Design factors influencing the safety of Li/SOCl2 cells, shipping and disposal methods and the toxicity of Li/SOCl2 battery components are additional safety issues that are also addressed.

  20. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Garcia, Michael P.; Corley, Douglas A.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P.; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level income The study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings. Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. PMID:28296752

  1. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Garcia, Michael P; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Haas, Jennifer S; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-03-01

    Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings.Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

  2. Safety of Hydrogen Systems Installed in Outdoor Enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2013-11-01

    The Hydrogen Safety Panel brings a broad cross-section of expertise from the industrial, government, and academic sectors to help advise the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office through its work in hydrogen safety, codes, and standards. The Panel’s initiatives in reviewing safety plans, conducting safety evaluations, identifying safety-related technical data gaps, and supporting safety knowledge tools and databases cover the gamut from research and development to demonstration and deployment. The Panel’s recent work has focused on the safe deployment of hydrogen and fuel cell systems in support of DOE efforts to accelerate fuel cell commercialization in early market applications: vehicle refueling, material handling equipment, backup power for warehouses and telecommunication sites, and portable power devices. This paper resulted from observations and considerations stemming from the Panel’s work on early market applications. This paper focuses on hydrogen system components that are installed in outdoor enclosures. These enclosures might alternatively be called “cabinets,” but for simplicity, they are all referred to as “enclosures” in this paper. These enclosures can provide a space where a flammable mixture of hydrogen and air might accumulate, creating the potential for a fire or explosion should an ignition occur. If the enclosure is large enough for a person to enter, and ventilation is inadequate, the hydrogen concentration could be high enough to asphyxiate a person who entered the space. Manufacturers, users, and government authorities rely on requirements described in codes to guide safe design and installation of such systems. Except for small enclosures used for hydrogen gas cylinders (gas cabinets), fuel cell power systems, and the enclosures that most people would describe as buildings, there are no hydrogen safety requirements for these enclosures, leaving gaps that must be addressed. This paper proposes that

  3. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  4. Advanced Control System Increases Helicopter Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    With support and funding from a Phase II NASA SBIR project from Ames Research Center, Hoh Aeronautics Inc. (HAI), of Lomita, California, produced HeliSAS, a low-cost, lightweight, attitude-command-attitude-hold stability augmentation system (SAS) for civil helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles. HeliSAS proved itself in over 160 hours of flight testing and demonstrations in a Robinson R44 Raven helicopter, a commercial helicopter popular with news broadcasting and police operations. Chelton Flight Systems, of Boise, Idaho, negotiated with HAI to develop, market, and manufacture HeliSAS, now available as the Chelton HeliSAS Digital Helicopter Autopilot.

  5. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4th National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30th July until the 3rd August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period. PMID:22589590

  6. Medical Standby: An Experience at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program Organized by Maksak Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Mohd Idzwan; Isa, Ridzuan Mohd; Shah Che Hamzah, Mohd Shaharudin; Ayob, Noor Azleen

    2006-01-01

    Medical standby is the provision of emergency medical care and first aid for participants and/or spectators in a pre-planned event. This article describes the framework and the demographics of a medical standby at the 4(th) National Youth Camping and Motivation Program in Pasir Puteh, Kelantan from 30(th) July until the 3(rd) August 2004. The framework of the medical team is described based on the work process of any medical stand by. A medical encounter form was created for the medical standby defining the type of case seen (medical or trauma), name, age, race and diagnosis of the patient. We concluded that interagency collaboration during the initial planning and during the event itself is needed to ensure the smooth running of the medical standby. Most of the medical encounters were minor illnesses which are similar to previous studies and there was no case transferred to the hospital during that period.

  7. Safety evaluation methodology for advanced coal extraction systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, W. F.

    1981-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for coal extraction systems were developed. The analysis examines the soundness of the design, whether or not the major hazards have been eliminated or reduced, and how the reduction would be accomplished. The quantitative methodology establishes the approximate impact of hazards on injury levels. The results are weighted by peculiar geological elements, specialized safety training, peculiar mine environmental aspects, and reductions in labor force. The outcome is compared with injury level requirements based on similar, safer industries to get a measure of the new system's success in reducing injuries. This approach provides a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of hazards and their effects than existing safety analyses.

  8. Personnel safety with pressurized gas systems

    DOE PAGES

    Cadwallader, Lee C.; Zhao, Haihua

    2016-09-08

    In this study, selected accident case histories are described that illustrate the potential modes of injury from gas jets, pressure-driven missiles, and asphyxiants. Gas combustion hazards are also briefly mentioned. Using high-pressure helium and nitrogen, estimates of safe exclusion distances are calculated for differing pressures, temperatures, and breach sizes. Some sources for gas system reliability values are also cited.

  9. Developing Correct Safety Critical, Hybrid, Embedded Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    Embedded Systems* Alexander Pretschner, Oscar Slotosch, Thomas Stauner Institut fuir Informatik, Technische Universitd.t Miinchen Arcisstrafe 21, 80290...case specifying this specifica- kontinuierlich-diskreter Prozesse . In Proc. of tion is depicted in Fig. 8. Note the close relationship VDI/VDE GMA

  10. Safety monitoring system for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, A.

    1973-01-01

    System alerts personnel of hazards which may develop while they are performing tests on radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Remedial action is initiated to minimize damage. Five operating conditions are monitored: hot junction temperature, cold junction temperature, thermal shroud coolant flow, vacuum in test chamber, and alpha radiation.

  11. Survey of systems safety analysis methods and their application to nuclear waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Winegardner, W.K.; Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1981-11-01

    This report reviews system safety analysis methods and examines their application to nuclear waste management systems. The safety analysis methods examined include expert opinion, maximum credible accident approach, design basis accidents approach, hazard indices, preliminary hazards analysis, failure modes and effects analysis, fault trees, event trees, cause-consequence diagrams, G0 methodology, Markov modeling, and a general category of consequence analysis models. Previous and ongoing studies on the safety of waste management systems are discussed along with their limitations and potential improvements. The major safety methods and waste management safety related studies are surveyed. This survey provides information on what safety methods are available, what waste management safety areas have been analyzed, and what are potential areas for future study.

  12. Nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Topics dealing with nuclear safety are addressed which include the following: general safety requirements; safety design requirements; terrestrial safety; SP-100 Flight System key safety requirements; potential mission accidents and hazards; key safety features; ground operations; launch operations; flight operations; disposal; safety concerns; licensing; the nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) design philosophy; the NERVA flight safety program; and the NERVA safety plan.

