Science.gov

Sample records for star study nct00237913

  1. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  2. Observational studies of roAp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2014-11-01

    Rapidly oscillating Ap (roAp) stars are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators that are also chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. Until recently the classical asteroseismic analysis i.e. frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through access to uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from MOST, COROT and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years the study of roAp stars has been altered drastically from an observational point of view through studies of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsational characteristics, caused by an interplay between the short vertical lengths of the pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper I review the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars.

  3. Theoretical Study of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; Koetter, Ted; Rivera, Ruben; Diaz, Juan

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the computational simulation of the astrophysical phenomena with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.0 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We hope to extend our computational studies to blue giant stars in the future. Research Supported by National Science Foundation.

  4. The Center for Star Formation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D.; Bell, K. R.; Laughlin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Center for Star Formation Studies, a consortium of scientists from the Space Science Division at Ames and the Astronomy Departments of the University of California at Berkeley and Santa Cruz, conducts a coordinated program of theoretical research on star and planet formation. Under the directorship of D. Hollenbach (Ames), the Center supports postdoctoral fellows, senior visitors, and students; meets regularly at Ames to exchange ideas and to present informal seminars on current research; hosts visits of outside scientists; and conducts a week-long workshop on selected aspects of star and planet formation each summer.

  5. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    , by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, presumably

  6. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  7. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  8. Study of pulsations of chemically peculiar a stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly oscillating chemically peculiar A stars (roAp) pulsate in high-overtone, low degree p-modes and form a sub-group of chemically peculiar magnetic A stars (Ap). Until recently, the classical asteroseismic research, i.e., frequency analysis, of these stars was based on photometric observations both ground-based and space-based. Significant progress has been achieved by obtaining uninterrupted, ultra-high precision data from the MOST, COROT, and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years, a real breakthrough was achieved in the study of roAp stars due to the time-resolved, high spectral resolution spectroscopic observations. Unusual pulsational characteristics of these stars, caused by the interaction between propagating pulsationwaves and strong stratification of chemical elements, provide an opportunity to study the upper roAp star atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star but the Sun, using spectroscopic data. In this paper the results of recent pulsation studies of these stars are reviewed.

  9. Externally fed star formation: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Motahareh; Stahler, Steven W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate, through a series of numerical calculations, the evolution of dense cores that are accreting external gas up to and beyond the point of star formation. Our model clouds are spherical, unmagnetized configurations with fixed outer boundaries, across which gas enters subsonically. When we start with any near-equilibrium state, we find that the cloud's internal velocity also remains subsonic for an extended period, in agreement with observations. However, the velocity becomes supersonic shortly before the star forms. Consequently, the accretion rate building up the protostar is much greater than the benchmark value c_s^3/G, where cs is the sound speed in the dense core. This accretion spike would generate a higher luminosity than those seen in even the most embedded young stars. Moreover, we find that the region of supersonic infall surrounding the protostar races out to engulf much of the cloud, again in violation of the observations, which show infall to be spatially confined. Similar problematic results have been obtained by all other hydrodynamic simulations to date, regardless of the specific infall geometry or boundary conditions adopted. Low-mass star formation is evidently a quasi-static process, in which cloud gas moves inward subsonically until the birth of the star itself. We speculate that magnetic tension in the cloud's deep interior helps restrain the infall prior to this event.

  10. Radial velocity studies of cool stars.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh R A; Barnes, John; Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2014-04-28

    Our current view of exoplanets is one derived primarily from solar-like stars with a strong focus on understanding our Solar System. Our knowledge about the properties of exoplanets around the dominant stellar population by number, the so-called low-mass stars or M dwarfs, is much more cursory. Based on radial velocity discoveries, we find that the semi-major axis distribution of M dwarf planets appears to be broadly similar to those around more massive stars and thus formation and migration processes might be similar to heavier stars. However, we find that the mass of M dwarf planets is relatively much lower than the expected mass dependency based on stellar mass and thus infer that planet formation efficiency around low-mass stars is relatively impaired. We consider techniques to overcome the practical issue of obtaining good quality radial velocity data for M dwarfs despite their faintness and sustained activity and emphasize (i) the wavelength sensitivity of radial velocity signals, (ii) the combination of radial velocity data from different experiments for robust detection of small amplitude signals, and (iii) the selection of targets and radial velocity interpretation of late-type M dwarfs should consider Hα behaviour.

  11. Quantitative Study of Blue Stars in NGC 55

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, N.; Herrero, A.; Urbaneja, M. A.; García, M.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Bresolin, F.; Pietrzynski, G.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Gieren, W.

    2012-12-01

    Massive blue stars are the rarest in number compared with other stars; however, they are the main engines in the chemical and dynamical evolution of galaxies in the Universe. They are also among the brightest stars, making it possible to be observed (and hence studied) beyond the edges of the Milky Way. In the case of the galaxy NGC 55 (1.9 Mpc), presented in this work, it has been not only possible to provide the first census of massive blue stars, but also perform a fully characterization of these stars, including the stellar parameters, the chemical abundances, and information about their evolutionary stages. Even so, that permitted to derive important properties of the host galaxy. This challenging study is based on an objective and fast automatic technique built upon a new state-of-the-art FASTWIND atmosphere model grid. Both the tool and the grid were specially developed for this project.

  12. A window on first-stars models from studies of dwarf galaxies and galactic halo stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, Aparna

    2018-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies dominate the local universe by number and are predicted to be even more dominant at early times, with many having large star formation rates per unit mass. The cosmological role of dwarf galaxies in the metal enrichment and the reionization of the universe is an important but unresolved problem at present. Nearby low-mass galaxies are much more accessible observationally for detailed study and may be local analogs of the types of galaxies that hosted the first-light sources relevant for reionization. I will share recent results on UV studies of the escaping radiation from nearby low-mass starforming galaxies, as well as the tantalizing similarities in element abundance patterns between local dwarf galaxies and the latest data compilations on extremely metal-poor stars in galactic halos. I will highlight trends of interest in a variety of individual elements at values of [Fe/H] between -7 and -3, including alpha-elements, elements originating mostly in intermediate-mass stars, lithium, titanium, and r-process elements. These trends constrain not only models of the first stars and their supernovae, but provide a window into the physical conditions in early galaxies and when metal-free star formation may have ceased in the early universe.This work was supported by the University of San Francisco Faculty Development Fund, and NSF grant AST-1637339. We thank the Aspen Center for Physics, where some of this work was conducted, and which is supported by National Science Foundation grant PHY-1607611.

  13. Study of exoplanets host stars with VEGA/CHARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, R.; Mourard, D.; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Perraut, Karine; Tallon-Bosc, I.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the understanding of extrasolar systems, the study of host stars is a fundamental point. We need to understand the link between them and the presence of companions, i.e. what makes a star becoming a host star. In this perspective, we used the instrument called VEGA, situated at Mount Wilson (California) on the CHARA array to perform optical interferometric measurements. Interferometry at visible wavelengths allows reaching very high spatial frequencies well adapted for very small (less than 1 millisecond of arc) angular diameters. Therefore, we can access limb darkening measurements which is one of the very few directly measurable constraints on the structure of the atmosphere of a star. From this we can derive stars fundamental parameters. A precise measurement within spectral lines is also a very powerful tool to study the temperature and density structure of the atmosphere of distant stars. Besides, the detection of exoplanets is also related to this method. Combined with the radial velocity method and the transit method, one can study the atmosphere of exoplanets and learn more about their internal structure. We started a large program of observations made of 40 stars hosting exoplanets and observable by VEGA/CHARA. We will measure their limb darkened diameters and derive their parameters. We also aim at better understanding stellar noise sources like spots, and study surface brightness relationships.

  14. A Statistical Study on Neutron Star Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Z.; Zhang, C. M.; Zhao, Y. H.; Wang, D. H.; Pan, Y. Y.; Lei, Y. J.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the measurement of neutron star masses in different population of binaries. Based on the collection of the orbital parameters of 40 systems (46 sources), we apply the boot-strap method together with the Monte Carlo method to reconstruct the likelihood curves for each source separately. The cumulative analysis of the simulation result shows that the neutron star masses in X-ray systems and radio systems obey different distributions, and no evidence for the bimodal distribution could be found. Employing the Bayesian statistical techniques, we find that the most likely distributions for the high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), double neutron star (DNS) systems, and neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binary systems are (1.340±0.230) M_{⊙}, (1.505±0.125) M_{⊙}, (1.335±0.055) M_{⊙}, and (1.495±0.225) M_{⊙}, respectively. The statistical distribution has no significant deviation from the standard neutron star formation mechanism. It is noticed that the statistical results of the center masses of LMXBs and NS-WD systems are significantly higher than the other groups by about 0.16 M_{⊙}, which could be regarded as the evidence of accretion episodes. And if we regard the HMXBs and LMXBs as the progenitors of DNS and NS-WD systems, then we can draw the conclusion that the accretion effect must be very week during the evolution trajectory from HMXBs to DNS systems, and this could be the reason why the masses of DNS systems have such a narrow distribution.

  15. High-Precision Studies of Compact Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This book, which is a reworked and updated version of Steven Bloemen's original PhD thesis, reports on several high-precision studies of compact variable stars. Its strength lies in the large variety of observational, theoretical and instrumentation techniques that are presented and used and paves the way towards new and detailed asteroseismic applications of single and binary subdwarf stars. Close binary stars are studied using high cadence spectroscopic datasets collected with state of the art electron multiplying CCDs and analysed using Doppler tomography visualization techniques. The work touches upon instrumentation, presenting the calibration of a new fast, multi-colour camera installed at the Mercator Telescope on La Palma. The thesis also includes theoretical work on the computation of the temperature range in which stellar oscillations can be driven in subdwarf B-stars. Finally, the highlight of the thesis is the measurement of velocities of stars using only photometric data from NASA's Kepler satellite. Doppler beaming causes stars to appear slightly brighter when they move towards us in their orbits, and this subtle effect can be seen in Kepler's brightness measurements. The thesis presents the first validation of such velocity measurements using independent spectroscopic measurements. Since the detection and validation of this Doppler beaming effect, it has been used in tens of studies to detect and characterize binary star systems, which are key calibrators in stellar astronomy.

  16. Polarization and studies of evolved star mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Sundar; Riebel, David; Meixner, Margaret

    2012-05-01

    Polarization studies of astronomical dust have proven very useful in constraining its properties. Such studies are used to constrain the spatial arrangement, shape, composition, and optical properties of astronomical dust grains. Here we explore possible connections between astronomical polarization observations to our studies of mass loss from evolved stars. We are studying evolved star mass loss in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by using photometry from the Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy program. We use the radiative transfer program 2Dust to create our Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch ModelS (GRAMS), in order to model this mass loss. To model emission of polarized light from evolved stars, however, we appeal to other radiative transfer codes. We probe how polarization observations might be used to constrain the dust shell and dust grain properties of the samples of evolved stars we are studying.

  17. The Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR): Questions and Answers

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) clinical trial, which is comparing the drug raloxifene (Evista®) with the drug tamoxifen (Nolvadex®) in reducing the incidence of breast cancer in at-risk postmenopausal women.

  18. STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward

    The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

  19. Submillimeter studies of main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Becklin, E. E.

    1993-01-01

    JCMT maps of the 800-micron emission from Vega, Fomalhaut, and Beta Pictoris are interpreted to indicate that they are not ringed by large reservoirs of distant orbiting dust particles that are too cold to have been detected by IRAS. A search for 800-micron emission from stars in the Pleiades and Ursa Majoris open clusters is reported. In comparison with the mass of dust particles near T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars, the JCMT data indicate a decline in dust mass during the initial 3 x 10 exp 8 yr that a star spends on the main sequence that is at least as rapid as (time) exp -2. It is estimated that in the Kuiper belt the ratio of total mass carried by small particles to that carried by comets is orders of magnitude smaller than this ratio is 1 AU from the sun. If 800-micron opacities calculated by Pollack et al. (1993) are correct, then the particles with radii less than 100 microns that dominate the FIR fluxes measured by IRAS cannot entirely account for the measured 800-micron fluxes at Vega, Beta Pic, and Fomalhaut; larger particles must be present as well.

  20. A multiwavelength study of young stars in the Elephant Trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Martí, B.; Bayo, A.; Morales Calderón, M.; Barrado, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength study of young stars in IC 1396A, ``the Elephant Trunk Nebula''. Our targets are selected combining optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry. Near-infrared and optical spectroscopy are used to confirm their youth and to derive spectral types for these objects, showing that they are early to mid-M stars, and that our sample includes some of the lowest-mass objects reported so far in the region. The photometric and spectroscopic information is used to construct the spectral energy distributions and to study the properties of the stars (mass, age, accretion, disks, spatial location). The implications for the triggered star formation picture are discussed.

  1. Lucky imaging multiplicity studies of exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-03-01

    The multiplicity of stars is an important parameter in order to understand star and planet formation. In the past decades extrasolar planets have been discovered around more than 600 stars with the radial velocity and transit techniques. Many of these systems present extreme cases of massive planetary objects at very close separations to their primary stars. To explain the configurations of such systems is hence a continued challenge in the development of formation theories. It will be very interesting to determine if there are significant differences between planets in single and multiple star systems. In our ongoing study we use high resolution imaging techniques to clarify the multiplicity status of nearby (within 250 pc) planet host stars. For targets on the northern hemisphere we employ the lucky imaging instrument Astralux at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. The lucky imaging approach consists of taking several thousand short images with integration times shorter than the speckle coherence time, to sample the speckle variations during the observation window. We then only choose the so called "lucky shots" with a very high Strehl ratio in one of the speckles, to shift and add, resulting in a final image with the highest possible Strehl ratio and therefore highest possible angular resolution. We will present recent results of our study at the Calar Alto Observatory, as well as observations undertaken with the RTK camera at the 20 cm guiding telescope in our own observatory in Großschwabhausen.

  2. LIADA's Double Star Section: Studies Of Visual Double Star By Amateurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rica, F. M.; Benavides, R.; Masa, E.; Ling, J.

    2007-08-01

    LIADA's Double Star Section has as main goal to perform measures of relative astrometry of neglected and unconfirmed wide pairs, as well as to determine the astrophysical properties for their components and classify them, according to their nature, as phyisical, common origin, common proper motion or optical pairs. BVIJHK photometry, relative astrometry and kinematical data in addition to other astrophysical parameters, were obtained from literature to characterize the components and the stellar systems. VizieR, Simbad. Aladin and the "services abstract" tools were used from the website of Centre De Données Stellaires de Strasbourg (CDS). USNO catalogs (USNO-B1.0 and UCAC-2) in addition to ESA catalogs (Tycho-2 and HIPPARCOS) were often used. Spectral types, luminosity classes, absolute magnitudes, photometric distances were determined by using several tables, two colours and reduced proper motion diagrams. Astrophysical properties were corrected by reddening by using several maps. CCD cameras, micrometric eyepieces, photographic plates from Digitalized Sky Survey (DSS) and other surveys were used to perform our astrometric measures. According to their nature double stars are classified by using several professional criteria. Since 2001 LIADA has studied about 500 visual double stars, has discovered about 150 true binaries and several candidates to be white dwarfs, subdwarfs and nearby stars. Several orbits have been calculated. Our results were published in national and international journals such as Journal of Double Star Observations (JDSO), in Information Circulars edited by Commision 26 of IAU and our measures were included in WDS catalog. LIADA publish a circular twice a year with our results.

  3. Studies of Evolved Star Mass Loss: GRAMS Modeling of Red Supergiant and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.; Boyer, M.; Meixner, M.

    2012-01-01

    As proposed in our NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program (ADAP) proposal, my colleagues and I are studying mass loss from evolved stars. Such stars lose their own mass in their dying stages, and in their expelled winds they form stardust. To model mass loss from these evolved stars, my colleagues and I have constructed GRAMS: the Grid of Red supergiant and Asymptotic giant branch star ModelS. These GRAMS radiative transfer models are fit to optical through mid-infrared photometry of red supergiant (RSG) stars and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. I will discuss our current studies of mass loss from AGB and RSG stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), fitting GRAMS models to the photometry of SMC evolved star candidates identified from the SAGE-SMC (PI: K. Gordon) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy survey. This work will be briefly compared to similar work we have done for the LMC. I will also discuss Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) studies of the dust produced by AGB and RSG stars in the LMC. BAS is grateful for support from the NASA-ADAP grant NNX11AB06G.

  4. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  5. AMR Studies of Star Formation: Simulations and Simulated Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offner, Stella; McKee, C. F.; Klein, R. I.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular clouds are typically observed to be approximately virialized with gravitational and turbulent energy in balance, yielding a star formation rate of a few percent. The origin and characteristics of the observed supersonic turbulence are poorly understood, and without continued energy injection the turbulence is predicted to decay within a cloud dynamical time. Recent observations and analytic work have suggested a strong connection between the initial stellar mass function, the core mass function, and turbulence characteristics. The role of magnetic fields in determining core lifetimes, shapes, and kinematic properties remains hotly debated. Simulations are a formidable tool for studying the complex process of star formation and addressing these puzzles. I present my results modeling low-mass star formation using the ORION adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code. I investigate the properties of forming cores and protostars in simulations in which the turbulence is driven to maintain virial balance and where it is allowed to decay. I will discuss simulated observations of cores in dust emission and in molecular tracers and compare to observations of local star-forming clouds. I will also present results from ORION cluster simulations including flux-limited diffusion radiative transfer and show that radiative feedback, even from low-mass stars, has a significant effect on core fragmentation, disk properties, and the IMF. Finally, I will discuss the new simulation frontier of AMR multigroup radiative transfer.

  6. An Undergraduate Research Experience on Studying Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, A.; Percy, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe and evaluate a summer undergraduate research project and experience by one of us (AA), under the supervision of the other (JP). The aim of the project was to sample current approaches to analyzing variable star data, and topics related to the study of Mira variable stars and their astrophysical importance. This project was done through the Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) in astronomy at the University of Toronto. SURP allowed undergraduate students to explore and learn about many topics within astronomy and astrophysics, from instrumentation to cosmology. SURP introduced students to key skills which are essential for students hoping to pursue graduate studies in any scientific field. Variable stars proved to be an excellent topic for a research project. For beginners to independent research, it introduces key concepts in research such as critical thinking and problem solving, while illuminating previously learned topics in stellar physics. The focus of this summer project was to compare observations with structural and evolutionary models, including modelling the random walk behavior exhibited in the (O-C) diagrams of most Mira stars. We found that the random walk could be modelled by using random fluctuations of the period. This explanation agreed well with observations.

  7. Observational studies of regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Heather Danielle Blythe

    2013-03-01

    Massive stars have a profound influence on their surroundings. However, relatively little is known about their formation. The study of massive star formation is hindered by a lack of observational evidence, primarily due to difficulties observing massive stars at early stages in their development. The Red MSX Source survey (RMS survey) is a valuable tool with which to address these issues. Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra were taken for 247 candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), selected from the RMS survey. 195 (∼80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (LBOL>5E3L⊙, M>8 M⊙). This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date. This study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties, with HI, H2 Fe II, and CO among the most commonly observed lines. Evidence for disks and outflows was frequently seen. Comparisons of Brγ and H2 emission with low mass YSOs suggest that the emission mechanism for these lines is the same for low-, intermediate-, and high-mass YSOs, i.e. high-mass YSOs appear to resemble scaled-up versions of low-mass YSOs. It was found that the YSOs form an evolutionary sequence, based on their spectra, consistent with the existing theoretical models. Type I YSOs have strong H2 emission, no ionized lines, and are redder than the other two subtypes. As such, these are considered to be the youngest sources. The Type III sources are bluest, and therefore considered to be the oldest subtype. They have strong H I lines and fluorescent Fe II 1.6878 μm emission. They may also have weak H2 emission. Type III sources may even be beginning to form a mini-H II region. XSHOOTER data from 10 Herbig Be stars were analysed. The evidence suggests that winds and disks are common among Herbig stars, as they are among their main sequence classical Be star counterparts. Line

  8. iSTAR: The International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the first steps taken in the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning (iSTAR). The iSTAR Project is an attempt to look beyond traditional wisdom and practices in astronomy education, to discover the ways in which cognitive abilities and human culture interact to impact individuals’ understanding of and relationship to astronomy content knowledge. In contrast to many international studies that seek to rank nations by student performance on standardized tests, the iSTAR Project seeks to find ways that culture may unexpectedly enhance performance in astronomy. Using the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) as a reasonable, initial proxy for the content knowledge a well educated person might know in astronomy, the iSTAR team then defined culture as a construct with five components: practices, traditional knowledge, historical and genealogical relationships, place-based knowledge, and language. Given the complexity of this construct, Stage 1 of the project focuses on the cultural component of language, and assumed that prior to the collection of data from students, the process of translating the TOAST could provide valuable expert-based information on the impact of language on astronomy knowledge. As such, the work began with a study of the translation process. For each of the languages used in the testing phase of the iSTAR protocol, a succession of translators and analysts were engaged, including two educated, non-astronomer native speakers, a native speaking astronomer, and a native speaking linguistics expert. Multiple translations were analyzed in order to make relevant meaning of differences in the translations, and provide commentary on the ways in which metaphor, idiom, cultural history are embedded in the language, providing potential advantages in the learning of astronomy. The first test languages were German, Hawaiian, and American Sign Language, and initial findings suggest that each of these languages provide specific advantages

  9. Studies of Disks Around the Sun and Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We are conducting research designed to enhance our understanding of the evolution and detectability of comet clouds and disks. This area holds promise for also improving our understanding of outer solar system formation, the bombardment history of the planets, the transport of volatiles and organics from the outer solar system to the inner planets, and to the ultimate fate of comet clouds around the Sun and other stars. According to 'standard' theory, both the Kuiper Disk and the Oort Cloud are (at least in part) natural products of the planetary accumulation stage of solar system formation. One expects such assemblages to be a common attribute of other solar systems. Therefore, searches for comet disks and clouds orbiting other stars offer a new method for inferring the presence of planetary systems. This two-element program consists modeling collisions in the Kuiper Disk and the dust disks around other stars. The modeling effort focuses on moving from our simple, first-generation, Kuiper disk collision rate model, to a time-dependent, second-generation model that incorporates physical collisions, velocity evolution, dynamical erosion, and various dust transport mechanisms. This second generation model will be used to study the evolution of surface mass density and the object-size spectrum in the disk. The observational effort focuses on obtaining submm/mm-wave flux density measurements of 25-30 IR excess stars in order to better constrain the masses, spatial extents and structure of their dust ensembles.

  10. Star & Planet Formation Studies and Opportunities with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kimberly Ennico

    2018-01-01

    Star formation, the most fundamental process in the universe, is linked to planet formation and thus to the origin and evolution of life. We have a general outline of how planets and stars form, yet unraveling the details of the physics and chemistry continues to challenge us. The infrared and submillimeter part of the spectrum hold the most promise for studying the beginnings of star formation. The observational landscape recently shaped by Spitzer, Herschel and ALMA, continues to challenge our current theories. SOFIA, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, equipped with state-of-the-art infrared instrumentation to a vantage point at 45,000 feet (13.7 kilometers) flight altitude that is above 99.9 percent of the Earth's water vapor, enables observations in the infrared through terahertz frequencies not possible from the ground. SOFIA is a community observatory, about to start its sixth annual observing cycle. My talk will focus on recent results in advancing star and planet formation processes using SOFIA's imaging and polarimetric capabilities, and the upcoming science enabled by the 3rd generation instrument High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Spectrometer (HIRMES) to be commissioned in 2019. I will show how mid-infrared imaging is used to test massive star formation theories, how far-infrared polarimetry on sub-parsec scales is directly testing the role of magnetic fields in molecular clouds, and how velocity-resolved high-resolution spectroscopy will push forward our understanding of proto-planetary disk science. I will also summarize upcoming opportunities with the SOFIA observatory. For the latest news about your flying observatory, see https://sofia.usra.edu/.

  11. VLBA Teams With Optical Interferometer to Study Star's Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Two of the World's Largest Interferometric Facilities Team-up to Study a Red Giant Star Using ESO's VLTI on Cerro Paranal and the VLBA facility operated by NRAO, an international team of astronomers has made what is arguably the most detailed study of the environment of a pulsating red giant star. They performed, for the first time, a series of coordinated observations of three separate layers within the star's tenuous outer envelope: the molecular shell, the dust shell, and the maser shell, leading to significant progress in our understanding of the mechanism of how, before dying, evolved stars lose mass and return it to the interstellar medium. S Orionis (S Ori) belongs to the class of Mira-type variable stars. It is a solar-mass star that, as will be the fate of our Sun in 5 billion years, is nearing its gloomy end as a white dwarf. Mira stars are very large and lose huge amounts of matter. Every year, S Ori ejects as much as the equivalent of Earth's mass into the cosmos. ESO PR Photo 25a/07 ESO PR Photo 25a/07 Evolution of the Mira-type Star S Orionis "Because we are all stardust, studying the phases in the life of a star when processed matter is sent back to the interstellar medium to be used for the next generation of stars, planets... and humans, is very important," said Markus Wittkowski, lead author of the paper reporting the results. A star such as the Sun will lose between a third and half of its mass during the Mira phase. S Ori pulsates with a period of 420 days. In the course of its cycle, it changes its brightness by a factor of the order of 500, while its diameter varies by about 20%. Although such stars are enormous - they are typically larger than the current Sun by a factor of a few hundred, i.e. they encompass the orbit of the Earth around the Sun - they are also distant and to peer into their deep envelopes requires very high resolution. This can only be achieved with interferometric techniques. ESO PR Photo 25b/07 ESO PR Photo 25b/07

  12. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  13. The impact of IUE on binary star studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of IUE observations in the investigation of binary stars is discussed. The results of data analysis of several classes of binary systems are briefly reviewed including zeta Aurigae and VV Cephei stars, mu Sagittarii, epsilon Aurigae, beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars, symbiotic stars, and the Algols.

  14. Hyperspectral Imagers for the Study of Massive Star Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Alarie, A.; Martin, T.; Spiomm/Sitelle Team

    2012-12-01

    We present two wide-field imaging Fourier transform spectrometers built by our team to study the interstellar medium around massive stars in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescope, is capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a 12 arcminute field of view, with a spectral resolution ranging from R = 1 (wide-band image) to R = 25 000, resulting in about a million spectra with a spatial resolution of one arcsecond. SITELLE will be a similar instrument attached to the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, and will be in operation in early 2013. We illustrate SpIOMM's capabilities to study the interactions between massive stars and their environment.

  15. The Bulgarian Contribution to the Study of variable stars on observational data from the Kepler mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D. P.; Dimitrov, D. P.; Radeva, V. S.; Vasileva, D. L.; Atanasova, T. V.; Stateva, I. V.; Petrov, N. I.; Iliev, I. Kh.

    2018-02-01

    This review paper presents the results of investigations of variable stars obtained by Bulgarian astronomers based on observations of Kepler mission. The main contributions are: determination of orbits and global parameters of more than 100 binary stars; creation of the largest catalog of eccentric stars; identification of sixty new binaries with eccentricity over 0.5; discovery of 19 heartbeat stars; detailed investigation of the spot and flare activity of several binary stars; asteroseismic study of three pulsating stars; detection of deep transits of WD 1145+017 due to its disentangling planet system. The paper illustrates not only scientific significance but also educational and social impact of the work on these tasks.

  16. Binary star orbits from speckle interferometry. 5: A combined speckle/spectroscopic study of the O star binary 15 Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mcalister, Harold A.; Frazin, Richard A.; Hahula, Michael E.; Penny, Laura R.; Thaller, Michelle L.; Fullerton, Alexander W.; Shara, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a speckle binary companion to the O7 V (f) star 15 Monocerotis. A study of published radial velocities in conjunction with new measurements from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and IUE suggests that the star is also a spectroscopic binary with a period of 25 years and a large eccentricity. Thus, 15 Mon is the first O star to bridge the gap between the spectroscopic and visual separation regimes. We have used the star's membership in the cluster NGC 2264 together with the cluster distance to derive masses of 34 and 19 solar mass for the primary and secondary, respectively. Several of the He I line profiles display a broad shallow component which we associate with the secondary, and we estimate the secondary's classification to be O9.5 Vn. The new orbit leads to several important predictions that can be tested over the next few years.

  17. Study of the star catalogue (epoch AD 1396.0) recorded in ancient Korean astronomical almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junhyeok; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Yong-Sam

    2015-11-01

    The study of old star catalogues provides important astrometric data. Most of the researches based on the old star catalogues were manuscript published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam. However, the old star catalogues published in East Asia did not get attention. Therefore, among the East Asian star catalogues we focus on a particular catalogue recorded in a Korean almanac. Its catalogue contains 277 stars that are positioned in a region within 10° of the ecliptic plane. The stars in the catalogue were identified using the modern Hipparcos catalogue. We identified 274 among 277 stars, which is a rate of 98.9 per cent. The catalogue records the epoch of the stars' positions as AD 1396.0. However, by using all of the identified stars we found that the initial epoch of the catalogue is AD 1363.1 ± 3.2. In conclusion, the star catalogue was compiled and edited from various older star catalogues. We assume a correlation with the Almagest by Ptolemaios. This study presents newly analysed results from the historically important astronomical data discovered in East Asia. Therefore, this star catalogue will become important data for comparison with the star catalogues published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam.

  18. Study the performance of star sensor influenced by space radiation damage of image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Yudong; Wen, Lin; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Xingyao

    2018-03-01

    Star sensor is an essential component of spacecraft attitude control system. Spatial radiation can cause star sensor performance degradation, abnormal work, attitude measurement accuracy and reliability reduction. Many studies have already been dedicated to the radiation effect on Charge-Coupled Device(CCD) image sensor, but fewer studies focus on the radiation effect of star sensor. The innovation of this paper is to study the radiation effects from the device level to the system level. The influence of the degradation of CCD image sensor radiation sensitive parameters on the performance parameters of star sensor is studied in this paper. The correlation among the radiation effect of proton, the non-uniformity noise of CCD image sensor and the performance parameter of star sensor is analyzed. This paper establishes a foundation for the study of error prediction and correction technology of star sensor on-orbit attitude measurement, and provides some theoretical basis for the design of high performance star sensor.

  19. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  20. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  1. Simultaneous UV and optical study of O star winds and UV and optical covariability of O star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet and optical observations of 10 bright O stars were organized in several observing campaigns lasting 3-6 days each. The observing campaigns included 12 observatories in the Northern hemisphere obtaining high resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and polarimetry, as well as 24-hour coverage with the IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observatory. Over 600 high dispersion SWP spectra were acquired with IUE at both NASA and VILSPA for the completion of this work. The massive amount of data from these observing campaigns, both from IUE and the ground-based instruments, has been reduced and analyzed. The accompanying paper describes the data acquisition, analysis, and conclusions of the study performed. The most important results of this study are the strong confirmation of the ubiquitous variability of winds of O stars, and the critical correlation between rotation of the star and the wind variability as seen in the ultraviolet and optical spectral lines.

  2. A detailed study of lithium in 107 CHEPS dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.; Ivanyuk, O. M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Kaminsky, B. M.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yakovina, L. A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. We report results from lithium abundance determinations using high resolution spectral analysis of the 107 metal-rich stars from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search programme. Aims: We aim to set out to understand the lithium distribution of the population of stars taken from this survey. Methods: The lithium abundance taking account of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium effects was determined from the fits to the Li I 6708 Å resonance doublet profiles in the observed spectra. Results: We find that a) fast rotators tend to have higher lithium abundances; b) log N(Li) is higher in more massive and hot stars; c) log N(Li) is higher in stars of lower log g; d) stars with the metallicities >0.25 dex do not show the lithium lines in their spectra; e) most of our planet hosts rotate slower; and f) a lower limit of lithium isotopic ratio is 7Li/6Li > 10 in the atmospheres of two stars with planets (SWP) and two non-SWP stars. Conclusions: Measurable lithium abundances were found in the atmospheres of 45 stars located at distances of 20-170 pc from the Sun, for the other 62 stars the upper limits of log N(Li) were computed. We found well defined dependences of lithium abundances on Teff, V sin i, and less pronounced for the log g. In case of V sin i we see two sequences of stars: with measurable lithium and with the upper limit of log N(Li). About 10% of our targets are known to host planets. Only two SWP have notable lithium abundances, so we found a lower proportion of stars with detectable Li among known planet hosts than among stars without planets. However, given the small sample size of our planet-host sample, our analysis does not show any statistically significant differences in the lithium abundance between SWP and stars without known planets.

  3. Studies of Disks Around the Sun and Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1997-01-01

    This is a NASA Origins of Solar Systems research program, and this NASA Headquarters grant has now been transferred to a new grant at NASA GSFC (NAG5-4082). Thus the need for this 'Final Report' on a project that is not, in fact, complete. We are conducting research designed to enhance our understanding of the evolution and detectability of comet clouds and disks. This area holds promise for also improving our understanding of outer solar system formation, the bombardment history of the planets, the transport of volatiles and organics from the outer solar system to the inner planets, and to the ultimate fate of comet clouds around the Sun and other stars. According to "standard" theory, both the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud are (at least in part) natural products of the planetary accumulation stage of solar system formation. One expects such assemblages to be a common attribute of other solar systems. Our program consists of modeling collisions in the Kuiper Belt and the dust disks around other stars. The modeling effort focuses on moving from our simple, first-generation, Kuiper Belt collision rate model, to a time-dependent, second-generation model that incorporates physical collisions, velocity evolution, dynamical erosion, and various dust transport mechanisms. This second generation model is to be used to study the evolution of surface mass density and the object-size spectrum in the disk.

  4. A near infrared speckle imaging study of T Tauri stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghez, A. M.; Mccarthy, D. W., Jr.; Weinberger, A. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a speckle imaging survey of T Tauri stars suggest that most, if not all, young low mass stars have companions. Repeated observations of these young binary stars have revealed orbital motion in the closest pairs (less than or = 0.3 sec), providing that these systems are indeed gravitationally bound and providing the basis for mass estimates in the upcoming years. These mass estimates are necessary to distinguish between the various binary star formation mechanisms that have been proposed to date.

  5. The Evolutionary Status of Be Stars: Results from a Photometric Study of Southern Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Gies, Douglas R.

    2005-11-01

    Be stars are a class of rapidly rotating B stars with circumstellar disks that cause Balmer and other line emission. There are three possible reasons for the rapid rotation of Be stars: they may have been born as rapid rotators, spun up by binary mass transfer, or spun up during the main-sequence (MS) evolution of B stars. To test the various formation scenarios, we have conducted a photometric survey of 55 open clusters in the southern sky. Of these, five clusters are probably not physically associated groups and our results for two other clusters are not reliable, but we identify 52 definite Be stars and an additional 129 Be candidates in the remaining clusters. We use our results to examine the age and evolutionary dependence of the Be phenomenon. We find an overall increase in the fraction of Be stars with age until 100 Myr, and Be stars are most common among the brightest, most massive B-type stars above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). We show that a spin-up phase at the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) cannot produce the observed distribution of Be stars, but up to 73% of the Be stars detected may have been spun-up by binary mass transfer. Most of the remaining Be stars were likely rapid rotators at birth. Previous studies have suggested that low metallicity and high cluster density may also favor Be star formation. Our results indicate a possible increase in the fraction of Be stars with increasing cluster distance from the Galactic center (in environments of decreasing metallicity). However, the trend is not significant and could be ruled out due to the intrinsic scatter in our data. We also find no relationship between the fraction of Be stars and cluster density.

  6. A statistical spectropolarimetric study of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababakr, K. M.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Vink, J. S.

    2017-11-01

    We present H α linear spectropolarimetry of a large sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars. Together with newly obtained data for 17 objects, the sample contains 56 objects, the largest such sample to date. A change in linear polarization across the H α line is detected in 42 (75 per cent) objects, which confirms the previous finding that the circumstellar environment around these stars on small spatial scales has an asymmetric structure, which is typically identified with a disc. A second outcome of this research is that we confirm that Herbig Ae stars are similar to T Tauri stars in displaying a line polarization effect, while depolarization is more common among Herbig Be stars. This finding had been suggested previously to indicate that Herbig Ae stars form in the same manner than T Tauri stars through magnetospheric accretion. It appears that the transition between these two differing polarization line effects occurs around the B7-B8 spectral type. This would in turn not only suggest that Herbig Ae stars accrete in a similar fashion as lower mass stars, but also that this accretion mechanism switches to a different type of accretion for Herbig Be stars. We report that the magnitude of the line effect caused by electron scattering close to the stars does not exceed 2 per cent. Only a very weak correlation is found between the magnitude of the line effect and the spectral type or the strength of the H α line. This indicates that the detection of a line effect only relies on the geometry of the line-forming region and the geometry of the scattering electrons.

  7. Study of Star Formation Regions with Molecular Hydrogen Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, Soojong

    The goal of my dissertation is to understand the large-scale, near-infrared (near-IR) H2 emission from the central kiloparsec (kpc) regions of galaxies, and to study the structure and physics of photon-dominated regions (or photodissociation regions, hereafter PDRs). In order to explore the near-IR H2 lines, our group built the University of Texas near-IR Fabry-Perot Spectrometer optimized for observations of extended, low surface brightness sources. In this instrument project, I designed and built a programmable high voltage DC amplifier for the Fabry-Perot piezoelectric transducers, a temperature-controlled cooling box for the Fabry-Perot etalon, instrument control software, and data reduction software. With this instrument, we observed H2 emission lines in the inner 400 pc of the Galaxy, the central ~1 kpc of NGC 253 and M82, and the star formation regions in the Magellanic Clouds. We also observed the Magellanic Clouds in the CO J=1/to0 line. We found that the H2 emission is very extended in the central kpc of the galaxies and is mostly UV-excited. The ratios of the H2 (1,0) S(1) luminosities to the far-IR continuum luminosities in the central kpc regions do not change from the Galactic center to starburst galaxies and to ultraluminous IR bright galaxies. Using the data from the Magellanic Clouds, we studied the microscopic structure of star forming clouds. We compiled data sets including our H2 (1,0) S(1) and CO J=1/to0 results and published (C scII) and far-IR data from the Magellanic Clouds, and compared these observations with models we made using a PDR code and a radiative transfer code. Assuming the cloud is spherical, we derived the physical sizes of H2, (C scII), and CO emission regions. The average cloud size appears to increase as the metallicity decreases. Our results agree with the theory of photoionization-regulated star formation in which the interplay between the ambipolar diffusion and ionization by far-UV photons determines the size of stable

  8. Structure and rheology of star polymers in confined geometries: a mesoscopic simulation study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feiwo; Goujon, Florent; Mendonça, Ana C F; Malfreyt, Patrice; Tildesley, Dominic J

    2015-11-28

    Mesoscopic simulations of star polymer melts adsorbed onto solid surfaces are performed using the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method. A set of parameters is developed to study the low functionality star polymers under shear. The use of a new bond-angle potential between the arms of the star creates more rigid chains and discriminates between different functionalities at equilibrium, but still allows the polymers to deform appropriately under shear. The rheology of the polymer melts is studied by calculating the kinetic friction and viscosity and there is good agreement with experimental properties of these systems. The study is completed with predictive simulations of star polymer solutions in an athermal solvent.

  9. Using CETUS to study the first stars and first metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roederer, Ian; CETUS Team

    2018-01-01

    The nucleosynthetic signatures of the first stars and supernovae are imprinted in the compositions of the most metal-poor stars found today. Only a few tens of absorption lines are commonly found in the optical spectra of the second-generation stars, so only 5-10 elements are regularly detected. Many others (Be, B, Si, P, S, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) are expected to be present but are rarely detected, and the upper limits derived from their optical non-detections are often uninteresting. The UV part of the spectrum accessible to the high-resolution UV spectrograph on CETUS would enable all of these elements to be detected if present in the most metal-poor stars known. We illustrate some of the ground-breaking observations of these stars that could be made with this mission.

  10. Star Formation Studies in the SPICA/SAFARI Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibthorpe, Bruce; Goicoechea, Javier

    2013-07-01

    The Japanese JAXA SPICA space observatory, due for launch in 2022, will provide astronomers with a long awaited new window on the universe. Having a large cold telescope, cooled to only 6K above absolute zero, SPICA will provide a unique environment in which instruments are limited only by the cosmic background itself. A consortium of European and Canadian institutes has been established to design and implement the SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, an imaging FTS spectrometer designed to fully exploit this extremely low far infrared background environment provided by the SPICA observatory. With SAFARI it will be possible to obtain continuous spectra spanning 34 -\\ 210 um within an instantaneous 2'x2' field-of-view, at spectral resolutions of up to R = 2000 @ 100um (4000 @ 50um), within a single telescope pointing. This capability, coupled with the exquisite sensitivity provided by the cold SPICA telescope, makes SAFARI the ideal instrument to perform large area spectroscopic mapping surveys in the far-infrared. SPICA/SFARI will provide new insights into a range of astronomical sources. By obtaining spectra for large, statistically significant samples, we can obtain a fundamental understanding of their chemistry and physical processes, and thereby characterise and understand the nature of these sources. Moreover, with the high sensitivity of SAFARI, it will be possible to extend current far-infrared studies of star formation processes to nearby galaxies, thereby putting our current understanding in a wider, universal, context. This poster provides a description of the SAFARI instrument and its capabilities. A brief representative sample of the contribution SAFARI can make in the field of star formation studies is also given, and compared to similar observations made using the Herschel-PACS instrument.

  11. A Numerical Study on the Streams of Star Debris after Tidal Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho Olachea, Priscila; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Law-Smith, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Lurking at the centers of most galaxies are gigantic star and gas devouring monsters. These monsters are supermassive black holes (SMBHs), some of which are larger than our solar system and ten billion times as massive as our own Sun. The vast majority of stars in the universe live for tens of billions of years, eventually dying from old age as the nuclearreactions that power them become progressively less effective. But for every ten thousand stars that die peacefully, one star will be brutally torn apart by the extreme tidal forces present as it passes near a SMBH. My recent work has been to develop computational tools necessary to study the fates of stars disrupted by SMBHs. In this research project I presentthe results of my numerical study aimed at understanding the streams of star debris that result after disruption.

  12. A New Photometric Study of Ap and Am Stars in the Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G., E-mail: chenps@ynao.ac.cn

    In this paper, 426 well known confirmed Ap and Am stars are photometrically studied in the infrared. The 2MASS, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ), and IRAS data are employed to make analyses. The results in this paper have shown that in the 1–3 μ m region over 90% Ap and Am stars have no or little infrared excesses, and infrared radiations in the near-infrared from these stars are probably dominated by the free–free emissions. It is also shown that in the 3–12 μ m region, the majority of Ap stars and Am stars have very similar behavior, i.e.,more » in the W 1– W 2 (3.4–4.6 μ m) region, over half of Ap and Am stars have clear infrared excesses, which are possibly due to the binarity, the multiplicity, and/or the debris disk, but in the W 2– W 3 (4.6–12 μ m) region they have no or little infrared excess. In addition, in the 12–22 μ m region, some of Ap stars and Am stars show the infrared excesses and infrared radiations for these Ap and Am stars are probably due to the free–free emissions. In addition, it is seen that the probability of being the binarity, the multiplicity and/or the debris disk for Am stars is much higher than that for Ap stars. Furthermore, it can be seen that, in general, no relations can be found between infrared colors and spectral types either for Ap stars or for Am stars.« less

  13. A New Photometric Study of Ap and Am Stars in the Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, 426 well known confirmed Ap and Am stars are photometrically studied in the infrared. The 2MASS, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), and IRAS data are employed to make analyses. The results in this paper have shown that in the 1-3 μm region over 90% Ap and Am stars have no or little infrared excesses, and infrared radiations in the near-infrared from these stars are probably dominated by the free-free emissions. It is also shown that in the 3-12 μm region, the majority of Ap stars and Am stars have very similar behavior, I.e., in the W1-W2 (3.4-4.6 μm) region, over half of Ap and Am stars have clear infrared excesses, which are possibly due to the binarity, the multiplicity, and/or the debris disk, but in the W2-W3 (4.6-12 μm) region they have no or little infrared excess. In addition, in the 12-22 μm region, some of Ap stars and Am stars show the infrared excesses and infrared radiations for these Ap and Am stars are probably due to the free-free emissions. In addition, it is seen that the probability of being the binarity, the multiplicity and/or the debris disk for Am stars is much higher than that for Ap stars. Furthermore, it can be seen that, in general, no relations can be found between infrared colors and spectral types either for Ap stars or for Am stars.

  14. A Study of Magnetic CP Stars in Open Clusters and Associations with the 6-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Yakunin, I. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2017-06-01

    The study of magnetic CP stars in groups of different ages allows us to obtain data on the origin and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields. We selected 17 groups for observation with the 6-m telescope. Here we draw first conclusions from the study of the Orion OB1 association. Six new magnetic stars in it are added to those seventeen that had been known earlier, ten more CP stars were suspected to have fields. A complex structure of the magnetic field in the star HD 34736 has been found, which is indicative of its fossil origin.

  15. John Goodricke, Edward Pigott, and Their Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2011-05-01

    John Goodricke (1764-1786) and Edward Pigott (1753-1825) are credited with determining the first accurate periods for several important variable stars. Goodricke's name is associated with the determination of the period of the eclipsing binary Algol (Beta Persei); for this he was awarded the Copley Prize of the Royal Society of London. He also determined the periods of the contact binary Beta Lyrae and of Delta Cephei, the prototype Cepheid variable. Around the same time, Edward Pigott obtained the period of Eta Aquilae, another Cepheid. In actuality, the two collaborated on all these observations; today we would call them co-discoverers. Goodricke is the better known of the two, in part because he won the Copley Medal, in part because of his tragically short life, and in part because he was deaf. Edward Pigott was the more experienced observer, having worked with his father Nathaniel on determining the longitudes of several cities on the Continent. Evidence shows, however, that Goodricke had some astronomical experience while a student at the Warrington Academy. The journals of the two show that they developed a partnership that made the most of both their talents over the brief time (less than five years) they worked together before Goodricke's death. Today, the two are remembered as having suggested eclipses as the cause for the periodic dimming of Algol. This explanation is accepted today as the correct one. In their day, however, most eminent astronomers believed that starspots were a more likely cause for the dimming. By the time of John Goodricke's death, he seems to have accepted that explanation as well. A study of the work of Goodricke and Pigott contains many lessons for today's observers of variable stars. This work was supported by an AAS Small Research Grant and by the Pollack Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  16. A Statistical Study of the Mass Distribution of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zheng; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Zhao, Yong-Heng; Wang, De-Hua; Pan, Yuan-Yue; Lei, Ya-Juan

    2014-07-01

    By reviewing the methods of mass measurements of neutron stars in four different kinds of systems, i.e., the high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), double neutron star systems (DNSs) and neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binary systems, we have collected the orbital parameters of 40 systems. By using the boot-strap method and the Monte-Carlo method, we have rebuilt the likelihood probability curves of the measured masses of 46 neutron stars. The statistical analysis of the simulation results shows that the masses of neutron stars in the X-ray neutron star systems and those in the radio pulsar systems exhibit different distributions. Besides, the Bayes statistics of these four different kind systems yields the most-probable probability density distributions of these four kind systems to be (1.340 ± 0.230)M8, (1, 505 ± 0.125)M8,(1.335 ± 0.055)M8 and (1.495 ± 0.225)M8, respectively. It is noteworthy that the masses of neutron stars in the HMXB and DNS systems are smaller than those in the other two kind systems by approximately 0.16M8. This result is consistent with the theoretical model of the pulsar to be accelerated to the millisecond order of magnitude via accretion of approximately 0.2M8. If the HMXBs and LMXBs are respectively taken to be the precursors of the BNS and NS-WD systems, then the influence of the accretion effect on the masses of neutron stars in the HMXB systems should be exceedingly small. Their mass distributions should be very close to the initial one during the formation of neutron stars. As for the LMXB and NS-WD systems, they should have already under- gone the process of suffcient accretion, hence there arises rather large deviation from the initial mass distribution.

  17. Prospects of the "WSO-UV" Project for Star Formation Study in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarova, L. N.; Makarov, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work we consider the questions of star formation and evolution of nearby dwarf galaxies. We describe the method of star formation history determination based on multicolor photometry of resolved stars and models of color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxies. We present the results of star formation rate determination and its dependence on age and metallicity for dwarf irregular and dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the two nearby galaxy groups M81 and Cen A. Similar age of the last episode of star formation in the central part of the M81 group and also unusually high level of metal enrichment in the several galaxies of the Cen A group are mentioned. We pay special attention to the consideration of perspectives of star formation study in nearby dwarf galaxies with he new WSO-UV observatory.

  18. A study of rotational velocity distribution of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, C.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Emilio, M.

    2014-10-01

    Classical Be stars are rapid rotators of spectral type late O to early A and luminosity class V-III, which exhibit Balmer emission lines and often a near infrared excess originating in an equatorially concentrated circumstellar envelope, both produced by sporadic mass ejection episodes. The causes of the abnormal mass loss (the so-called Be phenomenon) are as yet unknown. In spite of their high vsin i, rapid rotation alone cannot explain the ejection episodes as most Be stars do not rotate at their critical rotation rates. In this work we present the distribution of vsin i of 261 Be's stars from BeSS (Be Star Spectra) database. We used two techniques, the Fourier method and the FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) method. For the analysis we made use of three absorption lines of Helium (4026r A, 4388 Å and 4471 Å). Stars with projected rotational velocities up to 300 km s^{-1} agree with the ones already published in the literature. 84 of our stars do not have the values of rotational velocity published. The majority of our sample are B1/B2 spectral type, whose have the greatest velocities.

  19. A Study of the Low Mass Binary Star Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, G.; Han, I.; Tangren, W.

    2001-12-01

    We have combined photograph, MAP, interferometric, and spectroscopic data to determine the orbital characteristics and masses of the Ross 614 binary star system. Attention was first drawn to the star by Frank E. Ross (1927, AJ 37, 193) who noticed its high proper motion in a comparison of new plates with those taken at the Yerkes Observatory by E.E. Barnard. The Binary nature of the star was recognized from accelerations in the star's proper motion (D. Reuyl 1936, AJ 55, 236) and the mass of the companion was first estimated by combining measurements of McCormick and Sproul plates with a separation measured by Walter Baade at the Hale 5-m reflector (S.L. Lippincott 1955, AJ 60, 379). In her paper Lippincott notes the companion's significance as defining the lower end of the observational main sequence. Fifty six years later the star still holds that honor. With a wealth of new data spanning more than 3 additional orbits, we find her value of 0.08 solar masses to be within our error of our value.

