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Sample records for star study nct00237913

  1. Studying Young Stars with Large Spectroscopic Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martell, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Galactic archaeology is the study of the history of star formation and chemical evolution in the Milky Way, based on present-day stellar populations. Studies of young stars are a key anchor point for Galactic archaeology, since quantities like the initial mass function and the star formation rate can be studied directly in young clusters and star forming regions. Conversely, massive spectroscopic Galactic archaeology surveys can be used as a data source for young star studies.

  2. Studies of extragalactic RR Lyrae stars

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    RR Lyrae stars in and around the LMC halo globular cluster NGC 2257 are identified and photometrically studied. In the cluster 41 RR Lyrae stars are known, with

    = 0/sup d/583(16 stars),

    = 0./sup d/353(22 stars), and P/sub ab,min/ - 0./sup d/493. NGC 2257 appears to be one of the few known systems having an intermediate (i.e., I-II) Oosterhoff type. The value derived for Fe/H is -1.8 +/- 0.3. Mean magnitudes suggest that NGC 2257 is approx.4 Kpc in front of the LMC disk. The identification of two large amplitude, short period RRab stars suggests that the field around NGC 2257 contains stars of higher Fe/H than does the cluster, and that the field has a wide range of Fe/H. Ten double-mode RR Lyrae (RRd) stars were identified in the Draco dwarf galaxy. Beat mass and metal abundance ranges are found from 0.55 to 0.65 solar mass, and from (Fe/H)/sub M3/ to (Fe/H)/sub M15/. In most respects the stars are indistinguishable from Galactic RRd stars.

  3. Search for Variable Stars and Their Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokumbaeva, R. I.; Zakhozhay, V. A.; Khruslov, A. V.

    We search for variable stars and study them using our CCD observations, observations available in the CSS, NSVS, ASAS-3 and Super-WASP online public archives.Our CCD observations were performed using the Zeiss- 1000 telescope of the V.G. Fesenkov Astrophysical Institute's Tien-Shan Astronomical Observatory. Earlier, as a result of our search using CCD images, we detected 27 new variable stars; using the NSVS and SuperWASP databases, we detected 12 new red semiregular and irregular variable stars.In this paper, we present our study of seven known variables based on the ASAS-3 and SuperWASP databases. All these stars remained poorly studied, their light elements were unknown, variability types were considered preliminary only. We studied two eclipsing variables (FY And and V2250 Sgr) and five Mira-stars (BZ Sco, CZ Sco, FK Sco, V880 Sco and V1818 Sgr).

  4. Seismic studies of planet-harbouring stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauclair, Sylvie

    2014-02-01

    During the past decades, stellar oscillations and exoplanet searches were developed in parallel, and the observations were done with the same instruments: radial velocity method, essentially with ground-based instruments, and photometric methods (light curves) from space. The same observational data on one star could lead to planet discoveries at large time scales (days to years) and to the detection of stellar oscillations at small time scales (minutes), such as for the star μ Arae. Since the beginning, it seemed interesting to investigate the differences between stars with and without observed planets. Also, a precise determination of the stellar parameters is important to characterize the detected exoplanets. With the thousands of exoplanet candidates discovered by Kepler, automatic procedures and pipelines are needed with large data bases to characterize the central stars. However, precise asteroseismic studies of well-chosen stars are still important for a deeper insight.

  5. Theoretical Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, Ronald E.

    2003-01-01

    Among the newly discovered classes of X-ray sources which have attracted wide attention are close binary systems in which mass is transferred via Roche lobe overflow from a low mass donor star to its neutron star companion. Many of these sources exhibit intense bursts of X-ray radiation as well as periodic and quasi-periodic phenomena. Intensive analysis of these sources as a class has provided insight into the accretion process in binary star systems and into the magnetic field, rotational, and nuclear evolution of the underlying neutron star. In this proposal we have focused on theoretical studies of the hydrodynamical and nuclear processes that take place on the surface of accreting neutron stars in these systems. The investigation of these processes is critical for providing an understanding of a number of outstanding problems related to their transient behavior and evolution.

  6. Theoretical Study of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; Koetter, Ted; Rivera, Ruben; Diaz, Juan

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the computational simulation of the astrophysical phenomena with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.0 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We hope to extend our computational studies to blue giant stars in the future. Research Supported by National Science Foundation.

  7. The Center for Star Formation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D.; Bell, K. R.; Laughlin, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Center for Star Formation Studies, a consortium of scientists from the Space Science Division at Ames and the Astronomy Departments of the University of California at Berkeley and Santa Cruz, conducts a coordinated program of theoretical research on star and planet formation. Under the directorship of D. Hollenbach (Ames), the Center supports postdoctoral fellows, senior visitors, and students; meets regularly at Ames to exchange ideas and to present informal seminars on current research; hosts visits of outside scientists; and conducts a week-long workshop on selected aspects of star and planet formation each summer.

  8. Study of Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costado, Teresa; Alfaro, E. J.; Delgado, A. J.; Djupvik, A. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Most stars form in clusters, but the percentage of stars born in dense stellar systems is currently matter of controversy and depends very much on the own definition of cluster. The cluster definition and hence the morphologies of individual clusters appear to vary significantly from region to region, as well as with age, which suggests that either, star formation in clusters is not universal and may depend on the local environment, or that all clusters form with the same morphology but early dynamical evolution quickly modifies the structure of the phase space distribution. In addition, young populated clusters containing massive stars are excellent labs for the study of the formation of the massive stellar component of the Galactic disk. Three main scenarios have been proposed for the formation of high-mass stars (M > 7-8 M_{⊙}): a) monolithic collapse of proto-stellar nuclei; b) competitive accretion inside the proto-cluster molecular cloud; and c) coalescence of proto-stellar nuclei and low-mass stars in very dense atmospheres. Both scientific questions: a) cluster formation and b) formation of high mass stars in clusters are intimately connected via the structural description of the phase space distribution of cluster stars and their Mass Function (MF). Models of static clusters with different initial spatial and kinematic distributions show how the spatial distribution dynamically evolves with time, allowing a characterization of their dynamical state from snapshots of their spatial distribution. Four are the main variables (and their distribution with mass and position) needed for a reliable characterization of the cluster dynamical state: a) Mass segregation parameter; b) Mapping of surface density for different ranges of masses; c) Q morphological parameter based on the minimum spanning tree graph and its variation with mass and cluster age, and d) MF of the cluster members. Two years ago, the Stellar System Group of IAA has begun an observational

  9. Studying evolved stars with Herschel observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Santos, João Manuel

    2016-07-01

    A systematic inspection of the far-infrared (FIR) properties of evolved stars allows not only to constrain physical models, but also to understand the chemical evolution that takes place in the end of their lives. In this work we intend to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSE) on a sample of stars in the THROES catalogue from AGB/post-AGB stars to planetary nebulae using photometry and spectroscopy provided by the PACS instrument on-board Herschel telescope. In the first part we are interested in obtaining an estimate of the size of FIR emitting region and to sort our targets in two classes: point-like and extended. Secondly, we focus on the molecular component of the envelope traced by carbon monoxide (CO) rotational lines. We conduct a line survey on a sample of evolved stars by identifying and measuring flux of both 12CO and 13CO isotopologues in the PACS range, while looking at the overall properties of the sample. Lastly, we will be interested in obtaining physical parameters of the CSE, namely gas temperature, mass and mass-loss rate on a sample of carbon stars. For that, we make use of PACS large wavelength coverage, which enables the simultaneous study of a large number of CO transitions, to perform the rotational diagram analysis. We report the detection of CO emission in a high number of stars from the catalogue, which were mostly classified as point-like targets with a few exceptions of planetary nebulae. High J rotational number transitions were detected in a number of targets, revealing the presence of a significant amount of hot gas (T ˜ 400-900 K) and high mass-loss rates. We conclude that Herschel/PACS is in a privileged position to detect a new population of warmer gas, typically missed in sub-mm/mm observations.

  10. VLBA Scientists Study Birth of Sunlike Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    , by measuring the Doppler shift in the wavelength of these emissions, astronomers can determine the speed at which the gas is moving. In an object known as S106FIR, 2,000 light-years away in the constellation Cygnus, a team of Japanese and U.S. VLBA observers led by Ray Furuya, a graduate student from Japan's Nobeyama Radio Observatory, has tracked the motion of material outward in the jet. This object, embedded in a dense cloud of molecular gas, the material from which the star is forming, shows maser spots moving in two directions as the jets emerge from both poles of the accretion disk. "The water masers are the only way we can detect the outflow from this young star," Furuya said. The VLBA observations can discern details as small as half the distance from the Earth to the Sun. "We can see outflow on scales the size of our Solar System. We think this object is one of the youngest protostars known," Furuya said. In another object, dubbed IRAS 16293-2422, in the constellation Ophiuchus, astronomers believe the water masers clearly show the outflowing jets of a young star and may be tracing the accretion disk as well. The young star is one of a pair of stars in a binary system some 500 light-years distant. The water-vapor masers are seen around only one of the pair, however. "In this system, we see outflow in the jet and also an elliptical ring of masers that may be part of the accretion disk," said Wootten, leader of the team observing this object. "The VLBA is showing us details as small as the size of Mercury's orbit around the Sun, a great help in understanding the physics going on there," Wootten said. A team composed largely of astronomers from the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA, also used the VLBA to study water masers in a young stellar object 2,500 light-years away in Cepheus. This team sees maser spots moving in opposite directions away from the young star on scales of ten times the diameter of the solar system, presumably

  11. Model study of a quark star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Luo, Xin-Lian; Jiang, Yu; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply the equation of state (EOS) of QCD at finite chemical potential and zero temperature proposed in H. S. Zong and W. M. Sun [Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 23, 3591 (2008)IMPAEF0217-751X10.1142/S0217751X08040457] to the study of properties of quark star. This EOS contains only one adjustable parameter mD which sets the scale of chiral symmetry breaking (in our calculation we have chosen two values of mD: mD=244MeV and mD=239MeV, which is fitted from the value of fπ and determined by e+e- annihilation experiment, respectively). From this EOS a model of quark star is established by applying the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation under two conditions: with the P(μ=0) term and without the P(μ=0) term. Our results show clearly that the P(μ=0) term is an important quantity in the study of quark star. A comparison between our model and other models of quark star is made. In particular, we have compared our results with the most recent observational data measured using Shapiro delay reported in P. B. Demorest [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 467, 1081 (2010)10.1038/nature09466].

  12. Astrochemical studies of galactic star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ronak Yogendra

    2000-08-01

    This thesis characterizes and quantifies a key part of the chemical evolution associated with star formation towards nearby molecular clouds by analyzing the radiation from abundant molecules and their deuterium- substituted counterparts, or deuterated molecules. As clouds evolve to form stars, molecular spectra probe the dynamics. Deuterium fractionation ratios sample the variations in temperature, density and activity of protostellar systems and offer clues into their dynamics. We present three projects to examine the scope and scale of deuterium fractionation of ammonia, NH3, and formylium, HCO+, in low mass star forming regions. Analysis of single aperture NH2D and NH3 spectra from prestellar and protostellar cores indicates the predominance of gas-phase reactions in the production of these species. Our survey suggests that these species deplete onto grain surfaces at late times in the evolution of molecular cores into protostars. Since the collapse of protostars is rapid, deuterium fractionation of ammonia is not likely to be affected substantially by grain chemistry. This should be the case for even more massive molecular clouds such as Orion Molecular Cloud I or Sgr B2. Thus, observed NH2D/NH3 values probe the cold gas-phase evolution of molecular clouds. The relationship between gas dynamics and star formation are explored in our survey of DCO+ and H13CO+. We extend previous analyses of the DCO+HCO+ as a measure of the ionization fraction and magnetic field-neutral coupling of molecular clouds by examining high energy transitions. This method traces warmer, denser gas associated with near-protostellar regions and clustered star formation. Although we find that most DCO+HCO + values are consistent with previous studies, we also discover regions where DCO+HCO+ is larger than predicted by the paradigm of ambipolar diffusion-regulated star formation. Single aperture surveys examine the ambient gas on ~105 AU scales. However, only aperture synthesis studies

  13. Paranal Instrumentation for Star Formation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wit, Willem-Jan

    2017-06-01

    We will present the capabilities for star formation studies of some appropriate current, and future instruments at ESO's Paranal Observatory. In particular, we will discuss results by means of the the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph VISIR, the soon to be re-installed and cross-dispersed, high resolution, near-IR spectrograph CRIRES, the extreme AO instrument SPHERE, and the spectro-interferometric instruments Gravity (K-band) and MATISSE (M-, L-, N-band).

  14. Photometric and spectroscopic study of candidate Be stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KT, Paul; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Mathew, Blesson; Mennickent, Ronald E.; Sabogal, Beatriz

    2011-07-01

    Mennickent et al. (2002) presented a catalogue of 1056 Be star candidates in the Small Magellanic cloud (SMC) by studying light curve variation using OGLE II data base. They classified these Be star candidates of the SMC in four categories: Type 1 stars showing outbursts (139 stars); Type 2 stars showing sudden luminosity jumps (154 stars); Type 3 stars showing periodic or near periodic variations (78 stars); Type 4 stars showing light curves similar to Galactic Be stars (658 stars). They suggested that Type 4 could be Be stars. On the other hand, they suggested that Type-3 stars may not be linked to the Be star phenomenon at all.

  15. A Comparative Study of the Guo Shoujing Star Catalogue and the Ulugh Beg Star Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Yongheng

    2015-08-01

    The Chinese Star Catalogue by Guo Shoujing (1231-1316) contained equatorial coordinates of 678 stars, more than doubled the number of stars in previous Chinese star catalogues. In the period 1420-1437, using astronomical instruments at Samarkand Observatory, Ulugh Beg (1394-1449) made independent observations and determined star positions of 1018 stars. An analysis of two star catalogues will show the observational techniques behind them and their accuracies. Both astronomers tried to increase accuracy of measurement by enlarging the astronomical instruments. The Chinese catalogue gives equatorial coordinates of stars. The coordinates were directly read off the armillary sphere, which was mounted equatorially mounted. Sun Xiaochun (1996) suggested that the data of the existent Guo Shoujing catalogue was actually observed around 1380, at the beginning of the Ming dynasty. The Ulugh Beg catalogue gives ecliptic coordinates of stars. Does this mean they were directly measured using an ecliptic instrument? Using Fourier analysis we discover a 3 arc minute systematic error in the declinations, which are derived from the ecliptic coordinates, suggesting the data might be first measured equatorially and then converted to ecliptic coordinates, following Ptolemaic tradition. The 3 arc minute systematic error was caused by the misalignment of the instrument's pole and celestial north pole. And the Our comparative study might throw some light on transmission of astronomical knowledge and techniques between China and Central Asia in medieval times.

  16. Observational Studies of Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, M. G.

    1988-12-01

    This work investigates selected young stars paying particular attention to their photometric and polarimetric characteristics. The stars observed represent particular sub-classes of the Orion Population of young stars: T Tauri stars of about one solar mass (RY Lup, RU Lup, CoD -33o10685 and AK Sco); Herbig Ae/Be stars of a few solar masses (TY CrA, R CrA, T CrA and V856 Sco); a YY Ori star which is thought to be still accreting matter (S CrA); and an 'isolated' T Tauri star which lies away from a star-forming cloud (V4046 Sgr). Data was acquired at ultraviolet, optical and infrared wavelengths, along with optical polarimetric data. The subsequent analysis of data for the well-studied stars can be summarised as follows: the spectroscopic characteristics of the star are defined; possible mechanisms for the photometric variability are discussed; and given the spectral type of the star, the intrinsic flux distribution is determined and the parameters of the optical and infrared emission are thereby determined. The implications of any photometric variability found are also discussed. A possible model of polarisation is discussed and the wavelength dependence of polarisation in eleven young stars is analysed. It is found that the circumstellar environment plays a role in many of the observed characteristics of the stars studied. Several of the stellar spectra show lines which form in a stellar envelope. Each star is found to be affected by circumstellar extinction and to exhibit infrared emission from circumstellar dust. In most cases the circumstellar dust also gives rise to the optical polarisation. The photometric and/or polarimetric variability exhibited by some of the stars is ascribable to changes in the circumstellar dust shell opacity

  17. Studying RR Lyrae Stars in M4 with K2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Charles A.; Drury, Jason; Moskalik, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    Observations by Kepler/K2 have revolutionized the study of RR Lyrae stars by allowing the detection of new phenomena, such as low amplitude additional modes and period doubling, which had not previously been seen from the ground. During its campaign 2, K2 observed the globular cluster M4, providing the first opportunity to study a sizeable group of RR Lyrae stars that belong to a single population; the other RR Lyrae stars that have been observed from space are field stars in the galactic halo and thus belong to an assortment of populations. We present the results of our study of the RR Lyrae variables in M4 from K2 photometry. We have identified additional, low amplitude pulsation modes in the two observed RRc stars. In three RRab stars we have found the Blazhko effect with periods of 16.6 days, 22.4 days, and 44.5 days.

  18. Numerical study of the properties of compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo Picanco

    2009-10-01

    Compact stars are formed in catastrophic astrophysical events such as supernova explosions and binary stellar collisions. These objects permanently harbor compressed ultra-dense nuclear matter in their interiors. This key feature, together with the ongoing progress in observational astrophysics, make compact stars superb astrophysical laboratories for a wide range of intriguing physicals studies. Several such studies are performed in this thesis. The first activity concerns the widely unknown nuclear equation of state and the core composition of compact stars. Particular attention is paid to the possible presence of hyperons in the cores of neutron stars as well as to stars made of unconfined up, down and strange quarks (strange quark stars). The effects of ultra-strong electric fields on the surfaces of the latter is explored. The second activity aims at investigating the structure and stability of rapidly rotating compact stars. Special attention is paid to the maximal stable rotational frequencies of rotating compact stars. The third activity focuses on the thermal evolution of compact stars, driven by neutrino emission from their cores and by photon emission from the surfaces. It is show that the thermal behavior depends very strongly on the stellar core composition. Moreover, it is found that the thermal evolution of neutron stars is significantly different to that of strange quark stars. The studies performed in this thesis are key for our understanding of the thermal evolution of isolated rotating neutron stars, anomalous X-ray pulsars and soft gamma repeaters, and provide most valuable information about the phase diagram of isospin-asymmetric ultra-dense nuclear matter which can not be probed in high-energy collision experiments.

  19. Massive Star Studies with the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gies, D.; Boyajian, T.; Farrington, C.; McAlister, H.; O'Brien, D.; Richardson, N.; Raghavan, D.; Schaefer, G.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Touhami, Y.; Turner, N.

    2010-02-01

    Georgia State University operates the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array at the Mount Wilson Observatory in southern California. This optical/IR interferometer consists of six 1 m telescopes in a Y-shaped configuration. The Array uses three IR and two visible wavelength beam combiners that are optimized in different ways for visibility, spectral resolution, and number of telescope pairs. We describe observational programs underway on OB-stars, Be stars, and binary/multiple systems.

  20. A Photometric Study of Three Eclipsing Binary Stars (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, A.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) As part of a program to study eclipsing binary stars that exhibit the O'Connell Effect (OCE) we are observing a selection of binary stars in a long term study. The OCE is a difference in maximum light across the ligthcurve possibly cause by starspots. We observed for 7 nights at McDonald Observatory using the 30-inch telescope in July 2015, and used the same telescope remotely for a total of 20 additional nights in August, October, December, and January. We will present lightcurves for three stars from this study, characterize the OCE for these stars, and present our model results for the physical parameters of the star making up each of these systems.

  1. Externally fed star formation: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadpour, Motahareh; Stahler, Steven W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate, through a series of numerical calculations, the evolution of dense cores that are accreting external gas up to and beyond the point of star formation. Our model clouds are spherical, unmagnetized configurations with fixed outer boundaries, across which gas enters subsonically. When we start with any near-equilibrium state, we find that the cloud's internal velocity also remains subsonic for an extended period, in agreement with observations. However, the velocity becomes supersonic shortly before the star forms. Consequently, the accretion rate building up the protostar is much greater than the benchmark value c_s^3/G, where cs is the sound speed in the dense core. This accretion spike would generate a higher luminosity than those seen in even the most embedded young stars. Moreover, we find that the region of supersonic infall surrounding the protostar races out to engulf much of the cloud, again in violation of the observations, which show infall to be spatially confined. Similar problematic results have been obtained by all other hydrodynamic simulations to date, regardless of the specific infall geometry or boundary conditions adopted. Low-mass star formation is evidently a quasi-static process, in which cloud gas moves inward subsonically until the birth of the star itself. We speculate that magnetic tension in the cloud's deep interior helps restrain the infall prior to this event.

  2. Radial velocity studies of cool stars.

    PubMed

    Jones, Hugh R A; Barnes, John; Tuomi, Mikko; Jenkins, James S; Anglada-Escude, Guillem

    2014-04-28

    Our current view of exoplanets is one derived primarily from solar-like stars with a strong focus on understanding our Solar System. Our knowledge about the properties of exoplanets around the dominant stellar population by number, the so-called low-mass stars or M dwarfs, is much more cursory. Based on radial velocity discoveries, we find that the semi-major axis distribution of M dwarf planets appears to be broadly similar to those around more massive stars and thus formation and migration processes might be similar to heavier stars. However, we find that the mass of M dwarf planets is relatively much lower than the expected mass dependency based on stellar mass and thus infer that planet formation efficiency around low-mass stars is relatively impaired. We consider techniques to overcome the practical issue of obtaining good quality radial velocity data for M dwarfs despite their faintness and sustained activity and emphasize (i) the wavelength sensitivity of radial velocity signals, (ii) the combination of radial velocity data from different experiments for robust detection of small amplitude signals, and (iii) the selection of targets and radial velocity interpretation of late-type M dwarfs should consider Hα behaviour.

  3. High-Precision Studies of Compact Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemen, Steven

    2014-10-01

    This book, which is a reworked and updated version of Steven Bloemen's original PhD thesis, reports on several high-precision studies of compact variable stars. Its strength lies in the large variety of observational, theoretical and instrumentation techniques that are presented and used and paves the way towards new and detailed asteroseismic applications of single and binary subdwarf stars. Close binary stars are studied using high cadence spectroscopic datasets collected with state of the art electron multiplying CCDs and analysed using Doppler tomography visualization techniques. The work touches upon instrumentation, presenting the calibration of a new fast, multi-colour camera installed at the Mercator Telescope on La Palma. The thesis also includes theoretical work on the computation of the temperature range in which stellar oscillations can be driven in subdwarf B-stars. Finally, the highlight of the thesis is the measurement of velocities of stars using only photometric data from NASA's Kepler satellite. Doppler beaming causes stars to appear slightly brighter when they move towards us in their orbits, and this subtle effect can be seen in Kepler's brightness measurements. The thesis presents the first validation of such velocity measurements using independent spectroscopic measurements. Since the detection and validation of this Doppler beaming effect, it has been used in tens of studies to detect and characterize binary star systems, which are key calibrators in stellar astronomy.

  4. Range Corrections for Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-01

    ESD-TR-84-169 MTR-9055 RANGE CORRECTIONS FOR AIRBORNE RADAR - A JOINT STARS STUDY By • _,.G. A. ROBERTSHAW MAY 1984 - Prepared for DEPUTY COMMANDER...NO NO Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 6460 11. TITLE •Include securi,•,cleaficatton) Range Corrections Tor Airborne Radar - A Joint STARS Study 12. PERSONAL...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 17 COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reuera if necemary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB GR. Airborne Radar

  5. STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate-Bain, Helen; Boyd-Zaharias, Jayne; Cain, Van A.; Word, Elizabeth; Binkley, M. Edward

    The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project first investigated the effect of small class size on student achievement with over 6,000 Tennessee primary students in 1985 through 1989. The study found a consistent and significant benefit of small classes for all students, with the greatest advantages for minority, inner-city students from…

  6. A multiwavelength study of young stars in the Elephant Trunk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Martí, B.; Bayo, A.; Morales Calderón, M.; Barrado, D.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of a multiwavelength study of young stars in IC 1396A, ``the Elephant Trunk Nebula''. Our targets are selected combining optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared photometry. Near-infrared and optical spectroscopy are used to confirm their youth and to derive spectral types for these objects, showing that they are early to mid-M stars, and that our sample includes some of the lowest-mass objects reported so far in the region. The photometric and spectroscopic information is used to construct the spectral energy distributions and to study the properties of the stars (mass, age, accretion, disks, spatial location). The implications for the triggered star formation picture are discussed.

  7. An observational study of post-asymptotic-giant-branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, T.

    2008-05-01

    In this thesis, we present an LTE model atmosphere analyses of a group of early B-type postasymptotic giant branch (pAGB) stars. With initial masses ≤ 9M⊙, post-AGB stars form an important group of evolved stars and provide a unique opportunity to study stellar evolution almost on a human time-scale. Post-AGB stars have spectral types ranging from K to B and luminosities between 103 and 104L⊙. These objects ended their asymptotic giant branch (AGB) evolution phase with a period of strong mass loss (10-7 - 10-4M⊙ yr-1) and have been evolving from cooler to hotter temperatures at almost constant luminosity on a timescale of ˜ 104yr. B-type pAGB stars span a wide range in effective temperature (10 000 - 30 000K). Their expected surface gravities (log g ) and effective temperatures ( Teff ) coincide with those of B stars evolving from the main sequence. Therefore systematic observational analyses are required to distinguish these two groups. Furthermore, p! ost-AGB stars may be divided into four distinct groups based on their chemical composition. In this thesis, groups I and II represent post-AGB stars which are very metal deficient with C/O ≈ 1 and metal poor with C/O<1, when compared with the Sun, respectively. The question is whether hot pAGB stars belong to either of these four groups. Three further objectives included: 1. to discover whether post-AGB star have helium-normal or helium-rich photospheres. 2. the detection and measurement of s-process element abundances (e.g. Sr, Y, Ba, Hf). 3. to determine whether they show any anomaly in phosphorus abundance such as that seen in the extreme helium stars (EHes). High-resolution ´echelle spectra of several post-AGB stars were obtained at the AAT in 1999 and 2005 in order to study chemical composition, rotation velocities and other fundamental properties. Echelle spectra present many difficulties for data reduction, including the problems of order rectification and merging. To address these problems we

  8. Studying RR Lyrae Stars with Kepler/K2 (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, C.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) While RR Lyrae stars have long been studied from the ground, the high photometric precision, high cadence, and long observing times offered by the Kepler Space Telescope have yielded exciting discoveries that are revolutionizing our understanding of these stars. In its new K2 mission, Kepler is observing an even larger sample of RR Lyrae stars, promising to provide new insights into them and our Milky Way. In this talk I will present some of the most exciting new discoveries about RR Lyrae stars from the K2 mission with a special focus on what we are learning about the RR Lyrae in the globular cluster M4, our first chance to observe a single population of RR Lyrae with Kepler.

  9. Theoretical studies of the RS Canum Venaticorum stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullan, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The activity in RS Canum Venaticorum (CVn) is investigated. Models for chromospheric structure are developed and the role of magnetic fields both in the photosphere as well as in the chromosphere and upper atmosphere are examined. T Tau stars are also studied from the same points of view. The properties of magnetic field loops are used to help understand the atmospheric structure in RS CVn stars. The concepts developed in the case of these stars appear to be applicable over a much broader region of the HR diagram. The absence of stable magnetic loops in the atmospheres of late type giant stars suggests that the atmospheres of RS CVn active components are qualitatively distinct from the solar atmosphere.

  10. Lucky imaging multiplicity studies of exoplanet host stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Neuhäuser, R.

    2014-03-01

    The multiplicity of stars is an important parameter in order to understand star and planet formation. In the past decades extrasolar planets have been discovered around more than 600 stars with the radial velocity and transit techniques. Many of these systems present extreme cases of massive planetary objects at very close separations to their primary stars. To explain the configurations of such systems is hence a continued challenge in the development of formation theories. It will be very interesting to determine if there are significant differences between planets in single and multiple star systems. In our ongoing study we use high resolution imaging techniques to clarify the multiplicity status of nearby (within 250 pc) planet host stars. For targets on the northern hemisphere we employ the lucky imaging instrument Astralux at the 2.2 m telescope of the Calar Alto Observatory. The lucky imaging approach consists of taking several thousand short images with integration times shorter than the speckle coherence time, to sample the speckle variations during the observation window. We then only choose the so called "lucky shots" with a very high Strehl ratio in one of the speckles, to shift and add, resulting in a final image with the highest possible Strehl ratio and therefore highest possible angular resolution. We will present recent results of our study at the Calar Alto Observatory, as well as observations undertaken with the RTK camera at the 20 cm guiding telescope in our own observatory in Großschwabhausen.

  11. Study on the faint star extraction technology with MEMS gyro aided APS star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Fei; Zhao, Borui; Sun, Ting; Xu, Wei; You, Zheng

    2013-08-01

    Star tracker is the most accurate attitude sensor for satellite. Generally speaking, the higher the accuracy, the fainter the star can be sensed by the star tracker. How to extract the faint star from a star image is becoming a critical technology in dynamic condition for star tracker, especially using the APS (Active Pixels Sensor) detector. A novel APS star tracker with MEMS Gyroscope aided system was proposed in this paper that could extremely improve the detection effect and capability for the faint stars. During the exposure time of star tracker, the trajectory of star projection on the detector maybe occupy more than ten pixels due to the satellite rotation. In this situation, the signal-to-noise ratio will decline sharply, and the traditional star extraction method for faint star will take no effect. As a result, the accuracy of star tracker would decline sharply, even more, couldn't work. Using the MEMS Gyroscope, the track of star projection can be predicated and measured, on the basis of which the deconvolution algorithm could be taken to recover the faint star signal. The accuracy of the star projection centroid could be improved obviously, and the dynamic performance of the star tracker would be improved by a magnitude. Meanwhile, the MEMS gyroscope has not less volume, mass and power consumption, which make it more suitable for the application of APS star tracker.

  12. High Resolution Studies of Mass Loss from Massive Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcoran, Michael F.; Gull, Theodore R.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Richardson, Noel; Madura, Thomas; Post Russell, Christopher Michael; Teodoro, Mairan; Nichols, Joy S.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shenar, Tomer; Pablo, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Mass loss from hot luminous single and binary stars has a significant, perhaps decisive, effect on their evolution. The combination of X-ray observations of hot shocked gas embedded in the stellar winds and high-resolution optical/UV spectra of the cooler mass in the outflow provides unique ways to study the unstable process by which massive stars lose mass both through continuous stellar winds and rare, impulsive, large-scale mass ejections. The ability to obtain coordinated observations with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) and the Chandra High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS) and other X-ray observatories has allowed, for the first time, studies of resolved line emisssion over the temperature range of 104- 108K, and has provided observations to confront numerical dynamical models in three dimensions. Such observations advance our knowledge of mass-loss asymmetries, spatial and temporal variabilities, and the fundamental underlying physics of the hot shocked outflow, providing more realistic constraints on the amount of mass lost by different luminous stars in a variety of evolutionary stages. We discuss the impact that these joint observational studies have had on our understanding of dynamical mass outflows from massive stars, with particular emphasis on two important massive binaries, Delta Ori Aa, a linchpin of the mass luminosity relation for upper HRD main sequence stars, and the supermassive colliding wind binary Eta Carinae.

  13. Optical/IR studies of Be stars in NGC 6834 with emphasis on two specific stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Blesson; Varricatt, Watson P.; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Ashok, N. M.; Banerjee, D. P. K.

    2014-09-01

    We present optical and infrared photometric and spectroscopic studies of two Be stars in the 70-80-Myr-old open cluster NGC 6834. NGC 6834(1) has been reported as a binary from speckle interferometric studies whereas NGC 6834(2) may possibly be a γ Cas-like variable. Infrared photometry and spectroscopy from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT), and optical data from various facilities are combined with archival data to understand the nature of these candidates. High signal-to-noise near-IR spectra obtained from UKIRT have enabled us to study the optical depth effects in the hydrogen emission lines of these stars. We have explored the spectral classification scheme based on the intensity of emission lines in the H and K bands and contrasted it with the conventional classification based on the intensity of hydrogen and helium absorption lines. This work also presents hitherto unavailable UBV CCD photometry of NGC 6834, from which the evolutionary state of the Be stars is identified.

  14. Studying the stars on earth: astrophysics on intense lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Remington, B A

    1999-03-10

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, is now performing significant astrophysics experiments on its huge Nova laser facility, and a similar effort has started at the Gekko laser facility at Osaka University in Japan. Our experiments on the Nova and Gekko lasers so far encourage us that our astrophysics work is already leading to a better understanding of the hydrodynamics of supernovae and astrophysical jets. The ability of large inertial confinement fusion lasers to recreate star-like conditions in the laboratory greatly improves our understanding of the heavens; for the first time in our history, we can study the stars up close on Earth.

  15. Observational and Theoretical Studies of Low-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    1998-01-01

    Under this grant we have pursued studies of low-mass star formation with observations of candidate star-forming regions, (1) to determine the incidence of "infall asymmetry" in the spectral lines from very red young stellar objects; (2) to make detailed maps of candidate infall regions to determine the spatial extent of their infall asymmetry; (3) to compare the spatial and velocity structure of candidate infall regions with single dish and interferometer resolution; and (4) to begin a program of observations of starless dense cores to detect the presence or absence of infall motions.

  16. Morning Star Students: A Follow-up Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Leroy V.

    Findings of two followup studies of Morning Star (a 2-year Native teacher education program established in 1975 at the Blue Quills Native Education Centre, leading to a Bachelor of Education degree from the University of Alberta) are examined in relation to the program's assumptions, organization, and delivery systems. The teacher certification of…

  17. Using Cosmic Telescopes to Study Dusty, Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walth, Gregory; Egami, Eiichi; Clément, Benjamin; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Rawle, Tim; Rex, Marie; Richard, Johan; Dessauges, Miroslava; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Stark, Daniel; Herschel Lensing Survey

    2016-06-01

    Dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs), characterized by their far-infrared (far-IR) emission, undergo the largest starbursts in the Universe, contributing to the majority of the cosmic star formation rate density at z = 1 - 4. These starbursts have important implications for galaxy evolution and feedback as these galaxies build up much of their stellar mass during this time and may experience strong stellar driven winds. For the first time the Herschel Space Observatory was able observe the full far-IR dust emission for a large population of high-redshift DSFGs. However, Herschel reaches the confusion limit quickly and only the brightest galaxies at redshifts z > 2 can be detected. With gravitational lensing, we are able to surpass the Herschel confusion limit and probe intrinsically less luminous and therefore more normal star-forming galaxies. With this goal in mind, we have conducted a large Herschel survey, the Herschel Lensing Survey, of the cores of almost 600 massive galaxy clusters, where the effects of gravitational lensing are the strongest. In this presentation I will discuss how using one of largest gravitational lenses enables the detailed study of star forming regions at high redshift by investigating a giant (D ~ 1 kpc) luminous star forming region in aDSFG at z=0.6. Next, I will discuss how using one of the brightest sources from our sample allows us to investigate the molecular gas and dust properties of a typical DSFG with a CO outflow at z~2. Finally, I will discuss ongoing work using the brightest DSFGs in our sample to detect rest-frame optical nebular emission lines, using near-infrared spectroscopy with Keck/MOSFIRE, LBT/LUCI, and Magellan/MMIRS, which reveal conditions of their ISM; specifically ionization, star formation, metallicity, AGN activity, and dust attenuation.

  18. A Study of Planetary Nebulae Possessing Binary Central Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, Amy A.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, detailed studies of three different types of binary central stars within planetary nebulae (bCSPNe) are presented, with the aim of investigating the effects such a range of binary systems has on the morphology and kinematics of the surrounding nebulae, as well as discussing what the implication is for the interaction between the stars themselves. A close binary, an intermediate period binary, and a compact binary system are examined. The close binary PN HaTr 4 is the first system to be studied via detailed spatio-kinematical analysis and modelling, and it is one of few known to contain a post-common envelope (CE) central star system. CE evolution is believed to play an important role in the shaping of PNe, but the exact nature of this role is yet to be understood. High spatial and spectral resolution spectroscopy is presented alongside deep narrow-band imagery to derive the three-dimensional morphology of HaTr 4. The nebula is found to display an extended ovoid morphology with an enhanced equatorial region consistent with a toroidal waist - a feature believed to be typical amongst PNe with post-CE central stars. The nebular symmetry axis is found to lie perpendicular to the orbital plane of the central binary, concordant with the idea that the formation and evolution of HaTr 4 has been strongly influenced by its central binary. Next, PN LoTr 1 is studied using a combination of spectra and photometry, and is thought to contain an intermediate-period binary central star system (P = 100-1500 d). Here, we confirm the binary nature of the central star of LoTr 1, consisting of a K1 III star and a hot white dwarf (WD). The nebula of LoTr 1 presents a very different morphology than that of other seemingly similar bCSPNe possessing barium stars, A70 and WeBo 1 (included in this study for direct comparison), which may be an indication of a difference in their mass-transfer episodes. There is no evidence of barium enhancement in the K1 III companion, but it is

  19. An Undergraduate Research Experience on Studying Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, A.; Percy, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe and evaluate a summer undergraduate research project and experience by one of us (AA), under the supervision of the other (JP). The aim of the project was to sample current approaches to analyzing variable star data, and topics related to the study of Mira variable stars and their astrophysical importance. This project was done through the Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) in astronomy at the University of Toronto. SURP allowed undergraduate students to explore and learn about many topics within astronomy and astrophysics, from instrumentation to cosmology. SURP introduced students to key skills which are essential for students hoping to pursue graduate studies in any scientific field. Variable stars proved to be an excellent topic for a research project. For beginners to independent research, it introduces key concepts in research such as critical thinking and problem solving, while illuminating previously learned topics in stellar physics. The focus of this summer project was to compare observations with structural and evolutionary models, including modelling the random walk behavior exhibited in the (O-C) diagrams of most Mira stars. We found that the random walk could be modelled by using random fluctuations of the period. This explanation agreed well with observations.

  20. iSTAR: The International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the first steps taken in the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning (iSTAR). The iSTAR Project is an attempt to look beyond traditional wisdom and practices in astronomy education, to discover the ways in which cognitive abilities and human culture interact to impact individuals’ understanding of and relationship to astronomy content knowledge. In contrast to many international studies that seek to rank nations by student performance on standardized tests, the iSTAR Project seeks to find ways that culture may unexpectedly enhance performance in astronomy. Using the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) as a reasonable, initial proxy for the content knowledge a well educated person might know in astronomy, the iSTAR team then defined culture as a construct with five components: practices, traditional knowledge, historical and genealogical relationships, place-based knowledge, and language. Given the complexity of this construct, Stage 1 of the project focuses on the cultural component of language, and assumed that prior to the collection of data from students, the process of translating the TOAST could provide valuable expert-based information on the impact of language on astronomy knowledge. As such, the work began with a study of the translation process. For each of the languages used in the testing phase of the iSTAR protocol, a succession of translators and analysts were engaged, including two educated, non-astronomer native speakers, a native speaking astronomer, and a native speaking linguistics expert. Multiple translations were analyzed in order to make relevant meaning of differences in the translations, and provide commentary on the ways in which metaphor, idiom, cultural history are embedded in the language, providing potential advantages in the learning of astronomy. The first test languages were German, Hawaiian, and American Sign Language, and initial findings suggest that each of these languages provide specific advantages

  1. Observational studies of regions of massive star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Heather Danielle Blythe

    2013-03-01

    Massive stars have a profound influence on their surroundings. However, relatively little is known about their formation. The study of massive star formation is hindered by a lack of observational evidence, primarily due to difficulties observing massive stars at early stages in their development. The Red MSX Source survey (RMS survey) is a valuable tool with which to address these issues. Near-infrared H- and K-band spectra were taken for 247 candidate massive young stellar objects (MYSOs), selected from the RMS survey. 195 (∼80%) of the targets are YSOs, of which 131 are massive YSOs (LBOL>5E3L⊙, M>8 M⊙). This is the largest spectroscopic study of massive YSOs to date. This study covers minimally obscured objects right through to very red, dusty sources. Almost all YSOs show some evidence for emission lines, though there is a wide variety of observed properties, with HI, H2 Fe II, and CO among the most commonly observed lines. Evidence for disks and outflows was frequently seen. Comparisons of Brγ and H2 emission with low mass YSOs suggest that the emission mechanism for these lines is the same for low-, intermediate-, and high-mass YSOs, i.e. high-mass YSOs appear to resemble scaled-up versions of low-mass YSOs. It was found that the YSOs form an evolutionary sequence, based on their spectra, consistent with the existing theoretical models. Type I YSOs have strong H2 emission, no ionized lines, and are redder than the other two subtypes. As such, these are considered to be the youngest sources. The Type III sources are bluest, and therefore considered to be the oldest subtype. They have strong H I lines and fluorescent Fe II 1.6878 μm emission. They may also have weak H2 emission. Type III sources may even be beginning to form a mini-H II region. XSHOOTER data from 10 Herbig Be stars were analysed. The evidence suggests that winds and disks are common among Herbig stars, as they are among their main sequence classical Be star counterparts. Line

  2. Studies of Disks Around the Sun and Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    We are conducting research designed to enhance our understanding of the evolution and detectability of comet clouds and disks. This area holds promise for also improving our understanding of outer solar system formation, the bombardment history of the planets, the transport of volatiles and organics from the outer solar system to the inner planets, and to the ultimate fate of comet clouds around the Sun and other stars. According to 'standard' theory, both the Kuiper Disk and the Oort Cloud are (at least in part) natural products of the planetary accumulation stage of solar system formation. One expects such assemblages to be a common attribute of other solar systems. Therefore, searches for comet disks and clouds orbiting other stars offer a new method for inferring the presence of planetary systems. This two-element program consists modeling collisions in the Kuiper Disk and the dust disks around other stars. The modeling effort focuses on moving from our simple, first-generation, Kuiper disk collision rate model, to a time-dependent, second-generation model that incorporates physical collisions, velocity evolution, dynamical erosion, and various dust transport mechanisms. This second generation model will be used to study the evolution of surface mass density and the object-size spectrum in the disk. The observational effort focuses on obtaining submm/mm-wave flux density measurements of 25-30 IR excess stars in order to better constrain the masses, spatial extents and structure of their dust ensembles.

  3. The Study of Flare Stars in Byurakan Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikian, N. D.

    2016-09-01

    A brief description of the observations and the study of flare stars in Byurakan observatory is presented. In particular it is shown that there is a real dependence between flare activity and the distance between components of UV Ceti. The spectral study of a flare on WX Uma indicated on strong influence of the continuous emission, which is operated from 6000Å and rapidly growing to the short wavelength.