  13. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  14. Nickel-iron battery system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltat, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generated flow rates of gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen from an electrical vehicle nickel-iron battery system were determined and used to evaluate the flame quenching capabilities of several candidate devices to prevent flame propagation within batteries having central watering/venting systems. The battery generated hydrogen and oxygen gases were measured for a complete charge and discharge cycle. The data correlates well with accepted theory during strong overcharge conditions indicating that the measurements are valid for other portions of the cycle. Tests confirm that the gas mixture in the cells is always flammable regardless of the battery status. The literature indicated that a conventional flame arrestor would not be effective over the broad spectrum of gassing conditions presented by a nickel-iron battery. Four different types of protective devices were evaluated. A foam-metal arrestor design was successful in quenching gaseous hydrogen and gaseous oxygen flames, however; the application of this flame arrestor to individual cell or module protection in a battery is problematic. A possible rearrangement of the watering/venting system to accept the partial protection of simple one-way valves is presented which, in combination with the successful foam-metal arrestor as main vent protection, could result in a significant improvement in battery protection.

  15. Safety issues of manipulator systems under computer control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andary, James F.; Carter, Ruth C.; Halterman, Karen; Spidaliere, Peter D.; Tasevoli, Michael; Rad, Adrian L.

    1992-11-01

    Since 1986 NASA has been developing a telerobotic system as a part of the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Project at Goddard Space Flight Center. The project was formed to meet the national objectives of identifying and developing technologies for automation and robotics. The overall approach is to adapt current teleoperational and robotic technologies into a lightweight, dexterous telerobotic device that could operate efficiently and safely in space and that would evolve into an autonomous space robot. The concept behind this device is that it (1) operate in space, a much less structured and more hostile environment than industrial robots normally operate in and (2) perform varied dexterous tasks which increase in complexity with time. The design must also allow for growth and increased capabilities as new technologies become available. These top-level system goals significantly influenced system design, architecture, controls implementation, and manipulator packaging design. If the FTS is to be considered as a credible tool for work in space, its fundamental building blocks must be tested in space. An early development test flight (DTF-1) was conceived to fly as an attached payload on the Shuttle in order to validate the FTS hardware design. While the funding for the FTS was eliminated in September 1991, the DTF-1 system design has been completed with major flight hardware elements in different stages of fabrication and qualification. Safety was a design driver for the DTF-1. System safety engineering was implemented with the system safety requirements and design criteria established by NASA's National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Program and defined in the Safety Policy and Requirements for Payloads Using the Space Transportation System, NSTS, 1700.7B. Satisfying these safety requirements presented significant challenges to the system designers. In an effort to capture some of the knowledge gained from the program, this paper gives an overview of the DTF

  16. A visual-analytics system for railway safety management.

    PubMed

    Lira, Wallace P; Alves, Ronnie; Costa, Jean M R; Pessin, Gustavo; Galvao, Lilyan; Cardoso, Ana C; de Souza, Cleidson R B

    2014-01-01

    The working environment of railways is challenging and complex and often involves high-risk operations. These operations affect both the company staff and inhabitants of the towns and cities alongside the railway lines. To reduce the employees' and public's exposure to risk, railway companies adopt strategies involving trained safety personnel, advanced forms of technology, and special work processes. Nevertheless, unfortunate incidents still occur. To assist railway safety management, researchers developed a visual-analytics system. Using a data analytics workflow, it compiles an incident risk index that processes information about railway incidents. It displays the index on a geographical map, together with socioeconomic information about the associated towns and cities. Feedback on this system suggests that safety engineers and experts can use it to make and communicate decisions.

  17. System safety analysis of an autonomous mobile robot

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, R.J.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of the safety of operating and maintaining the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI) II in a hazardous environment at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) was completed. The SWAMI II is a version of a commercial robot, the HelpMate{trademark} robot produced by the Transitions Research Corporation, which is being updated to incorporate the systems required for inspecting mixed toxic chemical and radioactive waste drums at the FEMP. It also has modified obstacle detection and collision avoidance subsystems. The robot will autonomously travel down the aisles in storage warehouses to record images of containers and collect other data which are transmitted to an inspector at a remote computer terminal. A previous study showed the SWAMI II has economic feasibility. The SWAMI II will more accurately locate radioactive contamination than human inspectors. This thesis includes a System Safety Hazard Analysis and a quantitative Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). The objectives of the analyses are to prevent potentially serious events and to derive a comprehensive set of safety requirements from which the safety of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots can be evaluated. The Computer-Aided Fault Tree Analysis (CAFTA{copyright}) software is utilized for the FTA. The FTA shows that more than 99% of the safety risk occurs during maintenance, and that when the derived safety requirements are implemented the rate of serious events is reduced to below one event per million operating hours. Training and procedures in SWAMI II operation and maintenance provide an added safety margin. This study will promote the safe use of the SWAMI II and other autonomous mobile robots in the emerging technology of mobile robotic inspection.

  18. Can cyclist safety be improved with intelligent transport systems?

    PubMed

    Silla, Anne; Leden, Lars; Rämä, Pirkko; Scholliers, Johan; Van Noort, Martijn; Bell, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) have assisted in the decrease of road traffic fatalities, particularly amongst passenger car occupants. Vulnerable Road Users (VRUs) such as pedestrians, cyclists, moped riders and motorcyclists, however, have not been that much in focus when developing ITS. Therefore, there is a clear need for ITS which specifically address VRUs as an integrated element of the traffic system. This paper presents the results of a quantitative safety impact assessment of five systems that were estimated to have high potential to improve the safety of cyclists, namely: Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Bicycle to Vehicle communication (B2V), Intersection safety (INS), Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection System+Emergency Braking (PCDS+EBR) and VRU Beacon System (VBS). An ex-ante assessment method proposed by Kulmala (2010) targeted to assess the effects of ITS for cars was applied and further developed in this study to assess the safety impacts of ITS specifically designed for VRUs. The main results of the assessment showed that all investigated systems affect cyclist safety in a positive way by preventing fatalities and injuries. The estimates considering 2012 accident data and full penetration showed that the highest effects could be obtained by the implementation of PCDS+EBR and B2V, whereas VBS had the lowest effect. The estimated yearly reduction in cyclist fatalities in the EU-28 varied between 77 and 286 per system. A forecast for 2030, taking into accounts the estimated accident trends and penetration rates, showed the highest effects for PCDS+EBR and BSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating a multifaceted system safety program for a large complex system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malasky, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    A safety systems effectiveness analysis is developed that considers the extent to which a system may be expected to achieve a set of stated system objectives by determining the interrelationships between reliability, maintainability, quality assurance, human factors, and value engineering.

  20. National Ignition Facility sub-system design requirements integrated safety systems SSDR 1.5.4

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.; VanArsdall, P.; Bliss, E.

    1996-09-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the Integrated Safety System, which is part of the NIF Integrated Computer Control System (ICCS).