  20. A Study Of Anomalous Stars and Binary Populations Within Open Clusters: Tests Of Theoretical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Braden, Ella; Latham, David W.

    2008-08-01

    ``Anomalous'' stars, such as blue stragglers and more recently sub- subgiants, have been an enduring challenge for stellar evolution theory. Recently it has become clear that in star clusters these systems are closely linked to the binary star populations. Furthermore, through advances in N-body modeling, we have come to realize that stellar dynamical processes play a central role in the formation of such anomalous stars. Indeed, these stars trace the interface between the classical fields of stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. We propose a thesis study to directly probe this interface through high-precision radial-velocity measurements of the anomalous stars and the binary populations in four open clusters. We have selected NGC 188 (7 Gyr), M67 (NGC 2682; 4 Gyr), NGC 6819 (2.4 Gyr), and M35 (NGC 2168; 150 Myr), as these span a wide range in age, are rich enough to provide statistically significant conclusions, and already have an extensive base of kinematic, spectroscopic, and photometric observations from the WIYN Open Cluster Study. Our proposed observations will define the spectroscopic hard binary populations (fraction, frequency distributions of orbital parameters, mass ratios) for orbital periods approaching the hard-soft boundary. These observations will also provide a comprehensive survey for anomalous stars, including secure establishment of their cluster membership. These data will allow us to perform the first detailed comparison to predictions from open cluster simulations of the binary populations among normal and anomalous stars, and thereby to constrain the evolutionary paths from one to the other.

  1. A Study Of Anomalous Stars and Binary Populations Within Open Clusters: Tests Of Theoretical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Gosnell, Natalie; Latham, David W.

    2009-02-01

    ``Anomalous'' stars, such as blue stragglers and more recently sub- subgiants, have been an enduring challenge for stellar evolution theory. Recently it has become clear that in star clusters these systems are closely linked to the binary star populations. Furthermore, through advances in N-body modeling, we have come to realize that stellar dynamical processes play a central role in the formation of such anomalous stars. Indeed, these stars trace the interface between the classical fields of stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. We propose a thesis study to directly probe this interface through high-precision radial-velocity measurements of the anomalous stars and the binary populations in four open clusters. We have selected NGC 188 (7 Gyr), M67 (NGC 2682; 4 Gyr), NGC 6819 (2.4 Gyr), and M35 (NGC 2168; 150 Myr), as these span a wide range in age, are rich enough to provide statistically significant conclusions, and already have an extensive base of kinematic, spectroscopic, and photometric observations from the WIYN Open Cluster Study. Our proposed observations will define the spectroscopic hard binary populations (fraction, frequency distributions of orbital parameters, mass ratios) for orbital periods approaching the hard-soft boundary. These observations will also provide a comprehensive survey for anomalous stars, including secure establishment of their cluster membership. These data will allow us to perform the first detailed comparison to predictions from open cluster simulations of the binary populations among normal and anomalous stars, and thereby to constrain the evolutionary paths from one to the other.

  2. A Study Of Anomalous Stars and Binary Populations Within Open Clusters: Tests Of Theoretical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Braden, Ella; Latham, David W.

    2008-02-01

    ``Anomalous'' stars, such as blue stragglers and more recently sub- subgiants, have been an enduring challenge for stellar evolution theory. Recently it has become clear that in star clusters these systems are closely linked to the binary star populations. Furthermore, through advances in N-body modeling, we have come to realize that stellar dynamical processes play a central role in the formation of such anomalous stars. Indeed, these stars trace the interface between the classical fields of stellar evolution and stellar dynamics. We propose a thesis study to directly probe this interface through high-precision radial-velocity measurements of the anomalous stars and the binary populations in four open clusters. We have selected NGC 188 (7 Gyr), M67 (NGC 2682; 4 Gyr), NGC 6819 (2.4 Gyr), and M35 (NGC 2168; 150 Myr), as these span a wide range in age, are rich enough to provide statistically significant conclusions, and already have an extensive base of kinematic, spectroscopic, and photometric observations from the WIYN Open Cluster Study. Our proposed observations will define the spectroscopic hard binary populations (fraction, frequency distributions of orbital parameters, mass ratios) for orbital periods approaching the hard-soft boundary. These observations will also provide a comprehensive survey for anomalous stars, including secure establishment of their cluster membership. These data will allow us to perform the first detailed comparison to predictions from open cluster simulations of the binary populations among normal and anomalous stars, and thereby to constrain the evolutionary paths from one to the other.

  3. A photometric study of Be stars located in the seismology fields of COROT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Fabregat, J.; Suso, J.; Lanzara, M.; Garrido, R.; Hubert, A.-M.; Floquet, M.

    2007-12-01

    Context: In preparation for the COROT mission, an exhaustive photometric study of Be stars located in the seismology fields of the mission has been performed. The very precise and long-time-spanned photometric observations gathered by the COROT satellite will give important clues on the origin of the Be phenomenon. Aims: The aim of this work is to find short-period variable Be stars located in the seismology fields of COROT, and to study and characterise their pulsational properties. Methods: Light curves obtained at the Observatorio de Sierra Nevada, together with data from Hipparcos and ASAS-3 for a total of 84 Be stars, were analysed in order to search for short-term variations. We applied standard Fourier techniques and non-linear least-square fitting to the time series. Results: We found 7 multiperiodic, 21 mono-periodic and 26 non-variable Be stars. Short-term variability was detected in 74% of early-type Be stars and in 31% of mid- to late-type Be stars. We show that non-radial pulsations are more frequent among Be stars than in slow-rotating B stars of the same spectral range. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Star Formation Studies with SOFIA and its Synergy with TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, James

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a modified Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a 2.5m telescope that performs observations at high altitude from the optical to the sub-mm. The observatory just reached full operational capability in April of this year. Given that it is slated for a 20-year mission lifetime, SOFIA will overlap TMT by more than a decade. I will discuss the contrasting and complementary features of SOFIA and TMT in the context of star formation, discuss some of the early results from SOFIA in this field, and finish with a discussion of how TMT data can enhance and extended our understanding of star formation processes.[This talk could also be generalized to discuss more about synergies between SOFIA and TMT in a broader context (not just star formation), should the organizers prefer that.

  5. Spectroscopic studies of Wolf-Rayet stars. III - The WC subclass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, A. V.; Conti, P. S.; Massey, P.

    1986-01-01

    Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, which are the descendants of massive O-type stars, can be subdivided into three groups depending on their spectral appearance. These groups include the nitrogen class (WN), the carbon class (WC), and the oxygen class (WO). The present paper is concerned with the WC stars. The assignment of WC subtypes has been based on visual inspections of photographic plates. One of the aims of this study is related to the quantification of the visual estimates. The measured ratios of equivalent widths and the FWHM of the 4650 A line for Galactic and LMC stars are presented, and the reclassification of some stars is proposed on this basis. In particular, it is shown that the majority of the LMC WC stars should logically be classified WC4 instead of WC5. Comments on individual stars are provided, and terminal velocities are discussed. It is attempted to give a complete overview of the most important spectroscopic features of the WC stars in the optical region.

  6. Photometric Studies of Stars in the Vicinity of Cyg OB7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikian, N. D.; Gomez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Results of BVRI photometric studies of 131 stars in the stellar association Cyg OB7 are presented. Observational data were obtained with the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Observatory during 2000, 2002, 2004, and 2011 using the ByuFOSC-2 and SCORPIO spectral cameras. Observations made in 2007 on the 182-cm telescope (Asiago, Italy) at the Padova Astronomical Observatory with the AFOSC (Asiago Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera) detector system are also used. Variations with amplitudes ranging from 0m.2 to 2m.16 are detected in 42 of the stars. Variability is observed for the first time in 31 of the 42 stars. The brightness of 32 of the stars was essentially unchanged during the time of our measurements. All of the 42 variables lie very close to the T Tau type stars on a two-color diagram.

  7. Accretion shocks in the laboratory: Design of an experiment to study star formation

    DOE PAGES

    Young, Rachel P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; ...

    2017-02-13

    Here, we present the design of a laboratory-astrophysics experiment to study magnetospheric accretion relevant to young, pre-main-sequence stars. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact the surface of the star and create shocks. The structures that form during this process are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment would create a scaled "accretion shock" at a major (several kJ) laser facility. The experiment drives a plasma jet (the "accretion stream") into a solid block (the "stellar surface"), in the presence of a parallel magnetic fieldmore » analogous to the star's local field.« less

  8. Theoretical studies of the RS cannum venaticorum stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Four areas of research were investigated: chromospheric modelling; starspot modelling; supersonic transition locus (STL) crossing; and STL crossing and T Tauri phenomena. Relationships among these areas of research are presented. Stellar structure and mass ejection for these stars were examined along with chromospheric analysis.

  9. Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

  10. Morning Star Cycle Two: Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, L. V.

    Semi-structured telephone interviews were used to gather follow-up data on students who completed the 1977-1979 Morning Star cycle two program, a community-based Native teacher education program at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta. Of the 24 students who completed…

  11. Focused Study of Thermonuclear Bursts on Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-05-01

    X-ray bursters form a class of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries where accreted material from a donor star undergoes rapid thermonuclear burning in the surface layers of a neutron star. The flux released can temporarily exceed the Eddington limit and drive the photosphere to large radii. Such photospheric radius expansion bursts likely eject nuclear burning ashes into the interstellar medium, and may make possible the detection of photoionization edges. Indeed, theoretical models predict that absorption edges from 58Fe at 9.2 keV, 60Zn and 62Zn at 12.2 keV should be detectable by the future missions Simbol-X and NuSTAR. A positive detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of the focusing X-ray telescopes may therefore make possible to differentiate between the potential interpretations of the X-ray bursts spectral features.

  12. A NEAR-INFRARED STUDY OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION RCW 34

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Walt, D. J.; De Villiers, H. M.; Czanik, R. J.

    2012-07-15

    We report the results of a near-infrared imaging study of a 7.8 Multiplication-Sign 7.8 arcmin{sup 2} region centered on the 6.7 GHz methanol maser associated with the RCW 34 star-forming region using the 1.4 m IRSF telescope at Sutherland. A total of 1283 objects were detected simultaneously in J, H, and K for an exposure time of 10,800 s. The J - H, H - K two-color diagram revealed a strong concentration of more than 700 objects with colors similar to what is expected of reddened classical T Tauri stars. The distribution of the objects on the K versus Jmore » - K color-magnitude diagram is also suggestive that a significant fraction of the 1283 objects is made up of lower mass pre-main-sequence stars. We also present the luminosity function for the subset of about 700 pre-main-sequence stars and show that it suggests ongoing star formation activity for about 10{sup 7} years. An examination of the spatial distribution of the pre-main-sequence stars shows that the fainter (older) part of the population is more dispersed over the observed region and the brighter (younger) subset is more concentrated around the position of the O8.5V star. This suggests that the physical effects of the O8.5V star and the two early B-type stars on the remainder of the cloud out of which they formed could have played a role in the onset of the more recent episode of star formation in RCW 34.« less

  13. Theoretical studies of chromospheres and winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1986-01-01

    Propagation of pulsational waves through the atmosphere of the M supergiant alpha Ori was explored using a time dependent hydrodynamic code. Wind properties for three FU Orionis objects were determined using radiative transfer models based on optical line profiles. The effects of varying wind temperature while keeping the velocity steady were considered. Using the premise that FU Orionis eruptions result from massive accretions from a disk into a T Tauri star explains a variety of observational peculiarities of FU Orionis objects.

  14. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of \\text{Re}>{{10}4} , and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  15. Studies of neutron star X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Thomas W. J.

    Neutron stars represent the endpoint in stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between ~3 and 8 solar masses. They are the densest non- singularities in the universe, cramming more than a solar mass of matter into a sphere with a radius of about 10 km. Such a large mass-to-radius ratio implies deep potential wells, so that when mass transfer is taking place ~10% of the rest-mass is liberated as gravitational binding energy, resulting in prodigious amounts of X-ray emission that contains valuable information on the physical characteristics in accreting binary systems. Much of my research in this dissertation focuses on the spectroscopic and timing properties of the canonical thermonuclear bursting source GS 1826-238. By measuring the relationship between the X-ray flux (which is assumed to trace the accretion rate onto the stellar surface) and the time intervals between subsequent bursts, I find that although the intervals usually decreased proportionately as the persistent flux increased, a few measurements of the flux-recurrence time relationship were significant outliers. Accompanying spectral and timing changes strongly suggest that the accretion disk extends down to smaller radial distances from the source during these atypical episodes. This result is important for understanding the nature of accretion flows around neutron stars because it indicates that accretion disks probably evaporate at some distance from the neutron star surface at lower accretion rates. I also contribute to our understanding of two newly discovered and heavily- absorbed pulsars (neutron stars with strong magnetic fields) by determining the orbital parameters of the systems through pulse timing analysis. Orbital phase- resolved spectroscopy of one source revealed evidence for an "accretion wake" trailing the pulsar through its orbit, showing that X-rays emanating from the surface can ionize the stellar wind in its vicinity. Finally, I develop an innovative application of dust

  16. Theoretical Near-IR Spectra for Surface Abundance Studies of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of O-type stars based on theoretical near-IR spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio near-IR (1-5 micron) spectra of massive stars in different environments of local galaxies. Our goal is to analyze model near-IR spectra corresponding to those expected from NIRspec on JWST in order to map the wind properties and surface composition across the parameter range of 0 stars and to determine projected rotational velocities. As a massive star evolves, internal coupling, related mixing, and mass loss impact its intrinsic rotation rate. These three parameters form an intricate loop, where enhanced rotation leads to more mixing which in turn changes the mass loss rate, the latter thus affecting the rotation rate. Since the effects of rotation are expected to be much more pronounced at low metallicity, we pay special attention to models for massive stars in the the Small Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy provides a unique opportunity to probe stellar evolution, and the feedback of massive stars on galactic evol.ution in conditions similar to the epoch of maximal star formation. Plain-Language Abstract: We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of massive stars based on theoretical near-infrared (1-5 micron) spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. This study is to prepare for observations by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  17. A theoretical study of alpha star populations in loaded nuclear emulsions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Farley, T.A.; Stieff, L.R.

    1954-01-01

    This theoretical study of the alpha star populations in loaded emulsions was undertaken in an effort to find a quantitative method for the analysis of less than microgram amounts of thorium in the presence of larger amounts of uranium. Analytical expressions for each type of star from each of the significantly contributing members of the uranium and thorium series as well as summation formulas for the whole series have been computed. The analysis for thorium may be made by determining the abundance of five-branched stars in a loaded nuclear emulsion and comparing of observed and predicted star populations. The comparison may also be used to check the half-lives of several members of the uranium and thorium series. ?? 1954.

  18. Studies of the structure of massive hybrid stars within a modified NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin-Li; Yan, Yan; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we use the equation of state based on a modification of the 2 +1 flavors Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to study the quark matter of hybrid stars. For comparison, we utilize five EOSs of the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model to describe the hadronic phase. With the three-window crossover interpolation approach, we try to construct relatively soft hybrid EOSs but find the maximum masses of hybrid stars do not differ much. The results are quite close to the 2 solar mass, which is consistent with the mass constraint of PSR J 0348 +0432 . Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the heaviest stable stars have central densities higher than that of the deconfinement transition, suggesting a pure quark core in the hybrid star.

  19. Space-Based Telemetry and Range Safety (STARS) Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogie, Keith; Crisuolo, Ed; Parise, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will describe the design, development, and testing of a system to collect telemetry, format it into UDP/IP packets, and deliver it to a ground test range using standard IP technologies over a TDRSS link. This presentation will discuss the goal of the STARS IP Formatter along with the overall design. It will also present performance results of the current version of the IP formatter. Finally, it will discuss key issues for supporting constant rate telemetry data delivery when using standard components such as PCI/104 processors, the Linux operating system, Internet Protocols, and synchronous serial interfaces.

  20. Study of optimal wavefront sensing with elongated laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, S. J.; Adkins, S.; Gavel, D.; Fusco, T.; Michau, V.

    2008-06-01

    Over the past decade, adaptive optics (AO) has become an established method for overcoming the effects of atmospheric turbulence on both astronomical imaging and spectroscopic observations. These systems are now beginning to make extensive use of laser guide star (LGS) techniques to improve performance and provide increased sky coverage. Sodium LGS AO employs one or more lasers at 589-nm wavelength to produce an artificial guide star through excitation of sodium atoms in the mesosphere (90 km altitude). Because of its dependence on the abundance and distribution of sodium atoms in the mesosphere, this approach has its own unique set of difficulties not seen with natural stars. The sodium layer exhibits time-dependent variations in density and altitude, and since it is at a finite range, the LGS images become elongated due to the thickness of the layer and the offset between the laser projection point and the subapertures of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWFS). Elongation causes the LGS image to be spread out resulting in a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio which, in turn, leads to an increase in SHWFS measurement error and therefore an increased error in wavefront phase reconstruction. To address the problem of elongation, and also to provide a higher level of readout performance and reduced readout noise, a new type of charge-coupled device (CCD) is now under development for Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing called the polar coordinate CCD. In this device, discrete imaging arrays are provided in each SHWFS subaperture and the size, shape and orientation of each discrete imaging array are adjusted to optimally sample the LGS image. The device is referred to as the polar coordinate CCD because the location of each imager is defined by a polar coordinate system centred on the laser guide star projection point. This concept is especially suited to Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs) where the effect of perspective elongation is a significant factor. In this

  1. Spectroscopic study of the star Canum Venat (G0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentese, H. H.

    In this work the effective temperature and surface gravity of the star BetaCVn were determined by means of the theoretical profiles calculated by De Jager and Neven (1967-1968). The best agreement was obtained for T(eff) = 5940 K and log g = 4. The values of the excitation temperatures for Ti, Cr, Mn, and Fe were calculated and found to be very close to each other. The abundances of the elements were obtained by the growth curve method and found to be normal.

  2. John Goodricke, Edward Pigott, and Their Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2012-06-01

    John Goodricke and Edward Pigott, working in York, England, between 1781 and 1786, determined the periods of variation of eclipsing binaries such as Algol and Beta Lyrae and speculated that the eclipses of Algol might be caused by a "dark body," perhaps even a planet. They also determined the periods of variation of the first two known Cepheid variables, the stars whose period-luminosity relation today enables astronomers to determine distances to distant galaxies. Goodricke holds special interest because he was completely deaf and because he died at the age of 21. The lives and work of these two astronomers are described.

  3. Rejuvenation of the Innocent Bystander: Results from a Pilot X-ray Study of Dwarf Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoni, Fernando; Montez, Rodolfo; Green, Paul

    2018-01-01

    We present the results of a pilot study by the Chandra X-ray Observatory of X-ray emission from dwarf Carbon (dC) stars. Carbon stars were thought to be exclusively AGB stars but main sequence dwarfs showing carbon molecular bands appear to be the dominant variety. The existence of dC stars is surprising since dwarf stars cannot intrinsically produce carbon as an AGB star can. It is hypothesized that dC stars are polluted by an evolved companion star. Evidence of past pollution can appear in X-ray emission where increased coronal activity (“spin-up”) or mass accretion via a disk can be detected. Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory we detected X-ray photons in the vicinity of all the dC stars in our a pilot sample. For each detection we characterized the X-ray emission and compared to the emission expected from potential emission scenarios. Although the process that produces the X-ray emission from dC stars is presently unclear and our pilot sample is small, our results suggest that X-ray emission might be a universal characteristic of dC stars. Further examination of the X-ray emission plus future X-ray and multiwavelength observations will help us better understand the nature of these intriguing stars.

  4. Sage Studies Of The Mass Return From AGB And RSG Stars In The Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, S.; Meixner, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE; PI: M. Meixner) Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy project aims to further our understanding of the life cycle of matter in galaxies by studying this life cycle in our neighboring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Combining SAGE mid-infrared photometry with that at shorter wavelengths from other catalogs, the spectral energy distribution (SED) for each of >25000 Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) and Red Supergiant (RSG) stars in the LMC has been assembled. To model mass loss from these stars, my colleagues and I have constructed the grid of RSG and AGB models (GRAMS) using the radiative transfer code 2Dust. I will discuss how GRAMS was constructed, and how we use it to determine the mass-loss rate for each evolved star studied, which gives the total mass-loss return to the LMC from AGB and RSG stars. In my talk, I show how this total mass-loss return is divided into oxygen-rich (O-rich) and carbon-rich (C-rich) dust using SED-fitting to identify O-rich versus C-rich AGB stars. Applications of this work to determining the mass return from evolved stars in other galaxies, including the Milky Way, will also be discussed.

  5. An x-ray study of massive star forming regions with CHANDRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng

    2007-08-01

    Massive stars are characterized by powerful stellar winds, strong ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and consequently devastating supernovae explosions, which have a profound influence on their natal clouds and galaxy evolution. However, the formation and evolution of massive stars themselves and how their low-mass siblings are affected in the wind-swept and UV-radiation-dominated environment are not well understood. Much of the stellar populations inside of the massive star forming regions (MSFRs) are poorly studied in the optical and IR wavelengths because of observational challenges caused by large distance, high extinction, and heavy contamination from unrelated sources. Although it has long been recognized that X-rays open a new window to sample the young stellar populations residing in the MSFRs, the low angular resolution of previous generation X-ray telescopes has limited the outcome from such studies. The sensitive high spatial resolution X-ray observations enabled by the Chandra X- ray Observatory and the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) have significantly improved our ability to study the X-ray-emitting populations in the MSFRs in the last few years. In this thesis, I analyzed seven high spatial resolution Chandra /ACIS images of two massive star forming complexes, namely the NGC 6357 region hosting the 1 Myr old Pismis 24 cluster (Chapter 3) and the Rosette Complex including the 2 Myr old NGC 2244 cluster immersed in the Rosette Nebula (Chapter 4), embedded clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC; Chapter 5), and a triggered cluster NGC 2237 (Chapter 6). The X-ray sampled stars were studied in great details. The unique power of X-ray selection of young stellar cluster members yielded new knowledge in the stellar populations, the cluster structures, and the star formation histories. The census of cluster members is greatly improved in each region. A large fraction of the X-ray detections have optical or near-infrared (NIR) stellar counterparts

  6. Photometric studies of δ Scuti stars. I. IP Virginis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, Eric G.; Collier, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    We report 15 new times of maximum light for the δ Scuti star IP Virginis (formerly known as SA 106‐1024). An analysis of all times of maximum light indicates that IP Vir has been decreasing in period at a constant rate of − days day−1. Evidence is also presented that IP Vir is a double‐mode variable with a period ratio of . This period ratio predicts a [Fe/H] value of −0.3. From photometric (uvbyβ) observations, we find a foreground reddening of .008 mag and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.05. It is shown that [Fe/H] = −0.3 is most likely the correct value. Intrinsic ‐ and c1‐values, plotted in a model atmosphere grid, indicate a mean effective temperature, K, and a mean surface gravity, . All of these physical parameters support Landolt's initial conclusion that IP Vir is an ordinary δ Sct star.

  7. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  8. An unbiased study of debris discs around A-type stars with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, N. D.; Greaves, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Kennedy, G.; Phillips, N.; Booth, M.; Duchêne, G.; Horner, J.; Rodriguez, D. R.; Sibthorpe, B.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Herschel DEBRIS (Disc Emission via a Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre) survey brings us a unique perspective on the study of debris discs around main-sequence A-type stars. Bias-free by design, the survey offers a remarkable data set with which to investigate the cold disc properties. The statistical analysis of the 100 and 160 μm data for 86 main-sequence A stars yields a lower than previously found debris disc rate. Considering better than 3σ excess sources, we find a detection rate ≥24 ± 5 per cent at 100 μm which is similar to the debris disc rate around main-sequence F/G/K-spectral type stars. While the 100 and 160 μm excesses slowly decline with time, debris discs with large excesses are found around some of the oldest A stars in our sample, evidence that the debris phenomenon can survive throughout the length of the main sequence (˜1 Gyr). Debris discs are predominantly detected around the youngest and hottest stars in our sample. Stellar properties such as metallicity are found to have no effect on the debris disc incidence. Debris discs are found around A stars in single systems and multiple systems at similar rates. While tight and wide binaries (<1 and >100 au, respectively) host debris discs with a similar frequency and global properties, no intermediate separation debris systems were detected in our sample.

  9. Infrared Studies of the Variability and Mass Loss of Dusty Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2018-01-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is one of the last phases of a star's life. AGB stars lose mass in an outflow in which dust condenses and is pushed away from the star. Extreme AGB stars are so named because their very red colors suggest very large amounts of dust, which in turn suggests extremely high mass loss rates. AGB stars also vary in brightness, and studies show that extreme AGB stars tend to have longer periods than other AGB stars and are more likely to be fundamental mode pulsators than other AGB stars. Extreme AGB stars are difficult to study, as their colors are so red due to their copious amounts of circumstellar dust that they are often not detected at optical wavelengths. Therefore, they must be observed at infrared wavelengths to explore their variability. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, my team and I have observed a sample of extreme AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) over Cycles 9 through 12 during the Warm Spitzer mission. For each cycle, we typically observed a set of extreme AGB stars at both 3.6 and 4.5 microns wavelength approximately monthly for most of a year. These observations reveal a wide range of variability properties. I present results from our analysis of the data obtained from these Spitzer variability programs, including light curve analyses and comparison to period-luminosity diagrams. Funding is acknowledged from JPL RSA # 1561703.

  10. Spectroscopic Binary Star Studies with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, A. F.; Lane, B. F.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Queloz, D.; PTI Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    The Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) is a long-baseline near-infrared interferometer located at Palomar Observatory. Following our previous work on resolving spectroscopic binary stars with the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI), we will present a number of new visual and physical orbit determinations derived from integrated reductions of PTI visibility and archival radial velocity data. The six systems for which we will present new orbit models are: 12 Boo (HD 123999), 75 Cnc (HD 78418), 47 And (HD 8374), HD 205539, BY Draconis (HDE 234677), and 3 Boo (HD 120064). Most of these systems are double-lined binary systems (SB2), and integrated astrometric/radial velocity orbit modeling provides precise fundamental parameters (mass, luminosity) and system distance determinations comparable with Hipparcos precisions. The work described in this paper was performed under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Observational Studies of the Clearing Phase in Proto-Planetary Disks Surrounding Intermediate Mass Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study of circumstellar gas associated with young, intermediate-mass stars has demonstrated that, far from being unique or an infrequently occurring phenomenon, beta Pic-like infall activity is routinely observed in stars younger than 10-50 Myr when the observer's line of sight lies within 15 degrees of the disk mid-plane. Detailed studies of 2 Herbig Ae/Be stars, AB Aur and HD 163296 demonstrate that enhanced infall episodes last 20-60 hours, comparable to the duration of similar episodes in beta Pictoris. The infall activity is consistent with detection of the comae of swarms of star-grazing bodies of asteroidal to cometary composition. Episodic fluctuations in the infall activity are clearly present by approximately 6 Myr, and may indicate the presence of massive planets within the disk. This study has therefore, directly contributed to NASA's Origins of Planetary Systems theme by identifying under what conditions extra-solar planetesimals can be remotely sensed, indicating that such bodies appear to be routinely detectable among young stars in the 1-10 Myr range, and suggesting that temporal studies of spectroscopic variability may provide a means of identifying those systems harboring massive planets. This study has resulted in 2 refereed review papers, 13 other refereed papers, and 17 conference papers.

  12. High Dispersion Line Profile Studies of TW HYA and Other Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1984-07-01

    We propose to extend our study of line profiles in T Tauri stars by obtaining a 16 hour SWP-HI spectrum of TW Hya and 6-8 hour LWP-HI spectra of TW Hya, AK Sco, CoD -35 10525 and CoD -33 10685. High dispersion spectra of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars provide unique information on line widths, shifts, and asymmetries, as well as evidence for mass outflow, circumstellar absorption, and diagnostics for the temperature structure of the outer atmosphere layers of these complex yet incredibly important objects. We have previously obtained and studied line profiles in RU Lupi and the prototype star T Tau. RU Lupi has line profiles that are dominated by the wind expansion, for example the MgII and FeII multiplet UV1 profiles are unique in that they have a classical P Cygni shape, whereas T Tau has more symmetric emission profiles indicative of a chromosphere and hotter layers not dominated by expansion. TW Hya is different from these two previously studied stars in that it may be the brightest known example of a post-T Tauri star, and hence less active and older than the other PMS stars. We intend to compare its line profiles with those of RU Lupi and T Tauri in order to understand the differences in the non-thermal mass motions, wind expansion, and thermal structures of these three very different T Tau stars. The requested LWPHI spectra are to obtain MgII and FeII multiplet UV1. profiles of 4 different T Tauri objects so as to infer the expansion and thermal structure in their chromospheric layers.

  13. A mid-IR study of the circumstellar environment of Herbig Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeff, A. P.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Min, M.; Stap, F. A.; Pantin, E.; van Boekel, R.; Acke, B.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; de Koter, A.

    2012-02-01

    Context. The study of the formation of massive stars is complicated because of the short times scales, large distances, and obscuring natal clouds. There are observational and theoretical indications that the circumstellar environment of Herbig Be (HBe) stars is substantially different from that of their lower mass counterparts, the T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. Aims: We map the spatial distribution and mineralogy of the warm circumstellar dust of a sample of HBe stars. We compare our results to a sample of less massive Herbig Ae stars. Methods: We used literature photometry to obtain optical extinctions and stellar parameters of the targets. We obtained N-band imaging and long-slit spectroscopic data with the VISIR instrument at the VLT and we analyzed these data. We performed photometry of the images and extracted spatial information. We corrected the spectra for extinction and performed mineralogical fits. We fitted Gaussian profiles to characterize the spatial extent of the spectra along the VISIR slit. Results: We find that the mid-infrared (IR) emission of the HBe stars is typically characterized by a circumstellar disk that efficiently reprocesses a substantial portion of the stellar flux. The mid-IR flux levels, the spatial compactness, and the dust composition are quite similar to those of the Herbig Ae stars. We find upper limits to the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) size of the mid-IR emission of ~500 AU. The main differences with the lower mass stars are the lower overall IR excess with a greater variety in shapes, the weaker PAH reprocessing power, and the lack of a silica-forsterite relation. The discrepancies between VISIR and IRAS photometry, the far-IR contributions and the large PAH sizes of HBe stars are attributed to natal clouds. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the Herbig Be disks are flatter than those around lower mass stars and they are likely truncated from the outside by photoevaporation. Based on observations collected at the

  14. Studies of star formation in isolated small dark clouds - II. A southern ammonia survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourke, T. L.; Hyland, A. R.; Robinson, G.; James, S. D.; Wright, C. M.

    1995-10-01

    A study of the set of small, southern molecular clouds (globules) compiled by Bourke, Hyland & Robinson has been undertaken, through radio observations of ammonia using the Parkes 64-m telescope. The aim of the study is to determine the physical characteristics of the globules, their role in the formation of low-mass stars, and the physical mechanism that triggers the star formation process, or stabilizes the globules against collapse. With this general aim in mind, the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia have been surveyed in order to determine the densities, temperatures and masses of the globules. Half of the globules have been detected in ammonia, but only 6 per cent of the detections are `strong' (T*_a>=0.35K). Comparing the globule properties with those of Benson & Myers for cores within complexes, we find that the globules are less opaque and less dense, and are less active sites of star formation. Other properties are comparable. The Vela cometary globules are detected more readily in ammonia than the more isolated globules, and are more active star formation sites. These results suggest that the dense core's environment, in particular the presence of either a large external mass or a significant stellar wind, plays an important role in initiating the star formation process.

  15. A multi-wavelength study of pre-main sequence stars in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, E. W.; Stelzer, B.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hillwig, T. C.; Durisen, R. H.; Menten, K. M.; Greimel, R.; Barwig, H.; Englhauser, J.; Robb, R. M.

    2000-05-01

    Although many lowmass pre-main sequence stars are strong X-ray sources, the origin of the X-ray emission is not well known. Since these objects are variable at all frequencies, simultaneous observations in X-rays and in other wavelengths are able to constrain the properties of the X-ray emitting regions. In this paper, we report quasi-simultaneous observations in X-rays, the optical, and the radio regime for classical and weak-line T Tauri stars from the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region. We find that all detected T Tauri stars show significant night-to-night variations of the X-ray emission. For three of the stars, FM Tau and CW Tau, both classical T Tauri stars, and V773 Tau, a weak-line T Tauri star, the variations are especially large. From observations taken simultaneously, we also find that there is some correspondence between the strength of Hα and the X-ray brightness in V773 Tau. The lack of a strong correlation leads us to conclude that the X-ray emission of V773 Tau is not a superposition of flares. However, we suggest that a weak correlation occurs because chromospherically active regions and regions of strong X-ray emission are generally related. V773 Tau was detected at 8.46 GHz as a weakly circularly polarised but highly variable source. We also find that the X-ray emission and the equivalent width of Hα remained unchanged, while large variations of the flux density in the radio regime were observed. This clearly indicates that the emitting regions are different. Using optical spectroscopy we detected a flare in Hα and event which showed a flare-like light-curve of the continuum brightness in FM Tau. However, ROSAT did not observe the field at the times of these flares. Nevertheless, an interesting X-ray event was observed in V773 Tau, during which the flux increased for about 8 hours and then decreased back to the same level in 5 hours. We interpret this as a long-duration event similar to those seen on the sun and other active stars. In the

  16. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  17. Arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers: A forward flux sampling method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Wang, Zuowei

    2017-07-01

    The study of dynamics and rheology of well-entangled branched polymers remains a challenge for computer simulations due to the exponentially growing terminal relaxation times of these polymers with increasing molecular weights. We present an efficient simulation algorithm for studying the arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers by combining the coarse-grained slip-spring (SS) model with the forward flux sampling (FFS) method. This algorithm is first applied to simulate symmetric star polymers in the absence of constraint release (CR). The reaction coordinate for the FFS method is determined by finding good agreement of the simulation results on the terminal relaxation times of mildly entangled stars with those obtained from direct shooting SS model simulations with the relative difference between them less than 5%. The FFS simulations are then carried out for strongly entangled stars with arm lengths up to 16 entanglements that are far beyond the accessibility of brute force simulations in the non-CR condition. Apart from the terminal relaxation times, the same method can also be applied to generate the relaxation spectra of all entanglements along the arms which are desired for the development of quantitative theories of entangled branched polymers. Furthermore, we propose a numerical route to construct the experimentally measurable relaxation correlation functions by effectively linking the data stored at each interface during the FFS runs. The obtained star arm end-to-end vector relaxation functions Φ (t ) and the stress relaxation function G(t) are found to be in reasonably good agreement with standard SS simulation results in the terminal regime. Finally, we demonstrate that this simulation method can be conveniently extended to study the arm-retraction problem in entangled star polymer melts with CR by modifying the definition of the reaction coordinate, while the computational efficiency will depend on the particular slip-spring or slip

  18. Study of Molecular Clouds, Variable Stars and Related Topics at NUU and UBAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    The search of young PMS stars made by our team at Maidanak, Lulin and Beijing observatories, especially in NGC 6820/23 area, as well as monitoring of a sample of open clusters will be described and results will be presented. We consider physical conditions in different star forming regions, particularly in TDC and around Vul OB1, estimate SFE and SFR, energy balance and instability processes in these regions. We also reviewed all data on molecular clouds in the Galaxy and in other galaxies where the clouds were observed to prepare general catalog of molecular clouds, to study physical conditions, unsteadiness and possible star formation in them, the formation and evolution of molecular cloud systems, to analyze their role in formation of different types of galaxies and structural features therein.

  19. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential productsmore » of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.« less

  20. Role of stereoscopic imaging in the astronomical study of nearby stars and planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, David S.; Waste, Corby

    1997-05-01

    The development of stereoscopic imaging as a 3D spatial mapping tool for planetary science is now beginning to find greater usefulness in the study of stellar atmospheres and planetary systems in general. For the first time, telescopes and accompanying spectrometers have demonstrated the capacity to depict the gyrating motion of nearby stars so precisely as to derive the existence of closely orbiting Jovian-type planets, which are gravitationally influencing the motion of the parent star. Also for the first time, remote space borne telescopes, unhindered by atmospheric effects, are recording and tracking the rotational characteristics of our nearby star, the sun, so accurately as to reveal and identify in great detail the heightened turbulence of the sun's corona. In order to perform new forms of stereo imaging and 3D reconstruction with such large scale objects as stars and planets, within solar systems, a set of geometrical parameters must be observed, and are illustrated here. The behavior of nearby stars can be studied over time using an astrometric approach, making use of the earth's orbital path as a semi- yearly stereo base for the viewing telescope. As is often the case in this method, the resulting stereo angle becomes too narrow to afford a beneficial stereo view, given the star's distance and the general level of detected noise in the signal. With the advent, though, of new earth based and space borne interferometers, operating within various wavelengths including IR, the capability of detecting and assembling the full 3-dimensional axes of motion of nearby gyrating stars can be achieved. In addition, the coupling of large interferometers with combined data sets can provide large stereo bases and low signal noise to produce converging 3- dimensional stereo views of nearby planetary systems. Several groups of new astronomical stereo imaging data sets are presented, including 3D views of the sun taken by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, coincident

  1. A study on making a Honsang using the star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Seon Young; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-01-01

    The first record of Honsang (Celestial globe) was found in 『Sejong Sillok』 in Korea. Since then, there were records that Honsang was restored during the reign of King Jungjong and King Myungjong, and then restored again in the reign of King Seonjo. The only existing Honsang was made by Yi Hwang (1501-1570) in the 16th century for education of his followers. After then, Hong Dae Yong's (1731-1783) Honsangui, which was made in 18th century, had been passed down only through the literature. The constellations in Honsang and the scale system of each ring changed after 17th century when Western science began to affect Joseon dynasty. Since that time, the constellations, realized on Honsang globe, changed from constellations in the old method to ones in the new method. Furthermore, the scale system of rings on Honsang was changed from 365.25 Do, Jucheondo (Celestial globe circumference), to 360°. In this study, Honsang with constellations in the new method was made using star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』 published in 1861, which represented the constellations in the new method of Joseon dynasty. In order to realized the constellations from the star catalogue in 『Seong Gyeong』 on Honsang globe, the plane star chart and circular star chart of the area near the South and North Poles were drawn using spherical trigonometry. Using these star charts, the constellations in whole sky including stars near the South Pole were realized on Honsang globe. Also, equatorial coordinates and ecliptic coordinates were realized on Honsang globe simultaneously, and scales of Honsang's rings were marked as 360°.

  2. A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of

  3. A study of star formation by Hα emission of galaxies in the galaxy group NGC 4213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maungkorn, Sakdawoot; Kriwattanawong, Wichean

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to study hydrogen alpha emission, corresponding to star formation of galaxies in the NGC 4213 group that has an average recession velocity of 6,821 km/s. The imaging observations with broad-band filters (B, V and RC) and narrow-band filters ([S II] and Red-continuum) were carried out from the 2.4-m reflecting telescope at Thai National Observatory (TNO). There are 11 sample galaxies in this study, consisting of 2 elliptical, 2 lenticular and 7 spiral galaxies. It was found that the late-type galaxies tend to be bluer than early-type galaxies, due to these galaxies consist of relatively high proportion of blue stars. Furthermore, the equivalent width of hydrogen alpha (EW(Hα)) tends to increase as a function of morphological type. This indicates that star formation in late-type galaxies taking place more than the early-type galaxies. Furthermore, a ratio of the star formation rate to galaxy mass also increases slightly with the galaxy type. This could be due to the interaction between galaxy-galaxy or tidal interaction occurring within the galaxy group.

  4. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M⊙. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  5. Asteroseismology and mass loss in Be stars. Study with CoRoT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diago, P. D.

    The general aim of this work is the study of Be stars with the CoRoT space mission. The mechanisms responsible of the production and dynamics of the circumstellar gas in Be stars are still not constrained. Observations of non-radial pulsation beating phenomena connected to outbursts point toward a relevance of pulsation, but this mechanism cannot be generalized. In this regard, the observation of classical Be stars with the high-precision CoRoT satellite is providing important keys to understand the physics of these objects and the nature of the Be phenomenon. In order to study the light variations of the selected stars we use photometric and spectroscopic observations. These observations allow us to extract frequencies, amplitudes and phases of these variations. As we will show, these light variations can be connected with pulsations on the stellar surface. For carrying out the frequency analysis we have developed a new code based on standard Fourier analysis. The point is that this code, called PASPER, allows the frequency analysis of large sets of light curves in an automatic mode. This Ph.D. thesis is arranged as follows: In the first three Chapters we describe the scientific framework of this project, giving a brief description on Asteroseismology, presenting the current status of Be stars, and describing the basics of the Fourier analysis and the rudiments of the time series analysis. At the early begin of this Ph.D. thesis, the CoRoT satellite was still on ground getting ready for the launch. In this context, we perform a search for short-period B and Be star variables in the low metallicity environment of the Magellanic Clouds. This study constitutes the Part I of this Ph.D. thesis. This Part has a double goal: i) to test the frequency analysis codes; and ii) to detect observationally beta Cephei and SPB-like B-type pulsators in low metallicity environments, actually not predicted by the pulsational theory and models. This constitutes the PartI. Part II is

  6. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M⊙. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  7. The Dunhuang Chinese sky: A comprehensive study of the oldest known star atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Praderie, Françoise; Whitfield, Susan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the star atlas included in the medieval Chinese manuscript Or.8210/S.3326 discovered in 1907 by the archaeologist Aurel Stein at the Silk Road town of Dunhuang and now housed in the British Library. Although partially studied by a few Chinese scholars, it has never been fully displayed and discussed in the Western world. This set of sky maps (12 hour-angle maps in quasi-cylindrical projection and a circumpolar map in azimuthal projection), displaying the full sky visible from the Northern Hemisphere, is up to now the oldest complete preserved star atlas known from any civilisation. It is also the earliest known pictorial representation of the quasi-totality of Chinese constellations. This paper describes the history of the physical object - a roll of thin paper drawn with ink. We analyse the stellar content of each map (1,339 stars, 257 asterisms) and the texts associated with the maps. We establish the precision with which the maps were drawn (1.5-4° for the brightest stars) and examine the type of projections used. We conclude that precise mathematical methods were used to produce the Atlas. We also discuss the dating of the manuscript and its possible author, and we confirm the date +649-684 (early Tang Dynasty) as most probable based on the available evidence. This is at variance with a prior estimate of around +940. Finally, we present a brief comparison with later sky maps, both from China and Europe.

  8. A STUDY OF RO-VIBRATIONAL OH EMISSION FROM HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Brittain, Sean D.; Reynolds, Nickalas; Najita, Joan R.

    2016-10-20

    We present a study of ro-vibrational OH and CO emission from 21 disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. We find that the OH and CO luminosities are proportional over a wide range of stellar ultraviolet luminosities. The OH and CO line profiles are also similar, indicating that they arise from roughly the same radial region of the disk. The CO and OH emission are both correlated with the far-ultraviolet luminosity of the stars, while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity is correlated with the longer wavelength ultraviolet luminosity of the stars. Although disk flaring affects the PAH luminosity, it is notmore » a factor in the luminosity of the OH and CO emission. These properties are consistent with models of UV-irradiated disk atmospheres. We also find that the transition disks in our sample, which have large optically thin inner regions, have lower OH and CO luminosities than non-transition disk sources with similar ultraviolet luminosities. This result, while tentative given the small sample size, is consistent with the interpretation that transition disks lack a gaseous disk close to the star.« less

  9. Multi-wavelength Morphological Study Of Star Forming Regions In Nearby Cluster-rich Lirgs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilkin, Tatjana; Evans, A.; Mazzarella, J.; Surace, J.; Kim, D.; Howell, J.; Armus, L.; GOALS Team

    2009-05-01

    Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) are believed to play an important role in star formation history of the universe. Many LIRGs undergo intense bursts of star formation as a result of interaction/merger process. Given the dusty nature of LIRGs, it is necessary to probe Luminous Infrared Galaxies at multiple wavelengths. The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) combines data from NASA's Spitzer, Hubble, Chandra and GALEX observatories and offers a unique opportunity to gain insights into the physical processes in these highly dust enshrouded systems. We examine a sample of 11 nearby (z < 0.03) cluster-rich (> 200 clusters as seen in HST ACS images) LIRG systems at various interaction stages. The combined HST ACS optical imaging, Spitzer IRAC 8 micron channel and GALEX near-UV imaging allows us to access the properties of visible and obscured star forming regions. We study the spatial distribution of star forming regions at these wavelengths, correlate locations of young stellar clusters with PAH and UV emission regions and trace changes with merger stage.

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of the Properties of Dust in the Ejecta of Galactic Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Kastner, Joel; Meixner, Margaret; Riley, Allyssa

    2018-06-01

    We are conducting a series of infrared studies of large samples of mass-losing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to explore the relationship between the composition of evolved star ejecta and host galaxy metallicity. Our previous studies focused on mass loss from evolved stars in the relatively low-metallicity Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. In our present study, we analyze dust in the mass-losing envelopes of AGB stars in the Galaxy, with special focus on the ejecta of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB stars. We have constructed detailed dust opacity models of AGB stars in the Galaxy for which we have infrared spectra from, e.g., the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS). This detailed modeling of dust features in IRS spectra informs our choice of dust properties to use in radiative transfer modeling of the broadband SEDs of Bulge AGB stars. We investigate the effects of dust grain composition, size, shape, etc. on the AGB stars' infrared spectra, studying both the silicate dust and the opacity source(s) commonly attributed to alumina (Al2O3). BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant 80NSSC17K0057.

  11. Neurobehavioural assessment and diagnosis in disorders of consciousness: a preliminary study of the Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR).

    PubMed

    Stokes, Verity; Gunn, Sarah; Schouwenaars, Katie; Badwan, Derar

    2018-09-01

    The Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR) is an interdisciplinary neurobehavioural diagnostic tool for individuals with prolonged disorders of consciousness. It utilises current diagnostic criteria and is intended to improve upon the high misdiagnosis rate in this population. This study assesses the inter-rater reliability of the STAR and its diagnostic validity in comparison with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Participants were patients with severe acquired brain injury resulting in a disorder of consciousness, who were admitted to the Royal Leamington Spa Rehabilitation Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Patients underwent sensory stimulation sessions during their period of admission, which were recorded on video. Using this footage, patients were re-assessed for this study using the STAR, WHIM and CRS-R criteria. The STAR demonstrated "moderate" inter-rater reliability, "substantial" diagnostic agreement with the CRS-R, and "moderate" agreement with the WHIM. There were no significant differences between diagnoses assigned by the different assessments. The STAR demonstrated a good degree of inter-rater reliability in identification of diagnoses for patients with disorders of consciousness. The diagnostic outcomes of the STAR agreed at a good level with the CRS-R, moderately with the WHIM, and did not significantly differ from either. This demonstrates the reliability and validity of the STAR, showing its appropriateness for clinical use. Future longitudinal studies and research into the STAR's applicability in long-stay rehabilitation are indicated.

  12. Extinction and Star Formation Study in Molecular Clouds with DENIS infrared data and USNO optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambrésy, Laurent

    1999-11-01

    This thesis consists in a study of molecular clouds, essentially of the point of view of the interstellar environment, but also of the one of the star formation. The original method to estimate extinction presented here is based on adaptive star counts as well as on a wavelet decomposition. For the first time, an extinction map of the whole sky is proposed (USNO-PMM optical data). Access to very large field maps offers the opportunity to analyze the interstellar matter distribution in various environments. A first result is that the contained mass in regions for which AV > 1 would not exceed half of the total cloud mass. Using DENIS data, it becomes possible to probe dense regions of clouds. For instance, star counts in the Chamaeleon complex show cores which were not resolved before. Moreover, the selection of stars with a strong infrared excess yields about fifty T Tauri candidates. From their luminosity function, I derived the average lifetime of circumstellar disc of low--mass stars: ~4cdot 106 years. It is difficult to understand the relation between extinction and molecular emission, but it appears clearly that molecular emission is a bad estimator of the column density for low extinction area. Actually, thresholds exist in the CO detection and I conclude that photodissociation, density and cloud geometry have important consequences on the CO emission when AV < 2. Investigation of the relation between extinction and far--infrared emission in Polaris leads to a four times larger emissivity in cold areas than in hot areas. This result explains the low temperatures in this cloud and implies severe restrictions concerning the use of far--infrared fluxes as an extinction estimator.

  13. A Multi-wavelength Study of Star Formation Activity in the S235 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Luna, A.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ninan, J. P.; Mallick, K. K.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out an extensive multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process in the S235 complex. The S235 complex has a spherelike shell appearance at wavelengths longer than 2 μm and harbors an O9.5V type star approximately at its center. A near-infrared extinction map of the complex traces eight subregions (having AV > 8 mag), and five of them appear to be distributed in an almost regularly spaced manner along the spherelike shell surrounding the ionized emission. This picture is also supported by the integrated 12CO and 13CO intensity maps and by Bolocam 1.1 mm continuum emission. The position-velocity analysis of CO reveals an almost semi-ringlike structure, suggesting an expanding H II region. We find that the Bolocam clump masses increase as we move away from the location of the ionizing star. This correlation is seen only for those clumps that are distributed near the edges of the shell. Photometric analysis reveals 435 young stellar objects (YSOs), 59% of which are found in clusters. Six subregions (including five located near the edges of the shell) are very well correlated with the dust clumps, CO gas, and YSOs. The average values of Mach numbers derived using NH3 data for three (East 1, East 2, and Central E) out of these six subregions are 2.9, 2.3, and 2.9, indicating these subregions are supersonic. The molecular outflows are detected in these three subregions, further confirming the ongoing star formation activity. Together, all these results are interpreted as observational evidence of positive feedback of a massive star.