  4. Study of the Cygnus Star-Forming Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, Christopher; Kaltcheva, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The star-forming complexes in Cygnus extend nearly 30 deg in Galactic longitude and 20 deg in latitude, and most probably include star-formation sites located between 600 and 4000 pc. We combine the catalog by Heiles (2000) with uvbyβ photometric data from the catalog of Paunzen (2015) to collate a sample of O and B-type stars with precise homogeneous distances, color excess and available polarimetry. This allows us to identify star-forming sites at different distances along the line of sight and to investigate their spatial correlation to the interstellar matter. Further, we use this sample to study the orientation of the polarization as revealed by the polarized light of the bright early-type stars and analyze the polarization-extinction correlation for this field. Since dust grains align in the presence of a magnetic field cause the observed polarization at optical wavelengths, the data contain information about the large-scale component of the Galactic magnetic field. In addition, wide-field astrophotography equipment was used to image the Cygnus field in Hydrogen-alpha, Hydrogen-beta and the [OIII] line at 500.7 nm. This allows us to map the overall distribution of ionized material and the interstellar dust and trace large-scale regions where the physical conditions change rapidly due to supernova shock fronts and strong stellar winds. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NSF grant AST- 1516932 and the Wisconsin Space Grant Consortium, NASA Space Grant College and Fellowship Program, NASA Training Grant #NNX14AP22H.

  5. VLBA Teams With Optical Interferometer to Study Star's Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    Two of the World's Largest Interferometric Facilities Team-up to Study a Red Giant Star Using ESO's VLTI on Cerro Paranal and the VLBA facility operated by NRAO, an international team of astronomers has made what is arguably the most detailed study of the environment of a pulsating red giant star. They performed, for the first time, a series of coordinated observations of three separate layers within the star's tenuous outer envelope: the molecular shell, the dust shell, and the maser shell, leading to significant progress in our understanding of the mechanism of how, before dying, evolved stars lose mass and return it to the interstellar medium. S Orionis (S Ori) belongs to the class of Mira-type variable stars. It is a solar-mass star that, as will be the fate of our Sun in 5 billion years, is nearing its gloomy end as a white dwarf. Mira stars are very large and lose huge amounts of matter. Every year, S Ori ejects as much as the equivalent of Earth's mass into the cosmos. ESO PR Photo 25a/07 ESO PR Photo 25a/07 Evolution of the Mira-type Star S Orionis "Because we are all stardust, studying the phases in the life of a star when processed matter is sent back to the interstellar medium to be used for the next generation of stars, planets... and humans, is very important," said Markus Wittkowski, lead author of the paper reporting the results. A star such as the Sun will lose between a third and half of its mass during the Mira phase. S Ori pulsates with a period of 420 days. In the course of its cycle, it changes its brightness by a factor of the order of 500, while its diameter varies by about 20%. Although such stars are enormous - they are typically larger than the current Sun by a factor of a few hundred, i.e. they encompass the orbit of the Earth around the Sun - they are also distant and to peer into their deep envelopes requires very high resolution. This can only be achieved with interferometric techniques. ESO PR Photo 25b/07 ESO PR Photo 25b/07

  6. Optical studies of X-ray peculiar chromosphereically active stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.

    2006-02-01

    A multiwavelength study of the late-type active stars, selected on the basis of their X-ray and radio luminosities is presented in this thesis. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.8267 +/- 0.0004 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. A photometric period of 18.802 +/- 0.074 has been discovered in the star HD 81032. The shape and amplitude of the photometric light curves of FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 95559 and LO Peg are observed to be changing from one epoch to another. The change in the amplitude is mainly due to a change in the minimum of the light curve, and this May be due to a change in the spot coverage. This indicates that photometric variability is due to the presence of dark spots on the surface of active star. Two groups of spots are identified for FR Cnc and LO Peg. The spots are found to migrate, and migration periods of 0.97 year and 0.93 year are determined from the 4 years of data. A migration period of 1.12 years for one group of spots in LO Peg is also determined. Formation of a new group of spots in the star HD 95559 was also seen during our observations. A single large group of spots is found to migrate, and a migration period of 7.32 +/- 0.04 years is determined for HD 81032. The stars FR Cnc, HD 81032, HD 160934 and LO Peg are seen to be redder at the light minimum and we interpret this is due to the relatively cooler temperature of the darker regions present in the visible hemisphere. We find the lack of color-brightness correlation in the star HD 95559 and this May be due to the presence of bright faculae and plages like regions accompanied by dark spots in any one component of the this binary system. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc and HD 81032 carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, Halpha and Hbeta emission features indicative

  7. Hyperspectral Imagers for the Study of Massive Star Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drissen, L.; Alarie, A.; Martin, T.; Spiomm/Sitelle Team

    2012-12-01

    We present two wide-field imaging Fourier transform spectrometers built by our team to study the interstellar medium around massive stars in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies. SpIOMM, attached to the Mont Mégantic 1.6-m telescope, is capable of obtaining the visible spectrum of every source of light in a 12 arcminute field of view, with a spectral resolution ranging from R = 1 (wide-band image) to R = 25 000, resulting in about a million spectra with a spatial resolution of one arcsecond. SITELLE will be a similar instrument attached to the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope, and will be in operation in early 2013. We illustrate SpIOMM's capabilities to study the interactions between massive stars and their environment.

  8. The impact of IUE on binary star studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of IUE observations in the investigation of binary stars is discussed. The results of data analysis of several classes of binary systems are briefly reviewed including zeta Aurigae and VV Cephei stars, mu Sagittarii, epsilon Aurigae, beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars, symbiotic stars, and the Algols.

  9. Continued ultraviolet studies of some Be stars of later type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slettebak, A.

    1985-01-01

    Anomalous ionization (C IV and Si IV) is seen in IUE spectra of Be stars as late as B8, and occurs also in standard stars of similar spectral type. Asymmetrical lines suggesting mass loss are present in all the Be stars and several of the standard stars as well, with no obvious correlation with v sin i. Emission shoulders are present in the Mg II lines of two B5e stars but not in Be stars of later type. Again there is no correlation with v sin i. The A-F shell stars show rich Fe II absorption spectra in the ultraviolet, in one case with velocity structure.

  10. A Photometric Study of the Eclipsing Binary Star BN Ari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Presented are a set of multi-band light curves, synthetic light curve solutions, and period study for the eclipsing binary star BN Ari. The orbital period was found to be decreasing the past 8 years (~8,200 orbits). The observed light curves were analyzed with the Wilson-Devinney program. The resulting synthetic light curve solution showed the system to be a contact eclipsing binary with total eclipses.

  11. A Study of BO Lyn, a neglected HADS star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, J. H.; Villarreal, C.; Piña, D. S.; Rentería, A.; Guillen, J.; Soni, A. A.; Huepa, H.

    2016-10-01

    uvby-β photometry of the high amplitude δ Scuti (HADS) star BO Lyn allowed us to determine its physical characteristics. A secular period variation was established through the O-C of all the available times of maximum light and those newly acquired through CCD photometry. In the present study we have demonstrated that BO Lyn is pulsating with one stable varying period whose O-C residuals show a sinusoidal pattern compatible with a light-travel time effect.

  12. Accretion Studies in AM Herculis Stars - The RAP Version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steven B.

    We propose to obtain RAP observations of AM Her stars in order to study the accretion process as a function of time (both orbit-to-orbit and longer timescale), system inclination, binary orbital period, component masses, and magnetic field strength. Some of the systems we propose to observe have already been observed with EUVE, so we have a time base started in the archives. Others are new and will provide critical information about accretion processes for different system parameters.

  13. Spectroscopic Studies of Nearby Cool Stars: The DUNES Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.

    2009-02-01

    At the Universities of Madrid we are carrying out a systematic analysis of the spectroscopic properties of the nearby (d<25 pc), late-type stellar population with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the stellar formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Part of our sample will be observed by DUNES, a Herschel OTKP aiming at detecting and studying cold, faint dust disks around nearby stars. In this contribution we present some preliminary results of the kinematics of the DUNES sample.

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of Nearby Cool Stars: The DUNES Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martinez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.

    At the universities of Madrid we are carrying out a systematic analysis of the spectroscopic properties of the nearby (d<25pc), late-type stellar population with the aim of contributing to the knowledge of the stellar formation history in the solar neighbourhood. Part of our sample will be observed by DUNES, a Herschel OTKP aiming at detecting and studying cold, faint dust disks around nearby stars. In this contribution we present some preliminary results on the kinematics of the DUNES sample.

  15. A Study of Massive Stars with an Initial Mass of 50 M⊙ at Different Evolutionary Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of the studies of several massive stars at different evolutionary stages but with similar initial masses: O supergiants from the Cyg OB2 association, unique LBV/post-LBV Romano's star, and two Wolf-Rayet stars WR156 and FSZ35. All these stars have similar initial masses of about 50 M⊙. It allows us to consider them a single star at different moments of life, which gives the opportunity to track the changes in physical parameters (such as effective temperature, luminosity, mass loss rate, wind velocity) and chemical abundances during the life of a massive star. It is important to test current evolution theories for such objects.

  16. Binary star orbits from speckle interferometry. 5: A combined speckle/spectroscopic study of the O star binary 15 Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mcalister, Harold A.; Frazin, Richard A.; Hahula, Michael E.; Penny, Laura R.; Thaller, Michelle L.; Fullerton, Alexander W.; Shara, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a speckle binary companion to the O7 V (f) star 15 Monocerotis. A study of published radial velocities in conjunction with new measurements from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and IUE suggests that the star is also a spectroscopic binary with a period of 25 years and a large eccentricity. Thus, 15 Mon is the first O star to bridge the gap between the spectroscopic and visual separation regimes. We have used the star's membership in the cluster NGC 2264 together with the cluster distance to derive masses of 34 and 19 solar mass for the primary and secondary, respectively. Several of the He I line profiles display a broad shallow component which we associate with the secondary, and we estimate the secondary's classification to be O9.5 Vn. The new orbit leads to several important predictions that can be tested over the next few years.

  17. Binary star orbits from speckle interferometry. 5: A combined speckle/spectroscopic study of the O star binary 15 Monocerotis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gies, Douglas R.; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Mcalister, Harold A.; Frazin, Richard A.; Hahula, Michael E.; Penny, Laura R.; Thaller, Michelle L.; Fullerton, Alexander W.; Shara, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the discovery of a speckle binary companion to the O7 V (f) star 15 Monocerotis. A study of published radial velocities in conjunction with new measurements from Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and IUE suggests that the star is also a spectroscopic binary with a period of 25 years and a large eccentricity. Thus, 15 Mon is the first O star to bridge the gap between the spectroscopic and visual separation regimes. We have used the star's membership in the cluster NGC 2264 together with the cluster distance to derive masses of 34 and 19 solar mass for the primary and secondary, respectively. Several of the He I line profiles display a broad shallow component which we associate with the secondary, and we estimate the secondary's classification to be O9.5 Vn. The new orbit leads to several important predictions that can be tested over the next few years.

  18. Study of the star catalogue (epoch AD 1396.0) recorded in ancient Korean astronomical almanac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Junhyeok; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Yong-Sam

    2015-11-01

    The study of old star catalogues provides important astrometric data. Most of the researches based on the old star catalogues were manuscript published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam. However, the old star catalogues published in East Asia did not get attention. Therefore, among the East Asian star catalogues we focus on a particular catalogue recorded in a Korean almanac. Its catalogue contains 277 stars that are positioned in a region within 10° of the ecliptic plane. The stars in the catalogue were identified using the modern Hipparcos catalogue. We identified 274 among 277 stars, which is a rate of 98.9 per cent. The catalogue records the epoch of the stars' positions as AD 1396.0. However, by using all of the identified stars we found that the initial epoch of the catalogue is AD 1363.1 ± 3.2. In conclusion, the star catalogue was compiled and edited from various older star catalogues. We assume a correlation with the Almagest by Ptolemaios. This study presents newly analysed results from the historically important astronomical data discovered in East Asia. Therefore, this star catalogue will become important data for comparison with the star catalogues published in Europe and from Arabic/Islam.

  19. A Study of Massive Stars Evolving toward the Wolf-Rayet Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O. V.; Klochkova, V. G.; Chentsov, E. L.; Polcaro, V. F.; Rossi, C.; Viotti, R. F.

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of our study of two massive stars, V1302 Aql (IRC+10420) and GR 290 (M33/V532, Romano's Star), with different initial masses but now approaching the region of Wolf-Rayet stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, one from the yellow hypergiants side and the other from the Luminous Blue Variables side.

  20. Multi-wavelength Accretion Studies of Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppejans, Deanne

    2016-10-01

    Recent developments in the field of Cataclysmic Variable stars (CVs) have highlighted the need for large (more unbiased) samples of CVs with known properties, as well as the need for multi- wavelength studies to determine the accretion-outflow connection. In this thesis I have presented radio observations of non-magnetic CVs, proving them to be significant radio emitters. I have also presented optical follow-up studies of CVs, and developed an algorithm that automatically classifies these objects based on photometric data from large surveys. This was applied to the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey to produce a catalogue of accretion properties for 1031 CVs.

  1. A photometric study of early-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E. E.; Gomez, T.; Ortega, R.; Quintero, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observation data in the alpha(16), Lambda(9) photometric system are presented for 228 early-type O4-B8 stars of all luminosity classes. Also included are data for Be stars, B-type stars with a shell, and Beta Canis Majoris stars. The comparison with R-alpha and beta indices suggests that the alpha(16) photometry is of good quality. The photometry can be used in separating different kinds of stars; when combined with the 13-color photometry, it makes possible a finer classification. The alpha(16) index also provides an indication of stellar mass-loss rates, especially for supergiant stars. Preliminary He I (5876 A) measurements suggest that this line is well correlated with MK types. Be stars observed over several years also exhibit H-alpha line-strength variability. It is found that the Lambda(9) index separates supergiant stars later than B2.

  2. Studies of Young, Star-forming Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaehan

    2017-08-01

    Disks of gas and dust around forming stars - circumstellar disks - last only a few million years. This is a very small fraction of the entire lifetime of Sun-like stars, several billion years. Nevertheless, by the time circumstellar disks dissipate stars complete building up their masses, giant planets finish accreting gas, and terrestrial bodies are nearly fully grown and ready for their final assembly to become planets. Understanding the evolution of circumstellar disks are thus crucial in many contexts. Using numerical simulations as the primary tool, my thesis has focused on the studies of various physical processes that can occur throughout the lifetime of circumstellar disks, from their formation to dispersal. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 emphasize the importance of early evolution, during which time a forming star-disk system obtains mass from its natal cloud: the infall phase. In Chapter 2 and 3, I have modeled episodic outbursts of accretion in protostellar systems resulting from disk instabilities - gravitational instability and magnetorotational instability. I showed that outbursts occur preferentially during the infall phase, because the mass addition provides more favorable conditions for gravitational instability to initiate the outburst cycle, and that forming stars build up a significant fraction of their masses through repeated short-lived, episodic outbursts. The infall phase can also be important for the formation of planets. Recent ALMA observations revealed sets of bright and dark rings in circumstellar disks of young, forming stars, potentially indicating early formation of planets. In Chapter 4, I showed that infall streams can create radial pressure bumps near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk, from which vortices can form, collecting solid particles very efficiently to make initial seeds of planets. The next three chapters highlight the role of planets in setting the observational appearance and the evolution of circumstellar disks

  3. Efficiency Studies for the new Muon Telescope Detector at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, Hannah; STAR Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Muon Telescope Detector (MTD) is a new detector subsystem in STAR at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The MTD will contribute to studies of the matter being created in heavy-ion collisions by allowing measurements of the J/Psi meson and the different Upsilon states over a broad transverse momentum range via the reconstruction of their di-muon decays. Simulations to estimate the efficiency of the MTD for detecting muons were performed. The results of these simulations will be presented.

  4. Hipparcos and MAP Studies of the Triple Star π Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, George; Han, Inwoo; de Jonge, Joost Kiewiet; Reiland, C. Thomas; Pourbaix, Dimitri

    2001-03-01

    We reexamine the visual and radial velocity data for the π Cephei triple star system and derive the masses of the three components. Our study is based upon the analysis of Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) measurements obtained with the red light Thaw refractor's Multichannel Astrometric Photometer (Thaw/MAP) and positions obtained from photographic plates acquired with the Thaw refractor's original photographic objective. The weighted mean parallax of the star system is now 13.8+/-0.41 mas, corresponding to a distance modulus of 4.30+/-0.065, yielding absolute visual magnitudes of 0.24+/-0.065 and 2.50+/-0.070 for the A and B components, respectively, and a total system mass of 8.81+/-0.87 Msolar. The 58 yr span of the plate collection makes possible the first detection of the photocentric motion caused by the 160 yr orbit of π Cep A/B yielding masses of 6.88+/-0.69 Msolar and 1.93+/-0.23 Msolar, respectively, for the central spectroscopic giant binary star and the late A secondary component. Although of shorter time span, the higher precision of the IAD and Thaw/MAP data allow the first detection of the astrometric motion caused by the spectroscopic companion of the A component. A comparison of the astrometric, spectroscopic, and photometric studies of the π Cep suggests that the spectroscopic binary is composed of a pair of red giants with similar masses, Aa=3.63+/-0.53 Msolar, Ab=3.27+/-0.48 Msolar, and a red magnitude difference of approximately 1.7 mag. The importance of long-term astrometric coverage is pointed out by the fact that the motion of both the A/B system and Aa/Ab system were missed during the compilation of the Hipparcos catalog and are only revealed in those data after their detection in the MAP/Thaw measurements.

  5. Simultaneous UV and optical study of O star winds and UV and optical covariability of O star winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Joy S.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet and optical observations of 10 bright O stars were organized in several observing campaigns lasting 3-6 days each. The observing campaigns included 12 observatories in the Northern hemisphere obtaining high resolution spectroscopy, photometry, and polarimetry, as well as 24-hour coverage with the IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) observatory. Over 600 high dispersion SWP spectra were acquired with IUE at both NASA and VILSPA for the completion of this work. The massive amount of data from these observing campaigns, both from IUE and the ground-based instruments, has been reduced and analyzed. The accompanying paper describes the data acquisition, analysis, and conclusions of the study performed. The most important results of this study are the strong confirmation of the ubiquitous variability of winds of O stars, and the critical correlation between rotation of the star and the wind variability as seen in the ultraviolet and optical spectral lines.

  6. Multiplicity study of young pre-main sequence stars in the Lupus star-forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Nikolaus; Mugrauer, Markus; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Ginski, Christian

    2013-07-01

    We have conducted a high contrast imaging search for (sub)stellar companions among 63 young pre-main sequence stars in the Lupus star forming region, using the adaptive optics imager NACO at UT4 of the ESO Paranal observatory. We detected faint co-moving companions around our targets at angular separations between about 0.1 up to several arc seconds (binaries and triple systems). Some of these companions are in the sub stellar mass regime, according to their apparent near infrared photometry at the distance of the Lupus star forming region (about 140pc). We give a progress report to our long-term project, still in execution with the follow-up spectroscopy of detected substellar companion-candidates, and present some first results.

  7. Studies of Disks Around the Sun and Other Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, S. Alan

    1997-01-01

    This is a NASA Origins of Solar Systems research program, and this NASA Headquarters grant has now been transferred to a new grant at NASA GSFC (NAG5-4082). Thus the need for this 'Final Report' on a project that is not, in fact, complete. We are conducting research designed to enhance our understanding of the evolution and detectability of comet clouds and disks. This area holds promise for also improving our understanding of outer solar system formation, the bombardment history of the planets, the transport of volatiles and organics from the outer solar system to the inner planets, and to the ultimate fate of comet clouds around the Sun and other stars. According to "standard" theory, both the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud are (at least in part) natural products of the planetary accumulation stage of solar system formation. One expects such assemblages to be a common attribute of other solar systems. Our program consists of modeling collisions in the Kuiper Belt and the dust disks around other stars. The modeling effort focuses on moving from our simple, first-generation, Kuiper Belt collision rate model, to a time-dependent, second-generation model that incorporates physical collisions, velocity evolution, dynamical erosion, and various dust transport mechanisms. This second generation model is to be used to study the evolution of surface mass density and the object-size spectrum in the disk.

  8. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  9. High-resolution spectroscopic studies of ultra metal-poor stars found in the LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haining; Aoki, Wako; Zhao, Gang; Honda, Satoshi; Christlieb, Norbert; Suda, Takuma

    2015-10-01

    We report on the observations of two ultra metal-poor (UMP) stars with [Fe/H] ˜ -4.0, including one new discovery. The two stars are studied in the on-going and quite efficient project to search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars with LAMOST and Subaru. Detailed abundances or upper limits of abundances have been derived for 15 elements from Li to Eu based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph (HDS) mounted in the Subaru Telescope. The abundance patterns of both UMP stars are consistent with the "normal population" among the low-metallicity stars. Both of the two program stars show carbon-enhancement without any excess of heavy neutron-capture elements, indicating that they belong to the subclass of (carbon-enhanced metal-poor) CEMP-no stars, as is the case of most UMP stars previously studied. The [Sr/Ba] ratios of both CEMP-no UMP stars are above [Sr/Ba] ˜ -0.4, suggesting the origin of the carbon-excess is not compatible with the mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch companion where the s-process has operated. Lithium abundance is measured in the newly discovered UMP star LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1, making it the second UMP turnoff star with Li detection. The Li abundance of LAMOST J125346.09+075343.1 is slightly lower than the values obtained for less metal-poor stars with similar temperatures, and provides a unique data point at [Fe/H] ˜ -4.2 to support the "meltdown" of the Li Spite plateau at extremely low metallicity. Comparison with the other two UMP and HMP (hyper metal-poor, with [Fe/H] < -5.0) turnoff stars suggests that the difference in lighter elements such as CNO and Na might cause notable difference in lithium abundances among CEMP-no stars.

  10. Spectroscopic study of the extremely fast rotating star 44 Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliev, L.; Vennes, S.; Kawka, A.; Kubat, J.; Nemeth, P.; Borisov, G.; KRaus, M.

    Stars with extremely fast rotation represent interesting challenge to modern understanding of the stellar evolution. The reasons why such a spin-up process should occur during the evolution to otherwise normal star are still not well understood. Already in the beginning of the XX century Otto Struve proposed that fast rotation of the group of stars spectroscopically classified as Be could be the main reason for the formation of observed disks of circumstellar material around them. This circumstellar material is responsible for the emission lines observed in the spectrum of Be-stars as well as for the whole complex of spectral and photometrical patterns called in general Be-phenomenon.

  11. Rotational studies of late-type stars. III - Rotation among BY Draconis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, S. S.; Penrod, G. D.; Soderblom, D. R.

    1983-06-01

    High-resolution line profiles have been obtained and v sin i's measured for 17 K and M dwarfs. All BY Draconis stars (whether single or in binaries) rotate more rapidly than other K and M dwarfs, reinforcing previous suggestions that rapid rotation (≥5 km s-1) is the underlying cause of the BY Draconis syndrome.

  12. The Evolutionary Status of Be Stars: Results from a Photometric Study of Southern Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSwain, M. Virginia; Gies, Douglas R.

    2005-11-01

    Be stars are a class of rapidly rotating B stars with circumstellar disks that cause Balmer and other line emission. There are three possible reasons for the rapid rotation of Be stars: they may have been born as rapid rotators, spun up by binary mass transfer, or spun up during the main-sequence (MS) evolution of B stars. To test the various formation scenarios, we have conducted a photometric survey of 55 open clusters in the southern sky. Of these, five clusters are probably not physically associated groups and our results for two other clusters are not reliable, but we identify 52 definite Be stars and an additional 129 Be candidates in the remaining clusters. We use our results to examine the age and evolutionary dependence of the Be phenomenon. We find an overall increase in the fraction of Be stars with age until 100 Myr, and Be stars are most common among the brightest, most massive B-type stars above the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). We show that a spin-up phase at the terminal-age main sequence (TAMS) cannot produce the observed distribution of Be stars, but up to 73% of the Be stars detected may have been spun-up by binary mass transfer. Most of the remaining Be stars were likely rapid rotators at birth. Previous studies have suggested that low metallicity and high cluster density may also favor Be star formation. Our results indicate a possible increase in the fraction of Be stars with increasing cluster distance from the Galactic center (in environments of decreasing metallicity). However, the trend is not significant and could be ruled out due to the intrinsic scatter in our data. We also find no relationship between the fraction of Be stars and cluster density.

  13. On the nature of sn stars. I. A detailed abundance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.

    2014-02-01

    The sn stars were first discoved by Abt & Levato when studying the spectral types in different open clusters. These stars present sharp Balmer lines, sharp metallic lines (C II, Si II, Ca II, Ti II, Fe II), and broad coreless He I lines. Some of the sn stars seem to be related to CP stars. Initially Abt & Levato proposed a shell-like nature to explain the sn stars, although this scenario was subsequently questioned. There is no general agreement about their origin. We aim to derive abundances for a sample of 9 stars, including sn and non-sn stars, to determine the possible relation between sn and CP stars and compare their chemical abundances. That most sn stars belong to open clusters allows us to search for a possible relation with fundamental parameters, including the age and rotation. We also study the possible contribution of different effects to the broad He I lines observed in these stars, such as Stark broadening and the possible He-stratification. Effective temperature and gravity were estimated by Strömgren photometry and then refined by requiring ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines. We derived the abundances by fitting the observed spectra with synthetic spectra using an iterative procedure with the SYNTHE and ATLAS9 codes. We derived metallic abundances of 23 different chemical elements for 9 stars and obtained low projected rotational velocities for the sn stars in our sample (vsini up to 69 km s-1). We also compared 5 stars that belong to the same cluster (NGC 6475) and show that the sn characteristics appear in the 3 stars with the lower rotational velocity. However, the apparent preference of sn stars for objects with the lower vsini values should be taken with caution due to the small number of objects studied here. We analysed the photospheric chemical composition of sn stars and show that approximately ~40% of them display chemical peculiarities (such as He-weak and HgMn stars) within a range of temperature of 10 300 K-14 500 K

  14. Studies of mass loss and outflows from giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian

    This thesis aims to provide better understanding of mass loss and outflows from asymptotic giant branch stars using the Bowen code. There are 3 projects involved in this thesis. The main project presented here is on the morphology of the outflow when disturbed by a super Jupiter size companion. There exists resonant modes between the pulsation period and orbital period. At different resonant modes, multiple spiral arms with different spiral arm periods form in the outflows. A simple formula gives the spiral arm period as a function of pulsation and orbital periods. Since the resonant modes appear in close orbits, the decay time scale and spiral arm morphology are also presented. These results may explain asymmetry in the outflows that form planetary nebulae. It also explains the origin of the spiral arm structure around some late AGB stars. A 3-D code will ultimately be need to resolve some questions unanswered by the current 1-D models. The paper on the outflow morphology has been submitted to ApJ. In this thesis, ongoing mass loss studies using the Bowen code are also briefly explained. I generated a large grid of models with varying mass, luminosity, metallicity, mixing length and Bowen model parameters in order to find correlations between the mass loss rate and these parameters. Since dust abundance is an important factor for mass loss, for the third project I tested dust formation in the refrigeration zone which is closer to the photosphere than normal dusty regions. In this test, I assumed that the dust temperature equals to the gas kinetic temperature which is lower than the radiative equilibrium temperature. Since dust temperature is close to the radiative temperature when the dust grain is large, this assumption brings excessive dust into the refrigeration zones. The detailed treatment of dust formation will be refined in future studies.

  15. Hubble studies generations of star formation in neighbouring galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    N11B Credits: NASA/ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI)/HEIC The iridescent tapestry of star birth The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures the iridescent tapestry of star birth in a neighbouring galaxy in this panoramic view of glowing gas, dark dust clouds, and young, hot stars. The star-forming region, catalogued as N11B lies in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located only 160 000 light-years from Earth. With its high resolution, the Hubble Space Telescope is able to view details of star formation in the LMC as easily as ground-based telescopes are able to observe stellar formation within our own Milky Way galaxy. One neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), lies in the constellation of Dorado and contains a number of regions harbouring recent and ongoing star formation. One of these star-forming region, N11B, is shown in this Hubble image. It is a subregion within a larger area of star formation called N11. N11 is the second largest star-forming region in LMC. It is only surpassed in the size and activity by ‘the king of stellar nurseries’, 30 Doradus, located at the opposite side of LMC. N11B Credits: NASA/ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI)/HEIC A view of star formation The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope captures the iridescent tapestry of star birth in a neighbouring galaxy in this panoramic view of glowing gas, dark dust clouds, and young, hot stars. The star-forming region, catalogued as N11B lies in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), located only 160 000 light-years from Earth. With its high resolution, the Hubble Space Telescope is able to view details of star formation in the LMC as easily as ground-based telescopes are able to observe stellar formation within our own Milky Way galaxy. One neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), lies in the constellation of Dorado and contains a number of regions harbouring recent and ongoing star formation. One of these star-forming regions, N11B, is shown in

  16. A Numerical Study on the Streams of Star Debris after Tidal Disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho Olachea, Priscila; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Law-Smith, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Lurking at the centers of most galaxies are gigantic star and gas devouring monsters. These monsters are supermassive black holes (SMBHs), some of which are larger than our solar system and ten billion times as massive as our own Sun. The vast majority of stars in the universe live for tens of billions of years, eventually dying from old age as the nuclearreactions that power them become progressively less effective. But for every ten thousand stars that die peacefully, one star will be brutally torn apart by the extreme tidal forces present as it passes near a SMBH. My recent work has been to develop computational tools necessary to study the fates of stars disrupted by SMBHs. In this research project I presentthe results of my numerical study aimed at understanding the streams of star debris that result after disruption.

  17. Calibrating the Luminosity of Carbon Stars: An Archival Study of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocholski, Aaron J.; Van Der Marel, Roeland P.; Geha, Marla C.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon stars are a luminous but poorly constrained end stage of stellar evolution for stars with masses a few times the mass of the Sun. These stars may account for up to 40% of the luminosity in distant, unresolved galaxies. Recent studies have shown that the uncertainty in the contribution of carbon stars to a galaxy’s total luminosity can cause galactic mass and age estimates to vary by a factor of 2. Using archival HST data for ~ 40 galaxies in the Local Group we explore how the carbon star luminosities correlate with the properties (e.g. age, chemical abundance) of the underlying stellar populations in each galaxy. Our study will place much needed constraints on stellar evolution models of carbon stars. This will in turn greatly improve estimates of masses and ages of distant galaxies, which are critical to our understanding of galaxy evolution.

  18. A comprehensive set of simulations studying the influence of gas expulsion on star cluster evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardt, H.; Kroupa, P.

    2007-10-01

    We have carried out a large set of N-body simulations studying the effect of residual-gas expulsion on the survival rate, and final properties of star clusters. We have varied the star formation efficiency (SFE), gas expulsion time-scale and strength of the external tidal field, obtaining a three-dimensional grid of models which can be used to predict the evolution of individual star clusters or whole star cluster systems by interpolating between our runs. The complete data of these simulations are made available on the internet. Our simulations show that cluster sizes, bound mass fraction and velocity profile are strongly influenced by the details of the gas expulsion. Although star clusters can survive SFEs as low as 10 per cent if the tidal field is weak and the gas is removed only slowly, our simulations indicate that most star clusters are destroyed or suffer dramatic loss of stars during the gas removal phase. Surviving clusters have typically expanded by a factor of 3 or 4 due to gas removal, implying that star clusters formed more concentrated than as we see them today. Maximum expansion factors seen in our runs are around 10. If gas is removed on time-scales smaller than the initial crossing time, star clusters acquire strongly radially anisotropic velocity dispersions outside their half-mass radii. Observed velocity profiles of star clusters can therefore be used as a constraint on the physics of cluster formation.

  19. Studying the nature of runaway stars using Andromeda's massive stellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulkley, Jordan; Seth, Anil; Johnson, Cliff; Dalcanton, Julianne; Guhathakurta, Raja; Dorman, Claire; Hamren, Katie; Caldwell, Nelson; Williams, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Theory of the formation of massive stars remains incomplete, the question of the environments required have yet to be answered. An agreement on whether all massive stars must form in cluster type environments, or if isolated formation is viable has yet to be reached. This is further complicated by the presence of runaway stars, stellar objects which have been ejected from their host cluster. Studying the nature of these isolated runaway stars becomes paramount in the larger goal of developing a more comprehensive massive star formation theory. Creating a survey of runaway star candidates is possible thanks to Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury's UV and optical photometry, and the identified clusters from the Andromeda Project. A first glimpse into the data suggests large body of massive stars are 50 parsecs or more from the closest cluster and roughly half of the entire massive stellar population is found outside of defined cluster boundaries. Additional analysts shows a stark difference between the velocity dispersion of massive stars and appropriately young clusters, the stars exhibiting a inflated dispersion. Using this result in conjunction with artificial clusters and star populations, constrains on the percentage of expected runaway objects can be made.

  20. A Study of Magnetic CP Stars in Open Clusters and Associations with the 6-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Yakunin, I. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.

    2017-06-01

    The study of magnetic CP stars in groups of different ages allows us to obtain data on the origin and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields. We selected 17 groups for observation with the 6-m telescope. Here we draw first conclusions from the study of the Orion OB1 association. Six new magnetic stars in it are added to those seventeen that had been known earlier, ten more CP stars were suspected to have fields. A complex structure of the magnetic field in the star HD 34736 has been found, which is indicative of its fossil origin.

  1. First Stars. III. A detailed elemental abundance study of four extremely metal-poor giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, P.; Depagne, E.; Hill, V.; Spite, M.; Spite, F.; Plez, B.; Beers, T. C.; Barbuy, B.; Cayrel, R.; Andersen, J.; Bonifacio, P.; Molaro, P.; Nordström, B.; Primas, F.

    2003-06-01

    This paper reports detailed abundance analyses for four extremely metal-poor (XMP) giant stars with [Fe/H]<-3.8, based on high-resolution, high-S/N spectra from the ESO VLT (Kueyen/UVES) and LTE model atmosphere calculations. The derived [alpha /Fe] ratios in our sample exhibit a small dispersion, confirming previous findings in the literature, i.e. a constant overabundance of the alpha -elements with a very small (if any) dependence on [Fe/H]. In particular, the very small scatter we determine for [Si/Fe] suggests that this element shows a constant overabundance at very low metallicity, a conclusion which could not have been derived from the widely scattered [Si/Fe] values reported in the literature for less metal-poor stars. For the iron-peak elements, our precise abundances for the four XMP stars in our sample confirm the decreasing trend of Cr and Mn with decreasing [Fe/H], as well as the increasing trend for Co and the absence of any trend for Sc and Ni. In contrast to the significant spread of the ratios [Sr/Fe] and [Ba/Fe], we find [Sr/Ba] in our sample to be roughly solar, with a much lower dispersion than previously found for stars in the range -3.5 < [Fe/H] < -2.5. Based on observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory, Chile (Large Programme ID 165.N-0276(A)). The complete version of Table 5 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.125.5) or via http:/ /cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J /A+A/403/1105

  2. John Goodricke, Edward Pigott, and Their Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2011-05-01

    John Goodricke (1764-1786) and Edward Pigott (1753-1825) are credited with determining the first accurate periods for several important variable stars. Goodricke's name is associated with the determination of the period of the eclipsing binary Algol (Beta Persei); for this he was awarded the Copley Prize of the Royal Society of London. He also determined the periods of the contact binary Beta Lyrae and of Delta Cephei, the prototype Cepheid variable. Around the same time, Edward Pigott obtained the period of Eta Aquilae, another Cepheid. In actuality, the two collaborated on all these observations; today we would call them co-discoverers. Goodricke is the better known of the two, in part because he won the Copley Medal, in part because of his tragically short life, and in part because he was deaf. Edward Pigott was the more experienced observer, having worked with his father Nathaniel on determining the longitudes of several cities on the Continent. Evidence shows, however, that Goodricke had some astronomical experience while a student at the Warrington Academy. The journals of the two show that they developed a partnership that made the most of both their talents over the brief time (less than five years) they worked together before Goodricke's death. Today, the two are remembered as having suggested eclipses as the cause for the periodic dimming of Algol. This explanation is accepted today as the correct one. In their day, however, most eminent astronomers believed that starspots were a more likely cause for the dimming. By the time of John Goodricke's death, he seems to have accepted that explanation as well. A study of the work of Goodricke and Pigott contains many lessons for today's observers of variable stars. This work was supported by an AAS Small Research Grant and by the Pollack Award of the Dudley Observatory.

  3. The peculiar A star HD 43819 - A photographic region line-identification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A line identification study of the sharp-lined silicon star HD 43819 has been performed for the photographic region 3759-4924 A. Comparison of this star's spectrum with those of other silicon stars shows that it shares many of their apparent abundance anomalies. The TiII, CrII, FeI, and FeII spectra are well represented while the singly ionized rare earths are represented by at best a few lines per species.

  4. A KINEMATIC AND PHOTOMETRIC STUDY OF THE GALACTIC YOUNG STAR CLUSTER NGC 7380

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W. P.; Chen, C. W.; Pandey, A. K.; Sharma, Saurabh; Chen Li; Sperauskas, J.; Ogura, K.; Chuang, R. J.; Boyle, R. P.

    2011-09-15

    We present proper motions, radial velocities, and a photometric study of the Galactic open cluster NGC 7380, which is associated with prominent emission nebulosity and dark molecular clouds. On the basis of the sample of highly probable member stars, the star cluster is found to be at a distance of 2.6 {+-} 0.4 kpc, has an age of around 4 Myr, and a physical size of {approx}6 pc across with a tidal structure. The binary O-type star DH Cep is a member of the cluster in its late stage of clearing the surrounding material, and may have triggered the ongoing star formation in neighboring molecular clouds which harbor young stars that are coeval and comoving with, but not gravitationally bound by, the star cluster.

  5. A Study of Variability Among the Blue Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Arlo U.; Preston, George W.

    2002-08-01

    The blue metal poor (BMP) stars of interest in this proposal are stars whose [Fe/H] < -1.0. Preston's long-term spectrographic program at Las Campanas has shown many of these stars to be variable in velocity. Initial observations by Landolt have shown that about one- half of the BMPs tested are variable in light. Telescope time is being requested to do photometry of selected BMPs with the following goals: to establish the pulsation amplitudes and periods of BMPs found to vary in light, to establish upper limits of pulsation amplitude for the remainder, to define the color boundaries of the BMP instability strip, to estimate the fraction of pulsators in this strip, and to compare the pulsation properties of the BMP stars with their Delta Scuti cousins in the solar neighborhood and the SX Phe stars in globular clusters. This current proposal is a continuation of the exploration of the instability strip for these stars; the initial run was completed a week ago.

  6. A Study of Variability Among the Blue Metal Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landolt, Arlo U.; Preston, George W.

    2005-08-01

    The blue metal poor (BMP) stars of interest in this proposal are stars whose [Fe/H] < -1.0. Preston's long-term spectrographic program at Las Campanas has shown many of these stars to be variable in velocity. Initial observations by Landolt have showed that three of the BMPs tested were variable in light. Limited data from this effort indicate that several other BMPs are suspected to be light variables. Telescope time is being requested to do photometry of selected BMPs with the following goals: to establish the pulsation amplitudes and periods of BMPs found to vary in light, to establish upper limits of pulsation amplitude for the remainder, to define the color boundaries of the BMP instability strip, to estimate the fraction of pulsators in this strip, and to compare the pulsation properties of the BMP stars with their Delta Scuti cousins in the solar neighborhood and the SX Phe stars in globular clusters. This current proposal is a continuation of the photometric exploration of the instability strip for these stars, essential to complement the in hand spectroscopic data. These requested runs should complete the project.

  7. A study of rotational velocity distribution of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, C.; Janot-Pacheco, E.; Emilio, M.

    2014-10-01

    Classical Be stars are rapid rotators of spectral type late O to early A and luminosity class V-III, which exhibit Balmer emission lines and often a near infrared excess originating in an equatorially concentrated circumstellar envelope, both produced by sporadic mass ejection episodes. The causes of the abnormal mass loss (the so-called Be phenomenon) are as yet unknown. In spite of their high vsin i, rapid rotation alone cannot explain the ejection episodes as most Be stars do not rotate at their critical rotation rates. In this work we present the distribution of vsin i of 261 Be's stars from BeSS (Be Star Spectra) database. We used two techniques, the Fourier method and the FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) method. For the analysis we made use of three absorption lines of Helium (4026r A, 4388 Å and 4471 Å). Stars with projected rotational velocities up to 300 km s^{-1} agree with the ones already published in the literature. 84 of our stars do not have the values of rotational velocity published. The majority of our sample are B1/B2 spectral type, whose have the greatest velocities.

  8. A study of variable stars in the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fang-Fang; Esamdin, Ali; Ma, Lu; Liu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Yu; Niu, Hu-Biao; Yang, Tao-Zhi

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents Charge-Coupled Device time-series photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 1582 and its surrounding field with Johnson B, V and R filters by using the Nanshan 1 m telescope administered by Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. 19 variable stars and three variable candidates were detected in a 45‧ × 48.75‧ field around the cluster. 12 of the variable stars are newly-discovered variable objects. The physical properties, classifications and memberships of these 22 objects are studied through their light curves, their positions on the color-magnitude diagram and with archival data from the Naval Observatory Merged Astrometric Dataset. Among these objects, five are eclipsing binary systems, six are pulsating variable stars including one known δ Scuti star and one newly-discovered RR Lyrae star. The distance to the RR Lyrae star is estimated to be 7.9 ± 0.3 kpc, indicating that the star is located far behind the cluster. Four variable stars are probable members of the cluster, and 13 of the 22 objects are confirmed to be field stars.

  9. KELT-9b: A Case Study in Dynamical Planet Ingestion by a Hot Host Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan; Gaudi, B. Scott; Beatty, Thomas G.; Zhou, George; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Eastman, Jason D.; Siverd, Robert; Crepp, Justin R.; Pepper, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Nearly all of the known transiting extra-solar planets orbit stars with masses similar to, or less massive than, the Sun. Such stars typically do not evolve substantially over their hydrogen-fusion lifetime of roughly 10 billion years or more. In contrast, stars much more massive than the Sun evolve on much shorter timescales, and thus the planets they host represent important test cases for how such systems evolve as their parent stars expand -- perhaps engulfing their planets. Most planetary systems orbiting such massive stars have been found around stars that have already exhausted their core hydrogen, cooled, swelled, and likely erased the knowledge of their progenitor close-in planetary systems. In contrast, KELT-9b is a "hot Jupiter" orbiting a star with a mass of 2.2 Msun. The star is still unevolved and therefore still very hot (surface temperature ~ 10,000 K) and therefore the planet is extremely hot. The planet is on a near-polar orbit, likely resulting in orbital precession that will be detectable within a few years. Given the extreme planet temperature, large planet-to-star radius ratio, large planetary atmospheric scale height, and short orbital period, this system is an exceptionally good target for follow-up studies of the planet's atmosphere, which may exhibit unusual photochemistry due to the extreme amounts of high-energy radiation it receives.