  1. MDS system increases drilling safety and efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chevallier, J.; Turner, L. )

    1989-09-01

    There's a great deal of data recorded during drilling operations on rigs these days, but it is seldom well utilized. The operator's company person relies upon mud loggers for collecting and recording most information. The methods used to process and display this information are often inadequate for those who need it the most the driller and toolpusher. Drilling contractor personnel usually have only rudimentary displays of drilling parameters, and practically no serious method of analysis except for daily paper reports. These are cumbersome to use and provide only incomplete data, after the fact. The MDS system, presented in this article, is a new information and alarm network, which rectifies this situation by bringing to the rig, for the first time, the latest in sensor and computer technologies. This system acquires key drilling data on the rig floor, pump room, and return line, and displays it in a clear graphical format to both the driller and the toolpusher in real time. It also provides the toolpusher with a workstation for easy access to the same information for evaluation and planning of the drilling program.

  2. Electronic Clinical Safety Reporting System: A Benefits Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Desmond; Neville, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    Background Eastern Health, a large health care organization in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), started a staged implementation of an electronic occurrence reporting system (used interchangeably with “clinical safety reporting system”) in 2008, completing Phase One in 2009. The electronic clinical safety reporting system (CSRS) was designed to replace a paper-based system. The CSRS involves reporting on occurrences such as falls, safety/security issues, medication errors, treatment and procedural mishaps, medical equipment malfunctions, and close calls. The electronic system was purchased from a vendor in the United Kingdom that had implemented the system in the United Kingdom and other places, such as British Columbia. The main objective of the new system was to improve the reporting process with the goal of improving clinical safety. The project was funded jointly by Eastern Health and Canada Health Infoway. Objective The objectives of the evaluation were to: (1) assess the CSRS on achieving its stated objectives (particularly, the benefits realized and lessons learned), and (2) identify contributions, if any, that can be made to the emerging field of electronic clinical safety reporting. Methods The evaluation involved mixed methods, including extensive stakeholder participation, pre/post comparative study design, and triangulation of data where possible. The data were collected from several sources, such as project documentation, occurrence reporting records, stakeholder workshops, surveys, focus groups, and key informant interviews. Results The findings provided evidence that frontline staff and managers support the CSRS, identifying both benefits and areas for improvement. Many benefits were realized, such as increases in the number of occurrences reported, in occurrences reported within 48 hours, in occurrences reported by staff other than registered nurses, in close calls reported, and improved timelines for notification. There was also user satisfaction

  3. B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, D L; Fields, W F; Gittins, D E; Roberts, M L

    1998-08-01

    The Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (CAMS) in the Earth and Environmental Sciences Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operates two accelerators and is in the process of installing two new additional accelerators in support of a variety of basic and applied measurement programs. To monitor the radiation environment in the facility in which these accelerators are located and to terminate accelerator operations if predetermined radiation levels are exceeded, an updated computer controlled radiation monitoring system has been installed. This new system also monitors various machine safety interlocks and again terminates accelerator operations if machine interlocks are broken. This new system replaces an older system that was originally installed in 1988. This paper describes the updated B190 computer controlled radiation monitoring and safety interlock system.

  4. 30 CFR 7.103 - Safety system control test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety system control test. 7.103 Section 7.103... control test. (a) Test procedures. (1) Prior to testing, perform the tasks specified in § 7.101(a)(1) and... control that might interfere with the evaluation of the operation of the exhaust gas temperature...

  5. A System for Integrated Reliability and Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter; Shapiro, Gerald; Hanson, Dave; Kolitz, Stephan; Leong, Frank; Rosch, Gene; Coumeri, Marc; Scheidler, Peter, Jr.; Bonesteel, Charles

    1999-01-01

    We present an integrated reliability and aviation safety analysis tool. The reliability models for selected infrastructure components of the air traffic control system are described. The results of this model are used to evaluate the likelihood of seeing outcomes predicted by simulations with failures injected. We discuss the design of the simulation model, and the user interface to the integrated toolset.

  6. Certification of highly complex safety-related systems.

    PubMed

    Reinert, D; Schaefer, M

    1999-01-01

    The BIA has now 15 years of experience with the certification of complex electronic systems for safety-related applications in the machinery sector. Using the example of machining centres this presentation will show the systematic procedure for verifying and validating control systems using Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) and microcomputers for safety functions. One section will describe the control structure of machining centres with control systems using "integrated safety." A diverse redundant architecture combined with crossmonitoring and forced dynamization is explained. In the main section the steps of the systematic certification procedure are explained showing some results of the certification of drilling machines. Specification reviews, design reviews with test case specification, statistical analysis, and walk-throughs are the analytical measures in the testing process. Systematic tests based on the test case specification, Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI), and environmental testing, and site acceptance tests on the machines are the testing measures for validation. A complex software driven system is always undergoing modification. Most of the changes are not safety-relevant but this has to be proven. A systematic procedure for certifying software modifications is presented in the last section of the paper.

  7. Toxic Substances Registry System Index of Material Safety Data Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The July 1997 revision of the Index of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) is presented. The MSDS lists toxic substances by manufacturer, trade name, stock number, and distributor. The index provides information on hazards, use, and chemical composition of materials stored at KSC.

  8. Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-28

    Avation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) 40th Anniversary lunch and open house at the Sunnyvale office. Linda J. Connell, ASRS Program Director (Left); Thomas A Edwards, Deputy Center Director NASA Ames; Dr. John Lauber, Resident Scientist and pioneer of the ASRS at Ames from 1972-1985 (Right).

  9. Quality and safety of broiler meat in various chilling systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chilling is a critical step in poultry processing to attain high quality meat and to meet the USDA-FSIS temperature standards. This study was conducted to determine the effects of commercially available chilling systems on quality and safety of broiler meat. A total of 300 carcasses in two replica...

  10. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What makes up a safety...

  11. 33 CFR 96.220 - What makes up a safety management system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY VESSEL OPERATING REGULATIONS RULES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF VESSELS AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.220 What makes up a safety management system? (a) The... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What makes up a safety...

  12. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 250.804 - Production safety-system testing and records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Production safety-system testing and records. 250.804 Section 250.804 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.804 Production safety-system testing and records. (a)...

  14. 77 FR 52110 - Agency Response to Public Comments of Safety Measurement System Changes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    .... SMS quantifies on-road safety performance of carriers to identify the specific safety problems the... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Agency Response to Public Comments of Safety Measurement System Changes AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice; response to...