  14. Near-infrared variability study of the central 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 of the Galactic Centre - II. Identification of RR Lyrae stars in the Milky Way nuclear star cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Schödel, Rainer; Williams, Benjamin F.; Nogueras-Lara, Francisco; Gallego-Cano, Eulalia; Gallego-Calvente, Teresa; Wang, Q. Daniel; Rich, R. Michael; Morris, Mark R.; Do, Tuan; Ghez, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Because of strong and spatially highly variable interstellar extinction and extreme source crowding, the faint (K ≥ 15) stellar population in the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster is still poorly studied. RR Lyrae stars provide us with a tool to estimate the mass of the oldest, relative dim stellar population. Recently, we analysed HST/WFC3/IR observations of the central 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 of the Milky Way and found 21 variable stars with periods between 0.2 and 1 d. Here, we present a further comprehensive analysis of these stars. The period-luminosity relationship of RR Lyrae is used to derive their extinctions and distances. Using multiple approaches, we classify our sample as 4 RRc stars, 4 RRab stars, 3 RRab candidates and 10 binaries. Especially, the four RRab stars show sawtooth light curves and fall exactly on to the Oosterhoff I division in the Bailey diagram. Compared to the RRab stars reported by Minniti et al., our new RRab stars have higher extinction (AK > 1.8) and should be closer to the Galactic Centre. The extinction and distance of one RRab stars match those for the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster given in previous works. We perform simulations and find that after correcting for incompleteness, there could be not more than 40 RRab stars within the Milky Way's nuclear star cluster and in our field of view. Through comparing with the known globular clusters of the Milky Way, we estimate that if there exists an old, metal-poor (-1.5 < [Fe/H] < -1) stellar population in the Milky Way nuclear star cluster on a scale of 5 × 5 pc, then it contributes at most 4.7 × 105 M⊙, I.e. ˜18 per cent of the stellar mass.

  15. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Star and Red Supergiant Star Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William T.; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We present an update of our investigation of differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  16. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  17. Nucleation Studies under the Conditions of Carbon-rich AGB Star Envelopes: TiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patzer, A. B. C.; Wendt, M.; Chang, C.; Sülzle, D.

    2011-09-01

    Many studies of dust nucleation in winds of carbon-rich AGB stars consider primarily carbon as the dust forming material. But dust grains formed in such circumstellar envelopes are rather a mixture of several chemical elements such as titanium or silicon in addition to carbon, as verified by many investigations of pre-solar grains enclosed in meteorites, for example. In this contribution we focus on the study of the nucleation of titanium carbide particles from the gas phase. The necessary properties of molecular titanium carbide clusters have been estimated by the density functional approach, and the first implications for the homogeneous nucleation of TiC are studied for conditions representative of circumstellar dust shells around carbon-rich AGB stars.

  18. Studying the complex spectral line profiles in the spectra of hot emission stars and quasars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Antoniou, A.; Popović, L. Č.; Dimitrijević, M. S.

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  19. Study of isotropic compact stars in f(R,T,R_{μν}T^{μν}) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Waseem, Arfa

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate physical behavior and stability of compact stars filled with isotropic fluid in f(R,T,R_{μν}T^{μν}) gravity. We consider the static spherically symmetric spacetime and choose the simplest model of this gravity, i.e., R+α R_{μν}T^{μν} . To examine the basic features of compact stars like Her X-1, SAX J 1808.4-3658 and 4U 1820-30, we apply analytic solutions of Krori and Barua metric using the mass-radius relation. We study the behavior of effective energy density, pressure, equation of state parameter and energy conditions in the interior of compact stars. We also explore the stability criteria of compact stars via the speed of sound. It is concluded that all the energy conditions are satisfied and the compact stars are found to be stable at the boundary for this particular model.

  20. Advancing Astronomical Instrumentation: an Adaptive Optics Kinematic Study of z 1 Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Etsuko

    This thesis has a dual focus on improving ground-based astronomical instruments and an observational study of distant star-forming galaxies to study galaxy formation and evolution. Of fundamental importance to this work are adaptive optics (AO) technology and integral field spectrographs (IFSs), both of which offer powerful means of studying high redshift galaxies. First, I describe the design and development of an instrument to characterize the vertical atmospheric turbulence using the SLODAR (SLOpe Detection and Ranging) method. This instrument was used in a campaign at Ellesmere island ( 80 degN) nd determined that the site has half of the total turbulence residing in the ground layer (< 1 km), and that the median seeing at Ellesmere is comparable to the best worldwide observing sites. Secondly, I present the design and implementation of an experimental setup to evaluate a new grating designed for OSIRIS (OH-Suppressing Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph), an IFS at the Keck I telescope. I tested and installed a new grating in OSIRIS, and the improved sensitivity with the new grating is a factor of 1.83 between 1-2.4 um. Finally, taking direct advantage of the improved OSIRIS performance, I built-up the currently largest sample of z 1 star-forming galaxies taken with an IFS coupled with AO. I present the first results of IROCKS (Intermediate Redshift OSIRIS Chemo-Kinematic Survey), a spatially resolved Halpha survey containing sixteen z 1 and one z 1.5 star-forming galaxies. The Halpha kinematics and morphologies of these galaxies were investigated, including resolved star-forming clumps. These IROCKS results show that z 1 star-forming galaxies have elevated line-of-sight velocity dispersions (sigma_ave 60 km/s) compared to local galaxies yet have lower dispersions compared to their counterparts at higher redshift (z > 1.5). Four of the z 1 galaxies are well-fit to an inclined disk model, and the disk fraction is similar to high-z samples. The size

  1. Binaries, cluster dynamics and population studies of stars and stellar phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2005-10-01

    The effects of binaries on population studies of stars and stellar phenomena have been investigated over the past 3 decades by many research groups. Here we will focus mainly on the work that has been done recently in Brussels and we will consider the following topics: the effect of binaries on overall galactic chemical evolutionary models and on the rates of different types of supernova, the population of point-like X-ray sources where we distinguish the standard high mass X-ray binaries and the ULXs, a UFO-scenario for the formation of WR+OB binaries in dense star systems. Finally we critically discuss the possible effect of rotation on population studies.

  2. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  3. Radial Velocity Studies of Close Binary Stars. XI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Lu, Wenxian; Mochnacki, Stefan W.; Conidis, George; Blake, R. M.; DeBond, Heide; Thomson, J. R.; Pych, Wojtek; Ogłoza, Waldemar; Siwak, Michal

    2006-08-01

    Radial-velocity measurements and sine-curve fits to orbital radial velocity variations are presented for 10 close binary systems: DU Boo, ET Boo, TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, HL Dra, AK Her, VW LMi, V566 Oph, TV UMi, and AG Vir. With this contribution, the David Dunlap Observatory program has reached the point of 100 published radial velocity orbits. The radial velocities have been determined using an improved fitting technique that uses rotational profiles to approximate individual peaks in broadening functions. Three systems, ET Boo, VW LMi, and TV UMi, are found to be quadruple, while AG Vir appears to be a spectroscopic triple. ET Boo, a member of a close visual binary with Pvis=113 yr, was previously known to be a multiple system, but we show that the second component is actually a close, noneclipsing binary. The new observations have enabled us to determine the spectroscopic orbits of the companion, noneclipsing pairs in ET Boo and VW LMi. A particularly interesting case is VW LMi, for which the period of the mutual revolution of the two spectroscopic binaries is only 355 days. While most of the studied eclipsing pairs are contact binaries, ET Boo is composed of two double-lined detached binaries, and HL Dra is a single-lined detached or semidetached system. Five systems of this group have been observed spectroscopically before: TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, AK Her (as a single-lined binary), V566 Oph, and AG Vir, but our new data are of much higher quality than in the previous studies. Based on data obtained at the David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto, Canada.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  5. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  6. IRAS 21391 + 5802 - A study in intermediate mass star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, Bruce; Mundy, Lee; Mcmullin, Joseph; Hezel, Thomas; Keene, Jocelyn

    1993-01-01

    We present infrared and millimeter wavelength observations of the cold IRAS source 21391 + 5802 and its associated molecular core. Infrared observations at lambda = 3.5 microns reveal a heavily obscured, central point source which is coincident with a compact lambda = 2.7 mm continuum and C18O emission region. The source radiates about 310 solar luminosities, primarily at FIR wavelengths, suggesting that it is a young stellar object of intermediate mass. The steeply rising spectral energy distribution and the large fraction of the system mass residing in circumstellar material imply that IRAS 21391 + 5802 is in an early stage of evolution. The inferred dust temperature indicates a temperature gradient in the core. A comprehensive model for the surrounding core of dust and gas is devised to match the observed dust continuum emission and multitransition CS emission from this and previous studies. We find a r exp -1.5 +/- 0.2 density gradient consistent with that of a gravitationally evolved core and a total core mass of 380 solar masses. The observed dust emission is most consistent with a lambda exp -1.5 - lambda exp -2 dust emissivity law; for a lambda exp -2 law, the data are best fit by a mass opacity coefficient of 3.6 x 10 exp -3 sq cm/g at lambda = 1.25 mm.

  7. Spectroscopic study of formation, evolution and interaction of M31 and M33 with star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhou; Yang, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    The recent studies show that the formation and evolution process of the nearby galaxies are still unclear. By using the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) 3.6m telescope, the PanDAS shows complicated substructures (dwarf satellite galaxies, halo globular clusters, extended clusters, star streams, etc.) in the halo of M31 to ~150 kpc from the center of galaxy and M31-M33 interaction has been studied. In our work, we would like to investigate formation, evolution and interaction of M31 and M33, which are the nearest two spiral galaxies in Local Group. The star cluster systems of the two galaxies are good tracers to study the dynamics of the substructures and the interaction. Since 2010, the Xinglong 2.16m, Lijiang 2.4m and MMT 6.5m telescopes have been used for our spectroscopic observations. The radial velocities and Lick absorption-line indices can thus be measured with the spectroscopy and then ages, metallicities and masses of the star clusters can be fitted with the simple stellar population models. These parameters could be used as the input physical parameters for numerical simulations of M31-M33 interaction.

  8. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  9. Study of the Outflow and Disk surrounding a Post-Outburst FU-Orionis Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Samuel N.; Perez, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    PP 13 is a fan-shaped cometary nebula located in the constellation of Perseus and embedded in the L1473 dark cloud. At optical wavelengths this region is obscured by the surrounding dark cloud, while at infrared and longer wavelengths two northern objects (PP13Na & PP13Nb) and one southern object (PP13S) are revealed. In the past, the young stellar object inside PP13S, called PP13S*, experienced an FU-Orionis type outburst due to a massive accretion episode and is currently returning to its quiescent state. Studying the FU-Orionis phase is crucial to our understanding of how low mass stars form; it is theorized that all low-mass stars go through this outburst phase while they are forming. I used CARMA 3mm interferometric observations of the PP13 region to study the continuum and molecular line emissions from PP13. With these observations, I determined the source of the previously detected outflow and learned new information about the double star system PP13Na and PP13Nb. Although I was not able to detect the accretion disk in the gas emissions, I plan to use computer modeling to help provide constraints on the properties of PP13S* and its outflow.

  10. A spectroscopy study of nearby late-type stars, possible members of stellar kinematic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets for seeking young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The origin of these structures is still misunderstood, and lists of moving group members often change with time and also from author to author. Most members of these groups have been identified by means of kinematic criteria, leading to an important contamination of previous lists by old field stars. Aims: We attempt to identify unambiguous moving group members among a sample of nearby-late type stars by studying their kinematics, lithium abundance, chromospheric activity, and other age-related properties. Methods: High-resolution echelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) of a sample of nearby late-type stars are used to derive accurate radial velocities that are combined with the precise Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions to compute galactic-spatial velocity components. Stars are classified as possible members of the classical moving groups according to their kinematics. The spectra are also used to study several age-related properties for young late-type stars, i.e., the equivalent width of the lithium Li i 6707.8 Å line or the R'HK index. Additional information like X-ray fluxes from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey or the presence of debris discs is also taken into account. The different age estimators are compared and the moving group membership of the kinematically selected candidates are discussed. Results: From a total list of 405 nearby stars, 102 have been classified as moving group candidates according to their kinematics. i.e., only ~25.2% of the sample. The number reduces when age estimates are considered, and only 26 moving group candidates (25.5% of the 102 candidates) have ages in agreement with the star having the same age as an MG member. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andaluc

  11. Phenotypic differences between male physicians, surgeons, and film stars: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Aymerich, Marta; Lacy, Antonio M; Bertran, Maria J

    2006-12-23

    To test the hypothesis that, on average, male surgeons are taller and better looking than male physicians, and to compare both sets of doctors with film stars who play doctors on screen. Comparative study. Typical university hospital in Spain, located in Barcelona and not in a sleepy backwater. Random sample of 12 surgeons and 12 physicians plus 4 external controls (film stars who play doctors), matched by age (50s) and sex (all male). An independent committee (all female) evaluated the "good looking score" (range 1-7). Height (cm) and points on the good looking score. Surgeons were significantly taller than physicians (mean height 179.4 v 172.6 cm; P=0.01). Controls had significantly higher good looking scores than surgeons (mean score 5.96 v 4.39; difference between means 1.57, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 2.45; P=0.013) and physicians (5.96 v 3.65; 2.31, 1.58 to 3.04; P=0.003). Surgeons had significantly higher good looking scores than physicians (4.39 v 3.65; 0.74; 0.25 to 1.23; P=0.010). Male surgeons are taller and better looking than physicians, but film stars who play doctors on screen are better looking than both these groups of doctors. Whether these phenotypic differences are genetic or environmental is unclear.

  12. Metropolitan Transportation Management Center : a case study : Houston TranStar maximizing safety and mobility for the public

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of Houston's TranStar transportation management center. It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center Concepts of Operation - A Cross Cutting Stud...

  13. Study of the Evolutions of the Universe, Stars and the Solar System ---Personal Retrospect and Prospect---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, S.

    The universe, stars and the solar system belong to different hierarchies but have been studied in Jpn. by a common group with close mutual contact. Collaborative effort is not restricted within theoretical astrophysics but is extended to a variety of fields of science. In the present article the author describes on the basis of his personal recollection how the collaborate research has stimulated new fields of observational astronomy using infrared radiation and X-rays. A fee-back from these observational studies has given several inputs to the theory of stellar evolution and will provide important means in the study of cosmology.

  14. The most luminous stars.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, R M; Davidson, K

    1984-01-20

    Stars with individual luminosities more than a million times that of the sun are now being studied in a variety of contexts. Observational and theoretical ideas about the most luminous stars have changed greatly in the past few years. They can be observed spectroscopically even in nearby galaxies. They are not very stable; some have had violent outbursts in which large amounts of mass were lost. Because of their instabilities, these stars do not evolve to become red superglants as less luminous stars do. Theoretical scenarios for the evolution of these most massive stars depend on the effects of turbulence and mixing combined with high radition densities.

  15. p-capture reaction cycles in rotating massive stars and their impact on elemental abundances in globular cluster stars: A case study of O, Na and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Hiralal; Duorah, Kalpana

    2017-08-01

    Elemental abundance patterns of globular cluster stars can provide important clues for understanding cluster formation and early chemical evolution. The origin of the abundance patterns, however, still remains poorly understood. We have studied the impact of p-capture reaction cycles on the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium considering nuclear reaction cycles of carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine, neon-sodium and magnesium-aluminium in massive stars in stellar conditions of temperature range 2×107 to 10×107 K and typical density of 102 gm cc-1. We have estimated abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium with respect to Fe, which are then assumed to be ejected from those stars because of rotation reaching a critical limit. These ejected abundances of elements are then compared with their counterparts that have been observed in some metal-poor evolved stars, mainly giants and red giants, of globular clusters M3, M4, M13 and NGC 6752. We observe an excellent agreement with [O/Fe] between the estimated and observed abundance values for globular clusters M3 and M4 with a correlation coefficient above 0.9 and a strong linear correlation for the remaining two clusters with a correlation coefficient above 0.7. The estimated [Na/Fe] is found to have a correlation coefficient above 0.7, thus implying a strong correlation for all four globular clusters. As far as [Al/Fe] is concerned, it also shows a strong correlation between the estimated abundance and the observed abundance for globular clusters M13 and NGC 6752, since here also the correlation coefficient is above 0.7 whereas for globular cluster M4 there is a moderate correlation found with a correlation coefficient above 0.6. Possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  16. A Study of the Long Term Behavior of the SX Phe Star KZ Hya1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Piña, D. S.; Rentería, A.; Villarreal, C.; Soni, A. A.; Guillen, J.; Calderón, J.

    2018-04-01

    From the newly determined times of maximum light of the SX Phe star KZ Hya and others from the literature, as well as from uvby - β photoelectric photometry, we determined the nature of this star and its physical parameters.

  17. Study of Pulsations in the Atmosphere of the roAp star HD 137949

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.; Hareter, M.; Ryabchikova, T.; Wade, G.; Kochukhov, O.; Weiss, W. W.

    The roAp star HD 137949 (33 Lib) shows the most complex pulsational behaviour among all roAp stars. Mkrtichian et al. (2003) found nearly anti-phase pulsations of Nd II and Nd III lines, which they attribute to the presence of a pulsation node high in the atmosphere of HD 137949. This was confirmed by Kurtz at al. (2005), who also find that in some REE lines the main frequency, corresponding to 8.27 min, and its harmonic have almost equal RV amplitudes. Based on high accuracy observations Ryabchikova et al. (2007a) studied pulsational characteristics of the HD 137949 atmosphere in detail. In general, spectroscopy provides 3D resolution of modes and allows to search for the photometrically undetectable frequencies. The high-accuracy space photometry provides very high-precision measurements of detected pulsation frequencies and enables an accurate phasing of multi-site spectroscopic data. A combination of simultaneous spectroscopy and photometry represents the most sophisticated asteroseismic dataset for any roAp star. In 2009 the star HD 137949 became a target of an intense observing campaign that combined ground-based spectroscopy with space photometry, obtained with the MOST satellite. We collected 780 spectra using the ESPaDOnS spectrograph mounted on the 3.6 m CFHT telescope; 374 spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph mounted on the 2.56-m NOT to perform the time-resolved spectroscopy of HD 137949. In addition, we used 111 UVES spectra (2004) from the ESO archive to check the mode stability. The frequency analysis of the new radial velocity (RV) measurements confirmed the previously reported frequency pattern (two frequencies and the first harmonic of the main frequency), and revealed an additional frequency at 1.991 mHz. The new frequency solution fits perfectly the RV variations from the 2004 and 2009 observational sets providing a strong support for the p-mode stability in the roAp star HD 137949 for at least 5 years.

  18. Induced Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    Overview: Induced Star Formation and Interactions Introduction Historical Background: First Hints Systematic Studies: Starbursts Interactions and Nuclear activity IRAS and Ultralumious starburst Galaxies The 1990's: HST, Supercomputers, and the Distant Universe Key Questions and Issues Organization of Lectures Star Formation Properties of Normal Galaxies Observational Techniques Results: Star Formation in Normal Galaxies Interpretation: Star Formation Histories Global Star Formation in interacting Galaxies A Gallery of Interactions and Mergers Star Formation Statistics: Guilt By Association Tests SFRs in Interacting vs Noninteracting Galaxies Kinematic Properties and Regulation of SFRs Induced Nuclear Activity and Star Formation Background: Nuclear Spectra and Classification Nuclear Star Formation and Starbursts Nuclear Star Formation and Interactions Induced AGN Activity: Statistics of Seyfert Galaxies Environments of Quasars Kinematic Clues to the Triggering of AGNs Infrared Luminous Galaxies and Starbursts Background: IR Luminous Galaxies and IRAS Infrared Luminosity Function and Spectra Infrared Structure and Morphology Interstellar Gas X-Ray Emission and Superwinds Optical, UV, and Near-Infrared Spectra Radio Continuum Emission Evidence for Interactions and Mergers The Power Source: Starbursts or Dusty AGNs? Spectral Diagnostics of Starbursts Evolutionary Synthesis Models Applications: Integrated Colors of Interacting Galaxies Applications: Hα Emission, Colors, and SFRs Applications: Spectral Modelling of Evolved Starbursts Infrared Starbursts and the IMF in starbursts Triggering and Regulation of Star Formation: The Problem Introduction: Star Formation as a Nonlinear Process The schmidt Law in Normal Galaxies Star Formation Regimes in Interacting Galaxies Summary Triggering and Regulation of Starbusts: Theoretical Ideas Gravitational Star Formation Thresholds Cloud Collision Models Radial Transport of Gas: Clues from Barred Galaxies Simulations of Starbursts

  19. Charging and performance of the CubeSTAR satellite studied by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloch, Wojciech; Bekkeng, Tore André; Lindem, Torfinn

    2012-07-01

    A good understanding of spacecraft-plasma interaction is important for all space missions and experiments. The spacecraft potential is determined by the plasma, photoemission and other currents [1]. A charged object can significantly disturb the surrounding plasma, and lead to wake formation. The wake features, such as ion focusing, can influence the measurements of the plasma by the instruments onboard. A study of this problem using analytical models is difficult and can not account for all phenomena. This has encouraged use of numerical models for self-consistent studies of the plasma-object interactions on a detailed kinetic level [2][3]. With three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations [3][4], we address the spacecraft-plasma interaction in various plasma environments, and account for the self-consistent charging of the spacecraft by plasma and photoemission currents. As a specific case, we consider the interactions between plasma and a CubeSTAR satellite. CubeSTAR is a nano-satellite for the space weather studies being constructed in Norway, with the launch scheduled for year 2013. With a novel Langmuir probe system [5], it will measure the absolute electron densities with a high spatial resolution, allowing for studies of small scale plasma irregularities. We perform a systematic study of the role of the wakefield on the measurements with the Langmuir probes onboard the CubeSTAR for the plasma conditions relevant for the planned polar orbit. The simulation results are of relevance also for other spacecraft missions. [1] Whipple E C, Rep. Prog. Phys. 44, 1197 (1981). [2] Roussel J F and Berthelier J J, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01104 (2004). [3] Yaroshenko V V et al., J. Geophys. Res. 116, A12218 (2011). [4] Miloch W J Kroll M and Block D 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010). [5] Bekkeng T A et al. Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 085903 (2010).

  20. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image a young, multiple-star system with unprecedented detail, yielding important clues about how such systems are formed. Most Sun-sized or larger stars in the Universe are not single, like our Sun, but are members of multiple-star systems. Astronomers have been divided on how such systems can form, producing competing theoretical models for this process. Multiple Star Formation Graphic Proposed Formation Process for L1551 IRS5 CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information The new VLA study produced a "smoking gun" supporting one of the competing models, said Jeremy Lim, of the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan, whose study, done with Shigehisa Takakuwa of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, is published in the December 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Ironically, their discovery of a third, previously-unknown, young star in the system may support a second theoretical model. "There may be more than one way to make a multiple-star system," Lim explained. The astronomers observed an object called L1551 IRS5, young, still-forming protostars enshrouded in a cloud of gas and dust, some 450 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Taurus. Invisible to optical telescopes because of the gas and dust, this object was discovered in 1976 by astronomers using infrared telescopes. A VLA study in 1998 showed two young stars orbiting each other, each surrounded by a disk of dust that may, in time, congeal into a system of planets. Lim and Takakuwa re-examined the system, using improved technical capabilities that greatly boosted the quality of their images. "In the earlier VLA study, only half of the VLA's 27 antennas had receivers that could collect the radio waves, at a frequency of 43 GigaHertz (GHz), coming from the dusty disks. When we re-observed this

  1. Design of the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, a small international collaborative of discipline-based astronomy education researchers began to build the foundation to start the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, known simply as iSTAR. The project was a direct result of the inability of existing large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, to provide actionable intelligence on either strengths or weaknesses of astronomy teaching across the world. This is not because those studies were flawed; rather, they focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. Prior to the iSTAR effort, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. The goal of studying a widely dispersed international sample is to identify cultural subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, highlighting unexpected cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, and perhaps more effective, means of instruction. As a first step, we are carefully translating the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument and carefully attending to nuances that occur during the translation process as cultural clues to differences in the teaching and learning of astronomy. We are actively welcoming and seeking international partners in this work through the CAPERteam.com website and at https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/iSTAR-Registration . This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  2. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  3. A Search for Low Mass Stars and Substellar Companions and A Study of Circumbinary Gas and Dust Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for nearby low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and have studied the planet-forming environment of binary stars. We have carried out a search for young, low-mass stars in nearby stellar associations using X-ray and UV source catalogs. We discovered a new technique to identify 10-100 Myr-old low-mass stars within 100 pc of the Earth using GALEX-optical/near-IR data. We present candidate young stars found by applying this new method in the 10 Myr old TW Hydrae and Scorpius-Centaurus associations. In addition, we have searched for the coolest brown dwarf class: Y-dwarfs, expected to appear at temperatures <500 K. Using wide-field near infrared imaging with ground (CTIO, Palomar, KPNO) and space (Spitzer, AKARI) observatories, we have looked for companions to nearby, old (2 Gyr or older), high proper motion white dwarfs. We present results for Southern Hemisphere white dwarfs. Additionally, we have characterized how likely planet formation occurs in binary star systems. While 20% of planets have been discovered around one member of a binary system, these binaries have semi-major axes larger than 20 AU. We have performed an AO and spectroscopic search for binary stars among a sample of known debris disk stars, which allows us to indirectly study planet formation and evolution in binary systems. As a case study, we examined the gas and dust present in the circumbinary disk around V4046 Sagittarii, a 2.4-day spectroscopic binary. Our results demonstrate it is unlikely that planets can form in binaries with stellar semi-major axes of 10s of AU. This research has been funded by a NASA ADA grant to UCLA and RIT.

  4. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  5. An Infrared Study of the Circumstellar Material Associated with the Carbon Star R Sculptoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Maercker, M.; Lau, R. M.; Sloan, G. C.

    2018-01-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star R Sculptoris (R Scl) is one of the most extensively studied stars on the AGB. R Scl is a carbon star with a massive circumstellar shell (M shell ∼ 7.3 × 10‑3 M ⊙) that is thought to have been produced during a thermal pulse event ∼2200 years ago. To study the thermal dust emission associated with its circumstellar material, observations were taken with the Faint Object InfraRed CAMera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) at 19.7, 25.2, 31.5, 34.8, and 37.1 μm. Maps of the infrared emission at these wavelengths were used to study the morphology and temperature structure of the spatially extended dust emission. Using the radiative-transfer code DUSTY, and fitting the spatial profile of the emission, we find that a geometrically thin dust shell cannot reproduce the observed spatially resolved emission. Instead, a second dust component in addition to the shell is needed to reproduce the observed emission. This component, which lies interior to the dust shell, traces the circumstellar envelope of R Scl. It is best fit by a density profile with n ∝ r α , where α ={0.75}-0.25+0.45 and a dust mass of {M}d={9.0}-4.1+2.3× {10}-6 {M}ȯ . The strong departure from an r ‑2 law indicates that the mass-loss rate of R Scl has not been constant. This result is consistent with a slow decline in the post-pulse mass loss that has been inferred from observations of the molecular gas.

  6. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  7. Studies of low-mass star formation with the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates are made of the far-infrared and submillimeter continuum and line emission from regions of low mass star formation. The intensity of this emission is compared with the sensitivity of the large deployable reflector (LDR), a large space telescope designed for this wavelength range. The proposed LDR is designed to probe the temperature, density, chemical structure, and the velocity field of the collapsing envelopes of these protostars. The LDR is also designed to study the accretion shocks on the cores and circumstellar disks of low-mass protostars, and to detect shock waves driven by protostellar winds.

  8. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  9. Globular-cluster stars - Results of theoretical evolution and pulsation studies compared with the observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Survey of recently published studies on globular clusters, and comparison of stellar evolution and pulsation theory with reported observations. The theory of stellar evolution is shown to be capable of describing, in principle, the behavior of a star through all quasi-static stages. Yet, as might be expected, estimates of bulk properties obtained by comparing observations with results of pulsation and stellar atmosphere theory differ somewhat from estimates of these same properties obtained by comparing observations with results of evolution theory. A description is given of how such estimates are obtained, and suggestions are offered as to where the weak points in each theory may lie.

  10. The SOLA Team: A Star Formation Project To Study the Soul of Lupus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Saito, M.; Rodon, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2017-06-01

    The SOLA team is a multi-national and multi-wavelength collaboration composed by scientists with technical expertise in ALMA and in infrared and optical techniques. The aim of the team is to establish a low-mass star formation scenario based on the Lupus molecular clouds. In this talk I will present our unique catalog of pre-stellar and proto-stellar cores toward Lupus molecular clouds, the results on our latest studies in protoplanetary disks, as well as our ALMA Cycle 3 data aiming at testing the formation mechanism of sub-stellar objects in Lupus molecular clouds.

  11. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, S. S.

    1980-09-01

    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  12. Study of a new central compact object: The neutron star in the supernova remnant G15.9+0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Sasaki, M.; Santangelo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present our study of the central point source CXOU J181852.0-150213 in the young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G15.9+0.2 based on the recent ~90 ks Chandra observations. The point source was discovered in 2005 in shorter Chandra observations and was hypothesized to be a neutron star associated with the SNR. Our X-ray spectral analysis strongly supports the hypothesis of a thermally emitting neutron star associated with G15.9+0.2. We conclude that the object belongs to the class of young cooling low-magnetized neutron stars referred to as central compact objects (CCOs). We modeled the spectrum of the neutron star with a blackbody spectral function and with our hydrogen and carbon neutron star atmosphere models, assuming that the radiation is uniformly emitted by the entire stellar surface. Under this assumption, only the carbon atmosphere models yield a distance that is compatible with a source located in the Galaxy. In this respect, CXOU J181852.0-150213 is similar to two other well-studied CCOs, the neutron stars in Cas A and in HESS J1731-347, for which carbon atmosphere models were used to reconcile their emission with the known or estimated distances.

  13. Reversal of diuretic-associated impaired glucose tolerance and new-onset diabetes: results of the STAR-LET study.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George; Molitch, Mark; Zhou, Qian; Sarafidis, Pantelis; Champion, Annette; Bacher, Peter; Sowers, James R

    2008-01-01

    Reversal of new-onset diabetes secondary to thiazide diuretic use remains questionable. STAR-LET was a 6-month extension of the Study of Trandolapril/Verapamil SR and Insulin Resistance (STAR), which assessed the effects of a fixed-dose renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combination on changes in 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) results. STAR-LET explored whether the glycemic impact of HCTZ could be reversed by conversion to a RASI/verapamil combination. The primary outcome was change in 2-hour OGTT results. Fifty-one percent of the STAR patients were enrolled in STAR-LET. The 2-hour OGTT value (mmol/L) was unchanged from STAR baseline in the RASI/verapamil group (7.7+/-2.4 vs 8.1+/-3.3; P=.18) and improved in those who were switched from RASI/HCTZ to RASI/verapamil (8.5+/-3.0 vs 7.2+/-2.3; P<.001). This exploratory study suggests that the impairment in glycemic control seen with use of a thiazide diuretic combined with a RASI can be reversed by switching to a regimen that does not include a diuretic.

  14. Using NIRISS to study the formation and evolution of stars, disks, and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug I.; JWST NIRISS GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    NIRISS on JWST is a powerful instrument for the study of star, disk, and planet formation and evolution. In this talk I will highlight the Wide Field Slitless Spectroscopy (WFSS) and Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) modes of NIRISS, along with lessons learned determining optimal observing strategies and project implementation in APT. The NIRISS WFSS mode uses a grism to provide modest resolution (R ~ 150) spectra of all sources within the observed field of view. Cold low-mass objects are distinct at NIRISS wavelengths (1.5 and 2.0 microns, in this case), and can be characterized through their speactra by their temperature and surface gravity sensitive molecular absorption features. Thus, WFSS observations will be an efficient way to locate and enumerate the young brown dwarfs and rogue planets in nearby star-forming regions. Alternatively, the NIRISS AMI mode offers the highest spatial resolution available on JWST at wavelengths greater than 2.5 micron, 70 - 400 mas, and modest inner working angle contrast, dm ~ 10, for individual bright sources. A significant advantage of observing from space is that, along with the phase closure, the interferometric phase amplitudes can also be recovered allowing some reconstruction of extended emission. Observations with AMI will be made of candidate and postulated planets forming within transition disks around young stars and for somewhat older planets in known extra-solar planetary systems. The AMI mode will also be used to study the zodiacal light in a bright debris disk system and to search for binary companions of Y dwarfs.

  15. Comparative study of computerized dynamic posturography and the SwayStar system in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Faraldo-García, Ana; Santos-Pérez, Sofía; Crujeiras, Rosa; Labella-Caballero, Torcuato; Soto-Varela, Andrés

    2012-03-01

    For healthy subjects, posturography and SwayStar™ results are basically comparable, when they are obtained under the same sensory stimulation conditions. However, the management of the information and the mathematical analyses in the two systems are not comparable. Postural control represents man's ability to maintain the center of pressures inside the limits of stability. Posturography is a set of techniques that objectively studies and quantifies the postural control. The present study analyzed the different parameters of the dynamic computerized posturography and SwayStar systems related to balance, to determine whether the results of the two systems in the same healthy subject are equivalent. Seventy healthy individuals, with a mean age of 44.9 years, were homogeneously divided into seven age groups. Postural studies with a Neurocom(®) Smart Balance Master posturography platform (sensorial organization test), with the SwayStar(®) system (14 tests), and another sensorial organization test were recorded simultaneously with the two posturographs. The Pearson correlation test was used for the statistical study (p < 0.05). Comparison of the independent records showed correlation only in the Romberg position with eyes closed on a normal surface and in the Romberg position with open eyes on moving/foam surface. We found correlation for all conditions when simultaneously recorded.

  16. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  17. Observational Study of Morphological Changes in Medium-mass Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Sze-Ning

    2014-02-01

    Medium-mass (or intermediate-mass) stars refer to main sequence stars with masses ranging from 0.4 to 8 solar masses. These stars are believed to finally evolve into the central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe) and white dwarfs. One of the fascinating aspects of PNe is their diverse morphology. To understand the mechanisms of the morphological changes from spherical circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to those forming highly diversified PNe, it is necessary to investigate the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of PNe from two-dimensional images, and the short transition phase in-between the two phases should also be explored. "Water Fountain" (WF) sources belong to transition phase objects; they are AGB or post-AGB stars with collimated jets traced by high velocity water maser emissions in their CSEs. This thesis comprises of four chapters. The results can be divided into two major parts. Chapter 1 is the introduction on the related fields with brief reviews of previous observational studies on PNe and the rapidly evolving transition phase objects. Basic theories necessary for understanding the next chapters were also described, including those explaining the commonly observed Hα emission in PNe, the formation of multipolar PNe, the maser emission and the role of shock in circumstellar materials. The first major part of the results, about the morphological classification of multipolar PNe, is presented in Chapter 2. At the beginning of the chapter, the problems on the previous classification methods were pointed out. Then a three-lobed model was introduced. By changing the combination of the orientations of the three pairs of lobes, simulations using the model produced statistical results in classification and quantified the errors of misidentification. Assuming that all PNe observed have the true structure of three lobes, due to projection effect, only 49% of them would be correctly classified. 46% and 5% of them would be

  18. Study of supernovae and massive stars and prospects with the 4m International Liquid Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Brajesh

    2014-11-01

    Massive stars are the progenitors of the most energetic explosions in the Universe such as core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and gamma ray bursts. During their life time they follow various evolutionary phases (e.g. supergiant, luminous blue variable and Wolf-Rayet). They strongly influence their environments through their energetic ionization radiation and powerful stellar winds. Furthermore, the formation of low and intermediate-mass stars are also being regulated by them. The Carina nebula region, which hosts a large population of massive stars and several young star clusters, provides an ideal target for studying the feedback of massive stars. In this thesis, we investigated a wide field (32' × 31') region located in the west of the Carina nebula and centered on the massive binary WR 22. For our study, we used new optical photometry (UBVRI H-alpha), along with some low resolution spectroscopy, archival near infra-red (2MASS), and X-ray (Chandra, XMM-Newton) data. We estimated several parameters such as reddening, reddening law, etc. and also identified young stellar objects located in the region under study (Kumar et al., 2014b). Among the various types of CCSNe, Type IIb are recognized with their typical observational properties. Some of them show clear indication of double peaks in their light curves. The spectral features of these SNe show a transition between Type II and Type Ib/c events at early and later epochs, respectively. It has been noticed that the occurrence of these events is not common in volume limited surveys. In this thesis we have studied the properties of the light curve and spectral evolution of the Type IIb supernova 2011fu. The observational properties of this object show resemblance to those of SN 1993J with a possible signature of the adiabatic cooling phase (Kumar et al., 2013). When light passes through the expanding ejecta of the SNe, it retains information about the orientation of the ejected layers. In general, CCSNe exhibit a

  19. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  20. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  1. Molecular and Dusty Layers of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars Studied with the VLT Interferometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    the evolution of low to intermediate mass stars towards planetary nebulae . It is also one of the most important sources of chemical enrichment of...planetary nebula (PN) phases, and is thus the most important driver for the further stellar evolution (e.g., Habing & Olofsson, 2003). Mass loss from AGB...branch (AGB) stars is the most important driver for the evolution of low to intermediate mass stars towards planetary nebulae . It is also one of the

  2. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people's antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract.

  3. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. Methods A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. Results In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. Conclusion This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people’s antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract. PMID:27621606

  4. COS-STAR: a reporting guideline for studies developing core outcome sets (protocol).

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Jamie J; Gorst, Sarah; Altman, Douglas G; Blazeby, Jane; Clarke, Mike; Devane, Declan; Gargon, Elizabeth; Williamson, Paula R

    2015-08-22

    Core outcome sets can increase the efficiency and value of research and, as a result, there are an increasing number of studies looking to develop core outcome sets (COS). However, the credibility of a COS depends on both the use of sound methodology in its development and clear and transparent reporting of the processes adopted. To date there is no reporting guideline for reporting COS studies. The aim of this programme of research is to develop a reporting guideline for studies developing COS and to highlight some of the important methodological considerations in the process. The study will include a reporting guideline item generation stage which will then be used in a Delphi study. The Delphi study is anticipated to include two rounds. The first round will ask stakeholders to score the items listed and to add any new items they think are relevant. In the second round of the process, participants will be shown the distribution of scores for all stakeholder groups separately and asked to re-score. A final consensus meeting will be held with an expert panel and stakeholder representatives to review the guideline item list. Following the consensus meeting, a reporting guideline will be drafted and review and testing will be undertaken until the guideline is finalised. The final outcome will be the COS-STAR (Core Outcome Set-STAndards for Reporting) guideline for studies developing COS and a supporting explanatory document. To assess the credibility and usefulness of a COS, readers of a COS development report need complete, clear and transparent information on its methodology and proposed core set of outcomes. The COS-STAR guideline will potentially benefit all stakeholders in COS development: COS developers, COS users, e.g. trialists and systematic reviewers, journal editors, policy-makers and patient groups.

  5. A new interferometric study of four exoplanet host stars: θ Cygni, 14 Andromedae, υ Andromedae and 42 Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, R.; Mourard, D.; Lagrange, A. M.; Perraut, K.; Boyajian, T.; Bério, Ph.; Nardetto, N.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Ridgway, S.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in 1995 around a solar-type star, the interest in exoplanetary systems has kept increasing. Studying exoplanet host stars is of the utmost importance to establish the link between the presence of exoplanets around various types of stars and to understand the respective evolution of stars and exoplanets. Aims: Using the limb-darkened diameter (LDD) obtained from interferometric data, we determine the fundamental parameters of four exoplanet host stars. We are particularly interested in the F4 main-sequence star, θ Cyg, for which Kepler has recently revealed solar-like oscillations that are unexpected for this type of star. Furthermore, recent photometric and spectroscopic measurements with SOPHIE and ELODIE (OHP) show evidence of a quasi-periodic radial velocity of ~150 days. Models of this periodic change in radial velocity predict either a complex planetary system orbiting the star, or a new and unidentified stellar pulsation mode. Methods: We performed interferometric observations of θ Cyg, 14 Andromedae, υ Andromedae and 42 Draconis for two years with VEGA/CHARA (Mount Wilson, California) in several three-telescope configurations. We measured accurate limb darkened diameters and derived their radius, mass and temperature using empirical laws. Results: We obtain new accurate fundamental parameters for stars 14 And, υ And and 42 Dra. We also obtained limb darkened diameters with a minimum precision of ~1.3%, leading to minimum planet masses of Msini = 5.33 ± 0.57, 0.62 ± 0.09 and 3.79 ± 0.29 MJup for 14 And b, υ And b and 42 Dra b, respectively. The interferometric measurements of θ Cyg show a significant diameter variability that remains unexplained up to now. We propose that the presence of these discrepancies in the interferometric data is caused either by an intrinsic variation of the star or an unknown close companion orbiting around it. Based on interferometric observations with the VEGA

  6. Study of the QCD Phase Diagram using STAR at RHIC - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Gary

    This grant supported the MSU STAR Group from April 1, 1998 to October 31, 2016. Originally the MSU STAR Group consisted of the principal investigator (PI), a staff physicist, and one graduate student. Funds were provided for half the summer salary of the PI, the full salary of the staff physicist, and half the costs associated with one graduate student. The other half of the PI’s summer salary and graduate student costs was covered by NSCL. In addition, this grant provided funds for travel and workstations related to STAR. Starting in 2009, the MSU STAR Group replaced the staff physicistmore » with a postdoctoral scientist.« less

  7. Spectroscopic studies of Wolf-Rayet stars with absorption lines. VIII - HD 193793

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, P. S.; Dupre, D. Roussel; Massey, P.; Rensing, M.

    1984-07-01

    The authors present absorption-line velocities for the O type star spanning over 16 years and emission-line velocities for the WC star covering 10 years. They find no periodicities in either of these sets of data. In particular, they are unable to confirm the claim of Lamontagne, Moffat, and Seggewiss that the two stars are in orbit about one another. Rather, it seems that a generic relationship between the two components has not been established and one is dealing with a situation in which two stars are in the same line of sight.

  8. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  9. Probing Minor-merger-driven Star Formation In Early-type Galaxies Using Spatially-resolved Spectro-photometric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Crockett, M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.; Windhorst, R.; Cappellari, M.; Bureau, M.; Davies, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies that leverage the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum have revealed widespread recent star formation in early-type galaxies (ETGs), traditionally considered to be old, passively-evolving systems. This recent star formation builds 20% of the ETG stellar mass after z 1, driven by repeated minor mergers between ETGs and small, gas-rich satellites. We demonstrate how spatially-resolved studies, using a combination of high-resolution UV-optical imaging and integral-field spectroscopy (IFS), is a powerful tool to quantify the assembly history of individual ETGs and elucidate the poorly-understood minor-merger process. Using a combination of WFC3 UV-optical (2500-8200 angstroms) imaging and IFS from the SAURON project of the ETG NGC 4150, we show that this galaxy experienced a merger with mass ratio 1:15 around 0.9 Gyr ago, which formed 3% of its stellar mass and a young kinematically-decoupled core. A UV-optical analysis of its globular cluster system shows that the bulk of the stars locked up in these clusters likely formed 6-7 Gyrs in the past. We introduce a new HST-WFC3 programme, approved in Cycle 19, which will leverage similar UV-optical imaging of a representative sample of nearby ETGs from SAURON to study the recent star formation and its drivers in unprecedented detail and put definitive constraints on minor-merger-driven star formation in massive galaxies at late epochs.

  10. Spectro-Interferometry Studies of Velocity-Related Phenomena at the Surface of Stars: Pulsation and Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mérand, Antoine; Patru, Fabien; Aufdenberg, Jason

    We illustrate here two applications of spectro-interferometry to the study of velocity fields at the surface of stars: pulsation and rotation. Stellar pulsation has been resolved spectroscopically for a long time, and interferometry has resolved stellar diameters variations due to pulsation. Combining the two provides unique insights to the study of Cepheids, in particular regarding the structure of the photosphere or investigating the infamous projection factor which biases distances measured by the Baade-Wesselink method. On the other hand, resolving the surface velocity field of rotating stars offers a unique opportunity to potentially study differential rotation in other cases than for the Sun. We also present the model we have implemented recently, as well as two applications to VLTI/AMBER Data: the pulsation of Cepheids and the rotation of intermediate mass main sequence stars.

  11. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  12. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  13. Construction of the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Tatge, C. B.; Slater, T. F.; Bretones, P. S.; Schleigh, S.

    2016-12-01

    Perhaps more than any other science discipline-based education research field, the scholarly literature base describing and documenting astronomy education research is highly fragmented and widely dispersed across numerous journals. The resulting wide diversity of journals that publish astronomy education research presents an arduous challenge for scholars trying to best understand what work has been done and what work still needs to be done. Moreover, a vast amount of education research on the teaching and learning of astronomy exists in dissertations that were never published and even more exists in the realm of un-disseminated grey literature hosted in conference proceedings and society newsletters going back decades. With a few notable exceptions far less extensive than the current project, there has been no comprehensive repository for cataloging astronomy education research methods and results to date. In response, an international cadre of scholars coordinated by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating the underlying structure for an online database in order to conduct an international Study of Astronomy Reasoning, iSTAR, project. The online iSTAR database serves as an online host to bring together in one place digital copies of hard to locate journal articles, isolated dissertations and theses, and professional meeting contributions to extend the world's scholars abilities to more easily find and utilize a far broader collection of astronomy education research literature than has been previously available. Works are categorized by research method, nature of study-participants, educational learning venue studied, country and language of the study, and other fruitfully useful categories. Scholars wishing to add their own literature resources are encouraged to contribute to the online database located at istardatabase.org

  14. Chemical Composition of Galactic Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishenina, T. V.; Basak, N. Yu.; Gorbaneva, T. I.; Soubiran, C.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    Abundances of Na, Al, Ca, in the stars of galactic disks are obtained. The separation of thin and stars on cinematic criterion was made early. The behavior of chemical element abundances with metallicity for studied stars was presented.

  15. "Star Wars", Model Making, and Cultural Critique: A Case for Film Study in Art Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Films are multimodal, often memorable, and change one's way of thinking. Films provide narratives and visual metaphors that function as tools for one's imagination and learning. No other film has amplified this phenomenon in the United States more than the "Star Wars" Cycle. "Star Wars" exemplifies the multidimensionality of…

  16. A study of extreme carbon stars. I - Silicon carbide emission features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.

    1984-01-01

    10-micron spectra of many extreme carbon stars reveal a prominent emission feature near 11 microns. This is compared with laboratory spectra of SiC grains. Two distinct types of features are found, perhaps indicative of different mechanisms of grain formation in different stars. Estimates are made of probable column densities and total masses of SiC in the circumstellar shells.

  17. The Star Schools Distance-Learning Program: Results from the Mandated Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tushnet, Naida C.; And Others

    The Star Schools Assistance Program has been funding activities since 1988. It provides projects with seed money to develop distance learning programming and equip sites. In addition, Star Schools has served as a focal point for demonstrating innovative uses of technology to advance educational opportunity and improvement. This paper represents…

  18. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  19. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  20. A Spectroscopic Study of the High-Latitude Far Evolved Star V534 Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzikas, E. G.; Chentsov, E. L.

    2017-06-01

    We study a pulsating variable post-AGB star V534 Lyr = HD172324 based on five high resolution spectra (R=60000) obtained with the NES echelle spectrograph of the 6-meter Russian telescope (BTA) in 2010 and 2013. Using the atmosphere modeling method and the Kurucz model set, we obtained the effective temperature Teff=10500 K, surface gravity log g=2.5, and microturbulent velocity ξt=4.0 km/s. The underabundance of the iron group elements [Met/H]⊙ = -0.50 was detected. This fact in combination with high spatial velocity indicates that V534 Lyr does not belong to the disk population. The radial velocity gradient in the V534 Lyr atmosphere is minimum: differential shifts of lines are close to measurement errors. The spectral class A0 Iab corresponds to the distance to V534 Lyr, d≍6 kpc.

  1. Electron capture rates in stars studied with heavy ion charge exchange reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    Indirect methods using nucleus-nucleus reactions at high energies (here, high energies mean ~ 50 MeV/nucleon and higher) are now routinely used to extract information of interest for nuclear astrophysics. This is of extreme relevance as many of the nuclei involved in stellar evolution are short-lived. Therefore, indirect methods became the focus of recent studies carried out in major nuclear physics facilities. Among such methods, heavy ion charge exchange is thought to be a useful tool to infer Gamow-Teller matrix elements needed to describe electron capture rates in stars and also double beta-decay experiments. In this short review, I provide a theoretical guidance based on a simple reaction model for charge exchange reactions.

  2. TOPoS: chemical study of extremely metal-poor stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, E.; Sbordone, L.; Bonifacio, P.; Cayrel, R.; Christlieb, N.; Clark, P.; François, P.; Glover, S.; Klessen, R.; Koch, A.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Monaco, L.; Plez, B.; Spite, F.; Spite, M.; Steffen, M.; Zaggia, S.