  10. Studying Variable Stars with Undergraduate Students at the University of Nebraska Kearney (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, W. L., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    (Abstract only) Over the past several years I have involved undergraduate students in studies of intrinsic variable stars and, more recently, binary stars. In this talk I will address the challenges that come when working exclusively with undergraduate students, as well as detail recent results from this work. In particular I will cover the results of a study of three RR Lyrae (RRL) stars that were identified from the SDSS using a novel technique, and a follow-up study on a previously unknown W UMa contact binary star that exhibits the O'Connell Effect (OCE) that we found in the field of one of the RRL we studied. Finally, I will describe our current work on binary stars and the OCE. Our current work will also be presented in more detail in my student's poster at this meeting.

  11. A lucky imaging multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.; Buder, S.; Errmann, R.; Avenhaus, H.; Mouillet, D.; Maire, A.-L.; Raetz, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of extrasolar planets are detected by indirect detection methods such as transit monitoring and radial velocity measurements. While these methods are very successful in detecting short-periodic planets, they are mostly blind to wide sub-stellar or even stellar companions on long orbits. In our study, we present high-resolution imaging observations of 60 exoplanet hosts carried out with the lucky imaging instrument AstraLux at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope as well as with the new Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) high-resolution adaptive optics imager at the ESO/VLT in the case of a known companion of specific interest. Our goal is to study the influence of stellar multiplicity on the planet formation process. We detected and confirmed four previously unknown stellar companions to the exoplanet hosts HD 197037, HD 217786, Kepler-21 and Kepler-68. In addition, we detected 11 new low-mass stellar companion candidates which must still be confirmed as bound companions. We also provide new astrometric and photometric data points for the recently discovered very close binary systems WASP-76 and HD 2638. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the previously detected stellar companion to the HD 185269 system is a very low mass binary. Finally, we provide precise constraints on additional companions for all observed stars in our sample.

  12. A Study of the Low Mass Binary Star Ross 614

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatewood, G.; Han, I.; Tangren, W.

    2001-12-01

    We have combined photograph, MAP, interferometric, and spectroscopic data to determine the orbital characteristics and masses of the Ross 614 binary star system. Attention was first drawn to the star by Frank E. Ross (1927, AJ 37, 193) who noticed its high proper motion in a comparison of new plates with those taken at the Yerkes Observatory by E.E. Barnard. The Binary nature of the star was recognized from accelerations in the star's proper motion (D. Reuyl 1936, AJ 55, 236) and the mass of the companion was first estimated by combining measurements of McCormick and Sproul plates with a separation measured by Walter Baade at the Hale 5-m reflector (S.L. Lippincott 1955, AJ 60, 379). In her paper Lippincott notes the companion's significance as defining the lower end of the observational main sequence. Fifty six years later the star still holds that honor. With a wealth of new data spanning more than 3 additional orbits, we find her value of 0.08 solar masses to be within our error of our value.

  13. Studying the evolution of AGB stars in the Gaia epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Criscienzo, M.; Ventura, P.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell'Agli, F.; Castellani, M.; Marrese, P. M.; Marinoni, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Zamora, O.

    2016-10-01

    We present asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models of solar metallicity, to allow the interpretation of observations of Galactic AGB stars, whose distances should be soon available after the first release of the Gaia catalogue. We find an abrupt change in the AGB physical and chemical properties, occurring at the threshold mass to ignite hot bottom burning, i.e. 3.5 M⊙. Stars with mass below 3.5 M⊙ reach the C-star stage and eject into the interstellar medium gas enriched in carbon, nitrogen and 17O. The higher mass counterparts evolve at large luminosities, between 3 × 104 and 105 L⊙. The mass expelled from the massive AGB stars shows the imprinting of proton-capture nucleosynthesis, with considerable production of nitrogen and sodium and destruction of 12C and 18O. The comparison with the most recent results from other research groups is discussed, to evaluate the robustness of the present findings. Finally, we compare the models with recent observations of galactic AGB stars, outlining the possibility offered by Gaia to shed new light on the evolution properties of this class of objects.

  14. Fully self-consistent thermal evolution studies of rotating neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreiros, Rodrigo; Schramm, Stefan; Weber, Fridolin

    2017-07-01

    In this work we study the thermal evolution of rotating, axis-symmetric neutron stars, which are subjected to structural and compositional changes during spin-down. Our aim is to go beyond standard thermal evolution calculations where neutron stars are considered spherically-symmetric and with a static, "frozen-in" composition. Building on previous work, we carry out fully self-consistent thermal evolution calculations where the neutron star has an axis-symmetric, time-dependent structure. Such an approach allows us to consider, during the thermal evolution, changes of the star's geometry as well as its microscopic particle population. As a proof-of-concept, we study the thermal evolution of a neutron star subjected to magnetic braking spin-down. We show that the spin-evolution, combined with the accompanying structural and compositional changes lead to a substantially distinct thermal evolution scenario.

  15. Origins of massive field stars in the Galactic Centre: a spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hui; Mauerhan, Jon; Morris, Mark R.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Cotera, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Outside of the known star clusters in the Galactic Centre, a large number of evolved massive stars have been detected; but their origins remain uncertain. We present a spectroscopic study of eight such stars, based on new Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) and Near-IR Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) near-infrared observations. This work has led to the discovery of a new O If+ star. We compare the reddening-corrected J - K versus K diagram for our stars with the massive ones in the Arches cluster and use stellar evolutionary tracks to constrain their ages and masses. The radial velocities of both the stars and their nearby H II regions are also reported. All of the stars are blueshifted relative to the Arches cluster by > 50 km s-1. We find that our source P35 has a velocity consistent with that of the surrounding molecular gas. The velocity gradient of nearby ionized gas along the Gemini GNIRS long slit, relative to P35 and the adjacent -30 to 0 km s-1 molecular cloud, can best be explained by a pressure-driven flow model. Thus, P35 most likely formed in situ. Three more of our stars have radial velocities different from their adjacent molecular gas, indicating that they are interlopers. The four stars closest to the Arches cluster have similar spectra, ages and masses to known cluster members, suggesting that they were likely ejected from the cluster via three-body interactions. Therefore, we find that the relatively isolated stars are partly form in situ and partly be ejected from the known star clusters in the Galactic Center.

  16. Star Formation Studies with SOFIA and its Synergy with TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Buizer, James

    2014-07-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a modified Boeing 747 aircraft equipped with a 2.5m telescope that performs observations at high altitude from the optical to the sub-mm. The observatory just reached full operational capability in April of this year. Given that it is slated for a 20-year mission lifetime, SOFIA will overlap TMT by more than a decade. I will discuss the contrasting and complementary features of SOFIA and TMT in the context of star formation, discuss some of the early results from SOFIA in this field, and finish with a discussion of how TMT data can enhance and extended our understanding of star formation processes.[This talk could also be generalized to discuss more about synergies between SOFIA and TMT in a broader context (not just star formation), should the organizers prefer that.

  17. A Comparative Study of Two 47 Tuc Giant Stars with Different s-process Enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, M. J.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, C. I.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2015-07-01

    Here we aim to understand the origin of 47 Tuc’s La-rich star Lee 4710. We report abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Zn, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Eu and present a detailed abundance analysis of two 47 Tuc stars with similar stellar parameters but different slow neutron-capture (s-)process enrichment. Star Lee 4710 has the highest known La abundance ratio in this cluster ([La/Fe] = 1.14), and star Lee 4626 is known to have normal s-process abundances (e.g., [Ba/Eu] < 0). The nucleosynthetic pattern of elements with Z ≳ 56 for star Lee 4710 agrees with the predicted yields of a 1.3{M}⊙ asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Therefore, Lee 4710 may have been enriched by mass transfer from a more massive AGB companion, which is compatible with its location far away from the center of this relatively metal-rich ([Fe/H] ˜ -0.7) globular cluster. A further analysis comparing the abundance pattern of Lee 4710 with data available in the literature reveals that nine out of the ˜200 47 Tuc stars previously studied show strong s-process enhancements that point toward later enrichment by more massive AGB stars.

  18. A study of two high-velocity red horizontal branch stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, C. B.; Jilinski, E. G.; Drake, N. A.; Ortega, V. G.; Roig, F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. High-velocity halo stars provide important information about the properties of the extreme Galactic halo. The study of Population II unbound and bound stars enables us better estimate the mass of the halo. Aims: We carried out a detailed spectroscopic and kinematic study of two red horizontal branch stars, CD-41°15048 and HD 214362. Methods: The atmospheric parameters, chemical abundances, and kinematical properties were determined using high-resolution optical spectroscopy and employing the local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres of Kurucz and the spectral analysis code moog. Results: We found that CD-41°15048 and HD 214362 are metal-poor red horizontal branch stars. Their abundance patterns are similar to other metal-poor halo stars already investigated. Our kinematic analysis of the 3D space motions shows that HD 214362 has a highly eccentric (e = 0.95) orbit and passes at 2 kpc from the Galactic center. CD-41°15048, for an adopted distance of 1.3 kpc, has an extreme retrograde motion and travels with very high velocity relative to the Galactocentric reference frame (VGRF = 583 km s-1). Conclusions: CD-41°15048 is a bound or an unbound star, depending on the adopted Galactic potential. We also show that the red horizontal branch star BD+09°3223 is another example of a hypervelocity star. Whether it is bound or unbound to the Galaxy depends on the assumed mass and adopted Galactic potential. Possible origins of these two high-velocity stars are briefly discussed. CD-41°15048 and BD+09°3223 are further examples of evolved stars to join the restricted group of hypervelocity stars. Finally, our results seem to contradict the idea that a passage of a star very close to the Galactic center is the only possible origin of hypervelocity stars. Based on observations made with the 2.2 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) under the agreement between ESO and Observatório Nacional (2007-2010).Figures 3-5, 8, 10

  19. Methods of studying polarization of variable star radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    1973-01-01

    Polarized light from variable stars can be used to determine radiation intensity and wavelength. Various types of polarization analyzers are discussed (single-beam and double-beam) as well as their modes of use (continuous and discrete). Modulation of polarizers and determination of measurement accuracy are also covered.

  20. Focused Study of Thermonuclear Bursts on Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-05-01

    X-ray bursters form a class of Low Mass X-Ray Binaries where accreted material from a donor star undergoes rapid thermonuclear burning in the surface layers of a neutron star. The flux released can temporarily exceed the Eddington limit and drive the photosphere to large radii. Such photospheric radius expansion bursts likely eject nuclear burning ashes into the interstellar medium, and may make possible the detection of photoionization edges. Indeed, theoretical models predict that absorption edges from 58Fe at 9.2 keV, 60Zn and 62Zn at 12.2 keV should be detectable by the future missions Simbol-X and NuSTAR. A positive detection would thus probe the nuclear burning as well as the gravitational redshift from the neutron star. Moreover, likely observations of atomic X-ray spectral components reflected from the inner accretion disk have been reported. The high spectral resolution capabilities of the focusing X-ray telescopes may therefore make possible to differentiate between the potential interpretations of the X-ray bursts spectral features.

  1. Star field attitude sensor study for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolf, W. P.; Reed, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics of a star field attitude sensor for use with the Pioneer Venus spacecraft are presented. The aspects of technical feasibility, system interface considerations, and cost of flight hardware development are discussed. The tradeoffs which relate to performance, design, cost, and reliability are analyzed. The configuration of the system for installation in the spacecraft is described.

  2. Thermonuclear processes on accreting neutron stars - A systematic study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayasli, S.; Joss, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    A series of model calculations for the evolution of the surface layers of an accreting neutron star is carried out. The neutron star mass, radius, core temperature, and surface magnetic field strength are systematically varied, as are the accretion rate onto the neutron star surface and the metallicity of the accreting matter, in order to determine the effects of these parameters on the properties of thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers and the emitted X-ray bursts that result from such flashes. The core temperatures required for thermal equilibrium are found to be approximately a factor of 2 lower than estimated in earlier work. Owing to the effects of the gravitational redshift, the emitted X-ray bursts have lower peak luminosities and longer durations than those calculated in the Newtonian approximation. The entrainment of hydrogen into helium flashes can cause the flashes to exhibit a rather wide range of observable effects and can decrease by a factor of more than 2 the ratio of persistent accretion-driven luminosity to time-averaged burst luminosity emitted by the neutron star.

  3. A study of the effect of rotational mixing on massive stars evolution: surface abundances of Galactic O7-8 giant stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Barbá, R. H.; Gamen, R. C.; Ekström, S.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Massive star evolution remains only partly constrained. In particular, the exact role of rotation has been questioned by puzzling properties of OB stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Aims: Our goal is to study the relation between surface chemical composition and rotational velocity, and to test predictions of evolutionary models including rotation. Methods: We have performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of fifteen Galactic O7-8 giant stars. This sample is homogeneous in terms of mass, metallicity and evolutionary state. It is made of stars with a wide range of projected rotational velocities. Results: We show that the sample stars are located on the second half of the main sequence, in a relatively narrow mass range (25-40 M⊙). Almost all stars with projected rotational velocities above 100 km s-1 have N/C ratios about ten times the initial value. Below 100 km s-1 a wide range of N/C values is observed. The relation between N/C and surface gravity is well reproduced by various sets of models. Some evolutionary models including rotation are also able to consistently explain slowly rotating, highly enriched stars. This is due to differential rotation which efficiently transports nucleosynthesis products and allows the surface to rotate slower than the core. In addition, angular momentum removal by winds amplifies surface braking on the main sequence. Comparison of the surface composition of O7-8 giant stars with a sample of B stars with initial masses about four times smaller reveal that chemical enrichment scales with initial mass, as expected from theory. Conclusions: Although evolutionary models that include rotation face difficulties in explaining the chemical properties of O- and B-type stars at low metallicity, some of them can consistently account for the properties of main-sequence Galactic O stars in the mass range 25-40 M⊙.

  4. The statistical study of Chorus waves using the Double star TC1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearby, K.; Aryan, H.; Balikhin, M. A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Agapitov, O. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Double star satellite was launched on 29 December 2003 into an equatorial elliptical orbit with a perigee of 570km and an apogee of 78970km and an inclination of 28.5°. The satellite operated until 14 October 2007. The Double star TC1 data provides extensive coverage of the inner magnetosphere regions in the range of L shells >1.1L*, and a wide range of latitudes. This study presents a detailed statistical study of the Chorus waves during 4 years of the Double star operation.

  5. Asteroseismological Study of Massive ZZ Ceti Stars with Fully Evolutionary Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Fraga, L.

    2013-12-01

    We present the first asteroseismological study for 42 massive ZZ Ceti stars based on a large set of fully evolutionary carbon-oxygen core DA white dwarf models characterized by a detailed and consistent chemical inner profile for the core and the envelope. Our sample comprises all of the ZZ Ceti stars with spectroscopic stellar masses between 0.72 and 1.05 M ⊙ known to date. The asteroseismological analysis of a set of 42 stars enables study of the ensemble properties of the massive, pulsating white dwarf stars with carbon-oxygen cores, in particular the thickness of the hydrogen envelope and the stellar mass. A significant fraction of stars in our sample have stellar mass that is high enough to crystallize at the effective temperatures of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, which enables us to study the effects of crystallization on the pulsation properties of these stars. Our results show that the phase diagram presented in Horowitz et al. seems to be a good representation of the crystallization process inside white dwarf stars, in agreement with the results from white dwarf luminosity function in globular clusters.

  6. Asteroseismological study of massive ZZ Ceti stars with fully evolutionary models

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2013-12-10

    We present the first asteroseismological study for 42 massive ZZ Ceti stars based on a large set of fully evolutionary carbon-oxygen core DA white dwarf models characterized by a detailed and consistent chemical inner profile for the core and the envelope. Our sample comprises all of the ZZ Ceti stars with spectroscopic stellar masses between 0.72 and 1.05 M {sub ☉} known to date. The asteroseismological analysis of a set of 42 stars enables study of the ensemble properties of the massive, pulsating white dwarf stars with carbon-oxygen cores, in particular the thickness of the hydrogen envelope and the stellar mass. A significant fraction of stars in our sample have stellar mass that is high enough to crystallize at the effective temperatures of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, which enables us to study the effects of crystallization on the pulsation properties of these stars. Our results show that the phase diagram presented in Horowitz et al. seems to be a good representation of the crystallization process inside white dwarf stars, in agreement with the results from white dwarf luminosity function in globular clusters.

  7. A multiwavelength study of evolved massive stars in the Galactic Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Wang, Q. D.; Morris, M. R.

    2012-09-01

    The central region of the Milky Way Galaxy provides a unique laboratory for a systematic, spatially resolved population study of evolved massive stars of various types in a relatively high-metallicity environment. We have conducted a multiwavelength data analysis of 180 such stars or candidates, most of which were drawn from a recent large-scale Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Near-Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrometer (NICMOS) narrow-band Paschen α survey, plus additional 14 Wolf-Rayet stars identified in earlier ground-based spectroscopic observations of the same field. The multiwavelength data include broad-band infrared (IR) photometry measurements from HST/NIC2, Simultaneous three-colour InfraRed Imager for Unbiased Surveys (SIRIUS), Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), Spitzer/IRAC and X-ray observations from Chandra. We correct for extinctions towards individual stars, improve the Paschen α line equivalent width measurements, quantify the substantial mid-IR dust emission associated with carbon sequence Wolf-Rayet (WC) stars and find X-ray counterparts. In the process, we identify 10 foreground sources, some of which may be nearby cataclysmic variables. The nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WN) stars in the Arches and Central clusters show correlations between the Paschen α equivalent width and the adjacent continuum emission. However, the WN stars in the latter cluster are systematically dimmer than those in the Arches cluster, presumably due to the different ages of the two clusters. In the equivalent width-magnitude plot, late-type nitrogen sequence Wolf-Rayet (WNL) stars, WC stars and OB supergiants roughly fall into three distinct regions. We estimate that the dust mass associated with individual WC stars in the quintuplet cluster can reach 10-5 M⊙, or more than one order of magnitude larger than previous estimates. Thus, WC stars could be a significant source of dust in the galaxies of the early Universe. Nearly half of the evolved massive stars in

  8. Multiwavelength Studies of Mira Ceti-type Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esipov, V. F.; Pashchenko, M. I.; Rudnitskij, G. M.; Kozin, M. V.; Lekht, E. E.; Nadjip, A. E.; Fomin, S. V.

    Since 1994, observations of a sample of about 20 Mira Ceti-type and semiregular variables have been carried out in three spectral ranges: radio (H2O maser line λ = 1.35cm), optical (spectroscopy and U BV photometry) and infrared (JHKLM photometry). Time series of the Hα emission intensity and H2O line flux, covering several periods of the stars, have been obtained. Correlation of the intensity variations of the H2O maser with optical variability in the maser stars RR Aql, U Ori, VX Sgr and others was confirmed. One of the most interesting results is the flare of the H2O maser emission in R Leo, which happened in autumn 1997, 14 months after a flare of the Hα emission.

  9. Theoretical studies of chromospheres and winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated radiative losses from H, H-, Ca II, and Mg II show that cooling for the chromosphere of the supergiant epsilon Gem do not differ greatly from the solar law, although there are differences at approximately 6000K due to ionization effects. With a rough standard law for computation of stellar winds using the Hartmann-MacGregor theory and standard stellar evolutionary calculations, the wind velocities and temperatures in the HR diagram were systematically explored. Results show that cool winds with tempratures 1,000,00K are not possible for log g or = 2. Predicted wind velocities are approximately 1.5 to 2 x larger than observed, particularly for the most luminous cool stars. The ionization balance for the wind of alpha ORI and the hydrogen profile lines for T Tauri stars were computed using the PANDORA computer program.

  10. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars.

    PubMed

    David Arnett, W; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of [Formula: see text], and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  11. Key issues review: numerical studies of turbulence in stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnett, W. David; Meakin, Casey

    2016-10-01

    Three major problems of single-star astrophysics are convection, magnetic fields and rotation. Numerical simulations of convection in stars now have sufficient resolution to be truly turbulent, with effective Reynolds numbers of \\text{Re}>{{10}4} , and some turbulent boundary layers have been resolved. Implications of these developments are discussed for stellar structure, evolution and explosion as supernovae. Methods for three-dimensional (3D) simulations of stars are compared and discussed for 3D atmospheres, solar rotation, core-collapse and stellar boundary layers. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis of the numerical simulations has been shown to provide a novel and quantitative estimate of resolution errors. Present treatments of stellar boundaries require revision, even for early burning stages (e.g. for mixing regions during He-burning). As stellar core-collapse is approached, asymmetry and fluctuations grow, rendering spherically symmetric models of progenitors more unrealistic. Numerical resolution of several different types of three-dimensional (3D) stellar simulations are compared; it is suggested that core-collapse simulations may be under-resolved. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability in explosions has a deep connection to convection, for which the abundance structure in supernova remnants may provide evidence.

  12. An Ultraviolet Study of Non-periodic Variability in Accreting Pre-Main Sequence Stars: UXors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, N. L.; Herbst, W.

    1994-05-01

    Many earlier type (K0 or hotter) pre-main sequence stars are known to occasionally and irregularly fade by as much as 2-3 magnitudes in V. Such excursions occur on timescales of ten to forty days. They include both G-type T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars. We propose UX Ori as a prototype for this class of variable stars and refer to them as UXors. We have used archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of 5 such objects, namely: RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. The leading hypothesis for explaining their behavior is variable circumstellar obscuration. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent width of these (emission) features [FeII(1,62,63) and MgII(1)] increases as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200 to 8900 angstroms were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2200 angstroms, caused by iron lines is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright. The source and location of the variable obscuring material is discussed.

  13. A new approach to the infrared photometric study of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P. S.; Liu, J. Y.; Shan, H. G.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we have collected data for almost all Be stars known so far (1991 sources in total) and photometrically study their infrared properties. 2MASS, WISE, IRAS and Akari data are analysed. It is shown from several two-colour diagrams that from 1 to 60 μm, infrared excesses for the majority of Be stars are mainly due to the free-free emission or the bound-free emission from proton-electron scattering, while for only a small number of Be stars their infrared excess originates from dust thermal radiation or is caused by the nebulosity/binarity effects. However, in the wavelength range 3.4-12 μm (the WISE W1, W2 and W3 bands), some Be stars show the properties of dust thermal radiation, which is probably due to silicate dust emission and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission. In addition, it is found in this paper that infrared colour excesses indeed increase with wavelength for Be stars. However, no correlations between infrared colours and spectral type can be found for Be stars. Furthermore, several stars have very large infrared excesses in the near-infrared. The reasons for such infrared excesses are given in more detail.

  14. The study of Be stars with the CoRoT satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutierrez-Soto, J.; Fabregat, J.; Suso, J.; COROT Be Team

    2011-11-01

    The CoRoT space mission, launched in December 2006, is a spacecraft devoted to the study of the stellar interiors and the exo-planet search. Concerning the seismology of the Be stars, the presence of pulsations in late-type Be stars is still a matter of controversy. It constitutes an important issue to establish the relationship between non-radial pulsations and the mass-loss mechanism in Be stars. In this field, the CoRoT satellite is providing data with an unprecedent quality and precision that is confirming non-radial pulsations in Be stars. The CoRoT Be Team is an international collaboration composed by members from France, Spain, Brazil and Belgium and is in charge of the exploitation and analysis of the Be stars data. In this work we present the highlighted results of the observed Be stars by CoRoT and the future prospects of the CoRoT Be Team. These results include the detection of the Be star HD 49 330 during an outburst phase and the measurement of the change in the oscillation spectrum during this rare event. These observations gave insight into the nature of the explosion. It will help to solve a question that has been pending for years: are oscillations the cause of the outbursts? Moreover, for the first time, the CoRoT satellite has detected simultaneously the rotational and the pulsational frequencies for the Be star HD 50 209, which constitutes a proof of the presence of pulsations in the Be stars. %J Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VI, Proceedings of the IX Scientific Meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA), held in Madrid, September 13 - 17, 2010, Eds.: M. R. Zapatero Osorio, J. Gorgas, J. Maiz Apellaniz, J. R. Pardo, and A. Gil de Paz., p. 531-531

  15. Spectro-astrometric Study of HI emission lines from Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cade Adams, Steven; Brittain, Sean D.; Dougados, Catherine; Benisty, Myriam; Podio, Linda; Whelan, Emma

    2015-01-01

    We present a spectro-astrometric study of the Pa β and Br γ lines from six Herbig Ae/Be stars using NIFS on Gemini North. The goal of this study is to determine the origin of the HI emission lines. By combining the high angular resolution ( 0.1") and intermediate spectral resolution (R~5000) of GEMINI/NIFS we measured the spectro-astrometric signal of the Pa β and Br γ emission lines at the 0.1 mas level. The HAe stars showed no significant spectro-astrometric signal, while the HBe stars did show significant detections. We compare our results to models and discuss the implications for understanding the origin of the HI lines in Herbig Ae/Be stars and their utility for measuring the accretion rate. We also discuss various artifacts in the data and prospects for more sensitive measurements in the future.

  16. Subaru/HDS study of CH stars: elemental abundances for stellar neutron-capture process studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Aruna; Aoki, Wako; Karinkuzhi, Drisya

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive abundance analysis providing rare insight into the chemical history of lead stars is still lacking. We present results from high-resolution (R ˜ 50 000) spectral analyses of three CH stars, HD 26, HD 198269 and HD 224959, and, a carbon star with a dusty envelope, HD 100764. Previous studies on these objects are limited by both resolution and wavelength regions and the results differ significantly from each other. We have undertaken to reanalyse the chemical composition of these objects based on high-resolution Subaru spectra covering the wavelength regions 4020-6775 Å. Considering local thermodynamic equilibrium and using model atmospheres, we have derived the stellar parameters, the effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, and metallicities [Fe/H] for these objects. The derived parameters for HD 26, HD 100764, HD 198269 and HD 224959 are (5000, 1.6, -1.13), (4750, 2.0 -0.86), (4500, 1.5, -2.06) and (5050, 2.1, -2.44), respectively. The stars are found to exhibit large enhancements of heavy elements relative to iron in conformity to previous studies. Large enhancement of Pb with respect to iron is also confirmed. Updates on the elemental abundances for several s-process elements (Y, Zr, La, Ce, Nd, Sm and Pb) along with the first-time estimates of abundances for a number of other heavy elements (Sr, Ba, Pr, Eu, Er and W) are reported. Our analysis suggests that neutron-capture elements in HD 26 primarily originate in the s-process while the major contributions to the abundances of neutron-capture elements in the more metal-poor objects HD 224959 and HD 198269 are from the r-process, possibly from materials that are pre-enriched with products of the r-process.

  17. Theoretical Near-IR Spectra for Surface Abundance Studies of Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Bouret, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of O-type stars based on theoretical near-IR spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a powerful tool to obtain high signal-to-noise ratio near-IR (1-5 micron) spectra of massive stars in different environments of local galaxies. Our goal is to analyze model near-IR spectra corresponding to those expected from NIRspec on JWST in order to map the wind properties and surface composition across the parameter range of 0 stars and to determine projected rotational velocities. As a massive star evolves, internal coupling, related mixing, and mass loss impact its intrinsic rotation rate. These three parameters form an intricate loop, where enhanced rotation leads to more mixing which in turn changes the mass loss rate, the latter thus affecting the rotation rate. Since the effects of rotation are expected to be much more pronounced at low metallicity, we pay special attention to models for massive stars in the the Small Magellanic Cloud. This galaxy provides a unique opportunity to probe stellar evolution, and the feedback of massive stars on galactic evol.ution in conditions similar to the epoch of maximal star formation. Plain-Language Abstract: We present initial results of a study of abundance and mass loss properties of massive stars based on theoretical near-infrared (1-5 micron) spectra computed with state-of-the-art stellar atmosphere models. This study is to prepare for observations by the James Webb Space Telescope.

  18. Near-infrared studies of embedded star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan

    The Fan Mountain Near-Infrared Camera, FanCam, features an 8.7'x8.7' field of view on a 1024x1024 Teledyne Imaging Sensors HAWAII-1 detector array. The instrument mounts at the f/15.5 focus of the 31 inch telescope. Its seeing-limited optical design, optimized for the JHK atmospheric bands, includes a field stop at the telescope focus, a doublet collimator, two 8-position filterwheels straddling a Lyot stop, and a doublet reimager. The 0.51''pixel-1 plate scale leads to a slightly oversampled point spread function for the typical seeing of 1.5''. The entire optical train is encased in a cryogenic dewar cooled by a closed-loop cooling system. Chapter 2 describes the camera design and some early results of camera performance test. Long term near-infrared, J, H, and Ks, photometric monitoring of the embedded cluster NGC 1333 is presented in Chapter 3. We employ the Stetson variability index and reduced chi 2 to identify variable objects. Color-magnitude and color-color diagrams demonstrate that NGC 1333 is extremely young and highly extincted. Light curves in all three bands are well correlated. The spatial distribution of variable stars shows a strong correlation with the peak of the extinction map while non-variable stars are evenly spread over the whole field of view. Spitzer-2MASS-identified IR excess YSOs and Chandra X-ray sources were compared with our variable stars. A total of 25 previously-unknown member candidates are presented, with 15 objects in the mass range of brown dwarfs. The IMF and mass distribution of the cluster are presented. We discuss the implication of Ks vs. H--Ks color-magnitude diagram slope statistics in view of the evolutionary sequence of young star-forming embedded clusters. Another long term near-infrared, J, H, and Ks, photometric monitoring performed with FanCam for the embedded cluster NGC 7129 is presented in Chapter 4.

  19. John Goodricke, Edward Pigott, and Their Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Linda M.

    2012-06-01

    John Goodricke and Edward Pigott, working in York, England, between 1781 and 1786, determined the periods of variation of eclipsing binaries such as Algol and Beta Lyrae and speculated that the eclipses of Algol might be caused by a "dark body," perhaps even a planet. They also determined the periods of variation of the first two known Cepheid variables, the stars whose period-luminosity relation today enables astronomers to determine distances to distant galaxies. Goodricke holds special interest because he was completely deaf and because he died at the age of 21. The lives and work of these two astronomers are described.

  20. A theoretical study of alpha star populations in loaded nuclear emulsions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Farley, T.A.; Stieff, L.R.

    1954-01-01

    This theoretical study of the alpha star populations in loaded emulsions was undertaken in an effort to find a quantitative method for the analysis of less than microgram amounts of thorium in the presence of larger amounts of uranium. Analytical expressions for each type of star from each of the significantly contributing members of the uranium and thorium series as well as summation formulas for the whole series have been computed. The analysis for thorium may be made by determining the abundance of five-branched stars in a loaded nuclear emulsion and comparing of observed and predicted star populations. The comparison may also be used to check the half-lives of several members of the uranium and thorium series. ?? 1954.

  1. A Study of Mass Loss and Dust Formation Near Hot Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuratov, K. S.; Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Alimgazinova, N. Sh.; Nuryzbaeva, A. Zh.; Manapbaeva, A. B.; Kuratova, A. K.

    At present dust formation is well studied only near cool stars, whose surface temperatures are close to those of dust sublimation. Hot stars need to supply large amounts of circumstellar material to allow dust formation around them. Such conditions naturally exist near supergiants with masses over 25 M⊙. The theory of stellar evolution predicts that less massive stars do not provide enough matter for dust formation. Nevertheless, dust exists near dwarfs with the B[e] phenomenon and giants of A-G spectral types which do not belong to star formation regions.A large group of objects with the B[e] phenomenon with extremely strong emission-line spectra that are neither young nor highly evolved has been recently identified. They are called FS CMa type objects. Their infrared excesses imply a large amount of recently created dust. Therefore, these objects can noticeably contribute to the Galactic dust content, but they have not been taken into consideration from this perspective.

  2. Infrared and optical studies of the Chamaeleon II and Lupus low-mass star forming regions .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzi, L.; Alcalá, J. M.; Chapman, N.; Covino, E.; Evans, N. J., II; Frasca, A.; Gandolfi, D.; Huard, T. L.; Oliveira, I.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Merín, B.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.

    The Spitzer Legacy survey ``From Molecular Cores to Planet-forming Disks'' \\citep[c2d][]{Eva03} provided infrared observations of sources that span the evolutionary sequence from molecular cores to proto-planetary disks, encompassing a wide range of star-forming environments. These overall observations allowed to study crucial steps in the formation of stars and planets with unprecedented sensitivity. We present some results from the Spitzer observations and complementary data in the low-mass star forming regions in Chamaeleon II and Lupus. We focus, in particular, on the star-formation history and activity of these clouds, the low-mass end of their IMF and the envelope/disk properties of their young populations.

  3. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  4. Photometric and spectroscopic study of the new FUor star V2493 Cyg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semkov, Evgeni H.; Peneva, Stoyanka P.; Ibryamov, Sunay I.

    2017-01-01

    The recent results from photometric and spectroscopic study of the FUor star V2493 Cyg (HBC 722) are presented in the paper. The outburst of V2493 Cyg was registered during the summer of 2010 before the brightness of the star reached the maximum value. V2493 Cyg is the first FUor object, whose outburst was observed from its very beginning in all spectral ranges. The recent photometric data show that the star keeps its maximum brightness during the period September 2013 - Ocober 2016 and the recorded amplitude of the outburst is ΔV=5.1 mag. Consequently, the outburst of V2493 Cyg lasts for more than six years. Our spectral observations showed strong variability in the profiles and the intensity of emission lines especially for Hα line. We expect that the interest in this object will increase in the coming years and the results will help to explore the nature of young stars.

  5. Photometric studies of δ Scuti stars. I. IP Virginis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, Eric G.; Collier, Matthew W.

    1998-01-01

    We report 15 new times of maximum light for the δ Scuti star IP Virginis (formerly known as SA 106‐1024). An analysis of all times of maximum light indicates that IP Vir has been decreasing in period at a constant rate of − days day−1. Evidence is also presented that IP Vir is a double‐mode variable with a period ratio of . This period ratio predicts a [Fe/H] value of −0.3. From photometric (uvbyβ) observations, we find a foreground reddening of .008 mag and a metallicity of [Fe/H] = +0.05. It is shown that [Fe/H] = −0.3 is most likely the correct value. Intrinsic ‐ and c1‐values, plotted in a model atmosphere grid, indicate a mean effective temperature, K, and a mean surface gravity, . All of these physical parameters support Landolt's initial conclusion that IP Vir is an ordinary δ Sct star.

  6. Thermodynamics of star polymer solutions: A coarse-grained study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichetti, Roberto; Pelissetto, Andrea; Randisi, Ferdinando

    2017-06-01

    We consider a coarse-grained (CG) model with pairwise interactions, suitable to describe low-density solutions of star-branched polymers of functionality f. Each macromolecule is represented by a CG molecule with (f + 1) interaction sites, which captures the star topology. Potentials are obtained by requiring the CG model to reproduce a set of distribution functions computed in the microscopic model in the zero-density limit. Explicit results are given for f = 6, 12, and 40. We use the CG model to compute the osmotic equation of state of the solution for concentrations c such that Φp=c /c*≲1 , where c* is the overlap concentration. We also investigate in detail the phase diagram for f = 40, identifying the boundaries of the solid intermediate phase. Finally, we investigate how the polymer size changes with c. For Φp≲0.3 , polymers become harder as f increases at fixed reduced concentration c /c*. On the other hand, for Φp≳0.3 , polymers show the opposite behavior: At fixed Φp, the larger the value of f, the larger their size reduction is.

  7. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars.

  8. A Class Exercise: Studying the Eclipsing Binary Star RZ Cas Through Visual Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Davis, S. M.

    2000-05-01

    As part of the sophomore-junior level "Astronomical Techniques" course at Colgate University, students learn just how much science they can do with simple tools: a pair of binoculars, a clock, and pencil and paper. The students study the Algol type visual eclipsing binary star system RZ Cassiopeiae: observing and making a light curve for the primary minimum, determining the time of minimum using several techniques, calculating the binary star system's orbital period, and determining changes in the system's period over a thirty year interval by constructing an O-C curve. Through a series of preparatory exercises, the students learn how to read star maps and use the unaided eye, binoculars and telescopes to locate star fields and make visual magnitude measurements. By making multiple measurements of stars in the field of RZ Cas on several nights, the students determine the accuracy they can achieve in estimating the visual magnitude of a star -- typically 0.2 magnitude. (Some students even accidentally discover that one of the stars in the field is a variable star!) With this experience, the students use binoculars to observe the four hour primary eclipse of RZ Cas (magnitude 6.2 - 7.7), making magnitude measurements every five minutes. A light curve is then plotted. Several methods are used to determine the time of minimum, which is then converted to heliocentric Julian day. Using times of minima determined by former students (and the instructor) in previous years dating from 1968 to the present, the students determine the average period to a tenth of a second second. By constructing an O-C curve from the class's data and that obtained by the AAVSO, changes in the period of RZ Cas are noticeable -- possibly due to mass transfer in the system. It will be interesting for future classes to build on this knowledge using the primitive tools of our not so distant past.

  9. Spectroscopic study of Be-shell stars: 4 Her and 88 Her

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Shruthi S.; Paul, K. T.; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Mathew, Blesson

    2016-05-01

    We present an optical spectroscopic study based on 41 spectra of 4 Her and 32 spectra of 88 Her, obtained over a period of 6 months. We estimate the rotational velocity of these stars from HeI lines in the blue spectral region (4000-4500 Å). We find that these stars are likely to be rotating at a fractional critical rotation of ˜0.80. We measure the average I p/I c ratio to quantify the strength of the Hα line and obtain 1.63 for 4 Her and 2.06 for 88 Her. The radius of the Hα emission region is estimated to be Rd/R* ˜5.0, assuming a Keplerian disk. These stars are thus found to be fast rotators with a relatively small Hα emission region. We detect V/R variation of the Hα spectral line during the observed period. We re-estimate the periods for both stars and obtain a period of ˜46 d and its harmonic of 23.095 d for 4 Her, and a period of ˜86 d for 88 Her. As these two cases are shell stars with binaries and have low Hα EW with the emission region closer to the central star, the V/R variation and a change in period may be an effect of the binary on the circumstellar disk.

  10. A survey study of energy distribution in component stars of Algol-type binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobias, Jan Joseph

    A study survey of Algol-type binary systems was undertaken in order to investigate radiative flux distributions of their component stars. For hot primaries low-dispersion ultraviolet spectra, made with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUD) satellite, are combined at comparable phases with optical spectrophotometric scans, made at Lick Observatory, and then matched with a least-square method to Kurucz model atmospheres. Cooler secondaries are classified by matching their optical flux distributions, observed at totality, to standard stars. Results show that the U Sagittae system consists of a B7.5V-IV star while the secondary is matched by a G4III IV standard. The RW Tauri system consists of a B8V primary, while the secondary is matched by a KOIII standard. The UV spectrum of the primary in RY Geminorum matches that of an AOV standard. The secondary in RY GEM is KOIV. The system of RS Cephei consists of B9.7Ve and G8III-IV stars. The system of RW Persei consists of B9.6e and K2(+ or - 2)IV-III stars. The system of RX Geminorum consists of AOV or AOIII and K2(+ or - 2) stars. Finally, in Beta Lyrae the primary appears to be a B8.5-B9II-Ib object.

  11. Accretion shocks in the laboratory: Design of an experiment to study star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Hartigan, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the design of a laboratory-astrophysics experiment to study magnetospheric accretion relevant to young, pre-main-sequence stars. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact the surface of the star and create shocks. The structures that form during this process are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment would create a scaled ;accretion shock; at a major (several kJ) laser facility. The experiment drives a plasma jet (the ;accretion stream;) into a solid block (the ;stellar surface;), in the presence of a parallel magnetic field analogous to the star's local field. We show that this experiment is well-scaled when the incoming jet has ρ ∼10-6 -10-5gcm-3 and u ∼ 100 - 200kms-1 in an imposed field of B ∼ 10 T. Such an experiment would represent an average accretion stream onto a pre-main sequence star with B ∼ 700 G.

  12. The Study and Applications of Satellite and Satellite Constellation Autonomous Orbit Determination Using Star Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Q. B.

    2012-07-01

    Autonomous satellite orbit determination is a key technique in autonomous satellite navigation. Many kinds of technologies have been proposed to realize the autonomous satellite navigation, such as the star sensor, the Earth magnetometer, the occultation time survey, and the phase measurement of X-ray pulsar signals. This dissertation studies a method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor. Moreover, the method is extended to the autonomous navigation of satellite constellation and the space-based surveillance. In chapters 1 and 2, some usual time and reference systems are introduced. Then the principles of several typical autonomous navigation methods, and their merits and shortcomings are analyzed. In chapter 3, the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor and infrared Earth sensor (IRES) is specifically studied, which is based on the status movement simulation, the stellar background observation from star sensor, and the Earth center direction survey from IRES. By simulating the low Earth orbit satellites and pseudo Geostationary Earth orbit (PGEO) satellites, the precision of position and speed with autonomous orbit determination using star sensor is obtained. Besides, the autonomous orbit determination using star sensor with double detectors is studied. According to the observation equation's characters, an optimized type of star sensor and IRES initial assembly model is proposed. In the study of the PGEO autonomous orbit determination, an efficient sampling frequency of measurements is promoted. The simulation results confirm that the autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is feasible for satellites with all kinds of altitudes. In chapter 4, the method of autonomous satellite orbit determination using star sensor is extended to the autonomous navigation of mini-satellite constellation. Combining with the high-accuracy inter satellite links data, the precision of the determined orbit and

  13. The SMC star cluster Lindsay 1. First UI photometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcaino, G.; Alvarado, F.; Kurtev, R.