  15. Safety monitoring in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS)

    PubMed Central

    Shimabukuro, Tom T.; Nguyen, Michael; Martin, David; DeStefano, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conduct post-licensure vaccine safety monitoring using the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), a spontaneous (or passive) reporting system. This means that after a vaccine is approved, CDC and FDA continue to monitor safety while it is distributed in the marketplace for use by collecting and analyzing spontaneous reports of adverse events that occur in persons following vaccination. Various methods and statistical techniques are used to analyze VAERS data, which CDC and FDA use to guide further safety evaluations and inform decisions around vaccine recommendations and regulatory action. VAERS data must be interpreted with caution due to the inherent limitations of passive surveillance. VAERS is primarily a safety signal detection and hypothesis generating system. Generally, VAERS data cannot be used to determine if a vaccine caused an adverse event. VAERS data interpreted alone or out of context can lead to erroneous conclusions about cause and effect as well as the risk of adverse events occurring following vaccination. CDC makes VAERS data available to the public and readily accessible online. We describe fundamental vaccine safety concepts, provide an overview of VAERS for healthcare professionals who provide vaccinations and might want to report or better understand a vaccine adverse event, and explain how CDC and FDA analyze VAERS data. We also describe strengths and limitations, and address common misconceptions about VAERS. Information in this review will be helpful for healthcare professionals counseling patients, parents, and others on vaccine safety and benefit-risk balance of vaccination. PMID:26209838

  16. An approach for assessing ALWR passive safety system reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, T M

    1991-01-01

    Many advanced light water reactor designs incorporate passive rather than active safety features for front-line accident response. A method for evaluating the reliability of these passive systems in the context of probabilistic risk assessment has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories. This method addresses both the component (e.g. valve) failure aspect of passive system failure, and uncertainties in system success criteria arising from uncertainties in the system's underlying physical processes. These processes provide the system's driving force; examples are natural circulation and gravity-induced injection. This paper describes the method, and provides some preliminary results of application of the approach to the Westinghouse AP600 design.

  17. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-02-27

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel.

  18. Radiation safety system (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) Backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system insuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS Backbones control the safety fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low energy beam transport. The Backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the Backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two Linac Backbone segments and experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3,500 feet from beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The Backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  19. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J.E.; Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-10

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  1. Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones: Design, engineering, fabrication, and installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmarth, J. E.; Sturrock, J. C.; Gallegos, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    The Radiation Safety System (RSS) backbones are part of an electrical/electronic/mechanical system ensuring safe access and exclusion of personnel to areas at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) accelerator. The RSS backbones control the safety-fusible beam plugs which terminate transmission of accelerated ion beams in response to predefined conditions. Any beam or access fault of the backbone inputs will cause insertion of the beam plugs in the low-energy beam transport. The backbones serve the function of tying the beam plugs to the access control systems, beam spill monitoring systems and current-level limiting systems. In some ways the backbones may be thought of as a spinal column with beam plugs at the head and nerve centers along the spinal column. The two linac backbone segments and the experimental area segments form a continuous cable plant over 3500 feet from the beam plugs to the tip on the longest tail. The backbones were installed in compliance with current safety standards, such as installation of the two segments in separate conduits or tray. Monitoring for ground-faults and input wiring verification was an added enhancement to the system. The system has the capability to be tested remotely.

  2. Quality and Safety Implications of Emergency Department Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Heather L.; Baumlin, Kevin M.; Hamedani, Azita G.; Cheung, Dickson S.; Edwards, Michael R.; Fuller, Drew C.; Genes, Nicholas; Griffey, Richard T.; Kelly, John J.; McClay, James C.; Nielson, Jeff; Phelan, Michael P.; Shapiro, Jason S.; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne; Pines, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services “meaningful use” incentive programs, in tandem with the boundless additional requirements for detailed reporting of quality metrics, have galvanized hospital efforts to implement hospital-based electronic health records. As such, emergency department information systems (EDISs) are an important and unique component of most hospitals’ electronic health records. System functionality varies greatly and affects physician decisionmaking, clinician workflow, communication, and, ultimately, the overall quality of care and patient safety. This article is a joint effort by members of the Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Section and the Informatics Section of the American College of Emergency Physicians. The aim of this effort is to examine the benefits and potential threats to quality and patient safety that could result from the choice of a particular EDIS, its implementation and optimization, and the hospital’s or physician group’s approach to continuous improvement of the EDIS. Specifically, we explored the following areas of potential EDIS safety concerns: communication failure, wrong order–wrong patient errors, poor data display, and alert fatigue. Case studies are presented that illustrate the potential harm that could befall patients from an inferior EDIS product or suboptimal execution of such a product in the clinical environment. The authors have developed 7 recommendations to improve patient safety with respect to the deployment of EDISs. These include ensuring that emergency providers actively participate in selection of the EDIS product, in the design of processes related to EDIS implementation and optimization, and in the monitoring of the system’s ongoing success or failure. Our recommendations apply to emergency departments using any type of EDIS: custom-developed systems, best-of-breed vendor systems, or

  3. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  4. Lightning accommodation systems for wind turbine generator safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankaitis, H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind turbine safety program identifies the naturally occurring lightning phenomenon as a hazard with the potential to cause loss of program objectives, injure personnel, damage system instrumentation, structure or support equipment and facilities. Several candidate methods of lightning accommodation for each blade were designed, analyzed, and tested by submitting sample blade sections to simulated lightning. Lightning accommodation systems for composite blades were individually developed. Their effectiveness was evaluated by submitting the systems to simulated lightning strikes. The test data were analyzed and system designs were reviewed on the basis of the analysis. This activity is directed at defining design and procedural constraints, requirements for safety devices and warning methods, special procedures, protective equipment and personnel training.

  5. Potential safety benefits of intelligent cruise control systems.

    PubMed

    Chira-Chavala, T; Yoo, S M

    1994-04-01

    Potential safety impact of a hypothetical intelligent cruise control system (ICCS) is evaluated in terms of changes in traffic accidents and some traffic operation characteristics affecting safety. The analysis of changes in traffic accidents is accomplished by in-depth examinations of police accident reports for four major counties in California. The evaluation of changes in traffic operation characteristics affecting safety is accomplished by vehicle simulation. The accident analysis reveals that the use of the hypothetical ICCS could potentially reduce traffic accidents by up to 7.5%. Preliminary vehicle simulation results based on a 10-vehicle convoy indicate that the use of the hypothetical ICCS could reduce frequencies of hard acceleration and deceleration, enhance speed harmonization among vehicles, and reduce incidence of "less-safe" headway.

  6. A system safety approach to the FAA surveillance process

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, P.W.; Olson, D.R.

    1997-08-08

    As commercial air travel grows in terms of the number of passenger miles flown, there is expected to be a corresponding dramatic increase in the absolute number of accidents. This despite an enviable safety record and a very low accident rate. The political environment is such that an increase in the absolute number of accidents is not acceptable, with a stated goal of a factor of five reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate within ten years. The objective of this project is to develop an improved surveillance process that will provide measurements of the current state-of-health and predictions of future state of health of aircraft, operators, facilities, and personnel. Methodologies developed for nuclear weapon safety, in addition to more well known system safety and high-consequence engineering techniques, will be used in this approach.