    The extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars hold in their atmospheres the fossil record of the chemical composition of the early phases of the Galactic evolution. The chemical analysis of such objects provides important constraints on these early phases. EMP stars are very rare objects; to dig them out, large amounts of data have to be processed. With an automatic procedure, we analysed objects with colours of Turn-Off stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select a sample of good candidate EMP stars. In the latest years, we observed a sample of these candidates with X-Shooter and UVES, and we have an ongoing ESO large programme to use these spectrographs to observe EMP stars. I will report here the results on metallicity and Strontium abundance. Based on observations obtained at ESO Paranal Observatory, programme 189.D-0165(A)

  3. Dynamical Studies of N-Body Gravity and Tidal Dissipation in the TRAPPIST-1 Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Michael; Kuettel, Donald H.; Stebler, Shane T.; Udrea, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    To date, we have discovered a total of 2,729 planetary systems that contain more than 3,639 known exoplanets [1]. A majority of these are defined as compact systems, containing multiple exoplanets within 0.25 AU of the central star. It has been shown that tightly packed exoplanets avoid colliding due to long-term resonance-induced orbit stability [2]. However, due to extreme proximity, these planets experience intense gravitational forces from each other that are unprecedented within our own solar system, which makes the existence of exomoons doubtful. We present the results of an initial study evaluating dynamical stability of potential exomoons within such highly compact systems.This work is baselined around TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven temperate terrestrial planets, three of which are in the habitable zone, orbiting within 0.06 AU [3]. N-body simulations place a grid of test particles varying semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination around the three habitable zone planets. We find that most exomoons with semi-major axes less than half the Hill sphere of their respective planet are stable over 10 kyrs, with several stable over 300 kyrs.However, in compact systems, tidal influences from other planets can compete with tidal effects from the primary planet, resulting in possible instabilities and massive amounts of tidal dissipation. We investigate these effects with a large grid search that incorporates exomoon radius, tidal quality factor and a range of planet rigidities. Results of simulations that combine n-body gravity effects with both planetary and satellite tides are presented and contrasted with n-body results. Finally, we examine long-term stability (> 1Myrs) of the stable subset of test particles from the n-body simulation with the addition of tidal dissipation, to determine if exomoons can survive around planets e, f, and g in the TRAPPIST-1 system.[1] Schneider (2017). The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http

  4. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  5. Living with a Red Dwarf: A Chandra Archival Study of dM Star Activity and Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Scott

    2017-09-01

    We propose to analyze 6 archival Chandra visits, not pointed at, but serendipitously including 3 dM stars of known age. GJ 669 AB are a common proper motion pair, each are resolved and detected in 3 exposures, and LHS 373 is a much older dM star also detected on 3 exposures. Photometry (by us) of GJ 669 AB began 5 years ago, is ongoing, and has precisely determined rotation rates for both stars and evidence of frequent flaring from GJ 669 B. We will analyze the multiple exposures, derive an accurate mean level of X-ray activity from the targets, and also separate out and individually analyze and model any observed X-ray flares. This proposal will provide highly accurate coronal properties for the targets, but also very useful data for stellar evolution and planetary habitability studies.

  6. Structural Studies of Three-Arm Star Block Copolymers Exposed to Extreme Stretch Suggests a Persistent Polymer Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, Kell; Borger, Anine L.; Kirkensgaard, Jacob J. K.; Garvey, Christopher J.; Almdal, Kristoffer; Dorokhin, Andriy; Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2018-05-01

    We present structural small-angle neutron scattering studies of a three-armed polystyrene star polymer with short deuterated segments at the end of each arm. We show that the form factor of the three-armed star molecules in the relaxed state agrees with that of the random phase approximation of Gaussian chains. Upon exposure to large extensional flow conditions, the star polymers change conformation resulting in a highly stretched structure that mimics a fully extended three-armed tube model. All three arms are parallel to the flow, one arm being either in positive or negative stretching direction, while the two other arms are oriented parallel, right next to each other in the direction opposite to the first arm.

  7. Photometric transit search for planets around cool stars from the western Italian Alps: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacobbe, P.; Damasso, M.; Sozzetti, A.; Toso, G.; Perdoncin, M.; Calcidese, P.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R. L.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results of a year-long photometric monitoring campaign of a sample of 23 nearby (d < 60 pc), bright (J < 12) dM stars carried out at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley, in the western Italian Alps. This programme represents a 'pilot study' for a long-term photometric transit search for planets around a large sample of nearby M dwarfs, due to start with an array of identical 40-cm class telescopes by the Spring of 2012. In this study, we set out to (i) demonstrate the sensitivity to <4 R⊕ transiting planets with periods of a few days around our programme stars, through a two-fold approach that combines a characterization of the statistical noise properties of our photometry with the determination of transit detection probabilities via simulations; and (ii) where possible, improve our knowledge of some astrophysical properties (e.g. activity, rotation) of our targets by combining spectroscopic information and our differential photometric measurements. We achieve a typical nightly root mean square (RMS) photometric precision of ˜5 mmag, with little or no dependence on the instrumentation used or on the details of the adopted methods for differential photometry. The presence of correlated (red) noise in our data degrades the precision by a factor of ˜1.3 with respect to a pure white noise regime. Based on a detailed stellar variability analysis (i) we detected no transit-like events (an expected result, given the sample size); (ii) we determined photometric rotation periods of ˜0.47 and ˜0.22 d for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A, respectively; (iii) these values agree with the large projected rotational velocities (˜25 and ˜33 km s-1, respectively) inferred for both stars based on the analysis of archival spectra; (iv) the estimated inclinations of the stellar rotation axes for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A are consistent with those derived using a simple spot model; and (v) short-term, low-amplitude flaring events were

  8. A Study of Inner Disk Gas around Young Stars in the Lupus Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arulanantham, Nicole Annemarie; France, Kevin; Hoadley, Keri

    2018-06-01

    We present a study of molecular hydrogen at the surfaces of the disks around five young stars in the Lupus complex: RY Lupi, RU Lupi, MY Lupi, Sz 68, and TYC 7851. Each system was observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and we detect a population of fluorescent H2 in all five sources. The temperatures required for LyA fluorescence to proceed (T ~ 1500-2500 K) place the gas within ~15 AU of the central stars. We have used these features to extract the radial distribution of H2 in the inner disk, where planet formation may already be taking place. The objects presented here have very different outer disk morphologies, as seen by ALMA via 890 micron dust continuum emission, ranging from full disks with no signs of cavities to systems with large regions that are clearly depleted (e.g. TYC 7851, with a cavity extending to 75 and 60 AU in dust and gas, respectively). Our results are interpreted in conjunction with sub-mm data from the five systems in an effort to piece together a more complete picture of the overall disk structure. We have previously applied this multi-wavelength approach to RY Lupi, including 4.7 micron IR-CO emission in our analysis. These IR-CO and UV-H2 observations were combined with 10 micron silicate emission, the 890 micron dust continuum, and 1.3 mm CO observations from the literature to infer a gapped structure in the inner disk. This single system has served as a testing ground for the larger Lupus complex sample, which we compare here to examine any trends between the outer disk morphology and inner disk gas distributions.

  9. First Results from the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Our best efforts in the United States to dramatically improve teaching and learning in astronomy courses has been less than satisfactory despite Herculean efforts. A possible solution is to expand our view beyond our own culture's borders and presumptions in order to bring our shortcomings in discipline-based astronomy education research to light. Before we can begin the process of international comparisons of student conceptual understanding, we need to better understand how different citizens of different countries position astronomy culturally. Under the banner of the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, iSTAR, we are now carefully observing how foreign experts in teaching astronomy and the science of astronomy translate the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument to look for subtle clues revealed during the translation process. The TOAST is the widely used standard to evaluate students' gains in the United States' Astronomy classrooms. We hope that the process of translation itself will help us comprehend how other cultures think differently about astronomical concepts and eventually we are looking to obtain useful data of how other cultures develop their society's understanding of particular astronomy aspects where we may fall short. Several of the iSTAR Project's bilingual speakers are documenting their thoughts and insights as they translate the TOAST. The end-goal is to collect a comprehensible, well-defined, and logical translation in various languages that are culturally sensitive and linguistically accurate. This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research at CAPERTeam.com in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  10. Mid-Infrared Observational and Theoretical Studies of Star Formation and Early Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    The first 2 years of this program were used to make mid-IR observations of regions of star formation in the Orion nebula with the UCSD mid-IR camera at the UCSD/University of Minnesota telescope at Mt. Lemmon. These observations attempted to make the first systematic study of an extended region, known to have newly forming stars, and expected to have complex mid-IR emission. We discovered, to our surprise, that most of the thermal emission originated from extended sources rather than from point sources. This interesting observation made the analysis of the data much more complex, since the chop/nod procedures used at these wavelengths produce a differential measurement of the emission in one region compared to that in the adjacent region. Disentangling complex extended emission in such a situation is very difficult. In parallel with this work we were also observing comets in the thermal infrared, the other component of the original proposal. Some spectacular data on the comet Swift-Tuttle was acquired and published. A changing jet structure observed over a 2 week period is described. The rotation period of the comet can be measured at 66 hours. The size of the nucleus can also be estimated (at 30 km) from the observed excess flux from the nucleus. These data have lead to the development of models describing the action of dust particles of differing sizes and composition leaving the nucleus. The spatial distribution of the predicted IR emission has been compared to the observed jet structures, leading to estimates of both particles sizes, relative amounts of silicate vs organic grains, and the amounts of dust emitted in the jets vs isotopic emission.

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger starmore » formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.« less

  12. Statistical studies of superflares on G-, K-, M- type stars from Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Honda, Satoshi; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Ikuta, Kai; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-05-01

    Flares are thought to be sudden releases of magnetic energy stored around starspots. Recent space high-precision photometry shows “superflares”, 10-104 times more energetic than the largest solar flares, occur on many G, K, M-type stars (e.g., Maehara+2012 Nature). Harmful UV/X-ray radiation and high-energy particles such as protons are caused by such superflares. This may suggest that exoplanet host stars have severe effects on the physical and chemical evolution of exoplanetary atmospheres (cf. Segura+2010 Astrobiology, Takahashi+2016 ApJL).We here present statistical properties of superflares on G, K, M-type stars on the basis of our analyses of Kepler photometric data (Maehara+2012 Nature, Shibayama+2013 ApJS, Notsu+2013 ApJ, Canderaresi+2014 ApJ, Maehara+2015 EPS, Maehara+2017 PASJ). We found more than 5000 superflares on 800 G, K, M-type main-sequence stars, and the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution with the index of -1.8 -1.9. This power-law distribution is consistent with that of solar flares.Flare frequency increases as stellar temperature decreases. As for M-type stars, energy of the largest flares is smaller compared with G,K-type stars, but more frequent “hazardous” flares for the habitable planets since the habitable zone around M-type stars is much smaller compared with G, K-type stars.Rotation period and starspot coverage can be estimated from the quasi-periodic brightness variation of the superflare stars. The intensity of Ca II 8542 line of superflare stars, which is measured from spectroscopic observations with Subaru Telescope, has a well correlation with the brightness variation amplitude (Notsu+2015a&b PASJ).Flare frequency has a correlation with rotation period, and this suggests young rapidly-rotating stars (like “young Sun”) have more severe impacts of flares on the planetary atmosphere (cf. Airapetian+2016 ApJL). Flare energy and frequency also depends

  13. Identifying Young, Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better

  14. Hidden Milky Way star clusters hosting Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtev, R.; Borissova, J.; Ivanov, V. D.; Georgiev, L.

    2009-05-01

    A noticeable fraction of the hidden young star clusters contain WR and O stars providing us with unique laboratories to study the evolution of these rare objects and their maternity places. We are reporting the reddening, the distance and age of two new members of the family of massive young Galactic clusters, hosting WR stars - Glimpse 23 and Glimpse 30.

  15. Feasibility Study of Utilizing Existing Infrared Array Cameras for Daylight Star Tracking on NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, Jack (Technical Monitor); Fazio, Giovanni G.; Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a daytime star tracker for ULDB flights using a commercially available off-the-shelf infrared array camera. This report describes the system used for ground-based tests, the observations, the test results, and gives recommendations for continued development.

  16. Class-Size Policy: The STAR Experiment and Related Class-Size Studies. NCPEA Policy Brief. Volume 1, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    This brief summarizes findings on class size from over 25 years of work on the Tennessee Student Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) randomized, longitudinal experiment, and other Class-Size Reduction (CSR) studies throughout the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, Sweden, Great Britain, and elsewhere. The brief concludes with recommendations. The…

  17. Rotating stars in relativity.

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  18. X-ray studies of highly magnetized neutron stars and their environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Harsha Sanjeev

    Supernova explosions are among the most energetic events known in the universe, leaving supernova remnants (SNRs) as their relics. The cores of massive stars collapse to form neutron stars, among the most compact and strongest magnets in the cosmos. The thesis studies a sample of such magnetic "beauties" in X-rays, the magnetars and high-magnetic field pulsars (HBPs), with the motivation to understand their evolutionary links. We also address the connection between these sources by investigating their environs through their securely associated SNRs. Magnetars have ultra-high magnetic fields B ~ 1014 -- 1015 Gauss (G) and include the soft-gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs). The HBPs have magnetic fields B ~ 1013 -- 10 14 G, intermediate between the classical rotation-powered pulsars (B ~ 1012 G) and magnetars. We focussed on two HBPs: J1119-6127 and J1846-0258, with similar spin-properties and associated with the SNRs G292.2-0.5 and Kes 75, respectively. In our studies, magnetar-like behavior was discovered from the Crab-like pulsar J1846-0258, clearly establishing a connection between the HBPs and magnetars for the first time, while no such behavior has been observed from PSR J1119-6127 so far. J1119-6127's overall X-ray properties together with its compact pulsar wind nebula resemble more the classical rotation-powered pulsars. We studied two magnetars, one from each sub-class: SGR 0501+4516 and AXP 1E 1841-045. The spectral and statistical analysis of the bursts and the persistent X-ray emission properties observed from them were found consistent with the magnetar model predictions as well as those seen in other SGRs. Finally, we probed the environment of these stellar magnets by performing a detailed X-ray imaging and spatially resolved spectroscopic study of two SNRs: G292.2-0.5 and Kes 73 associated with J1119-6127 and 1E 1841-045, respectively. We found that both SNRs point to very massive progenitors ( ≳ 25 solar masses), further

  19. Four years experience in APMS star plate processing - Results and future plans. [Automated Proper Motion Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper describes an automated system for measuring stellar proper motions on the basis of information contained in photographic plates. In this system, the images on a star plate are digitized by a scanning microdensitometer using light from a He-Ne gas laser, and a special-purpose computer arranges the measurements in computer-compatible form on magnetic tape. The scanning and image-reconstruction processes are briefly outlined, and the image-evaluation techniques are discussed. It is shown that the present system has been especially successful in measuring the proper motions of low-luminosity stars, including 119 stars with less than 1/10,000 of the solar bolometric luminosity. Plans for measurements of high-density Milky Way star plates are noted.

  20. A study of the cold cores population in the Perseus star-forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzuto, S.; Fiorellino, E.; Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; André, P.; Könyves, V.; Ladjelate, B.; Di Francesco, J.; Piccotti, L.; Herschel Gould Belt Survey Consortium

    As part of the Herschel Gould Belt survey, the Perseus star-forming cloud was observed with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. Source catalogs are preliminary, as well as the here presented core mass function.

  1. A study of the gas-star formation relation over cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Sternberg, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Shapiro, K.; Bolatto, A.; Bouché, N.; Bournaud, F.; Burkert, A.; Combes, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Neri, R.; Omont, A.; Shapley, A.; Weiner, B.

    2010-10-01

    We use the first systematic data sets of CO molecular line emission in z ~ 1-3 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) for a comparison of the dependence of galaxy-averaged star formation rates on molecular gas masses at low and high redshifts, and in different galactic environments. Although the current high-z samples are still small and biased towards the luminous and massive tail of the actively star-forming `main-sequence', a fairly clear picture is emerging. Independent of whether galaxy-integrated quantities or surface densities are considered, low- and high-z SFG populations appear to follow similar molecular gas-star formation relations with slopes 1.1 to 1.2, over three orders of magnitude in gas mass or surface density. The gas-depletion time-scale in these SFGs grows from 0.5 Gyr at z ~ 2 to 1.5 Gyr at z ~ 0. The average corresponds to a fairly low star formation efficiency of 2 per cent per dynamical time. Because star formation depletion times are significantly smaller than the Hubble time at all redshifts sampled, star formation rates and gas fractions are set by the balance between gas accretion from the halo and stellar feedback. In contrast, very luminous and ultraluminous, gas-rich major mergers at both low and high z produce on average four to 10 times more far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass. We show that only some fraction of this difference can be explained by uncertainties in gas mass or luminosity estimators; much of it must be intrinsic. A possible explanation is a top-heavy stellar mass function in the merging systems but the most likely interpretation is that the star formation relation is driven by global dynamical effects. For a given mass, the more compact merger systems produce stars more rapidly because their gas clouds are more compressed with shorter dynamical times, so that they churn more quickly through the available gas reservoir than the typical normal disc galaxies. When the dependence on galactic dynamical time-scale is

  2. Dusty Beginnings of a Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    Are brown dwarfs born like stars, as in this rendering, or do they form like planets orbiting another star? A study by researchers using data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has led to the preliminary conclusion that they are formed much like a star.

  3. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  4. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  5. Building Blocks of Dust and Large Organic Molecules: a Coordinated Laboratory and Astronomical Study of AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Gottlieb, Carl A.; Cernicharo, Jose

    2017-06-01

    The increased sensitivity and angular resolution of high-altitude ground-based interferometers in the sub-millimeter band has enabled the physics and chemistry of carbon- and oxygen-rich evolved stars to be re-examined at an unprecedented level of detail. Observations of rotational lines in the inner envelope - the region within a few stellar radii of the central star where the molecular seeds of dust are formed - allows one to critically assess models of dust growth. Interferometric observations of the outer envelope provide stringent tests of neutral and ionized molecule formation. All of the astronomical studies are crucially dependent on precise laboratory measurements of the rotational spectra of new species and of vibrationally excited levels of known molecules and their rare isotopic species. By means of a closely coordinated laboratory and astronomical program, a number of exotic species including the disilicon carbide SiCSi, titanium oxides TiO and TiO_2, and carbon chain anions ranging from CN^- to C_8H^- have recently been observed in evolved stars. This talk will provide overview of these findings, and how they impact current models of the ``chemical laboratories'' of evolved stars. Ongoing laboratory studies of small silicon-bearing molecules such as H_2SiO_2 and vibrationally excited SiC_2 will be highlighted.

  6. Studying Star and Planet Formation with the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) is a far- infrared/submillimeter (40-640 micrometers) spaceborne interferometry concept, studied through the NASA Vision Missions program. SPECS is envisioned as a 1-km baseline Michelson interferometer with two 4- meter collecting mirrors. To maximize science return, SPECS will have three operational modes: a photometric imaging mode, an intermediate spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 1000-3000), and a high spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 5)). The first two of these modes will provide information on all sources within a 1 arcminute field-of-view (FOV), while the the third will include sources in a small (approximately equal to 5 arcsec) FOV. With this design, SPECS will have angular resolution comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope (50 mas) and sensitivity more than two orders of magnitude better than Spitzer (5sigma in 10ks of approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 7) Jy Hz). We present here some of the results of the recently-completed Vision Mission Study for SPECS, and discuss the application of this mission to future studies of star and planet formation.

  7. Multiwavelength study of the low-luminosity outbursting young star HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Dunham, M. M.; García-Álvarez, D.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Kun, M.; Moór, A.; Farkas, A.; Hajdu, G.; Hodosán, G.; Kovács, T.; Kriskovics, L.; Marton, G.; Molnár, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Szalai, T.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Szing, A.; Tóth, I.; Vida, K.; Vinkó, J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. HBC 722 (V2493 Cyg) is a young eruptive star in outburst since 2010. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that the source is an FU Orionis-type object, with an atypically low outburst luminosity. Aims: Because it was well characterized in the pre-outburst phase, HBC 722 is one of the few FUors from which we can learn about the physical changes and processes associated with the eruption, including the role of the circumstellar environment. Methods: We monitored the source in the BVRIJHKS bands from the ground and at 3.6 and 4.5 μm from space with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We analyzed the light curves and studied the evolving spectral energy distribution by fitting a series of steady accretion disk models at many epochs covering the outburst. We also analyzed the spectral properties of the source based on our new optical and infrared spectra, comparing our line inventory with those published in the literature for other epochs. We also mapped HBC 722 and its surroundings at millimeter wavelengths. Results: From the light-curve analysis we conclude that the first peak of the outburst in 2010 September was mainly due to an abrupt increase in the accretion rate in the innermost part of the system. This was followed after a few months by a long-term process, when the brightening of the source was mainly due to a gradual increase in the accretion rate and the emitting area. Our new observations show that the source is currently in a constant plateau phase. We found that the optical spectrum was similar in the first peak and following periods, but around the peak the continuum was bluer and the Hα profile changed significantly between 2012 and 2013. The source was not detected in the millimeter continuum, but we discovered a flattened molecular gas structure with a diameter of 1700 au and mass of 0.3 M⊙ centered on HBC 722. Conclusions: While the first brightness peak might be interpreted as a rapid fall of piled-up material from the inner disk onto the star, the

  8. A Theoretical Study of the Outer Layers of Eight Kepler F-stars: The Relevance of Ionization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the theoretical model envelopes of eight Kepler F-stars by computing the phase shift of the acoustic waves, α (ω ), and its related function, β (ω ). The latter is shown to be a powerful probe of the external stellar layers since it is particularly sensitive to the partial ionization zones located in these upper layers. We found that these theoretical envelopes can be organized into two groups, each of which is characterized by a distinct β (ω ) shape that we show to reflect the differences related to the magnitudes of ionization processes. Since β (ω ) can also be determined from the experimental frequencies, we compared our theoretical results with the observable β (ω ). Using the function β (ω ), and with the purpose of quantifying the magnitude of the ionization processes occurring in the outer layers of these stars, we define two indexes, {{Δ }}{β }1 and {{Δ }}{β }2. These indexes allow us to connect the microphysics of the interior of the star with macroscopic observable characteristics. Motivated by the distinct magnetic activity behaviors of F-stars, we studied the relation between the star’s rotation period and these indexes. We found a trend, in the form of a power-law dependence, that favors the idea that ionization is acting as an underlying mechanism, which is crucial for understanding the relation between rotation and magnetism and even observational features such as the Kraft break.

  9. A proposed STAR microvertex detector using Active Pixel Sensors with some relevant studies on APS performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; King, J.; Levesque, J.; Matis, H. S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H. G.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Shabetai, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J. H.; Wieman, H. H.; Bichsel, H.

    2006-09-01

    A vertex detector that can measure particles with charm or bottom quarks would dramatically expand the physics capability of the STAR detector at RHIC. To accomplish this, we are proposing to build the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) using 2×2 cm Active Pixels Sensors (APS). Ten of these APS chips will be arranged on a ladder (0.28% of a radiation length) at radii of 1.5 and at 5.0 cm. We have examined several properties of APS chips, so that we can characterize the performance of this detector. Using 1.5 GeV/ c electrons, we have measured the charge collected and compared it to the expected charge. To achieve high efficiency, we have considered two different cluster finding algorithms and found that the choice of algorithm is dependent on noise level. We have demonstrated that a Scanning Electron Microscope can probe properties of an APS chip. In particular, we studied several position resolution algorithms. Finally, we studied the properties of pixel pitches from 5 to 30 μm.

  10. A study of the spectrum of HD 108, an unusual Of star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underhill, Anne B.

    1994-01-01

    Spectra of the peculiar O star HD 108 obtained at a scale of 30 A/mm in the years 1986-1991 have been studied for line displacements and line profiles. The wavelength regions covered are 4180-5050 A, 5100-5980 A, and 6180-7070 A. The spectra were recorded with a Reticon, and most have a signal-to-noise ratio per pixel in the continuum greater than 200. It is argued that the spectral type is best described as O7fpe III. The spectrum at the time of observation was similar to te description given by Plaskett (1924), but the radial velocity has changed. In 1922 and 1923 the absorption lines and the emission lines showed a displacement of -62 km/s. In the ensuing years the radial velocity shown by the absorption lines, mostly He II, N III, and O III, has changed to about -84 km/s in 1991. The emission-line velocity remained near -62 km/s until about 1991, when this radial velocity became (apparently) about -66 km/s. There is some reason to suspect that the last few spectra obtained in 1991 suffer from a small random negative shift. The meaning of the radial velocity results is discussed, and it is argued that by 1973 the photosphere may have begun to undergo an outward surge. The change of motion shown by the emission lines is less than that shown by the photospheric absorption lines. It is argued that the emission lines, both the strong sharp emission lines due to H and He I and the weaker lines due to C II, C III, N II, O II, and Si III, are formed in a polar jet which is moving almost perpendicular to the line of sight. The star HD 108 appears to be related to the luminous blues variables (LBVs) and to the B(e) stars. No forbidden emission lines, as from a nebula, were detected in the visible spectral range. Strong distinctive P Cygni type displaced absorption components for the H and He I lines are not seen. Rather, one sees a sharp emission line superposed on a photospehric absorption line. The absence of a strong P Cygni type absorption component indicates that

  11. An ultraviolet study of B[e] stars: evidence for pulsations, luminous blue variable type variations and processes in envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtičková, I.; Krtička, J.

    2018-06-01

    Stars that exhibit a B[e] phenomenon comprise a very diverse group of objects in a different evolutionary status. These objects show common spectral characteristics, including the presence of Balmer lines in emission, forbidden lines and strong infrared excess due to dust. Observations of emission lines indicate illumination by an ultraviolet ionizing source, which is key to understanding the elusive nature of these objects. We study the ultraviolet variability of many B[e] stars to specify the geometry of the circumstellar environment and its variability. We analyse massive hot B[e] stars from our Galaxy and from the Magellanic Clouds. We study the ultraviolet broad-band variability derived from the flux-calibrated data. We determine variations of individual lines and the correlation with the total flux variability. We detected variability of the spectral energy distribution and of the line profiles. The variability has several sources of origin, including light absorption by the disc, pulsations, luminous blue variable type variations, and eclipses in the case of binaries. The stellar radiation of most of B[e] stars is heavily obscured by circumstellar material. This suggests that the circumstellar material is present not only in the disc but also above its plane. The flux and line variability is consistent with a two-component model of a circumstellar environment composed of a dense disc and an ionized envelope. Observations of B[e] supergiants show that many of these stars have nearly the same luminosity, about 1.9 × 105 L⊙, and similar effective temperatures.

  12. A Study of Chemical Composition of δ Scuti-Type Stars Based on the Observations with the BTA and RTT-150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, A. I.; Berdnikova, V. M.; Ivanova, D. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Balashova, M. O.

    2017-06-01

    The results of a study of a sample of δ Scuti-type stars obtained from the observations with the BTA and RTT-150 are presented. Based on photometric data, we measured and analyzed the fundamental parameters of all the studied stars. For eight stars (for two of them for the first time), the fundamental parameters of the atmospheres (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) and the chemical composition for 29 elements in the LTE-approximation are received using spectroscopic observations. The chemical composition analysis demonstrates both the solar abundances of chemical elements and the anomalies of chemical composition typical of Am stars in the studied sample of δ Scuti-type stars.

  13. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  14. The Evolution of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. Josephine

    1993-04-01

    -type stars (^13C-rich carbon stars) have been suggested to be transition objects between M-type stars and C-type stars. An optical spectroscopic study of these silicate carbon stars was performed at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria in 1991. CCGCS 1653, CCGCS 4222, CCGCS 4923 and CCGCS 5848 have been confirmed to be J stars. CCGCS 1158 and CCGCS 4729 are provisionally identified as J stars. A preliminary spectral analysis has also been carried out. Model calculations are presented on the evolution from the visual carbon stars to infrared carbon stars, and on the evolution of infrared carbon stars. A new empirical opacity function for the SiC grain is derived based on the LRS spectra of a selected sample of infrared carbon stars. A two-shell model has been developed with an oxygen-rich detached shell and a newly-forming SiC dust shell. The energy distributions of ~110 transition objects which are late-stage visual carbon stars or early-stage infrared carbon stars are fitted with this Interrupted Mass Loss Model. Furthermore, the model tracks successfully explain the "C" shaped distribution of the transition objects in the IRAS 12 microns/25 microns/60 microns colour-colour diagram. The energy distributions of ~150 infrared carbon stars are also matched with a radiative transfer dust shell model using only SiC dust. The colour evolution of infrared carbon stars can be explained with a continuous increase in mass loss rate on the AGB. An evolutionary scenario of AGB stars is suggested. There is a branching of M-type and C-type stars on the AGB with each branch evolving independently to the planetary nebula stage. The initial mass of the star in the main sequence may be the factor that determines which branch the star will follow. (SECTION: Dissertation Abstracts)

  15. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  16. From dust to light: a study of star formation in NGC2264

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, P. S.

    2008-10-01

    The goal of this dissertation is to characterize the star formation history of the young cluster NGC2264 using the unique observational capabilities of the Spitzer Space Telescope. The motivation to conduct this study stems from the fact that most stars are formed within clusters, so the formation and evolution of the latter will effect the stellar mass distribution in the field. Detailed observational studies of young stellar clusters are therefore crucial to provide necessary constraints for theoretical models of cloud and cluster formation and evolution. This study also addresses the evolution of circumstellar disks in NGC2264; empirical knowledge of protoplanetary disk evolution is required for the understanding of how planetary systems such as our own form. The first result obtained from this study was both completely new and unexpected. A dense region within NGC2264 was found to be teeming with bright 24 μm Class I protostars; these sources are embedded within dense submillimeter cores and are spatially distributed along dense filamentary fingers of gas and dust that radially converge on a B-type binary Class I source. This cluster of protostars was baptized the "Spokes cluster" and its analysis provided further insight into the role of thermal support during core formation, collapse and fragmentation. The nearest neighbor projected separation distribution of these Class I sources shows a characteristic spacing that is similar to the Jeans length for the region, indicating that the dusty filaments may have undergone thermal fragmentation. The submillimeter cores of the Spokes cluster were observed at 230GHz using the SubMillimeter Array (SMA) and the resulting high resolution (~1.3") continuum observations revealed a dense grouping of 7 Class 0 sources embedded within a particular core, D-MM1 (~20"x20"). The compact sources have masses ranging between 0.4M and 1.2M, and radii of ~600AU. The mean separation of the Class 0 sources within D-MM1 is considerably

  17. Precise Laboratory Measurement of Line Frequencies Useful to Studies of Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.; Gottlieb, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In March 2002, we began a program in laboratory spectroscopy to provide accurate molecular line frequencies essential to studies of the motions and abundance in star-forming dense cores and planet-forming circumstellar disks. Summarized here is the progress that has been made in Year 3 of this grant. Work included measurement of 10 successive rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of SiO between 86 and 500 GHz, and two lines near 800 GHz to an accuracy of a few kHz; conducting pilot experiments on molecular ions in collision-free supersonic beams, including HCO+, N2H+, and H2D+; measurement of 22 lines of CN between 113 and 340 GHz; and setting up an experiment that would allow us to refine earlier measurements of the neutral species such as C3H2, CCS, H2CS, and SO by observing the very narrow sub-Doppler (Lamb dip) features in the millimeter-wave spectra of these species.

  18. Using photometrically selected metal-poor stars to study dwarf galaxies and the Galactic stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youakim, Kris; Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Pristine Team

    2018-06-01

    The Pristine survey is a narrow-band photometric survey designed to efficiently search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. In the first three years of the survey, it has demonstrated great efficiency at finding EMP stars, and also great promise for increasing the current, small sample of the most metal-poor stars. The present sky coverage is ~2500 square degrees in the Northern Galactic Halo, including several individual fields targeting dwarf galaxies. By efficiently identifying member stars in the outskirts of known faint dwarf galaxies, the dynamical histories and chemical abundance patterns of these systems can be understood in greater detail. Additionally, with reliable photometric metallicities over a large sky coverage it is possible to perform a large scale clustering analysis in the Milky Way halo, and investigate the characteristic scale of substructure at different metallicities. This can reveal important details about the process of building up the halo through dwarf galaxy accretion, and offer insight into the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo. In this talk I will outline our results on the search for the most pristine stars, with a focus on how we are using this information to advance our understanding of dwarf galaxies and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic stellar halo.

  19. A Study of Two Dwarf Irregular Galaxies with Asymmetrical Star Formation Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallardo, Samavarti; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Adamo, Angela; Cook, David O.; Oh, Se-Heon; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Kim, Hwihyun; Kahre, Lauren; Ubeda, Leonardo; Bright, Stacey N.; Ryon, Jenna E.; Fumagalli, Michele; Sacchi, Elena; Kennicutt, R. C.; Tosi, Monica; Dale, Daniel A.; Cignoni, Michele; Messa, Matteo; Grebel, Eva K.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Sabbi, Elena; Grasha, Kathryn; Gallagher, John S., III; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C.

    2018-03-01

    Two dwarf irregular galaxies, DDO 187 and NGC 3738, exhibit a striking pattern of star formation: intense star formation is taking place in a large region occupying roughly half of the inner part of the optical galaxy. We use data on the H I distribution and kinematics and stellar images and colors to examine the properties of the environment in the high star formation rate (HSF) halves of the galaxies in comparison with the low star formation rate halves. We find that the pressure and gas density are higher on the HSF sides by 30%–70%. In addition we find in both galaxies that the H I velocity fields exhibit significant deviations from ordered rotation and there are large regions of high-velocity dispersion and multiple velocity components in the gas beyond the inner regions of the galaxies. The conditions in the HSF regions are likely the result of large-scale external processes affecting the internal environment of the galaxies and enabling the current star formation there.

  20. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  1. Renal angioplasty and stenting: is it still indicated after ASTRAL and STAR studies?

    PubMed

    Henry, M; Benjelloun, A; Henry, I; Polydorou, A; Hugel, M

    2010-10-01

    A renal artery stenosis (RAS) is common among patients with atherosclerosis, up to a third of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Fibromuscular dysplasia is the next cause of RAS, commonly found in young women. Atherosclerosis RAS generally progresses overtime and is often associated with loss of renal mass and worsening renal function (RF). Percutaneous renal artery stent placement is the preferred method of revascularization for hemodynamically significant RAS according to ACC and AHA guidelines. Several randomized trials have shown the superiority of endovascular procedures to medical therapy alone. However, two studies ASTRAL and STAR studies were recently published and did not find any difference between renal stenting and medical therapy. But these studies have a lot of limitations and flaws as we will discuss (poor indications, poor results, numerous complications, failures, poor technique, inexperienced operators, ecc.). Despite these questionable studies, renal stenting keeps indications in patients with: uncontrolled hypertension; ischemic nephropathy; cardiac disturbance syndrome (e.g. "flash" pulmonary edema, uncontrolled heart failure or uncontrolled angina pectoris); solitary kidney. To improve the clinical response rates, a better selection of the patients and lesions is mandatory with: good non-invasive or invasive imaging; physiologic lesion assessment using transluminal pressure gradients; measurements of biomarkers (e.g., BNP); fractional flow reserve study. A problem remains after renal angioplasty stenting, the deterioration of the RF in 20-30% of the patients. Atheroembolism seems to play an important role and is probably the main cause of this R.F deterioration. The use of protection devices alone or in combination with IIb IIa inhibitors has been proposed and seems promising as shown in different recent reports. Renal angioplasty and stenting is still indicated but we need: a better patient and lesion selection; improvements in

  2. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  3. An Astrometric Study of the Low-Mass Binary Star Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, George; Coban, Louis; Han, Inwoo

    2003-03-01

    Long accepted as the quintessential low-mass star, the secondary of the nearby diminutive astrometric binary Ross 614 has attracted considerable astrophysical interest. Unfortunately, the orbital period of 16.6 yr exceeds the duration of the mission-limited studies of most space-borne or instrumental-proving observational programs. As with most such binaries, the only full-orbit studies are based on photographic materials. The last extended study of this system was based upon the plate collections of the McCormick and Sproul Observatories. The work reported here combines data from the Multichannel Astrometric Photometer, the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data, the previously unmeasured photographic plates of the Allegheny Observatory, published observations of the visual binary, and recently published radial velocities of the system. Together, these data span more than three orbits of the low-mass binary system. Limiting our analysis to the most recent observations of the binary, and five older observations that are in fair agreement with them, we find masses of 0.2228+/-0.0055 and 0.1107+/-0.0028 Msolar for the primary and secondary, respectively, with the largest source of error being the visual separations of the system. We find a parallax of 244.07+/-0.73 mas, a period of 16.595+/-0.0077 yr, and an increased estimate of the semimajor axis of 1101.2+/-8.2 mas. The latter led to a significant increase in the computed masses. All other aspects of the orbital elements and astrometry are in excellent agreement with those found in the independent study of the McCormick and Sproul plates. The importance of long-term astrometric coverage is pointed out by the fact that the orbital motion of the system only resulted in an acceleration during the compilation of the Hipparcos Catalogue. No orbital parameters or mass estimates can be discerned from these high-precision but short-term data.

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Mid-infrared study of RR Lyrae stars (Gavrilchenko+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilchenko, T.; Klein, C. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Richards, J. W.

    2015-02-01

    The first goal was to find a large sample of WISE-observed RR Lyrae stars. A data base of previously identified RR Lyrae stars was created, combining information from General Catalogue of Variable Stars (GCVS), All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS), SIMBAD, VizieR, and individual papers. For many of the sources in this data base the only available data were the coordinates and RR Lyrae classification. When provided, information about the period, distance, subclass, and magnitude for several different wavebands was also stored. If a single source appeared in multiple surveys or papers, information from all relevant surveys was included, with markers indicating contradicting measurements between surveys. The resulting data base contains about 17000 sources, of which about 5000 sources have documented V-band periods. (3 data files).

  5. Studying the location of SACs and DACs regions in the environment of hot emission stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, A.; Danezis, E.; Lyratzi, E.; Popović, L. Č.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Theodossiou, E.

    Hot emission stars (Oe and Be stars) present complex spectral line profiles, which are formed by a number of DACs and/or SACs. In order to explain and reproduce theoretically these complex line profiles we use the GR model (Gauss-Rotation model). This model presupposes that the regions, where the spectral lines are created, consist of a number of independent and successive absorbing or emitting density regions of matter. Here we are testing a new approach of the GR model, which supposes that the independent density regions are not successive. We use this new approach in the spectral lines of some Oe and Be stars and we compare the results of this method with the results deriving from the classical GR model that supposes successive regions.

  6. A VLT/UVES spectroscopy study of O2 stars in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Emile I.; Crowther, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    We have analysed VLT/UVES spectra of six O2 stars within the Large Magellanic Cloud using the non-LTE atmospheric code CMFGEN. A range of physical properties was determined by employing a temperature calibration based upon N IV - N V diagnostics. Wind properties were also obtained from the Hα line, while CNO surface abundances were supplied through various diagnostics. Our results reveal effective temperatures in excess of T_{eff} ˜50 kK in all cases. We also addressed their evolutionary status and favour a mass dependent division. For lower masses ≤100 M⊙Mar, an O2 star follows the classical sequence, evolving from dwarf on to giant, through to supergiant. At higher masses, the dwarf phase may be circumvented and instead O2 stars begin their lives as giants or supergiants, evolving to the H-rich WN stage within ˜1.5 Myr.

  7. Some new ideas for the study of the complex spectral line profiles of hot emission stars and quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danezis, E.

    2013-01-01

    Some Hot Emission Stars and AGNs present peculiar spectral line profiles which are due to DACs and SACs phenomena. The origin and the mechanisms which are responsible for the creation of DACs/SACs is an important problem that has been studied by many researchers. This paper is a review of our efforts to study the origin and the mechanisms of these phenomena. At first we present a theoretic ad hoc picture for the structure of the plasma that surrounds the specific category of hot emission stars that present DACs or SACs. Then we present the mathematical model that we constructed, which is based on the properties of the above ad hoc theoretical structure. Finally, we present some results from our statistical studies that prove the consistency of our model with the classical physical theory.

  8. Preliminary study of the use of the STAR-100 computer for transonic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. D.; Jameson, A.

    1977-01-01

    An explicit method for solving the transonic small-disturbance potential equation is presented. This algorithm, which is suitable for the new vector-processor computers such as the CDC STAR-100, is compared to successive line over-relaxation (SLOR) on a simple test problem. The convergence rate of the explicit scheme is slower than that of SLOR, however, the efficiency of the explicit scheme on the STAR-100 computer is sufficient to overcome the slower convergence rate and allow an overall speedup compared to SLOR on the CYBER 175 computer.

  9. NeutronSTARS: A segmented neutron and charged particle detector for low-energy reaction studies

    DOE PAGES

    Akindele, O. A.; Casperson, R. J.; Wang, B. S.; ...

    2017-08-10

    NeutronSTARS (Neutron-S ilicon T elescope A rray for R eaction S tudies) consists of 2.2-tons of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator for neutron detection and large area silicon detectors for charged particle identification. This detector array is intended for low-energy-nuclear-reaction measurements that result in the emission of neutrons such as and fission. This paper describes the NeutronSTARS experimental setup, calibration, and the array’s response to neutral and charged particles.

  10. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  11. Bionano Interaction Study on Antimicrobial Star-Shaped Peptide Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shu J; Wong, Edgar H H; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Pantarat, Namfon; Blencowe, Anton; Reynolds, Eric C; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-12-14

    'Structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs), in the form of star-shaped peptide polymer nanoparticles, have been recently demonstrated as a new class of antimicrobial agents with superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Gram-negative pathogens, including multidrug-resistant species. Herein, we present a detailed bionano interaction study on SNAPPs by assessing their antimicrobial activities against several Gram-negative bacteria in complex biological matrices. Simulated body fluid and animal serum were used as test media to reveal factors that influence the antimicrobial efficacy of SNAPPs. With the exception of Acinetobacter baumannii, the presence of divalent cations at physiological concentrations reduced the antimicrobial efficacy of SNAPPs from minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) within the nanomolar range (40-300 nM) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomanas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae to 0.6-4.7 μM. By using E. coli as a representative bacterial species, we demonstrated that the reduction in activity was due to a decrease in the ability of SNAPPs to cause outer and inner membrane disruption. This effect could be reversed through coadministration with a chelating agent. Interestingly, the potency of SNAPPs against A. baumannii was retained even under high salt concentrations. The presence of serum proteins was also found to affect the interaction of SNAPPs with bacterial membranes, possibly through intermolecular binding. Collectively, this study highlights the need to consider the possible interactions of (bio)molecules present in vivo with any new antimicrobial agent under development. We also demonstrate that outer membrane disruption/destabilization is an important but hitherto under-recognized target for the antimicrobial action of peptide-based agents, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Overall, the findings presented herein could aid in the design of more efficient peptide-based antimicrobial agents with

  12. Insights for Planetarium and Museum Educators Revealed by the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Tatge, C. B.; Ratcliff, M.; Slater, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Dedicated sky watchers through the centuries have long sought to find the best teaching methods to efficiently and effectively transfer vast amounts of accumulated star knowledge to the next generation of sky watchers. Although detailed maps specifying the names and locations of stars have been carefully displayed on spherical globes for thousands of years, it is the 1923 installation of a Zeiss-made, large, mechanical star projector in Munich that is often cited as the first modern projection planetarium for teaching astronomy. In the 1930's, impressive planetariums were installed Chicago, Los Angeles and New York, which then in turn served as a catalyst for additional planetarium construction. Planetarium construction increased rapidly in the United States due to federal funding to schools and museums through the 1958 US National Defense Education Act and the US went from one planetarium in 1930, to six in 1940, to about 100 in 1960, increasing to 200 in 1963, 450 by 1967—even before humans had landed on the Moon—and more than 1,000 by 1975. Today, nearly 3,000 permanent planetarium facilities are available to show the stars and heavenly motions to children and adults alike across the world, with perhaps another thousand portable planetariums adding to the available teaching venues. Simultaneous with their construction, discipline-based astronomy education have been trying to better understand, and ultimately improve, how people learn astronomy in the planetarium. A systematic analysis of planetarium education research articles, dissertations, and theses found in the recently constructed, community-wide, international Study of Astronomical Reasoning iSTAR database at istardatabase.org reveal that many of the systematic studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s using domes served by servo-mechanical star projects have been reproduced again in recent decades in theaters using digital video projection showing nearly the same results: student-passive, information

  13. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  14. Long-term Doppler Shift and Line Profile Studies of Planetary Search Target Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    This grant supported attempts to develop a method for measuring the Doppler shifts of solar-type stars more accurately. The expense of future space borne telescopes to search for solar systems like our own makes it worth trying to improve the relatively inexpensive pre-flight reconnaissance by ground-based telescopes. The concepts developed under this grant contributed to the groundwork for such improvements. They were focused on how to distinguish between extrasolar planets and stellar activity (convection) cycles. To measure the Doppler shift (radial velocity; RV) of the center of mass of a star in the presence of changing convection in the star's photosphere, one can either measure the effect of convection separately from that of the star's motion and subtract its contribution to the apparent RV, or measure the RV in a way that is insensitive to convection. This grant supported investigations into both of these approaches. We explored the use of a Fabry-Perot Etalon HE interferometer and a multichannel Fourier Transform Spectrometer (mFTS), and finished making a 1.8-m telescope operational and potentially available for this work.

  15. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  16. Constraints on Grain Formation Around Carbon Stars from Laboratory Studies of Presolar Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Akande, O. W.; Croat, T. K.; Cowsik, R.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, either with or without internal crystals of titanium carbide (TiC). In addition to providing detailed information about stellar nucleosynthesis, the structure and composition of presolar grains give unique information about the conditions of grain formation. In the present work we use laboratory observations of presolar graphite to gain insight into the physical conditions in circumstellar outflows from carbon AGB stars. The periodic pulsation of AGB stars enhances the gas density through shocks in the stellar atmosphere above the photosphere, promoting the condensation of dust grains. Copious mass outflow occurs largely because grains are coupled to the radiation field of the star, which accelerates them by radiation pressure; momentum is in turn transferred to gas molecules by collisions with grains. The dust/gas mixture is effectively a two-component fluid whose motion depends on atmospheric structure and which, in turn, influences that structure. In particular, the radiation pressure on the grains determines the velocity field of the outflow and thus the density distribution, while the density distribution itself determines the conditions of radiative transfer within the outflow and thus the effective radiation pressure.

  17. A Study of Nonthermal X-Ray and Radio Emission from the O Star 9 Sgr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Drake, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    The observed X-ray and highly variable nonthermal radio emission from OB stars has eluded explanation for more than 18 years. The most favorable model of X-ray production in these stars (shocks) predicts both nonthermal radio and X-ray emission. The nonthermal X-ray emission should occur above 2 keV and the variability of this X-ray component should also be comparable to the observed radio variability. To test this scenario, we proposed an ASC/VLA monitoring program to observe the OB star, 9 Sgr, a well known nonthermal, variable radio source and a strong X-ray source. We requested 625 ks ASCA observations with a temporal spacing of approximately 4 days which corresponds to the time required for a density disturbance to propagate to the 6 cm radio free-free photosphere. The X-ray observations were coordinated with 5 multi-wavelength VLA observations. These observations represent the first systematic attempt to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and radio emission in OB stars.

  18. A study of the cold cores population in the Serpens star-forming region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorellino, E.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; André, P.; Könyves, V.; Ladjelate, B.; Herschel Gould Belt Survey Consortium

    As part of the Herschel Gould Belt survey, the Serpens star-forming region was observed with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments. Data analysis is ongoing and a first version of the source catalog is ready; here we show some preliminary results.

  19. Constraints on Grain Formation around Carbon Stars from Laboratory Studies of Presolar Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Akande, Onaolapo Wali; Croat, Thomas K.; Cowsik, Ramanath

    2005-10-01

    We report the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TiC). A lower mass limit of 1.1 Msolar for stars capable of contributing grains to the solar nebula is derived. This mass limit, in conjunction with a mass-luminosity relation for carbon stars, identifies the region of the H-R diagram relevant to the production of presolar graphite. Detailed dynamical models of AGB outflows, along with constraints provided by kinetics and equilibrium thermodynamics, indicate that grain formation occurs at radii from 2.3 to 3.7 AU for AGB carbon stars in the 1.1-5 Msolar range. This analysis also yields time intervals available for graphite growth that are on the order of a few years. By considering the luminosity variations of carbon stars, we show that grains formed during minima in the luminosity are likely to be evaporated subsequently, while those formed at luminosity maxima will survive. We calculate strict upper limits on grain sizes for graphite and TiC in spherically symmetric AGB outflows. Graphite grains can reach diameters in the observed micron size range (1-2 μm) only under ideal growth conditions (perfect sticking efficiency, no evaporation, no depletion of gas species contributing to grain growth), and then only in outflows from carbon stars with masses <~2.5 Msolar. The same is true for TiC grains that are found within presolar graphite, which have mean diameters of 24+/-14 nm. In general, the mass-loss rates that would be required to produce the observed grain sizes in spherically symmetric outflows are at least an order of magnitude larger than the maximum observed AGB carbon star mass-loss rates. These results, as well as pressure constraints derived from equilibrium thermodynamics, force us to conclude that presolar graphite

  20. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  1. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  2. Tabby's Star (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-04

    This illustration depicts a hypothetical uneven ring of dust orbiting KIC 8462852, also known as Boyajian's Star or Tabby's Star. Astronomers have found the dimming of the star over long periods appears to be weaker at longer infrared wavelengths of light and stronger at shorter ultraviolet wavelengths. Such reddening is characteristic of dust particles and inconsistent with more fanciful "alien megastructure" concepts, which would evenly dim all wavelengths of light. By studying observations from NASA's Spitzer and Swift telescopes, as well as the Belgian AstroLAB IRIS observatory, the researchers have been able to better constrain the size of the dust particles. This places them within the range found in dust disks orbiting stars, and larger than the particles typically found in interstellar dust. The system is portrayed with a couple of comets, consistent with previous studies that have found evidence for cometary activity within the system. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22081

  3. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  4. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  5. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study

    PubMed Central

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo Jr., Billy W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. Methods The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2TM multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeamTM STx with HD 120TM MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Results Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeamTM STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Conclusion Clinically acceptable plans were

  6. The Natural History of the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Studies: Design and Baseline Characteristics: ProgStar Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Rupert W; Ho, Alex; Muñoz, Beatriz; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sahel, José-Alain; Sunness, Janet S; Birch, David G; Bernstein, Paul S; Michaelides, Michel; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zrenner, Eberhart; Sadda, SriniVas; Ervin, Ann-Margret; West, Sheila; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled into 2 natural history studies of Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter retrospective and prospective cohort studies. Three hundred sixty-five unique patients aged 6 years and older at baseline harboring disease-causing variants in the ABCA4 gene and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled from 9 centers in the United States and Europe. In the retrospective study, patients contributed medical record data from at least 2 and up to 4 visits for at least 1 examination modality: fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and/or microperimetry (MP). The total observational period was at least 2 years and up to 5 years between single visits. Demographic and visual acuity (VA) data also were obtained. In the prospective study, eligible patients were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6-month follow-up visits planned for a 2-year period for serial Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected VA, SD OCT, FAF, and MP. Design and rationale of a multicenter study to determine the progression of STGD1 in 2 large retrospective and prospective international cohorts. Detailed baseline characteristics of both cohorts are presented, including demographics, and structural and functional retinal metrics. Into the retrospective study, 251 patients (458 eyes) were enrolled; mean follow-up ± standard deviation was 3.9±1.6 years. At baseline, 36% had no or mild VA loss, and 47% of the study eyes had areas of definitely decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) with an average lesion area of 2.5±2.9 mm(2) (range, 0.02-16.03 mm(2)). Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) were enrolled in the prospective study. At baseline, 20% had no or mild VA loss, and 64% had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 4.0±4.4 mm(2) (range, 0.03-24.24 mm(2)). The mean retinal sensitivity with MP was 10.8±5.0 dB. The ProgStar cohorts have

  7. Photometry of Southern Hemisphere red dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented for a photometric investigation of a spectroscopically selected sample of red dwarf stars in the Southern Hemisphere. Absolute magnitudes and distances for the stars are estimated from broadband red colors. Three stars which may be subluminous are identified, as are several stars which may be within 25 pc. The tangential velocity and velocity dispersion of the sample are similar to values found in other studies of nearby late-type stars.