    2003-09-01

    We present new CCD photometry of the Small Magellanic Cloud star cluster Lindsay 1 in UBVI filters. It is the first photometry in U and I filters. We determine the reddening E(B-V)=0.014. Using a variety of metallicity indicators in the optical and the infrared regions we determine a cluster metallicity [Fe/H]_CG97=-1.05+/-0.14 and [M/H]=-0.83+/-0.14. We find that Lindsay 1 has an age of 9-10 Gyr. Tables 1 and 4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http// cdsweb . u-strasbg . fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J /A+A/407/919

  14. Observational Studies of the Clearing Phase in Proto-Planetary Disks Surrounding Intermediate Mass Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Carol A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study of circumstellar gas associated with young, intermediate-mass stars has demonstrated that, far from being unique or an infrequently occurring phenomenon, beta Pic-like infall activity is routinely observed in stars younger than 10-50 Myr when the observer's line of sight lies within 15 degrees of the disk mid-plane. Detailed studies of 2 Herbig Ae/Be stars, AB Aur and HD 163296 demonstrate that enhanced infall episodes last 20-60 hours, comparable to the duration of similar episodes in beta Pictoris. The infall activity is consistent with detection of the comae of swarms of star-grazing bodies of asteroidal to cometary composition. Episodic fluctuations in the infall activity are clearly present by approximately 6 Myr, and may indicate the presence of massive planets within the disk. This study has therefore, directly contributed to NASA's Origins of Planetary Systems theme by identifying under what conditions extra-solar planetesimals can be remotely sensed, indicating that such bodies appear to be routinely detectable among young stars in the 1-10 Myr range, and suggesting that temporal studies of spectroscopic variability may provide a means of identifying those systems harboring massive planets. This study has resulted in 2 refereed review papers, 13 other refereed papers, and 17 conference papers.

  15. High Dispersion Line Profile Studies of TW HYA and Other Pre-Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1984-07-01

    We propose to extend our study of line profiles in T Tauri stars by obtaining a 16 hour SWP-HI spectrum of TW Hya and 6-8 hour LWP-HI spectra of TW Hya, AK Sco, CoD -35 10525 and CoD -33 10685. High dispersion spectra of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars provide unique information on line widths, shifts, and asymmetries, as well as evidence for mass outflow, circumstellar absorption, and diagnostics for the temperature structure of the outer atmosphere layers of these complex yet incredibly important objects. We have previously obtained and studied line profiles in RU Lupi and the prototype star T Tau. RU Lupi has line profiles that are dominated by the wind expansion, for example the MgII and FeII multiplet UV1 profiles are unique in that they have a classical P Cygni shape, whereas T Tau has more symmetric emission profiles indicative of a chromosphere and hotter layers not dominated by expansion. TW Hya is different from these two previously studied stars in that it may be the brightest known example of a post-T Tauri star, and hence less active and older than the other PMS stars. We intend to compare its line profiles with those of RU Lupi and T Tauri in order to understand the differences in the non-thermal mass motions, wind expansion, and thermal structures of these three very different T Tau stars. The requested LWPHI spectra are to obtain MgII and FeII multiplet UV1. profiles of 4 different T Tauri objects so as to infer the expansion and thermal structure in their chromospheric layers.

  16. Temperature-induced crystallization in concentrated suspensions of multiarm star polymers: a molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Rissanou, Anastassia N; Yiannourakou, Marianna; Economou, Ioannis G; Bitsanis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-28

    In this work, we study temperature-induced crystallization in dense suspensions of multiarm star polymers. This is a continuation of a previous study, which identified and studied the emergence of "glassy" amorphous states, in accordance with experimental observations. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on two types of star polymers: 128-arm stars and 64-arm stars dissolved in n-decane in the temperature range of 20-60 degrees C. These supramolecules are modeled as "soft spheres" interacting via a theoretically developed potential of mean field. Both systems attain a crystalline structure with the characteristics of a face-centered-cubic (fcc) crystal beyond a certain temperature. Kinetics is sensitive on initial configuration. Interestingly, kinetic trapping in "temporary" energy wells leads to highly crystalline structures, yet less ordered than their genuine equilibrium fcc structure. This complication illustrates the difficulty in reaching the equilibrium state, which is crystalline at high temperatures. A structural analysis of the final conformations is presented. The effect of size dispersity and star functionality of soft spheres on microstructure is also examined. Both factors influence crystallization and their effect is quantified by our study.

  17. Mid-Infrared Studies of the Variability of the Dustiest, Most Extreme Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, Margaret; Jones, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    The asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase is one of the last phases of a star’s life. AGB stars lose mass in an outflow in which dust condenses and is pushed away from the star. Extreme AGB stars are so named because their very red colors suggest very large amounts of dust, which in turn suggests extremely high mass-loss rates. AGB stars also vary in their brightness, and studies show that extreme AGB stars tend to have longer periods than other AGB stars and are more likely to be fundamental mode pulsators. The variability of extreme AGB stars must be explored at infrared wavelengths, as the copious amounts of circumstellar dust renders them invisible in the optical. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we have observed a sample of extreme AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) over Cycles 9 through 12 during the Warm Spitzer mission. For each cycle, we typically observed a set of extreme AGB stars at both 3.6 and 4.5 microns wavelength approximately monthly for most of a year. These observations reveal a wide range of variability properties. Though we targeted a certain number of extreme AGB stars, our observations also monitored other stars in the fields. We present results from our analysis of the data obtained from these Spitzer variability programs.

  18. A study of cold spots on the surfaces of stars with planetary systems from the Kepler space telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savanov, I. S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the photometric observations obtained with the Kepler telescope, we investigated the properties of the active regions (cold spots) on the surfaces of 737 stars with planetary systems (exoplanets). We used three methods for determining the spottedness ( S) of stellar surfaces. A comparison of the results of the S determination through these three methods was performed for two stars (KOI 877 and KOI 896), taken as examples. We studied the dependences of the spottedness of the stars with exoplanets on the effective temperature and on the period of their axial rotation. There is no evidence that the magnetic activity of a star with exoplanets has any special features that distinguish it fromthe activity of the stars froma wider sample. The spottedness of stars with planetary systems in most cases does not exceed 5% of the area of their surface. The three objects for which it exceeds 5% were examined in detail. It was found that for the stars with effective temperatures less than 5750 K, there is a monotonic decrease of the spottedness with the increase of the rotation period of the star. We established the absence of stars with small values of S (less than 0.002) among the stars with effective temperatures less than 5750 K and rotation periods less than 10 days. Stars with effective temperatures of more than 5750 K have small spottedness in the case of rapid rotation, but S increases for objects with rotation periods of 20-25 days.

  19. Photometric and spectroscopic studies of star-forming regions within Wolf-Rayet galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, M. Chrisphin; López-Sánchez, Ángel R.; Sahu, D. K.; Sanwal, B. B.; Bisht, Shuchi

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the properties of star-forming regions within a sample of seven Wolf-Rayet (WR) galaxies. We analyse their morphologies, colours, star-formation rates (SFRs), metallicities and stellar populations, combining broad-band and narrow-band photometry with low-resolution optical spectroscopy. The UBVRI observations were made with the 2-m HCT (Himalayan Chandra Telescope) and 1-m ARIES telescope. The spectroscopic data were obtained using the Hanle Faint Object Spectrograph Camera (HFOSC) mounted on the 2-m HCT. The observed galaxies are NGC 1140, IRAS 07164+5301, NGC 3738, UM 311, NGC 6764, NGC 4861 and NGC 3003. The optical spectra were used to search for the faint WR features, to confirm that the ionization of the gas is caused by the massive stars, and to quantify the oxygen abundance of each galaxy using several independent empirical calibrations. We detected broad features originating in WR stars in NGC 1140 and 4861 and used them to derive the massive star populations. For these two galaxies we also derived the oxygen abundance using a direct estimation of the electron temperature of the ionized gas. The N/O ratio in NGC 4861 is ˜0.25-0.35 dex higher than expected, which may be a consequence of the chemical pollution by N-rich material released by WR stars. Using our Hα images we identified tens of star-forming regions within these galaxies, for which we derived the SFR. Our Hα-based SFR usually agrees with the SFR computed using the far-infrared and the radio-continuum flux. For all regions we found that the most recent star-formation event is 3-6 Myr old. We used the optical broad-band colours in combination with Starburst99 models to estimate the internal reddening and the age of the dominant underlying stellar population within all these regions. Knots in NGC 3738, 6764 and 3003 generally show the presence of an important old (400-1000 Myr) stellar population. However, the optical colours are not able to detect stars older than 20

  20. A stellar population synthesis model for the study of ultraviolet star counts of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Ananta C.; Ojha, Devendra K.; Robin, Annie C.; Ghosh, Swarna K.; Vickers, John J.

    2014-05-01

    Context. Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), the first all sky imaging ultraviolet (UV) satellite, has imaged a large part of the sky providing an excellent opportunity for studying UV star counts. Combining photometry from the different wavelengths in the infrared (from Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE) and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)) to UV allows us to extract a real star catalogue from the GALEX source catalogue. Aims: The aim of our study is to investigate in detail the observed UV star counts obtained by GALEX vis-à-vis the model simulated catalogues produced by the Besançon model of stellar population synthesis in various Galactic directions, and to explore the potential for studying the structure of our Galaxy from images in multiple near-UV (NUV) and far-UV (FUV) filters of the forthcoming Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) to be flown onboard Astrosat. Methods: We have upgraded the Besançon model of stellar population synthesis to include the UV bands of GALEX and UVIT. Depending on the availability of contiguous GALEX, Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), WISE, and 2MASS overlapping regions, we have chosen a set of 19 GALEX fields which spread over a range of Galactic directions. We selected a sample of objects from the GALEX database using the CASjobs interface and then cross-matched them with the WISE+2MASS and SDSS catalogues. The UV stars in the GALEX catalogue are identified by choosing a suitable infrared (IR) colour, J - W1 (W1 is a WISE band at 3.4 μm), which corresponds to a temperature range from 1650 K to 65 000 K. The IR colour cut method, which is used for the first time for separation of stars, is discussed in comparison with the GALEX+SDSS star counts method. Results: We present the results of the UV star counts analysis carried out using the data from GALEX. We find that the Besançon model simulations represent the observed star counts of both the GALEX All-sky Imaging Survey and Medium Imaging Survey well within the error bars in

  1. Future Directions In The Study Of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars With The James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjort, Adam; Zackrisson, Erik; Eriksson, Kjell

    2016-10-01

    In this study we present photometric predictions for C-type Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars (AGB) stars from Eriks- son et al. (2014) for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Wide- eld Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) instruments. The photometric predictions we have done are for JWST's general purpose wide-band lters on NIR- Cam and MIRI covering wavelengths of 0.7 — 21 microns. AGB stars contribute substantially to the integrated light of intermediate-age stellar popula- tions and is a substantial source of the metals (especially carbon) in galaxies. Studies of AGB stars are (among other reasons) important for the understanding of the chemical evolution and dust cycle of galaxies. Since the JWST is scheduled for launch in 2018 it should be a high priority to prepare observing strategies. With these predictions we hope it will be possible to optimize observing strategies of AGB stars and max- imize the science return of JWST. By testing our method on Whitelock et al. (2006) objects from the WISE catalog and comparing them with our photometric results based on Eriksson et al. (2014) we have been able to fit 20 objects with models. The photometric data set can be accessed at: http://www.astro.uu.se/AGBmodels/ABmags/

  2. Spectral characterization and differential rotation study of active CoRoT stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, E.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The CoRoT space telescope observed nearly 160 000 light curves. Among the most outstanding is that of the young, active planet host star CoRoT-2A. In addition to deep planetary transits, the light curve of CoRoT-2A shows strong rotational variability and a superimposed beating pattern. To study the stars that produce such an intriguing pattern of photometric variability, we identified a sample of eight stars with rotation periods between 0.8 and 11 days and photometric variability amplitudes of up to 7.5%, showing a similar CoRoT light curve. We also obtained high-resolution follow-up spectroscopy with TNG/SARG and carried out a spectral analysis with SME and MOOG. We find that the color dependence of the light curves is consistent with rotational modulation due to starspots and that latitudinal differential rotation provides a viable explanation for the light curves, although starspot evolution is also expected to play an important role. Our MOOG and SME spectral analyses provide consistent results, showing that the targets are dwarf stars with spectral types between F and mid-K. Detectable Li i absorption in four of the targets confirms a low age of 100-400 Myr also deduced from gyrochronology. Our study indicates that the photometric beating phenomenon is likely attributable to differential rotation in fast-rotating stars with outer convection zones.

  3. An Ultraviolet and Optical Study of Accreting Pre-Main-Sequence Stars: Uxors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Nancy L.; Herbst, William

    1995-11-01

    UX Ori stars (UXors) are pre-main-sequence stars of both the Herbig Ae/Be and T Tauri type which show aperiodic eclipse-like minima. Their variations have been attributed to occultations by circumstellar material. We use archival IUE spectra and a catalog of UBVRI photometry to study the variations of five such objects, namely, RY Lup, RY Tau, CO Ori, BF Ori, and UX Ori. Relationships between UV spectral line fluxes and equivalent widths and V magnitude are found and displayed. Some shell features in UX Ori and BF Ori switch from absorption to emission during the minima. The equivalent widths of the emission features increase as the star fades. Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) covering the interval of 1200-8900 Å were constructed for several stars at different V magnitude light levels. A strong depression in the SED around 2400 Å, caused primarily by iron absorption lines (the "iron curtain") is quite noticeable in UX Ori and BF Ori when the stars are bright, but is diminished or absent when faint. The data are discussed in the context of the variable circumstellar obscuration hypothesis and provide some additional support for it.

  4. Revisiting Caroline Furness's An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars on its Centenary (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) A century and one month ago (October 1915) Dr. Caroline Ellen Furness (1869-1936), Director of the Vassar College Observatory, published An Introduction to the Study of Variable Stars. Issued in honor of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Vassar College, the work was meant to fill a void in the literature, namely as both an introduction to the topic of variable stars and as a manual explaining how they should be observed and the resulting data analyzed. It was judged to be one of the hundred best books written by an American woman in the last hundred years at the 1933 World's Fair in Chicago. The book covers the relevant history of and background on types of variable stars, star charts, catalogs, and the magnitude scale, then describes observing techniques, including visual, photographic, and photoelectric photometry. The work finishes with a discussion of light curves and patterns of variability, with a special emphasis on eclipsing binaries and long period variables. Furness's work is a valuable snapshot of the state of astronomical knowledge, technology, and observing techniques from a century ago. This presentation will analyze both Furness's book and its reception in the scientific community, and draw parallels to current advice given to beginning variable star observers.

  5. Theoretical studies of mass loss and shock phenomena in cool star envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, Lee

    1988-01-01

    To show the difficulty of producing the blue-shifted emission of (O I) and (S II) from T Tauri stars directly in the stellar wind, an element of gas in a radially expanding stellar wind was followed as it cooled and recombined. Results indicate that T Tauri winds must be heated at large distances from the star to produce the (S II) emission. A shock between the wind and the disk is an attractive mechanism to produce this heating. When the theory is applied to a simple disk model, a number of predictions and implications are evident, for example, that some T Tauri stars eject mass near the equatorial plane. In a second study, spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars were analyzed to place limits on the amount of accretion which might occur during the early phase of stellar evolution. The best match to H-alpha line profiles is for models in which the turbulent velocity dominates close to the star, while expansion dominates farther out. Such a model predicts, for instance, that a mass loss rate of 1/10,000,000 solar masses per year is required to account for the blue-shifted Na I absorption of some objects.

  6. Accretion Shocks in the Laboratory: Using the OMEGA Laser to Study Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Li, C. K.; Hartigan, P.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Ross, J. S.; Chang, P. Y.; Klein, S.; Zylstra, A.; Sio, H. W.; Liao, A.; Barnak, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present an on-going series of experiments using the OMEGA laser (Laboratory for Laser Energetics) to study star formation. Spectra of young stars show evidence of hotspots created when streams of accreting material impact at the surface of the star to create accretion shocks. These accretion shocks are poorly understood, as the surfaces of young stars cannot be spatially resolved. Our experiment series creates a scaled ``accretion shock'' on the OMEGA laser by driving a plasma jet (the ``accretion stream'') into a solid block (the ``stellar surface''), in the presence of a parallel magnetic field analogous to the star's local field. Thus far, visible image data from this experimental series either shows very thin accretion shocks forming or does not show them forming at all. We intend to present this data, provide possible explanations for why shocks may not have formed, and discuss potential improvements to the experimental design. This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, through the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956, and the National Laser User Facility Program, Grant Number DE-NA0002719.

  7. Spectroscopic Studies of Extremely Metal-poor Stars with the Subaru High Dispersion Spectrograph. V. The Zn-enhanced Metal-poor Star BS 16920-017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Satoshi; Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide

    2011-04-01

    We report Zn abundances for 18 very metal-poor stars studied in our previous work, covering the metallicity range -3.2< [Fe/H] <-2.5. The [Zn/Fe] values of most stars show an increasing trend with decreasing [Fe/H] in this metallicity range, confirming the results found by previous studies. However, the extremely metal-poor star BS 16920-017([Fe/H] =-3.2) exhibits a significantly high [Zn/Fe] ratio ([Zn/Fe] = +1.0). Comparison of the chemical abundances of this object with HD 4306, which has similar atmospheric parameters to BS 16920-017, clearly demonstrates a deficiency of α elements and neutron-capture elements in this star, along with enhancements of Mn and Ni, as well as Zn. The association with a hypernova explosion that has been proposed to explain the high Zn abundance ratios found in extremely metal-poor stars is a possible explanation, although further studies are required to fully interpret the abundance pattern of this object. Based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR STARS WITH THE SUBARU HIGH DISPERSION SPECTROGRAPH. V. THE Zn-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STAR BS 16920-017

    SciTech Connect

    Honda, Satoshi; Aoki, Wako; Beers, Timothy C.; Takada-Hidai, Masahide E-mail: aoki.wako@nao.ac.jp E-mail: hidai@apus.rh.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2011-04-01

    We report Zn abundances for 18 very metal-poor stars studied in our previous work, covering the metallicity range -3.2< [Fe/H] <-2.5. The [Zn/Fe] values of most stars show an increasing trend with decreasing [Fe/H] in this metallicity range, confirming the results found by previous studies. However, the extremely metal-poor star BS 16920-017([Fe/H] =-3.2) exhibits a significantly high [Zn/Fe] ratio ([Zn/Fe] = +1.0). Comparison of the chemical abundances of this object with HD 4306, which has similar atmospheric parameters to BS 16920-017, clearly demonstrates a deficiency of {alpha} elements and neutron-capture elements in this star, along with enhancements of Mn and Ni, as well as Zn. The association with a hypernova explosion that has been proposed to explain the high Zn abundance ratios found in extremely metal-poor stars is a possible explanation, although further studies are required to fully interpret the abundance pattern of this object.

  9. Arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers: A forward flux sampling method study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Likhtman, Alexei E.; Wang, Zuowei

    2017-07-01

    The study of dynamics and rheology of well-entangled branched polymers remains a challenge for computer simulations due to the exponentially growing terminal relaxation times of these polymers with increasing molecular weights. We present an efficient simulation algorithm for studying the arm retraction dynamics of entangled star polymers by combining the coarse-grained slip-spring (SS) model with the forward flux sampling (FFS) method. This algorithm is first applied to simulate symmetric star polymers in the absence of constraint release (CR). The reaction coordinate for the FFS method is determined by finding good agreement of the simulation results on the terminal relaxation times of mildly entangled stars with those obtained from direct shooting SS model simulations with the relative difference between them less than 5%. The FFS simulations are then carried out for strongly entangled stars with arm lengths up to 16 entanglements that are far beyond the accessibility of brute force simulations in the non-CR condition. Apart from the terminal relaxation times, the same method can also be applied to generate the relaxation spectra of all entanglements along the arms which are desired for the development of quantitative theories of entangled branched polymers. Furthermore, we propose a numerical route to construct the experimentally measurable relaxation correlation functions by effectively linking the data stored at each interface during the FFS runs. The obtained star arm end-to-end vector relaxation functions Φ (t ) and the stress relaxation function G(t) are found to be in reasonably good agreement with standard SS simulation results in the terminal regime. Finally, we demonstrate that this simulation method can be conveniently extended to study the arm-retraction problem in entangled star polymer melts with CR by modifying the definition of the reaction coordinate, while the computational efficiency will depend on the particular slip-spring or slip

  10. StarClose Vascular Closure Device: Prospective Study on 222 Deployments in an Interventional Radiology Practice

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, Atique; Carter, Ranjana M. S. Phillips-Hughes, Jane; Boardman, Philip; Uberoi, Raman

    2007-07-15

    The StarClose device (Abbott Vascular Devices; Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA) utilizes an externally placed Nitinol clip to achieve arterial closure following femoral artery puncture. The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy and complications of the StarClose device in patients undergoing interventional radiological procedures. Preprocedural clotting status, pulse and blood pressure, severity of vessel calcification, sheath size, and time to deployment were recorded. Postdeployment complications immediately postprocedure, at 1 h, at 2 h, and at 1 week were recorded. A duplex scan was performed in the first 10 patients to assess any immediate vascular complications. Deployments were successful in 96% achieving immediate hemostasis. Mean deployment time was 48 s. There were no major complications. The StarClose device was found to have a high technical and clinical efficacy.

  11. A Comparative Observational Study of YSO Classification in Four Small Star-forming H ii Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung-Ju; Kerton, C. R.; Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a new young stellar object (YSO) identification and classification technique using mid-infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. We compare this new technique with previous WISE YSO detection and classification methods that used either infrared colors or spectral energy distribution slopes. In this study, we also use the new technique to detect and examine the YSO population associated with four small H ii regions: KR 7, KR 81, KR 120, and KR 140. The relatively simple structure of these regions allows us to effectively use both spatial and temporal constraints to identify YSOs that are potential products of triggered star formation. We are also able to identify regions of active star formation around these H ii regions that are clearly not influenced by the H ii region expansion, and thus demonstrate that star formation is on-going on megayear timescales in some of these molecular clouds.

  12. Design Study on Integration of StarView II and JIPA Using Advanced Java Mech anisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, Markus; Mayhew, Bruce; Kennedy, Bridget

    This case study examines the use of the latest software techniques for merging independent Java applets and applications. STScI's new Java interface to the archive, StarView II, will make use of the ST-ECF stand-alone FITS image viewer JIPA. We discuss how state-of-the-art software techniques like Remote Method Invocation (RMI), multithreading, and the Reflection API influence the design of a common interface between StarView II and JIPA. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how the JDBC interface will provide the two applications with concurrent access to the archive.

  13. Studies of Long Period Variability in Neutron Star HMXB Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindl, William A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this effort was to investigate the long term, quasi-periodic variability of the X-ray emission from the accreting X-ray pulsars LMC X-4 and SMC X-1. These high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) sources are known to vary in a nearly periodic fashion with cycle lengths of about 30 and 60 days respectively. The prevailing model for such behavior is that it is due to the precession of a tilted accretion disk around the neutron star which is the source of the X-ray emission. As the disk precesses, it periodically obscures the emitting region, resulting in reduced flux as observed at the Earth. The obscuration is not strictly periodic, as the disk precession period changes as the total mass and size of the disk change through variable accretion processes. This model is well established for the long-period variability in the X-ray pulsar Her X-1. With this work, my collaborators and I sought to test whether this model works for LMC X-4 and SMC X-1. Observations with the pointed instruments on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) were carried out in order to observe changes in the X-ray spectrum and total flux which were correlated with the long period cycles in these objects. One of the main predictions of the precessing disk model is that the periods of low emission are caused not by changes in the central source, but by increased absorption of that flux as seen at the Earth. Such behavior would be observed in the X-ray spectrum as a relative lack of low energy X-rays (which are more easily absorbed) as compared to high energy X-rays. This is what was observed for SMC X-1, landing strong support to the precessing disk model for this system. For LMC X-1, however, the absorption was consistent with zero at the time of minimum flux. The entire spectrum appeared to be equally reduced. This is not supporting evidence for the model. However, it also does not rule out a precessing disk. If at the time of minimum flux, the intervening disk is so thick that no flux, even

  14. A Multiwavelength Study of the Process of High-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Eric M.

    1996-06-01

    Massive stars live short, violent lives that have a major impact on nearby star formation and the interstellar medium (ISM). To study the process of high-mass star formation and its effect on the surrounding ISM, we have observed four regions that include 10 HII regions representing ultracompact, compact, and nearly classical HII regions: Monoceros R2; K3-50; S255-2; and NS 14. Exciting stars of the 10 HII regions span a range of masses (B1 to O4 type stars). We have placed the objects in an evolutionary sequence with K3-50A, C1, and C2 representing the earliest, ultracompact HII region stage, S255-2 and NS 14 representing an intermediate compact stage, while MonR2, K3-50B and K3-50D are more evolved, representing a nearly classical HII region stage. The process of high-mass star formation does not have a well developed theoretical basis, in part, because many complete observational studies of such regions have not been made. Toward this end, we have obtained extensive infrared images of each region mentioned above with near-infrared (NIR) broadband filters and narrow band (1-2% spectral resolution) circular variable filters (CVFs). These are complemented by radio wavelength continuum and millimeter wavelength molecular aperture synthesis observations. Massive stars spend >= 10% of their lives embedded in molecular clouds and are generally enshrouded in gas and dust when they reach the main-sequence. To account for this, we have mapped dust extinction on small spatial scales and compared these maps with dense molecular gas structures. These comparisons yield mass and molecular abundance estimates. Massive toroidal clouds are found in each region and may be ubiquitous features. Such toroidal clouds may provide the collimation necessary to form jets from strong stellar winds. Bipolar ionized outflows or jets appear well correlated with evolutionary stage, with the youngest objects producing the strongest jets. The jets appear to entrain molecular material, thereby

  15. A Radio-Optical Study of Resolved Star Formation in SAMI Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Sarah; Kewley, Lisa; Sadler, Elaine; Bryant, Julia

    2015-02-01

    With integral field spectroscopic data from the the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral-field spectrograph (SAMI) survey and the VLA, we will study the relationship between star formation (as traced by Hα emission) and the radio continuum emission within galaxies with the aim of better understanding the intricacies of local scaling relations.

  16. A study on making a Honsang using the star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Seon Young; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Yong Sam

    2016-01-01

    The first record of Honsang (Celestial globe) was found in 『Sejong Sillok』 in Korea. Since then, there were records that Honsang was restored during the reign of King Jungjong and King Myungjong, and then restored again in the reign of King Seonjo. The only existing Honsang was made by Yi Hwang (1501-1570) in the 16th century for education of his followers. After then, Hong Dae Yong's (1731-1783) Honsangui, which was made in 18th century, had been passed down only through the literature. The constellations in Honsang and the scale system of each ring changed after 17th century when Western science began to affect Joseon dynasty. Since that time, the constellations, realized on Honsang globe, changed from constellations in the old method to ones in the new method. Furthermore, the scale system of rings on Honsang was changed from 365.25 Do, Jucheondo (Celestial globe circumference), to 360°. In this study, Honsang with constellations in the new method was made using star catalogue from 『Seong Gyeong』 published in 1861, which represented the constellations in the new method of Joseon dynasty. In order to realized the constellations from the star catalogue in 『Seong Gyeong』 on Honsang globe, the plane star chart and circular star chart of the area near the South and North Poles were drawn using spherical trigonometry. Using these star charts, the constellations in whole sky including stars near the South Pole were realized on Honsang globe. Also, equatorial coordinates and ecliptic coordinates were realized on Honsang globe simultaneously, and scales of Honsang's rings were marked as 360°.

  17. A M2FS Spectroscopic Study of Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleida, Catherine C.; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of pre-main sequence stars in the ~4-10 Myr range provide a window into the decline of the accretion phase of stars and the formation of planets. Nearby star clusters and stellar associations allow for the study of these young stellar populations all the way down to the lowest mass members. One of the best examples of nearby 4-10 Myr old stellar populations is the Orion OB1 association. The CIDA Variability Survey of Orion OB1 (CVSO - Briceño et al. 2001) has used the variability properties of low-mass pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars to identify hundreds of K and M-type stellar members of the Orion OB1 association, a number of them displaying IR-excess emission and thought to be representative of more evolved disk-bearing young stars. Characterizing these young, low-mass objects using spectroscopy is integral to understanding the accretion phase in young stars. We present preliminary results of a spectroscopic survey of candidate and confirmed Orion OB1 low-mass members taken during November 2014 and February 2014 using the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS), a PI instrument on the Magellan Clay Telescope (PI: M. Matteo). Target fields located in the off-cloud regions of Orion were identified in the CVSO, and observed using the low and high-resolution modes of M2FS. Both low and high-resolution spectra are needed in order to confirm membership and derive masses, ages, kinematics and accretion properties. Initial analysis of these spectra reveal many new K and M-type members of the Orion OB1 association in these low extinction, off-cloud areas. These are the more evolved siblings of the youngest stars still embedded in the molecular clouds, like those in the Orion Nebula Cluster. With membership and spectroscopic indicators of accretion we are building the most comprehensive stellar census of this association, enabling us to derive a robust estimate of the fraction of young stars still accreting at a various ages, a key constraint for the end of

  18. Near infrared photometric and optical spectroscopic study of 22 low mass star clusters embedded in nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2008-02-01

    Aims:Among the star clusters in the Galaxy, those embedded in nebulae represent the youngest group, which has only recently been explored. The analysis of a sample of 22 candidate embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII environments is presented. Methods: We employed optical spectroscopic observations of stars in the directions of the clusters carried out at CASLEO (Argentina) together with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS catalogue. Our analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour diagrams and on theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field star contamination by carrying out a statistical subtraction. Results: The studied objects have the characteristics of low mass systems. We derive their fundamental parameters. Most of the cluster ages are younger than 2 Myr. The studied embedded stellar systems in reflection nebulae and/or HII region complexes do not have stars of spectral types earlier than B. The total stellar masses locked in the clusters are in the range 20-220 M⊙. They are found to be gravitationally unstable and are expected to dissolve in a timescale of a few Myr. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  19. A theoretical study of acoustic glitches in low-mass main-sequence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, Kuldeep; Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani; Mazumdar, Anwesh E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in E-mail: anwesh@tifr.res.in

    2014-10-20

    There are regions in stars, such as ionization zones and the interface between radiative and convective regions, that cause a localized sharp variation in the sound speed. These are known as 'acoustic glitches'. Acoustic glitches leave their signatures on the oscillation frequencies of stars, and hence these signatures can be used as diagnostics of these regions. In particular, the signatures of these glitches can be used as diagnostics for the position of the second helium ionization zone and that of the base of the envelope convection zone. With the help of stellar models, we study the properties of these acoustic glitches in main-sequence stars. We find that the acoustic glitch due to the helium ionization zone does not correspond to the dip in the adiabatic index Γ{sub 1} caused by the ionization of He II, but to the peak in Γ{sub 1} between the He I and He II ionization zones. We find that it is easiest to study the acoustic glitch that is due to the helium ionization zone in stars with masses in the range 0.9-1.2 M {sub ☉}.

  20. A comprehensive study of young B stars in NGC 2264 . I. Space photometry and asteroseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwintz, K.; Moravveji, E.; Pápics, P. I.; Tkachenko, A.; Przybilla, N.; Nieva, M.-F.; Kuschnig, R.; Antoci, V.; Lorenz, D.; Themeßl, N.; Fossati, L.; Barnes, T. G.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Space photometric time series of the most massive members of the young open cluster NGC 2264 allow us to study their different sources of variability down to the millimagnitude level and permit a search for slowly pulsating B (SPB)-type pulsation among objects that are only a few million years old. Aims: Our goal is to conduct a homogeneous study of young B-type stars in the cluster NGC 2264 using photometric time series from space in combination with high-resolution spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry obtained from the ground. The latter will be presented in a separate follow-up article. Methods: We performed frequency analyses for eleven B stars in the field of the young cluster NGC 2264 using photometric time series from the MOST, CoRoT, and Spitzer space telescopes and the routines Period04 and SigSpec. We employ the MESA stellar evolution code in combination with the oscillation code GYRE to identify the pulsation modes for two SPB stars that exhibit short period spacing series. Results: From our analysis we identify four objects that show SPB pulsations, five stars that show rotational modulation of their light curves caused by spots, one star that is identified to be a binary, and one object in the field of the cluster that is found to be a non-member Be star. In two SPB stars we detect a number of regularly spaced pulsation modes that are compatible with being members of a g-mode period series. Conclusions: Despite NGC 2264's young age, our analysis illustrates that its B-type members have already arrived on the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS). Our asteroseismic analysis yields masses between 4 and 6 M⊙ and ages between 1 and 6 million years, which agree well to the overall cluster age. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Microsatellite Systems Canada Inc. (MSCI), formerly part of Dynacon, Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia

  1. Constraining phases of quark matter with studies of r-mode damping in neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupak, Gautam; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2010-11-01

    We study r-mode damping in the color-flavor-locked phase with kaon condensation (CFL-K0) and contrast it with the CFL phase. The mode frequency in these phases are found to differ very slightly. While the bulk viscosity in either phase is only effective at damping the r-mode at temperatures T10^11K, the shear viscosity in the CFL-K0 phase is the only effective damping agent all the way down to temperatures T10^8K characteristic of cooling neutron stars. However, it cannot keep the star from becoming unstable to gravitational wave emission for rotation frequencies ν 56-11Hz at T 10^8-10^9K. Stars composed almost entirely of CFL or CFL-K0 matter are ruled out by observation of rapidly rotating neutron stars, indicating that dissipation at the quark-hadron interface or nuclear crust interface must play a key role in damping the instability.

  2. Constraining phases of quark matter with studies of r-mode damping in compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupak, Gautam; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2010-11-01

    With the goal of constraining the phase of matter at high density, we study r-mode damping in the color-flavor-locked phase with kaon condensation (CFL-K0) and contrast it with the CFL phase. The mode frequencies in these phases are found to differ very slightly. While the bulk viscosity in either phase is only effective at damping the r-mode at temperatures T≳1011 K, the shear viscosity in the CFL-K0 phase is the only effective damping agent all the way down to temperatures T≳108 K characteristic of cooling neutron stars. However, it cannot keep the star from becoming unstable to gravitational wave emission for rotation frequencies ν≈56-11 Hz at T≈108-109 K. Stars composed almost entirely of CFL or CFL-K0 matter are ruled out by observation of rapidly rotating neutron stars, indicating that dissipation at the quark-hadron interface or nuclear crust interface must play a key role in damping the instability.

  3. Photometric and spectroscopic study of low mass embedded star clusters in reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, J. B.; Bica, E.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.

    2005-02-01

    An analysis of the candidate embedded stellar systems in the reflection nebulae vdBH-RN 26, vdBH-RN} 38, vdBH-RN} 53a, GGD 20, ESO 95-RN 18 and NGC 6595 is presented. Optical spectroscopic data from CASLEO (Argentina) in conjunction with near infrared photometry from the 2MASS Point Source Catalogue were employed. The analysis is based on source surface density, colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams together with theoretical pre-main sequence isochrones. We take into account the field population affecting the analysis by carrying out a statistical subtraction. The fundamental parameters for the stellar systems were derived. The resulting ages are in the range 1-4 Myr and the objects are dominated by pre-main sequence stars. The observed masses locked in the clusters are less than 25 M⊙. The studied systems have no stars of spectral types earlier than B, indicating that star clusters do not necessarily evolve through an HII region phase. The relatively small locked mass combined with the fact that they are not numerous in catalogues suggests that these low mass clusters are not important donors of stars to the field populations. Based on observations made at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan, Argentina.

  4. A SPITZER INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH STUDY OF DEBRIS DISKS AROUND PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Beichman, C. A.; Carpenter, John M.; Bryden, Geoffrey

    2011-01-15

    Since giant planets scatter planetesimals within a few tidal radii of their orbits, the locations of existing planetesimal belts indicate regions where giant planet formation failed in bygone protostellar disks. Infrared observations of circumstellar dust produced by colliding planetesimals are therefore powerful probes of the formation histories of known planets. Here we present new Spitzer infrared spectrograph (IRS) spectrophotometry of 111 solar-type stars, including 105 planet hosts. Our observations reveal 11 debris disks, including two previously undetected debris disks orbiting HD 108874 and HD 130322. Combining the 32 {mu}m spectrophotometry with previously published MIPS photometry, we find that the majority of debris disks around solar-type stars have temperatures in the range 60 {approx}< T{sub dust} {approx}< 100 K. Assuming a dust temperature T{sub dust} = 70 K, which is representative of the nine debris disks detected by both IRS and MIPS, debris rings surrounding Sun-like stars orbit between 15 and 240 AU depending on the mean particle size. Our observations imply that the planets detected by radial-velocity searches formed within 240 AU of their parent stars. If any of the debris disks studied here have mostly large, blackbody emitting grains, their companion giant planets must have formed in a narrow region between the ice line and 15 AU.

  5. Photometric study of the star with changing Blazhko effect: TV Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates periodic modulation of the light curve of the RRc star TV Boo and its physical parameters based on photometric data. This phenomenon, known as the Blazhko effect, is quite rare among RRc stars. The frequency analysis based on the data gathered at the Masaryk University Observatory (MUO) and also using SuperWASP data revealed symmetrically structured peaks around the main pulsation frequency and its harmonics, which indicate two modulation components of the Blazhko period. The main modulation periodicity was found to be 9.7374 ± 0.0054 d. This is one of the shortest known Blazhko periods among RRc stars. The second modulation period (21.5 ± 0.2 d) causes changes of the Blazhko effect itself. Some indices show that TV Boo could be affected by long-term changes of the order of years. Basic physical parameters were estimated via an MUO V light-curve solution using Fourier parameters. TV Boo seems to be a low-metallicity star with [Fe/H] = -1.89.

  6. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P.; Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J.; Bressert, E.; Povich, M. S.; Sherman, R.; Schawinski, K.; Wolf-Chase, G.

    2012-08-10

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% {+-} 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% {+-} 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  7. Studies on dynamic motion compensation and positioning accuracy on star tracker.

    PubMed

    Jun, Zhang; Yuncai, Hao; Li, Wang; Da, Liu

    2015-10-01

    Error from motion is the dominant restriction on the improvement of dynamic performance on a star tracker. As a remarkable motion error, the degree of nonuniformity of the star image velocity field on the detector is studied, and thus a general model for the moving star spot is built. To minimize velocity nonuniformity, a novel general method is proposed to derive the proper motion compensation and location accuracy in cases of both uniform velocity and acceleration. Using this method, a theoretic analysis on the accuracy of time-delayed integration and similar techniques, which are thought of as state-of-the-art approaches to reduce error from motion, is conducted. The simulations and experimental results validate the proposed method. Our method shows a more steady performance than the dynamic binning algorithm. The positional error could be neglected when the smear length is far less than 3.464 times the scale of star spot, which suggests accuracy can be maintained by changing frame-integration time inverse proportional to the velocity on the focal plane. It also shows that the acceleration effect must be compensated to achieve accuracy close to the Cramér-Rao lower bound.

  8. Constraining phases of quark matter with studies of r-mode damping in compact stars

    SciTech Connect

    Rupak, Gautam; Jaikumar, Prashanth

    2010-11-15

    With the goal of constraining the phase of matter at high density, we study r-mode damping in the color-flavor-locked phase with kaon condensation (CFL-K0) and contrast it with the CFL phase. The mode frequencies in these phases are found to differ very slightly. While the bulk viscosity in either phase is only effective at damping the r-mode at temperatures T > or approx. 10{sup 11} K, the shear viscosity in the CFL-K0 phase is the only effective damping agent all the way down to temperatures T > or approx. 10{sup 8} K characteristic of cooling neutron stars. However, it cannot keep the star from becoming unstable to gravitational wave emission for rotation frequencies {nu}{approx_equal}56-11 Hz at T{approx_equal}10{sup 8}-10{sup 9} K. Stars composed almost entirely of CFL or CFL-K0 matter are ruled out by observation of rapidly rotating neutron stars, indicating that dissipation at the quark-hadron interface or nuclear crust interface must play a key role in damping the instability.

  9. A Study of Ro-vibrational OH Emission from Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brittain, Sean D.; Najita, Joan R.; Carr, John S.; Ádámkovics, Máté; Reynolds, Nickalas

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of ro-vibrational OH and CO emission from 21 disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars. We find that the OH and CO luminosities are proportional over a wide range of stellar ultraviolet luminosities. The OH and CO line profiles are also similar, indicating that they arise from roughly the same radial region of the disk. The CO and OH emission are both correlated with the far-ultraviolet luminosity of the stars, while the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) luminosity is correlated with the longer wavelength ultraviolet luminosity of the stars. Although disk flaring affects the PAH luminosity, it is not a factor in the luminosity of the OH and CO emission. These properties are consistent with models of UV-irradiated disk atmospheres. We also find that the transition disks in our sample, which have large optically thin inner regions, have lower OH and CO luminosities than non-transition disk sources with similar ultraviolet luminosities. This result, while tentative given the small sample size, is consistent with the interpretation that transition disks lack a gaseous disk close to the star.

  10. The Dunhuang Chinese sky: A comprehensive study of the oldest known star atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, Jean-Marc; Praderie, Françoise; Whitfield, Susan

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the star atlas included in the medieval Chinese manuscript Or.8210/S.3326 discovered in 1907 by the archaeologist Aurel Stein at the Silk Road town of Dunhuang and now housed in the British Library. Although partially studied by a few Chinese scholars, it has never been fully displayed and discussed in the Western world. This set of sky maps (12 hour-angle maps in quasi-cylindrical projection and a circumpolar map in azimuthal projection), displaying the full sky visible from the Northern Hemisphere, is up to now the oldest complete preserved star atlas known from any civilisation. It is also the earliest known pictorial representation of the quasi-totality of Chinese constellations. This paper describes the history of the physical object - a roll of thin paper drawn with ink. We analyse the stellar content of each map (1,339 stars, 257 asterisms) and the texts associated with the maps. We establish the precision with which the maps were drawn (1.5-4° for the brightest stars) and examine the type of projections used. We conclude that precise mathematical methods were used to produce the Atlas. We also discuss the dating of the manuscript and its possible author, and we confirm the date +649-684 (early Tang Dynasty) as most probable based on the available evidence. This is at variance with a prior estimate of around +940. Finally, we present a brief comparison with later sky maps, both from China and Europe.

  11. A Multi-Wavelength Study of AGN and Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlee, David Wesley; Martini, P.