  7. The elements of a commercial human spaceflight safety reporting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Ian

    2017-10-01

    In its report on the SpaceShipTwo accident the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) included in its recommendations that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ;in collaboration with the commercial spaceflight industry, continue work to implement a database of lessons learned from commercial space mishap investigations and encourage commercial space industry members to voluntarily submit lessons learned.; In its official response to the NTSB the FAA supported this recommendation and indicated it has initiated an iterative process to put into place a framework for a cooperative safety data sharing process including the sharing of lessons learned, and trends analysis. Such a framework is an important element of an overall commercial human spaceflight safety system.

  8. Internet of Things Based Combustible Ice Safety Monitoring System Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Enji

    2017-05-01

    As the development of human society, more energy is requires to meet the need of human daily lives. New energies play a significant role in solving the problems of serious environmental pollution and resources exhaustion in the present world. Combustible ice is essentially frozen natural gas, which can literally be lit on fire bringing a whole new meaning to fire and ice with less pollutant. This paper analysed the advantages and risks on the uses of combustible ice. By compare to other kinds of alternative energies, the advantages of the uses of combustible ice were concluded. The combustible ice basic physical characters and safety risks were analysed. The developments troubles and key utilizations of combustible ice were predicted in the end. A real-time safety monitoring system framework based on the internet of things (IOT) was built to be applied in the future mining, which provide a brand new way to monitoring the combustible ice mining safety.

  9. Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

  10. Functional Safety of Hybrid Laser Safety Systems - How can a Combination between Passive and Active Components Prevent Accidents?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugauer, F. P.; Stiehl, T. H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Modern laser systems are widely used in industry due to their excellent flexibility and high beam intensities. This leads to an increased hazard potential, because conventional laser safety barriers only offer a short protection time when illuminated with high laser powers. For that reason active systems are used more and more to prevent accidents with laser machines. These systems must fulfil the requirements of functional safety, e.g. according to IEC 61508, which causes high costs. The safety provided by common passive barriers is usually unconsidered in this context. In the presented approach, active and passive systems are evaluated from a holistic perspective. To assess the functional safety of hybrid safety systems, the failure probability of passive barriers is analysed and added to the failure probability of the active system.

  11. Safety Metrics for Human-Computer Controlled Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G; Hatanaka, Iwao

    2000-01-01

    The rapid growth of computer technology and innovation has played a significant role in the rise of computer automation of human tasks in modem production systems across all industries. Although the rationale for automation has been to eliminate "human error" or to relieve humans from manual repetitive tasks, various computer-related hazards and accidents have emerged as a direct result of increased system complexity attributed to computer automation. The risk assessment techniques utilized for electromechanical systems are not suitable for today's software-intensive systems or complex human-computer controlled systems.This thesis will propose a new systemic model-based framework for analyzing risk in safety-critical systems where both computers and humans are controlling safety-critical functions. A new systems accident model will be developed based upon modem systems theory and human cognitive processes to better characterize system accidents, the role of human operators, and the influence of software in its direct control of significant system functions Better risk assessments will then be achievable through the application of this new framework to complex human-computer controlled systems.

  12. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  13. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  14. Advanced Range Safety System for High Energy Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claxton, Jeffrey S.; Linton, Donald F.

    2002-01-01

    The advanced range safety system project is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the United States Air Force to develop systems that would reduce costs and schedule for safety approval for new classes of unmanned high-energy vehicles. The mission-planning feature for this system would yield flight profiles that satisfy the mission requirements for the user while providing an increased quality of risk assessment, enhancing public safety. By improving the speed and accuracy of predicting risks to the public, mission planners would be able to expand flight envelopes significantly. Once in place, this system is expected to offer the flexibility of handling real-time risk management for the high-energy capabilities of hypersonic vehicles including autonomous return-from-orbit vehicles and extended flight profiles over land. Users of this system would include mission planners of Space Launch Initiative vehicles, space planes, and other high-energy vehicles. The real-time features of the system could make extended flight of a malfunctioning vehicle possible, in lieu of an immediate terminate decision. With this improved capability, the user would have more time for anomaly resolution and potential recovery of a malfunctioning vehicle.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eunbi; Oh, Cheol

    2017-03-01

    Advanced vehicle safety systems have been widely introduced in transportation systems and are expected to enhance traffic safety. However, these technologies mainly focus on assisting individual vehicles that are equipped with them, and less effort has been made to identify the effect of vehicular technologies on the traffic stream. This study proposed a methodology to assess the effectiveness of active vehicle safety systems (AVSSs), which represent a promising technology to prevent traffic crashes and mitigate injury severity. The proposed AVSS consists of longitudinal and lateral vehicle control systems, which corresponds to the Level 2 vehicle automation presented by the National Highway Safety Administration (NHTSA). The effectiveness evaluation for the proposed technology was conducted in terms of crash potential reduction and congestion mitigation. A microscopic traffic simulator, VISSIM, was used to simulate freeway traffic stream and collect vehicle-maneuvering data. In addition, an external application program interface, VISSIM's COM-interface, was used to implement the AVSS. A surrogate safety assessment model (SSAM) was used to derive indirect safety measures to evaluate the effectiveness of the AVSS. A 16.7-km freeway stretch between the Nakdong and Seonsan interchanges on Korean freeway 45 was selected for the simulation experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of AVSS. A total of five simulation runs for each evaluation scenario were conducted. For the non-incident conditions, the rear-end and lane-change conflicts were reduced by 78.8% and 17.3%, respectively, under the level of service (LOS) D traffic conditions. In addition, the average delay was reduced by 55.5%. However, the system's effectiveness was weakened in the LOS A-C categories. Under incident traffic conditions, the number of rear-end conflicts was reduced by approximately 9.7%. Vehicle delays were reduced by approximately 43.9% with 100% of market penetration rate (MPR). These results

  16. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 1: base nuclear system safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The mission and terrestrial nuclear safety aspects of future long duration manned space missions in low earth orbit are discussed. Nuclear hazards of a typical low earth orbit Space Base mission (from natural sources and on-board nuclear hardware) have been identified and evaluated. Some of the principal nuclear safety design and procedural considerations involved in launch, orbital, and end of mission operations are presented. Areas of investigation include radiation interactions with the crew, subsystems, facilities, experiments, film, interfacing vehicles, nuclear hardware and the terrestrial populace. Results of the analysis indicate: (1) the natural space environment can be the dominant radiation source in a low earth orbit where reactors are effectively shielded, (2) with implementation of safety guidelines the reactor can present a low risk to the crew, support personnel, the terrestrial populace, flight hardware and the mission, (3) ten year missions are feasible without exceeding integrated radiation limits assigned to flight hardware, and (4) crew stay-times up to one year are feasible without storm shelter provisions.

  17. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  18. A systems-based food safety evaluation: an experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Charles L; Hartfield, Barry S

    2004-11-01

    Food establishments are complex systems with inputs, subsystems, underlying forces that affect the system, outputs, and feedback. Building on past exploration of the hazard analysis critical control point concept and Ludwig von Bertalanffy General Systems Theory, the National Park Service (NPS) is attempting to translate these ideas into a realistic field assessment of food service establishments and to use information gathered by these methods in efforts to improve food safety. Over the course of the last two years, an experimental systems-based methodology has been drafted, developed, and tested by the NPS Public Health Program. This methodology is described in this paper.