  8. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  9. Winds from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral observations of cool stars enable study of the presence and character of winds and the mass loss process in objects with effective temperatures, gravities, and atmospheric compositions which differ from that of the Sun. A wealth of recent spectroscopic measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer complement high resolution ground-based measures in the optical and infrared spectral regions. Such observations when combined with realistic semi-empirical atmospheric modeling allow us to estimate the physical conditions in the atmospheres and winds of many classes of cool stars. Line profiles support turbulent heating and mass motions. In low gravity stars, evidence is found for relatively fast (approximately 200 km s(exp -1)), warm winds with rapid acceleration occurring in the chromosphere. In some cases outflows commensurate with stellar escape velocities are present. Our current understanding of cool star winds will be reviewed including the implications of stellar observations for identification of atmospheric heating and acceleration processes.

  10. A Chandra ACIS Study of 30 Doradus. II. X-Ray Point Sources in the Massive Star Cluster R136 and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Getman, Konstantin V.

    2006-04-01

    We have studied the X-ray point-source population of the 30 Doradus (30 Dor) star-forming complex in the Large Magellanic Cloud using high spatial resolution X-ray images and spatially resolved spectra obtained with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Here we describe the X-ray sources in a 17'×17' field centered on R136, the massive star cluster at the center of the main 30 Dor nebula. We detect 20 of the 32 Wolf-Rayet stars in the ACIS field. The cluster R136 is resolved at the subarcsecond level into almost 100 X-ray sources, including many typical O3-O5 stars, as well as a few bright X-ray sources previously reported. Over 2 orders of magnitude of scatter in LX is seen among R136 O stars, suggesting that X-ray emission in the most massive stars depends critically on the details of wind properties and the binarity of each system, rather than reflecting the widely reported characteristic value LX/Lbol~=10-7. Such a canonical ratio may exist for single massive stars in R136, but our data are too shallow to confirm this relationship. Through this and future X-ray studies of 30 Dor, the complete life cycle of a massive stellar cluster can be revealed.

  11. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  12. High-Speed Bullet Ejections during the AGB to Planetary Nebula Transition: A Study of the Carbon Star V Hydrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    The carbon star V Hya is experiencing heavy mass loss as it undergoes the transition from an AGB star to a planetary nebula (PN). This is possibly the earliest object known in this brief phase, which is so short that few nearby stars are likely to be caught in the act. Molecular observations reveal that a bipolar nebula has been established even at this early stage. Using STIS, we obtained high spatial-resolution long-slit optical spectra of V Hya spanning 3 epochs spaced apart by a year during each of two periods (2002-2004, 2011-2013). These data reveal high-velocity emission in [SII] lines from compact blobs located both on- and off-source, with the ejection axis executing a flip-flop, both in, and perpendicular to, the sky-plane. We have proposed a detailed model in which V Hya ejects high-speed (200-250 km/s) bullets once every 8.5 yr associated with periastron passage of a binary companion in an eccentric orbit with an 8.5 yr period. We suggest that the jet driver is an accretion disk (produced by gravitational capture of material from the primary) that is warped and precessing. Our model predicts the locations of previously ejected bullets in V Hya and future epochs at which new bullets will emerge. We now propose new STIS observations of these remarkable bullet ejections over two new epochs well separated from previous ones, to robustly test our model. The proposed observations will provide us with an unprecedented opportunity to look on as V Hya's circumstellar envelope is sculpted by these bullets. Our study will help solve the long-standing puzzle of how the spherical mass-loss envelopes of AGB stars evolve into bipolar and multipolar PNe.

  13. A combined multiwavelength VLA/ALMA/Chandra study unveils the complex magnetosphere of the B-type star HR5907

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Oskinova, L. M.; Ignace, R.; Buemi, C. S.; Umana, G.; Ingallinera, A.; Leone, F.; Phillips, N. M.; Agliozzo, C.; Todt, H.; Cerrigone, L.

    2018-05-01

    We present new radio/millimeter measurements of the hot magnetic star HR 5907 obtained with the VLA and ALMA interferometers. We find that HR 5907 is the most radio luminous early type star in the cm-mm band among those presently known. Its multi-wavelength radio light curves are strongly variable with an amplitude that increases with radio frequency. The radio emission can be explained by the populations of the non-thermal electrons accelerated in the current sheets on the outer border of the magnetosphere of this fast-rotating magnetic star. We classify HR 5907 as another member of the growing class of strongly magnetic fast-rotating hot stars where the gyro-synchrotron emission mechanism efficiently operates in their magnetospheres. The new radio observations of HR 5907 are combined with archival X-ray data to study the physical condition of its magnetosphere. The X-ray spectra of HR 5907 show tentative evidence for the presence of non-thermal spectral component. We suggest that non-thermal X-rays originate a stellar X-ray aurora due to streams of non-thermal electrons impacting on the stellar surface. Taking advantage of the relation between the spectral indices of the X-ray power-law spectrum and the non-thermal electron energy distributions, we perform 3-D modelling of the radio emission for HR 5907. The wavelength-dependent radio light curves probe magnetospheric layers at different heights above the stellar surface. A detailed comparison between simulated and observed radio light curves leads us to conclude that the stellar magnetic field of HR 5907 is likely non-dipolar, providing further indirect evidence of the complex magnetic field topology of HR 5907.

  14. Structure–function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

  15. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  16. An X-ray Study of a Massive Star and its Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Sugawara, Yasuharu; Tsuboi, Yohko; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2010-10-01

    WR 140 is one of the best known examples of a Wolf-Rayet stars. We executed the Suzaku X-ray observations at four different epochs around periastron passage in Jan. 2009 to understand the W-R stellar wind as well as the wind-wind collision shocks. The column density at periastron is about 30 times higher than that at pre-periastron, which can be explained as self-absorption by the Wolf-Rayet wind. The spectra are dominated by a line and continuum emission from a optically thin-thermal plasma. The strong Ne-K lines are evidence that the thermal plasma is shock-heated W-R wind materials by the interaction with the wind from the companion O star. We present the parameters of the wind, such as a mass-loss rate, which were calculated with the absorption and line emission in the spectra.

  17. A multifrequency study of star formation in the blue compact dwarf galaxy IZw 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viallefond, F.; Thuan, T. X.

    1983-01-01

    Radio, near IR, optical, and UV observations of I Zw 36 = Mrk 209 = Haro 29 are reported. The H I distribution shows a core-halo structure, the core containing half of the mass and showing systematic motions; the halo is diffuse and contains several H I clumps. The visible star formation region is associated with the core but is shifted slightly with respect to the H I peak column density; and the virial mass is 5 to 7 times the H I mass. Star formation models with an initial mass function of slope 1.5 (the Salpeter value being 1.35) and a burst age or duration of a few million years fit well the optical spectrophotometric measurements. The data also suggest that the column density of molecular hydrogen in I Zw 36 is 6 + or - 3 times that of the neutral hydrogen, about the right amount to account for the virial mass.

  18. A Photometric Study of the Eclipsing Binary Star PY Boötis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, E. J.

    2016-12-01

    Presented here are the first precision multi-band CCD photometry of the eclipsing binary star PY Boötis. Best-fit stellar models were determined by analyzing the light curves with the Wilson-Devinney program. Asymmetries in the light curves were interpreted as resulting from magnetic activity which required spots to be included in the model. The resulting model is consistent with a W-type contact eclipsing binary having total eclipses.

  19. A COMPREHENSIVE, WIDE-FIELD STUDY OF PULSATING STARS IN THE CARINA DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Mateo, Mario, E-mail: akvivas@cida.ve, E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids (DCs), which are mostly located ∼2.5 mag below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (<0.1 days), typical of their class and consistent with their location on the upper part of the extended main sequence of the younger populations ofmore » the galaxy. Several extra-tidal DCs were found in our survey up to a distance of ∼1° from the center of Carina. Our sample also includes RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids, some of which were found outside the galaxy's tidal radius as well. This supports past works that suggest that Carina is undergoing tidal disruption. We use the period-luminosity relationship for DCs to estimate a distance modulus of μ{sub 0} = 20.17 ± 0.10 mag, in very good agreement with the estimate from RR Lyrae stars. We find some important differences in the properties of the DCs of Carina and those in Fornax and the LMC, the only extragalactic samples of DCs currently known. These differences may reflect a metallicity spread, depth along the line of sight, and/or different evolutionary paths of the DC stars.« less

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Star Polymeric Molecules with Diblock Arms, a Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Swope, William C; Carr, Amber C; Parker, Amanda J; Sly, Joseph; Miller, Robert D; Rice, Julia E

    2012-10-09

    We have performed all atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of three different star polymeric systems in water, each star molecule consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core. The arms of each system consist of an inner "hydrophobic" block (either polylactide, polyvalerolactone, or polyethylene) and an outer hydrophilic block (polyethylene oxide, PEO). These models exhibit unusual structure very close to the core (clearly an artifact of our model) but which we believe becomes "normal" or bulk-like at relatively short distances from this core. We report on a number of temperature-dependent thermodynamic (structural/energetic) properties as well as kinetic properties. Our observations suggest that under physiological conditions, the hydrophobic regions of these systems may be solid and glassy, with only rare and shallow penetration by water, and that a sharp boundary exists between the hydrophobic cores and either the PEO or water. The PEO in these models is seen to be fully water-solvated at low temperatures but tends to phase separate from water as the temperature is increased, reminiscent of a lower critical solution temperature exhibited by PEO-water mixtures. Water penetration concentration and depth is composition and temperature dependent with greater water penetration for the most ester-rich star polymer.

  1. Detecting outliers and learning complex structures with large spectroscopic surveys - a case study with APOGEE stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Itamar; Poznanski, Dovi; Baron, Dalya; Zasowski, Gail; Shahaf, Sahar

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we apply and expand on a recently introduced outlier detection algorithm that is based on an unsupervised random forest. We use the algorithm to calculate a similarity measure for stellar spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). We show that the similarity measure traces non-trivial physical properties and contains information about complex structures in the data. We use it for visualization and clustering of the data set, and discuss its ability to find groups of highly similar objects, including spectroscopic twins. Using the similarity matrix to search the data set for objects allows us to find objects that are impossible to find using their best-fitting model parameters. This includes extreme objects for which the models fail, and rare objects that are outside the scope of the model. We use the similarity measure to detect outliers in the data set, and find a number of previously unknown Be-type stars, spectroscopic binaries, carbon rich stars, young stars, and a few that we cannot interpret. Our work further demonstrates the potential for scientific discovery when combining machine learning methods with modern survey data.

  2. A Study of THT Cold Cores Population in the Star-Forming Region in Serpens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorellino, Eleonora

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to produce the Core Mass Function (CMF) of the Serpens star-forming region and confront it with the Initial Mass Function (IMF), the statistical distribution of initial star mass. As Testi & Sergent (1998) discovered, the power-law index of the slope of the CMF is very close to the one of the Salpeter's IMF (Salpeter, 1955): dN/dM / M2.35. This strongly suggests that the stellar IMF results from the fragmentation process in turbulent cloud cores rather than from stellar accretion mechanisms and gives a huge contribute to undestanding the star formation. For this work, we started from the data delivered by the European satellite Herschel and produced the maps of the Serpens with Unimap code (Piazzo et al, 2015). Hence we obtained a core catalogue with two different softwares getsources (Men'shchikov et al, 2012) and CuTEx (Molinari et al, 2011) and we eliminated from it any source that is not a core. A full discussion of the cores physical propreties as well as the whole region is under preparation.

  3. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  4. Star Formation in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF-9: a Multi-Wavelength Intra-Cloud Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, David Robert

    Filamentary dark clouds (FDCs) are a subclass of small molecular clouds containing small numbers of somewhat regularly spaced dense cores connected by lower density gas and dust. Most of the previous work performed on FDCs has concerned the star formation properties of individual dense cores within the FDCs and has not concerned the FDCs as entities of their own. As a result little is known about the general star formation properties of FDCs. The primary question addressed in this work is 'Within filamentary dark clouds, how does the star formation process within a core region compare to that within a filamentary region?' In order to address the above question, a multi-wavelength observational comparative study has been performed upon a representative dense core (hereafter, GF9-Core) and filamentary region (hereafter, GF9-Fila) within the FDC GF-9 (LDN 1082). At the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, the core and filamentary region were observed in the rotational transitions of 12CO/ (J=1/to0),/ 13CO/ (J=1/to0)/ and/ CS/ (J=2/to1) covering a region of 10' x 8'. The temperature, density and kinematic structures of the two regions were deduced from the radio imaging spectroscopy data and were used to estimate the energy balance of the regions. We also obtained 70, 100, 135 and 200 μm images from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering approximately 12' x 9' which were used to investigate the temperature and density distributions of the dust within the two regions. Finally, at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory using the Aerospace Corporation NICMOS3 camera, the core and filament were imaged in the near-infrared broadband filters J, H, and K-short covering a slightly smaller region of 7' x 7'. The near-infrared survey data were used to search for embedded Class I and Class II protostars and to investigate the density distribution of the dust. We have found that the evolutionary processes of the core region and the filament region proceed along similar

  5. Optical and X-ray studies of chromospherically active stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559 and LO Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely FR Cnc (= BD +16 degrees 1753), HD 95559 and LO Peg (=BD +22 degrees 4409), including newly obtained optical photometry, (for FR Cnc) low-resolution optical spectroscopy, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out during the years 2001 - 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.826685 +/- 0.000034 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 years respectively are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 years. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca I1 H and K, H(sub beta) and H(sub alpha) emission features indicative of high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H(sub alpha) to H(sub beta), EH(sub alpha)/EH(sub beta), suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using 2MASS data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out by with the ROSAT observatory. The best fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with sub-solar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to

  6. Integral field spectroscopy of local LCBGs: NGC 7673, a case study. Physical properties of star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Gallego, J.; Pérez-Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Zamorano, J.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2011-03-01

    Physical properties of the star-forming regions in the local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy (LCBG) NGC 7673 are studied in detail using 3D spectroscopic data taken with the PMAS fibre pack (PPAK) integral field unit at the 3.5-m telescope in the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). We derive integrated and spatially resolved properties such as extinction, star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity for this galaxy. Our data show an extinction map with maximum values located at the position of the main clumps of star formation showing small spatial variations [E(B-V)t= 0.12-0.21 mag]. We derive an Hα-based SFR for this galaxy of 6.2 ± 0.8 M⊙ yr-1 in agreement with the SFR derived from infrared and radio continuum fluxes. The star formation is located mainly in clumps A, B, C and F. Different properties measured in clump B make this region peculiar. We find the highest Hα luminosity with an SFR surface density of 0.5 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 in this clump. In our previous work, the kinematic analysis for this galaxy shows an asymmetrical ionized gas velocity field with a kinematic decoupled component located at the position of clump B. This region shows the absence of strong absorption features and the presence of a Wolf-Rayet stellar population indicating that this is a young burst of massive stars. Furthermore, we estimate a gas metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.20 ± 0.15 (0.32 solar) for the integrated galaxy using the R23 index. The values derived for the different clumps with this method show small metallicity variations in this galaxy, with values in the range 8.12 (for clump A) to 8.23 (for clump B) for 12 + log(O/H). The analysis of the emission-line ratios discards the presence of any active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity or shocks as the ionization source in this galaxy. Between the possible mechanisms to explain the starburst activity in this galaxy, our 3D spectroscopic data support the scenario of an on-going interaction with the possibility for clump B

  7. Fearsome Flashes: A Study Of The Evolution Of Flaring Rates In Cool Stars Using Kepler Cluster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    Strong solar flares can damage power grids, satellites, interrupt communications and GPS information, and threaten astronauts and high latitude air travelers. Despite the potential cost, their frequency is poorly determined. Beyond purely current terrestrial concerns, how the rate of large flares (and associated coronal mass ejections [CMEs], high-energy particle fluxes and far UV emission) varies over the stellar lifetime holds considerable astrophysical interest. These include: the contributions of flares to coronal energy budgets; the importance of flares and CMEs to terrestrial and exoplanet atmospheric and biological evolution; and importance of CME mass loss for angular momentum evolution. We will explore the rate of strong flares and its variation with stellar age, mass and rotation by studying Kepler data of cool stars in two open clusters NGC 6811 (age ~ 1 Gyr) and NGC 6819 (~2.5 Gyr). We will use two flare analysis methods to build white-light flare distributions for cluster stars. One subtracts a low-pass filtered version of the data and analyzes the residue for positive flux deviations, the other does a statistical analysis of the flux deviations vs. time lags compared with a model. For near- solar stars, a known solar relation can then be used to estimate X-ray production by the white-light flares. For stars much hotter or cooler or with significantly different chromospheric density, we will use particle code flare models including bombardment effects to estimate how the X-ray to white light scaling changes. With the X-ray values, we can estimate far UV fluxes and CME rates, building a picture of the flare effects; with the two cluster ages, we can make a first estimate of the solar rate (by projecting to the Sun's age) and begin to build up an understanding of flare rate evolution with mass and age. Our proposal falls squarely in the "Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets" research area, and is relevant to NASA astrophysics goals in promoting better

  8. Sounds of a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    the models are necessarily quite uncertain (i.e., they are not well "constrained"). It is therefore imperative to enlarge the number of observables and this is possible with asteroseismology. Helioseismology has opened up the way. These observations severely constrain the possible models of the Sun's internal structure. But, depending on their mass and age, stars have very different internal structures, and may also harbour physical processes that are quite different from those in the Sun. Asteroseismological observations of stellar oscillations add crucial information that constrain the models of their inner structure, since the measured frequencies may be compared directly with those computed for the models. The observation of the full stellar disk allows to characterize certain (low degree) oscillation modes which penetrate deep inside the star and it is not necessary to resolve the stellar disk (as we can do for the Sun) in order to obtain useful seismological information. More stars to be observed Observations of bright solar-like stars are already planned with the CORALIE spectrograph. Even fainter stars can be observed with the HARPS spectrograph which will be installed on the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory at the end of 2002. It will be able to observe stars that are one hundred times fainter than those now reachable with CORALIE and with even better accuracy of the velocity measurements. While it will be mostly dedicated to the search of exoplanets, HARPS will be able to conduct an asteroseismological study of about 100 solar-like stars. More information The research reported in this Press Release is described in a scientific article ("P-mode observations on Alpha Cen A" by François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier) that has been accepted for publication as a Letter in the European journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics". Note [1]: Alpha Centauri was earlier known as Rigil Centauri , but that name is not much used because of the similarity with the name of the

  9. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.

    2016-12-01

    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  10. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  11. SOAP-T: a tool to study the light curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshagh, M.; Boisse, I.; Boué, G.; Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Bonfils, X.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and the active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots. The tool's public interface is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/soap-t/

  12. Dynamic Studies of Struve Double Stars: STF4 and STF 236AB Appear Gravitationally Bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, E. O.; Rica, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamics of two Struve double stars, WDS 00099+0827 (STF 4) and WDS 02556+2652 (STF 326 AB) are analyzed using astrometric criteria to determine their natures as gravitationally bound or unbound systems. If gravitationally bound, then observed relative velocity will be within limits according to the orbital energy conservation equation. Full implementation of this criterion was possible because the relative radial velocities as well as proper motions have been estimated. Other physical parameters were taken from literature or estimated using published protocols. Monte Carlo analysis indicates that both pairs have a high probability of being gravitationally bound and thus are long-period binaries.

  13. Studying the Variability of Bright Stars with the CONCAM Sky Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Rafert, J. B.; Perez-Ramirez, D.

    2001-12-01

    CONCAMs have now been deployed at some of the world's major observatories including KPNO in Arizona, Mauna Kea in Hawaii, and Wise Observatory in Israel. Data from these mobile, inexpensive and continuous sky cameras, consisting of a fish-eye lens mated to a CCD camera and run by a laptop, has been ever-increasing. Initial efforts to carry out photometric analysis of CONCAM fits images have now been fortified by a more automated technique of analyzing this data. Results of such analyses - variability of several bright stars, in particular, are presented, as well as the use of these cameras as cloud monitors to remote observers.

  14. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  15. The physics of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M

    2004-04-23

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  16. Star quality.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-09-20

    Around 150 wards are participating in the voluntary Star Wards scheme to provide mental health inpatients with more activities with therapeutic value. Suggested activities range from a library, to horse riding Internet access and comedy. Service users are particularly keen to have more exercise, which can be a challenge in inpatient settings.

  17. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  18. Herschel Studies of the Evolution and Environs of Young Stars in the DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT OT Key Project Team; WISH GT Key Project Team; FOOSH OT1 Team

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled us to probe the physical conditions of outer disks, envelopes, and outflows of young stellar objects, including embedded objects, Herbig Ae/Be disks, and T Tauri disks. We will report on results from three projects, DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH. The DIGIT (Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time) program (PI: Neal Evans) utilizes the full spectral range of the PACS instrument to explore simultaneously the solid and gas-phase chemistry around sources in all of these stages. WISH (Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel, PI Ewine van Dishoeck) focuses on observations of key lines with HIFI and line scans of selected spectral regions with PACS. FOOSH (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel, PI Joel Green) studies FU Orionis objects with full range PACS and SPIRE scans. DIGIT includes examples of low luminosity protostars, while FOOSH studies the high luminosity objects during outburst states. Rotational ladders of highly excited CO and OH emission are detected in both disks and protostars. The highly excited lines are more commonly seen in the embedded phases, where there appear to be two temperature components. Intriguingly, water is frequently detected in spectra of embedded sources, but not in the disk spectra. In addition to gas features, we explore the extent of the newly detected 69 um forsterite dust feature in both T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. When analyzed along with the Spitzer-detected dust features, these provide constraints on a population of colder crystalline material. We will present some models of individual sources, as well as some broad statistics of the emission from these stages of star and planet formation.

  19. Not Alone: Tracing the Origins of Very-Low-Mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs Through Multiplicity Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgasser, A. J.; Reid, I. N.; Siegler, N.; Close, L.; Allen, P.; Lowrance, P.; Gizis, J.

    The properties of multiple stellar systems have long provided important empirical constraints for star-formation theories, enabling (along with several other lines of evidence) a concrete, qualitative picture of the birth and early evolution of normal stars. At very low masses (VLM; M ? 0.1 solar mass), down to and below the hydrogen-burning minimum mass, our understanding of formation processes is not as clear, with several competing theories now under consideration. One means of testing these theories is through the empirical characterization of VLM multiple systems. Here, we review the results of various VLM multiplicity studies to date. These systems can be generally characterized as closely separated (93% have projected separations ? < 20 AU), near equal-mass (77% have M2/M1 ? 0.8) and occurring infrequently (perhaps 10-30% of systems are binary). Both the frequency and maximum separation of stellar and brown dwarf binaries steadily decrease for lower system masses, suggesting that VLM binary formation and/or evolution may be a mass-dependent process. There is evidence for a fairly rapid decline in the number of loosely bound systems below ~0.3 solar mass, corresponding to a factor of 10-20 increase in the minimum binding energy of VLM binaries as compared to more massive stellar binaries. This wide-separation "desert" is present among both field (~1-5 G.y.) and older (>100 m.y.) cluster systems, while the youngest (<10 m.y.) VLM binaries, particularly those in nearby, low-density star-forming regions, appear to have somewhat different systemic properties. We compare these empirical trends to predictions laid out by current formation theories, and outline future observational studies needed to probe the full parameter space of the lowest-mass multiple systems.

  20. Depression is not a consistent syndrome: An investigation of unique symptom patterns in the STAR*D study.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M

    2015-02-01

    The DSM-5 encompasses a wide range of symptoms for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Symptoms are commonly added up to sum-scores, and thresholds differentiate between healthy and depressed individuals. The underlying assumption is that all patients diagnosed with MDD have a similar condition, and that sum-scores accurately reflect the severity of this condition. To test this assumption, we examined the number of DSM-5 depression symptom patterns in the "Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression" (STAR*D) study. We investigated the number of unique symptom profiles reported by 3703 depressed outpatients at the beginning of the first treatment stage of STAR*D. Overall, we identified 1030 unique symptom profiles. Of these profiles, 864 profiles (83.9%) were endorsed by five or fewer subjects, and 501 profiles (48.6%) were endorsed by only one individual. The most common symptom profile exhibited a frequency of only 1.8%. Controlling for overall depression severity did not reduce the amount of observed heterogeneity. Symptoms were dichotomized to construct symptom profiles. Many subjects enrolled in STAR*D reported medical conditions for which prescribed medications may have affected symptom presentation. The substantial symptom variation among individuals who all qualify for one diagnosis calls into question the status of MDD as a specific consistent syndrome and offers a potential explanation for the difficulty in documenting treatment efficacy. We suggest that the analysis of individual symptoms, their patterns, and their causal associations will provide insights that could not be discovered in studies relying on only sum-scores. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Star-shaped azomethines based on tris(2-aminoethyl)amine. Characterization, thermal and optical study.

    PubMed

    Iwan, Agnieszka; Janeczek, Henryk; Kaczmarczyk, Bozena; Jarzabek, Bozena; Sobota, Michal; Rannou, Patrice

    2010-02-01

    The synthesis and detailed (physico)-chemical ((1)H/(13)C NMR, FTIR, UV-vis and elemental analysis) characterizations of new star-shaped compounds based on tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, including in their structure an azomethine function (HCN-) and alkoxysemiperfluorinated (-O-(CH(2))(3)-(CF(2))(7)-CF(3)), octadecyloxy aliphatic (-O-(CH(2))(17)-CH(3)) chain or two phenyl rings (-Ph-Ph-) as a terminal group, were reported. The mesomorphic behavior was investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized optical microscopy (POM) and additionally by FTIR(T) and UV-vis(T) spectroscopy. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) technique was used to probe the structural properties of the azomethines. Moreover, the azomethine A1 was electro-spun to prepare fibers with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and investigated by DSC and POM. Additionally, a film of the A1 with PMMA was cast from chloroform and the thermal properties of the film were compared with the thermal properties of the fiber and powder. It was showed that terminal groups dramatically influence the thermal and optical properties of the star-shaped azomethines. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of the Delta Scuti Stars FH Cam, CU CVn and CC Lyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conidis, G. J.; Gazeas, K. D.; Capobianco, C. C.; Ogloza, W.

    2010-06-01

    Three short period (P ˜ 1 day) variable stars from the Hipparcos catalogue targets were observed after suspected misclassification as Beta Lyr eclipsing systems (Perryman et al. 1997), as no secondary component had been noticed in the inspection of their Broadening Functions (BFs) (Rucinski 2002). FH Cam is found to be a multiple star system with a member exhibiting Delta Scuti behaviour. The dominant pulsation frequency is found to be 7.3411 ± 0.0002 c/d, which corresponds to a pulsation mode of l ≤ 1. We confirmed the pulsations of CU CVn using photometric observations and found a pulsation frequency of 14.7626 ± 0.0250 c/d, which is in agreement with the period given in literature. CC Lyn is a non-eclipsing visual binary (CCDM J07359+4302AB), the brighter component (A) is found to be a multi-mode Delta Scuti pulsator, with pulsation frequencies of 5.6402 ± 0.0004 c/d and 7.3368 ± 0.0005 c/d.

  3. Integral equation theory study on the phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Li, Yi-Gui; Zhong, Chongli

    2007-10-21

    The polymer reference interaction site model theory is used to investigate phase separation in star polymer nanocomposite melts. Two kinds of spinodal curves were obtained: classic fluid phase boundary for relatively low nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength and network phase boundary for relatively high nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength. The network phase boundaries are much more sensitive with nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength than the fluid phase boundaries. The interference among the arm number, arm length, and nanoparticle-monomer attraction strength was systematically investigated. When the arm lengths are short, the network phase boundary shows a marked shift toward less miscibility with increasing arm number. When the arm lengths are long enough, the network phase boundaries show opposite trends. There exists a crossover arm number value for star polymer nanocomposite melts, below which the network phase separation is consistent with that of chain polymer nanocomposite melts. However, the network phase separation shows qualitatively different behaviors when the arm number is larger than this value.

  4. A study of EUV emission from the O4f star Zeta Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Vallerga, John

    1995-01-01

    Our 20 ks observation did not allow us to carry out our primary objective, i.e., to test the limitations of deeply embedded EUV and X-ray sources. However, it did provide a very useful constraint in our analysis of a newly acquired high S/N ROSAT PSPC X-ray spectrum of Zeta Pup. In addition, modifications to our stellar wind opacity code have been preformed to investigate the sensitivity of the EUV opacity energy range to different photospheric model flux inputs and different wind structures. These analyses provided the justification for a 140 ks follow up EUVE Cycle III observation of this star. We have recently been informed that our requested observation has been accepted as a Type 1 target for Cycle III. The remainder of this report focuses on the following: (1) a brief background on the status of X-ray emission from OB stars; (2) a discussion on the importance of EUV observations; (3) a discussion of our scientific objectives; and (4) a summary of our technical approach for our Cycle III observation (including the predicted EUV counts for various lines.)

  5. Studying the inner regions of young stars and their disks with aperture masking interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; GPI Instrument Team; NIRISS Instrument Team

    2017-01-01

    High resolution aperture masking interferometry complements coronagraphic imagers to provide a unique perspective on star and planet formation at more moderate contrast. By targeting young stars, especially those with disks, we aim to understand complex protoplanetary environments. Ground-based non-redundant masking (NRM) paired with spectrographs and polarimeters probes both thermally emitting young companions, possibly embedded in the disk or gap and scattered light in protoplanetary disks. And soon the community will have access to the most stable NRM conditions yet, with the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode on the James Webb Space Telescope. I will present my thesis work commissioning the Gemini Planet Imager’s NRM, highlighting results through both its spectroscopy and polarimetry modes, which set the stage for future space-based imaging. I will also give an overview of NIRISS-AMI capabilities and performance predictions for imaging young low-mass companions and disks, and how it will complement other instruments on JWST.

  6. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.vauclair@irap.omp.eu

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on themore » thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.« less

  7. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  8. About 30% of Sun-like Stars Have Kepler-like Planetary Systems: A Study of Their Intrinsic Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Petrovich, Cristobal; Wu, Yanqin; Dong, Subo; Xie, Jiwei

    2018-06-01

    We constrain the intrinsic architecture of Kepler planetary systems by modeling the observed multiplicities of the transiting planets (tranets) and their transit timing variations (TTVs). We robustly determine that the fraction of Sun-like stars with Kepler-like planets, η Kepler, is 30 ± 3%. Here, Kepler-like planets are planets that have radii R p ≳ R ⊕ and orbital periods P < 400 days. Our result thus significantly revises previous claims that more than 50% of Sun-like stars have such planets. Combined with the average number of Kepler planets per star (∼0.9), we obtain that on average each planetary system has 3.0 ± 0.3 planets within 400 days. We also find that the dispersion in orbital inclinations of planets within a given planetary system, σ i,k , is a steep function of its number of planets, k. This can be parameterized as {σ }i,k\\propto {k}α and we find that ‑4 < α < ‑2 at the 2σ level. Such a distribution well describes the observed multiplicities of both transits and TTVs with no excess of single-tranet systems. Therefore we do not find evidence supporting the so-called “Kepler dichotomy.” Together with a previous study on orbital eccentricities, we now have a consistent picture: the fewer planets in a system, the hotter it is dynamically. We discuss briefly possible scenarios that lead to such a trend. Despite our solar system not belonging to the Kepler club, it is interesting to notice that the solar system also has three planets within 400 days and that the inclination dispersion is similar to Kepler systems of the same multiplicity.

  9. Mass loss from solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.

    1985-01-01

    The present picture of mass loss from solar-type (low-mass) stars is described, with special emphasis on winds from pre-main-sequence stars. Attention is given to winds from T Tauri stars and to angular momentum loss. Prospects are good for further advances in our understanding of the powerful mass loss observed from young stars; ultraviolet spectra obtainable with the Space Telescope should provide better estimates of mass loss rates and a clearer picture of physical conditions in the envelopes of these stars. To understand the mass ejection from old, slowly rotating main-sequence stars, we will have to study the sun.

  10. A hybrid method for accurate star tracking using star sensor and gyros.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Lie; Zhang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Star tracking is the primary operating mode of star sensors. To improve tracking accuracy and efficiency, a hybrid method using a star sensor and gyroscopes is proposed in this study. In this method, the dynamic conditions of an aircraft are determined first by the estimated angular acceleration. Under low dynamic conditions, the star sensor is used to measure the star vector and the vector difference method is adopted to estimate the current angular velocity. Under high dynamic conditions, the angular velocity is obtained by the calibrated gyros. The star position is predicted based on the estimated angular velocity and calibrated gyros using the star vector measurements. The results of the semi-physical experiment show that this hybrid method is accurate and feasible. In contrast with the star vector difference and gyro-assisted methods, the star position prediction result of the hybrid method is verified to be more accurate in two different cases under the given random noise of the star centroid.

  11. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II - The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars.

  12. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II. The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that ofmore » Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars. 77 refs.« less

  13. Theoretical studies of massive stars. I - Evolution of a 15-solar-mass star from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of a star with mass 15 times that of the sun from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition has been computed by the Henyey method. The hydrogen-rich envelope and all shell sources were explicitly included in the models. An algorithm has been developed for approximating the results of carbon burning, including the branching ratio for the C-12 + C-12 reaction and taking some secondary reactions into account. Penetration of the convective envelope into the core is found to be unimportant during the stages covered by the models. Energy transfer from the carbon-burning shell to the core by degenerate electron conduction becomes important after the core carbon-burning stage. Neon ignition will occur in a semidegenerate core and will lead to a mild 'flash.' Detailed numerical results are given in an appendix. Continuation of the calculations into later stages and variations with the total mass of the star will be discussed in later papers.

  14. High-Resolution Spectroscopic Study of Extremely Metal-Poor Star Candidates from the SkyMapper Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Heather R.; Keller, Stefan; Frebel, Anna; Casey, Andrew R.; Asplund, Martin; Bessell, Michael S.; Da Costa, Gary S.; Lind, Karin; Marino, Anna F.; Norris, John E.; Peña, José M.; Schmidt, Brian P.; Tisserand, Patrick; Walsh, Jennifer M.; Yong, David; Yu, Qinsi

    2015-07-01

    The SkyMapper Southern Sky Survey is carrying out a search for the most metal-poor stars in the Galaxy. It identifies candidates by way of its unique filter set which allows for estimation of stellar atmospheric parameters. The set includes a narrow filter centered on the Ca ii K 3933 Å line, enabling a robust estimate of stellar metallicity. Promising candidates are then confirmed with spectroscopy. We present the analysis of Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle high-resolution spectroscopy of 122 metal-poor stars found by SkyMapper in the first two years of commissioning observations. Forty-one stars have [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -3.0. Nine have [{Fe}/{{H}}]≤slant -3.5, with three at [{Fe}/{{H}}]∼ -4. A 1D LTE abundance analysis of the elements Li, C, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Zn, Sr, Ba, and Eu shows these stars have [X/Fe] ratios typical of other halo stars. One star with low [X/Fe] values appears to be “Fe-enhanced,” while another star has an extremely large [Sr/Ba] ratio: \\gt 2. Only one other star is known to have a comparable value. Seven stars are “CEMP-no” stars ([{{C}}/{Fe}]\\gt 0.7, [{Ba}/{Fe}]\\lt 0). 21 stars exhibit mild r-process element enhancements (0.3≤slant [{Eu}/{Fe}]\\lt 1.0), while four stars have [{Eu}/{Fe}]≥slant 1.0. These results demonstrate the ability to identify extremely metal-poor stars from SkyMapper photometry, pointing to increased sample sizes and a better characterization of the metal-poor tail of the halo metallicity distribution function in the future. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  15. Emission-line studies of young stars. 4: The optical forbidden lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred

    1994-08-01

    Optical forbidden line strengths and profiles are discussed for a sample of 30 T Tauri stars and 12 Herbig Ae-Be stars. Transitions of (C I), (N II), (O I), (O II), (S II), (Ca II), (Cr II), (Fe II), and (Ni II) are detected. Profile variability occurred in DG Tau and probably other sources. The ensemble profiles can be divided into four generic components that may represent distinct emitting regions; (1) narrow rest-velocity lines, (2) 'low'-velocity lines (peaking at less than or approximately +/- 50 km s-1), (3) 'high'-velocity (usually greater than or approximately +/- 100 km s-1) blueshifted peaks or wings, and (4) high-velocity redshifted peaks. Among T Tauri stars, the rest-velocity lines appear most often in sources with weak and narrow permitted lines, such as the Ca II triplet. The low- and high-velocity blueshifted components usually appear together in sources with strong and broad Ca II triplet lines. If the velocity-shifted lines form in jets, the smallest (full) opening angles required by the profiles are less than or approximately 20 deg for the narrow, blueshifted (Ca II) lines of DG Tau and HL Tau. Other lines in DG Tau are much broader, implying larger opening angles or greater velocity dispersions. The variability in DG Tau also implies significant changes in the collimation or velocity coherence on timescales of a few years. RW Aur and AS 353A have blue- and redshifted line peaks that could form in oppositely directed jets. The strong (S II) lambda 6716 and lambda 6731 lines in RW Aur are exclusively redshifted and require opening angles less than or approximately 60 deg. Measurements of different profiles in the same spectrum show that the physical conditions change with the line-of-sight velocities. The most persistent trends are for more (N II) and (O II) and less (O I) lambda 5577 flux at high velocities. Constraints on the physical conditions are derived by modeling the emission lines via multilevel ions in 'coronal ionization equilibrium

  16. A coordinated X-ray, optical, and microwave study of the flare star Proxima Centauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Slee, O. B.; Hearn, D. R.; Walker, A. R.; Rydgren, A. E.; Nicolson, G. D.

    1978-01-01

    Results are reported for a three-day coordinated observing program to monitor the flare star Proxima Centauri in the X-ray, optical, and radio spectrum. During this interval 30 optical flares and 12 possible radio bursts were observed. The SAS 3 X-ray satellite made no X-ray detections. An upper limit of 0.08 on the X-ray/optical luminosity ratio is derived for the brightest optical flare. The most sensitive of the radio telescopes failed to detect 6-cm emission during one major and three minor optical flares, and on this basis an upper limit on the flare radio emission (1 hundred-thousandth of the optimal luminosity) is derived.

  17. A study of circumstellar disk properties in low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Basmah

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations for a sample of eight M dwarfs: six dMe, one dM, and one sdMe star. All of our targets are found to have Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) which are fitted within the error bars by a purely photospheric spectrum out to 24m m . The estimated ages for all are >10 Myr, suggesting that enough disk dissipation has occurred within the inner several AU of the star. Scaling from Houdebine's model of the AU Mic chromosphere, we have computed the free-free infrared excesses for a range of densities. Our Spitzer 24m m data shows that the chromospheres in two of our targets are less dense than in AU Mic by a factor of 10 or more. Our models also indicate that the chromospheric contribution to the observed AU Mic emission at submillimeter wavelengths is only about 2%. We present Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations for three sub-stellar members of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA): 2MASSW J1207334-393254 (2M1207), SSSPM J1102-3431 (SSSPM 1102), and 2MASS J1139511-315921 (2M1139). The near- to mid-infrared SEDs indicate the presence of flat optically thick disks around 2M1207 and SSSPM 1102, and a transition disk around 2M1139. 2M1207 shows absorption in the 10 m m silicate feature, with a peak near 11.3 m m due to crystalline forsterite. The absorption can be attributed to a close to edge-on disk. No silicate absorption/emission is observed towards SSSPM 1102. We have performed detailed modeling of these two brown dwarf disks. The best-fits have been obtained using a flat disk of mass 10 -4 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -10 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 75=B0 for 2M1207, whereas a disk mass of 10 -5 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -11 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 63° provides a good fit to SSSPM 1102. Modeling of the 10 m m silicate feature requires the presence of large (>50 m m ) grains in the disk midplane, which indicates

  18. Earth Observation Data Quality Monitoring and Control: A Case Study of STAR Central Data Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, W.; Jochum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation data quality is very important for researchers and decision makers involved in weather forecasting, severe weather warning, disaster and emergency response, environmental monitoring, etc. Monitoring and control earth observation data quality, especially accuracy, completeness, and timeliness, is very useful in data management and governance to optimize data flow, discover potential transmission issues, and better connect data providers and users. Taking a centralized near real-time satellite data repository, STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR), as an example, this paper describes how to develop new mechanism to verify data integrity, check data completeness, and monitor data latency in an operational data management system. Such quality monitoring and control of large volume satellite data help data providers and managers improve data transmission of near real-time satellite data, enhance its acquisition and management, and overcome performance and management issues to better serve research and development activities.

  19. Emission-line studies of young stars. 4: The optical forbidden lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamann, Fred

    1994-01-01

    Optical forbidden line strengths and profiles are discussed for a sample of 30 T Tauri stars and 12 Herbig Ae-Be stars. Transitions of (C I), (N II), (O I), (O II), (S II), (Ca II), (Cr II), (Fe II), and (Ni II) are detected. Profile variability occurred in DG Tau and probably other sources. The ensemble profiles can be divided into four generic components that may represent distinct emitting regions; (1) narrow rest-velocity lines, (2) 'low'-velocity lines (peaking at less than or approximately +/- 50 km s(exp -1)), (3) 'high'-velocity (usually greater than or approximately +/- 100 km s(exp -1)) blueshifted peaks or wings, and (4) high-velocity redshifted peaks. Among T Tauri stars, the rest-velocity lines appear most often in sources with weak and narrow permitted lines, such as the Ca II triplet. The low- and high-velocity blueshifted components usually appear together in sources with strong and broad Ca II triplet lines. If the velocity-shifted lines form in jets, the smallest (full) opening angles required by the profiles are less than or approximately 20 deg for the narrow, blueshifted (Ca II) lines of DG Tau and HL Tau. Other lines in DG Tau are much broader, implying larger opening angles or greater velocity dispersions. The variability in DG Tau also implies significant changes in the collimation or velocity coherence on timescales of a few years. RW Aur and AS 353A have blue- and redshifted line peaks that could form in oppositely directed jets. The strong (S II) lambda 6716 and lambda 6731 lines in RW Aur are exclusively redshifted and require opening angles less than or approximately 60 deg. Measurements of different profiles in the same spectrum show that the physical conditions change with the line-of-sight velocities. The most persistent trends are for more (N II) and (O II) and less (O I) lambda 5577 flux at high velocities. Constraints on the physical conditions are derived by modeling the emission lines via multilevel ions in 'coronal ionization

  20. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  1. WNL Stars - the Most Massive Stars in the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Olivier; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; St-Louis, Nicole; Skalkowski, Gwenael; Niemela, Virpi; Shara, Michael M.

    2001-08-01

    We propose to carry out an intensive and complete time-dependent spectroscopic study of all 47 known WNL stars in the LMC, an ideal laboratory to study the effect of lower ambient metallicity, Z, on stellar evolution. WNL stars are luminous, cooler WR stars of the nitrogen sequence. This will allow us to: 1) determine the binary frequency. The Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) mechanism in close binaries is predicted to be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of WR stars in low Z environments such as the LMC. 2) determine the masses. Since some of these stars (denoted WNL(h) or WNLh) are supposed to be hydrogen-burning and thus main-sequence stellar objects of the highest luminosity, they may be the most massive stars known. 3) study wind-wind collision (WWC) effects in WR+O binaries involving very luminous WNL stars with strong winds. Interesting in itself as a high-energy phenomenon, WWC is in competition with conservative RLOF (i.e. mass transfer to the secondary star), and therefore has to be taken into account in this context.

  2. WNLh Stars - The Most Massive Stars in the Universe?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, Olivier; St-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Foellmi, Cedric

    2002-08-01

    We propose to conclude our intensive and complete time-dependent spectroscopic study of all 47 known WNL stars in the LMC, an ideal laboratory to study the effect of lower ambient metallicity, Z, on stellar evolution. WNL stars are luminous, cooler WR stars of the nitrogen sequence. This will allow us to: 1) determine the binary frequency. The Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) mechanism in close binaries is predicted to be responsible for the formation of a significant fraction of WR stars in low Z environments such as the LMC. 2) determine the masses. Since some of these stars (denoted WNL(h) or WNLh) are supposed to be hydrogen-burning and thus main-sequence stellar objects of the highest luminosity, they may be the most massive stars known. 3) study wind-wind collision (WWC) effects in WR+O binaries involving very luminous WNL stars with strong winds. Interesting in itself as a high-energy phenomenon, WWC is in competition with conservative RLOF (i.e. mass transfer to the secondary star), and therefore has to be taken into account in this context.

  3. The star formation history of low-mass disk galaxies: A case study of NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Fenghui; Chang, Ruixiang; Wang, Lang; Cheng, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Context. Since NGC 300 is a bulgeless, isolated low-mass galaxy and it has not experienced radial migration during its evolution history, it can be treated as an ideal laboratory to test the simple galactic chemical evolution model. Aims: Our main aim is to investigate the main properties of the star formation history (SFH) of NGC 300 and compare its SFH with that of M 33 to explore the common properties and differences between these two nearby low-mass systems. Methods: We construct a simple chemical evolution model for NGC 300, assuming its disk forms gradually from continuous accretion of primordial gas and including the gas-outflow process. The model allows us to build a bridge between the SFH and observed data of NGC 300, in particular, the present-day radial profiles and global observed properties (e.g., cold gas mass, star formation rate, and metallicity). By means of comparing the model predictions with the corresponding observations, we adopt the classical χ2 methodology to find out the best combination of free parameters a, b, and bout. Results: Our results show that by assuming an inside-out formation scenario and an appropriate outflow rate, our model reproduces well most of the present-day observational values. The model not only reproduces well the radial profiles, but also the global observational data for the NGC 300 disk. Our results suggest that NGC 300 may experience a rapid growth of its disk. Through comparing the best-fitting, model-predicted SFH of NGC 300 with that of M 33, we find that the mean stellar age of NGC 300 is older than that of M 33 and there is a recent lack of primordial gas infall onto the disk of NGC 300. Our results also imply that the local environment may play a key role in the secular evolution of galaxy disks.

  4. A new photometric study of the triple star system EF Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2012-04-01

    We present new charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry for the triple star EF Draconis, obtained in 2009 and 2011. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney program, the photometric solutions were deduced from two sets of light curves. The results indicate that EF Dra is an A-type W UMa binary with a contact degree of f = 46.7%(±0.6%) and a third light of l3 ≃ 1.5%. Through analyzing the O — C curve, it is found that the orbital period shows a long-time increase with a light-time orbit. The period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of the third body are Pmod = 17.20(±0.18) yr, A = 0.0039d(±0.0002d) and e = 0.49(±0.02) respectively. This kind of tertiary companion may extract angular momentum from the central system. The orbital period of EF Dra secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.72(±0.07) × 10-7 d yr-1, which may be interpreted by mass transfer from the less massive to the more massive component. As period increases, the separation between components may increase, which will cause the contact degree to decrease. With mass transferring, the spin angular momentum will increase, while the orbital angular momentum will decrease. Only if the contact configuration would merge at could this kind of deep-contact binary with period increasing, such as EF Dra, evolve into a rapidly-rotating single star.

  5. Mass Ejection from the Remnant of a Binary Neutron Star Merger: Viscous-radiation Hydrodynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujibayashi, Sho; Kiuchi, Kenta; Nishimura, Nobuya; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Shibata, Masaru

    2018-06-01

    We perform long-term general relativistic neutrino radiation hydrodynamics simulations (in axisymmetry) for a massive neutron star (MNS) surrounded by a torus, which is a canonical remnant formed after the binary neutron star merger. We take into account the effects of viscosity, which is likely to arise in the merger remnant due to magnetohydrodynamical turbulence. The viscous effect plays key roles for the mass ejection from the remnant in two phases of the evolution. In the first t ≲ 10 ms, a differential rotation state of the MNS is changed to a rigidly rotating state. A shock wave caused by the variation of its quasi-equilibrium state induces significant mass ejection of mass ∼(0.5–2.0) × {10}-2 {M}ȯ for the α-viscosity parameter of 0.01–0.04. For the longer-term evolution with ∼0.1–10 s, a significant fraction of the torus material is ejected. We find that the total mass of the viscosity-driven ejecta (≳ {10}-2 {M}ȯ ) could dominate over that of the dynamical ejecta (≲ {10}-2 {M}ȯ ). The electron fraction, Y e , of the ejecta is always high enough (Y e ≳ 0.25) that this post-merger ejecta is lanthanide-poor; hence, the opacity of the ejecta is likely to be ∼10–100 times lower than that of the dynamical ejecta. This indicates that the electromagnetic signal from the ejecta would be rapidly evolving, bright, and blue if it is observed from a small viewing angle (≲45°) for which the effect of the dynamical ejecta is minor.

  6. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  7. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  8. A Study of Rovibrational H2O, OH, and CO emission from the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 250550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiendecker, Harrison; Brittain, Sean; Jensen, Stanley; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.