    2011-01-01

    Clusters of galaxies have long been used as laboratories for the study of galaxy evolution because the processes that impact morphology and star-formation rates (SFRs) in dense environments occur most rapidly in clusters. We present results from a study of AGN and star-formation in 8 low-redshift galaxy clusters. We construct spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from visible and MIR observations of cluster galaxies and fit model SEDs to the observed fluxes. These fits measure stellar masses and SFRs of the cluster members, which we use to predict the X-ray luminosity of each cluster member. X-ray luminosities in excess of the predictions indicate the presence of an AGN. AGN can also be identified from their model SEDs. The AGN selected by these two techniques are largely disjoint: only 8 out of 44 AGN are identified in X-rays and from their model SEDs. We find a positive correlation between SFR and radius within the host cluster, consistent with the SFR--density relation, but there is no apparent correlation between radius and accretion rate. However, the relationship between AGN accretion and host star-formation in cluster AGN hosts does not significantly differ from the relationship shown by z≈0.8 field AGNs and their hosts. Since SFR correlates with radius, field galaxies at z=0 must have larger SFRs relative to their black hole growth than field galaxies at z≈0.8. This is consistent with evolution in the MBH--Mbulge relation. We also measure the fractions of cluster members with star-formation and AGN to determine the AGN duty cycle in star-forming galaxies. At time of writing, results are pending. I am grateful to The Ohio State University and the Spitzer grant program for supporting this work.

  12. Neurobehavioural assessment and diagnosis in disorders of consciousness: a preliminary study of the Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR).

    PubMed

    Stokes, Verity; Gunn, Sarah; Schouwenaars, Katie; Badwan, Derar

    2016-08-05

    The Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR) is an interdisciplinary neurobehavioural diagnostic tool for individuals with prolonged disorders of consciousness. It utilises current diagnostic criteria and is intended to improve upon the high misdiagnosis rate in this population. This study assesses the inter-rater reliability of the STAR and its diagnostic validity in comparison with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Participants were patients with severe acquired brain injury resulting in a disorder of consciousness, who were admitted to the Royal Leamington Spa Rehabilitation Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Patients underwent sensory stimulation sessions during their period of admission, which were recorded on video. Using this footage, patients were re-assessed for this study using the STAR, WHIM and CRS-R criteria. The STAR demonstrated "moderate" inter-rater reliability, "substantial" diagnostic agreement with the CRS-R, and "moderate" agreement with the WHIM. There were no significant differences between diagnoses assigned by the different assessments. The STAR demonstrated a good degree of inter-rater reliability in identification of diagnoses for patients with disorders of consciousness. The diagnostic outcomes of the STAR agreed at a good level with the CRS-R, moderately with the WHIM, and did not significantly differ from either. This demonstrates the reliability and validity of the STAR, showing its appropriateness for clinical use. Future longitudinal studies and research into the STAR's applicability in long-stay rehabilitation are indicated.

  13. The Circumstellar Environment of Evolved Stars as Revealed by Studies of Circumstellar Water Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K.

    1997-11-01

    This dissertation presents the results of a multi-epoch very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) study of water masers located in the extended atmospheres of seven evolved stars. The research was performed using the Very Long Baseline Array and Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. Water masers are found to exist in the atmospheres of evolved, oxygen-rich stars where a population inversion of the rotational transition at 22 GHz can be maintained by collisional pumping. The masers are identified as individual pockets or filaments of gas, which have good velocity coherence and may be imaged using radio interferometry. Stellar winds are initiated in these sources by dust formation and acceleration of the gas through momentum coupling. The typical wind speeds in the region of the water masers are 10 to 20 \\kms. The water masers in several evolved stars (VY CMa, VX Sgr, S Per, U Her, IK Tau, RX Boo and NML Cyg) have been observed at three epochs and exhibit proper motions consistent with the assumed source distances and the measured outflow velocity in the water maser region. Estimates of the distance to the sources using statistical approximation are in agreement with the currently accepted distances to the stars. The following stars had reliable distances determined using proper motion data: S Per (2.3 +/- 0.5 kpc), VY CMa (1.4 +/- 0.2 kpc), VX Sgr (1.4 +/- 0.3 kpc). An upper limit for the distance of NML Cyg was obtained ( 3.5 kpc). The remaining stars had too few maser detections (RX BOO, IK Tau) or were not strong enough at all epochs (U Her) to self-calibrate using the VLBA. A detailed kinematic model was used to describe the flow motions of the gas in the maser region. The regions are found to be complex and not well modeled by uniform radial outflow, radial outflow with rotation, or radial outflow with acceleration. The reasons for this are explored and include the probable presence of anisotropic velocity fields induced through non

  14. A Multi-wavelength Study of Star Formation Activity in the S235 Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Luna, A.; Anandarao, B. G.; Ninan, J. P.; Mallick, K. K.; Mayya, Y. D.

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out an extensive multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process in the S235 complex. The S235 complex has a spherelike shell appearance at wavelengths longer than 2 μm and harbors an O9.5V type star approximately at its center. A near-infrared extinction map of the complex traces eight subregions (having AV > 8 mag), and five of them appear to be distributed in an almost regularly spaced manner along the spherelike shell surrounding the ionized emission. This picture is also supported by the integrated 12CO and 13CO intensity maps and by Bolocam 1.1 mm continuum emission. The position-velocity analysis of CO reveals an almost semi-ringlike structure, suggesting an expanding H ii region. We find that the Bolocam clump masses increase as we move away from the location of the ionizing star. This correlation is seen only for those clumps that are distributed near the edges of the shell. Photometric analysis reveals 435 young stellar objects (YSOs), 59% of which are found in clusters. Six subregions (including five located near the edges of the shell) are very well correlated with the dust clumps, CO gas, and YSOs. The average values of Mach numbers derived using NH3 data for three (East 1, East 2, and Central E) out of these six subregions are 2.9, 2.3, and 2.9, indicating these subregions are supersonic. The molecular outflows are detected in these three subregions, further confirming the ongoing star formation activity. Together, all these results are interpreted as observational evidence of positive feedback of a massive star.

  15. A MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE S235 COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, L. K.; Luna, A.; Mayya, Y. D.; Ojha, D. K.; Ninan, J. P.; Mallick, K. K.; Anandarao, B. G.

    2016-03-01

    We have carried out an extensive multi-wavelength study to investigate the star formation process in the S235 complex. The S235 complex has a spherelike shell appearance at wavelengths longer than 2 μm and harbors an O9.5V type star approximately at its center. A near-infrared extinction map of the complex traces eight subregions (having A{sub V} > 8 mag), and five of them appear to be distributed in an almost regularly spaced manner along the spherelike shell surrounding the ionized emission. This picture is also supported by the integrated {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO intensity maps and by Bolocam 1.1 mm continuum emission. The position–velocity analysis of CO reveals an almost semi-ringlike structure, suggesting an expanding H ii region. We find that the Bolocam clump masses increase as we move away from the location of the ionizing star. This correlation is seen only for those clumps that are distributed near the edges of the shell. Photometric analysis reveals 435 young stellar objects (YSOs), 59% of which are found in clusters. Six subregions (including five located near the edges of the shell) are very well correlated with the dust clumps, CO gas, and YSOs. The average values of Mach numbers derived using NH{sub 3} data for three (East 1, East 2, and Central E) out of these six subregions are 2.9, 2.3, and 2.9, indicating these subregions are supersonic. The molecular outflows are detected in these three subregions, further confirming the ongoing star formation activity. Together, all these results are interpreted as observational evidence of positive feedback of a massive star.

  16. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  17. Properties of extrasolar planets and their host stars: A case study of HAT-P-7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eylen, V.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Aerts, C.

    2012-12-01

    Data from the Kepler satellite (Q0-Q11) are used to study HAT-P-7. The satellite's data are extremely valuable for asteroseismic studies of stars and for observing planetary transits; in this work we do both. An asteroseismic study of the host star improves the accuracy of the stellar parameters derived by Christensen-Dalsgaard et al. (2010), who followed largely the same procedure but based the analysis on only one month of Kepler data. The stellar information is combined with transit observations, phase variations and occultations to derive planetary parameters. In particular, we confirm the presence of ellipsoidal variations as discovered by Welsh et al. (2010), but revise their magnitude, and we revise the occultation depth (Borucki et al. 2009) which leads to different planetary temperature estimates. All other stellar and planetary parameters are now more accurately determined.

  18. A Population Study of Wide-Separation Brown Dwarf Companions to Main Sequence Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Increased interest in infrared astronomy has opened the frontier to study cooler objects that shed significant light on the formation of planetary systems. Brown dwarf research provides a wealth of information useful for sorting through a myriad of proposed formation theories. Our study combines observational data from 2MASS with rigorous computer simulations to estimate the true population of long-range (greater than 1000 AU) brown dwarf companions in the solar neighborhood (less than 25 pc from Earth). Expanding on Gizis et al. (2001), we have found the margin of error in previous estimates to be significantly underestimated after we included orbit eccentricity, longitude of pericenter, angle of inclination, field star density, and primary and secondary luminosities as parameters influencing the companion systems in observational studies. We apply our simulation results to current L- and T-dwarf catalogs to provide updated estimates on the frequency of wide-separation brown dwarf companions to main sequence stars.

  19. The population of hot subdwarf stars studied with Gaia. I. The catalog of known hot subdwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, S.; Østensen, R. H.; Nemeth, P.; Gentile Fusillo, N. P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Telting, J. H.; Green, E. M.; Schaffenroth, J.

    2017-03-01

    In preparation for the upcoming all-sky data releases of the Gaia mission we compiled a catalog of known hot subdwarf stars and candidates drawn from the literature and yet unpublished databases. The catalog contains 5613 unique sources and provides multi-band photometry from the ultraviolet to the far infrared, ground based proper motions, classifications based on spectroscopy and colors, published atmospheric parameters, radial velocities and light curve variability information. Using several different techniques we removed outliers and misclassified objects. By matching this catalog with astrometric and photometric data from the Gaia mission, we will develop selection criteria to construct a homogeneous, magnitude-limited all-sky catalog of hot subdwarf stars based on Gaia data. The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/600/A50

  20. Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopic Studies of Oxygen-Rich Asymptotic Giant Branch Star and Red Supergiant Star Dust Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Srinivasan, Sundar; Speck, Angela; Volk, Kevin; Kemper, Ciska; Reach, William T.; Lagadec, Eric; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; McDonald, Iain; Meixner, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the dust emission features seen in Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of Oxygen-rich (O-rich) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. The spectra come from the Spitzer Legacy program SAGE-Spectroscopy (PI: F. Kemper) and other archival Spitzer-IRS programs. The broad 10 and 20 micron emission features attributed to amorphous dust of silicate composition seen in the spectra show evidence for systematic differences in the centroid of both emission features between O-rich AGB and RSG populations. Radiative transfer modeling using the GRAMS grid of models of AGB and RSG stars suggests that the centroid differences are due to differences in dust properties. We present an update of our investigation of differences in dust composition, size, shape, etc that might be responsible for these spectral differences. We explore how these differences may arise from the different circumstellar environments around RSG and O-rich AGB stars. BAS acknowledges funding from NASA ADAP grant NNX13AD54G.

  1. Binaries, cluster dynamics and population studies of stars and stellar phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanbeveren, Dany

    2005-10-01

    The effects of binaries on population studies of stars and stellar phenomena have been investigated over the past 3 decades by many research groups. Here we will focus mainly on the work that has been done recently in Brussels and we will consider the following topics: the effect of binaries on overall galactic chemical evolutionary models and on the rates of different types of supernova, the population of point-like X-ray sources where we distinguish the standard high mass X-ray binaries and the ULXs, a UFO-scenario for the formation of WR+OB binaries in dense star systems. Finally we critically discuss the possible effect of rotation on population studies.

  2. From asymmetric nuclear matter to neutron stars: A functional renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Matthias; Weise, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    A previous study of nuclear matter in a chiral nucleon-meson model is extended to isospin-asymmetric matter. Fluctuations beyond mean-field approximation are treated in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is investigated in detail as a function of the proton fraction in asymmetric matter. The equations of state at zero temperature of both symmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter are found to be in good agreement with realistic many-body computations. We also study the density dependence of the pion mass in the medium. The question of chiral symmetry restoration in neutron matter is addressed; we find a stabilization of the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry once fluctuations are included. Finally, neutron-star matter including β equilibrium is discussed. The model satisfies the constraints imposed by the existence of two-solar mass neutron stars.

  3. A multiwavelength study of the Carlson-Henize sample of early-type Galactic extreme emission-line stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shore, Steven N.; Brown, Douglas N.; Bopp, B. W.; Robinson, C. R.; Sanduleak, N.

    1990-01-01

    A UV, optical, and radio study of nine early spectral type extreme emission-line Galactic stars from the Carlson and Henize (1979) sample is presented. He 3-407 and He 3-1482 appear to be analogs of the massive evolved B(e) and luminous blue variable stars of the Magellanic Clouds. The sample appears to be confined to a narrow range in spectral type from about B0 to B6. Most of the observed stars do not show strong N emission, with the striking exception of He 3-1482, and these Galactic stars may not have mixed significant quantities of nitrogen into their envelopes, unlike many of the LMC supergiants, Most of the Galactic stars are considerably fainter than those in the Magellanic Clouds, although their spectral properties are quite similar.

  4. Parental smoking and childhood refractive error: the STARS study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, J V; Low, W C J; Dirani, M; Saw, S-M

    2012-10-01

    To assess the relationship between parental smoking and childhood refractive errors in Singapore Chinese children aged 6-72 months recruited through the STrabismus, Amblyopia, and Refractive errors in Singaporean children study. A total of 4164 children were recruited, with a positive response rate of 72.3% (n=3009). Cycloplegic refraction measurements were obtained from all children by trained eye professionals. Parents underwent an interviewer-administered questionnaire with information on demographics, lifestyle, and parental smoking history being obtained. Spherical equivalent readings were obtained for 87.7% of the children. In all, 52.1% were male (n=1375). The overall prevalence of myopia (at least -0.5 D) was 11.0%. Overall, 37.1% of the fathers interviewed gave a history of smoking. Among the mothers interviewed, 9.2% gave a history of smoking, 6.6% had smoked during the child's life, and 2.2% had smoked during the pregnancy. Maternal history of ever smoking, smoking during child's life, and smoking during pregnancy were associated with decreased odds ratio (OR) of childhood myopia (OR 0.50 (P=0.01), OR 0.39 (P=0.01), and OR 0.3 (P=0.14), respectively). Paternal history of smoking was associated with decreased OR of childhood myopia (OR of 0.72 (P=0.02)). In light of this finding of an inverse association between parental smoking and childhood myopia, further studies are suggested to better understand the role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor pharmacology in ocular development. This may pave the way for the development of targeted treatment strategies for prevention of myopia.

  5. IRAS 21391 + 5802 - A study in intermediate mass star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, Bruce; Mundy, Lee; Mcmullin, Joseph; Hezel, Thomas; Keene, Jocelyn

    1993-01-01

    We present infrared and millimeter wavelength observations of the cold IRAS source 21391 + 5802 and its associated molecular core. Infrared observations at lambda = 3.5 microns reveal a heavily obscured, central point source which is coincident with a compact lambda = 2.7 mm continuum and C18O emission region. The source radiates about 310 solar luminosities, primarily at FIR wavelengths, suggesting that it is a young stellar object of intermediate mass. The steeply rising spectral energy distribution and the large fraction of the system mass residing in circumstellar material imply that IRAS 21391 + 5802 is in an early stage of evolution. The inferred dust temperature indicates a temperature gradient in the core. A comprehensive model for the surrounding core of dust and gas is devised to match the observed dust continuum emission and multitransition CS emission from this and previous studies. We find a r exp -1.5 +/- 0.2 density gradient consistent with that of a gravitationally evolved core and a total core mass of 380 solar masses. The observed dust emission is most consistent with a lambda exp -1.5 - lambda exp -2 dust emissivity law; for a lambda exp -2 law, the data are best fit by a mass opacity coefficient of 3.6 x 10 exp -3 sq cm/g at lambda = 1.25 mm.

  6. Magnetic Field of the Solar-Like Star β Aql: a Study by Individual Spectral Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V. V.; Plachinda, S. I.; Baklanova, D. N.; Pankov, N. F.

    2017-06-01

    We present the results of the spectropolarimetric study of the solar-like star β Aql in individual spectral lines. The magnetic field on β Aql was detected with maximal value B =19.7 ±2.8 G, and minimal value B =-18.1 ±3.5 G. We suppose a difference in magnetic field value measured using spectral lines with normal and anomalous Zeeman spleeting.

  7. Recent Developments in the Studies of Emission-Line Stars. 2. Luminous Blue Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogure, Tomukazu

    2008-02-01

    Luminous blue variables (LBV) are the stars distributing in the highest part of the HR diagram, and characterized by their large mass loss through eruptive events. Recent studies of three prototype LBV, η Car, P Cyg, and AG Car, are reviewed, along with their associated nebulosities. In particular, spectral changes in and around the periastron passage of η Car in 2003 have been extensively observed, and opened a new debate on its physical nature.

  8. Studies of low-mass interacting binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainger, Paul P.

    1990-01-01

    have come into contact but are not yet/currently in thermal contact, exhibiting a temperature difference between the components. BXAnd like other B-type systems seems to be reaching this contact state for the first time, but the position of VW Boo is uncertain, and whilst evidence that it could be in the "broken contact" state predicted by the TRO Theory is far from conclusive, its lower orbital angular momentum clearly marks the system as worthy of further study. SS Ari and AG Vir exhibit light curves with unequal quadrature heights. Attempts to treat the higher quadrature as a region of "excess luminosity" due to an energy transfer "warm spot" does not however provide a good model of this phenomenon. Since invoking a dark starspot model also does not provide a good explanation for such systems, it may be that this form of light curve distortion is due to an entirely different form of distorting surface phenomenon. Like BX And, AG Vir appears to be just reaching contact for the first time, but like VW Boo, the slightly lower angular momentum of SS Ari warrants further study.

  9. An infrared study of Be stars based on ISO SWS01 spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pin; Fu, Zai-Qi

    2009-07-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) spectra of 10 Be stars are presented. It can be seen that the Be stars show a diversity in their ISO SWS01 spectral classifications by Kraemer et al., from naked stars, stars associated with dust, stars with warm dust shells, stars with cool dust shells to very red sources. In addition, the Bra/HI(14-6) line flux ratio derived for the sample stars is compared with that of P Cyg, and it is found that the line ratio of Be stars which were investigated show not only lower values as suggested by Waters et al., but also larger values. Therefore, the line ratio cannot be used to judge whether a star is a Be star or not.

  10. A Chandra Study of the Rosette Star-forming Complex. III. The NGC 2237 Cluster and the Region's Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth; Garmire, Gordon

    2010-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 <~ M <~ 2 M sun. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 <~ AV <~ 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population ~400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc ~3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper in the molecular cloud appear unaffected by the

  11. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE ROSETTE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX. III. THE NGC 2237 CLUSTER AND THE REGION'S STAR FORMATION HISTORY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Broos, Patrick S.; Garmire, Gordon; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth

    2010-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution Chandra X-ray images of the NGC 2237 young stellar cluster on the periphery of the Rosette Nebula. We detect 168 X-ray sources, 80% of which have stellar counterparts in USNO, Two Micron All Sky Survey, and deep FLAMINGOS images. These constitute the first census of the cluster members with 0.2 {approx}< M {approx}< 2 M {sub sun}. Star locations in near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams indicate a cluster age around 2 Myr with a visual extinction of 1 {approx}< A{sub V} {approx}< 3 at 1.4 kpc, the distance of the Rosette Nebula's main cluster NGC 2244. We derive the K-band luminosity function and the X-ray luminosity function of the cluster, which indicate a population {approx}400-600 stars. The X-ray-selected sample shows a K-excess disk frequency of 13%. The young Class II counterparts are aligned in an arc {approx}3 pc long suggestive of a triggered formation process induced by the O stars in NGC 2244. The diskless Class III sources are more dispersed. Several X-ray emitting stars are located inside the molecular cloud and around gaseous pillars projecting from the cloud. These stars, together with a previously unreported optical outflow originating inside the cloud, indicate that star formation is continuing at a low level and the cluster is still growing. This X-ray view of young stars on the western side of the Rosette Nebula complements our earlier studies of the central cluster NGC 2244 and the embedded clusters on the eastern side of the Nebula. The large-scale distribution of the clusters and molecular material is consistent with a scenario in which the rich central NGC 2244 cluster formed first, and its expanding H II region triggered the formation of the now-unobscured satellite clusters Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) XA and NGC 2237. A large swept-up shell material around the H II region is now in a second phase of collect-and-collapse fragmentation, leading to the recent formation of subclusters. Other clusters deeper

  12. Spectroscopic study of formation, evolution and interaction of M31 and M33 with star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhou; Yang, Yanbin

    2016-02-01

    The recent studies show that the formation and evolution process of the nearby galaxies are still unclear. By using the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) 3.6m telescope, the PanDAS shows complicated substructures (dwarf satellite galaxies, halo globular clusters, extended clusters, star streams, etc.) in the halo of M31 to ~150 kpc from the center of galaxy and M31-M33 interaction has been studied. In our work, we would like to investigate formation, evolution and interaction of M31 and M33, which are the nearest two spiral galaxies in Local Group. The star cluster systems of the two galaxies are good tracers to study the dynamics of the substructures and the interaction. Since 2010, the Xinglong 2.16m, Lijiang 2.4m and MMT 6.5m telescopes have been used for our spectroscopic observations. The radial velocities and Lick absorption-line indices can thus be measured with the spectroscopy and then ages, metallicities and masses of the star clusters can be fitted with the simple stellar population models. These parameters could be used as the input physical parameters for numerical simulations of M31-M33 interaction.

  13. Structure of stable binary neutron star merger remnants: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastaun, W.; Ciolfi, R.; Giacomazzo, B.

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we study the merger of two neutron stars with a gravitational mass of 1.4 M⊙ each, employing the Shen-Horowitz-Teige equation of state. This equation of state is a corner case, allowing the formation of a stable neutron star with the given total baryonic mass of 3.03 M⊙. We investigate in unprecedented detail the structure of the remnant, in particular the mass distribution, the thermal structure, and the rotation profile. We also compute fluid trajectories both inside the remnant and those relevant for the formation of the disk. We find a peanut-shaped fluid flow inside the remnant following a strong m =2 perturbation. Moreover, the flow is locally compressive, causing the appearance of dynamic hot spots. Further, we introduce new diagnostic measures that are easy to implement in numeric simulations and that allow one to quantify mass and compactness of merger remnants in a well-defined way. As in previous studies of supra- and hypermassive stars, we find a remnant with a slowly rotating core and an outer envelope rotating at nearly Keplerian velocity. We compute a Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff star model which agrees well with that of the remnant in the core, while the latter possesses extensive outer layers rotating close to Kepler velocity. Finally, we extract the gravitational wave signal and discuss the detectability with modern observatories. This study has implications for the interpretation of gravitational wave detections from the postmerger phase and is relevant for short gamma-ray burst models.

  14. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  15. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makishima, K.

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1?7) × 10^8 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states.

  16. Study of triggered star formation in a bright-rimmed cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Petriella, A.

    2014-10-01

    Bright-rimmed clouds (BRCs) are small and dense molecular clouds located in the periphery of the evolved HII regions. The illumination of these dark clumps by nearby OB stars might be responsible for triggered collapse and subsequent star formation through the mechanism known as radiation-driven implosion (RDI). We carried out a multi-wavelength study of a BRC located in the periphery of the evolved HII region G52.85-0.55. From the evaluation of the pressure balance between the ionized gas located at the illuminated border of the clump and the molecular gas, we show that shocks are being driven in the external layers of the BRC. On the other hand the pressure balance suggests that the birth of young stellar objects embedded in the BRC could have been initiated by the RDI mechanism.

  17. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1-7) × 10(8) T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states.

  18. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  19. Studies of the hybrid star structure within 2 +1 flavors NJL model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Ming; Zhang, Jin-Li; Zhao, Tong; Zhao, Ya-Peng; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we use the equation of state (EOS) of the 2 +1 flavors Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model to study the structure of compact stars. To avoid the ultraviolet divergence, we employ the proper-time regularization (PTR) with an ultraviolet cutoff. For comparison, we fix three sets of parameters, where the constraints of chemical equilibrium and electric charge neutrality conditions are taken into consideration. With a certain interpolation method in the crossover region, we construct three corresponding hybrid EOSs but find that the maximum masses of hybrid stars in the three different cases do not differ too much. It should be pointed out that the results we get are in accordance with the recent astro-observation PSR J 0348 +0432 , PSR J 1614 -2230 , PSR J 1946 +3417 .

  20. A star formation study of the ATLAS3D early-type galaxies with the AKARI all-sky survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokusho, T.; Kaneda, H.; Bureau, M.; Suzuki, T.; Murata, K.; Kondo, A.; Yamagishi, M.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The star formation properties of early-type galaxies (ETGs) are currently the subject of considerable interest, particularly whether they differ from the star formation properties of gas-rich spirals. Aims: We perform a systematic study of star formation in a large sample of local ETGs with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and dust emission, focusing on the star formation rates (SFRs) and star formation efficiencies (SFEs) of the galaxies. Methods: Our sample is composed of the 260 ETGs from the ATLAS3D survey, from which we used the cold gas measurements (H i and CO). We estimated the SFRs from stellar, PAH, and dust fits to spectral energy distributions created from new AKARI measurements and with literature data from WISE and 2MASS. Results: The mid-infrared luminosities of non-CO-detected galaxies are well correlated with their stellar luminosities, showing that they trace (circum)stellar dust emission. CO-detected galaxies show an excess above these correlations, uncorrelated with their stellar luminosities, indicating that they likely contain PAHs and dust of interstellar origin. PAH and dust luminosities of CO-detected galaxies show tight correlations with their molecular gas masses; the derived current SFRs are typically 0.01-1M⊙ yr-1. These SFRs systematically decrease with stellar age at fixed stellar mass, while they correlate nearly linearly with stellar mass at fixed age. The majority of local ETGs follow the same star formation law as local star-forming galaxies and their current SFEs do not depend on either stellar mass or age. Conclusions: Our results clearly indicate that molecular gas is fueling current star formation in local ETGs, which appear to acquire this gas via mechanisms regulated primarily by stellar mass. The current SFEs of local ETGs are similar to those of local star-forming galaxies, indicating that their low SFRs are likely due to smaller cold gas fractions rather than a suppression of star formation.

  1. Study of the Outflow and Disk surrounding a Post-Outburst FU-Orionis Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Samuel N.; Perez, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    PP 13 is a fan-shaped cometary nebula located in the constellation of Perseus and embedded in the L1473 dark cloud. At optical wavelengths this region is obscured by the surrounding dark cloud, while at infrared and longer wavelengths two northern objects (PP13Na & PP13Nb) and one southern object (PP13S) are revealed. In the past, the young stellar object inside PP13S, called PP13S*, experienced an FU-Orionis type outburst due to a massive accretion episode and is currently returning to its quiescent state. Studying the FU-Orionis phase is crucial to our understanding of how low mass stars form; it is theorized that all low-mass stars go through this outburst phase while they are forming. I used CARMA 3mm interferometric observations of the PP13 region to study the continuum and molecular line emissions from PP13. With these observations, I determined the source of the previously detected outflow and learned new information about the double star system PP13Na and PP13Nb. Although I was not able to detect the accretion disk in the gas emissions, I plan to use computer modeling to help provide constraints on the properties of PP13S* and its outflow.

  2. Radio and infrared study of the star-forming region IRAS 20286+4105

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Varsha; Das, S. R.; Tej, A.; Vig, S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Ojha, D. K.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we present a multiwavelength investigation of the star-forming complex IRAS 20286+4105, located in the Cygnus X region. Near-infrared K-band data are used to revisit the cluster/stellar group identified in previous studies. Radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz show the presence of a H II region possibly powered by a star of spectral type B0-B0.5. The cometary morphology of the ionized region is explained by invoking the bow-shock model, where the likely association with a nearby supernova remnant is also explored. A compact radio knot with a non-thermal spectral index is detected towards the centre of the cloud. Mid-infrared data from the Spitzer Legacy Survey of the Cygnus X region show the presence of six Class I young stellar objects inside the cloud. Thermal dust emission in this complex is modelled using Herschel far-infrared data to generate dust temperature and column density maps. Herschel images also show the presence of two clumps in this region, the masses of which are estimated to be ∼175 and 30 M⊙. The mass-radius relation and the surface density of the clumps mean that they do not qualify as massive star-forming sites. An overall picture of a runaway star ionizing the cloud and a triggered population of intermediate-mass, Class I sources located towards the cloud centre emerges from this multiwavelength study. Variation in the dust emissivity spectral index is shown to exist in this region and is seen to have an inverse relation with the dust temperature.

  3. An EUVE Study of the B Stars Epsilon and Beta Canis Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Myron A.; Oliversen, R. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This program is a study of the comparative characteristics of the temporal variations in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV), middle ultraviolet, and optical spectral regions of the pulsating star beta Canis Majoris (beta CMa) using data from the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite. (Although the title includes two stars, only beta CMa was actually observed.) This is a program Initiated at the University of Wisconsin by J. Cassinelli and D. Cohen (now at Univ. of Delaware) and subcontracted into several components. The portion delegated to CSC (Smith) had two components: a study of the stars flux variations in the middle ultraviolet wavelength region and consulting on the pulsational characteristics of this class of stars. The research for CSC's component of this work has been to identity a group of high-resolution spectra In the final archives of the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite and to analysis the difference between selected spectra during low and high flux phases. This analysis was carried out by binning the spectral fluxes to low resolution, taking their ratio, and examining the spectrum ratio for spectrophotometric signatures sensitive to temperature difference and density. These were calibrated against spectral flux ratios obtained from model atmospheres. These results have been completed and the results communicated to the PIs of the program. We have also communicated to them the general results of the nature of the pulsational amplitude variations both from his work and from the work of other researchers in the astronomical literature. It is expected that this work will be published soon in a refereed astronomical journal.

  4. A long-term photometric study of the FU Orionis star V 733 Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, S. P.; Semkov, E. H.; Munari, U.; Birkle, K.

    2010-06-01

    Context. The FU Orionis candidate V733 Cep was discovered by Roger Persson in 2004. The star is located in the dark cloud L1216 close to the Cepheus OB3 association. Because only a small number of FU Orionis stars have been detected to date, photometric and spectral studies of V733 Cep are of great interest. Aims: The studies of the photometrical variability of PMS stars are very important to the understanding of stellar evolution. The main purpose of our study is to construct a long-time light curve of V733 Cep. On the basis of BVRI monitoring we also study the photometric behavior of the star. Methods: We gather data from CCD photometry and archival photographic plates. The photometric BVRI data (Johnson-Cousins system) that we present were collected from June 2008 to October 2009. To facilitate transformation from instrumental measurements to the standard system, fifteen comparison stars in the field of V733 Cep were calibrated in BVRI bands. To construct a historical light curve of V733 Cep, a search for archival photographic observations in the Wide-Field Plate Database was performed. As a result, 192 photographic plates containing the field of V733 Cep were found. Some plates were analyzed at our request to estimate the magnitude of V733 Cep. Results: Our photometric study confirms the affiliation of V733 Cep to the group of FU Orionis objects. An outburst in the optical and a slow rise in brightness during the period 1971-1993 are well documented. During the period 1993-2004, V733 Cep exhibited its maximum brightness and the amplitude of the observed outburst exceeded 4.5 m (R). The BVRI photometric data imply that from February 2007 to October 2009, a slow decrease in brightness of V733 Cep was observed. The observed color evolution of V-I index also suggest that V733 Cep is currently fading. The long-time light curve of V733 Cep is similar to the light curves of other FU Orionis objects.

  5. A spectroscopy study of nearby late-type stars, possible members of stellar kinematic groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R. M.; Eiroa, C.; Montes, D.; Montesinos, B.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Nearby late-type stars are excellent targets for seeking young objects in stellar associations and moving groups. The origin of these structures is still misunderstood, and lists of moving group members often change with time and also from author to author. Most members of these groups have been identified by means of kinematic criteria, leading to an important contamination of previous lists by old field stars. Aims: We attempt to identify unambiguous moving group members among a sample of nearby-late type stars by studying their kinematics, lithium abundance, chromospheric activity, and other age-related properties. Methods: High-resolution echelle spectra (R ~ 57 000) of a sample of nearby late-type stars are used to derive accurate radial velocities that are combined with the precise Hipparcos parallaxes and proper motions to compute galactic-spatial velocity components. Stars are classified as possible members of the classical moving groups according to their kinematics. The spectra are also used to study several age-related properties for young late-type stars, i.e., the equivalent width of the lithium Li i 6707.8 Å line or the R'HK index. Additional information like X-ray fluxes from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey or the presence of debris discs is also taken into account. The different age estimators are compared and the moving group membership of the kinematically selected candidates are discussed. Results: From a total list of 405 nearby stars, 102 have been classified as moving group candidates according to their kinematics. i.e., only ~25.2% of the sample. The number reduces when age estimates are considered, and only 26 moving group candidates (25.5% of the 102 candidates) have ages in agreement with the star having the same age as an MG member. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andaluc

  6. A Study of Low-Metallicity Red Giant Stars in the Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Using APOGEE Survey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Wanying; Simon, Joshua D.; APOGEE-2

    2017-01-01

    Studying the chemical evolution of stars in the Milky Way’s faint dwarf galaxy satellites can provide valuable insight into the formation of the Galaxy and its companions. Past chemical abundance studies of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy contain a maximum of sixteen stars, but large surveys such as APOGEE (Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment), which perform high-resolution spectroscopy (R ˜ 22,500) for hundreds of stars at a time, have the potential to vastly expand the amount of available stellar chemical abundance data and provide a more comprehensive view of the dSph’s chemical evolution. However, the APOGEE reduction and analysis pipelines were designed for high S/N observations of bright stars, and have not been tested in the lower S/N regime of dSph stars. We evaluate the performance of the APOGEE pipeline for low S/N spectra taken from faint, low-metallicity stars in the galaxy. We compare APOGEE metallicities against those found in literature, and examine the spectra for elemental absorption lines. We also attempt to constrain the population of binary stars in the dSph.

  7. Statistically Optimal Approximations of Astronomical Signals: Implications to Classification and Advanced Study of Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Chinarova, L. L.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Tkachenko, M. G.

    2016-06-01

    We have elaborated a set of new algorithms and programs for advanced time series analysis of (generally) multi-component multi-channel observations with irregularly spaced times of observations, which is a common case for large photometric surveys. Previous self-review on these methods for periodogram, scalegram, wavelet, autocorrelation analysis as well as on "running" or "sub-interval" local approximations were self-reviewed in (2003ASPC..292..391A). For an approximation of the phase light curves of nearly-periodic pulsating stars, we use a Trigonometric Polynomial (TP) fit of the statistically optimal degree and initial period improvement using differential corrections (1994OAP.....7...49A). For the determination of parameters of "characteristic points" (minima, maxima, crossings of some constant value etc.) we use a set of methods self-reviewed in 2005ASPC..335...37A, Results of the analysis of the catalogs compiled using these programs are presented in 2014AASP....4....3A. For more complicated signals, we use "phenomenological approximations" with "special shapes" based on functions defined on sub-intervals rather on the complete interval. E. g. for the Algol-type stars we developed the NAV ("New Algol Variable") algorithm (2012Ap.....55..536A, 2012arXiv1212.6707A, 2015JASS...32..127A), which was compared to common methods of Trigonometric Polynomial Fit (TP) or local Algebraic Polynomial (A) fit of a fixed or (alternately) statistically optimal degree. The method allows determine the minimal set of parameters required for the "General Catalogue of Variable Stars", as well as an extended set of phenomenological and astrophysical parameters which may be used for the classification. Totally more that 1900 variable stars were studied in our group using these methods in a frame of the "Inter-Longitude Astronomy" campaign (2010OAP....23....8A) and the "Ukrainian Virtual Observatory" project (2012KPCB...28...85V).

  8. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  9. Forecasting life: a study of activity cycles in low-mass stars: lessons from long-term stellar light curves.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Stella

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic activity cycles are indirect traces of magnetic fields and can provide an insight on the nature and action of stellar dynamos and stellar magnetic activity. This, in turn, can determine local space weather and activity effects on stellar habitable zones. Using photometric monitoring of low-mass stars, we study the presence and properties of their magnetic activity cycles. We introduce long-term light curves of our sample stars, and discuss the properties of the observed trends, especially at spectral types where stars are fully convective (later than M3).

  10. A long-term UBVRI photometric study of the pre-main sequence star V350 Cep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibryamov, Sunay; Semkov, Evgeni; Peneva, Stoyanka

    2014-10-01

    Results from UBVRI optical photometric observations of the pre-main sequence star V350 Cep during the period 2004-2014 are presented. The star was discovered in 1977 due to its remarkable increase in brightness by more than 5 mag (R). In previous studies, V350 Cep was considered to be a potential FUor or EXor eruptive variable. Our data suggest that during the period of observations the star maintains its maximum brightness with low amplitude photometric variations. Our conclusion is that V350 Cep was probably an intermediate object between FUors and EXors, similar to V1647 Ori.

  11. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  12. Charging and performance of the CubeSTAR satellite studied by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloch, Wojciech; Bekkeng, Tore André; Lindem, Torfinn

    2012-07-01

    A good understanding of spacecraft-plasma interaction is important for all space missions and experiments. The spacecraft potential is determined by the plasma, photoemission and other currents [1]. A charged object can significantly disturb the surrounding plasma, and lead to wake formation. The wake features, such as ion focusing, can influence the measurements of the plasma by the instruments onboard. A study of this problem using analytical models is difficult and can not account for all phenomena. This has encouraged use of numerical models for self-consistent studies of the plasma-object interactions on a detailed kinetic level [2][3]. With three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations [3][4], we address the spacecraft-plasma interaction in various plasma environments, and account for the self-consistent charging of the spacecraft by plasma and photoemission currents. As a specific case, we consider the interactions between plasma and a CubeSTAR satellite. CubeSTAR is a nano-satellite for the space weather studies being constructed in Norway, with the launch scheduled for year 2013. With a novel Langmuir probe system [5], it will measure the absolute electron densities with a high spatial resolution, allowing for studies of small scale plasma irregularities. We perform a systematic study of the role of the wakefield on the measurements with the Langmuir probes onboard the CubeSTAR for the plasma conditions relevant for the planned polar orbit. The simulation results are of relevance also for other spacecraft missions. [1] Whipple E C, Rep. Prog. Phys. 44, 1197 (1981). [2] Roussel J F and Berthelier J J, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01104 (2004). [3] Yaroshenko V V et al., J. Geophys. Res. 116, A12218 (2011). [4] Miloch W J Kroll M and Block D 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010). [5] Bekkeng T A et al. Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 085903 (2010).

  13. p-capture reaction cycles in rotating massive stars and their impact on elemental abundances in globular cluster stars: A case study of O, Na and Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Upakul; Goswami, Aruna; Duorah, Hiralal; Duorah, Kalpana

    2017-08-01

    Elemental abundance patterns of globular cluster stars can provide important clues for understanding cluster formation and early chemical evolution. The origin of the abundance patterns, however, still remains poorly understood. We have studied the impact of p-capture reaction cycles on the abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium considering nuclear reaction cycles of carbon-nitrogen-oxygen-fluorine, neon-sodium and magnesium-aluminium in massive stars in stellar conditions of temperature range 2×107 to 10×107 K and typical density of 102 gm cc-1. We have estimated abundances of oxygen, sodium and aluminium with respect to Fe, which are then assumed to be ejected from those stars because of rotation reaching a critical limit. These ejected abundances of elements are then compared with their counterparts that have been observed in some metal-poor evolved stars, mainly giants and red giants, of globular clusters M3, M4, M13 and NGC 6752. We observe an excellent agreement with [O/Fe] between the estimated and observed abundance values for globular clusters M3 and M4 with a correlation coefficient above 0.9 and a strong linear correlation for the remaining two clusters with a correlation coefficient above 0.7. The estimated [Na/Fe] is found to have a correlation coefficient above 0.7, thus implying a strong correlation for all four globular clusters. As far as [Al/Fe] is concerned, it also shows a strong correlation between the estimated abundance and the observed abundance for globular clusters M13 and NGC 6752, since here also the correlation coefficient is above 0.7 whereas for globular cluster M4 there is a moderate correlation found with a correlation coefficient above 0.6. Possible sources of these discrepancies are discussed.

  14. Study of variable extinction of hot stars with circumstellar dust shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Various projects on the topic of hot stars with circumstellar dust are reported. The surface temperature, wind speed, and interstellar reddening were determined for the variable WC7 star HD 193793. Circumstellar carbon monoxide molecules were detected around a hot star. The dust envelope of the star W90 in the young cluster NGC2264 is discussed, and the spectra of low-redshift and X-ray emitting quasars are mentioned.

  15. Design of the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2013, a small international collaborative of discipline-based astronomy education researchers began to build the foundation to start the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, known simply as iSTAR. The project was a direct result of the inability of existing large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, to provide actionable intelligence on either strengths or weaknesses of astronomy teaching across the world. This is not because those studies were flawed; rather, they focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. Prior to the iSTAR effort, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. The goal of studying a widely dispersed international sample is to identify cultural subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, highlighting unexpected cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, and perhaps more effective, means of instruction. As a first step, we are carefully translating the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument and carefully attending to nuances that occur during the translation process as cultural clues to differences in the teaching and learning of astronomy. We are actively welcoming and seeking international partners in this work through the CAPERteam.com website and at https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/iSTAR-Registration . This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  16. How Do Multiple-Star Systems Form? VLA Study Reveals "Smoking Gun"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Astronomers have used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to image a young, multiple-star system with unprecedented detail, yielding important clues about how such systems are formed. Most Sun-sized or larger stars in the Universe are not single, like our Sun, but are members of multiple-star systems. Astronomers have been divided on how such systems can form, producing competing theoretical models for this process. Multiple Star Formation Graphic Proposed Formation Process for L1551 IRS5 CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for page of graphics and full information The new VLA study produced a "smoking gun" supporting one of the competing models, said Jeremy Lim, of the Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, in Taipei, Taiwan, whose study, done with Shigehisa Takakuwa of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, is published in the December 10 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. Ironically, their discovery of a third, previously-unknown, young star in the system may support a second theoretical model. "There may be more than one way to make a multiple-star system," Lim explained. The astronomers observed an object called L1551 IRS5, young, still-forming protostars enshrouded in a cloud of gas and dust, some 450 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Taurus. Invisible to optical telescopes because of the gas and dust, this object was discovered in 1976 by astronomers using infrared telescopes. A VLA study in 1998 showed two young stars orbiting each other, each surrounded by a disk of dust that may, in time, congeal into a system of planets. Lim and Takakuwa re-examined the system, using improved technical capabilities that greatly boosted the quality of their images. "In the earlier VLA study, only half of the VLA's 27 antennas had receivers that could collect the radio waves, at a frequency of 43 GigaHertz (GHz), coming from the dusty disks. When we re-observed this

  17. Theoretic Studies of Full Constraints on a Star Tracker's Influential Error Sources for In-orbit Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Cai Hao, Yun; Wang, Li; Long, Ye

    2016-03-01

    To collect star transits data qualified for in-orbit calibration, this study derives the full error constraints to limit star tracker's influential error sources and computes their error boundaries from a theoretical perspective. The full constraints, including not only the minimum variance estimation of position but also the error bound prediction of scale and intensity of Gaussian-shaped starspots, are studied based on the Cramér-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) theorem. By imposing these constraints on motion, drift in focal length, and other factors, their boundaries could be determined before launch. Therefore, the in-orbit correction accuracy is expected to be close to CRLB through suitable implementation of these constraints. The correctness of the theoretical position error of motion is demonstrated by the data-fitting procedure against test results of star tracker on dynamic performance. The simulation result shows that the drift in focal length can generate an error with the same magnitude as detector noise and thus might be the dominant error source when star tracker is working under stationary circumstance. Using the accuracy performance of some typical star trackers, this study shows that the CRLB constraint may be very effective to estimate the overall position error of a starspot or one axis, valuable data that can be used for online calibration. The overall position uncertainty analysis shows that a weighted method can be employed for calibration, a process where star data can be given a weight in inverse proportion to the CRLB value.