  19. [New developments in the occupational safety and health management system].

    PubMed

    Kondo, Michisuke

    2004-09-01

    The occupational safety and health management system(OSHMS)has been introduced into many companies and factories in Japan. However, there are certain factories that are considering the introduction of OSHMS, while other factories are not interested in it. In the factories which have introduced OSHMS, occupational health activities are still insufficient. Passage by which OSHMS was introduced into Japan and a basic way to advance OSHMS is described in this paper. In addition, for OSHMS to spread to many companies in the future, and to achieve good results, the themes and prospects which should be examined are described. The themes shown in this paper are as follows: risk assessment, revision of the law and regulation, system auditing, individual management of safety and health rules, evaluation of the low concentration exposure influence, appropriate job suitability system, training of the expert, the support organization, supporting small and medium-sized scale factories.

  20. Analysis of developed transition road safety barrier systems.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Mehrtash; Moghaddam, Taher Baghaee; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Sulong, N H Ramli

    2013-10-01

    Road safety barriers protect vehicles from roadside hazards by redirecting errant vehicles in a safe manner as well as providing high levels of safety during and after impact. This paper focused on transition safety barrier systems which were located at the point of attachment between a bridge and roadside barriers. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the behavior of transition systems located at upstream bridge rail with different designs and performance levels. Design factors such as occupant risk and vehicle trajectory for different systems were collected and compared. To achieve this aim a comprehensive database was developed using previous studies. The comparison showed that Test 3-21, which is conducted by impacting a pickup truck with speed of 100 km/h and angle of 25° to transition system, was the most severe test. Occupant impact velocity and ridedown acceleration for heavy vehicles were lower than the amounts for passenger cars and pickup trucks, and in most cases higher occupant lateral impact ridedown acceleration was observed on vehicles subjected to higher levels of damage. The best transition system was selected to give optimum performance which reduced occupant risk factors using the similar crashes in accordance with Test 3-21.

  1. Toward the modelling of safety violations in healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Ken

    2013-09-01

    When frontline staff do not adhere to policies, protocols, or checklists, managers often regard these violations as indicating poor practice or even negligence. More often than not, however, these policy and protocol violations reflect the efforts of well intentioned professionals to carry out their work efficiently in the face of systems poorly designed to meet the diverse demands of patient care. Thus, non-compliance with institutional policies and protocols often signals a systems problem, rather than a people problem, and can be influenced among other things by training, competing goals, context, process, location, case complexity, individual beliefs, the direct or indirect influence of others, job pressure, flexibility, rule definition, and clinician-centred design. Three candidates are considered for developing a model of safety behaviour and decision making. The dynamic safety model helps to understand the relationship between systems designs and human performance. The theory of planned behaviour suggests that intention is a function of attitudes, social norms and perceived behavioural control. The naturalistic decision making paradigm posits that decisions are based on a wider view of multiple patients, expertise, systems complexity, behavioural intention, individual beliefs and current understanding of the system. Understanding and predicting behavioural safety decisions could help us to encourage compliance to current processes and to design better interventions.

  2. [Research on infrared safety protection system for machine tool].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuan-Ji; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Yan, Hui-Ying; Wang, Song-De

    2008-04-01

    In order to ensure personal safety and prevent injury accident in machine tool operation, an infrared machine tool safety system was designed with infrared transmitting-receiving module, memory self-locked relay and voice recording-playing module. When the operator does not enter the danger area, the system has no response. Once the operator's whole or part of body enters the danger area and shades the infrared beam, the system will alarm and output an control signal to the machine tool executive element, and at the same time, the system makes the machine tool emergency stop to prevent equipment damaged and person injured. The system has a module framework, and has many advantages including safety, reliability, common use, circuit simplicity, maintenance convenience, low power consumption, low costs, working stability, easy debugging, vibration resistance and interference resistance. It is suitable for being installed and used in different machine tools such as punch machine, pour plastic machine, digital control machine, armor plate cutting machine, pipe bending machine, oil pressure machine etc.

  3. Safety integrity requirements for computer based I&C systems

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, N.N.Q.; Ficheux-Vapne, F.

    1997-12-01

    In order to take into account increasingly demanding functional requirements, many instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants are implemented with computers. In order to ensure the required safety integrity of such equipment, i.e., to ensure that they satisfactorily perform the required safety functions under all stated conditions and within stated periods of time, requirements applicable to these equipment and to their life cycle need to be expressed and followed. On the other hand, the experience of the last years has led EDF (Electricite de France) and its partners to consider three classes of systems and equipment, according to their importance to safety. In the EPR project (European Pressurized water Reactor), these classes are labeled E1A, E1B and E2. The objective of this paper is to present the outline of the work currently done in the framework of the ETC-I (EPR Technical Code for I&C) regarding safety integrity requirements applicable to each of the three classes. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Tainted blood: Probing safety practices in the Danish blood system.

    PubMed

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-09-01

    The existing literature on donor screening in transfusion medicine tends to distinguish between social concerns about discrimination and medical concerns about safety. In this article, we argue that the bifurcation into social and medical concerns is problematic. We build our case on a qualitative study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. 33 CFR 96.230 - What objectives must a safety management system meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS Company and Vessel Safety Management Systems § 96.230 What objectives must a safety management system meet? The safety management system must: (a) Provide for safe practices in vessel operation... management system meet? 96.230 Section 96.230 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  6. 77 FR 69899 - Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... SAFETY BOARD Public Conference on Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Transportation Safety The National Transportation Safety Board will hold a public conference on the use of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in transportation safety on December 4-5, 2012. GIS is a rapidly expanding group...

  7. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  8. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  9. European Workshop Industrical Computer Science Systems approach to design for safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalewski, Janusz

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines on designing systems for safety, developed by the Technical Committee 7 on Reliability and Safety of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems. The focus is on complementing the traditional development process by adding the following four steps: (1) overall safety analysis; (2) analysis of the functional specifications; (3) designing for safety; (4) validation of design. Quantitative assessment of safety is possible by means of a modular questionnaire covering various aspects of the major stages of system development.

  10. Quantifying Pilot Contribution to Flight Safety during Hydraulic Systems Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Etherington, Timothy J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Kennedy, Kellie D.