    2018-01-01

    We present high-resolution spectroscopy (R∼75,000) of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 250550. The L-band spectroscopy was obtained with the infrared echelle spectrograph (iSHELL) from The NASA Infrared Telescope Facility. We will describe the performance of the instrument and compare the CO and OH emission and upper limit on H2O emission to other Herbig Ae/Be stars. Specifically, L-band observationsof the ro-vibrational OH emission from the disk surrounding HD 250550 is compared to emission properties of the sources studied by Brittain et al. (2016). The OH 2Π3/2 P4.5 (1+,1-) doublet and the P5.5 (1+) line are spectrally resolved and have the same spectral profile as the CO ro-vibrational lines indicating that they arise from the same emitting region of the disk. The relative fluxes of the ro-vibrational lines from CO indicate that the rotational temperature of the gas is 1060 ± 115 K. The relative fluxes of the ro-vibrational lines from OH are consistent with this temperature.

  9. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  10. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2018-02-14

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  11. NuSTAR Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-30

    Yunjin Kim, NuSTAR project manager at the Jet Propulsion Laborartory (JPL), talks about NASA's Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuStar) during a briefing, Wednesday, May 30, 2012, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Imaging light in the high-energy, short-wavelength X-ray range, the telescope will aim to study how black holes form and evolve along with galaxies. The instrument, packed aboard an Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is set to launch from a plane in midair no earlier than June 13 from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  12. Star Formation in the Eagle Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    M16 (the Eagle Nebula) is a striking star forming region, with a complex morphology of gas and dust sculpted by the massive stars in NGC 6611. Detailed studies of the famous ``elephant trunks'' dramatically increased our understanding of the massive star feedback into the parent molecular cloud. A rich young stellar population (2-3 Myr) has been identified, from massive O-stars down to substellar masses. Deep into the remnant molecular material, embedded protostars, Herbig-Haro objects and maser sources bear evidence of ongoing star formation in the nebula, possibly triggered by the massive cluster members. M 16 is a excellent template for the study of star formation under the hostile environment created by massive O-stars. This review aims at providing an observational overview not only of the young stellar population but also of the gas remnant of the star formation process.

  13. Theoretical studies of massive stars. II - Evolution of a 15 solar-mass star from carbon shell burning to iron core collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, W. M.; Endal, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of a Population I star of 15 solar masses is described from the carbon shell burning stage to the formation and collapse of an iron core. An unusual aspect of the evolution is that neon ignition occurs off-center and neon burning propagates inward by a series of shell flashes. The extent of the core burning is generally smaller than the Chandrasekhar mass, so that most of the nuclear energy generation occurs in shell sources. Because of degeneracy and the influence of rapid convective mixing, these shell sources are unstable and the core goes through large excursions in temperature and density. The small core also causes the shell sources to converge into a narrow mass region slightly above the Chandrasekhar mass. Thus, the final nucleosynthesis yields are generally small, with silicon being most strongly enhanced with respect to solar system abundances.

  14. A home for old stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-14

    This image, taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on board the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the globular cluster Terzan 1. Lying around 20 000 light-years from us in the constellation of Scorpius (The Scorpion), it is one of about 150 globular clusters belonging to our galaxy, the Milky Way. Typical globular clusters are collections of around a hundred thousand stars, held together by their mutual gravitational attraction in a spherical shape a few hundred light-years across. It is thought that every galaxy has a population of globular clusters. Some, like the Milky Way, have a few hundred, while giant elliptical galaxies can have several thousand. They contain some of the oldest stars in a galaxy, hence the reddish colours of the stars in this image — the bright blue ones are foreground stars, not part of the cluster. The ages of the stars in the globular cluster tell us that they were formed during the early stages of galaxy formation! Studying them can also help us to understand how galaxies formed. Terzan 1, like many globular clusters, is a source of X-rays. It is likely that these X-rays come from binary star systems that contain a dense neutron star and a normal star. The neutron star drags material from the companion star, causing a burst of X-ray emission. The system then enters a quiescent phase in which the neutron star cools, giving off X-ray emission with different characteristics, before enough material from the companion builds up to trigger another outburst.

  15. Physics of primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theory of primordial star formation. The standard theory of cosmic structure formation posits that the present-day rich structure of the Universe developed through gravitational amplification of tiny matter density fluctuations left over from the Big Bang. It has become possible to study primordial star formation rigorously within the framework of the standard cosmological model. We first lay out the key physical processes in a primordial gas. Then, we introduce recent developments in computer simulations. Finally, we discuss prospects for future observations of the first generation of stars.

  16. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed towardmore » core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.« less

  17. Star ratings. Stars of wonder.

    PubMed

    Dawes, David

    2002-09-12

    Analysis of trusts that changed their star-rating over the past two years indicates that a change of chief executive was not a significant factor. The length of time in post and the experience of the chief executive were also insignificant. This has serious implications for the theory behind franchising and the evaluation of franchised trusts. Holding chief executives to account for the organisation's performance within their first 12 months is unlikely to be effective.

  18. A DYNAMICAL STUDY OF SUSPECTED RUNAWAY STARS AS TRACES OF PAST SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS IN THE REGION OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jilinski, E.; Ortega, V. G.; Drake, N. A.

    2010-09-20

    We address the question of identifying possible past supernovae events taking place in the region of the Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) OB association based on stars proposed by Hoogerwerf et al. With this purpose, we obtained a time series of high-resolution spectra of six stars (HIP 42038, HIP 46950, HIP 48943, HIP 69491, HIP 76013, and HIP 82868) which, according to Hoogerwerf et al., may have been runaway stars with origins in the region of the Sco-Cen association. This also includes the nearby young open clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602. If confirmed, such supernovae events could, in principle, have played amore » role in triggering the formation of some small stellar groups thought to be associated with the Sco-Cen association. Our analysis shows that, except for HIP 48943, the remaining stars are spectroscopic binary systems. For HIP 46950 and HIP 69491, this was already noted by other authors. Our high-resolution spectra allowed us to obtain the radial velocities for all the stars which, combined with their proper motions and parallaxes from Hipparcos, provide a means to investigate, by retracing their orbits, if the Sco-Cen region was, in fact, the origin of these stars. We find that none of these systems originated in the Sco-Cen region. Exploring the possibility that the birthplace of the studied stars occurred in the clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602, we noticed that at the epoch of 2-3 Myr ago these clusters were at a distance comparable with their tidal radii.« less

  19. The Drifting Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  20. Trek to the Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert E.

    1977-01-01

    "Star Trek", which was aired on television for three years, brought the creatures and conflicts of the "outer reaches" of space into our living rooms. Here its new episodes and reruns are analyzed by elementary students as part of a social studies/elementary science curriculum. (Author/RK)

  1. The Astounding Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Angela; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Studying about stellar constellations provides children with an opportunity to learn about ancient myths and mathematics at the same time. An interdisciplinary teaching unit combines information about myths associated with the zodiac signs and instructions for plotting the coordinates of stars. (PP)

  2. The Fate of Merging Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    A rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron star is one possible outcome when two smaller neutron stars merge. [Casey Reed/Penn State University]When two neutron stars collide, the new object that they make can reveal information about the interior physics of neutron stars. New theoretical work explores what we should be seeing, and what it can teach us.Neutron Star or Black Hole?So far, the only systems from which weve detected gravitational waves are merging black holes. But other compact-object binaries exist and are expected to merge on observable timescales in particular, binary neutron stars. When two neutron stars merge, the resulting object falls into one of three categories:a stable neutron star,a black hole, ora supramassive neutron star, a large neutron star thats supported by its rotation but will eventually collapse to a black hole after it loses angular momentum.Histograms of the initial (left) and final (right) distributions of objects in the authors simulations, for five different equations of state. Most cases resulted primarily in the formation of neutron stars (NSs) or supramassive neutron stars (sNSs), not black holes (BHs). [Piro et al. 2017]Whether a binary-neutron-star merger results in another neutron star, a black hole, or a supramassive neutron star depends on the final mass of the remnant and what the correct equation of state is that describes the interiors of neutron stars a longstanding astrophysical puzzle.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Anthony Piro (Carnegie Observatories) estimated which of these outcomes we should expect for mergers of binary neutron stars. The teams results along with future observations of binary neutron stars may help us to eventually pin down the equation of state for neutron stars.Merger OutcomesPiro and collaborators used relativistic calculations of spinning and non-spinning neutron stars to estimate the mass range that neutron stars would have for several different realistic equations of

  3. Mean-field study of hot β -stable protoneutron star matter: Impact of the symmetry energy and nucleon effective mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ngo Hai; Loan, Doan Thi; Khoa, Dao T.; Margueron, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    A consistent Hartree-Fock study of the equation of state (EOS) of asymmetric nuclear matter at finite temperature has been performed using realistic choices of the effective, density-dependent nucleon-nucleon (NN ) interaction, which were successfully used in different nuclear structure and reaction studies. Given the importance of the nuclear symmetry energy in the neutron star formation, EOSs associated with different behaviors of the symmetry energy were used to study hot asymmetric nuclear matter. The slope of the symmetry energy and nucleon effective mass with increasing baryon density was found to affect the thermal properties of nuclear matter significantly. Different density-dependent NN interactions were further used to study the EOS of hot protoneutron star (PNS) matter of the n p e μ ν composition in β equilibrium. The hydrostatic configurations of PNS in terms of the maximal gravitational mass Mmax and radius, central density, pressure, and temperature at the total entropy per baryon S /A =1 ,2 , and 4 have been determined in both the neutrino-free and neutrino-trapped scenarios. The obtained results show consistently a strong impact of the symmetry energy and nucleon effective mass on thermal properties and composition of hot PNS matter. Mmax values obtained for the (neutrino-free) β -stable PNS at S /A =4 were used to assess time tBH of the collapse of a 40 M⊙ protoneutron progenitor to a black hole, based on a correlation between tBH and Mmax found from the hydrodynamic simulation by Hempel et al. [Astrophys. J. 748, 70 (2012), 10.1088/0004-637X/748/1/70].

  4. Cognitive factors associated with adherence to oral antiestrogen therapy: results from the cognition in the study of tamoxifen and raloxifene (Co-STAR) study.

    PubMed

    Klepin, Heidi D; Geiger, Ann M; Bandos, Hanna; Costantino, Joseph P; Rapp, Stephen R; Sink, Kaycee M; Lawrence, Julia A; Atkinson, Hal H; Espeland, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the cognitive factors associated with adherence to antiestrogen therapy. Our objective was to investigate the association between domain-specific cognitive function and adherence among women in a clinical prevention trial of oral antiestrogen therapies. We performed a secondary analysis of Co-STAR, an ancillary study of the STAR breast cancer prevention trial in which postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk were randomized to tamoxifen or raloxifene. Co-STAR enrolled nondemented participants ≥65 years old to compare treatment effects on cognition. The cognitive battery assessed global cognitive function (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam), and specific cognitive domains of verbal knowledge, verbal fluency, figural memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, spatial ability, and fine motor speed. Adherence was defined by a ratio of actual time taking therapy per protocol ≥80% of expected time. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between cognitive test scores and adherence to therapy. The mean age of the 1,331 Co-STAR participants was 67.2 ± 4.3 years. Mean 3MS score was 95.1 (4.7) and 14% were nonadherent. In adjusted analyses, the odds of nonadherence were lower for those with better scores on verbal memory [OR (95% confidence interval): 0.75 (0.62-0.92)]. Larger relative deficits in verbal memory compared with verbal fluency were also associated with nonadherence [1.28 (1.08-1.51)]. Among nondemented older women, subtle differences in memory performance were associated with medication adherence. Differential performance across cognitive domains may help identify persons at greater risk for poor adherence. ©2013 AACR.

  5. Pulsating Star Mystery Solved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-11-01

    By discovering the first double star where a pulsating Cepheid variable and another star pass in front of one another, an international team of astronomers has solved a decades-old mystery. The rare alignment of the orbits of the two stars in the double star system has allowed a measurement of the Cepheid mass with unprecedented accuracy. Up to now astronomers had two incompatible theoretical predictions of Cepheid masses. The new result shows that the prediction from stellar pulsation theory is spot on, while the prediction from stellar evolution theory is at odds with the new observations. The new results, from a team led by Grzegorz Pietrzyński (Universidad de Concepción, Chile, Obserwatorium Astronomiczne Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Poland), appear in the 25 November 2010 edition of the journal Nature. Grzegorz Pietrzyński introduces this remarkable result: "By using the HARPS instrument on the 3.6-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, along with other telescopes, we have measured the mass of a Cepheid with an accuracy far greater than any earlier estimates. This new result allows us to immediately see which of the two competing theories predicting the masses of Cepheids is correct." Classical Cepheid Variables, usually called just Cepheids, are unstable stars that are larger and much brighter than the Sun [1]. They expand and contract in a regular way, taking anything from a few days to months to complete the cycle. The time taken to brighten and grow fainter again is longer for stars that are more luminous and shorter for the dimmer ones. This remarkably precise relationship makes the study of Cepheids one of the most effective ways to measure the distances to nearby galaxies and from there to map out the scale of the whole Universe [2]. Unfortunately, despite their importance, Cepheids are not fully understood. Predictions of their masses derived from the theory of pulsating stars are 20-30% less than predictions from the theory of the

  6. Dark stars in Starobinsky's model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panotopoulos, Grigoris; Lopes, Ilídio

    2018-01-01

    In the present work we study non-rotating dark stars in f (R ) modified theory of gravity. In particular, we have considered bosonic self-interacting dark matter modeled inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate, while as far as the modified theory of gravity is concerned we have assumed Starobinsky's model R +a R2. We solve the generalized structure equations numerically, and we obtain the mass-to-ratio relation for several different values of the parameter a , and for two different dark matter equation-of-states. Our results show that the dark matter stars become more compact in the R-squared gravity compared to general relativity, while at the same time the highest star mass is slightly increased in the modified gravitational theory. The numerical value of the highest star mass for each case has been reported.

  7. Massive Stars in M31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Peters, Matthew; Wisniewski, John; Dalcanton, Julianne; Williams, Benjamin; Lutz, Julie; Choi, Yumi; Sigut, Aaron

    2017-11-01

    Massive stars are intrinsically rare and therefore present a challenge to understand from a statistical perspective, especially within the Milky Way. We recently conducted follow-up observations to the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey that were designed to detect more than 10,000 emission line stars, including WRs, by targeting regions in M31 previously known to host large numbers of young, massive clusters and very young stellar populations. Because of the existing PHAT data, we are able to derive an effective temperature, bolarimetric luminosity, and extinction for each of our detected stars. We report on preliminary results of the massive star population of our dataset and discuss how our results compare to previous studies of massive stars in M31.

  8. Critical study of the distribution of rotational velocities of Be stars. I. Deconvolution methods, effects due to gravity darkening, macroturbulence, and binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Royer, F.; Cidale, L.; Hubert, A.-M.; Semaan, T.; Martayan, C.; Cochetti, Y. R.; Arias, M. L.; Aidelman, Y.; Stee, P.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Among intermediate-mass and massive stars, Be stars are the fastest rotators in the main sequence (MS) and, as such, these stars are a cornerstone to validate models of structure and evolution of rotating stars. Several phenomena, however, induce under- or overestimations either of their apparent Vsini, or true velocity V. Aims: In the present contribution we aim at obtaining distributions of true rotational velocities corrected for systematic effects induced by the rapid rotation itself, macroturbulent velocities, and binarity. Methods: We study a set of 233 Be stars by assuming they have inclination angles distributed at random. We critically discuss the methods of Cranmer and Lucy-Richardson, which enable us to transform a distribution of projected velocities into another distribution of true rotational velocities, where the gravitational darkening effect on the Vsini parameter is considered in different ways. We conclude that iterative algorithm by Lucy-Richardson responds at best to the purposes of the present work, but it requires a thorough determination of the stellar fundamental parameters. Results: We conclude that once the mode of ratios of the true velocities of Be stars attains the value V/Vc ≃ 0.77 in the main-sequence (MS) evolutionary phase, it remains unchanged up to the end of the MS lifespan. The statistical corrections found on the distribution of ratios V/Vc for overestimations of Vsini, due to macroturbulent motions and binarity, produce a shift of this distribution toward lower values of V/Vc when Be stars in all MS evolutionary stages are considered together. The mode of the final distribution obtained is at V/Vc ≃ 0.65. This distribution has a nearly symmetric distribution and shows that the Be phenomenon is characterized by a wide range of true velocity ratios 0.3 ≲ V/Vc ≲ 0.95. It thus suggests that the probability that Be stars are critical rotators is extremely low. Conclusions: The corrections attempted in the present

  9. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new

  10. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    strongly reinforce our current understanding of heavy element nucleosynthesis. But detecting the element Lead is not easy - the expected spectral lines of Lead in stellar spectra are relatively weak, and they are blended with many nearby absorption lines of other elements. Moreover, bona-fide, low-metallicity AGB stars appear to be extremely rare in the solar neighborhood . But if the necessary observations are so difficult, how is it then possible to probe nucleosynthesis in low-metallicity AGB stars? CH-stars in binary systems ESO PR Photo 26a/01 ESO PR Photo 26a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 350 x 400 pix - 232k] [Normal - JPEG: 700 x 800 pix - 616k] Caption : One of the three Lead stars, HD 196944 that was analyzed in the present research programme (at the center of the field). This star lies about 1600 light years away in the constellation Aquarius. At magnitude 9, it is not visible to the unaided eye, but easily seen through a small amateur telescope. Still, the detailed spectroscopic study reported in this Press release that revealed a high abundance of Lead in this star required a 4-m class telescope. This DSS-image are copyright by the UK SERC/PPARC (Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, formerly Science and Engineering Research Council), the Anglo-Australian Telescope Board and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The spikes seen in this photo are an optical effect in the telescope. In a determined effort in this direction, a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] decided to try to detect the presence of Lead in some "CH-stars" [4] that are located about 1600 light-years away, high above the main plane of our Milky Way Galaxy. Over-abundance of some heavy elements has been observed in some "CH-stars". But CH-stars are not very luminous and have not yet evolved to the AGB phase. Hence they are totally unable to produce heavy elements. So how can there be heavy elements in the CH-stars? This mystery was solved when it was realized

  11. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and photovoltaic fission fragment detector arrays for light-ion induced fission correlation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.

    Here, the Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE–E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution ofmore » 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.« less

  12. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and Photovoltaic Fission Fragment Detector Arrays for Light-Ion Induced Fission Correlation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-05-01

    The Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE - E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution of 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.

  13. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and photovoltaic fission fragment detector arrays for light-ion induced fission correlation studies

    DOE PAGES

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; ...

    2017-02-20

    Here, the Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE–E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution ofmore » 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.« less

  14. Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Star formation is a fundamental astrophysical process; it controls phenomena ranging from the evolution of galaxies and nucleosynthesis to the origins of planetary systems and abodes for life. The WFC3, optimized at both UV and IR wavelengths and equipped with an extensive array of narrow-band filters, brings unique capabilities to this area of study. The WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee {SOC} proposes an integrated program on star formation in the nearby universe which will fully exploit these new abilities. Our targets range from the well-resolved R136 in 30 Dor in the LMC {the nearest super star cluster} and M82 {the nearest starbursting galaxy} to about half a dozen other nearby galaxies that sample a wide range of star-formation rates and environments. Our program consists of broad-band multiwavelength imaging over the entire range from the UV to the near-IR, aimed at studying the ages and metallicities of stellar populations, revealing young stars that are still hidden by dust at optical wavelengths, and showing the integrated properties of star clusters. Narrow-band imaging of the same environments will allow us to measure star-formation rates, gas pressure, chemical abundances, extinction, and shock morphologies. The primary scientific issues to be addressed are: {1} What triggers star formation? {2} How do the properties of star-forming regions vary among different types of galaxies and environments of different gas densities and compositions? {3} How do these different environments affect the history of star formation? {4} Is the stellar initial mass function universal or determined by local conditions?

  15. Really Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    galaxy, another has been found in the nearby galaxy IC 1613, and five others are situated in the Magellanic Clouds. Astronomers have also detected the presence of HeII ions in a number of remote galaxies undergoing a phase of intense star formation ("starburst galaxies") and in the vicinity of ultraluminous X-ray sources in very distant galaxies. What is going on in those remote objects in the early Universe? Do we see the action of young and very hot stars or is something unknown going on? What can the existence of those hot nebulae in young galaxies tell about the evolution of our own Milky Way? Searching for the energy source We would like to know, but those distant nebulae are unfortunately too faint to be studied in any reasonable detail, even by means of the largest available telescopes. The only way forward is therefore to look closer at the nearest ones in the hope that they will provide clues about the processes leading to the observed high excitation and thus help to better understand their cousins in those distant galaxies. There appears to be three possible answers to the basic question about the nature of the energetic sources that heat these strange emission nebulae: * very fast particles: if there is in the area a fast-moving gas (more than 100 km/s), the shock created by the impact of this material is able to heat the ambient interstellar medium sufficiently to produce a HeII nebula. * ultraviolet emission from massive stars: according to the most recent model calculations, even the most massive O-type stars do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionize a sufficient number of helium atoms in the surrounding nebula to produce a detectable HeII nebula. However, some of the hottest stars of the so-called Wolf-Rayet (W-R) type (that are the evolved descendants of O-stars) may produce enough high energy emission to completely ionize the helium atoms in their surroundings. * intense X-ray emission: close binary stars in which one component is a "compact

  16. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, L.; Gerhard, J.; Torero, J.; Scholes, G.; Murray, C.

    2013-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a relatively new remediation approach for soil contaminated with organic industrial liquids. This technology uses smouldering combustion, a controlled, self-sustaining burning reaction, to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and thereby render soil clean. While STAR has been proven at the bench scale, success at industrial scales requires the process to be scaled-up significantly. The objective of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation into how liquid smouldering combustion phenomena scale. A suite of detailed forward smouldering experiments were conducted in short (16 cm dia. x 22 cm high), intermediate (16 cm dia. x 127 cm high), and large (97 cm dia. x 300 cm high; a prototype ex-situ reactor) columns; this represents scaling of up to 530 times based on the volume treated. A range of fuels were investigated, with the majority of experiments conducted using crude oil sludge as well as canola oil as a non-toxic surrogate for hazardous contaminants. To provide directly comparable data sets and to isolate changes in the smouldering reaction which occurred solely due to scaling effects, sand grain size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration and air injection rates were controlled between the experimental scales. Several processes could not be controlled and were identified to be susceptible to changes in scale, including: mobility of the contaminant, heat losses, and buoyant flow effects. For each experiment, the propagation of the smouldering front was recorded using thermocouples and analyzed by way of temperature-time and temperature-distance plots. In combination with the measurement of continuous mass loss and gaseous emissions, these results were used to evaluate the fundamental differences in the way the reaction front propagates through the mixture of sand and fuel across the various scales. Key governing parameters were compared between the small, intermediate, and large

  17. The weak-line T Tauri star V410 Tau. I. A multi-wavelength study of variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, B.; Fernández, M.; Costa, V. M.; Gameiro, J. F.; Grankin, K.; Henden, A.; Guenther, E.; Mohanty, S.; Flaccomio, E.; Burwitz, V.; Jayawardhana, R.; Predehl, P.; Durisen, R. H.

    2003-12-01

    We present the results of an intensive coordinated monitoring campaign in the optical and X-ray wavelength ranges of the low-mass, pre-main sequence star V410 Tau carried out in November 2001. The aim of this project was to study the relation between various indicators for magnetic activity that probe different emitting regions and would allow us to obtain clues on the interplay of the different atmospheric layers: optical photometric star spot (rotation) cycle, chromospheric Hα emission, and coronal X-rays. Our optical photometric monitoring has allowed us to measure the time of the minimum of the lightcurve with high precision. Joining the result with previous data we provide a new estimate for the dominant periodicity of V410 Tau (1.871970 +/- 0.000010 d). This updated value removes systematic offsets of the time of minimum observed in data taken over the last decade. The recurrence of the minimum in the optical lightcurve over such a long timescale emphasizes the extraordinary stability of the largest spot. This is confirmed by radial velocity measurements: data from 1993 and 2001 fit almost exactly onto each other when folded with the new period. The combination of the new data from November 2001 with published measurements taken during the last decade allows us to examine long-term changes in the mean light level of the photometry of V410 Tau. A variation on the timescale of 5.4 yr is suggested. Assuming that this behavior is truly cyclic V410 Tau is the first pre-main sequence star on which an activity cycle is detected. Two X-ray pointings were carried out with the Chandra satellite simultaneously with the optical observations, and centered near the maximum and minimum levels of the optical lightcurve. A relation of their different count levels to the rotation period of the dominating spot is not confirmed by a third Chandra observation carried out some months later, during another minimum of the 1.87 d cycle. Similarly we find no indications for a

  18. Studies of early-type variable stars. XIV. Spectroscopic orbit and absolute parameters of HU Tauri.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, P. F. L.; Hill, G.; Hilditch, R. W.

    1995-09-01

    We present a new spectroscopic orbit for the Algol-type eclipsing binary system HU Tau (HD 29365, P=2.0563 days α(2000.0) = 04 38 15.80, δ= +20 41 05.3, V=5.87-6.8, B8V + G2). We find : m_1_ sin^3^i=4.17+/-0.09Msun_, m_2_ sin^3^i=1.07+/-0.025Msun_, (a_p_+a_s_)sin i=11.8 +/-0.1Rsun_, m_1_/m_2_=3.90+/-0.07. The spectroscopic orbit includes corrections for non-Keplerian effects derived from the solutions of the BV light curves of Ito (1988). We have been able to derive much improved absolute parameters for this system as follows: M_1_=4.43+/-0.09Msun_, M_2_=1.14+/-0.03Msun_, R _1_=2.57+/-0.03Rsun_, R _2_=4.21+/-0.03Rsun_, log(L_1_/Lsun_)= 2.09+/-0.15, log(L_2_/Lsun_)= 0.92+/-0.05. Comparison of HU Tau with non-conservative case B evolution models of De Greve (1993) suggests that the system evolved from an initial mass ratio <~0.5. However, the orbital period of HU Tau is more than 3 days shorter than any of the model systems, and the observed secondary luminosity of order 10 times less than a model star of the same mass during the slow mass transfer phase.

  19. Studies of the Long Secondary Periods in Pulsating Red Giants. II. Lower-Luminosity Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percy, J. R.; Leung, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    We have used AAVSO visual and photoelectric V data, and the AAVSO time-series package VSTAR and the Lomb-Scargle time-series algorithm to determine improved pulsation periods, "long secondary periods" (LSPs), and their amplitudes in 51 shorter-period pulsating red giants in the AAVSO photoelectric photometry program, and in the AAVSO long-period variable (LPV) binocular program. As is well known, radial pulsation becomes detectable in red giants at about spectral type M0, with periods of about 20 days. We find that the LSP phenomenon is also first detectable at about M0. Pulsation and LSP amplitudes increase from near zero to about 0.1 at pulsation periods of 100 days. At longer periods, the pulsation amplitudes continue to increase, but the LSP amplitudes are generally between 0.1 and 0.2 on average. The ratios of LSP to pulsation period cluster around 5 and 10, presumably depending on whether the pulsation period is the fundamental or first overtone. The pulsation and LSP phase curves are generally close to sinusoidal, except when the amplitude is small, in which case they may be distorted by observational scatter or, in the case of the LSP amplitude, by the pulsational variability. As with longer-period stars, the LSP amplitude i ncreases and decreases by a factor of two or more, for unknown reasons, on a time scale of about 20 LSPs. The LSP phenomenon is thus present and similar in radially pulsating red giants of all periods. Its cause remains unknown.

  20. Photometric study of open star clusters in II quadrant: Teutsch 1 and Riddle 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present the broad band UBVI CCD photometry in the region of two open star clusters Teutsch 1 and Riddle 4 located in the second Galactic quadrant. The optical CCD data for these clusters are obtained for the first time. Radii of the clusters are estimated as 3‧.5 for both the clusters. Using two color (U - B) versus (B - V) diagram we determined the reddening as E(B - V) = 0.40 ± 0.05 mag for Teutsch 1 and 1.10 ± 0.05 mag for Riddle 4. Using 2MASS JHK and optical data, we estimated E(J - K) = 0.24 ± 0.05 mag and E(V - K) = 1.40 ± 0.05 mag for Teutsch 1 and E(J - K) = 0.47 ± 0.06 mag and E(V - K) = 2.80 ± 0.06 mag for Riddle 4. Color-excess ratio indicates normal interstellar extinction law in the direction of both the clusters. We estimated distance as 4.3 ± 0.5 Kpc for Teutsch 1 and 2.8 ± 0.2 Kpc for Riddle 4 by comparing the color-magnitude diagram of the clusters with theoretical isochrones. The age of the clusters has been estimated as 200 ± 20 Myr for Teutsch 1 and 40 ± 10 Myr for Riddle 4 using the stellar isochrones of metallicity Z = 0.02 . The Mass function slope has been derived 1.89 ± 0.43 and 1.41 ± 0.70 for Teutsch 1 and Riddle 4 respectively. Our analysis indicates that both the clusters are dynamically relaxed. A slight bend of Galactic disc towards the southern latitude is found in the longitude range l = 130-180°.

  1. The young star cluster population of M51 with LEGUS - I. A comprehensive study of cluster formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messa, M.; Adamo, A.; Östlin, G.; Calzetti, D.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Shabani, F.; Chandar, R.; Dale, D. A.; Dobbs, C. L.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Kim, H.; Smith, L. J.; Thilker, D. A.; Tosi, M.; Ubeda, L.; Walterbos, R.; Whitmore, B. C.; Fedorenko, K.; Mahadevan, S.; Andrews, J. E.; Bright, S. N.; Cook, D. O.; Kahre, L.; Nair, P.; Pellerin, A.; Ryon, J. E.; Ahmad, S. D.; Beale, L. P.; Brown, K.; Clarkson, D. A.; Guidarelli, G. C.; Parziale, R.; Turner, J.; Weber, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently acquired WFC3 UV (F275W and F336W) imaging mosaics under the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS), combined with archival ACS data of M51, are used to study the young star cluster (YSC) population of this interacting system. Our newly extracted source catalogue contains 2834 cluster candidates, morphologically classified to be compact and uniform in colour, for which ages, masses and extinction are derived. In this first work we study the main properties of the YSC population of the whole galaxy, considering a mass-limited sample. Both luminosity and mass functions follow a power-law shape with slope -2, but at high luminosities and masses a dearth of sources is observed. The analysis of the mass function suggests that it is best fitted by a Schechter function with slope -2 and a truncation mass at 1.00 ± 0.12 × 105 M⊙. Through Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm this result and link the shape of the luminosity function to the presence of a truncation in the mass function. A mass limited age function analysis, between 10 and 200 Myr, suggests that the cluster population is undergoing only moderate disruption. We observe little variation in the shape of the mass function at masses above 1 × 104 M⊙ over this age range. The fraction of star formation happening in the form of bound clusters in M51 is ∼ 20 per cent in the age range 10-100 Myr and little variation is observed over the whole range from 1 to 200 Myr.

  2. An Observational Study of Blended Young Stellar Clusters in the Galactic Plane - Do Massive Stars form First?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Galarza, Rafael; Protopapas, Pavlos; Smith, Howard A.; Morales, Esteban

    2018-01-01

    From an observational point of view, the early life of massive stars is difficult to understand partly because star formation occurs in crowded clusters where individual stars often appear blended together in the beams of infrared telescopes. This renders the characterization of the physical properties of young embedded clusters via spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting a challenging task. Of particular relevance for the testing of star formation models is the question of whether the claimed universality of the IMF (references) is reflected in an equally universal integrated galactic initial mass function (IGIMF) of stars. In other words, is the set of all stellar masses in the galaxy sampled from a single universal IMF, or does the distribution of masses depend on the environment, making the IGIMF different from the canonical IMF? If the latter is true, how different are the two? We present a infrared SED analysis of ~70 Spitzer-selected, low mass ($<100~\\rm{M}_{\\odot}$), galactic blended clusters. For all of the clusters we obtain the most probable individual SED of each member and derive their physical properties, effectively deblending the confused emission from individual YSOs. Our algorithm incorporates a combined probabilistic model of the blended SEDs and the unresolved images in the long-wavelength end. We find that our results are compatible with competitive accretion in the central regions of young clusters, with the most massive stars forming early on in the process and less massive stars forming about 1Myr later. We also find evidence for a relationship between the total stellar mass of the cluster and the mass of the most massive member that favors optimal sampling in the cluster and disfavors random sampling for the canonical IMF, implying that star formation is self-regulated, and that the mass of the most massive star in a cluster depends on the available resources. The method presented here is easily adapted to future observations of

  3. Atoms, Stars, and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1991-09-01

    1. Introducing stars and nebulae; 2. Stellar rainbows; 3. Atoms and molecules; 4. The climate in a stellar atmosphere; 5. Analysing the stars; 6. Dwarfs, giants, and supergiants; 7. What makes a star shine?; 8. The youth and middle age of a common star; 9. Wind, dust and pulsations; 10. A star's last hurray?; 11. The interstellar medium and gaseous nebulae; 12. Uncommon stars and their sometimes violent behaviour; 13. High energy astronomy.

  4. Stars Just Got Bigger - A 300 Solar Mass Star Uncovered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    Using a combination of instruments on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have discovered the most massive stars to date, one weighing at birth more than 300 times the mass of the Sun, or twice as much as the currently accepted limit of 150 solar masses. The existence of these monsters - millions of times more luminous than the Sun, losing weight through very powerful winds - may provide an answer to the question "how massive can stars be?" A team of astronomers led by Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield, has used ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), as well as archival data from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, to study two young clusters of stars, NGC 3603 and RMC 136a in detail. NGC 3603 is a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust, located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun (eso1005). RMC 136a (more often known as R136) is another cluster of young, massive and hot stars, which is located inside the Tarantula Nebula, in one of our neighbouring galaxies, the Large Magellanic Cloud, 165 000 light-years away (eso0613). The team found several stars with surface temperatures over 40 000 degrees, more than seven times hotter than our Sun, and a few tens of times larger and several million times brighter. Comparisons with models imply that several of these stars were born with masses in excess of 150 solar masses. The star R136a1, found in the R136 cluster, is the most massive star ever found, with a current mass of about 265 solar masses and with a birthweight of as much as 320 times that of the Sun. In NGC 3603, the astronomers could also directly measure the masses of two stars that belong to a double star system [1], as a validation of the models used. The stars A1, B and C in this cluster have estimated masses at birth above or close to 150 solar masses. Very massive stars produce very powerful outflows. "Unlike humans, these stars are born heavy and lose weight as

  5. A stellar census in globular clusters with MUSE: The contribution of rotation to cluster dynamics studied with 200 000 stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamann, S.; Husser, T.-O.; Dreizler, S.; Emsellem, E.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Martens, S.; Bacon, R.; den Brok, M.; Giesers, B.; Krajnović, D.; Roth, M. M.; Wendt, M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2018-02-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the results from our survey of 25 Galactic globular clusters with the MUSE integral-field spectrograph. In combination with our dedicated algorithm for source deblending, MUSE provides unique multiplex capabilities in crowded stellar fields and allows us to acquire samples of up to 20 000 stars within the half-light radius of each cluster. The present paper focuses on the analysis of the internal dynamics of 22 out of the 25 clusters, using about 500 000 spectra of 200 000 individual stars. Thanks to the large stellar samples per cluster, we are able to perform a detailed analysis of the central rotation and dispersion fields using both radial profiles and two-dimensional maps. The velocity dispersion profiles we derive show a good general agreement with existing radial velocity studies but typically reach closer to the cluster centres. By comparison with proper motion data, we derive or update the dynamical distance estimates to 14 clusters. Compared to previous dynamical distance estimates for 47 Tuc, our value is in much better agreement with other methods. We further find significant (>3σ) rotation in the majority (13/22) of our clusters. Our analysis seems to confirm earlier findings of a link between rotation and the ellipticities of globular clusters. In addition, we find a correlation between the strengths of internal rotation and the relaxation times of the clusters, suggesting that the central rotation fields are relics of the cluster formation that are gradually dissipated via two-body relaxation.

  6. Detailed genetic characteristics of an international large cohort of patients with Stargardt disease: ProgStar study report 8.

    PubMed

    Fujinami, Kaoru; Strauss, Rupert W; Chiang, John Pei-Wen; Audo, Isabelle S; Bernstein, Paul S; Birch, David G; Bomotti, Samantha M; Cideciyan, Artur V; Ervin, Ann-Margret; Marino, Meghan J; Sahel, José-Alain; Mohand-Said, Saddek; Sunness, Janet S; Traboulsi, Elias I; West, Sheila; Wojciechowski, Robert; Zrenner, Eberhart; Michaelides, Michel; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2018-06-20

    To describe the genetic characteristics of the cohort enrolled in the international multicentre progression of Stargardt disease 1 (STGD1) studies (ProgStar) and to determine geographic differences based on the allele frequency. 345 participants with a clinical diagnosis of STGD1 and harbouring at least one disease-causing ABCA4 variant were enrolled from 9 centres in the USA and Europe. All variants were reviewed and in silico analysis was performed including allele frequency in public databases and pathogenicity predictions. Participants with multiple likely pathogenic variants were classified into four national subgroups (USA, UK, France, Germany), with subsequent comparison analysis of the allele frequency for each prevalent allele. 211 likely pathogenic variants were identified in the total cohort, including missense (63%), splice site alteration (18%), stop (9%) and others. 50 variants were novel. Exclusively missense variants were detected in 139 (50%) of 279 patients with multiple pathogenic variants. The three most prevalent variants of these patients with multiple pathogenic variants were p.G1961E (15%), p.G863A (7%) and c.5461-10 T>C (5%). Subgroup analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the four recruiting nations in the allele frequency of nine variants. There is a large spectrum of ABCA4 sequence variants, including 50 novel variants, in a well-characterised cohort thereby further adding to the unique allelic heterogeneity in STGD1. Approximately half of the cohort harbours missense variants only, indicating a relatively mild phenotype of the ProgStar cohort. There are significant differences in allele frequencies between nations, although the three most prevalent variants are shared as frequent variants. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Star formation in the inner galaxy: A far-infrared and radio study of two H2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Harvey, P. M.; Evans, N. J.; Brown, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Far-infrared and radio continuum maps have been made of the central 6' of the inner-galaxy HII regions G30.8-0.0 (in the W43 complex) and G25.4-0.2, along with radio and molecular line measurements at selected positions. The purpose of this study is an effort to understand star formation in the molecular ring at 5 kpc in galactic radius. Measurements at several far infrared wavelengths allow the dust temperature structures and total far infrared fluxes to be determined. Comparison of the radio and infrared maps shows a close relationship between the ionized gas and the infrared-emitting material. There is evidence that parts of G30.8 are substantially affected by extinction, even at far-infrared wavelengths. Using radio recombination line and CO line data for G25.4-0.2, the distance ambiguity for this source is resolved. The large distance previously ascribed to the entire complex is found to apply to only one of the two main components. The confusion in distance determination is found to result from an extraordinary near-superposition of two bright HII regions. Using the revised distances of 4.3 kpc for G25.4SE and 12 kpc for G25.4NW, it is found that the latter, which is apparently the fainter of the two sources, is actually the more luminous. The ratio of total luminosity to ionizing luminosity is very similar to that of HII regions in the solar circle. Assuming a coeval population of ionizing stars, a normal initial mass function is indicated.

  8. Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachkov, M.

    2015-04-01

    Chemically peculiar stars offer the opportunity to study the interaction of strong magnetic fields, rotation, and pulsation. The rapidly oscillating chemically peculiar A stars (roAp) are a subgroup of the chemically peculiar magnetic A stars. They are high-overtone, low-degree p-mode pulsators. Until recently, the classical asteroseismic analysis, i.e., frequency analysis, of these stars was based on ground and space photometric observations. Significant progress was achieved through the access to the uninterrupted, ultra-high-precision data from the MOST, COROT, and Kepler satellites. Over the last ten years, the studies of roAp stars have been altered drastically from the observational point of view through the usage of time-resolved, high-resolution spectra. Their unusual pulsation characteristics, caused by the interplay between short vertical lengths of pulsation waves and strong stratification of chemical elements, allow us to examine the upper roAp atmosphere in more detail than is possible for any star except the Sun. In this paper a review of the results of recent studies of the pulsations of roAp stars is presented.

  9. The Serpent Star-Forming Cloud Spawns Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-05-28

    Studied by astronomers, Serpens Cloud Core is one of the youngest collections of stars ever seen in our galaxy. This infrared image combines data from NASA Spitzer with shorter-wavelength observations from the Two Micron All Sky Survey.

  10. Accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Pines, D

    1980-02-08

    During the past 8 years, extended temporal and broadband spectroscopic studies carried out by x-ray astronomical satellites have led to the identification of specific compact x-ray sources as accreting neutron stars, black holes, and degenerate dwarf stars in close binary systems. Such sources provide a unique opportunity to study matter under extreme conditions not accessible in the terrestrial laboratory. Quantitative theoretical models have been developed which demonstrate that detailed studies of these sources will lead to a greatly increased understanding of dense and superdense hadron matter, hadron superfluidity, high-temperature plasma in superstrong magnetic fields, and physical processes in strong gravitational fields. Through a combination of theory and observation such studies will make possible the determination of the mass, radius, magnetic field, and structure of neutron stars and degenerate dwarf stars and the identification of further candidate black holes, and will contribute appreciably to our understanding of the physics of accretion by compact astronomical objects.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New IR photometric study of Ap and Am stars (Chen+, 2017)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2018-05-01

    In the General Catalog of Ap and Am stars (Renson & Manfroid 2009, Cat. III/260) 8265 stars are included in which, as Renson & Manfroid (2009, Cat. III/260) described, only 426 stars are of the "well known confirmed sample". We take these 426 stars as our working sample. The cross-identifications of 2MASS/WISE counterparts for all Ap, Am, and HgMn stars listed in this paper are made from Cutri et al. (2012, Cat. II/311) by using the radius of 2 arcsec. All 426 Ap, Am, and HgMn stars have 2MASS and/or WISE counterparts, which are listed in Table 3. The cross-identifications of IRAS counterparts are made according to the positional error ellipse of the source, because it has a 95% confidence level (IRAS Explanatory Supplement, Beichman et al. 1988, Cat. II/274). Finally, 202 stars are found to have the IRAS counterparts from IRAS PSC/FSC, which is listed in Table 4. (5 data files).

  12. Multi-wavelength studies of spectacular ram-pressure stripping of a galaxy. II. Star formation in the tail

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Gu, Liyi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    With multiband photometric data in public archives, we detected four intracluster star-forming regions in the Virgo Cluster. Two of them were at a projected distance of 35 kpc from NGC 4388 and the other two were 66 kpc away. Our new spectroscopic observations revealed that their recessional velocities were comparable to the ram-pressure-stripped tail of NGC 4388 and confirmed the association. The stellar mass of the star-forming regions ranged from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 4.5} M {sub ☉} except for that of the faintest one, which was <10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The metallicity was comparable to a solar abundancemore » and the age of the stars was ∼10{sup 6.8} yr. Their young stellar age meant that the star formation should have started after the gas was stripped from NGC 4388. This implied in situ condensation of the stripped gas. We also found that two star-forming regions were located near the leading edge of a filamentary dark cloud. The extinction of the filament was smaller than that derived from the Balmer decrement of the star-forming regions, implying that the dust in the filament would be locally dense around the star-forming regions.« less

  13. Case Study of Data Mining in Observational Astronomy: The Search for New OB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Cormac; Vink, Jorick; Kalari, Venu; Groh, Jose

    2018-01-01

    OB stars are the most luminous and massive stars, living short lives and exerting a disproportionate influence on their environments. They are key to understanding progenitors of gravitational wave sources and reionization of the early Universe. To detect new OB stars, we combine photometric catalog data with TLUSTY and ATLAS9 stellar atmospheres. This method is also believed to be sensitive to elusive “stripped” stars, thought to lose their hydrogen envelope through binary interaction.OB stars are intrinsically luminous, so complete populations are assumed for local group galaxies such as the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our findings challenge this, as we find 26 new OB candidates. Spectroscopy of 7 candidates shows a 100% detection rate. Most interestingly, 5 of our candidates are consistent with “stripped” stars.To date only 5 “stripped” candidates have been found serendipitously (e.g. HD 45166) as current methods are not sensitive to them. Our work doubles the sample of detected candidates, highlighting that our approach is the first to identify them in a targeted, systematic way. The finding of “stripped” stars could rewrite our understanding of the early Universe, offering an alternative hypothesis to Wolf-Rayet driven cosmic reionization.

  14. Seeing Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Chris; Forrest, Robert W.

    Seeing Stars is written for astronomers, regardless of the depth of their theoretical knowledge, who are taking their first steps in observational astronomy. Chris Kitchin and Bob Forrest - both professional astronomers - take a conducted tour of the night sky and suggest suitable observing programmes for everyone from beginners to experts. How is this book different? We are all familiar with the beautiful images of planets and galaxies obtained by spacecraft and giant telescopes - but what can you really see with a small telescope? What should you expect from a small refractor or reflector? And what is the effect of observing from a site near a city? The answers are all here, with many photographs that will illustrate exactly what can be seen with different instruments (everything from the naked eye to a 300mm telescope) - and from different locations.

  15. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  16. Study of the modifications needed for efficient operation of NASTRAN on the Control Data Corporation STAR-100 computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    NASA structural analysis (NASTRAN) computer program is operational on three series of third generation computers. The problem and difficulties involved in adapting NASTRAN to a fourth generation computer, namely, the Control Data STAR-100, are discussed. The salient features which distinguish Control Data STAR-100 from third generation computers are hardware vector processing capability and virtual memory. A feasible method is presented for transferring NASTRAN to Control Data STAR-100 system while retaining much of the machine-independent code. Basic matrix operations are noted for optimization for vector processing.

  17. Massive Stars and Star Clusters in the Era of JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Richard

    Massive stars lie at the center of the web of physical processes that has shaped the universe as we know it, governing the evolution of the interstellar medium of galaxies, producing a majority of the heavy elements, and thereby determining the evolution of galaxies. Massive stars are also important as signposts, since they produce most of the light and almost all the ionizing radiation in regions of active star formation. A significant fraction of all stars form in massive clusters, which will be observable throughout the visible universe with JWST. Their luminosities are so high that the pressure of their light on interstellar dust grains is likely the dominant feedback mechanism regulating their formation. While this process has been studied in the local Universe, much less attention has been focused on how it behaves at high redshift, where the dust abundance is much lower due to the overall lower abundance of heavy elements. The high redshift Universe also differs from the nearby one in that observations imply that high redshift star formation occurs at significantly higher densities than are typically found locally. We propose to simulate the formation of individual massive stars from the high redshift universe to the present day universe spanning metallicities ranging from 0.001 to 1.0 and column densities from 0.1to 30.0 g/cm2 focusing on how the process depends on both the dust abundance and on the density of the star-forming gas. These simulations will be among the first to treat the formation of Population II stars, which form in regions of low metallicity. Based on these results, we shall then simulate the formation of clusters of stars across also cosmic time, both of moderate mass, such as the Orion Nebula Cluster, and of high mass, such as the super star clusters seen in starburst galaxies. These state-of-the-art simulations will be carried out using our newly developed advanced techniques in our radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic AMR code ORION, for

  18. Star Clusters in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, J. S., III

    2014-09-01

    The Magellanic Clouds (MC) are prime locations for studies of star clusters covering a full range in age and mass. This contribution briefly reviews selected properties of Magellanic star clusters, by focusing first on young systems that show evidence for hierarchical star formation. The structures and chemical abundance patterns of older intermediate age star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are a second topic. These suggest a complex history has affected the chemical enrichment in the SMC and that low tidal stresses in the SMC foster star cluster survival.

  19. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    WDs, causing an overestimated surface gravity, and ultimately determine if these magnetic fields are likely developed through the star's own surface convection zone, or inherited from massive Ap/Bp progenitors. We discovered around 20 000 spectroscopic white dwarfs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), with a corresponding increase in relatively rare varieties of white dwarfs, including the massive ones (Kleinman et al. 2013, ApJS, 204, 5, Kepler et al. 2013, MNRAS, 439, 2934). The mass distributions of the hydrogen-rich (DA) measured from fitting the spectra with model atmospheres calculated using unidimensinal mixing lenght-theory (MLT) shows the average mass (as measured by the surface gravity) increases apparently below 13 000K for DAs (e.g. Bergeron et al. 1991, ApJ, 367, 253; Tremblay et al. 2011, ApJ, 730, 128; Kleinman et al. 2013). Only with the tridimensional (3D) convection calculations of Tremblay et al. 2011 (A&A, 531, L19) and 2013 (A&A, 552, 13; A&A, 557, 7; arXiv 1309.0886) the problem has finally been solved, but the effects of magnetic fields are not included yet in the mass determinations. Pulsating white dwarf stars are used to measure their interior and envelope properties through seismology, and together with the luminosity function of white dwarf stars in clusters and around the Sun are valuable tools for the study of high density physics, and the history of stellar formation.

  20. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  1. Gravitational Waves from Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkotas, Konstantinos

    2016-03-01

    Neutron stars are the densest objects in the present Universe, attaining physical conditions of matter that cannot be replicated on Earth. These unique and irreproducible laboratories allow us to study physics in some of its most extreme regimes. More importantly, however, neutron stars allow us to formulate a number of fundamental questions that explore, in an intricate manner, the boundaries of our understanding of physics and of the Universe. The multifaceted nature of neutron stars involves a delicate interplay among astrophysics, gravitational physics, and nuclear physics. The research in the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars is expected to flourish and thrive in the next decade. The imminent direct detection of gravitational waves will turn gravitational physics into an observational science, and will provide us with a unique opportunity to make major breakthroughs in gravitational physics, in particle and high-energy astrophysics. These waves, which represent a basic prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity but have yet to be detected directly, are produced in copious amounts, for instance, by tight binary neutron star and black hole systems, supernovae explosions, non-axisymmetric or unstable spinning neutron stars. The focus of the talk will be on the neutron star instabilities induced by rotation and the magnetic field. The conditions for the onset of these instabilities and their efficiency in gravitational waves will be presented. Finally, the dependence of the results and their impact on astrophysics and especially nuclear physics will be discussed.