  18. A Search for Low Mass Stars and Substellar Companions and A Study of Circumbinary Gas and Dust Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We have searched for nearby low-mass stars and brown dwarfs and have studied the planet-forming environment of binary stars. We have carried out a search for young, low-mass stars in nearby stellar associations using X-ray and UV source catalogs. We discovered a new technique to identify 10-100 Myr-old low-mass stars within 100 pc of the Earth using GALEX-optical/near-IR data. We present candidate young stars found by applying this new method in the 10 Myr old TW Hydrae and Scorpius-Centaurus associations. In addition, we have searched for the coolest brown dwarf class: Y-dwarfs, expected to appear at temperatures <500 K. Using wide-field near infrared imaging with ground (CTIO, Palomar, KPNO) and space (Spitzer, AKARI) observatories, we have looked for companions to nearby, old (2 Gyr or older), high proper motion white dwarfs. We present results for Southern Hemisphere white dwarfs. Additionally, we have characterized how likely planet formation occurs in binary star systems. While 20% of planets have been discovered around one member of a binary system, these binaries have semi-major axes larger than 20 AU. We have performed an AO and spectroscopic search for binary stars among a sample of known debris disk stars, which allows us to indirectly study planet formation and evolution in binary systems. As a case study, we examined the gas and dust present in the circumbinary disk around V4046 Sagittarii, a 2.4-day spectroscopic binary. Our results demonstrate it is unlikely that planets can form in binaries with stellar semi-major axes of 10s of AU. This research has been funded by a NASA ADA grant to UCLA and RIT.

  19. A Submillimetre Study of Massive Star Formation Within the W51 Complex and Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Harriet Alice Louise

    Despite its importance the fundamental question of how massive stars form remains unanswered, with improvements to both models and observations having crucial roles to play. To quote Bate et al. (2003) computational models of star formation are limited because "conditions in molecular clouds are not sufficiently well understood to be able to select a representative sample of cloud cores for the initial conditions". It is this notion that motivates the study of the environments within Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs) and Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs), known sites of massive star formation, at the clump and core level. By studying large populations of these objects, it is possible to make conclusions based on global properties. With this in mind I study the dense molecular clumps within one of the most massive GMCs in the Galaxy: the W51 GMC. New observations of the W51 GMC in the 12CO, 13CO and C18O (3-2) transitions using the HARP instrument on the JCMT are presented. With the help of the clump finding algorithm CLUMPFIND a total of 1575 dense clumps are identified of which 1130 are associated with the W51 GMC, yielding a dense mass reservoir of 1.5 × 10^5 M contained within these clumps. Of these clumps only 1% by number are found to be super-critical, yielding a super-critical clump formation efficiency of 0.5%, below current SFE estimates of the region. This indicates star formation within the W51 GMC will diminish over time although evidence from the first search for molecular outflows presents the W51 GMC in an active light with a lower limit of 14 outflows. The distribution of the outflows within the region searched found them concentrated towards the W51A region. Having much smaller sizes and masses, obtaining global properties of clumps and cores within IRDCs required studying a large sample of these objects. To do this pre-existing data from the SCUBA Legacy Catalogue was utilised to study IRDCs within a catalogues based on 8 μm data. This data identified

  20. Spectral study of the late nitrogen-sequence Wolf-Rayet star FSZ35 in M33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maryeva, O.; Abolmasov, P.

    2012-04-01

    We study and analyse the low-resolution spectra of the unusual late nitrogen-sequence Wolf-Rayet (WN) star FSZ35 in M33. We classify the object as a hydrogen-rich WN8 star. Using the radiative transfer code CMFGEN, we determine the physical parameters of this object and we compare these to the parameters of other WN8 stars, including the luminous blue variable V532 (also known as Romano's star) during the minimum of its brightness. Unlike V532, the object is fairly stable, both spectrally and photometrically, which can be attributed to its more advanced evolutionary stage or lower luminosity. FSZ35 is shown to possess a compact nebula that produces a faint but detectable [O III] emission.

  1. The SOLA Team: A Star Formation Project To Study the Soul of Lupus with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Saito, M.; Rodon, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2017-06-01

    The SOLA team is a multi-national and multi-wavelength collaboration composed by scientists with technical expertise in ALMA and in infrared and optical techniques. The aim of the team is to establish a low-mass star formation scenario based on the Lupus molecular clouds. In this talk I will present our unique catalog of pre-stellar and proto-stellar cores toward Lupus molecular clouds, the results on our latest studies in protoplanetary disks, as well as our ALMA Cycle 3 data aiming at testing the formation mechanism of sub-stellar objects in Lupus molecular clouds.

  2. Studies of low-mass star formation with the large deployable reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, D. J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Estimates are made of the far-infrared and submillimeter continuum and line emission from regions of low mass star formation. The intensity of this emission is compared with the sensitivity of the large deployable reflector (LDR), a large space telescope designed for this wavelength range. The proposed LDR is designed to probe the temperature, density, chemical structure, and the velocity field of the collapsing envelopes of these protostars. The LDR is also designed to study the accretion shocks on the cores and circumstellar disks of low-mass protostars, and to detect shock waves driven by protostellar winds.

  3. The LUNA experiment at Gran Sasso Laboratory: Studying stars by going underground

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, Alessandra

    2015-10-15

    Accurate knowledge of thermonuclear reaction rates is a key issue in nuclear astrophysics: it is important for understanding the energy generation, neutrino production and the synthesis of the elements in stars and during primordial nucleosynthesis. Cross-section measurements are mainly hampered by the very low counting rate and cosmic background. An underground location is extremely advantageous for such studies, as demonstrated by the LUNA experiment in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy). This paper reports on the results recently obtained by this experiment and on the future perspectives in the field.

  4. Globular-cluster stars - Results of theoretical evolution and pulsation studies compared with the observations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iben, I., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Survey of recently published studies on globular clusters, and comparison of stellar evolution and pulsation theory with reported observations. The theory of stellar evolution is shown to be capable of describing, in principle, the behavior of a star through all quasi-static stages. Yet, as might be expected, estimates of bulk properties obtained by comparing observations with results of pulsation and stellar atmosphere theory differ somewhat from estimates of these same properties obtained by comparing observations with results of evolution theory. A description is given of how such estimates are obtained, and suggestions are offered as to where the weak points in each theory may lie.

  5. Using NIRISS to study the formation and evolution of stars, disks, and planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug I.; JWST NIRISS GTO Team

    2017-06-01

    NIRISS on JWST is a powerful instrument for the study of star, disk, and planet formation and evolution. In this talk I will highlight the Wide Field Slitless Spectroscopy (WFSS) and Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) modes of NIRISS, along with lessons learned determining optimal observing strategies and project implementation in APT. The NIRISS WFSS mode uses a grism to provide modest resolution (R ~ 150) spectra of all sources within the observed field of view. Cold low-mass objects are distinct at NIRISS wavelengths (1.5 and 2.0 microns, in this case), and can be characterized through their speactra by their temperature and surface gravity sensitive molecular absorption features. Thus, WFSS observations will be an efficient way to locate and enumerate the young brown dwarfs and rogue planets in nearby star-forming regions. Alternatively, the NIRISS AMI mode offers the highest spatial resolution available on JWST at wavelengths greater than 2.5 micron, 70 - 400 mas, and modest inner working angle contrast, dm ~ 10, for individual bright sources. A significant advantage of observing from space is that, along with the phase closure, the interferometric phase amplitudes can also be recovered allowing some reconstruction of extended emission. Observations with AMI will be made of candidate and postulated planets forming within transition disks around young stars and for somewhat older planets in known extra-solar planetary systems. The AMI mode will also be used to study the zodiacal light in a bright debris disk system and to search for binary companions of Y dwarfs.

  6. Study of a new central compact object: The neutron star in the supernova remnant G15.9+0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochkov, D.; Suleimanov, V.; Sasaki, M.; Santangelo, A.

    2016-08-01

    We present our study of the central point source CXOU J181852.0-150213 in the young Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G15.9+0.2 based on the recent ~90 ks Chandra observations. The point source was discovered in 2005 in shorter Chandra observations and was hypothesized to be a neutron star associated with the SNR. Our X-ray spectral analysis strongly supports the hypothesis of a thermally emitting neutron star associated with G15.9+0.2. We conclude that the object belongs to the class of young cooling low-magnetized neutron stars referred to as central compact objects (CCOs). We modeled the spectrum of the neutron star with a blackbody spectral function and with our hydrogen and carbon neutron star atmosphere models, assuming that the radiation is uniformly emitted by the entire stellar surface. Under this assumption, only the carbon atmosphere models yield a distance that is compatible with a source located in the Galaxy. In this respect, CXOU J181852.0-150213 is similar to two other well-studied CCOs, the neutron stars in Cas A and in HESS J1731-347, for which carbon atmosphere models were used to reconcile their emission with the known or estimated distances.

  7. A magnetic study of spotted UV Ceti flare stars and related late-type dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    A multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer has been used to investigate the magnetic nature of the spotted UV Ceti flare stars. Magnetic observations were obtained on a sample of 19 program objects, of which 5 were currently spotted dKe-dMe stars, 7 were normal dK-dM stars, 7 were UV Ceti flare stars, and 1 was a possible post-T Tauri star. Contrary to most previously published observations and theoretical expectations, no magnetic fields were detected on any of these objects from either the absorption lines or the H-alpha emission line down to an observational uncertainty level of 100-160 gauss (standard deviation).

  8. Theoretical Study of Compact Objects: Pulsars, Thermally Emitting Neutron Stars and Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    This proposal focuses on understanding the various observational manifestations of magnetized neutron stars (NSs), including pulsars, radio-quiet thermally emitting NSs and magnetars. This is motivated by the recent and ongoing observational progress in the study of isolated NSs, made possible by space telescopes such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, and the prospect of near-future observations by NASA's Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission (to be launched in 2014). Recent observations have raised a number of puzzles/questions that beg for theoretical understanding and modeling. The proposed research projects are grouped into two parts: (1) Theoretical modeling of surface (or near surface) X-ray emission from magnetized NSs, including the study of the physics of electron/ion cyclotron lines, radiative transfer during magnetar bursts, dense plasma refractive effect, partially ionized atmospheres, and calculations of X-ray polarization signatures of isolated and accreting magnetic NSs, in anticipation of their detections by GEMS. (2) Theoretical study and observational constraint on the internal structure and evolution of magnetic fields in young neutron stars in supernova remnants. The proposed research will improve our understanding of different populations of NSs and their underlying physical processes (including the extreme physics of strong-field quantum electrodynamics) and enhance the scientific return from the current and future NASA astrophysics missions. It is relevant to NASA's objective, ``Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe''.

  9. Spectroscopic study of extended star clusters in dwarf galaxy NGC 6822

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Narae; Kim, Sang Chul; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W.; Weisz, Daniel; Miller, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South 8.1 m telescope. The radial velocities derived from the spectra range from –61.2 ± 20.4 km s{sup –1} (for C1) to –115.34 ± 57.9 km s{sup –1} (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate-age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old (≥8 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] ≲ –1.5). NGC 6822 is found to have both metal poor ([Fe/H] ≈–2.0) and metal rich ([Fe/H] ≈–0.9) star clusters within 15' (2 kpc) from the center, whereas only metal poor clusters are observed in the outer halo with r ≥ 20'(2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have determined the total mass and the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 6822: M{sub N6822}=7.5{sub −0.1}{sup +4.5}×10{sup 9} M{sub ⊙} and (M/L){sub N6822}=75{sub −1}{sup +45}(M/L){sub ⊙}. It shows that NGC 6822 is one of the most dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group.

  10. Detailed abundance study of four s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarle, E.; Van Winckel, H.; De Smedt, K.; Kamath, D.; Wood, P. R.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The photospheric abundances of evolved solar-type stars of different metallicities serve as probes into stellar evolution theory. Aims: Stellar photospheres of post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars bear witness to the internal chemical enrichment processes, integrated over their entire stellar evolution. Here we study post-AGB stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). With their known distances, these rare objects are ideal tracers of AGB nucleosynthesis and dredge-up phenomena. Methods: We used the UVES spectrograph mounted on the Very Large Telescope at the European Southern Observatory, to obtain high-resolution spectra with high signal-to-noise of a sample of four post-AGB stars. The objects display a spectral energy distribution that indicates the presence of circumstellar dust. We perform a detailed abundance analysis on the basis of these spectra. Results: All objects are C-rich, and strongly enhanced in s-process elements. We deduced abundances of heavy s-process elements for all stars in the sample, and even found an indication of the presence of Hg in the spectrum of one object. The metallicity of all stars except J053253.51-695915.1 is considerably lower than the average value that is observed for the LMC. The derived luminosities show that we witness the late evolution of low-mass stars with initial masses close to 1 M⊙. An exception is J053253.51-695915.1 and we argue that this object is likely a binary. Conclusions: We confirmed the correlation between the efficiency of the third-dredge up and the neutron exposure that is detected in Galactic post-AGB stars. The non-existence of a correlation between metallicity and neutron irradiation is also confirmed and expanded to smaller metallicities. We confirm the status of 21 μm stars as post-carbon stars. Current theoretical AGB models overestimate the observed C/O ratios and fail to reproduce the variety of s-process abundance patterns that is observed in otherwise very similar objects

  11. A Radial Velocity Study of Hot Subdwarf B Stars with Cool Main Sequence Companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Brad; Wade, R. A.; Liss, S. E.; Stark, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Many hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars show composite spectra and energy distributions indicative of G- or K-type main sequence companions. Binary population synthesis (BPS) models demonstrate such systems can be formed by Roche lobe overflow but disagree on whether the resulting orbital periods will be long (years) or short (days). Few studies have been carried out to assess the orbital parameters of these composite binaries; what little observations there are suggest the periods are long. To help address this problem, we selected fifteen moderately-bright (V 13) sdB stars with composite spectra for synoptic radial velocity (RV) monitoring. From January 2005 to July 2008, we acquired between 4 and 14 observations of each target using the bench-mounted Medium Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Cross-correlation techniques were used to measure RVs from the cool companion lines with 700 m/s precision. Here we present RV measurements and orbital parameter estimates (when appropriate) for all systems in our sample and discuss the constraints they place on BPS models. Preliminary measurements of PG 1701+359, the most well-studied object in our sample, indicate the orbit has neither a short period nor a high velocity amplitude. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. AST-0908642.

  12. R&D Studies of a Lead-Scintillating Fiber Calorimeter as a STAR Forward Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmuganathan, Prashanth; STAR Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A forward upgrade of the STAR detector will achieve several physics goals. Examples are studying the internal structure of nucleons and nuclei through measurement of di-jets and Drell-Yan and improvements in the resolution of energy weighted event plane determination for study of more central and more peripheral events in heavy-ion collisions. The AGS E864 lead-scintillating fiber calorimeter cells ((10 cm) 2 × 117 cm) were repurposed by pixelizing their readout into a three by three array of (3 . 3 cm) 2 pixels. A prototype six by six array of these cells (324 pixels) was mounted on the west side of the STAR detector during Run14 and events from 3He+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 200 GeV were recorded. The detector response was simulated by a GEANT model using HIJING particle production. Further tests of the pixelized cells were conducted at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. In this talk, we will present the calorimeter response in 3He+Au collisions using reconstructed π0 from clusters formed from energy deposition by π0 decay gammas. Energy resolution and shower shapes from pixelization are also discussed using test beam data and simulations.

  13. STUDIES OF THE Be STAR X PERSEI DURING A BRIGHT INFRARED PHASE

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew, Blesson; Banerjee, D. P. K.; Naik, Sachindra; Ashok, N. M.

    2013-06-15

    We present multi-epoch photometric and spectroscopic near-infrared observations of the Be star X Persei in the JHK bands covering the wavelength range 1.08-2.35 {mu}m. Combining results from our earlier studies with the present observations, it is shown that the equivalent widths and line fluxes of the prominent H I and He I lines anti-correlate with the strength of the adjacent continuum. That is, during the span of the observations, the JHK broadband fluxes increase while the emission equivalent width values of the H I and He I lines decrease (the lines under consideration being the Paschen and Brackett lines of hydrogen and the 1.7002 {mu}m and 2.058 {mu}m lines of helium). Such an anti-correlation effect is not commonly observed in Be stars in the optical; in the infrared, this may possibly be the first reported case of such behavior. We examine different mechanisms that could possibly cause it and suggest that it could originate due to a radiatively warped, precessing circumstellar disk. It is also shown that during the course of our studies, X Per evolved to an unprecedented state of high near-IR brightness with J, H, K magnitudes of 5.20, 5.05, and 4.84, respectively.

  14. Astronomy Education Research Observations from the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, C. B.; Slater, S. J.; Slater, T. F.; Schleigh, S.; McKinnon, D.

    2016-12-01

    Historically, an important part of the scientific research cycle is to situate any research project within the landscape of the existing scientific literature. In the field of discipline-based astronomy education research, grappling with the existing literature base has proven difficult because of the difficulty in obtaining research reports from around the world, particularly early ones. In order to better survey and efficiently utilize the wide and fractured range and domain of astronomy education research methods and results, the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning database project was initiated. The project aims to host a living, online repository of dissertations, theses, journal articles, and grey literature resources to serve the world's discipline-based astronomy education research community. The first domain of research artifacts ingested into the iSTAR database were doctoral dissertations. To the authors' great surprise, nearly 300 astronomy education research dissertations were found from the last 100-years. Few, if any, of the literature reviews from recent astronomy education dissertations surveyed even come close to summarizing this many dissertations, most of which have not been published in traditional journals, as re-publishing one's dissertation research as a journal article was not a widespread custom in the education research community until recently. A survey of the iSTAR database dissertations reveals that the vast majority of work has been largely quantitative in nature until the last decade. We also observe that modern-era astronomy education research writings reaches as far back as 1923 and that the majority of dissertations come from the same eight institutions. Moreover, most of the astronomy education research work has been done covering learners' grasp of broad knowledge of astronomy rather than delving into specific learning targets, which has been more in vogue during the last two decades. The surprisingly wide breadth

  15. Age Dependence of Wind Properties for Solar-type Stars: A 3D Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réville, Victor; Folsom, Colin P.; Strugarek, Antoine; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2016-12-01

    Young and rapidly rotating stars are known for intense, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. Spectropolarimetric observations of those stars in precisely aged clusters are key input for gyrochronology and magnetochronology. We use Zeeman Doppler imaging maps of several young K-type stars of similar mass and radius but with various ages and rotational periods to perform three-dimensional (3D) numerical MHD simulations of their coronae and follow the evolution of their magnetic properties with age. Those simulations yield the coronal structure as well as the instant torque exerted by the magnetized, rotating wind on the star. As stars get older, we find that the angular momentum loss decreases with {{{Ω }}}\\star 3, which is the reason for the convergence on the Skumanich law. For the youngest stars of our sample, the angular momentum loss shows signs of saturation around 8{{{Ω }}}⊙ , which is a common value used in spin evolution models for K-type stars. We compare these results to semianalytical models and existing braking laws. We observe a complex wind-speed distribution for the youngest stars with slow, intermediate, and fast wind components, which are the result of interaction with intense and nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields. Consequently, in our simulations, the stellar wind structure in the equatorial plane of young stars varies significantly from a solar configuration, delivering insight about the past of the solar system interplanetary medium.

  16. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  17. Precise Laboratory Measurement of LINR Frequencies Useful to Studies of Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2002, we began a program in laboratory spectroscopy to provide accurate molecular line frequencies essential to studies of the motions and abundances in star-froming dense cores and planet-forming circumstellar disks. The CN radical is one of the most important tracers of dynamical motions in protoplanetary disks around low mass pre-main sequence stars. The millimeter-wave spectrum of CN consists of rotational transitions every 113 GHz which are split into many resolved hyperfine components. Very narrow and fairly bright lines of SiO in the ground vibrational state have been observed in regions where protostellar outflows interact with the cold ambient gas. In support of future astronomical observations in these regions, 10 successive rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of Si0 between 86 and 500 GHz, and two lines near 800 GHz were measured in the laboratory to an accuracy of a few kHz. A negative glow discharge spectrometer that will allow the determination of accurate line frequencies of molecular ions has been constructed. We are presently modifying the method for cooling the magnetic field enhanced (negative glow) discharge cell to 77 K.

  18. UBVI photometric study of open star clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisht, D.; Yadav, R. K. S.; Durgapal, A. K.

    2016-11-01

    We present a UBVI CCD photometric study of two open star clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6 using the data taken with 104-cm Sampurnanand telescope, ARIES, Nainital, India. The optical CCD data for these clusters are obtained for the first time. The clusters radii are found to be 2‧.4 and 1‧.5. Using two colour (U - B) versus (B - V) diagram we have estimated the reddening as E(B - V) = 0.55 ± 0.05 mag for Ruprecht 25 and 0.48 ± 0.05 mag for Czernik 6, while the corresponding distances are 5.8 ± 0.5 and 5.0 ± 0.3 kpc. Ages of 800 ± 80 Myr for Ruprecht 25 and 40 ± 10 Myr for Czernik 6 are determined using the stellar isochrones of metallicity Z = 0.019 . We have also determined the relaxation time for the clusters Ruprecht 25 and Czernik 6. Our analysis indicates that both clusters are dynamically relaxed. This may be due to the dynamical evolution or imprint of star formation itself or both.

  19. COS-STAR: a reporting guideline for studies developing core outcome sets (protocol).

    PubMed

    Kirkham, Jamie J; Gorst, Sarah; Altman, Douglas G; Blazeby, Jane; Clarke, Mike; Devane, Declan; Gargon, Elizabeth; Williamson, Paula R

    2015-08-22

    Core outcome sets can increase the efficiency and value of research and, as a result, there are an increasing number of studies looking to develop core outcome sets (COS). However, the credibility of a COS depends on both the use of sound methodology in its development and clear and transparent reporting of the processes adopted. To date there is no reporting guideline for reporting COS studies. The aim of this programme of research is to develop a reporting guideline for studies developing COS and to highlight some of the important methodological considerations in the process. The study will include a reporting guideline item generation stage which will then be used in a Delphi study. The Delphi study is anticipated to include two rounds. The first round will ask stakeholders to score the items listed and to add any new items they think are relevant. In the second round of the process, participants will be shown the distribution of scores for all stakeholder groups separately and asked to re-score. A final consensus meeting will be held with an expert panel and stakeholder representatives to review the guideline item list. Following the consensus meeting, a reporting guideline will be drafted and review and testing will be undertaken until the guideline is finalised. The final outcome will be the COS-STAR (Core Outcome Set-STAndards for Reporting) guideline for studies developing COS and a supporting explanatory document. To assess the credibility and usefulness of a COS, readers of a COS development report need complete, clear and transparent information on its methodology and proposed core set of outcomes. The COS-STAR guideline will potentially benefit all stakeholders in COS development: COS developers, COS users, e.g. trialists and systematic reviewers, journal editors, policy-makers and patient groups.

  20. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  1. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  2. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. Methods A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. Results In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. Conclusion This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people’s antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract. PMID:27621606

  3. A preliminary study on the effects of star fruit consumption on antioxidant and lipid status in elderly Thai individuals.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Yankai, Araya; Pinkaew, Decha; Puntumetakul, Rungthip; Laskin, James J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this preliminary study were to evaluate the antioxidant and lipid status before and after star fruit juice consumption in healthy elderly subjects, and the vitamins in star fruit extracts. A preliminary designated protocol was performed in 27 elderly individuals with a mean (±SD) age of 69.5±5.3 years, by planning a 2-week control period before 4 weeks of consumption of star fruit twice daily. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, malondialdehyde, protein hydroperoxide, multivitamins such as l-ascorbic acid (Vit C), retinoic acid (Vit A), and tocopherol (Vit E), and the lipid profile parameters such as cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were analyzed. Moreover, Vit C, Vit A, and Vit E levels were evaluated in the star fruit extracts during the 4-week period. In the 2-week control period, all parameters showed no statistically significant difference; after 4 weeks of consumption, significant improvement in the antioxidant status was observed with increased total antioxidant capacity and reduced malondialdehyde and protein hydroperoxide levels, as well as significantly increased levels of Vit C and Vit A, when compared to the two-time evaluation during the baseline periods. However, glutathione and Vit E showed no statistical difference. In addition, the HDL-C level was higher and the LDL-C level was significantly lower when compared to both baseline periods. But the levels of triglyceride and cholesterol showed no difference. Vit C and Vit A were identified in small quantities in the star fruit extract. This preliminary study suggested that consumption of star fruit juice twice daily for 1 month improved the elderly people's antioxidant status and vitamins, as well as improved the lipoproteins related to Vit C and Vit A in the star fruit extract.

  4. Molecular and Dusty Layers of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars Studied with the VLT Interferometer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    the evolution of low to intermediate mass stars towards planetary nebulae . It is also one of the most important sources of chemical enrichment of...planetary nebula (PN) phases, and is thus the most important driver for the further stellar evolution (e.g., Habing & Olofsson, 2003). Mass loss from AGB...branch (AGB) stars is the most important driver for the evolution of low to intermediate mass stars towards planetary nebulae . It is also one of the

  5. A new interferometric study of four exoplanet host stars: θ Cygni, 14 Andromedae, υ Andromedae and 42 Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, R.; Mourard, D.; Lagrange, A. M.; Perraut, K.; Boyajian, T.; Bério, Ph.; Nardetto, N.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; McAlister, H.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Ridgway, S.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Turner, N.; Farrington, C.; Goldfinger, P. J.

    2012-09-01

    Context. Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in 1995 around a solar-type star, the interest in exoplanetary systems has kept increasing. Studying exoplanet host stars is of the utmost importance to establish the link between the presence of exoplanets around various types of stars and to understand the respective evolution of stars and exoplanets. Aims: Using the limb-darkened diameter (LDD) obtained from interferometric data, we determine the fundamental parameters of four exoplanet host stars. We are particularly interested in the F4 main-sequence star, θ Cyg, for which Kepler has recently revealed solar-like oscillations that are unexpected for this type of star. Furthermore, recent photometric and spectroscopic measurements with SOPHIE and ELODIE (OHP) show evidence of a quasi-periodic radial velocity of ~150 days. Models of this periodic change in radial velocity predict either a complex planetary system orbiting the star, or a new and unidentified stellar pulsation mode. Methods: We performed interferometric observations of θ Cyg, 14 Andromedae, υ Andromedae and 42 Draconis for two years with VEGA/CHARA (Mount Wilson, California) in several three-telescope configurations. We measured accurate limb darkened diameters and derived their radius, mass and temperature using empirical laws. Results: We obtain new accurate fundamental parameters for stars 14 And, υ And and 42 Dra. We also obtained limb darkened diameters with a minimum precision of ~1.3%, leading to minimum planet masses of Msini = 5.33 ± 0.57, 0.62 ± 0.09 and 3.79 ± 0.29 MJup for 14 And b, υ And b and 42 Dra b, respectively. The interferometric measurements of θ Cyg show a significant diameter variability that remains unexplained up to now. We propose that the presence of these discrepancies in the interferometric data is caused either by an intrinsic variation of the star or an unknown close companion orbiting around it. Based on interferometric observations with the VEGA

  6. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  7. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

  8. Probing Minor-merger-driven Star Formation In Early-type Galaxies Using Spatially-resolved Spectro-photometric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaviraj, Sugata; Crockett, M.; Silk, J.; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.; Windhorst, R.; Cappellari, M.; Bureau, M.; Davies, R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies that leverage the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum have revealed widespread recent star formation in early-type galaxies (ETGs), traditionally considered to be old, passively-evolving systems. This recent star formation builds 20% of the ETG stellar mass after z 1, driven by repeated minor mergers between ETGs and small, gas-rich satellites. We demonstrate how spatially-resolved studies, using a combination of high-resolution UV-optical imaging and integral-field spectroscopy (IFS), is a powerful tool to quantify the assembly history of individual ETGs and elucidate the poorly-understood minor-merger process. Using a combination of WFC3 UV-optical (2500-8200 angstroms) imaging and IFS from the SAURON project of the ETG NGC 4150, we show that this galaxy experienced a merger with mass ratio 1:15 around 0.9 Gyr ago, which formed 3% of its stellar mass and a young kinematically-decoupled core. A UV-optical analysis of its globular cluster system shows that the bulk of the stars locked up in these clusters likely formed 6-7 Gyrs in the past. We introduce a new HST-WFC3 programme, approved in Cycle 19, which will leverage similar UV-optical imaging of a representative sample of nearby ETGs from SAURON to study the recent star formation and its drivers in unprecedented detail and put definitive constraints on minor-merger-driven star formation in massive galaxies at late epochs.

  9. A comparative study between EGB gravity and GTR by modeling compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhar, Piyali; Govender, Megan; Sharma, Ranjan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we utilise the Krori-Barua ansatz to model compact stars within the framework of Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet (EGB) gravity. The thrust of our investigation is to carry out a comparative analysis of the physical properties of our models in EGB and classical general relativity theory with the help of graphical representation. From our analysis we have shown that the central density and central pressure of EGB star model is higher than the GTR star model. The most notable feature is that for both GTR and the EGB star model the compactness factor crosses the Buchdahl (Phys Rev 116:1027, 1959) limit.

  10. Fast Variability in Selected Chromospherically Active Dwarf Stars and Observational Equipment for Their Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovski, Rumen G.

    2015-06-01

    The observations of variable stars, especially those which show fast changes in their brightness, require high speed and high precision photometry. In order to study events like low amplitude optical oscillations and small scale fluctuations in the light curves, synchronous observations are required. These observations have to be carried out simultaneously at two or more, preferably distant, sites (Romanyuk et al., 2001), which allows the identification and elimination of artifacts produced by the equipment and the atmospheric interferences. In this way the fine structure of the light curve is revealed with a significant certainty. In order to study these events a new high speed time synchronized photometric system had to be designed, which addresses the requirements of the observations of high frequency subtle phenomena during stellar flares. It provides remote automatedand centralized control of the photometric equipment over a computer network,as well as remotemonitoring. Furthermore, some preliminary data processing can be performed at the time the data is obtained.

  11. Star formation in Chamaeleon I and III: a molecular line study of the starless core population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitali, A. E.; Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Parise, B.; Menten, K. M.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The Chamaeleon dark molecular clouds are excellent nearby targets for low-mass star formation studies. Even though they belong to the same cloud complex, Cha I and II are actively forming stars while Cha III shows no sign of ongoing star formation. Aims: We aim to determine the driving factors that have led to the very different levels of star formation activity in Cha I and III and examine the dynamical state and possible evolution of the starless cores within them. Methods: Observations were performed in various molecular transitions with the APEX and Mopra telescopes. We examine the kinematics of the starless cores in the clouds through a virial analysis, a search for contraction motions, and velocity gradients. The chemical differences in the two clouds are explored through their fractional molecular abundances, derived from a non-LTE analysis, and comparison to predictions of chemical models. Results: Five cores are gravitationally bound in Cha I and one in Cha III. The so-called infall signature indicating contraction motions is seen toward 8-17 cores in Cha I and 2-5 cores in Cha III, which leads to a range of 13-28% of the cores in Cha I and 10-25% of the cores in Cha III that are contracting and may become prestellar. There is no significant difference in the turbulence level in the two clouds. Future dynamical interactions between the cores will not be dynamically significant in either Cha I or III, but the subregion Cha I North may experience collisions between cores within ~0.7 Myr. Turbulence dissipation in the cores of both clouds is seen in the high-density tracers N2H+ 1-0 and HC3N 10-9 which have lower non-thermal velocity dispersions compared to C17O 2-1, C18O 2-1, and C34S 2-1. Evidence of depletion in the Cha I core interiors is seen in the abundance distributions of the latter three molecules. The median fractional abundance of C18O is lower in Cha III than Cha I by a factor of ~2. The median abundances of most molecules (except

  12. A comparative study of the effectiveness of "Star Show" vs. "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" lessons in a middle school Starlab setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platco, Nicholas L.., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of "Star Show" and the "Participatory Oriented Planetarium" (POP) instructional programs in a middle school Starlab setting. The Star Show is a planetarium program that relies heavily on an audiovisual/lecture format to impart information, while the POP method of instruction is an inquiry, activity-based approach to teaching astronomy. All Star Show and POP lessons were conducted in a Starlab planetarium. This study examined the effectiveness of the two methods on the attainment of astronomy knowledge, changes in student attitudes toward astronomy, retention of knowledge, and gender differences. A pilot study (N = 69) was conducted at a middle school near King of Prussia, Pennsylvania. The main study (N = 295) was conducted at a middle school near Reading, Pennsylvania. All students were pretested and posttested in both studies. The testing instruments included a 60-question paper-and-pencil content test and a 22-item Likert-style science attitude test. The content test was judged to be valid and reliable by a panel of science educators. The attitude test is a field-tested attitude survey developed by Michael Zeilik. The topics included in the Star Show and POP lessons were seasons, moon phases, eclipses, stars, and constellations. The Star Show programs used in this study are professionally prepared planetarium programs from Jeff Bowen Productions. Several planetarium educators who have been involved with planetarium training workshops throughout the United States developed the POP lessons used in this study. The Star Show was clearly the more effective method for improving student knowledge in both the pilot and main studies. Both methods were equally effective for improving student attitudes toward astronomy. The POP method was the more effective method of instruction when retention of knowledge was examined four weeks after the treatments ended. Gender did not have any significant effect on this study

  13. A study of Pulsar Wind Nebulae and non-thermal filaments with the NuSTAR observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nynka, Melania

    NuSTAR, the first high-energy focusing X-ray telescope, has provided an unprecedented view of the universe above 10 keV. I first briefly describe the fabrication and calibration campaign of the NuSTAR optics at Columbia University. I then present two main areas of research with NuSTAR: the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G21.5-0.9, and the investigation of several filamentary structures within 0.5 deg. of the Galactic Center. G21.5-0.9 is a well-studied PWN, and was observed by NuSTAR with ˜ 280 ks in the first months of its mission. I used both spectral and spatial image analysis of the emission to probe the validity of various magnetohydrodynamic models. Image deconvolution reveals the existence of non-thermal emission up to 20 keV, likely the supernova shell. Next I discuss three non-thermal filaments found near the Galactic Center. The Cannonball is a known high-velocity neutron star escaping the radio shell of Sgr A East with an extended radio and soft X-ray tail. NuSTAR extended its non-thermal spectrum to 30 keV and measured a magnetic field of ˜ 313-550muG. I analyze filament G359.97-0.038 by incorporating broad-band morphological and spectral data from radio (5.5 and 8.3 GHz) and gamma-ray data with NuSTAR data. I conclude that it is not a PWN but more likely the result of an interaction between the Sgr A East remnant and the nearby molecular cloud. Lastly I observe the filament G0.13-0.11, likely a PWN elongated by the ram pressure from the nearby Radio Arc.

  14. Construction of the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, S. J.; Tatge, C. B.; Slater, T. F.; Bretones, P. S.; Schleigh, S.

    2016-12-01

    Perhaps more than any other science discipline-based education research field, the scholarly literature base describing and documenting astronomy education research is highly fragmented and widely dispersed across numerous journals. The resulting wide diversity of journals that publish astronomy education research presents an arduous challenge for scholars trying to best understand what work has been done and what work still needs to be done. Moreover, a vast amount of education research on the teaching and learning of astronomy exists in dissertations that were never published and even more exists in the realm of un-disseminated grey literature hosted in conference proceedings and society newsletters going back decades. With a few notable exceptions far less extensive than the current project, there has been no comprehensive repository for cataloging astronomy education research methods and results to date. In response, an international cadre of scholars coordinated by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research are creating the underlying structure for an online database in order to conduct an international Study of Astronomy Reasoning, iSTAR, project. The online iSTAR database serves as an online host to bring together in one place digital copies of hard to locate journal articles, isolated dissertations and theses, and professional meeting contributions to extend the world's scholars abilities to more easily find and utilize a far broader collection of astronomy education research literature than has been previously available. Works are categorized by research method, nature of study-participants, educational learning venue studied, country and language of the study, and other fruitfully useful categories. Scholars wishing to add their own literature resources are encouraged to contribute to the online database located at istardatabase.org

  15. The Formation of PAHs: A Case Study on Carbon-rich AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Daniel P.; Speck, A. K.; Barlow, M. J.; Wesson, R.; Volk, K.; Clayton, G. C.

    2008-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have characteristic emission bands that have been observed in many astrophysical environments. However, there is one notable exception: carbon-rich AGB (C) stars. Whereas formation of PAHs in the circumstellar shells of C stars is expected, only a handful of C stars exhibit the PAH spectral features and all have hot (A or B star) companions. This makes C stars with hot companions an ideal location to investigate the physical conditions associated with PAH formation. PAHs absorb single photons and then re-emit the energy in spectral features at characteristic wavelengths where the precise wavelengths and strength ratios of the features depend on the size, composition and charge state of the individual PAHs. Additionally, the wavelength of photons needed to excite PAHs depends on the individual PAHs size and charge state. While small PAHs undoubtedly need higher energy (UV) photons, it has been suggested that large or ionized PAHS (>100; C atoms) can be excited by visible or even near-IR photons. The lack of PAH emission from single carbon stars suggests that either PAHs do not form around C stars or that only small neutral grains form, which cannot be excited by a C star's cool radiation field. There are two competing formation mechanisms for PAHs around C stars: (1) "bottom-up” where acetylene molecules (C2H2) react to form aromatic carbon rings, building up to PAHs; or (2) "top-down", where small carbon grains react with H atoms and desorb PAHs. These two scenarios should lead to differences in the spatial distribution of the PAH emission features around these stars. We present preliminary results from Gemini/MICHELLE spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of C stars with hot companions.

  16. Multiplicity in transiting planet-host stars. A lucky imaging study of Kepler candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.

    2012-10-01

    Context. In the exoplanetary era, the Kepler spacecraft is causing a revolution by discovering thousands of new planet candidates. However, a follow-up program is needed to reject false candidates and fully characterize the bona-fide exoplanets. Aims: Our main aims are to 1./ detect and analyze close companions inside the typical Kepler point spread function (PSF) to study whether they are the responsible for the dimming found in Kepler light curves, 2./ study the change in the stellar and planetary parameters caused by an unresolved object, 3./ help validate the Kepler objects of interest (KOI) that do not have any object inside the Kepler PSF, and 4./ study the multiplicity rate of planet-host candidates. Such a large sample of observed planet-host candidates allows us to derive statistics for close (visual or bounded) companions to the harboring star. Methods: We present lucky imaging observations for a total of 98 KOIs. This technique is based on the acquisition of thousands of very-short-exposure-time images. A selection and combination of a small amount of the highest quality frames provides a high resolution image with objects having a 0.1 arcsec PSF. We apply this technique to carry out observations in the Sloan i and z filters of our Kepler candidates. Results: We find blended objects inside the Kepler PSF for a significant percentage of KOIs. On the one hand, only 58.2% of the hosts do not have any object within 6 arcsec. On the other hand, we find 19 companions closer than 3 arcsec in 17 KOIs. According to their magnitudes and i - z colors, 8 of them could be physically bound to the host star.

  17. A Spectroscopic Study of the High-Latitude Far Evolved Star V534 Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendzikas, E. G.; Chentsov, E. L.

    2017-06-01

    We study a pulsating variable post-AGB star V534 Lyr = HD172324 based on five high resolution spectra (R=60000) obtained with the NES echelle spectrograph of the 6-meter Russian telescope (BTA) in 2010 and 2013. Using the atmosphere modeling method and the Kurucz model set, we obtained the effective temperature Teff=10500 K, surface gravity log g=2.5, and microturbulent velocity ξt=4.0 km/s. The underabundance of the iron group elements [Met/H]⊙ = -0.50 was detected. This fact in combination with high spatial velocity indicates that V534 Lyr does not belong to the disk population. The radial velocity gradient in the V534 Lyr atmosphere is minimum: differential shifts of lines are close to measurement errors. The spectral class A0 Iab corresponds to the distance to V534 Lyr, d≍6 kpc.

  18. A WISE Study of Star Formation in Canis Major and Target Selection for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, William J.; Padgett, Deborah; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Sewilo, Marta M.

    2017-01-01

    With photometry from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we searched for young stellar objects in a 100 square-degree field centered on the lightly studied Canis Major star-forming region. We found 144 candidates with mid-infrared excess primarily from envelope emission (Class I) and 335 with excess primarily from disk emission (Class II). Half of the candidates are spatially associated with a supernova remnant, suggesting a potential formation mechanism, but the ratio of Class I to Class II candidates, typically interpreted as a tracer of age, varies strongly around the remnant. Via a comparison to protostars characterized with the Herschel Space Observatory, we present new WISE criteria for the youngest (Class 0) protostars, finding seven candidates in Canis Major. We discuss the ability of the James Webb Space Telescope to spectroscopically determine the accretion properties of such protostars.

  19. A study of a multi-pinned phase CCD detector for use as a star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    This grant has supported studies of the use of charge coupled devices (CCD's) in star trackers in a number of different areas. Among the tasks we have pursued are the following: (1) radiation modeling and the increase in noise equivalent angle as a result of exposure to protons and bremsstrahlung gamma rays; (2) the development of pattern matching software to identify field locations from a CCD image and a pre-existing map of the local area; (3) observations of various stellar fields from the 24 inch telescope at the Offit Observatory at JHU, primarily to test the pattern matching software (these included crowded fields as well as moving objects, like comets); and (4) tracking of very faint objects to determine the faint limit of the CCD system.