    2017-01-01

    Accident statistics cite the flight crew as a causal factor in over 60% of large transport aircraft fatal accidents. Yet, a well-trained and well-qualified pilot is acknowledged as the critical center point of aircraft systems safety and an integral safety component of the entire commercial aviation system. The latter statement, while generally accepted, cannot be verified because little or no quantitative data exists on how and how many accidents/incidents are averted by crew actions. A joint NASA/FAA high-fidelity motion-base human-in-the-loop test was conducted using a Level D certified Boeing 737-800 simulator to evaluate the pilot's contribution to safety-of-flight during routine air carrier flight operations and in response to aircraft system failures. To quantify the human's contribution, crew complement (two-crew, reduced crew, single pilot) was used as the independent variable in a between-subjects design. This paper details the crew's actions, including decision-making, and responses while dealing with a hydraulic systems leak - one of 6 total non-normal events that were simulated in this experiment.

  11. Identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks for advanced light-water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is investigating passive and inherent safety options for Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs). A major activity in 1989 includes identification and characterization of passive safety system and inherent safety feature building blocks, both existing and proposed, for ALWRs. Preliminary results of this work are reported herein. This activity is part of a larger effort by the US Department of Energy, reactor vendors, utilities, and others in the United States to develop improved LWRs. The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) program and the Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (APWR) program have as goals improved, commercially available LWRs in the early 1990s. The Advanced Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ASBWR) program and the AP-600 program are developing more advanced reactors with increased use of passive safety systems. It is planned that these reactors will become commercially available in the mid 1990s. The ORNL program is an exploratory research program for LWRs beyond the year 2000. Desired long-term goals for such reactors include: (1) use of only passive and inherent safety, (2) foolproof against operator errors, (3) malevolence resistance against internal sabotage and external assault and (4) walkaway safety. The acronym ''PRIME'' (Passive safety, Resilient operation, Inherent safety, Malevolence resistance, and Extended (walkaway) safety) is used to summarize these desired characteristics. Existing passive and inherent safety options are discussed in this document.

  12. Rearrangement of boundary, stand-by, and fluid lipids during the formation of two-dimensional crystals of Ca 2+-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakonyi, G.; Dux, L.; Horváth, L. I.

    1999-05-01

    Ca 2+-transport ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal and carp abdominal muscle is essential for the removal of large amounts of Ca 2+ ions during the relaxation of the muscle. As in the case of other lipid-protein systems, fluid lipid and motionally restricted boundary lipid sites lead to multicomponent spin label EPR spectra. Having subtracted the dominating fluid component a two-component lineshape is recovered as a subtraction endpoint, suggesting the presence of a third, motionally less restricted stand-by lipid shell as fraction of boundary lipids. On adding 5 mM decavanadate the phosphate binding site is blocked and the protein dimers form a two dimensional array, at least in the case of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit. During two-dimensional crystal formation of rabbit Ca 2+-ATPase an increase of lipids was found in boundary and stand-by shells. No such change was observed in the case of the sarcoplasmic reticulum of carp abdominal muscle.

  13. Operating Standby Redundant Controller to Improve Voltage Source Inverter Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    was built with two FPGAs programmed using XILINX System Generator and ISE foundation with a discrete algorithm representing the controller...additions to SIMULINK that generate the VHDL code required to load the design on the FPGA while the SIMULINK blocks provided a mathematical representation...that generated the code for the FPGA and the SIMULINK blocks that simulated the behavior of the external elements in the hardware, is shown in Figure 23

  14. True patient safety begins at the top. Leaders at one large health system rally around safety, avoid blame game.

    PubMed

    White, J P; Ketring, S D

    2001-01-01

    Making patient safety the No. 1 priority at a hospital or clinic sounds like a easy task. It isn't. At one Oklahoma health system, an improved patient safety program is a massive effort requiring input and participation from every member of the staff. Figuring out how to convince employees that patient safety is their first priority means developing an extensive communication and education program.

  15. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 3: Reactor system preliminary nuclear safety analysis. Part 1: Reference Design Document (RDD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Reference Design Document, of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) - Reactor System provides the basic design and operations data used in the nuclear safety analysis of the Rector Power Module as applied to a Space Base program. A description of the power module systems, facilities, launch vehicle and mission operations, as defined in NASA Phase A Space Base studies is included. Each of two Zirconium Hydride Reactor Brayton power modules provides 50 kWe for the nominal 50 man Space Base. The INT-21 is the prime launch vehicle. Resupply to the 500 km orbit over the ten year mission is provided by the Space Shuttle. At the end of the power module lifetime (nominally five years), a reactor disposal system is deployed for boost into a 990 km high altitude (long decay time) earth orbit.

  16. 77 FR 11120 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From UAB Health System Patient Safety...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary... Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (Patient Safety Act), Public Law 109... analyze confidential information regarding the quality and safety of health care delivery. The Patient...

  17. Simulation of the modified K reactor supplementary safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, I.K.; Canas, L.R. ); Peterson, P.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The supplementary safety system (SSS) of the K reactor provides a second line of defense to shut down the reactor if the safety and control rods fail to scram. The SSS was originally designed to inject a neutron poison solution (ink) into the reactor tank via spargers. Recently, concerns arose that the ink inventory might run out before the ink front returned to the moderator during a loss-of-ac-power transient in which the coolant pumps coast down. Thus, a new system has been added to inject additional ink through the pump suctions so that ink will arrive in the core before depletion of the sparger ink. The MODFLOW code was developed to calculate the moderator flow distribution in Savannah River site (SRS) reactors, including the effects of inertia and stratification from buoyancy forces.

  18. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  19. Could changes in the wheelchair delivery system improve safety?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, R L; Coughlan, S G; Christie, M

    1995-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of wheelchair-related injuries, regulations governing wheelchair safety are almost nonexistent in Canada. The authors believe that, to improve wheelchair safety, a concerted effort by government, manufacturers, purchasing groups, users and clinicians is needed. Health Canada's Health Protection Branch should treat wheelchairs as medical devices (as defined in the Food and Drugs Act 1985) and improve its injury-reporting network. Manufacturers should give a higher priority to safety in wheelchair design, improve their educational materials and formalize postmarketing surveillance. Purchasing groups should try to ensure that they do not stifle innovation in wheelchair design by setting unrealistic reimbursement ceilings and should use their market power more effectively. Users should obtain their wheelchairs in specialized settings, heed safety warnings and make more effective use of litigation when such action is warranted. Clinicians should ensure that patients are equipped with the most appropriate wheelchair for their needs, that they are given adequate training in safe wheelchair use and that they understand the dangers involved. Rapid changes in wheelchair technology and emerging evidence about the high incidence and severity of injuries related to wheelchair use suggest that such changes are needed in the wheelchair delivery system. PMID:7489551

  20. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  1. Toxic Substances Registry System. Index of Material Safety Data Sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The October 1994 revision of the KSC Toxic Substances Registry System (TSRS) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSD's) is presented. The listed MSD's which were submitted to the TSRS are maintained by the Base Operations Contractors of the Biomedical Operations and Research Office of KSC. The purpose of the index is to provide a means of accessing information on the hazards associated with the toxic and otherwise hazardous chemicals stored and used at KSC. Indices are provided for manufacturers, trademarks, and stock numbers.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    SciTech Connect

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  3. Safety Analysis of Heterogeneous-Multiprocessor Control System Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California LD 00 N I DTIC G OE ECTE THESIS SAFETY ANALYSIS OF HETEROGENEOUS-MULTPROCESSOR CONTROL SYSTEM SOFTWARE...NAMEOFMONIURING ORGANIZATION Naval Postgraduate School (If Applicable) Naval Postgraduae- -- School 37 _ • 6c- ADDRESS (city, state, and ZIP code) 7b. ADDRESS...partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December, 1990

  4. The Art World's Concept of Negative Space Applied to System Safety Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodin, Ronnie

    2005-12-01

    Tools from several different disciplines can improve system safety management. This paper relates the Art World with our system safety world showing useful art schools of thought applied to system safety management; developing an art theory- system safety bridge. This bridge is then used to demonstrate relations with risk management, the legal system, personnel management and basic management (establishing priorities.) One goal of this presentation/paper is simply to be a fun diversion from the many technical topics presented during the conference.