  2. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  3. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  4. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  5. A Comprehensive COS Study of the Magnetic Dynamos, Rotations, UV Irradiances and Habitability of dM Stars with a Broad Span of Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward

    2012-10-01

    We propose HST/COS FUV spectrophotometry of a carefully selected sample of 9 dM1-5 stars with recently reliably determined ages ranging from 1-12 Gyr. This program complements our Chandra Cycle 13 program of the same targets to determine their coronal X-ray properties. Ages {of all but one star} have recently been firmly determined from memberships in wide binaries with white dwarf {WD} companions having reliable cooling time+main-sequence evolution ages {Zhao et al. 2012, Garces et al 2011}. Until these studies, reliable age determinations for dM stars >2 Gyr were nearly impossible. However, we can now carry out a comprehensive UV study of dM star atmospheres across nearly the full age-range of the current Universe. The primary goals are 1} to study the evolution of their dynamo-generated X-ray and UV {XUV} emissions with age/rotation and to better define the heating and energetics of their atmospheres {via Age-Rotation-Activity-XUV Irradiance relations} and 2} to study the effects of the XUV radiation on planets hosted by red dwarfs. The COS UV spectral region contains numerous important diagnostic emission lines for characterizing the energy transfer and atmospheric structure, while line ratios yield valuable information about the electron density. Further, these data {when combined with our coronal X-ray measures} are also important for gauging dM star XUV emissions - critical for assessing the photochemical & photoionization evolution of planetary atmospheres and ionospheres that in turn strongly affect the possible development of life on hosted extrasolar planets. We are requesting a total of 19 HST orbits to achieve the science goals of the program.

  6. Critical study of the distribution of rotational velocities of Be stars. II: Differential rotation and some hidden effects interfering with the interpretation of the V sin I parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Royer, F.; Cidale, L.; Hubert, A.-M.; Semaan, T.; Martayan, C.; Cochetti, Y. R.; Arias, M. L.; Aidelman, Y.; Stee, P.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: We assume that stars may undergo surface differential rotation to study its impact on the interpretation of Vsini and on the observed distribution Φ(u) of ratios of true rotational velocities u = V/Vc (Vc is the equatorial critical velocity). We discuss some phenomena affecting the formation of spectral lines and their broadening, which can obliterate the information carried by Vsini concerning the actual stellar rotation. Methods: We studied the line broadening produced by several differential rotational laws, but adopted Maunder's expression Ω(θ) = Ω0(1 + αcos2θ) as an attempt to account for all of these laws with the lowest possible number of free parameters. We studied the effect of the differential rotation parameter α on the measured Vsini parameter and on the distribution Φ(u) of ratios u = V/Vc. Results: We conclude that the inferred Vsini is smaller than implied by the actual equatorial linear rotation velocity Veq if the stars rotate with α < 0, but is larger if the stars have α > 0. For a given | α | the deviations of Vsini are larger when α < 0. If the studied Be stars have on average α < 0, the number of rotators with Veq ≃ 0.9Vc is larger than expected from the observed distribution Φ(u); if these stars have on average α > 0, this number is lower than expected. We discuss seven phenomena that contribute either to narrow or broaden spectral lines, which blur the information on the rotation carried by Vsini and, in particular, to decide whether the Be phenomenon mostly rely on the critical rotation. We show that two-dimensional radiation transfer calculations are needed in rapid rotators to diagnose the stellar rotation more reliably.

  7. Compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  8. A precursive study of the time-domain survey of the Galactic Anti-center using the Nanshan 1-meter telescope with variable stars detected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Guo; Esamdin, Ali; Ma, Lu; Niu, Hu-Biao; Fu, Jian-Ning; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Yang, Tao-Zhi; Song, Fang-Fang; Pu, Guang-Xin

    2018-04-01

    Following the LAMOST Spectroscopic Survey and the Xuyi's Photometric Survey of the Galactic Anti-center, we plan to carry out a time-domain survey of the Galactic Anti-center (TDS-GAC) to study variable stars by using the Nanshan 1-meter telescope. Before the beginning of TDS-GAC, a precursive sky survey (PSS) has been executed. The goal of the PSS is to optimize the observation strategy of TDS-GAC and to detect some strong transient events, as well as to find some short time-scale variable stars of different types. By observing a discontinuous sky area of 15.03 deg2 with the standard Johnson-Cousin-Bessel V filter, 48 variable stars are found and the time series are analyzed. Based on the behaviors of the light curves, 28 eclipsing binary stars, 10 RR Lyraes, 3 periodic pulsating variables of other types have been classified. The rest 7 variables stay unclassified with deficient data. In addition, the observation strategy of TD-GAC is described, and the pipeline of data reduction is tested.

  9. Another breed of "service" animals: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovery from serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Saedi, Goal Auzeen; Green, Carla A

    2009-07-01

    This study elucidates the role of pets in recovery processes among adults with serious mental illness. Data derive from interviews with 177 HMO members with serious mental illness (52.2% women, average age 48.8 years) in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies (STARS). Interviews and questionnaires addressed factors affecting recovery processes and included questions about pet ownership. Data were analyzed using a modified grounded theory method to identify the roles pets play in the recovery process. Primary themes indicate pets assist individuals in recovery from serious mental illness by (a) providing empathy and "therapy"; (b) providing connections that can assist in redeveloping social avenues; (c) serving as "family" in the absence of or in addition to human family members; and (d) supporting self-efficacy and strengthening a sense of empowerment. Pets appear to provide more benefits than merely companionship. Participants' reports of pet-related contributions to their well-being provide impetus to conduct more formal research on the mechanisms by which pets contribute to recovery and to develop pet-based interventions.

  10. From Supernovae to Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai

    A core-collapse supernova is a generation site of a neutron star as well as one of the largest explosions in the universe. This article gives a brief overview of the studies on supernova explosion mechanism. Basic picture of the explosion mechanism, the method to solve neutrino transfer equation, the impact of the nuclear equation of state on the explosion, and long-term simulation of neutron star evolution from the onset of the explosion are presented.

  11. Neutron star news and puzzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Madappa

    2014-08-01

    Gerry Brown has had the most influence on my career in Physics, and my life after graduate studies. This article gives a brief account of some of the many ways in which Gerry shaped my research. Focus is placed on the significant strides on neutron star research made by the group at Stony Brook, which Gerry built from scratch. Selected puzzles about neutron stars that remain to be solved are noted.

  12. Search for faint nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. T.; Maza, J.; Mendez, R.; Wischnjewsky, M.

    1988-09-01

    The possibility that the 'missing mass' in the solar neighborhood may be accounted for by the existence in sufficiently great numbers of such very low mass stars as brown dwarfs, as well as very old dead stars now observable as cold, low-luminosity degenerates, is presently addressed observationally with a search through ESO R Survey plates using a stereocomparator. Attention is given to ESO area 439, where four low-luminosity degenerates have been discovered by the present study.

  13. Star formation across galactic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Jason

    I present here parallel investigations of star formation in typical and extreme galaxies. The typical galaxies are selected to be free of active galactic nuclei (AGN), while the extreme galaxies host quasars (the most luminous class of AGN). These two environments are each insightful in their own way; quasars are among the most violent objects in the universe, literally reshaping their host galaxies, while my sample of AGN-free star-forming galaxies ranges from systems larger than the Milky Way to small galaxies which are forming stars at unsustainably high rates. The current paradigm of galaxy formation and evolution suggests that extreme circumstances are key stepping stones in the assembly of galaxies like our Milky Way. To test this paradigm and fully explore its ramifications, this dual approach is needed. My sample of AGN-free galaxies is drawn from the KPNO International Spectroscopic Survey. This Halpha-selected, volume-limited survey was designed to detect star-forming galaxies without a bias toward continuum luminosity. This type of selection ensures that this sample is not biased toward galaxies that are large or nearby. My work studies the KISS galaxies in the mid- and far-infrared using photometry from the IRAC and MIPS instruments aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. These infrared bands are particularly interesting for star formation studies because the ultraviolet light from young stars is reprocessed into thermal emission in the far-infrared (24mum MIPS) by dust and into vibrational transitions features in the mid-infrared (8.0mum IRAC) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The work I present here examines the efficiencies of PAH and thermal dust emission as tracers of star-formation rates over a wide range of galactic stellar masses. I find that the efficiency of PAH as a star-formation tracer varies with galactic stellar mass, while thermal dust has a highly variable efficiency that does not systematically depend on galactic stellar mass

  14. A Vanishing Star Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    unsual star in question is designated NN Serpentis , or just NN Ser . As the name indicates, it is located in the constellation of Serpens (The Serpent), about 12° north of the celestial equator. A double letter, here "NN", is used to denote variable stars [2]. It is a rather faint object of magnitude 17, about 25,000 times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. The distance is about 600 light-years (180 pc). In July 1988, Reinhold Häfner performed observations of NN Ser (at that time still known by its earlier name PG 1550+131 ) with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at La Silla. He was surprised, but also very pleased to discover that it underwent a very deep eclipse every 187 minutes. Within less than 2 minutes, the brightness dropped by a factor of more than 100 (5 magnitudes). During the next 9 minutes, the star completely disappeared from view - it was too faint to be observed with this telescope. It then again reappeared and the entire event was over after just 11 minutes. Why eclipses are so important for stellar studies An eclipse occurs when one of the stars in a binary stellar system moves in front of the other, as seen by the observer. The effect is similar to what happens during a solar eclipse when the Moon moves in front of the Sun. In both cases, the eclipse may be partial or total , depending on whether or not the eclipsed star (or the Sun) is completely hidden from view. The occurence of eclipses in stellar systems, as seen from the Earth, depends on the spatial orientation of the orbital plane and the sizes of the two stars. Two eclipses take place during one orbital revolution, but they may not both be observable. The physical properties of the two stars in a binary system (e.g., the sizes of the stars, the size and shape of the orbit, the distribution of the light on the surfaces of the stars, their temperatures etc.) can be determined from the measured "light-curve" of the system (a plot of brightness vrs. time). The stars are always

  15. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  16. Superfluid Fermi atomic gas as a quantum simulator for the study of the neutron-star equation of state in the low-density region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Pieter; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Inotani, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ohashi, Yoji

    2018-01-01

    We propose a theoretical idea to use an ultracold Fermi gas as a quantum simulator for the study of the low-density region of a neutron-star interior. Our idea is different from the standard quantum simulator that heads for perfect replication of another system, such as the Hubbard model discussed in high-Tc cuprates. Instead, we use the similarity between two systems and theoretically make up for the difference between them. That is, (1) we first show that the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink (NSR) can quantitatively explain the recent experiment on the equation of state (EoS) in a 6Li superfluid Fermi gas in the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) unitary limit far below the superfluid phase-transition temperature Tc. This region is considered to be very similar to the low-density region (crust regime) of a neutron star (where a nearly unitary s -wave neutron superfluid is expected). (2) We then theoretically compensate the difference that, while the effective range reff is negligibly small in a superfluid 6Li Fermi gas, it cannot be ignored (reff=2.7 fm) in a neutron star, by extending the NSR theory to include effects of reff. The calculated EoS when reff=2.7 fm is shown to agree well with the previous neutron-star EoS in the low-density region predicted in nuclear physics. Our idea indicates that an ultracold atomic gas may more flexibly be used as a quantum simulator for the study of other complicated quantum many-body systems, when we use not only the experimental high tunability, but also the recent theoretical development in this field. Since it is difficult to directly observe a neutron-star interior, our idea would provide a useful approach to the exploration for this mysterious astronomical object.

  17. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN COMPACT GALAXY GROUPS: A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF HCGs 16, 22, AND 42, THEIR STAR CLUSTERS, AND DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.

    2013-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy. We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at <1 Gyr. This represents the possible detection of a tidal feature at the end of its phase of optical observability. Our HST images also resolve what were thought to bemore » double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 ''associates'' (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.« less

  18. A study of the Galactic star forming region IRAS 02593+6016/S 201 in infrared and radio wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Kulkarni, V. K.; Testi, L.; Verma, R. P.; Vig, S.

    2004-03-01

    We present infrared and radio continuum observations of the S 201 star forming region. A massive star cluster is seen, which contains different classes of young stellar objects. The near-infrared colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams are studied to determine the nature of these sources. We have discovered knots of molecular hydrogen emission at 2.122 μm in the central region of S 201. These knots are clearly seen along the diffuse emission to the north-west and are probably obscured Herbig-Haro objects. High sensitivity and high resolution radio continuum images from GMRT observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show an arc-shaped structure due to the interaction between the HII region and the adjacent molecular cloud. The ionization front at the interface between the HII region and the molecular cloud is clearly seen comparing the radio, molecular hydrogen and Brγ images. The emission from the carriers of Unidentified Infrared Bands in the mid-infrared 6-9 μm (possibly due to PAHs) as extracted from the Midcourse Space Experiment survey (at 8, 12, 14 and 21 μm) is compared with the radio emission. The HIRES processed IRAS maps at 12, 25, 60 and 100 μm have also been used for comparison. The spatial distribution of the temperature and the optical depth of the warm dust component around the S 201 region has been generated from the mid-infrared images. This paper is based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the CNAA (Consorzio Nazionale per l'Astronomia e l'Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the

  19. Neutron star evolution and emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, R. I.; Edwards, B. C.; Haines, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors investigated the evolution and radiation characteristics of individual neutron stars and stellar systems. The work concentrated on phenomena where new techniques and observations are dramatically enlarging the understanding of stellar phenomena. Part of this project was a study of x-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars and other compact objects. This effort included calculating the thermal x-ray emission from young neutron stars, deriving the radio and gamma-ray emission from active pulsars and modeling intense gamma-ray bursts in distant galaxies. They also measured periodic optical and infrared fluctuations from rotating neutron stars and search for high-energy TeV gamma rays from discrete celestial sources.

  20. Collisions in Compact Star Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portegies Zwart, S. F.

    The high stellar densities in young compact star clusters, such as the star cluster R136 in the 30 Doradus region, may lead to a large number of stellar collisions. Such collisions were recently found to be much more frequent than previous estimates. The number of collisions scales with the number of stars for clusters with the same initial relaxation time. These collisions take place in a few million years. The collision products may finally collapse into massive black holes. The fraction of the total mass in the star cluster which ends up in a single massive object scales with the total mass of the cluster and its relaxation time. This mass fraction is rather constant, within a factor two or so. Wild extrapolation from the relatively small masses of the studied systems to the cores of galactic nuclei may indicate that the massive black holes in these systems have formed in a similar way.

  1. Cracking on anisotropic neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiawan, A. M.; Sulaksono, A.

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of cracking of a local anisotropic neutron star (NS) due to small density fluctuations. It is assumed that the neutron star core consists of leptons, nucleons and hyperons. The relativistic mean field model is used to describe the core of equation of state (EOS). For the crust, we use the EOS introduced by Miyatsu et al. [1]. Furthermore, two models are used to describe pressure anisotropic in neutron star matter. One is proposed by Doneva-Yazadjiev (DY) [2] and the other is proposed by Herrera-Barreto (HB) [3]. The anisotropic parameter of DY and HB models are adjusted in order the predicted maximum mass compatible to the mass of PSR J1614-2230 [4] and PSR J0348+0432 [5]. We have found that cracking can potentially present in the region close to the neutron star surface. The instability due cracking is quite sensitive to the NS mass and anisotropic parameter used.

  2. Mechanism of mRNA-STAR domain interaction: Molecular dynamics simulations of Mammalian Quaking STAR protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Anirudh, C R

    2017-10-03

    STAR proteins are evolutionary conserved mRNA-binding proteins that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression at all stages of RNA metabolism. These proteins possess conserved STAR domain that recognizes identical RNA regulatory elements as YUAAY. Recently reported crystal structures show that STAR domain is composed of N-terminal QUA1, K-homology domain (KH) and C-terminal QUA2, and mRNA binding is mediated by KH-QUA2 domain. Here, we present simulation studies done to investigate binding of mRNA to STAR protein, mammalian Quaking protein (QKI). We carried out conventional MD simulations of STAR domain in presence and absence of mRNA, and studied the impact of mRNA on the stability, dynamics and underlying allosteric mechanism of STAR domain. Our unbiased simulations results show that presence of mRNA stabilizes the overall STAR domain by reducing the structural deviations, correlating the 'within-domain' motions, and maintaining the native contacts information. Absence of mRNA not only influenced the essential modes of motion of STAR domain, but also affected the connectivity of networks within STAR domain. We further explored the dissociation of mRNA from STAR domain using umbrella sampling simulations, and the results suggest that mRNA binding to STAR domain occurs in multi-step: first conformational selection of mRNA backbone conformations, followed by induced fit mechanism as nucleobases interact with STAR domain.

  3. Predictive modeling of treatment resistant depression using data from STAR*D and an independent clinical study.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhi; Vairavan, Srinivasan; Narayan, Vaibhav A; Ye, Jieping; Li, Qingqin S

    2018-01-01

    Identification of risk factors of treatment resistance may be useful to guide treatment selection, avoid inefficient trial-and-error, and improve major depressive disorder (MDD) care. We extended the work in predictive modeling of treatment resistant depression (TRD) via partition of the data from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) cohort into a training and a testing dataset. We also included data from a small yet completely independent cohort RIS-INT-93 as an external test dataset. We used features from enrollment and level 1 treatment (up to week 2 response only) of STAR*D to explore the feature space comprehensively and applied machine learning methods to model TRD outcome at level 2. For TRD defined using QIDS-C16 remission criteria, multiple machine learning models were internally cross-validated in the STAR*D training dataset and externally validated in both the STAR*D testing dataset and RIS-INT-93 independent dataset with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70-0.78 and 0.72-0.77, respectively. The upper bound for the AUC achievable with the full set of features could be as high as 0.78 in the STAR*D testing dataset. Model developed using top 30 features identified using feature selection technique (k-means clustering followed by χ2 test) achieved an AUC of 0.77 in the STAR*D testing dataset. In addition, the model developed using overlapping features between STAR*D and RIS-INT-93, achieved an AUC of > 0.70 in both the STAR*D testing and RIS-INT-93 datasets. Among all the features explored in STAR*D and RIS-INT-93 datasets, the most important feature was early or initial treatment response or symptom severity at week 2. These results indicate that prediction of TRD prior to undergoing a second round of antidepressant treatment could be feasible even in the absence of biomarker data.

  4. Statistical Studies of Solar White-light Flares and Comparisons with Superflares on Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namekata, Kosuke; Sakaue, Takahito; Watanabe, Kyoko; Asai, Ayumi; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Yuta; Notsu, Shota; Honda, Satoshi; Ishii, Takako T.; Ikuta, Kai; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-12-01

    Recently, many superflares on solar-type stars have been discovered as white-light flares (WLFs). The statistical study found a correlation between their energies (E) and durations (τ): τ \\propto {E}0.39, similar to those of solar hard/soft X-ray flares, τ \\propto {E}0.2{--0.33}. This indicates a universal mechanism of energy release on solar and stellar flares, i.e., magnetic reconnection. We here carried out statistical research on 50 solar WLFs observed with Solar Dynamics Observatory/HMI and examined the correlation between the energies and durations. As a result, the E–τ relation on solar WLFs (τ \\propto {E}0.38) is quite similar to that on stellar superflares (τ \\propto {E}0.39). However, the durations of stellar superflares are one order of magnitude shorter than those expected from solar WLFs. We present the following two interpretations for the discrepancy: (1) in solar flares, the cooling timescale of WLFs may be longer than the reconnection one, and the decay time of solar WLFs can be elongated by the cooling effect; (2) the distribution can be understood by applying a scaling law (τ \\propto {E}1/3{B}-5/3) derived from the magnetic reconnection theory. In the latter case, the observed superflares are expected to have 2–4 times stronger magnetic field strength than solar flares.

  5. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Bryan L.; Stewart, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design functionality. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this exploratory archival study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateralfull-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions and their occurrence rates. Full-lateral adherence was generally greater than Full-lateralfull-vertical, but the difference between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateralfull-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  6. Approximate universal relations for neutron stars and quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-04-01

    Neutron stars and quark stars are ideal laboratories to study fundamental physics at supra nuclear densities and strong gravitational fields. Astrophysical observables, however, depend strongly on the star's internal structure, which is currently unknown due to uncertainties in the equation of state. Universal relations, however, exist among certain stellar observables that do not depend sensitively on the star's internal structure. One such set of relations is between the star's moment of inertia (I), its tidal Love number (Love) and its quadrupole moment (Q), the so-called I-Love-Q relations. Similar relations hold among the star's multipole moments, which resemble the well-known black hole no-hair theorems. Universal relations break degeneracies among astrophysical observables, leading to a variety of applications: (i) X-ray measurements of the nuclear matter equation of state, (ii) gravitational wave measurements of the intrinsic spin of inspiraling compact objects, and (iii) gravitational and astrophysical tests of General Relativity that are independent of the equation of state. We here review how the universal relations come about and all the applications that have been devised to date.

  7. The Stars behind the Curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  8. Observational and experimental astrochemistry: A high resolution gas phase study of metal containing species in the laboratory and circumstellar envelopes of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, Robin Leigh

    It was once thought that molecules in the interstellar medium (ISM) would be destroyed in the harsh surroundings and conditions of space, and therefore unobservable by radio techniques. However, it is now understood that the chemistry of the ISM is vast and complex. The question still remains as to just how complex is this chemistry? Much is clearly still not understood. This dissertation presents work on the study of metal compounds and cations in the circumstellar envelopes of oxygen- and carbon-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and supergiant stars. Laboratory studies were also conducted on several transition metal compounds of interstellar interest, some of high spin and orbital angular momentum states. Work has been completed to confirm the detection of the debated metal cyanide KCN in the carbon-rich AGB star IRC+10216. KCN joins the list as the fifth interstellar metal cyanide/isocyanide detected in this source. In addition, preliminary results on the search for TiO are presented towards the oxygen-rich supergiant star, VY CMa. To further understand the evolutionary processes of carbon- and oxygen-rich stars, a survey of HCO+ was taken towards the carbon star IRC+10216, the oxygen-rich AGBs TX Cam, IK Tau, and W Hya and the oxygen-rich supergiant NML Cyg. While HCO+ was detected towards all of these sources, the results are vastly different. The outflow of NML Cyg proves to be asymmetric and further study is necessary. Interestingly, while TX Cam and IK Tau are thought to be virtually similar stars, the emission of HCO+ might state otherwise. Finally, the emission from W Hya is significantly narrower than the other sources. To understand species in space with more confidence, a laboratory search for several 3d transition metal species of astrochemical interest was conducted in the laboratory: HZnCl, ZnO, ZnCl, TiS and CrS. All of the molecules have been observed for the first time through high resolution gas phase rotational spectroscopy and the work on Zn

  9. Prospective, Multi-Centre, Single-Arm Study of Mechanical Thrombectomy using Solitaire FR in Acute Ischemic Stroke-STAR

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Vitor M; Gralla, Jan; Davalos, Antoni; Bonafé, Alain; Castaño, Carlos; Chapot, Rene; Liebeskind, David S; Nogueira, Raul G; Arnold, Marcel; Sztajzel, Roman; Liebig, Thomas; Goyal, Mayank; Besselmann, Michael; Moreno, Alfredo; Schroth, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mechanical thrombectomy using stent retriever devices have been advocated to increase revascularization in intracranial vessel occlusion. We present the results of a large prospective study on the use of the Solitaire FR in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods STAR was an international, multicenter, prospective, single-arm study of Solitaire FR thrombectomy in patients with large vessel anterior circulation strokes treated within 8 hours of symptom onset. Strict criteria for site selection were applied. The primary endpoint was the revascularization rate (3TICI 2b) of the occluded vessel as determined by an independent core lab. The secondary endpoint was the rate of good functional outcome (defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0–2). Results A total of 202 patients were enrolled across 14 comprehensive stroke centers in Europe, Canada and Australia. The median age was 72 years, 60% were female patients. The median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 17. Most proximal intracranial occlusion was the internal carotid artery in 18%, the middle cerebral artery in 82%. Successful revascularization was achieved in 79.2% of patients. Device and/or procedure related severe adverse events were found in 7.4%. Favorable neurological outcome was found in 57.9%. The mortality rate was 6.9%. Any intracranial hemorrhagic transformation was found in 18.8% of patients, 1.5% were symptomatic. Conclusions In this single arm study, treatment with the Solitaire™ FR device in intracranial anterior circulation occlusions results in high rates of revascularization, low risk of clinically relevant procedural complications, and good clinical outcomes in combination with low mortality at 90 days. Clinical Trial Registration This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01327989. PMID:23908066

  10. Retention and attrition among African Americans in the STAR*D study: what causes research volunteers to stay or stray?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eleanor J; Kassem, Layla; Chemerinski, Anat; Rush, A John; Laje, Gonzalo; McMahon, Francis J

    2013-11-01

    High attrition rates among African-Americans (AA) volunteers are a persistent problem that makes clinical trials less representative and complicates estimation of treatment outcomes. Many studies contrast AA with other ethnic/racial groups, but few compare the AA volunteers who remain in treatment with those who leave. Here, in addition to comparing patterns of attrition between African Americans and Whites, we identify predictors of overall and early attrition among African Americans. Sample comprised non-Hispanic African-American (n = 673) and White (n = 2,549) participants in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Chi-square tests were used to examine racial group differences in reasons for exit. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of overall attrition, early attrition (by level 2) and top reasons cited for attrition among African Americans. Both African-American and White dropouts most commonly cited noncompliance reasons for attrition during the earlier phases of the study, while citing reasons related to efficacy and medication side effects later in the study. Satisfaction with treatment strongly predicted overall attrition among African Americans independent of socioeconomic, clinical, medical or psychosocial factors. Early attrition among African American dropouts was associated with less psychiatric comorbidity, and higher perceived physical functioning but greater severity of clinician-rated depression. Compliance, efficacy, and side effects are important factors that vary in relative importance during the course of a clinical trial. For African Americans in such trials, retention strategies should be broadened to emphasize patient engagement and satisfaction during the critical periods immediately following enrollment and treatment initiation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Retention and Attrition Among African Americans in the STAR*D Study: What Causes Research Volunteers to Stay or Stray?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eleanor J; Kassem, Layla; Chemerinski, Anat; Rush, A. John; Laje, Gonzalo; McMahon, Francis J.

    2013-01-01

    Background High attrition rates among African-Americans (AA) volunteers are a persistent problem that makes clinical trials less representative and complicates estimation of treatment outcomes. Many studies contrast AA with other ethnic/racial groups, but few compare the AA volunteers who remain in treatment with those who leave. Here, in addition to comparing patterns of attrition between African Americans and whites, we identify predictors of overall and early attrition among African Americans. Method Sample comprised non-Hispanic African-American (n=673) and white (n=2,549) participants in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Chi-square tests were used to examine racial group differences in reasons for exit. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of overall attrition, early attrition (by Level 2) and top reasons cited for attrition among African Americans. Results For both African-American and white dropouts, non-compliance reasons for attrition were most commonly cited during the earlier phases of the study while reasons related to efficacy and medication side effects were cited later in the study. Satisfaction with treatment strongly predicted overall attrition among African Americans independent of socioeconomic, clinical, medical or psychosocial factors. Early attrition among African American dropouts was associated with less psychiatric comorbidity, and higher perceived physical functioning but greater severity of clinician-rated depression. Conclusions The decision to drop out is a dynamic process that changes over the course of a clinical trial. Strategies aimed at retaining African Americans in such trials should emphasize engagement with treatment and patient satisfaction immediately following enrollment and after treatment initiation. PMID:23723044

  12. Properties of RR Lyrae stars in the inner regions of the Large Magellanic Cloud. III. Near-infrared study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Rejkuba, M.; Minniti, D.; Catelan, M.; Ivanov, V. D.

    2009-08-01

    Context: RR Lyrae variable stars are the primary Population II distance indicator. Likewise, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) constitutes a key step in the extragalactic distance scale. Aims: By combining near-IR photometry and spectroscopically measured metallicities for a homogeneous sample of 50 RR Lyr stars in the LMC, we investigate the metallicity dependence of the period-luminosity relation in the near-infrared (IR), use the newly derived relations to re-derive the distance to the LMC, and compare the distance moduli obtained from RR Lyr and red clump stars. Methods: This paper presents new (single-epoch) J-band and (multi-epoch) K_s-band photometry of RR Lyr stars in 7 different LMC fields, observed with the near-IR camera SOFI at ESO's New Technology Telescope. Additional K_s-band data for another two LMC fields were taken with the ISPI infrared array at CTIO's Blanco 4m telescope. The near-IR photometry was cross-correlated with the MACHO and OGLE databases, resulting in a catalog of 62 RR Lyr stars with BVRIJKs photometry. A subsample of 50 stars also has spectroscopically measured metallicities. Results: In the deep JK color-magnitude diagrams of 7 fields, red giant branch, red clump and RR Lyr stars are detected. The majority of RR Lyr stars are located within the instability strip with near-IR colors between 0.14 ≤ (J-K_s)_0<0.32. The period-luminosity relation only has a very mild dependence on metallicity in the K band, consistent with no dependence: MKs =2.11(± 0.17) log{P} + 0.05(± 0.07) [Fe/H] - 1.05. In the J band the currently available data do not allow firm conclusions regarding the metallicity dependence of the period-luminosity relation. Conclusions: The distance modulus of the LMC, derived using our near-IR period-luminosity-metallicity relation for RR Lyr stars, is (m-M)_0=18.53 ± 0.13, in very good agreement with the distance modulus from the red clump stars, 18.46 ± 0.07. However, LMC modulus derived from the RR Lyrae stars

  13. RR Lyrae Stars in M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Moskalik, Pawel; Drury, Jason A.

    2017-10-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomna, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providiing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. In this poster we present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in both observed RRc stars. In 3 RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6d, 22.4d, and 44.5d.

  14. Another Possibility for Boyajian's Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    The unusual light curve of the star KIC 8462852, also known as Tabbys star or Boyajians star, has puzzled us since its discovery last year. A new study now explores whether the stars missing flux is due to internal blockage rather than something outside of the star.Mysterious DipsMost explanations for the flux dips of Boyajians star rely on external factors, like this illustrated swarm of comets. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Boyajians star shows unusual episodes of dimming in its light curve by as much as 20%, each lasting a few to tens of days and separated by periods of typically hundreds of days. In addition, archival observations show that it has gradually faded by roughly 15% over the span of the last hundred years. What could be causing both the sporadic flux dips and the long-term fading of this odd star?Explanations thus far have varied from mundane to extreme. Alien megastructures, pieces of smashed planets or comets orbiting the star, and intervening interstellar medium have all been proposed as possible explanations but these require some object external to the star. A new study by researcher Peter Foukal proposes an alternative: what if the source of the flux obstruction is the star itself?Analogy to the SunDecades ago, researchers discovered that our own stars total flux isnt as constant as we thought. When magnetic dark spots on the Suns surface block the heat transport, the Suns luminosity dips slightly. The diverted heat is redistributed in the Suns interior, becoming stored as a very small global heating and expansion of the convective envelope. When the blocking starspot is removed, the Sun appears slightly brighter than it did originally. Its luminosity then gradually relaxes, decaying back to its original value.Model of a stars flux after a 1,000-km starspot is inserted at time t = 0 and removed at time t = ts at a depth of 10,000 km in the convective zone. The stars luminosity dips, then becomes brighter than originally, and then gradually decays. [Foukal

  15. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2017-01-01

    In this exploratory archival study we mined the performance of 24 major US airports area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs) over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We investigated STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed altitudes and their frequencies of occurrence for altitude restrictions. Full-lateral compliance was generally greater than Full-lateral/full-vertical, but the delta between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical usage medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systemic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This work is a preliminary investigation into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track how procedural concepts and design intervention function. In addition, this tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  16. Spheroidal Populated Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeletti, Lucio; Giannone, Pietro

    2008-10-01

    Globular clusters and low-ellipticity early-type galaxies can be treated as systems populated by a large number of stars and whose structures can be schematized as spherically symmetric. Their studies profit from the synthesis of stellar populations. The computation of synthetic models makes use of various contributions from star evolution and stellar dynamics. In the first sections of the paper we present a short review of our results on the occurrence of galactic winds in star systems ranging from globular clusters to elliptical galaxies, and the dynamical evolution of a typical massive globular cluster. In the subsequent sections we describe our approach to the problem of the stellar populations in elliptical galaxies. The projected radial behaviours of spectro-photometric indices for a sample of eleven galaxies are compared with preliminary model results. The best agreement between observation and theory shows that our galaxies share a certain degree of heterogeneity. The gas energy dissipation varies from moderate to large, the metal yield ranges from solar to significantly oversolar, the dispersion of velocities is isotropic in most of the cases and anisotropic in the remaining instances.

  17. The K2 M67 Study: A Curiously Young Star in an Eclipsing Binary in an Old Open Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandquist, Eric L.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Pollack, Maxwell L.; Latham, David W.; Brown, Timothy M.; Esselstein, Rebecca; Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Vanderburg, Andrew; Stello, Dennis; Somers, Garrett; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Tayar, Jamie; Orosz, Jerome A.; Bedin, Luigi R.; Libralato, Mattia; Malavolta, Luca; Nardiello, Domenico

    2018-04-01

    We present an analysis of a slightly eccentric (e = 0.05), partially eclipsing, long-period (P = 69.73 days) main-sequence binary system (WOCS 12009, Sanders 1247) in the benchmark old open cluster M67. Using Kepler K2 and ground-based photometry, along with a large set of new and reanalyzed spectra, we derived highly precise masses (1.111 ± 0.015 and 0.748 ± 0.005 M ⊙) and radii (1.071 ± 0.008 ± 0.003 and 0.713 ± 0.019 ± 0.026 R ⊙, with statistical and systematic error estimates) for the stars. The radius of the secondary star is in agreement with theory. The primary, however, is approximately 15% smaller than reasonable isochrones for the cluster predict. Our best explanation is that the primary star was produced from the merger of two stars, as this can also account for the nondetection of photospheric lithium and its higher temperature relative to other cluster main-sequence stars at the same V magnitude. To understand the dynamical characteristics (low measured rotational line broadening of the primary star and low eccentricity of the current binary orbit), we believe that the most probable (but not the only) explanation is the tidal evolution of a close binary within a primordial triple system (possibly after a period of Kozai–Lidov oscillations), leading to merger approximately 1 Gyr ago. This star appears to be a future blue straggler that is being revealed as the cluster ages and the most massive main-sequence stars die out. Based on observations made at Kitt Peak National Observatory, National Optical Astronomy Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation; with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) on the 1.5 m Tillinghast telescope, located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory’s Fred L. Whipple Observatory on Mt. Hopkins in Arizona; the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Italian Telescopio Nazionale

  18. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  19. Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David C.; Conti, Peter S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and evolutionary status of WR stars are examined, reviewing the results of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Topics discussed include spectral types and line strengths, magnitudes and colors, intrinsic variability, IR and radio observations, X-ray observations, the Galactic distribution of WR stars, WR stars in other galaxies, and WR binaries. Consideration is given to the inferred masses, composition, and stellar winds of WR stars; model atmospheres; WR stars and the Galactic environment; and WR stars as a phase of stellar evolution. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  20. Kinematics of Hα Emitting Stars in Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilango, Megha; Ilango, Anita; Damon, Gabriel; Prichard, Laura; Guhathakurta, Puragra; PHAT Collaboration; SPLASH Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Studying emission line stars helps improve our understanding of stellar evolution, types of stars, and their environments. In this study, we analyzed stars exhibiting Hα emission (Hα stars) in the Andromeda Galaxy. We used a combination of spectroscopic and photometric diagnostic methods to remove a population of foreground Milky Way (MW) star contaminants from our data set. The Hα stars were selected from a sample of 5295 spectra from the Spectroscopic and Photometric Landscape of Andromeda’s Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey and accompanying photometric data from the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) survey. Velocities of two classes of Hα stars, main sequence (MS) stars and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, were analyzed through a novel Age-Velocity Difference Correlation (AVDC) method, which utilizes line-of-sight velocity differences (LOSVDs) in order to estimate the age of a rare stellar population. Histograms, weighted means, and weighted standard deviations of the LOSVDs were used to conclude that MS stars are more kinematically coherent than AGB stars, and that Hα stars are kinematically comparable and thus close in age to their non-Hα counterparts. With these results, it can definitively be inferred that mass loss is important in two stages of stellar evolution: massive MS and intermediate mass AGB. We hypothesized that this mass loss could either occur as a normal part of MS and AGB evolution, or that it could be emitted by only a subpopulation of MS and AGB stars throughout their life cycle. Our use of the novel AVDC method sets a precedent for the use of similar methods in predicting the ages of rare stellar subgroups.This research was supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. Most of this work was carried out by high school students working under the auspices of the Science Internship Program at UC Santa Cruz.

  1. Engaging youths with serious mental illnesses in treatment: STARS study consumer recommendations.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Wisdom, Jennifer P; Wolfe, Leah; Firemark, Alison

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify better methods of engaging youths in mental health services by asking experienced mental health consumers for suggestions for clinicians. 177 members of an integrated health plan, ranging in age from 16-84 years and diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or affective psychosis, completed four in-depth semistructured interviews over 24 months as part of a study of recovery from serious mental illness. We transcribed and coded interviews, extracted a set of common themes addressing consumer recommendations to clinicians, and compared these themes across age groups. Five primary themes emerged in participants' recommendations: (1) use an age-appropriate approach that reflects youth culture and lifestyles; (2) foster development of autonomy; (3) take a personal, rather than diagnostic, approach; (4) be empathetic and authentic; and (5) create a safe and supportive environment. Consumers age 30 and older described three additional areas in which clinicians could contribute to youths' well being: (1) help find the right diagnosis and the right medication, (2) counsel youths to avoid using alcohol and drugs, and (3) take steps to help prevent social isolation. Study findings suggest that many strategies recommended for working with adults may benefit young people, but that developmentally appropriate modifications to these approaches are needed to foster treatment engagement among youths. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Pulsating star research and the Gaia revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyer, Laurent; Clementini, Gisella; Guy, Leanne P.; Rimoldini, Lorenzo; Glass, Florian; Audard, Marc; Holl, Berry; Charnas, Jonathan; Cuypers, Jan; Ridder, Joris De; Evans, Dafydd W.; de Fombelle, Gregory Jevardat; Lanzafame, Alessandro; Lecoeur-Taibi, Isabelle; Mowlavi, Nami; Nienartowicz, Krzysztof; Riello, Marco; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Sarro, Luis; Süveges, Maria

    2017-09-01

    In this article we present an overview of the ESA Gaia mission and of the unprecedented impact that Gaia will have on the field of variable star research. We summarise the contents and impact of the first Gaia data release on the description of variability phenomena, with particular emphasis on pulsating star research. The Tycho-Gaia astrometric solution, although limited to 2.1 million stars, has been used in many studies related to pulsating stars. Furthermore a set of 3,194 Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars with their times series have been released. Finally we present the plans for the ongoing study of variable phenomena with Gaia and highlight some of the possible impacts of the second data release on variable, and specifically, pulsating stars.

  3. A Study of the Mass Loss Rates of Symbiotic Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korreck, K. E.; Kellogg, E.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of mass loss in symbiotic systems is investigated, specifically mass loss via the formation of jets in R Aquarii (R Aqr). The jets in R Aqr have been observed in the X-ray by Chandra over a four year time period. The jet changes on times scales of a year and new outflows have been observed. Understanding the amount of mass and the frequency of ejection further constrain the ability of the white dwarf in the system to accrete enough mass to become a Type la supernova progenitor. The details of multi-wavelength studies, such as speed, density and spatial extent of the jets will be discussed in order to understand the mass balance in the binary system. We examine other symbiotic systems to determine trends in mass loss in this class of objects.

  4. The accelerating pace of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Spencer; Chang, Philip

    2018-03-01

    We study the temporal and spatial distribution of star formation rates in four well-studied star-forming regions in local molecular clouds (MCs): Taurus, Perseus, ρ Ophiuchi, and Orion A. Using published mass and age estimates for young stellar objects in each system, we show that the rate of star formation over the last 10 Myr has been accelerating and is (roughly) consistent with a t2 power law. This is in line with previous studies of the star formation history of MCs and with recent theoretical studies. We further study the clustering of star formation in the Orion nebula cluster. We examine the distribution of young stellar objects as a function of their age by computing an effective half-light radius for these young stars subdivided into age bins. We show that the distribution of young stellar objects is broadly consistent with the star formation being entirely localized within the central region. We also find a slow radial expansion of the newly formed stars at a velocity of v = 0.17 km s-1, which is roughly the sound speed of the cold molecular gas. This strongly suggests the dense structures that form stars persist much longer than the local dynamical time. We argue that this structure is quasi-static in nature and is likely the result of the density profile approaching an attractor solution as suggested by recent analytic and numerical analysis.

  5. X-shooter study of accretion in Chamaeleon I. II. A steeper increase of accretion with stellar mass for very low-mass stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Herczeg, G. J.; Pascucci, I.; Alcalá, J. M.; Natta, A.; Antoniucci, S.; Fedele, D.; Mulders, G. D.; Henning, T.; Mohanty, S.; Prusti, T.; Rigliaco, E.

    2017-08-01

    The dependence of the mass accretion rate on the stellar properties is a key constraint for star formation and disk evolution studies. Here we present a study of a sample of stars in the Chamaeleon I star-forming region carried out using spectra taken with the ESO VLT/X-shooter spectrograph. The sample is nearly complete down to stellar masses (M⋆) 0.1 M⊙ for the young stars still harboring a disk in this region. We derive the stellar and accretion parameters using a self-consistent method to fit the broadband flux-calibrated medium resolution spectrum. The correlation between accretion luminosity to stellar luminosity, and of mass accretion rate to stellar mass in the logarithmic plane yields slopes of 1.9 ± 0.1 and 2.3 ± 0.3, respectively. These slopes and the accretion rates are consistent with previous results in various star-forming regions and with different theoretical frameworks. However, we find that a broken power-law fit, with a steeper slope for stellar luminosity lower than 0.45 L⊙ and for stellar masses lower than 0.3 M⊙ is slightly preferred according to different statistical tests, but the single power-law model is not excluded. The steeper relation for lower mass stars can be interpreted as a faster evolution in the past for accretion in disks around these objects, or as different accretion regimes in different stellar mass ranges. Finally, we find two regions on the mass accretion versus stellar mass plane that are empty of objects: one region at high mass accretion rates and low stellar masses, which is related to the steeper dependence of the two parameters we derived. The second region is located just above the observational limits imposed by chromospheric emission, at M⋆ 0.3 - 0.4 M⊙. These are typical masses where photoevaporation is known to be effective. The mass accretion rates of this region are 10-10M⊙/yr, which is compatible with the value expected for photoevaporation to rapidly dissipate the inner disk. This work is

  6. Galaxy Evolution Explorer Spies Band of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-20

    Globular star cluster NGC 362, in a false-color image from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Virginia The Galaxy Evolution Explorer's ultraviolet eyes have captured a globular star cluster, called NGC 362, in our own Milky Way galaxy. In this new image, the cluster appears next to stars from a more distant neighboring galaxy, known as the Small Magellanic Cloud. "This image is so interesting because it allows a study of the final stages of evolution of low-mass stars in NGC 362, as well as the history of star formation in the Small Magellanic Cloud," said Ricardo Schiavon of the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. Globular clusters are densely packed bunches of old stars scattered in galaxies throughout the universe. NGC 362, located 30,000 light-years away, can be spotted as the dense collection of mostly yellow-tinted stars surrounding a large white-yellow spot toward the top-right of this image. The white spot is actually the core of the cluster, which is made up of stars so closely packed together that the Galaxy Evolution Explorer cannot see them individually. The light blue dots surrounding the cluster core are called extreme horizontal branch stars. These stars used to be very similar to our sun and are nearing the end of their lives. They are very hot, with temperatures reaching up to about four times that of the surface of our sun (25,000 Kelvin or 45,500 degrees Fahrenheit). A star like our sun spends most of its life fusing hydrogen atoms in its core into helium. When the star runs out of hydrogen in its core, its outer envelope will expand. The star then becomes a red giant, which burns hydrogen in a shell surrounding its inner core. Throughout its life as a red giant, the star loses a lot of mass, then begins to burn helium at its core. Some stars will have lost so much mass at the end of this process, up to 85 percent of their envelopes, that most of the envelope is gone. What is left is a very hot

  7. A cellular star atlas: using astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells for disease studies

    PubMed Central

    Krencik, Robert; Ullian, Erik M.

    2013-01-01

    What roles do astrocytes play in human disease?This question remains unanswered for nearly every human neurological disorder. Yet, because of their abundance and complexity astrocytes can impact neurological function in many ways. The differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into neuronal and glial subtypes, including astrocytes, is becoming routine, thus their use as tools for modeling neurodevelopment and disease will provide one important approach to answer this question. When designing experiments, careful consideration must be given to choosing paradigms for differentiation, maturation, and functional analysis of these temporally asynchronous cellular populations in culture. In the case of astrocytes, they display heterogeneous characteristics depending upon species of origin, brain region, developmental stage, environmental factors, and disease states, all of which may render experimental results highly variable. In this review, challenges and future directions are discussed for using hPSC-derived astroglial progenitors and mature astrocytes for neurodevelopmental studies with a focus on exploring human astrocyte effects upon neuronal function. As new technologies emerge to measure the functions of astrocytes in vitro and in vivo, there is also a need for a standardized source of human astrocytes that are most relevant to the diseases of interest. PMID:23503583

  8. Neutron stars velocities and magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paret, Daryel Manreza; Martinez, A. Perez; Ayala, Alejandro.; Piccinelli, G.; Sanchez, A.

    2018-01-01

    We study a model that explain neutron stars velocities due to the anisotropic emission of neutrinos. Strong magnetic fields present in neutron stars are the source of the anisotropy in the system. To compute the velocity of the neutron star we model its core as composed by strange quark matter and analice the properties of a magnetized quark gas at finite temperature and density. Specifically we have obtained the electron polarization and the specific heat of magnetized fermions as a functions of the temperature, chemical potential and magnetic field which allow us to study the velocity of the neutron star as a function of these parameters.

  9. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: III: TOO Observations of Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic studies of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by observing the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.

  10. Qualitative Impact Assessment 2010: An Independent Study Conducted by BDRC Continental, Ltd., February-July 2010. Premier League Reading Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Premier League Reading Stars (PLRS) is in its eighth year. To complement a pre-post quantitative survey, an impact evidence base was required to inform consideration of continued funding into 2011 and beyond. PLRS is very highly regarded among child participants, parents, and librarians. The structure of the scheme, its basis on football, and the…

  11. Comparative Studies of the Dust around Red Supergiant and Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela K.; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret; Sloan, Greg; Jones, Olivia

    2015-08-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 μm emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  12. Comparative Studies of the Dust around Red Supergiant and Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Local Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, B. A.; Srinivasan, S.; Speck, A.; Volk, K.; Kemper, F.; Reach, W.; Lagadec, E.; Bernard, J.-P.; McDonald, I.; Meixner, M.; Sloan, G. C.; Jones, O.

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of red supergiant (RSG) and oxygen-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud and Small Magellanic Cloud galaxies and in various Milky Way globular clusters. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper), the Spitzer program SMC-Spec (PI: G. Sloan), and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We investigate differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars and assess effects of varying metallicity (LMC versus SMC versus Milky Way globular cluster) and other properties (mass-loss rate, luminosity, etc.) on the dust originating from these stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  13. A MULTIWAVELENGTH STUDY OF STAR FORMATION IN THE VICINITY OF GALACTIC H II REGION Sh 2-100

    SciTech Connect

    Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Sagar, R.

    We present multiwavelength investigation of morphology, physical-environment, stellar contents, and star formation activity in the vicinity of star-forming region Sh 2-100. It is found that the Sh 2-100 region contains seven H II regions of ultracompact and compact nature. The present estimation of distance for three H II regions, along with the kinematic distance for others, suggests that all of them belong to the same molecular cloud complex. Using near-infrared photometry, we identified the most probable ionizing sources of six H II regions. Their approximate photometric spectral type estimates suggest that they are massive early-B to mid-O zero-age-main-sequence stars andmore » agree well with radio continuum observations at 1280 MHz, for sources whose emissions are optically thin at this frequency. The morphology of the complex shows a non-uniform distribution of warm and hot dust, well mixed with the ionized gas, which correlates well with the variation of average visual extinction ({approx}4.2-97 mag) across the region. We estimated the physical parameters of ionized gas with the help of radio continuum observations. We detected an optically visible compact nebula located to the south of the 850 {mu}m emission associated with one of the H II regions and the diagnostic of the optical emission line ratios gives electron density and electron temperature of {approx}0.67 x 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and {approx}10{sup 4} K, respectively. The physical parameters suggest that all the H II regions are in different stages of evolution, which correlate well with the probable ages in the range {approx}0.01-2 Myr of the ionizing sources. The spatial distribution of infrared excess stars, selected from near-infrared and Infrared Array Camera color-color diagrams, correlates well with the association of gas and dust. The positions of infrared excess stars, ultracompact and compact H II regions at the periphery of an H I shell, possibly created by a WR star, indicate that star

  14. The Chemical Composition of the Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazunova, L. V.

    The comparison of the results of the studies of the active stars' chemical composition obtained by different authors has been performed. It was concluded that the difference between the abundances of some elements in active and inactive stars becomes significant (> 3σ) only for the active stars with high chromospheric activity (lgR'HK > -4). This is the case primarily for the light elements, namely Li, Na and Al, as well as heavy elements with Z > 30.

  15. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

  16. Assembly Line of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    This image from NASA Herschel, in the constellation of Vulpecula, shows an entire assembly line of newborn stars. The diffuse glow reveals the widespread cold reservoir of raw material that our Milky Way galaxy has in stock for building stars.

  17. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  18. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  19. Massive Star Makes Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi, a young, large and hot star located around 370 light-years away, is having a hocking effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

  20. Sloshing Star Goes Supernova

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-19

    NuSTAR has provided the first observational evidence in support of a theory that says exploding stars slosh around before detonating. That theory, referred to as mild asymmetries, is shown here in a simulation by Christian Ott.