  20. Biorepositories for the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and the Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) has a serum and lymphocyte bank with specimens on more than 90% of the 33,000 women in the Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) and Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR). They also have tumor blocks on the majority of the breast cancers that have occurred in women on these studies. |

  1. A Study of the Generalizability of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teddlie, Charles; And Others

    The results are provided of an initial analysis of the reliability (generalizability) of the System for Teaching and Learning Assessment and Review (STAR) as a comprehensive measure of classroom teaching and learning for making teacher certification decisions. The STAR contains 140 indicators of teacher effectiveness and student learning, which…

  2. A study of extreme carbon stars. I - Silicon carbide emission features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.

    1984-01-01

    10-micron spectra of many extreme carbon stars reveal a prominent emission feature near 11 microns. This is compared with laboratory spectra of SiC grains. Two distinct types of features are found, perhaps indicative of different mechanisms of grain formation in different stars. Estimates are made of probable column densities and total masses of SiC in the circumstellar shells.

  3. "Star Wars", Model Making, and Cultural Critique: A Case for Film Study in Art Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Films are multimodal, often memorable, and change one's way of thinking. Films provide narratives and visual metaphors that function as tools for one's imagination and learning. No other film has amplified this phenomenon in the United States more than the "Star Wars" Cycle. "Star Wars" exemplifies the multidimensionality of…

  4. Charged Proca stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landea, Ignacio Salazar; García, Federico

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we study gauged solutions associated with a massive vector field representing a spin-1 condensate, namely, the Proca field. We focus on regular spherically symmetric solutions which we construct either using a self-interaction potential or general relativity in order to glue the solutions together. We start generating nongravitating solutions—so-called Proca Q -balls and charged Proca Q -balls. Then we turn on backreaction on the metric, allowing gravity to hold together the Proca condensate, to study the so-called Proca stars, charged Proca stars, Proca Q -stars, and charged Proca Q -stars.

  5. Re-grouping stars based on the chemical tagging technique: A case study of M67 and IC4651

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical tagging technique proposed by te{2002ARA&A..40..487F} is based on the idea that stars formed from the same molecular cloud should share the same chemical signature. Thus, using only the chemical composition of stars we should be able to re-group the ones that once belonged to the same stellar aggregate. In te{2015A&A...577A..47B}, we tested the technique on open cluster stars using iSpec tep{2014A&A...569A.111B}, we demonstrated their chemical homogeneity but we found that the 14 studied elements lead to chemical signatures too similar to reliably distinguish stars from different clusters. This represents a challenge to the technique and a new question was open: Could the inclusion of other elements help to better distinguish stars from different aggregates? With an updated and improved version of iSpec, we derived abundances for 28 elements using spectra from HARPS, UVES and NARVAL archives for the open clusters M67 and IC4651, and we found that the chemical signatures of both clusters are very similar.

  6. HST Snapshot Study of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters: Inner Region of NGC 6441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A.; Stetson, Peter B.; Catelan, Marcio; Sweigart, Allen V.; Layden, Andrew C.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a Hubble Space Telescope snapshot program to survey the inner region of the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6441 for its variable stars. A total of 57 variable stars was found including 38 RR Lyrae stars, 6 Population II Cepheids, and 12 long period variables. Twenty-four of the RR Lyrae stars and all of the Population II Cepheids were previously undiscovered in ground-based surveys. Of the RR Lyrae stars observed in h s survey, 26 are pulsating in the fundamental mode with a mean period of 0.753 d and 12 are first-overtone mode pulsators with a mean period of 0.365 d. These values match up very well with those found in ground-based surveys. Combining all the available data for NGC 6441, we find mean periods of 0.759 d and 0.375 d for the RRab and RRc stars, respectively. We also find that the RR Lyrae in this survey are located in the same regions of a period-amplitude diagram as those found in ground-based surveys. The overall ratio of RRc to total RR Lyrae is 0.33. Although NGC 6441 is a metal-rich globular cluster and would, on that ground, be expected either to have few RR Lyrae stars, or to be an Oosterhoff type I system, its RR Lyrae more closely resemble those in Oosterhoff type II globular clusters. However, even compared to typical Oosterhoff type II systems, the mean period of its RRab stars is unusually long. We also derived I-band period-luminosity relations for the RR Lyrae stars. Of the six Population II Cepheids, five are of W Virginis type and one is a BL Herculis variable star. This makes NGC 6441, along with NGC 6388, the most metal-rich globular cluster known to contain these types of variable stars. Another variable, V118, may also be a Population II Cepheid given its long period and its separation in magnitude from the RR Lyrae stars. We examine the period-luminosity relation for these Population II Cepheids and compare it to those in other globular clusters and in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We argue that there does

  7. A study of the β Cephei star γ Pegasi: binarity, magnetic field, rotation, and pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkovskaya, V. V.; Plachinda, S. I.

    2007-07-01

    Aims:We provide observational material to study the magnetic field variability of the classical β Cep-type star γ Peg. Methods: The observations were carried out in the He I 6678 line in the course of 23 observing nights from 1997 to 2005 with using the Coudé spectrograph in spectropolarimetric mode at the Crimean 2.6 m telescope. The behavior of stellar wind was studied in the UV region using data from the IUE satellite (the INES database). Results: It is shown that the UV stellar wind exhibits a variability. A variation of the wind due to stellar pulsations has been detected. In the He I 6678 line, the abnormally blueshifted radial velocities (γ = -60.57 ± 0.29 km s-1) were detected during a single night in 2005. We do not confirm the 370.5-day orbital period. The most probable orbital period was estimated as P_orb = 6.81608 ± 0.00012 day. The ratio P_orb/P_puls = 44.92 appeared to be very close to integer. We have detected the presence of a weak magnetic field on the star. The longitudinal component of the field varies from -10 G to 30 G with the stellar rotation. The most probable rotational period is P_rot = 6.6538 ± 0.0016 days. Both the orbital and the rotational periods are integral multiples of the difference between them: P_orb/|P_orb - P_rot| = 42.002, and P_rot/|P_orb - P_rot| = 41.002. Variation in the longitudinal magnetic field during the pulsation period with an amplitude about 7 G was detected. The radial velocity data are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/469/1069

  8. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  9. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  10. Spectroscopic Study of Extended Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxy NGC 6822

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Narae; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W.; Kim, Sang Chul; Miller, Bryan; Weisz, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South 8.1 m telescope. The radial velocities derived from the spectra range from -61.2 ± 20.4 km s-1 (for C1) to -115.34 ± 57.9 km s-1 (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate-age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old (>=8 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] <~ -1.5). NGC 6822 is found to have both metal poor ([Fe/H] ≈-2.0) and metal rich ([Fe/H] ≈-0.9) star clusters within 15' (2 kpc) from the center, whereas only metal poor clusters are observed in the outer halo with r >= 20'(2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have determined the total mass and the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 6822: M_{N6822} = 7.5^{+4.5}_{-0.1} \\times 10^{9}\\ M_{\\odot } and (M/L)_{N6822} = 75^{+45}_{-1} (M/L)_{\\odot }. It shows that NGC 6822 is one of the most dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. Interstellar Medium and Star Formation Studies with the Square Kilometre Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, P.; Vig, S.; Maheswar, G.; Kamath, U. S.; Tej, A.

    2016-12-01

    Stars and planetary systems are formed out of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. Although the sequence of steps involved in star formation are generally known, a comprehensive theory which describes the details of the processes that drive formation of stars is still missing. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), with its unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution, will play a major role in filling these gaps in our understanding. In this article, we present a few science cases that the Indian star formation community is interested in pursuing with SKA, which include investigation of AU-sized structures in the neutral ISM, the origin of thermal and non-thermal radio jets from protostars and the accretion history of protostars, and formation of massive stars and their effect on the surrounding medium.

  12. Observational Study of Morphological Changes in Medium-mass Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Sze-Ning

    2014-02-01

    Medium-mass (or intermediate-mass) stars refer to main sequence stars with masses ranging from 0.4 to 8 solar masses. These stars are believed to finally evolve into the central stars of planetary nebulae (PNe) and white dwarfs. One of the fascinating aspects of PNe is their diverse morphology. To understand the mechanisms of the morphological changes from spherical circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to those forming highly diversified PNe, it is necessary to investigate the true three-dimensional (3D) morphology of PNe from two-dimensional images, and the short transition phase in-between the two phases should also be explored. "Water Fountain" (WF) sources belong to transition phase objects; they are AGB or post-AGB stars with collimated jets traced by high velocity water maser emissions in their CSEs. This thesis comprises of four chapters. The results can be divided into two major parts. Chapter 1 is the introduction on the related fields with brief reviews of previous observational studies on PNe and the rapidly evolving transition phase objects. Basic theories necessary for understanding the next chapters were also described, including those explaining the commonly observed Hα emission in PNe, the formation of multipolar PNe, the maser emission and the role of shock in circumstellar materials. The first major part of the results, about the morphological classification of multipolar PNe, is presented in Chapter 2. At the beginning of the chapter, the problems on the previous classification methods were pointed out. Then a three-lobed model was introduced. By changing the combination of the orientations of the three pairs of lobes, simulations using the model produced statistical results in classification and quantified the errors of misidentification. Assuming that all PNe observed have the true structure of three lobes, due to projection effect, only 49% of them would be correctly classified. 46% and 5% of them would be

  13. An X-ray and radio study of the massive star-forming cluster IRAS 20126+4104

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Virginie; Hofner, Peter; Anderson, Crystal; Rosero, Viviana

    2015-08-01

    Two main competitive theories intent to explain massive star formation: the turbulent core model, which is an extension of the low-mass star formation model (McKee & Tan 2003), and models involving competitive accretion or stellar collisions (Bonnell & Bate 2006). The characterization of the cluster in which massive stars remain can help discriminate between the two main scenarios of their formation.Until recently it was believed that massive stars were only formed in dense molecular clouds leading to a substantial cluster. However, a previous study of the massive star forming region IRAS 20126+4104 using Spitzer observations by Qiu et al. (2008), suggested that the massive protostar was isolated, and the region was showing no obvious cluster.Here we adopt a multiwavelength technique to characterize the stellar environment of the IRAS 20126+4104 region combining Chandra X-ray ACIS-I and VLA 6cm continuum observations, and near-infrared (2MASS) data of the region. We detected 150 X-ray sources in the ACIS-I field and 13 radio sources within the 9’.2 VLA primary beam. Associating X-ray sources with their near-infrared counterparts from the 2MASS catalog and a color study of those counterparts, allow us to determine the galactic foreground/background contamination, and we conclude that 90 X-ray sources are associated with the region.This study shows an increasing surface density of X-ray sources toward the massive protostar and a number of at least 42 YSOs within 1.2 pc distance from the massive protostar. This number is consistent with typical B-type stars clusters (Lada & Lada 2003).

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KNOTS OF STAR FORMATION IN INTERACTING VERSUS SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Beverly J.; Olmsted, Susan; Jones, Keith; Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Struck, Curtis

    2016-03-15

    Interacting galaxies are known to have higher global rates of star formation on average than normal galaxies, relative to their stellar masses. Using UV and IR photometry combined with new and published Hα images, we have compared the star formation rates (SFRs) of ∼700 star forming complexes in 46 nearby interacting galaxy pairs with those of regions in 39 normal spiral galaxies. The interacting galaxies have proportionally more regions with high SFRs than the spirals. The most extreme regions in the interacting systems lie at the intersections of spiral/tidal structures, where gas is expected to pile up and trigger star formation. Published Hubble Space Telescope images show unusually large and luminous star clusters in the highest luminosity regions. The SFRs of the clumps correlate with measures of the dust attenuation, consistent with the idea that regions with more interstellar gas have more star formation. For the clumps with the highest SFRs, the apparent dust attenuation is consistent with the Calzetti starburst dust attenuation law. This suggests that the high luminosity regions are dominated by a central group of young stars surrounded by a shell of clumpy interstellar gas. In contrast, the lower luminosity clumps are bright in the UV relative to Hα, suggesting either a high differential attenuation between the ionized gas and the stars, or a post-starburst population bright in the UV but faded in Hα. The fraction of the global light of the galaxies in the clumps is higher on average for the interacting galaxies than for the spirals. Thus either star formation in interacting galaxies is “clumpier” on average, or the star forming regions in interacting galaxies are more luminous, dustier, or younger on average.

  15. Effect of Hydrophobic Core Topology and Composition on the Structure and Kinetics of Star Polymers: A Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Carr, Amber C; Felberg, Lisa E; Piunova, Victoria A; Rice, Julia E; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Swope, William C

    2017-04-06

    We present a molecular dynamics study of the effect of core chemistry on star polymer structural and kinetic properties. This work serves to validate the choice of a model adamantane core used in previous simulations to represent larger star polymeric systems in an aqueous environment, as well as to explore how the choice of size and core chemistry using a dendrimer or nanogel core may affect these polymeric nanoparticle systems, particularly with respect to thermosensitivity and solvation properties that are relevant for applications in drug loading and delivery.

  16. The First Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2010-10-01

    The standard cosmological model predicts that the first cosmological objects are formed when the age of the universe is a few hundred million years. Recent theoretical studies and numerical simulations consistently suggest that the first objects are very massive primordial stars. We introduce the key physics and explain why the first stars are thought to be massive, rather than to be low-mass stars. The state-of-the-art simulations include all the relevant atomic and molecular physics to follow the thermal evolution of a prestellar gas cloud to very high ``stellar'' densities. Evolutionary calculations of the primordial stars suggest the formation of massive blackholes in the early universe. Finally, we show the results from high-resolution simulations of star formation in a low-metallicity gas. Vigorous fragmentation is triggered in a star-forming gas cloud at a metallicity of as low as Z = 10-5Zsolar.

  17. Mid-Infrared Observational and Theoretical Studies of Star Formation and Early Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    The first 2 years of this program were used to make mid-IR observations of regions of star formation in the Orion nebula with the UCSD mid-IR camera at the UCSD/University of Minnesota telescope at Mt. Lemmon. These observations attempted to make the first systematic study of an extended region, known to have newly forming stars, and expected to have complex mid-IR emission. We discovered, to our surprise, that most of the thermal emission originated from extended sources rather than from point sources. This interesting observation made the analysis of the data much more complex, since the chop/nod procedures used at these wavelengths produce a differential measurement of the emission in one region compared to that in the adjacent region. Disentangling complex extended emission in such a situation is very difficult. In parallel with this work we were also observing comets in the thermal infrared, the other component of the original proposal. Some spectacular data on the comet Swift-Tuttle was acquired and published. A changing jet structure observed over a 2 week period is described. The rotation period of the comet can be measured at 66 hours. The size of the nucleus can also be estimated (at 30 km) from the observed excess flux from the nucleus. These data have lead to the development of models describing the action of dust particles of differing sizes and composition leaving the nucleus. The spatial distribution of the predicted IR emission has been compared to the observed jet structures, leading to estimates of both particles sizes, relative amounts of silicate vs organic grains, and the amounts of dust emitted in the jets vs isotopic emission.

  18. First Results from the iSTAR International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Our best efforts in the United States to dramatically improve teaching and learning in astronomy courses has been less than satisfactory despite Herculean efforts. A possible solution is to expand our view beyond our own culture's borders and presumptions in order to bring our shortcomings in discipline-based astronomy education research to light. Before we can begin the process of international comparisons of student conceptual understanding, we need to better understand how different citizens of different countries position astronomy culturally. Under the banner of the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning Project, iSTAR, we are now carefully observing how foreign experts in teaching astronomy and the science of astronomy translate the Test Of Astronomy STandards - TOAST multiple-choice assessment instrument to look for subtle clues revealed during the translation process. The TOAST is the widely used standard to evaluate students' gains in the United States' Astronomy classrooms. We hope that the process of translation itself will help us comprehend how other cultures think differently about astronomical concepts and eventually we are looking to obtain useful data of how other cultures develop their society's understanding of particular astronomy aspects where we may fall short. Several of the iSTAR Project's bilingual speakers are documenting their thoughts and insights as they translate the TOAST. The end-goal is to collect a comprehensible, well-defined, and logical translation in various languages that are culturally sensitive and linguistically accurate. This project is sponsored and managed by the CAPER Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research at CAPERTeam.com in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46.

  19. Multiwavelength Study of the Star Formation in the S237 H ii Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Zinchenko, I.; Janardhan, P.; Luna, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a detailed multiwavelength study of observations from X-ray, near-infrared, and centimeter wavelengths to probe the star formation processes in the S237 region. Multiwavelength images trace an almost sphere-like shell morphology of the region, which is filled with the 0.5-2 keV X-ray emission. The region contains two distinct environments—a bell-shaped cavity-like structure containing the peak of 1.4 GHz emission at center, and elongated filamentary features without any radio detection at edges of the sphere-like shell—where Herschel clumps are detected. Using the 1.4 GHz continuum and 12CO line data, the S237 region is found to be excited by a radio spectral type of B0.5V star and is associated with an expanding H ii region. The photoionized gas appears to be responsible for the origin of the bell-shaped structure. The majority of molecular gas is distributed toward a massive Herschel clump (Mclump ˜ 260 {M}⊙ ), which contains the filamentary features and has a noticeable velocity gradient. The photometric analysis traces the clusters of young stellar objects (YSOs) mainly toward the bell-shaped structure and the filamentary features. Considering the lower dynamical age of the H ii region (i.e., 0.2-0.8 Myr), these clusters are unlikely to be formed by the expansion of the H ii region. Our results also show the existence of a cluster of YSOs and a massive clump at the intersection of filamentary features, indicating that the collisions of these features may have triggered cluster formation, similar to those found in the Serpens South region.

  20. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one's understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying (delta) Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for (delta) Scuti stars, using FG Vir, (delta) Scuti, and CD-24(degree) 7599 as examples.

  1. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guzik, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one`s understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying {delta} Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for {delta} Scuti stars, using FG Vir, {delta} Scuti, and CD-24{degree} 7599 as examples.

  2. Delta Scuti stars: Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of asteroseismology is not only to derive the internal structure of individual stars from their observed oscillation frequencies, but also to test and extend one's understanding of the physics of matter under the extremes of temperature, density, and pressure found in stellar interiors. In this review, the author hopes to point out what one can learn about the Sun by studying (delta) Scuti stars, as well as what one can learn about stars more massive or evolved than the Sun. He discusses some of the difficulties in theoretical approaches to asteroseismology for (delta) Scuti stars, using FG Vir, (delta) Scuti, and CD-24(degree) 7599 as examples.

  3. Amplitude modulation in δ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble study of Kepler targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Dominic M.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J.; Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes in 983 δ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 ≤ Teff ≤ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr. We demonstrate the diversity in pulsational behaviour observed, in particular non-linearity, which is predicted for δ Sct stars. We analyse and discuss examples of δ Sct stars with constant amplitudes and phases; those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by beating of close-frequency pulsation modes; those that exhibit pure amplitude modulation (with no associated phase variation); those that exhibit phase modulation caused by binarity; and those that exhibit amplitude modulation caused by non-linearity. Using models and examples of individual stars, we demonstrate that observations of the changes in amplitude and phase of pulsation modes can be used to distinguish among the different scenarios. We find that 603 δ Sct stars (61.3 per cent) exhibit at least one pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude over 4 yr. Conversely, many δ Sct stars have constant pulsation amplitudes so short-length observations can be used to determine precise frequencies, amplitudes and phases for the most coherent and periodic δ Sct stars. It is shown that amplitude modulation is not restricted to a small region on the HR diagram, therefore not necessarily dependent on stellar parameters such as Teff or log g. Our catalogue of 983 δ Sct stars will be useful for comparisons to similar stars observed by K2 and TESS, because the length of the 4-yr Kepler data set will not be surpassed for some time.

  4. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  5. Class-Size Policy: The STAR Experiment and Related Class-Size Studies. NCPEA Policy Brief. Volume 1, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    This brief summarizes findings on class size from over 25 years of work on the Tennessee Student Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) randomized, longitudinal experiment, and other Class-Size Reduction (CSR) studies throughout the United States, Australia, Hong Kong, Sweden, Great Britain, and elsewhere. The brief concludes with recommendations. The…

  6. Feasibility Study of Utilizing Existing Infrared Array Cameras for Daylight Star Tracking on NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, Jack (Technical Monitor); Fazio, Giovanni G.; Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a daytime star tracker for ULDB flights using a commercially available off-the-shelf infrared array camera. This report describes the system used for ground-based tests, the observations, the test results, and gives recommendations for continued development.

  7. HST Studies of the Chromospheres, Wind, and Mass-Loss Rates of Cool Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    UV spectra of K-M giant and supergiant stars and of carbon stars have been acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra have been used to measure chromospheric flow and turbulent velocities, study the acceleration of their stellar winds, acquire constraints on their outer atmospheric structure, and enable estimates of their mass-loss rates. Results from our observations of the giant stars Gamma Dra (K5 III hybrid), Alpha Tau (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), Mu Gem (M3 IIIab), and 30 Her (MG III), the supergiants Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Lambda Vel (K5 Ib), and the carbon stars TX Psc (NO; C6,2) and TW Hor (NO; C7,2) will be summarized and compared. The high resolution and wavelength accuracy of these data have allowed the direct measurement of the acceleration of the stellar winds in the chromospheres of several of these stars (from initial velocities of 3-9 km/s to upper velocities of 15-25 km/s) and of the chromospheric macroturbulence (-25-35 km/s). The high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range of these spectra have allowed the detection and identification of numerous new emission features, including weak C IV emission indicative of hot transition-region plasma in the non-coronal giant Alpha Tau, many new fluorescent lines of Fe II, and the first detection of fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission and of Ca II recombination lines in the UV spectrum of a giant star. The UV spectrum of two carbon stars have been studied with unprecedented resolution and reveal extraordinarily complicated Mg II lines nearly smothered by circumstellar absorptions. Finally, comparison of synthetic UV emission line profiles computed with the Lamers et al. (1987) Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) code with observations of chromospheric emission lines overlain with wind absorption features provides estimates of the mass-loss rates for four of these stars.

  8. HST Studies of the Chromospheres, Wind, and Mass-Loss Rates of Cool Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Kenneth G.

    2000-01-01

    UV spectra of K-M giant and supergiant stars and of carbon stars have been acquired with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These spectra have been used to measure chromospheric flow and turbulent velocities, study the acceleration of their stellar winds, acquire constraints on their outer atmospheric structure, and enable estimates of their mass-loss rates. Results from our observations of the giant stars Gamma Dra (K5 III hybrid), Alpha Tau (K5 III), Gamma Cru (M3.4 III), Mu Gem (M3 IIIab), and 30 Her (MG III), the supergiants Alpha Ori (M2 Iab) and Lambda Vel (K5 Ib), and the carbon stars TX Psc (NO; C6,2) and TW Hor (NO; C7,2) will be summarized and compared. The high resolution and wavelength accuracy of these data have allowed the direct measurement of the acceleration of the stellar winds in the chromospheres of several of these stars (from initial velocities of 3-9 km/s to upper velocities of 15-25 km/s) and of the chromospheric macroturbulence (-25-35 km/s). The high signal-to-noise and large dynamic range of these spectra have allowed the detection and identification of numerous new emission features, including weak C IV emission indicative of hot transition-region plasma in the non-coronal giant Alpha Tau, many new fluorescent lines of Fe II, and the first detection of fluorescent molecular hydrogen emission and of Ca II recombination lines in the UV spectrum of a giant star. The UV spectrum of two carbon stars have been studied with unprecedented resolution and reveal extraordinarily complicated Mg II lines nearly smothered by circumstellar absorptions. Finally, comparison of synthetic UV emission line profiles computed with the Lamers et al. (1987) Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) code with observations of chromospheric emission lines overlain with wind absorption features provides estimates of the mass-loss rates for four of these stars.

  9. Statistical studies of superflares on G-, K-, M- type stars from Kepler data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notsu, Yuta; Maehara, Hiroyuki; Honda, Satoshi; Notsu, Shota; Namekata, Kosuke; Ikuta, Kai; Nogami, Daisaku; Shibata, Kazunari

    2017-05-01

    Flares are thought to be sudden releases of magnetic energy stored around starspots. Recent space high-precision photometry shows “superflares”, 10-104 times more energetic than the largest solar flares, occur on many G, K, M-type stars (e.g., Maehara+2012 Nature). Harmful UV/X-ray radiation and high-energy particles such as protons are caused by such superflares. This may suggest that exoplanet host stars have severe effects on the physical and chemical evolution of exoplanetary atmospheres (cf. Segura+2010 Astrobiology, Takahashi+2016 ApJL).We here present statistical properties of superflares on G, K, M-type stars on the basis of our analyses of Kepler photometric data (Maehara+2012 Nature, Shibayama+2013 ApJS, Notsu+2013 ApJ, Canderaresi+2014 ApJ, Maehara+2015 EPS, Maehara+2017 PASJ). We found more than 5000 superflares on 800 G, K, M-type main-sequence stars, and the occurrence frequency (dN/dE) of superflares as a function of flare energy (E) shows the power-law distribution with the index of -1.8 -1.9. This power-law distribution is consistent with that of solar flares.Flare frequency increases as stellar temperature decreases. As for M-type stars, energy of the largest flares is smaller compared with G,K-type stars, but more frequent “hazardous” flares for the habitable planets since the habitable zone around M-type stars is much smaller compared with G, K-type stars.Rotation period and starspot coverage can be estimated from the quasi-periodic brightness variation of the superflare stars. The intensity of Ca II 8542 line of superflare stars, which is measured from spectroscopic observations with Subaru Telescope, has a well correlation with the brightness variation amplitude (Notsu+2015a&b PASJ).Flare frequency has a correlation with rotation period, and this suggests young rapidly-rotating stars (like “young Sun”) have more severe impacts of flares on the planetary atmosphere (cf. Airapetian+2016 ApJL). Flare energy and frequency also depends

  10. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  11. CH Stars and Barium Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, H.; Sion, E.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The classical barium (or `Ba II') stars are RED GIANT STARS whose spectra show strong absorption lines of barium, strontium and certain other heavy elements, as well as strong features due to carbon molecules. Together with the related class of CH stars, the Ba II stars were crucial in establishing the existence of neutron-capture reactions in stellar interiors that are responsible for the synt...

  12. Research study of Beta Cephei variable stars using data from OAO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    Photometric data from the Wisconsin Experiment package on OAO-2 were obtained for six Beta Cephei variable stars. The data were reduced in accordance with the OAO 2/Wisconsin Experiment Package Photometer Users Guide. For delta Cet and gamma Peg, there were enough data points to form reliable composite light curves at seven or eight ultraviolet wavelengths. The light curves are well represented by sine waves in phase with the blue light curve for each star. The amplitude of the light variation increases with shorter wavelengths. For theta Oph, epsilon Cen, eta Sco, and Lambda Sco, mean magnitudes and light ranges were obtained at several ultraviolet wavelengths. No significant differences were found between the mean, de-reddened ultraviolet colors of the observed stars, and the mean values for standard stars computed by Bottemiller. An attempt to derive a temperature scale from a comparison of the observed ultraviolet colors with Kurucz models was unsuccessful.

  13. A study of the gas-star formation relation over cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Gracia-Carpio, J.; Sternberg, A.; Cooper, M. C.; Shapiro, K.; Bolatto, A.; Bouché, N.; Bournaud, F.; Burkert, A.; Combes, F.; Comerford, J.; Cox, P.; Davis, M.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Lutz, D.; Naab, T.; Neri, R.; Omont, A.; Shapley, A.; Weiner, B.

    2010-10-01

    We use the first systematic data sets of CO molecular line emission in z ~ 1-3 normal star-forming galaxies (SFGs) for a comparison of the dependence of galaxy-averaged star formation rates on molecular gas masses at low and high redshifts, and in different galactic environments. Although the current high-z samples are still small and biased towards the luminous and massive tail of the actively star-forming `main-sequence', a fairly clear picture is emerging. Independent of whether galaxy-integrated quantities or surface densities are considered, low- and high-z SFG populations appear to follow similar molecular gas-star formation relations with slopes 1.1 to 1.2, over three orders of magnitude in gas mass or surface density. The gas-depletion time-scale in these SFGs grows from 0.5 Gyr at z ~ 2 to 1.5 Gyr at z ~ 0. The average corresponds to a fairly low star formation efficiency of 2 per cent per dynamical time. Because star formation depletion times are significantly smaller than the Hubble time at all redshifts sampled, star formation rates and gas fractions are set by the balance between gas accretion from the halo and stellar feedback. In contrast, very luminous and ultraluminous, gas-rich major mergers at both low and high z produce on average four to 10 times more far-infrared luminosity per unit gas mass. We show that only some fraction of this difference can be explained by uncertainties in gas mass or luminosity estimators; much of it must be intrinsic. A possible explanation is a top-heavy stellar mass function in the merging systems but the most likely interpretation is that the star formation relation is driven by global dynamical effects. For a given mass, the more compact merger systems produce stars more rapidly because their gas clouds are more compressed with shorter dynamical times, so that they churn more quickly through the available gas reservoir than the typical normal disc galaxies. When the dependence on galactic dynamical time-scale is

  14. Studying Star and Planet Formation with the Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) is a far- infrared/submillimeter (40-640 micrometers) spaceborne interferometry concept, studied through the NASA Vision Missions program. SPECS is envisioned as a 1-km baseline Michelson interferometer with two 4- meter collecting mirrors. To maximize science return, SPECS will have three operational modes: a photometric imaging mode, an intermediate spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 1000-3000), and a high spectral resolution mode (R approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 5)). The first two of these modes will provide information on all sources within a 1 arcminute field-of-view (FOV), while the the third will include sources in a small (approximately equal to 5 arcsec) FOV. With this design, SPECS will have angular resolution comparable to the Hubble Space Telescope (50 mas) and sensitivity more than two orders of magnitude better than Spitzer (5sigma in 10ks of approximately equal to 3 x 10(exp 7) Jy Hz). We present here some of the results of the recently-completed Vision Mission Study for SPECS, and discuss the application of this mission to future studies of star and planet formation.

  15. Vapor cell based sodium laser guide star mechanism study lab-bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Lihang; Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Ning, Yu; Xi, Fengjie; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    Sodium laser guide star (LGS) is the key for the success of modern adaptive optics (AO) supported large ground based telescopes, however, for many field applications, Sodium LGS's brightness is still a limited factor. Large amounts of theoretical efforts have been paid to optimize Sodium LGS exciting parameters, that is, to fully discover potential of harsh environment surrounding mesospheric extreme thin sodium atoms under resonant excitation, whether quantum or Monte Carlo based. But till to now, only limited proposals are demonstrated with on-sky test due to the high cost and engineering complexities. To bridge the gap between theoretical modeling and on-sky test, we built a magnetic field controllable sodium cell based lab-bench, which includes a small scale sum-frequency single mode 589nm laser, with added amplitude, polarization, and phase modulators. We could perform quantitative resonant fluorescence study under single, multi-frequency, side-band optical re-pumping exciting with different polarization, also we could perform optical field modulation to study Larmor precession which is considered as one of devils of Sodium LGS, and we have the ability to generate beams contain orbital angular moment. Our preliminary sodium cell based optical re-pumping experiments have shown excellent consistence with Bloch equation predicted results, other experimental results will also be presented in the report, and these results will give a direct support that sodium cell based lab-bench study could help a Sodium LGS scientists a lot before their on-sky test.

  16. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    PubMed

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  17. The Fraction of the Sun's Lifetime in a Grand Minimum State Estimated from Studies of Solar-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubin, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Maunder Minimum is a key event in climate change research, (1) from the vantage point as a natural control experiment in which greenhouse gas (GHG) abundances were at a pre-industrial constant while solar forcing changed by a magnitude comparable to recent GHG increases, and (2) given recent interest and speculation that a similar grand minimum might occur later this century. To date, periodicity in solar grand minima has been difficult to detect in geophysical proxy data, and an alternative approach involves estimating the frequency of the Sun's lifetime spent in a grand minimum state by searching for evidence of grand minima in solar-type stars. Most often this is done by measuring Ca H and K flux as an indicator of chromospheric activity, or by photometric observations of solar cycles on decadal timescales. Early estimates of grand minimum frequency in solar type stars ranged from 10-30%. However, these early studies inadvertently included many stars that have evolved off the main sequence. This paper discusses how measurements of stellar Lithium abundance, and spectroscopically constrained metallicity, are used as additional constraints on age and main sequence membership, to refine detections of grand minima in solar-type stars. Based on the most recent studies, an estimate emerges of 5-6% for the fraction of the Sun's lifetime spent in a low-activity and reduced luminosity state analogous to the Maunder Minimum.

  18. Building Blocks of Dust and Large Organic Molecules: a Coordinated Laboratory and Astronomical Study of AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Michael C.; Gottlieb, Carl A.; Cernicharo, Jose

    2017-06-01

    The increased sensitivity and angular resolution of high-altitude ground-based interferometers in the sub-millimeter band has enabled the physics and chemistry of carbon- and oxygen-rich evolved stars to be re-examined at an unprecedented level of detail. Observations of rotational lines in the inner envelope - the region within a few stellar radii of the central star where the molecular seeds of dust are formed - allows one to critically assess models of dust growth. Interferometric observations of the outer envelope provide stringent tests of neutral and ionized molecule formation. All of the astronomical studies are crucially dependent on precise laboratory measurements of the rotational spectra of new species and of vibrationally excited levels of known molecules and their rare isotopic species. By means of a closely coordinated laboratory and astronomical program, a number of exotic species including the disilicon carbide SiCSi, titanium oxides TiO and TiO_2, and carbon chain anions ranging from CN^- to C_8H^- have recently been observed in evolved stars. This talk will provide overview of these findings, and how they impact current models of the ``chemical laboratories'' of evolved stars. Ongoing laboratory studies of small silicon-bearing molecules such as H_2SiO_2 and vibrationally excited SiC_2 will be highlighted.

  19. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  20. Multiwavelength study of the low-luminosity outbursting young star HBC 722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kóspál, Á.; Ábrahám, P.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Dunham, M. M.; García-Álvarez, D.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Kun, M.; Moór, A.; Farkas, A.; Hajdu, G.; Hodosán, G.; Kovács, T.; Kriskovics, L.; Marton, G.; Molnár, L.; Pál, A.; Sárneczky, K.; Sódor, Á.; Szakáts, R.; Szalai, T.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Szing, A.; Tóth, I.; Vida, K.; Vinkó, J.

    2016-11-01

    Context. HBC 722 (V2493 Cyg) is a young eruptive star in outburst since 2010. Spectroscopic evidence suggests that the source is an FU Orionis-type object, with an atypically low outburst luminosity. Aims: Because it was well characterized in the pre-outburst phase, HBC 722 is one of the few FUors from which we can learn about the physical changes and processes associated with the eruption, including the role of the circumstellar environment. Methods: We monitored the source in the BVRIJHKS bands from the ground and at 3.6 and 4.5 μm from space with the Spitzer Space Telescope. We analyzed the light curves and studied the evolving spectral energy distribution by fitting a series of steady accretion disk models at many epochs covering the outburst. We also analyzed the spectral properties of the source based on our new optical and infrared spectra, comparing our line inventory with those published in the literature for other epochs. We also mapped HBC 722 and its surroundings at millimeter wavelengths. Results: From the light-curve analysis we conclude that the first peak of the outburst in 2010 September was mainly due to an abrupt increase in the accretion rate in the innermost part of the system. This was followed after a few months by a long-term process, when the brightening of the source was mainly due to a gradual increase in the accretion rate and the emitting area. Our new observations show that the source is currently in a constant plateau phase. We found that the optical spectrum was similar in the first peak and following periods, but around the peak the continuum was bluer and the Hα profile changed significantly between 2012 and 2013. The source was not detected in the millimeter continuum, but we discovered a flattened molecular gas structure with a diameter of 1700 au and mass of 0.3 M⊙ centered on HBC 722. Conclusions: While the first brightness peak might be interpreted as a rapid fall of piled-up material from the inner disk onto the star, the

  1. A Theoretical Study of the Outer Layers of Eight Kepler F-stars: The Relevance of Ionization Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio

    2017-07-01

    We have analyzed the theoretical model envelopes of eight Kepler F-stars by computing the phase shift of the acoustic waves, α (ω ), and its related function, β (ω ). The latter is shown to be a powerful probe of the external stellar layers since it is particularly sensitive to the partial ionization zones located in these upper layers. We found that these theoretical envelopes can be organized into two groups, each of which is characterized by a distinct β (ω ) shape that we show to reflect the differences related to the magnitudes of ionization processes. Since β (ω ) can also be determined from the experimental frequencies, we compared our theoretical results with the observable β (ω ). Using the function β (ω ), and with the purpose of quantifying the magnitude of the ionization processes occurring in the outer layers of these stars, we define two indexes, {{Δ }}{β }1 and {{Δ }}{β }2. These indexes allow us to connect the microphysics of the interior of the star with macroscopic observable characteristics. Motivated by the distinct magnetic activity behaviors of F-stars, we studied the relation between the star’s rotation period and these indexes. We found a trend, in the form of a power-law dependence, that favors the idea that ionization is acting as an underlying mechanism, which is crucial for understanding the relation between rotation and magnetism and even observational features such as the Kraft break.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and DNA adsorption studies of ampholytic model conetworks based on cross-linked star copolymers.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Theoni K; Patrickios, Costas S

    2008-02-01

    Five model conetworks based on cross-linked star ampholytic copolymers were synthesized by group transfer polymerization. The ampholytic copolymers were based on two hydrophilic monomers: the positively ionizable 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) and the negatively ionizable methacrylic acid (MAA). Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was used as the cross-linker. These five ampholytic model conetworks were isomers based on equimolar DMAEMA-MAA copolymer stars of different architectures: heteroarm (two), star block (two), and statistical. The two networks based on the homopolymer stars were also synthesized. The MAA units were introduced via the polymerization of tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate and the acid hydrolysis of the latter after network formation. All the precursors to the (co)networks were characterized in terms of their molecular weights using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The mass of the extractables from the (co)networks was measured and characterized in terms of molecular weight and composition using GPC and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, respectively. The degrees of swelling (DS) of all the ampholytic conetworks were measured as a function of pH and were found to present a minimum at a pH value which was taken as the isoelectric point, pI. The DS and the pI values did not present a dependence on conetwork architecture. Finally, DNA adsorption studies onto the ampholyte conetworks indicated that DNA binding was governed by electrostatics.

  3. A Spectral and Lightcurve Study of 50+ Blue Stars from the Burrell-Optical-Kepler-Survey (BOKS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalmansingh, Jared; Howell, S.; Walter, D.; Cash, J.; Mighell, K.

    2011-01-01

    BOKS used the 0.6 m Burrell-Schmidt telescope over a period of 40 nights and identified 54,687 stars between 14 < r < 19 in the Kepler Mission's field of view. Its primary goal was to detect Jupiter-sized and Hot Jupiter (Period = 3 - 9 days) short-period exoplanets within the survey field as well as to compile high precision stellar variability data that the Kepler Mission can use for comparison purposes and to characterize the hundreds of other variable stars within the survey region. We present the spectral classifications and light curve analysis of a sub-sample of 50+ blue stars within the BOKS field of view using BOKS lightcurve data and spectra from the Kitt Peak 2.1 meter telescope. The purpose of this study is to identify the variability of and provide characterization for the blue star population within the BOKS field. Support for this work was provided by NOAO and the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814.

  4. A Study of Chemical Composition of δ Scuti-Type Stars Based on the Observations with the BTA and RTT-150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, A. I.; Berdnikova, V. M.; Ivanova, D. V.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Balashova, M. O.

    2017-06-01

    The results of a study of a sample of δ Scuti-type stars obtained from the observations with the BTA and RTT-150 are presented. Based on photometric data, we measured and analyzed the fundamental parameters of all the studied stars. For eight stars (for two of them for the first time), the fundamental parameters of the atmospheres (Teff, log g, [Fe/H]) and the chemical composition for 29 elements in the LTE-approximation are received using spectroscopic observations. The chemical composition analysis demonstrates both the solar abundances of chemical elements and the anomalies of chemical composition typical of Am stars in the studied sample of δ Scuti-type stars.

  5. An optical spectroscopic study of T Tauri stars. I. Photospheric properties

    SciTech Connect

    Herczeg, Gregory J.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2014-05-10

    Estimates of the mass and age of young stars from their location in the H-R diagram are limited by not only the typical observational uncertainties that apply to field stars, but also by large systematic uncertainties related to circumstellar phenomena. In this paper, we analyze flux-calibrated optical spectra to measure accurate spectral types and extinctions of 281 nearby T Tauri stars (TTSs). The primary advances in this paper are (1) the incorporation of a simplistic accretion continuum in optical spectral type and extinction measurements calculated over the full optical wavelength range and (2) the uniform analysis of a large sample of stars, many of which are well known and can serve as benchmarks. Comparisons between the non-accreting TTS photospheric templates and stellar photosphere models are used to derive conversions from spectral type to temperature. Differences between spectral types can be subtle and difficult to discern, especially when accounting for accretion and extinction. The spectral types measured here are mostly consistent with spectral types measured over the past decade. However, our new spectral types are one to two subclasses later than literature spectral types for the original members of the TW Hya Association (TWA) and are discrepant with literature values for some well-known members of the Taurus Molecular Cloud. Our extinction measurements are consistent with other optical extinction measurements but are typically 1 mag lower than near-IR measurements, likely the result of methodological differences and the presence of near-IR excesses in most CTTSs. As an illustration of the impact of accretion, spectral type, and extinction uncertainties on the H-R diagrams of young clusters, we find that the resulting luminosity spread of stars in the TWA is 15%-30%. The luminosity spread in the TWA and previously measured for binary stars in Taurus suggests that for a majority of stars, protostellar accretion rates are not large enough to

  6. Stellar Dynamical Processes in Massive Star and Star Cluster Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jonathan; Eyer, L.

    2009-01-01

    We study how high precision astrometric measurements by SIM and GAIA of stars involved in dynamical ejection events from star clusters can constrain theories of massive star and star cluster formation. We focus on the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). First, we investigate the scientific potential associated with an accurate measurement of the distance and proper motion of Theta 1 Ori C, which is the most massive star in the cluster and was recently involved (about 4000 years ago) in the ejection of a B star: the Becklin-Neugebauer (BN) star. The motion of the BN star has taken it close to a massive protostar, known as source I, where it appears to have influenced the accretion and outflow activity, most likely by a tidal interaction with the accretion disk. An accurate proper motion measurement of Theta 1 Ori C will constrain BN's initial motion, allowing us to search for deflections caused by the gravitational potential of the massive protostar. Second, we search the Hipparcos catalog for candidate runaway stars, i.e. that have been dynamically ejected from the cluster over the course of the last several Myr. SIM and GAIA observations of these stars will be needed to confirm their origin from the ONC. The results of this study will constrain the star cluster formation timescale and the statistics of the population of ejected stars. JCT acknowledges support from from NSF CAREER grant AST-0645412 and a grant from NASA for SIM Science Studies.