  5. Safety Protection of Series Connected Hybrid Cryogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hongyu; Bird, Mark D.; Bole, Scott T.; Cantrell, Kurtis R.; Dixon, Iain R.; Gavrilin, Andrew V.; Painter, Thomas A.; Xu, Ting

    2010-04-01

    Two Series Connected Hybrid (SCH) magnets are under construction at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In the SCH system, consisting of a resistive insert and a superconducting outsert, the outsert superconducting coil is wound with Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) and cooled with forced-flow supercritical helium at 4.5 K. The forced-flow helium is supplied from a helium refrigerator. In the design of the cryogenic system for the series-connected hybrid, the possible failure of the magnet system should be considered and the cryogenic system should be safely protected in the event of failure. In the SCH system, a protected quench of the superconducting magnet, a loss of vacuum in the cryostat and an unprotected quench were analyzed. Active venting valves, safety valves and burst disks are used for the protection of the cryogenic system and cryostat in the case of the occurrence of failure modes. The design of the safety protection system and the analysis results in the failure modes are discussed.

  6. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Michael J.

    2005-12-01

    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  7. Software Reliability Issues Concerning Large and Safety Critical Software Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Khaled; Brown, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    This research was undertaken to provide NASA with a survey of state-of-the-art techniques using in industrial and academia to provide safe, reliable, and maintainable software to drive large systems. Such systems must match the complexity and strict safety requirements of NASA's shuttle system. In particular, the Launch Processing System (LPS) is being considered for replacement. The LPS is responsible for monitoring and commanding the shuttle during test, repair, and launch phases. NASA built this system in the 1970's using mostly hardware techniques to provide for increased reliability, but it did so often using custom-built equipment, which has not been able to keep up with current technologies. This report surveys the major techniques used in industry and academia to ensure reliability in large and critical computer systems.

  8. A novel standby mode detection scheme with light load efficiency improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiajun; Chen, Houpeng; Wang, Qian; Li, Xi; Fan, Xi; Miao, Jie; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    A novel standby mode scheme with light load efficiency improvement is proposed in this paper, which is especially suitable for modern boost dc-dc converters powered by Li-ion battery. The proposed output load estimator is able to accurately reflect the output load current under light load condition once inductor current enters in the discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). Our experimental results show that the proposed boost dc-dc converter can automatically select approximate PWM switching frequency according to the detected information of the proposed output load estimator, regardless of power supply and inductor value.

  9. Portable tritium recovery system (TRS) operational readiness check

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1996-04-01

    The Portable Tritium Recovery System (PTRS) will be used as a standby system to assist in the ongoing tritium decontamination effort. The purpose of the Operational Readiness Check (ORC) is to ensure that the PTRS is consistent with current environmental, safety and health requirements. Basic operation of the system is described. Hazards associated with the PTRS are defined and necessary training is listed. The project manager will verify the evidence of readiness and generate the closure report. A preventive change analysis (PCA) is discussed and a checklist of required activities and organizational responsibility is given.

  10. National Safety Council

    MedlinePlus

    ... Introduction Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ... Safety Safety Management Systems Workplace Safety Consulting Employee Perception Surveys Research Journey to Safety Excellence Join the ...

  11. Manned space flight nuclear system safety. Volume 4: Space shuttle nuclear system transportation. Part 1: Space shuttle nuclear safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of the nuclear safety aspects (design and operational considerations) in the transport of nuclear payloads to and from earth orbit by the space shuttle is presented. Three representative nuclear payloads used in the study were: (1) the zirconium hydride reactor Brayton power module, (2) the large isotope Brayton power system and (3) small isotopic heat sources which can be a part of an upper stage or part of a logistics module. Reference data on the space shuttle and nuclear payloads are presented in an appendix. Safety oriented design and operational requirements were identified to integrate the nuclear payloads in the shuttle mission. Contingency situations were discussed and operations and design features were recommended to minimize the nuclear hazards. The study indicates the safety, design and operational advantages in the use of a nuclear payload transfer module. The transfer module can provide many of the safety related support functions (blast and fragmentation protection, environmental control, payload ejection) minimizing the direct impact on the shuttle.

  12. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  13. Evaluating Models of Human Performance: Safety-Critical Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is part of panel discussion on Evaluating Models of Human Performance. The purpose of this panel is to discuss the increasing use of models in the world today and specifically focus on how to describe and evaluate models of human performance. My presentation will focus on discussions of generating distributions of performance, and the evaluation of different strategies for humans performing tasks with mixed initiative (Human-Automation) systems. I will also discuss issues with how to provide Human Performance modeling data to support decisions on acceptability and tradeoffs in the design of safety critical systems. I will conclude with challenges for the future.

  14. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  15. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John Alton

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  16. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    SciTech Connect

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  17. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hathout, A M; Westfall, R M; Dodds, Jr, H L

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO/sub 2/ fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments.

  18. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  19. Safety inspections in construction sites: A systems thinking perspective.

    PubMed

    Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2016-08-01

    Although safety inspections carried out by government officers are important for the prevention of accidents, there is little in-depth knowledge on their outcomes and processes leading to these. This research deals with this gap by using systems thinking (ST) as a lens for obtaining insights into safety inspections in construction sites. Thirteen case studies of sites with prohibited works were carried out, discussing how four attributes of ST were used in the inspections. The studies were undertaken over 6 years, and sources of evidence involved participant observation, direct observations, analysis of documents and interviews. Two complementary ways for obtaining insights into inspections, based on ST, were identified: (i) the design of the study itself needs to be in line with ST; and (ii) data collection and analysis should focus on the agents involved in the inspections, the interactions between agents, the constraints and opportunities faced by agents, the outcomes of interactions, and the recommendations for influencing interactions.

  20. 76 FR 55829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL02 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Electronic Stability Control Systems AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... changes to a new Federal motor vehicle safety standard requiring light vehicles to be equipped with...