  1. AgSTAR Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Showcases AgSTAR's accomplishments reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sector. Through outreach, education, training, and other tools, AgSTAR continues to help evaluate, construct, and maintain anaerobic digesters on livestock farms.

  2. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  3. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  4. Another Death Star?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    Although Mimas holds the unofficial designation of Death Star moon, Tethys is seen here also vaguely resembling the space station from Star Wars. Apparently, Tethys doesnt want Mimas to have all the fun!

  5. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  6. Effectiveness of sensor-augmented pump therapy in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in the STAR 3 study.

    PubMed

    Slover, Robert H; Welsh, John B; Criego, Amy; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Willi, Steven M; Wood, Michael A; Tamborlane, William V

    2012-02-01

    Maintenance of appropriate A1C values and minimization of hyperglycemic excursions are difficult for many pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy is an alternative to multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy in this population. Sensor-augmented pump therapy for A1C reduction (STAR 3) was a 1-yr trial that included 82 children (aged 7-12) and 74 adolescents (aged 13-18) with A1C values ranging from 7.4 to 9.5% who were randomized to either SAP or MDI therapy. Quarterly A1C values were obtained from all subjects. CGM studies were carried out at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to quantify glycemic excursions [calculated as area under the glucose concentration-time curve (AUC)] and variability. In the SAP group, sensor compliance was recorded. Baseline A1C values were similar in subjects randomized to the SAP (8.26 ± 0.55%) and MDI groups (8.30 ± 0.53%). All subsequent A1C values showed significant (p < 0.05) treatment group differences favoring SAP therapy. Compared with the MDI group, subjects in the SAP group were more likely to meet age-specific A1C targets and had lower AUC values for hyperglycemia with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. Glucose variability improved in the SAP group compared to the MDI group. Children wore CGM sensors more often and were more likely to reach age-specific A1C targets than adolescents. SAP therapy allows both children and adolescents with marginally or inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes to reduce A1C values, hyperglycemic excursions, and glycemic variability in a rapid, sustainable, and safe manner. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. William Herschel during the 1780-1810 era: A natural historian studies "maturation" of stars over immeasurable time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Woody

    2015-01-01

    (A) William Herschel (1738-1822) considered himself a natural historian, different only from the usual natural historians in that his focus was on stars and nebulae rather than plants, animals, and minerals. In this regard, he developed ideas concerning changes over very long times, inferred from his catalogues of 2500 star clusters and nebulae. By assuming that all the observed types of star clusters and morphologies of nebulae represented different stages in the formation of stars and clusters under the action of gravity, Herschel argued for a sequence of "maturation," or evolution as we would call it. He could put no definite time scale on these dynamic processes, but inspired by contemporary geologists such as James Hutton and John Michell (yes, he was a geologist, too!), he felt that the time scales must be very long. In further support, he photometrically estimated that the very faintest stars that he could see in his giant 40-ft telescope were about two million light-years distant. Herschel's findings on the structure and age of the Milky Way system, his "construction of the heavens," were also influenced by geological notions of the formation and subsequent warping of strata over long times, and the geologists' attempts to uncover the interior and distant past of the Earth. (B) Herschel was a very successful professional musician for two decades, primarily in the fashionable resort city of Bath, England. And then he discovered Uranus in 1781 at age 43, an event that catapulted him into celebrity and allowed him immediately to transform himself into a full-time astronomer. He composed over twenty symphonies, many concertos, and a large number of organ and choral works. During this session, a chorus of University of Washington students will present a short concert featuring Herschel's most popular composition, a novelty number called "The Eccho Catch," as well as contemporary pieces with astronomical themes by other composers.

  8. Dying to be famous: retrospective cohort study of rock and pop star mortality and its association with adverse childhood experiences

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Sharples, Olivia; Hennell, Tom; Hardcastle, Katherine A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Rock and pop fame is associated with risk taking, substance use and premature mortality. We examine relationships between fame and premature mortality and test how such relationships vary with type of performer (eg, solo or band member) and nationality and whether cause of death is linked with prefame (adverse childhood) experiences. Design A retrospective cohort analysis based on biographical data. An actuarial methodology compares postfame mortality to matched general populations. Cox survival and logistic regression techniques examine risk and protective factors for survival and links between adverse childhood experiences and cause of death, respectively. Setting North America and Europe. Participants 1489 rock and pop stars reaching fame between 1956 and 2006. Outcomes Stars’ postfame mortality relative to age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched populations (USA and UK); variations in survival with performer type, and in cause of mortality with exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Results Rock/pop star mortality increases relative to the general population with time since fame. Increases are greater in North American stars and those with solo careers. Relative mortality begins to recover 25 years after fame in European but not North American stars. Those reaching fame from 1980 onwards have better survival rates. For deceased stars, cause of death was more likely to be substance use or risk-related in those with more adverse childhood experiences. Conclusions Relationships between fame and mortality vary with performers’ characteristics. Adverse experiences in early life may leave some predisposed to health-damaging behaviours, with fame and extreme wealth providing greater opportunities to engage in risk-taking. Millions of youths wish to emulate their icons. It is important they recognise that substance use and risk-taking may be rooted in childhood adversity rather than seeing them as symbols of success. PMID:23253869

  9. Carbon Nanotubes' Effect on Mitochondrial Oxygen Flux Dynamics: Polarography Experimental Study and Machine Learning Models using Star Graph Trace Invariants of Raman Spectra.

    PubMed

    González-Durruthy, Michael; Monserrat, Jose M; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor; Casañola-Martín, Gerardo M; Barreiro Sorrivas, José María; Paraíso-Medina, Sergio; Maojo, Víctor; González-Díaz, Humberto; Pazos, Alejandro; Munteanu, Cristian R

    2017-11-11

    This study presents the impact of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on mitochondrial oxygen mass flux ( J m ) under three experimental conditions. New experimental results and a new methodology are reported for the first time and they are based on CNT Raman spectra star graph transform (spectral moments) and perturbation theory. The experimental measures of J m showed that no tested CNT family can inhibit the oxygen consumption profiles of mitochondria. The best model for the prediction of J m for other CNTs was provided by random forest using eight features, obtaining test R-squared ( R ²) of 0.863 and test root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.0461. The results demonstrate the capability of encoding CNT information into spectral moments of the Raman star graphs (SG) transform with a potential applicability as predictive tools in nanotechnology and material risk assessments.

  10. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  11. Variable Stars with the Kepler Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, L.; Szabó, R.; Plachy, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Kepler space telescope has revolutionized our knowledge about exoplanets and stars and is continuing to do so in the K2 mission. The exquisite photometric precision, together with the long, uninterrupted observations opened up a new way to investigate the structure and evolution of stars. Asteroseismology, the study of stellar oscillations, allowed us to investigate solar-like stars, and to peer into the insides of red giants and massive stars. But many discoveries have been made about classical variable stars, too, ranging from pulsators like Cepheids and RR Lyraes to eclipsing binary stars and cataclysmic variables, and even supernovae. In this review, which is far from an exhaustive summary of all results obtained with Kepler, we collected some of the most interesting discoveries, and ponder on the role for amateur observers in this golden era of stellar astrophysics.

  12. Chromospheric activity of cool giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steiman-Cameron, T. Y.

    1986-01-01

    During the seventh year of IUE twenty-six spectra of seventeen cool giant stars ranging in spectral type from K3 thru M6 were obtained. Together with spectra of fifteen stars observed during the sixth year of IUE, these low-resolution spectra have been used to: (1) examine chromospheric activity in the program stars and late type giants in general, and (2) evaluate the extent to which nonradiative heating affects the upper levels of cool giant photospheres. The stars observed in this study all have well determined TiO band strengths, angular diameters (determined from lunar occulations), bolometric fluxes, and effective temperatures. Chromospheric activity can therefore be related to effective temperatures providing a clearer picture of activity among cool giant stars than previously available. The stars observed are listed.

  13. Gravitational Redshift of Deformed Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Alexis; Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2015-04-01

    Non-rotating neutron stars are generally treated in theoretical studies as perfect spheres. Such a treatment, however, may not be correct if strong magnetic fields are present and/or the pressure of the matter in the cores of neutron stars is non-isotropic, leading to neutron stars which are deformed. In this work, we investigate the impact of deformation on the gravitational redshift of neutron stars in the framework of general relativity. Using a parameterized metric to model non-spherical mass distributions, we derive an expression for the gravitational redshift in terms of the mass, radius, and deformity of a neutron star. Numerical solutions for the redshifts of sequences of deformed neutron stars are presented and observational implications are pointed out. This research is funded by the NIH through the Maximizing Access to Research Careers (MARC), under Grant Number: 5T34GM008303-25 and through the National Science Foundation under grant PHY-1411708.

  14. Study Stars - Morehead Planetarium

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1965-05-07

    S65-29652 (7 May 1965) --- Astronauts James A. McDivitt (right) and Edward H. White II are shown at the Morehead Planetarium in North Carolina, checking out celestial navigation equipment as part of their training for the Gemini-Titan 4 mission. The NASA Headquarters alternative photo number is 65-H-277.

  15. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  16. Seeing Stars in Serpens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    Infant stars are glowing gloriously in this image of the Serpens star-forming region, captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The reddish-pink dots are baby stars deeply embedded in the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to create it.

  17. Magnetized anisotropic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelea, Cristian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2018-05-01

    We extend a known solution-generating technique for isotropic fluids in order to construct more general models of anisotropic stars with poloidal magnetic fields. In particular, we discuss the magnetized versions of some well-known exact solutions describing anisotropic stars and dark energy stars, and we describe some of their properties.

  18. Managing the star performer.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  19. Visual Acuity Change over 12 Months in the Prospective Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Study: ProgStar Report Number 6.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangrong; Strauss, Rupert W; Cideciyan, Artur V; Michaelides, Michel; Sahel, José-Alain; Munoz, Beatriz; Ahmed, Mohamed; Ervin, Ann M; West, Sheila K; Cheetham, Janet K; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the yearly rate of change of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the risk of loss 1 line or more over 1 year and to identify risk factors for BCVA loss in patients with Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter, prospective cohort study. Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) with molecularly confirmed STGD1 enrolled at 9 centers in the United States and Europe. Participants were followed up every 6 months, and data at the baseline and 6- and 12-month visits were analyzed. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) protocol. Standardized reporting forms were used to collect participants' characteristics and clinical observations. Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the rate of BCVA loss. Linear models with generalized estimating equations were used to identify risk factors for BCVA loss of 1 line or more over 1 year. Change in BCVA over 1 year. Cross-sectional analysis at baseline showed that earlier symptom onset and longer duration since onset was associated with worse BCVA. Longitudinal analysis showed no overall significant change of BCVA within 12 months, but the rate of BCVA change was significantly different by baseline BCVA (P < 0.001). The BCVA of eyes with baseline BCVA of 20/25 or better declined at a rate of 2.8 ETDRS letters per year (P = 0.10), eyes with baseline BCVA between 20/25 and 20/70 declined at a rate of 2.3 ETDRS letters per year (P = 0.002), eyes with baseline BCVA between 20/70 and 20/200 declined at a rate of 0.8 ETDRS letters per year (P = 0.08), and eyes with baseline BCVA worse than 20/200 showed a significant improvement of 2.3 ETDRS letters per year (P < 0.001). Overall, 12.9% of eyes lost 1 line or more, and the risk of such BCVA loss was different by baseline BCVA level (P = 0.016). Smoking and vitamin A use was not associated significantly with baseline BCVA, nor with rate of BCVA loss over 1 year. Change in BCVA in STGD1 patients over a

  20. Magnetic Stars After the Hayashi Phase. II.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolevskij, Yu. V.

    2016-09-01

    The properties of magnetic stars derived from observational data are analyzed. The degree of "magnetic" braking of parent protostars, which depends the magnetic field and mass, is studied. The conditions under which magnetic and "normal" nonmagnetic stars are separated, which appear to depend only on the rotational velocity of the protostars, are examined. The reasons for differences in the average magnitudes of the magnetic field in massive and low-mass magnetic stars are analyzed. The magnetic field structures of magnetic stars and their stability over time (rigidity of rotation) are examined.

  1. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Far from the galactic suburbs where the Sun resides, a cluster of stars in the nucleus of the Milky Way orbits a supermassive black hole. Can chemical abundance measurements help us understand the formation history of the galactic center nuclear star cluster?Studying Stellar PopulationsMetallicity distributions for stars in the inner two degrees of the Milky Way (blue) and the central parsec (orange). [Do et al. 2018]While many galaxies host nuclear star clusters, most are too distant for us to study in detail; only in the Milky Way can we resolve individual stars within one parsec of a supermassive black hole. The nucleus of our galaxy is an exotic and dangerous place, and its not yet clear how these stars came to be where they are were they siphoned off from other parts of the galaxy, or did they form in place, in an environment rocked by tidal forces?Studying the chemical abundances of stars provides a way to separate distinct stellar populations and discern when and where these stars formed. Previous studies using medium-resolution spectroscopy have revealed that many stars within the central parsec of our galaxy have very high metallicities possibly higher than any other region of the Milky Way. Can high-resolution spectroscopy tell us more about this unusual population of stars?Spectral Lines on DisplayTuan Do (University of California, Los Angeles, Galactic Center Group) and collaborators performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of two late-type giant starslocated half a parsec from the Milky Ways supermassive black hole.Comparison of the observed spectra of the two galactic center stars (black) with synthetic spectra with low (blue) and high (orange) [Sc/Fe] values. Click to enlarge. [Do et al. 2018]In order to constrain the metallicities of these stars, Do and collaborators compared the observed spectra to a grid of synthetic spectra and used a spectral synthesis technique to determine the abundances of individual elements. They found that

  2. Accreting, highly magnetized neutron stars at the Eddington limit: a study of the 2016 outburst of SMC X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koliopanos, Filippos; Vasilopoulos, Georgios

    2018-06-01

    Aims: We study the temporal and spectral characteristics of SMC X-3 during its recent (2016) outburst to probe accretion onto highly magnetized neutron stars (NSs) at the Eddington limit. Methods: We obtained XMM-Newton observations of SMC X-3 and combined them with long-term observations by Swift. We performed a detailed analysis of the temporal and spectral behavior of the source, as well as its short- and long-term evolution. We have also constructed a simple toy-model (based on robust theoretical predictions) in order to gain insight into the complex emission pattern of SMC X-3. Results: We confirm the pulse period of the system that has been derived by previous works and note that the pulse has a complex three-peak shape. We find that the pulsed emission is dominated by hard photons, while at energies below 1 keV, the emission does not pulsate. We furthermore find that the shape of the pulse profile and the short- and long-term evolution of the source light-curve can be explained by invoking a combination of a "fan" and a "polar" beam. The results of our temporal study are supported by our spectroscopic analysis, which reveals a two-component emission, comprised of a hard power law and a soft thermal component. We find that the latter produces the bulk of the non-pulsating emission and is most likely the result of reprocessing the primary hard emission by optically thick material that partly obscures the central source. We also detect strong emission lines from highly ionized metals. The strength of the emission lines strongly depends on the phase. Conclusions: Our findings are in agreement with previous works. The energy and temporal evolution as well as the shape of the pulse profile and the long-term spectra evolution of the source are consistent with the expected emission pattern of the accretion column in the super-critical regime, while the large reprocessing region is consistent with the analysis of previously studied X-ray pulsars observed at high

  3. A Lithium Abundance Study of Solar-type Stars in Blanco 1 using the 2.1m McDonald Telescope: Developing Undergraduate Research Experiences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargile, Phillip; James, D. J.; Villalon, K.; Girgenti, S.; Mermilliod, J.

    2007-12-01

    We present a new catalog of lithium equivalent widths for 20 solar-type stars in the young (60-100 Myr), nearby (250 pc) open cluster Blanco 1, measured from high-resolution spectra (R 30,000), taken during an observing run on the 2.1m telescope at McDonald Observatory. These new lithium data, coupled with the 20 or so extant measurements in the literature, are used in combination with the results of a recently completed standardized BVIc CCD survey, and corresponding 2MASS near-infrared colors, to derive precise lithium abundances for solar-type stars in Blanco 1. Comparing these new results with the existing lithium dataset for other open clusters, we investigate the mass- and age-dependent lithium depletion distribution among early-epoch (< 1Gyr) solar-type stars, and specifically, the lithium abundance scatter as a function of mass in Blanco 1. Our scientific project is highly synergystic with a pedagogical philosophy. We have instituted a program whereby undergraduate students - typically majoring in Liberal Arts and performing an independent study in Astronomy - receive hands-on research experience observing with the 2.1m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. After their observing run, these undergraduates take part in the reduction and analysis of the acquired spectra, and their research experience typically culminates in writing an undergraduate thesis and/or giving a professional seminar to the Astronomy group at Vanderbilt University.

  4. My Lived Experiences Are More Important Than Your Probabilities: The Role of Individualized Risk Estimates for Decision Making about Participation in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR).

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Christine; Waters, Erika A; Whitehouse, Katie; Daly, Mary; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta

    2015-11-01

    Decision-making experts emphasize that understanding and using probabilistic information are important for making informed decisions about medical treatments involving complex risk-benefit tradeoffs. Yet empirical research demonstrates that individuals may not use probabilities when making decisions. To explore decision making and the use of probabilities for decision making from the perspective of women who were risk-eligible to enroll in the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). We conducted narrative interviews with 20 women who agreed to participate in STAR and 20 women who declined. The project was based on a narrative approach. Analysis included the development of summaries of each narrative, and thematic analysis with developing a coding scheme inductively to code all transcripts to identify emerging themes. Interviewees explained and embedded their STAR decisions within experiences encountered throughout their lives. Such lived experiences included but were not limited to breast cancer family history, a personal history of breast biopsies, and experiences or assumptions about taking tamoxifen or medicines more generally. Women's explanations of their decisions about participating in a breast cancer chemoprevention trial were more complex than decision strategies that rely solely on a quantitative risk-benefit analysis of probabilities derived from populations In addition to precise risk information, clinicians and risk communicators should recognize the importance and legitimacy of lived experience in individual decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  6. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  7. Ultraviolet studies of O and B stars in the LMC cluster NGC 2100, the SMC cluster NGC 330 and the Galactic cluster NGC 6530

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.; Hodge, P.

    1984-01-01

    High-resolution and low-resolution IUE spectra of O and B stars in the LMC cluster NGC 2100, the SMC cluster NGC 330, and the young Galactic cluster NGC 6530 are investigated. Temperatures and luminosities are determined. In the LMC and SMC clusters, the most luminous stars are evolved stars on the horizontal supergiant branch, while in NGC 6530 the stars are all still on the main sequence. Extinction laws were determined. They confirm the known differences between LMC and Galactic extinctions. No mass loss was detected for the evolved B stars in the LMC and SMC clusters, while the high-luminosity stars in NGC 6530 show P Cygni profiles.

  8. Observational studies of the symbiotic stars. III High-dispersion IUE and H-alpha observations of EG Andromedae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, N. A.; Anderson, C. M.; Slovak, M. H.; Stencel, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    High-dispersion IUE and optical spectra are presented for the symbiotic star EG Andromedae (HD 4174). Remarkable emission-line strength and profile variations are confirmed for the S IV, O IV, C IV, and He II ultraviolet lines as well as H-alpha. Accurate cross-correlation absorption-line velocities determined from Ti I, Ca I, and Fe I features convincingly demonstrate that EG And is a single-lined spectroscopic binary. The velocity curve suggests that the photometric ephemeris reported by Smith in 1980 should be revised by a redefinition of zero phase by about 0.08 of a period. The primary of the system may be similar to the central star of a planetary nebula embedded in a dense nebula with a mild stellar wind. The behavior of the emission lines is interpreted to indicate that the primary and its surrounding nebula suffer a partial eclipse by the cool giant secondary.

  9. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    is only 16% larger than this giant planet! A Dense Star "Imagine that you add 95 times its own mass to Jupiter and nevertheless end up with a star that is only slightly larger", suggests Claudio Melo from ESO and member of the team of astronomers who made the study. "The object just shrinks to make room for the additional matter, becoming more and more dense." The density of such a star is more than 50 times the density of the Sun. "This result shows the existence of stars that look strikingly like planets, even from close by", emphasizes Frederic Pont of the Geneva Observatory (Switzerland). "Isn't it strange to imagine that even if we were to receive images from a future space probe approaching such an object at close range, it wouldn't be easy to discern whether it is a star or a planet?" As all stars, OGLE-TR-122b produces indeed energy in its interior by means of nuclear reactions. However, because of its low mass, this internal energy production is very small, especially compared to the energy produced by its solar-like companion star. Not less striking is the fact that exoplanets which are orbiting very close to their host star, the so-called "hot Jupiters", have radii which may be larger than the newly found star. The radius of exoplanet HD209458b, for example, is about 30% larger than that of Jupiter. It is thus substantially larger than OGLE-TR-122b! Masqueraders ESO PR Photo 06c/05 ESO PR Photo 06c/05 Comparison Between OGLE-TR-122b, Jupiter and the Sun [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 598 pix - 30k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1196 pix - 350k] [HiRes - JPEG: 5000 x 3344 pix - 2.2M] Caption: ESO PR Photo 06c/05 is a comparison between the newly found low-mass star OGLE-TR-122b and the Sun and Jupiter. OGLE-TR-122b, while still 96 times as massive as Jupiter, is only 16% larger than this giant planet. It weighs 1/11th the mass of the Sun and has 1/8th of its diameter. (credits: Sun image: SOHO/ESA; Jupiter: Cassini/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona/ESA) This discovery also

  10. A Star Close Encounter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-03

    The potential planet-forming disk (or "protoplanetary disk") of a sun-like star is being violently ripped away by the powerful winds of a nearby hot O-type star in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. At up to 100 times the mass of sun-like stars, O stars are the most massive and energetic stars in the universe. The O star can be seen to the right of the image, as the large orange spot with the white center. To the left, the comet-like structure is actually a neighboring solar system that is being destroyed by the O star's powerful winds and intense ultraviolet light. In a process called "photoevaporation," immense output from the O star heats up the nearby protoplanetary disk so much that gas and dust boil off, and the disk can no longer hold together. Photon (or light) blasts from the O star then strip the potential planet-forming disk off its neighbor star by blowing away evaporated material. This effect is illustrated in the smaller system's comet-like structure. The system is located about 2,450 light-years away in the star-forming cloud IC 1396. The image was taken with Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer instrument at 24 microns. The picture is a pseudo-color stretch representing intensity. Yellow and white represent hot areas, whereas purple and blue represent relatively cooler, fainter regions.

  11. A SPITZER MIPS STUDY OF 2.5-2.0 M{sub Sun} STARS IN SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Christine H.; Bitner, Martin; Pecaut, Mark

    2012-09-10

    We have obtained Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m observations of 215 nearby, Hipparcos B- and A-type common proper-motion single and binary systems in the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Combining our MIPS observations with those of other ScoCen stars in the literature, we estimate 24 {mu}m B+A-type disk fractions of 17/67 (25{sup +6}{sub -5}%), 36/131 (27{sup +4}{sub -4}%), and 23/95 (24{sup +5}{sub -4}%) for Upper Scorpius ({approx}11 Myr), Upper Centaurus Lupus ({approx}15 Myr), and Lower Centaurus Crux ({approx}17 Myr), respectively, somewhat smaller disk fractions than previously obtained for F- and G-type members.more » We confirm previous IRAS excess detections and present new discoveries of 51 protoplanetary and debris disk systems, with fractional infrared luminosities ranging from L{sub IR}/L{sub *} = 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -2} and grain temperatures ranging from T{sub gr} = 40 to 300 K. In addition, we confirm that the 24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m excesses (or fractional infrared luminosities) around B+A-type stars are smaller than those measured toward F+G-type stars and hypothesize that the observed disk property dependence on stellar mass may be the result of a higher stellar companion fraction around B- and A-type stars at 10-200 AU. Finally, we note that the majority of the ScoCen 24 {mu}m excess sources also possess 12 {mu}m excess, indicating that Earth-like planets may be forming via collisions in the terrestrial planet zone at {approx}10-100 Myr.« less

  12. Study of the sign change of the Sivers function from STAR collaboration W/Z production data

    DOE PAGES

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; D’Alesio, U.; ...

    2017-04-10

    Here, recent data on the transverse single spin asymmetrymore » $$A_N$$ measured by the STAR Collaboration for $$p ↑\\, p \\to W^\\pm/Z^0 \\, X$$ reactions at RHIC allow the first investigation of the Sivers function in Drell-Yan processes and of its expected sign change with respect to SIDIS processes. A critical assessment of the significance of the data is attempted.« less

  13. ACTH Action on StAR Biology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies. PMID:27999527

  14. ACTH Action on StAR Biology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies.

  15. Star Formation in Merging Galaxies Using FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Hung, Chao-Ling; Naiman, Jill; Moreno, Jorge; Hopkins, Philip

    2018-01-01

    Galaxy interactions and mergers are efficient mechanisms to birth stars at rates that are significantly higher than found in our Milky Way galaxy. The Kennicut-Schmidt (KS) relation is an empirical relationship between the star-forming rate and gas surface densities of galaxies (Schmidt 1959; Kennicutt 1998). Although most galaxies follow the KS relation, the high levels of star formation in galaxy mergers places them outside of this otherwise tight relationship. The goal of this research is to analyze the gas content and star formation of simulated merging galaxies. Our work utilizes the Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high-resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star-forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. In this work, we have noticed a significant increase in the star formation rate at first and second passage, when the two black holes of each galaxy approach one other. Next, we will analyze spatially resolved star-forming regions over the course of the interacting system. Then, we can study when and how the rates that gas converts into stars deviate from the standard KS. These analyses will provide important insights into the physical mechanisms that regulate star formation of normal and merging galaxies and valuable theoretical predictions that can be used to compare with current and future observations from ALMA or the James Webb Space Telescope.

  16. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  17. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, David

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionises the nebula producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  18. Dissipation of circumstellar disks of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Ubaque, K. Y.; García-Varela, A.; álvarez, M.; Salas, L.

    2017-07-01

    Studies of L-band spectra of Be stars are useful to set constraints to the models of formation and evolution mechanisms of the circumstellar disks around these stars. Because few such studies have been performed, more of them are needed to confirm the characteristics reported about the optical depth and evolution of these disks. In this work, we studied new L-band spectra of 7 bright galactic Be stars that were obtained by using CID-InSb spectrograph at the 2.1-m telescope at OAN/UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory, Baja California, Mexico. We used these data to locate these stars, and the Be stars previously studied in the IR, on a flux ratio diagram (log Hu14/Pfγ vs log Hu14/Brα). We found that 28 Cyg has moved significantly along this diagram implying strong changes of its disk from optically thick to an optically thin one between 2001 and 2014. On the base of the absence of emission lines in the spectra, the circumstellar disks of θ CrB and 66 Oph have been almost totally dissipated. These three stars have decaying circumstellar disks. The other stars: γ Cas, φ Per, 28 Tau and o Her have optically thin disks, that have been almost stable in time. It will be important monitoring these and other Be stars in the L-band to observe the changes on their circumstellar disks, and to observe also in this band, the building-up stars, i.e. stars that create a new disk, or that change it from a very tenuous one to an optically thick circumstellar disk. Our spectra contribute to enlarge the infrared spectroscopic database of Be stars.

  19. STAR Graduate and GRO Undergraduate Fellowship Recipient List

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's STAR graduate fellowship program supports masters and doctoral candidates in environmental studies. Each year, students in the United States compete for STAR fellowships through a rigorous review process.

  20. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  1. The Michigan Binary Star Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Rudi P.

    2007-07-01

    At the end of the nineteenth century, William J. Hussey and Robert G. Aitken, both at Lick Observatory, began a systematic search for unrecorded binary stars with the aid of the 12" and 36" refracting telescopes at Lick Observatory. Aitken's work (and book on binary stars) are well known, Hussey's contributions less so. In 1905 Hussey, a Michigan engineering graduate, returned to direct the Ann Arbor astronomy program, and immediately he began to design new instrumentation for the study of binary stars and to train potential observers. For a time, he spent six months a year at the La Plata Observatory, where he discovered a number of new pairs and decided upon a major southern hemisphere campaign. He spent a decade obtaining the lenses for a large refractor, through the vicissitudes of war and depression. Finally, he obtained a site in South Africa, a 26" refractor, and a small corps of observers, but he died in London en route to fulfill his dream. His right hand man, Richard Rossiter, established the observatory and spent the next thirty years discovering and measuring binary stars: his personal total is a record for the field. This talk is an account of the methods, results, and utility of the extraordinary binary star factory in the veldt.

  2. Cooling of hypernuclear compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raduta, Adriana R.; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-04-01

    We study the thermal evolution of hypernuclear compact stars constructed from covariant density functional theory of hypernuclear matter and parametrizations which produce sequences of stars containing two-solar-mass objects. For the input in the simulations, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap equations in the hyperonic sector and obtain the gaps in the spectra of Λ, Ξ0, and Ξ- hyperons. For the models with masses M/M⊙ ≥ 1.5 the neutrino cooling is dominated by hyperonic direct Urca processes in general. In the low-mass stars the (Λp) plus leptons channel is the dominant direct Urca process, whereas for more massive stars the purely hyperonic channels (Σ-Λ) and (Ξ-Λ) are dominant. Hyperonic pairing strongly suppresses the processes on Ξ-s and to a lesser degree on Λs. We find that intermediate-mass 1.5 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 1.8 models have surface temperatures which lie within the range inferred from thermally emitting neutron stars, if the hyperonic pairing is taken into account. Most massive models with M/M⊙ ≃ 2 may cool very fast via the direct Urca process through the (Λp) channel because they develop inner cores where the S-wave pairing of Λs and proton is absent.

  3. Studying Star Formation in the Central Molecular Zone using 22 GHz Water and 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickert, Matthew; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad; Ott, Juergen; Meier, David S.; SWAG

    2016-01-01

    The inner 400 pc of our Galaxy, or the so-called the central molecular zone (CMZ), has a unique environment with a large mass of dense, warm molecular gas. One of the premier questions is how star formation (SF) differs in this unique environment from elsewhere in the Galaxy. We intend to address this issue by identifying improved numbers and locations of early sites of SF. We have conducted high resolution surveys of the CMZ, looking for early SF indicators such as 22 GHz water and 6.7 GHz methanol masers. We present the initial water maser results from the SWAG survey and methanol results from the first full VLA survey of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in the CMZ. These surveys span beyond the inner 1.2ο x 0.5ο of the Galaxy, including Sgr B through Sgr C. The improved spatial and spectral resolutions (~26" and 2 km s-1) and sensitivity (RMS ~10 mJy beam-1) of our ATCA observations have allowed us to identify over 140 water maser candidates in the SWAG survey. This is a factor of 3 more than detected from prior surveys of the CMZ. The preliminary distribution of these candidates appears to be uniform along Galactic longitude. Should this distribution persist for water masers associated with star formation (as opposed to those produced by evolved stars), then this result would imply a more uniform distribution of recent SF activity in the CMZ. Prior works have shown that 2/3 of the molecular gas mass is located at positive Galactic longitudes, and young stellar objects (YSOs) identified by IR SEDs are located predominantly at negative Galactic longitudes. A combination of these results can provide insight on the evolution of SF within the CMZ. We are currently comparing the water maser positions to other catalogs (ex. OH/IR stars) in order to distinguish between the mechanisms producing these masers. We are also currently working on determining the distribution of 6.7 GHz methanol masers. These masers do not contain the same ambiguity as water masers as to their source

  4. Study on the Ancient Star Map Carved on the Stone in DPR Korea: Present Status and Prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miley, George; Kim, Kyong Chol; Jong, Sok; Ji, Kwang Nam

    2015-08-01

    Korean Dolmens are the most distinctive and impressive megalithic monuments in Korean history. It has been known that Korean dolmens are typical funerary monuments of the New Stone Age and Bronze Age.We have searched and analyzed some Korean dolmens in astronomical aspects. Korean dolmen consists of two foundation stones, two dammed stones and one cover stone. Two foundation stones were put up on both sides and two small stones were dammed right and left so as to make a room for grave. Then tens of ton stone was covered on them. For example, one of the cover stones of Korean dolmens is 6.3m in length, 4m in width and 70cm in thickness. And the height of this dolmen is about 1.75m.More than twenty thousand dolmens are scattered around the Korean peninsula. Especially the Taedong River basin including Pyongyang that was a capital of Ancient Korea is the birthplace and centre of dolmens in our country, where about fourteen thousand dolmens are distributed. This region is of the highest density in terms of the distribution of dolmen and has every different kind of dolmens. Korean dolmen was very popular from BC.3000 to BC.2000 and began to disappear in the late BC.2000.It is interesting that we have found dolmens with star map on the cover stone. We found two hundred dolmens with various star atlas-like patterns of cup-marks. We analyzed the star maps on the cover stones of some dolmens and identified the constellations such as Big Dipper, Aquila, Cygnus, Draco and so on.It is thought that ancestor carved stars in the sky at that time on the cover stone of Korean dolmens, archaeological stone tombs. We also consider that Korean Dolmen is one of the oldest stone monuments relative to astronomy.We assume that there are many unidentified dolmens with star map on the cover stone and also many unexcavated dolmens in northern part of Korean peninsula yet, which are expected to arouse the great interest of astronomers and archaeologists.

  5. Study of a sample of faint Be stars in the exofield of CoRoT. II. Pulsation and outburst events: Time series analysis of photometric variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semaan, T.; Hubert, A. M.; Zorec, J.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Frémat, Y.; Martayan, C.; Fabregat, J.; Eggenberger, P.

    2018-06-01

    Context. The class of Be stars are the epitome of rapid rotators in the main sequence. These stars are privileged candidates for studying the incidence of rotation on the stellar internal structure and on non-radial pulsations. Pulsations are considered possible mechanisms to trigger mass-ejection phenomena required to build up the circumstellar disks of Be stars. Aims: Time series analyses of the light curves of 15 faint Be stars observed with the CoRoT satellite were performed to obtain the distribution of non-radial pulsation (NRP) frequencies in their power spectra at epochs with and without light outbursts and to discriminate pulsations from rotation-related photometric variations. Methods: Standard Fourier techniques were employed to analyze the CoRoT light curves. Fundamental parameters corrected for rapid-rotation effects were used to study the power spectrum as a function of the stellar location in the instability domains of the Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram. Results: Frequencies are concentrated in separate groups as predicted for g-modes in rapid B-type rotators, except for the two stars that are outside the H-R instability domain. In five objects the variations in the power spectrum are correlated with the time-dependent outbursts characteristics. Time-frequency analysis showed that during the outbursts the amplitudes of stable main frequencies within 0.03 c d-1 intervals strongly change, while transients and/or frequencies of low amplitude appear separated or not separated from the stellar frequencies. The frequency patterns and activities depend on evolution phases: (i) the average separations between groups of frequencies are larger in the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) than in the terminal age main sequence (TAMS) and are the largest in the middle of the MS phase; (ii) a poor frequency spectrum with f ≲ 1 cd-1 of low amplitude characterizes the stars beyond the TAMS; and (iii) outbursts are seen in stars hotter than B4 spectral type and in the

  6. The Origin of Nonradiative Heating/momentum in Hot Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B. (Editor); Michalitsianos, A. G. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The origin of nonradiative heating and momentum in the atmospheres of stars is studied. The similarities and differences between what occurs in the hot stars and what occurs in cool stars are emphasized. Key points in the theory are reviewed. Areas requiring new study are indicated.

  7. INVESTIGATIONS ON FLARE STARS AND NEBULAE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The first part of the report deals with the searching of flare stars in the Pleiades and Praesepe clusters. 13 flares have been found on the... Pleiades and 2 on the Praesepe. Position and characteristics of the flare stars are given. The second part deals with the study of the Orion Nebula with

  8. Stellar Ideas: Exploring Students' Understanding of Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Lori

    2004-01-01

    In this study, high school and first-year undergraduate students were asked about their understanding of stars. The hypothesis guiding this research posits that high school students who have taken a semester-long astronomy course will have an understanding of stars most related to scientific knowledge, compared with high school students enrolled…

  9. Radio and infrared properties of young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagia, Nino

    1987-01-01

    Observing young stars, or more appropriately, pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars, in the infrared and at radio frequencies has the advantage over optical observation in that the heavy extinction associated with a star forming region is only a minor problem, so that the whole region can be studied thoroughly. Therefore, it means being able to: (1) search for stars and do statistical studies on the rate of star formation; (2) determine their luminosity, hence, to study luminosity functions and initial mass functions down to low masses; and (3) to study their spectra and, thus, to determine the prevailing conditions at and near the surface of a newly born star and its relations with the surrounding environment. The third point is of principal interest. The report limits itself to a consideration of the observations concerning the processes of outflows from, and accretion onto, PMS stars and the theory necessary to interpret them. Section 2 discusses the radiative processes relevant in stellar outflows. The main observational results are presented in Section 3. A discussion of the statistical properties of stellar winds from PMS stars are given in Section 4.

  10. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  11. Teaching through Trade Books: Seeing Stars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2008-01-01

    The winter months are a great time to make observations of several familiar constellations. While there is no scientific reason to "know" the constellations--they are simply imaginative pictures imposed on stars--studying constellations can help students connect with culture in a fun way and develop the awareness that stars are different in…

  12. A Detailed Study of the Variable Stars in Five Galactic Globular Clusters: IC4499, NGC4833, NGC6171 (M107), NGC6402 (M14), and NGC6584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Brian W.; Darragh, Andrew; Hettinger, Paul; Hibshman, Adam; Johnson, Elliott W.; Liu, Z. J.; Pajkos, Michael A.; Stephenson, Hunter R.; Vondersaar, John R.; Conroy, Kyle E.; McCombs, Thayne A.; Reinhardt, Erik D.; Toddy, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of an extensive study intended to search for and properly classify the variable stars in five galactic globular clusters. Each of the five clusters was observed hundreds to thousands of times over a time span ranging from 2 to 4 years using the SARA 0.6m located at Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory. The images were analyzed using the image subtract method of Alard (2000) to identify and produce light curves of all variables found in each cluster. In total we identified 373 variables with 140 of these being newly discovered increasing the number of known variables stars in these clusters by 60%. Of the total we have identified 312 RR Lyrae variables (187 RR0, 18 RR01, 99 RR1, 8 RR2), 9 SX Phe stars, 6 Cepheid variables, 11 eclipsing variables, and 35 long period variables. For IC4499 we identified 64 RR0, 18 RR01, 14 RR1, 4 RR2, 1 SX Phe, 1 eclipsing binary, and 2 long period variables. For NGC4833 we identified 10 RR0, 7 RR1, 2 RR2, 6 SX Phe, 5 eclipsing binaries, and 9 long period variables. For NGC6171 (M107) we identified 13 RR0, 7 RR1, and 1 SX Phe. For NGC6402 (M14) we identified 52 RR0, 56 RR1, 1 RR2, 1 SX Phe, 6 Cepheids, 1 eclipsing binary, and 15 long period variables. For NGC6584 we identified 48 RR0, 15 RR1, 1 RR2, 5 eclipsing binaries, and 9 long period variables. Using the RR Lyrae variables we found the mean V magnitude of the horizontal branch to be VHB = ⟨V ⟩RR = 17.63, 15.51, 15.72, 17.13, and 16.37 magnitudes for IC4499, NGC4833, NGC6171 (M107), NGC6402 (M14), and NGC6584, respectively. From our extensive data set we were able to obtain sufficient temporal and complete phase coverage of the RR Lyrae variables. This has allowed us not only to properly classify each of the RR Lyrae variables but also to use Fourier decomposition of the light curves to further analyze the properties of the variable stars and hence physical properties of each clusters. In this poster we will give the temperature, radius, stellar mass

  13. Massive stars, disks, and clustered star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Nickolas Barry

    The formation of an isolated massive star is inherently more complex than the relatively well-understood collapse of an isolated, low-mass star. The dense, clustered environment where massive stars are predominantly found further complicates the picture, and suggests that interactions with other stars may play an important role in the early life of these objects. In this thesis we present the results of numerical hydrodynamic experiments investigating interactions between a massive protostar and its lower-mass cluster siblings. We explore the impact of these interactions on the orientation of disks and outflows, which are potentially observable indications of encounters during the formation of a star. We show that these encounters efficiently form eccentric binary systems, and in clusters similar to Orion they occur frequently enough to contribute to the high multiplicity of massive stars. We suggest that the massive protostar in Cepheus A is currently undergoing a series of interactions, and present simulations tailored to that system. We also apply the numerical techniques used in the massive star investigations to a much lower-mass regime, the formation of planetary systems around Solar- mass stars. We perform a small number of illustrative planet-planet scattering experiments, which have been used to explain the eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. We add the complication of a remnant gas disk, and show that this feature has the potential to stabilize the system against strong encounters between planets. We present preliminary simulations of Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a protoplanetary disk, and consider the impact of the flow on the disk properties as well as the impact of the disk on the accretion flow.

  14. Statistical studies in stellar rotation 2: A method of analyzing rotational coupling in double stars and an introduction to its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernacca, P. L.

    1971-01-01

    The correlation between the equatorial velocities of the components of double stars is studied from a statistical standpoint. A theory of rotational correlation is developed and discussed with regard to its applicability to existing observations. The theory is then applied to a sample of visual binaries which are the least studied for rotational coupling. Consideration of eclipsing systems and spectroscopic binaries is limited to show how the degrees of freedom in the spin parallelism problem can be reduced. The analysis lends support to the existence of synchronism in closely spaced binaries.

  15. WR and LBV stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, Nino; Beradze, Sophie; Kochiashvili, Ia; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Vardosanidze, Manana

    Evolutionary scenarios of massive stars were revised in recent decades, after finding "unusual", blue progenitor of SN 1987A and after detecting the more massive stars than the accepted 120 M ⊙ maximum limit of stellar masses. A very important relation exists between WR and LBV stars. They represent the earlier, pre-SN evolutionary states of massive stars. WR and LBV stars and "classic" evolutionary scheme of the relation between the different type massive stars are discussed in this article. There also exist the newest evolutionary scenarios for low metallicity massive stars, which give us a different picture of their post main-sequence evolution. There is a rather good tradition of observations and investigations of massive stars at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. The authors discuss the new findings on the fate of P Cygni, the LBV star. These results on the reddening of the star and about its next possible outburst in the near future were obtained on the basis of UBV long-term electrophotometric observations of P Cygni by Eugene Kharadze and Nino Magalashvili. The observations were held in 1951-1983 at Abastumani Observatory using 33-cm and 48-cm reflectors.

  16. Star Clusters within FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  17. Miras among C stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, P.; Demers, S.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon stars are among the brightest intermediate-age stars. They are seen in nearly all galaxies of the Local Group. In the Milky Way they are members of the thin disk but over a hundred have been identified in the Galactic halo. Since the halo consists essentially of an old stellar population, these carbon stars warrant special attention. We believe that such stars are trespassers and belong to streams left over by disrupted dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Aims: By performing photometric monitoring we intend to identify Miras among the halo carbon stars. Methods: We obtained, over several semesters, K and J images centered on the carbon stars in order to determine their variation and periodicity. Results: We establish the variability for a number of stars and identify the Miras among them. We collect data from the literature on the Miras among various carbon star populations and show that the fraction of Miras among carbon stars is fairly constant. We demonstrate that such fractions for the halo and Sagittarius are biased because of the way targets are selected. We finally investigate the near-infrared color distribution of Miras and carbon stars. Based on observations made with the REM Telescope, INAF Chile.The observed K and J magnitudes are available only at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A100

  18. Star Formation in Dusty Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumsden, Stuart; Croom, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Quasar mode feedback is thought to be a crucial ingredient in galaxy formation for luminous merging and star-bursting systems at high redshift. The energy from the active nucleus should cause significant gas outflows, reducing the available free gas reservoir for future star formation. It is currently unknown which observational state best corresponds to the stage at which this "blowout" should occur. We intend to test one possible source population for this transition phase, by studying the molecular gas content in a small, statistically complete sample of 3 K-band selected reddened quasars from the AUS survey. All lie in the redshift range 2stars for form as well.

  19. Heavy Elements and Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlgren, Glenn M.; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Norris, Ryan P.

    2008-01-01

    We report on progress in the analysis of high-resolution near-IR spectra of alpha Orionis (M2 Iab) and other cool, luminous stars. Using synthetic spectrum techniques, we search for atomic absorption lines in the stellar spectra and evaluate the available line parameter data for use in our abundance analyses. Our study concentrates on the post iron-group elements copper through zirconium as a means of investigating the slow neutron-capture process of nucleosynthesis in massive stars and the mechanisms that transport recently processed material up into the photospheric region. We discuss problems with the atomic data and model atmospheres that need to be addressed before theoretically derived elemental abundances from pre-supernova nucleosynthesis calculations can be tested by comparison with abundances determined from observations of cool, massive stars.

  20. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  1. College Students' Preinstructional Ideas about Stars and Star Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Prather, Edward E.; Johnson, Bruce; Slater, Timothy F.

    2009-01-01

    This study (Note 1) investigated the beliefs about stars that students hold when they enter an undergraduate introductory astronomy course for nonscience majors. Students' preinstructional ideas were investigated through the use of several student-supplied-response (SSR) surveys, which asked students to describe their ideas about topics such as…

  2. RADIAL VELOCITY MONITORING OF KEPLER HEARTBEAT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Shporer, Avi; Fuller, Jim; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-09-20

    Heartbeat stars (HB stars) are a class of eccentric binary stars with close periastron passages. The characteristic photometric HB signal evident in their light curves is produced by a combination of tidal distortion, heating, and Doppler boosting near orbital periastron. Many HB stars continue to oscillate after periastron and along the entire orbit, indicative of the tidal excitation of oscillation modes within one or both stars. These systems are among the most eccentric binaries known, and they constitute astrophysical laboratories for the study of tidal effects. We have undertaken a radial velocity (RV) monitoring campaign of Kepler HB stars inmore » order to measure their orbits. We present our first results here, including a sample of 22 Kepler HB systems, where for 19 of them we obtained the Keplerian orbit and for 3 other systems we did not detect a statistically significant RV variability. Results presented here are based on 218 spectra obtained with the Keck/HIRES spectrograph during the 2015 Kepler observing season, and they have allowed us to obtain the largest sample of HB stars with orbits measured using a single instrument, which roughly doubles the number of HB stars with an RV measured orbit. The 19 systems measured here have orbital periods from 7 to 90 days and eccentricities from 0.2 to 0.9. We show that HB stars draw the upper envelope of the eccentricity–period distribution. Therefore, HB stars likely represent a population of stars currently undergoing high eccentricity migration via tidal orbital circularization, and they will allow for new tests of high eccentricity migration theories.« less

  3. NuSTAR Study of Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy G21.5-0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; An, Hongjun; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR high-energy X-ray observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN)/supernova remnant G21.5-0.9. We detect integrated emission from the nebula up to approx. 40 keV, and resolve individual spatial features over a broad X-ray band for the first time. The morphology seen by NuSTAR agrees well with that seen by XMM-Newton and Chandra below 10 keV. At high energies, NuSTAR clearly detects non-thermal emission up to approx. 20 keV that extends along the eastern and northern rim of the supernova shell. The broadband images clearly demonstrate that X-ray emission from the North Spur and Eastern Limb results predominantly from non-thermal processes. We detect a break in the spatially integrated X-ray spectrum at approx. 9 keV that cannot be reproduced by current spectral energy distribution models, implying either a more complex electron injection spectrum or an additional process such as diffusion compared to what has been considered in previous work. We use spatially resolved maps to derive an energy-dependent cooling length scale, E(sup m) is directly proportional to L(E) with m = -0.21 plus or minus 0.01. We find this to be inconsistent with the model for the morphological evolution with energy described by Kennel & Coroniti. This value, along with the observed steepening in power-law index between radio and X-ray, can be quantitatively explained as an energy-loss spectral break in the simple scaling model of Reynolds, assuming particle advection dominates over diffusion. This interpretation requires a substantial departure from spherical magnetohydrodynamic, magnetic-flux-conserving outflow, most plausibly in the form of turbulent magnetic-field amplification.

  4. A comprehensive study of the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 based on deep BVI CCD observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilakshi,; Sagar, R.

    2002-01-01

    The CCD observations of the rich open star cluster NGC 2099 and its surrounding field region have been carried out up to a limiting magnitude of V ~ 22 mag in B, V and I passbands for the first time. A total of ~ 12 000 stars have been observed in the area of about 24arcmin x 34arcmin in the cluster region, as well as ~ 2180 stars in the ~ 12arcmin x 12arcmin area of the field region located ~ 45arcmin away from the cluster center. The cluster parameters determined by fitting the convective core overshoot isochrones in the V, (B-V) and V, (V-I) diagrams are E(B-V) = 0.30+/-0.04 mag, distance = 1360+/- 100 pc, age = 400 Myr and metallicity Z = 0.008. A well-defined cluster main sequence spread over about 8 mag in range is observed for the first time. Its intrinsic spread amounting to ~ 0.06 mag in colour is almost the same over the entire brightness and can be understood in terms of the presence of physical/optical binaries. The core and cluster radii determined from the radial stellar density profiles are 185 arcsec and 1000 arcsec respectively. Only about 22% of cluster members are present in the core region. The effects of mass segregation, most probably due to dynamical evolution, have been observed in the cluster. The mass function slope of the entire cluster is ~ -0.67+/-0.12. It becomes closer to the Salpeter value of -1.35, if flattening in the cluster mass function due to presence of both binaries and a much more extended corona is considered. Full Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/65

  5. Molecular Gas Heating Mechanisms, and Star Formation Feedback in Merger/Starbursts: NGC 6240 and Arp 193 as Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Padelis P.; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Xilouris, E. M.; Weiss, Axel; van der Werf, Paul; Israel, F. P.; Greve, T. R.; Isaak, Kate G.; Gao, Y.

    2014-06-01

    We used the SPIRE/FTS instrument aboard the Herschel Space Observatory to obtain the Spectral Line Energy Distributions (SLEDs) of CO from J =