  7. Photometric study of the over-contact binary star GSC 3822-1056

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csizmadia, Sz.; Bíró, I. B.; Borkovits, T.

    2003-05-01

    Here we present the first Johnson-Cousins VRC light curves of the over-contact binary star GSC 3822-1056. A period study and the light curve solution are also given. An extremely high rate of period increase (+11.6 s/century) was found. The origin of this period change can be: (i) partly covered light-time effect due to the orbital motion around the mass center of a possible third body; (ii) mass transfer between the components. The light curve was solved using the 1998 Wilson-Devinney Code. We examined the light curve with and without third light. Both solutions yielded a contact configuration with high temperature difference between the components. Despite the high degree of the contact (f=0.57), the temperature difference between the components Delta T=Tprimary-Tsecondary=1045 K. The high mass ratio of the system and its other unusual properties suggest that GSC 3822-1056 may be a recently formed contact binary. Observations were made by the 80 cm ``IAC80'' telescope at Observatorio del Teide in Tenerife, Spain, operated by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Tables 2a-c are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/403/637

  8. Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction (STAR 3) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bergenstal, Richard M.; Tamborlane, William V.; Ahmann, Andrew; Buse, John B.; Dailey, George; Davis, Stephen N.; Joyce, Carol; Perkins, Bruce A.; Welsh, John B.; Willi, Steven M.; Wood, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of crossing over from optimized multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy to sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy for 6 months, and the effects of 18 months’ sustained use of SAP. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The 6-month, single-crossover continuation phase of Sensor-Augmented Pump Therapy for A1C Reduction (STAR 3) provided SAP therapy to 420 subjects who completed the 1-year randomized study. The primary outcome was change in A1C in the crossover group. RESULTS A1C values were initially lower in the continuing-SAP group than in the crossover group (7.4 vs. 8.0%, P < 0.001). A1C values remained reduced in the SAP group. After 3 months on the SAP system, A1C decreased to 7.6% in the crossover group (P < 0.001); this was a significant and sustained decrease among both adults and children (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Switching from optimized MDI to SAP therapy allowed for rapid and safe A1C reductions. Glycemic benefits of SAP therapy persist for at least 18 months. PMID:21933908

  9. Precise Laboratory Measurement of Line Frequencies Useful to Studies of Star and Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Philip C.; Gottlieb, Carl A.

    2005-01-01

    In March 2002, we began a program in laboratory spectroscopy to provide accurate molecular line frequencies essential to studies of the motions and abundance in star-forming dense cores and planet-forming circumstellar disks. Summarized here is the progress that has been made in Year 3 of this grant. Work included measurement of 10 successive rotational lines in the ground vibrational state of SiO between 86 and 500 GHz, and two lines near 800 GHz to an accuracy of a few kHz; conducting pilot experiments on molecular ions in collision-free supersonic beams, including HCO+, N2H+, and H2D+; measurement of 22 lines of CN between 113 and 340 GHz; and setting up an experiment that would allow us to refine earlier measurements of the neutral species such as C3H2, CCS, H2CS, and SO by observing the very narrow sub-Doppler (Lamb dip) features in the millimeter-wave spectra of these species.

  10. The evolution of massive stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The hypotheses underlying theoretical studies of the evolution of massive model stars with and without mass loss are summarized. The evolutionary tracks followed by the models across theoretical Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagrams are compared with the observed distribution of B stars in an HR diagram. The pulsational properties of models of massive star are also described.

  11. Dusty Beginnings of a Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    Are brown dwarfs born like stars, as in this rendering, or do they form like planets orbiting another star? A study by researchers using data from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope has led to the preliminary conclusion that they are formed much like a star.

  12. Multiwavelength study of the magnetically active T Tauri star HD 283447

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Welty, Alan D.; Imhoff, Catherine; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Etzel, Paul B.; Phillips, Robert B.; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1994-01-01

    We observed the luminous T Tauri star HD 283447 = V773 Tauri simultaneously at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical photometric and spectroscopic, and radio wavelengths for several hours on UT 1992 September 11. ROSAT, IUE, Very Large Array (VLA) and an intercontinental Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network, and three optical observatories participated in the campaign. The star is known for its unusually high and variable nonthermal radio continuum emission. High levels of soft X-ray and Mg II line emission are discovered, with luminosity L(sub x) = 5.5 x 10(exp 30) ergs/s (0.2 - 2 keV) and L(sub Mg II) = 1 x 10(exp 29) ergs/s, respectively. Optically, the spectrum exhibits rather weak characteristics of `classical' T Tauri stars. A faint, broad emission line component, probably due to a collimated wind or infall, is present. During the campaign, the radio luminosity decreased by a factor of 4, while optical/UV lines and X-ray emission remained strong but constant. The large gyrosynchrotron-emitting regions are therefore decoupled from the chromospheric and coronal emission. Five models for the magnetic geometry around the star are discussed; solar-type activity, dipole magnetosphere, star-disk magnetic coupling, disk magnetic fields, and close binary interaction. The data suggest that two magnetic geometries are simultaneously present: complex multipolar fields like those on the Sun, and a large-scale field possibly associated with the circumstellar disk.

  13. Multiwavelength study of the magnetically active T Tauri star HD 283447

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.; Welty, Alan D.; Imhoff, Catherine; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Etzel, Paul B.; Phillips, Robert B.; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    1994-09-01

    We observed the luminous T Tauri star HD 283447 = V773 Tauri simultaneously at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical photometric and spectroscopic, and radio wavelengths for several hours on UT 1992 September 11. ROSAT, IUE, Very Large Array (VLA) and an intercontinental Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network, and three optical observatories participated in the campaign. The star is known for its unusually high and variable nonthermal radio continuum emission. High levels of soft X-ray and Mg II line emission are discovered, with luminosity Lx = 5.5 x 1030 ergs/s (0.2 - 2 keV) and LMg II = 1 x 1029 ergs/s, respectively. Optically, the spectrum exhibits rather weak characteristics of `classical' T Tauri stars. A faint, broad emission line component, probably due to a collimated wind or infall, is present. During the campaign, the radio luminosity decreased by a factor of 4, while optical/UV lines and X-ray emission remained strong but constant. The large gyrosynchrotron-emitting regions are therefore decoupled from the chromospheric and coronal emission. Five models for the magnetic geometry around the star are discussed; solar-type activity, dipole magnetosphere, star-disk magnetic coupling, disk magnetic fields, and close binary interaction. The data suggest that two magnetic geometries are simultaneously present: complex multipolar fields like those on the Sun, and a large-scale field possibly associated with the circumstellar disk.

  14. Unprecedented 16-Year Long Study Tracks Stars Orbiting Milky Way Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-12-01

    Combining a double natural "magnifying glass" with the power of ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have scrutinised the inner parts of the disc around a supermassive black hole 10 billion light-years away. They were able to study the disc with a level of detail a thousand times better than that of the best telescopes in the world, providing the first observational confirmation of the prevalent theoretical models of such discs. Omega Centauri ESO PR Photo 47a/08 The Einstein Cross The team of astronomers from Europe and the US studied the "Einstein Cross", a famous cosmic mirage. This cross-shaped configuration consists of four images of a single very distant source. The multiple images are a result of gravitational lensing by a foreground galaxy, an effect that was predicted by Albert Einstein as a consequence of his theory of general relativity. The light source in the Einstein Cross is a quasar approximately ten billion light-years away, whereas the foreground lensing galaxy is ten times closer. The light from the quasar is bent in its path and magnified by the gravitational field of the lensing galaxy. This magnification effect, known as "macrolensing", in which a galaxy plays the role of a cosmic magnifying glass or a natural telescope, proves very useful in astronomy as it allows us to observe distant objects that would otherwise be too faint to explore using currently available telescopes. "The combination of this natural magnification with the use of a big telescope provides us with the sharpest details ever obtained," explains Frédéric Courbin, leader of the programme studying the Einstein Cross with ESO's Very Large Telescope. In addition to macrolensing by the galaxy, stars in the lensing galaxy act as secondary lenses to produce an additional magnification. This secondary magnification is based on the same principle as macrolensing, but on a smaller scale, and since stars are much smaller than galaxies, is known as "microlensing". As the stars are

  15. A Chandra Study of the Rosette Star-Forming Complex. II. Clusters in the Rosette Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth; Garmire, Gordon

    2009-05-01

    We explore here the young stellar populations in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) region with high spatial resolution X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which are effective in locating weak-lined T Tauri stars as well as disk-bearing young stars. A total of 395 X-ray point sources are detected, 299 of which (76%) have an optical or near-infrared (NIR) counterpart identified from deep FLAMINGOS images. From X-ray and mass sensitivity limits, we infer a total population of ~1700 young stars in the survey region. Based on smoothed stellar surface density maps, we investigate the spatial distribution of the X-ray sources and define three distinctive structures and substructures within them. Structures B and C are associated with previously known embedded IR clusters, while structure A is a new X-ray-identified unobscured cluster. A high-mass protostar RMCX #89 = IRAS 06306+0437 and its associated sparse cluster are studied. The different subregions are not coeval but do not show a simple spatial-age pattern. Disk fractions vary between subregions and are generally lsim20% of the total stellar population inferred from the X-ray survey. The data are consistent with speculations that triggered star formation around the H II region is present in the RMC, but do not support a simple sequential triggering process through the cloud interior. While a significant fraction of young stars are located in a distributed population throughout the RMC region, it is not clear if they originated in clustered environments.

  16. A CHANDRA STUDY OF THE ROSETTE STAR-FORMING COMPLEX. II. CLUSTERS IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Junfeng; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Garmire, Gordon; Roman-Zuniga, Carlos G.; Lada, Elizabeth E-mail: edf@astro.psu.edu

    2009-05-01

    We explore here the young stellar populations in the Rosette Molecular Cloud (RMC) region with high spatial resolution X-ray images from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which are effective in locating weak-lined T Tauri stars as well as disk-bearing young stars. A total of 395 X-ray point sources are detected, 299 of which (76%) have an optical or near-infrared (NIR) counterpart identified from deep FLAMINGOS images. From X-ray and mass sensitivity limits, we infer a total population of {approx}1700 young stars in the survey region. Based on smoothed stellar surface density maps, we investigate the spatial distribution of the X-ray sources and define three distinctive structures and substructures within them. Structures B and C are associated with previously known embedded IR clusters, while structure A is a new X-ray-identified unobscured cluster. A high-mass protostar RMCX no. 89 = IRAS 06306+0437 and its associated sparse cluster are studied. The different subregions are not coeval but do not show a simple spatial-age pattern. Disk fractions vary between subregions and are generally {approx}<20% of the total stellar population inferred from the X-ray survey. The data are consistent with speculations that triggered star formation around the H II region is present in the RMC, but do not support a simple sequential triggering process through the cloud interior. While a significant fraction of young stars are located in a distributed population throughout the RMC region, it is not clear if they originated in clustered environments.

  17. A PANCHROMATIC STUDY OF BLAST COUNTERPARTS: TOTAL STAR FORMATION RATE, MORPHOLOGY, ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FRACTION, AND STELLAR MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Cortese, Luca; Dye, Simon; Eales, Stephen; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Pascale, Enzo; Tucker, Carole; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Scott, Douglas; Wiebe, Donald V.; Devlin, Mark J.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Viero, Marco P.

    2011-02-01

    We carry out a multi-wavelength study of individual galaxies detected by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) and identified at other wavelengths, using data spanning the radio to the ultraviolet (UV). We develop a Monte Carlo method to account for flux boosting, source blending, and correlations among bands, which we use to derive deboosted far-infrared (FIR) luminosities for our sample. We estimate total star-formation rates (SFRs) for BLAST counterparts with z {<=} 0.9 by combining their FIR and UV luminosities. Star formation is heavily obscured at L{sub FIR} {approx}> 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, z {approx}> 0.5, but the contribution from unobscured starlight cannot be neglected at L{sub FIR} {approx}< 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, z {approx}< 0.25. We assess that about 20% of the galaxies in our sample show indication of a type 1 active galactic nucleus, but their submillimeter emission is mainly due to star formation in the host galaxy. We compute stellar masses for a subset of 92 BLAST counterparts; these are relatively massive objects, with a median mass of {approx}10{sup 11} M{sub sun}, which seem to link the 24 {mu}m and Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) populations, in terms of both stellar mass and star formation activity. The bulk of the BLAST counterparts at z {approx}< 1 appears to be run-of-the-mill star-forming galaxies, typically spiral in shape, with intermediate stellar masses and practically constant specific SFRs. On the other hand, the high-z tail of the BLAST counterparts significantly overlaps with the SCUBA population, in terms of both SFRs and stellar masses, with observed trends of specific SFR that support strong evolution and downsizing.

  18. The Carbon Star Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, Robert F.

    2000-06-01

    The atmospheres of many stars have chemical compositions that are significantly different from that of the interstellar medium from which they are formed. This symposium considered all kinds of late-type stars showing altered compositions, the carbon stars being simply the best-known of these. All stages of stellar evolution from the main sequence to the ejection of a planetary nebula were considered, with emphasis on the changes that occur on the asymptotic giant branch. The spectroscopic properties of the photospheres and circumstellar envelopes of chemically-peculiar red giant stars, their origins via single-star evolution or mass transfer in binary systems, and the methods currently used to study them were all discussed in detail. This volume includes the full texts of papers given orally at the symposium and abstracts of the posters. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/book.htm/0-7923-6347-7

  19. A multiwavelength study of the Stingray Nebula; properties of the nebula, central star, and dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Masaaki; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Tajitsu, Akito; Hubrig, Swetlana

    2016-07-01

    We performed a detail chemical abundance analysis and photo-ionization modeling of the Stingray Nebula (Hen3-1357, Parthasarathy et al. 1993[1]) to more characterize this PN. We calculated nine elemental abundances using collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines (RLs). The RL C/O ratio indicates that this PN is O-rich, which is supported by the detection of the broad amorphous silicate features at 9 and 18 μm By photo-ionization modeling, we investigated properties of the central star and derived the gas and dust masses. The nebular elemental abundances, the core-mass of the central star, and the gas mass are in agreement with the AGB model for the initially 1.5 M ⊙ stars with the Z = 0.008.

  20. Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stars were discovered almost 40 years ago, and yet many of their most fundamental properties remain mysteries. There have been many attempts to measure the mass and radius of a neutron star and thereby constrain the equation of state of the dense nuclear matter at their cores. These have been complicated by unknown parameters such as the source distance and burning fractions. A clean, straightforward way to access the neutron star parameters is with high-resolution spectroscopy. I will present the results of searches for gravitationally red-shifted absorption lines from the neutron star atmosphere using XMM-Newton and Chandra.

  1. Preliminary study of the use of the STAR-100 computer for transonic flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. D.; Jameson, A.

    1977-01-01

    An explicit method for solving the transonic small-disturbance potential equation is presented. This algorithm, which is suitable for the new vector-processor computers such as the CDC STAR-100, is compared to successive line over-relaxation (SLOR) on a simple test problem. The convergence rate of the explicit scheme is slower than that of SLOR, however, the efficiency of the explicit scheme on the STAR-100 computer is sufficient to overcome the slower convergence rate and allow an overall speedup compared to SLOR on the CYBER 175 computer.

  2. A New Study of Copper Abundances in Metal-Poor Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeck, J. S.; Primas, F.; Sneden, C.; Ivans, I. I.

    2008-03-01

    The history of the chemical composition of the Galaxy is dominated by the nucleosynthesis occurring in many generations of stars. Very metal-poor stars represent one of the main diagnostic tools to probe the earliest phases of the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. Any variation in the elemental abundance ratios observed at different metallicites can then be compared with the yields derived from SNe of different masses to determine which ones have contributed to the Galactic chemical enrichment and when. Here, the preliminary result of a recent analysis that has focused on the iron-group element copper is presented, which has the main goal of better constraining its nucleosynthetic origin.

  3. PEGASE, an infrared interferometer to study stellar environments and low mass companions around nearby stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier, M.; Absil, O.; Allard, F.; Berger, J.-P.; Bordé, P.; Cassaing, F.; Chazelas, B.; Chelli, A.; Chesneau, O.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Defrère, D.; Duchon, P.; Gabor, P.; Gay, J.; Herwats, E.; Jacquinod, S.; Kern, P.; Kervella, P.; Le Duigou, J.-M.; Léger, A.; Lopez, B.; Malbet, F.; Mourard, D.; Pelat, D.; Perrin, G.; Rabbia, Y.; Rouan, D.; Reiss, J.-M.; Rousset, G.; Selsis, F.; Stee, P.; Surdej, J.

    2009-03-01

    PEGASE is a mission dedicated to the exploration of the environment (including habitable zone) of young and solar-type stars (particularly those in the DARWIN catalogue) and the observation of low mass companions around nearby stars. It is a space interferometer project composed of three free flying spacecraft, respectively featuring two 40 cm siderostats and a beam combiner working in the visible and near infrared. It has been proposed to ESA as an answer to the first “Cosmic Vision” call for proposals, as an M mission. The concept also enables full-scale demonstration of space nulling interferometry operation for DARWIN.

  4. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth; Ybarra, Jason; Fleming, Scott

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 5 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  5. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi; Levine, Joanna L.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 7 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  6. Young Stars in IC 2118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spuck, Tim; Rebull, Luisa; Daou, Doris; Maranto, Tony; Roelofsen, Theresa; Sepulveda, Babs; Weehler, Cynthia

    2005-02-01

    IC 2118, the Witch Head Nebula (~210 parsecs), is region forming stars located near the supergiant star Rigel in the constellation Orion. Kun et al. (2004, A&A, 418, 89) have determined that IC 2118 is on the near side of the Orion-Eridanus Super Bubble and that stellar winds from the Orion OB1 association may be triggering new star formation in the nebula. We propose using IRAC and MIPS to reexamine a small dense region of this nebula where Kun et al. have spectroscopically identified three 2MASS sources as T Tauri stars embedded in the cloud. Previous all-sky surveys, including both IRAS and 2MASS, have included this region, but not to the resolution that Spitzer can provide, and there are few studies of this particular region in the literature. Our team proposes to use IRAC and MIPS observations to (1) investigate star formation, (2) look for likely cluster member stars with infrared excesses, and characterize this young star population by obtaining their colors and therefore estimates of masses and ages, (3) study the distribution of stars, their relationship to the ISM, and the possibilities of triggered star formation, (4) compare the young star population, distribution, and age to other similar sites of star formation, e.g., IC 1396 and (5) produce a dramatic image of the interstellar medium in the region surrounding IC 2118. Since this region is in the Orion constellation near the bright star Rigel, it provides additional appeal to students and the general public.

  7. Bionano Interaction Study on Antimicrobial Star-Shaped Peptide Polymer Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Shu J; Wong, Edgar H H; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Pantarat, Namfon; Blencowe, Anton; Reynolds, Eric C; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-12-14

    'Structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs), in the form of star-shaped peptide polymer nanoparticles, have been recently demonstrated as a new class of antimicrobial agents with superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Gram-negative pathogens, including multidrug-resistant species. Herein, we present a detailed bionano interaction study on SNAPPs by assessing their antimicrobial activities against several Gram-negative bacteria in complex biological matrices. Simulated body fluid and animal serum were used as test media to reveal factors that influence the antimicrobial efficacy of SNAPPs. With the exception of Acinetobacter baumannii, the presence of divalent cations at physiological concentrations reduced the antimicrobial efficacy of SNAPPs from minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) within the nanomolar range (40-300 nM) against Escherichia coli, Pseudomanas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae to 0.6-4.7 μM. By using E. coli as a representative bacterial species, we demonstrated that the reduction in activity was due to a decrease in the ability of SNAPPs to cause outer and inner membrane disruption. This effect could be reversed through coadministration with a chelating agent. Interestingly, the potency of SNAPPs against A. baumannii was retained even under high salt concentrations. The presence of serum proteins was also found to affect the interaction of SNAPPs with bacterial membranes, possibly through intermolecular binding. Collectively, this study highlights the need to consider the possible interactions of (bio)molecules present in vivo with any new antimicrobial agent under development. We also demonstrate that outer membrane disruption/destabilization is an important but hitherto under-recognized target for the antimicrobial action of peptide-based agents, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Overall, the findings presented herein could aid in the design of more efficient peptide-based antimicrobial agents with

  8. Comparison Study II: Double Star Measurements Made Using an Equatorial Mounted Refractor and an Alt-Az Mounted Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Thomas G.; Coombs, Lee C.

    2012-07-01

    Eight double stars with separations between 13 and 48 arc seconds were studied. Their separations and position angles were measured using an equatorial mounted refractor and and alt-az mounted reflector. A 2x Barlow lens was used along with a Celestron Micro Guide eyepiece to magnify the separation. Comparison of the possible effect of magnitude difference on the separation and position angle measurements was investigated.

  9. Insights for Planetarium and Museum Educators Revealed by the iSTAR international Study of Astronomical Reasoning Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, T. F.; Tatge, C. B.; Ratcliff, M.; Slater, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Dedicated sky watchers through the centuries have long sought to find the best teaching methods to efficiently and effectively transfer vast amounts of accumulated star knowledge to the next generation of sky watchers. Although detailed maps specifying the names and locations of stars have been carefully displayed on spherical globes for thousands of years, it is the 1923 installation of a Zeiss-made, large, mechanical star projector in Munich that is often cited as the first modern projection planetarium for teaching astronomy. In the 1930's, impressive planetariums were installed Chicago, Los Angeles and New York, which then in turn served as a catalyst for additional planetarium construction. Planetarium construction increased rapidly in the United States due to federal funding to schools and museums through the 1958 US National Defense Education Act and the US went from one planetarium in 1930, to six in 1940, to about 100 in 1960, increasing to 200 in 1963, 450 by 1967—even before humans had landed on the Moon—and more than 1,000 by 1975. Today, nearly 3,000 permanent planetarium facilities are available to show the stars and heavenly motions to children and adults alike across the world, with perhaps another thousand portable planetariums adding to the available teaching venues. Simultaneous with their construction, discipline-based astronomy education have been trying to better understand, and ultimately improve, how people learn astronomy in the planetarium. A systematic analysis of planetarium education research articles, dissertations, and theses found in the recently constructed, community-wide, international Study of Astronomical Reasoning iSTAR database at istardatabase.org reveal that many of the systematic studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s using domes served by servo-mechanical star projects have been reproduced again in recent decades in theaters using digital video projection showing nearly the same results: student-passive, information

  10. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  11. Infrared spectroscopy of stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, K. M.; Ridgway, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews applications of IR techniques in stellar classification, studies of stellar photospheres, elemental and isotopic abundances, and the nature of remnant and ejected matter in near-circumstellar regions. Qualitative IR spectral classification of cool and hot stars is discussed, along with IR spectra of peculiar composite star systems and of obscured stars, and IR characteristics of stellar populations. The use of IR spectroscopy in theoretical modeling of stellar atmospheres is examined, IR indicators of stellar atmospheric composition are described, and contributions of IR spectroscopy to the study of stellar recycling of interstellar matter are summarized. The future of IR astronomy is also considered.

  12. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  13. Observational study of the role of magnetic fields in star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobian, Nicholas Szandor

    This project is a multi-faceted approach to establish a link between proposed theories of star formation and direct observation. Some key factors explored include: if magnetic fields cause significant support against gravitational collapse, which physical parameters are sampled by different tracer molecules, and what these results tell us about the structure and development of the regions observed. Until recently, only ambipolar diffusion theory had numerical models that simulated possible physical results that could be compared to observational data. These theories interpret the models in terms of a physical parameter: the ratio of the mass to the magnetic flux (M/phi). Performing measurements of the magnetic field, to determine the magnetic flux (phi), is complicated. It is only possible to obtain direct measurements of the strength of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field through the normal Zeeman effect. Only a few molecules have Zeeman splitting factors large enough to be successfully used to measure magnetic fields. Of these few, OH traces lower density molecular species, while CN is believed to trace higher density regions. Using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) we mapped the magnetic fields of cores and envelopes of dark cloud cores using OH as a tracer molecule. From this, the ratio of M/phi between the cores and envelopes were computed, and were consistently determined to be < 1. This is inconsistent with published ambipolar diffusion theory which expects this ratio to be > 1. This study can be extended to other types of objects by using different tracer molecules. CN can be used to probe hot dense regions; however, it requires high resolution mapping currently only obtainable with an interferometer. Using CARMA, we obtained maps of 6 high mass star formation regions with a spatial resolution of approximately 2" by combining data from the C, D, and E arrays. CARMA's correlator was used to sample several spectral lines simultaneously in order to

  14. A Study of EUV Emission in Active Be Stars in the Canis Major Interstellar Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.

    Spectroscopic observations are proposed of three active Be stars and one comparison object that are located in the Canis Major tunnel of low interstellar gas density to search for the presence of a 10^5-10^7 K plasma that contemporary theories of disk formation or flare/episodic/ pulsational activity predict. The program stars include kappa CMa (B2IVe, in which flare-type activity has been observed), omega CMa (B2.5Ve, an apparent nonradial pulsator), alpha Col (B7IVe, which has an unusually large C IV absorption for its spectral type), and zeta CMa (B2.5V, a non-emission line B star to be used for comparison). The Be stars are all viewed at low-moderate inclinations to our line-of-sight so that EUV absorption in the wind should be minimized. The strengths of the emission lines He II 304 and 256 and numerous Fe lines in the SW region will be compared with those already observed in epsilon CMa (B2II) and beta CMa (B1II, a beta Cephei radial pulsator) with EUVE. The temperature of the plasma will be determined from the ionization state of the emission lines and the size/location of the emitting region estimated from the widths of these features and any observed modulation with phase in the optical light curve.

  15. An infrared photometric and spectroscopic study of post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, V. Venkata; Anandarao, B. G.; Janardhan, P.; Pandey, R.

    2017-09-01

    We present here Spitzer mid-infrared (IR) spectra and modelling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of a selection of post-asymptotic giant branch (PAGB) stars. The mid-IR spectra of the majority of these sources showed spectral features such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silicates in emission. Our results from SED modelling showed interesting trends of dependence between the photospheric and circumstellar parameters. A trend of dependence is also noticed between the ratios of equivalent widths (EWs) of various vibrational modes of PAHs and the photospheric temperature T* and model-derived stellar parameters for the sample stars. The PAGB mass-loss rates derived from the SED models are found to be higher than those for AGB stars. In a few objects, low- and high-excitation fine-structure emission lines were identified, indicating their advanced stage of evolution. Further, IR vibration modes of fullerene (C60) were detected for the first time in the PAGB star IRAS 21546+4721.

  16. Great Expectations: Creative Achievements of the Sociometric Stars in a 30-Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, E. Paul

    2004-01-01

    The creative achievements and characteristics of a group of ten high school students identified as the most creative by their high school peers were compared to those of ten participants from the same group who had the greatest number of publicly recognized creative achievements approximately 30 years later (Sociometric Stars vs. Beyonders).…

  17. Spectroscopic Study of Young Star Clusters in the Outskirts of NGC 1275 (Perseus A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Smith, Linda J.; Trancho, Gelys; Westmoquette, Mark; Zweibel, Ellen

    2009-08-01

    NGC 1275, the brightest galaxy in the A426 (Perseus) cluster, offers an extraordinary opportunity to explore feedback processes in a nearby (75 Mpc) system. This galaxy hosts a powerful AGN that feeds a double- lobe radio source in combination with a massive molecular ISM that supports extensive star formation. While the existence of a spider web array of ionized gas filaments extending R=90 kpc to the north is well known, their quiescent kinematics, molecular content, and associated spatially extended star formation only now is becoming clear. Our ongoing research addresses a variety of interrelated issues ranging from understanding what prevents high ICM cooling rates to the origin and evolution of the giant ionized filaments and the population of the halo with massive young star clusters. A major theme is an exploration of the ways in which mechanical luminosity and momentum from the AGN and SNe II operate as a feedback mechanism to halt the cooling flow and build new stellar content in NGC 1275. This proposal requests use of the Gemini-N GMOS IFU system to obtain spectra of young star clusters and their associated ionized gas located at a progression of galactocentric radii in NGC 1275. The resulting measurements of cluster kinematics, conditions in surrounding HII filaments, estimated ages, and chemical abundances will add fundamental new constraints on the evolution of this amazing galaxy.

  18. A Study of Nonthermal X-Ray and Radio Emission from the O Star 9 Sgr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, Wayne L.; Corcoran, Michael F.; Drake, Stephen A.

    1999-01-01

    The observed X-ray and highly variable nonthermal radio emission from OB stars has eluded explanation for more than 18 years. The most favorable model of X-ray production in these stars (shocks) predicts both nonthermal radio and X-ray emission. The nonthermal X-ray emission should occur above 2 keV and the variability of this X-ray component should also be comparable to the observed radio variability. To test this scenario, we proposed an ASC/VLA monitoring program to observe the OB star, 9 Sgr, a well known nonthermal, variable radio source and a strong X-ray source. We requested 625 ks ASCA observations with a temporal spacing of approximately 4 days which corresponds to the time required for a density disturbance to propagate to the 6 cm radio free-free photosphere. The X-ray observations were coordinated with 5 multi-wavelength VLA observations. These observations represent the first systematic attempt to investigate the relationship between the X-ray and radio emission in OB stars.

  19. Long-term Doppler Shift and Line Profile Studies of Planetary Search Target Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Robert S.

    2002-01-01

    This grant supported attempts to develop a method for measuring the Doppler shifts of solar-type stars more accurately. The expense of future space borne telescopes to search for solar systems like our own makes it worth trying to improve the relatively inexpensive pre-flight reconnaissance by ground-based telescopes. The concepts developed under this grant contributed to the groundwork for such improvements. They were focused on how to distinguish between extrasolar planets and stellar activity (convection) cycles. To measure the Doppler shift (radial velocity; RV) of the center of mass of a star in the presence of changing convection in the star's photosphere, one can either measure the effect of convection separately from that of the star's motion and subtract its contribution to the apparent RV, or measure the RV in a way that is insensitive to convection. This grant supported investigations into both of these approaches. We explored the use of a Fabry-Perot Etalon HE interferometer and a multichannel Fourier Transform Spectrometer (mFTS), and finished making a 1.8-m telescope operational and potentially available for this work.

  20. An X-ray and Optical Spectroscopic Study of the Perplexing Star RZ Piscium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punzi, Kristina Marie; Kastner, Joel H.; Melis, Carl; Zuckerman, Ben M.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary status of the "anti-flare" variable star RZ Psc is ambiguous; both pre- and post-main sequence models have been proposed. RZ Psc shows evidence for gaseous and dusty circumstellar material in the form of emission lines and an infrared excess; its space velocities suggest that it is young, but it does not appear to be a member of a known association of young stars. We report the results of X-ray observations of RZ Psc with XMM-Newton, as well as high-resolution optical spectroscopy of the star obtained at the Lick and Keck observatories. The XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy establishes that RZ Psc is highly X-ray-luminous, while the optical spectroscopy confirms that the star is G-type and has low surface gravity. The nearly saturated stellar activity and X-ray plasma properties of RZ Psc are indicative of pre-main sequence status, but are also consistent with those of rapidly rotating first-ascent giants. The optical spectroscopy yields evidence for radial velocity variability, hinting at the possibility that RZ Psc is a spectroscopic binary system. Further observations of RZ Psc and its field are necessary to break the age degeneracy and to confirm its close binary status. This research is supported in part by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis program grant NNX16AG13G to RIT.

  1. Constraints on Grain Formation Around Carbon Stars from Laboratory Studies of Presolar Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, T. J.; Akande, O. W.; Croat, T. K.; Cowsik, R.

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, either with or without internal crystals of titanium carbide (TiC). In addition to providing detailed information about stellar nucleosynthesis, the structure and composition of presolar grains give unique information about the conditions of grain formation. In the present work we use laboratory observations of presolar graphite to gain insight into the physical conditions in circumstellar outflows from carbon AGB stars. The periodic pulsation of AGB stars enhances the gas density through shocks in the stellar atmosphere above the photosphere, promoting the condensation of dust grains. Copious mass outflow occurs largely because grains are coupled to the radiation field of the star, which accelerates them by radiation pressure; momentum is in turn transferred to gas molecules by collisions with grains. The dust/gas mixture is effectively a two-component fluid whose motion depends on atmospheric structure and which, in turn, influences that structure. In particular, the radiation pressure on the grains determines the velocity field of the outflow and thus the density distribution, while the density distribution itself determines the conditions of radiative transfer within the outflow and thus the effective radiation pressure.

  2. High Dispersion Study of Two T Tauri Stars: RU Lupi and Cod-34 7151

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    High dispersion, short wavelength IUE spectra with exposure times of 16 hours or more are sought for the two T Tauri stars which are brightest in the ultraviolet, RU Lupi and CoD-34 7151. These spectra will provide vital information on emission line profiles and widths for resonance and intersystem lines formed at temperatures between 2xlO^4 and 2xlO^5 K. These data can then be used to examine the energy deposition processes present in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. In particular, the Alfven wave-powered wind-outflow model proposed by Lago (1979, 1982) can be tested in terms of its proposed velocity and density structure. The relative importance of turbulence, opacity and Doppler shifts in an outflowing wind as line broadening mechanisms will be investigated for these stars. Low resolution IUE spectra of T Tauri stars indicate that RU Lupi and CoD-34 7151 are the only members of this class for which such observations are possible with IUE.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE, WIDE-FIELD STUDY OF PULSATING STARS IN THE CARINA DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Vivas, A. Katherina; Mateo, Mario E-mail: mmateo@umich.edu

    2013-12-01

    We report the detection of 388 pulsating variable stars (and some additional miscellaneous variables) in the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy over an area covering the full visible extent of the galaxy and extending a few times beyond its photometric (King) tidal radius along the direction of its major axis. Included in this total are 340 newly discovered dwarf Cepheids (DCs), which are mostly located ∼2.5 mag below the horizontal branch and have very short periods (<0.1 days), typical of their class and consistent with their location on the upper part of the extended main sequence of the younger populations of the galaxy. Several extra-tidal DCs were found in our survey up to a distance of ∼1° from the center of Carina. Our sample also includes RR Lyrae stars and anomalous Cepheids, some of which were found outside the galaxy's tidal radius as well. This supports past works that suggest that Carina is undergoing tidal disruption. We use the period-luminosity relationship for DCs to estimate a distance modulus of μ{sub 0} = 20.17 ± 0.10 mag, in very good agreement with the estimate from RR Lyrae stars. We find some important differences in the properties of the DCs of Carina and those in Fornax and the LMC, the only extragalactic samples of DCs currently known. These differences may reflect a metallicity spread, depth along the line of sight, and/or different evolutionary paths of the DC stars.

  4. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  5. Radio stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjellming, Robert M.

    The state of knowledge on continuum radio emission from the stars is considered. Fundamental radio emission process and stellar radiative transfer are reviewed, and solar radio emission is examined. Flare stars and active binaries are addressed, and stellar winds and cataclysmic variables are considered. Radio-emitting X-ray binaries are discussed.

  6. Interferometric, astrometric, and photometric studies of Epsilon Aurigae: Seeing the disk around a distant star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloppenborg, Brian

    2012-05-01

    Epsilon (epsilon) Aurigae is a binary star system that has baffled astronomers for 170 years. In 1821 it was first noticed that the star system had dimmed by nearly 50%. After many decades of photometric monitoring, the 27.1 year period was finally established in 1903. A few years later, in 1912, Henry Norris Russell published the first analytic methods for binary star analysis. Later application of these formulae came to an interesting conclusion; the system was composed of two stars: the visible F-type supergiant, and an equally massive, but yet photometrically and spectroscopically invisible, companion. Several theories were advanced to explain this low-light to high-mass conundrum, eventually settling on the notion that the companion object is obscured from view by a disk of opaque material. With this topic solved, the debate shifted the evolutionary state of the system. Two scenarios became dominant: the system is either relativity young, and composed of a massive, 15 Mo (solar mass), F-type supergiant and a nearly equally massive main sequence companion inside of the disk; or a much older and significantly less massive, 4 Mo, F-type post-asymptotic giant branch object with a more massive, 6 Mo, companion surrounded by a debris disk. In this dissertation I disentangle the two evolutionary states by comparing the photometric behavior of the F-type star to known supergiant and post-asymptotic giant branch objects; and deriving a dynamical mass for the two components using astrometric, radial velocity, and interferometric data. Along with this, I provide the first interferometric images during the eclipse which prove the 50% dimming is indeed caused by an opaque disk. The first chapter presents the reader with the status quo of epsilon Aurigae research and the topics I wish to address in this dissertation. Chapter two presents an analysis of nearly 30 years of photometry on the system, concluding the star periodically exhibits stable pulsation on 1/3 orbital

  7. A Study of the Spectroscopic Variability of Select RV Tauri and Semiregular Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgatt, Charles; Walter, D. K.; Howell, S. B.; Cash, J.; Eleby, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The periodicity of RV Tauri and Semiregular types is not as well behaved as other variables such as Cepheids, and they take months to go through a single cycle. These constraints make it difficult to study these objects. While they lie between the Cepheids and the Miras on the HR Diagram and are believed to be in transition from the AGB to white dwarf phase, their evolution is not well understood. We have acquired spectra for the years 2003-2012 using the Coude Feed Telescope at KPNO of three RV Tauri stars (AC Her, V Vul and R Sct) and four Semiregular types (SX Her, EU Del, g Her and Z UMa). We have fit their light curves using AAVSO photometry to more accurately determine their phase as a function of Julian Date over this long time span. This has allowed us to phase-fold the dates of our spectral observations and obtain a clearer picture of their behavior over a single cycle. We have found that some of these objects (e.g. SX Her) vary only 500 K while others (e.g. V Vul) change as much as 2000 K. The luminosity of some members of this sample varies as little as 50% while the light output of others changes by as much as 500%. We also present our results that show the cyclic movement on the HR Diagram of these objects over the course of their period. Support for this work was provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814. We thank the director of KPNO for his generous allocation of telescope time to this project over the years.

  8. A study of RV in Galactic O stars from the 2MASS catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patriarchi, P.; Morbidelli, L.; Perinotto, M.

    2003-11-01

    We present new measurements of the interstellar reddening parameter RV=AV/E(B-V) towards 185 O stars, using J, H, Ks photometry from the 2MASS project. The results are combined with data from the literature of 95 stars where RV has been derived with the same technique, 22 of which in common with our present sample from the 2MASS project catalogue. The average RV from these 258 O stars is of 3.19 +/- 0.50. All objects whose RV departs from this value by more than 2 sigma have been recognized. Ten objects have RV higher than this value and two lower. It is found that anomalous RV can scarcely be associated with anomalies in the general interstellar medium, e.g. with different behaviour in different spiral arms. They are clearly linked to local cloud effect. In the Cygnus region RV values follow the behaviour of the general interstellar medium, while in the Carina arm, in spite of the relatively larger distance, local cloud effects prevail. An explanation for this is suggested. The relatively few stars of our sample whose Hipparcos parallaxes are reliable, are found to have distances systematically smaller than the distances derived by the spectroscopic parallaxes. We argue that this effect is consistent with the recently claimed discovery of grey extinction towards OB stars. This publication makes use of data products from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), which is a joint project of the University of Massachusetts and the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center/California Institute of Technology, funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Science Foundation. Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/410/905

  9. Period04 FCAPT uvby Photometric Studies of Eight Magnetic CP Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul J.; Dukes, Robert J.

    2014-06-01

    We present Four College Automated Photometric Telescope (FCAPT) differential Stromgren uvby photometry of 8 magnetic CP (mCP) stars: HD 5797 (V551 Cas), HD 26792 (DH Cam), HD 27309 (56 Tau, V724 Tau), HD 49713 (V740 Mon), HD 74521 (49 Cnc, BI Cnc), HD 120198 (84 UMa, CR UMa), HD 171263 (QU Ser), and HD 215441 (GL Lac, Babcock's star). Our data sets are larger than those of most mCP stars in the literature. These are the first FCAPT observations of HD 5797, HD 26792, HD 49713, and HD 171263. Those for the remaining four stars substantially extend published FCAPT data. The FCAPT observed some stars for a longer time range and with greater accuracy than other optical region automated photometric telescopes.Our goals were to determine very accurate periods, the u, v, b, and y amplitudes, and if there were any long period periods. In addition we wanted to compare our results with those of magnetic field measurements to help interpret the light curves.We used the Period04 computer program to analyze the light curves. This program provides errors for the derived quantities as it fits the light curve. Our derived periods of 68.046 +/- 0.008 days for HD 5797, 3.80205 +/- 0.00006 days for HD 26792, 1.56889 +/- 0.000002 days for HD 27309, 2.13536 +/- 0.00002 days for HD 49713, 7.0505 +/- 0.0001 days for HD 74521, 1.38577 +/- 0.000004 days for HD 120198, 3.9974 +/- 0.0001days for HD 171263, and 9.487792 +/- 0.00005 days for HD 215441 are refinements of the best determinations in the literature.

  10. Detecting non-uniform period spacings in the Kepler photometry of γ Doradus stars: methodology and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.

    2015-02-01

    Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la

  11. Spectroscopic pilot study in the near infrared of a sample of star-forming galaxies at z = 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Cardiel, N.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis inthe near-infrared K band of a sample of 12 active star forminggalaxies at z ˜ 2. The sample was selected by using photometricredshifts, blue colors and large fluxes in the 24 μ m band ofMIPS/Spitzer. To analyze their physical properties we have computedtheir sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parametersavailable in literature and in the "Rainbow" database. We computeHα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies atthat redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584for a sub sample of the objects. In particular the dependence of the metallicitywith the stellar mass has been studied and compared with the results of other samples ofgalaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities ofour galaxies are compatible than those similar at the corresponding redshift, following the general trend of lower metallicities for higher redshifts.

  12. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo, Billy W

    2016-07-15

    The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2(TM) multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeam(TM) STx with HD 120(TM) MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeam(TM) STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Clinically acceptable plans were created with all three

  13. Stereotactic Arrhythmia Radioablation (STAR) of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Treatment Planning Study

    PubMed Central

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Soltys, Scott G; Zei, Paul; Lo, Anthony; Gardner, Edward A; Maguire, Patrick J; Loo Jr., Billy W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The first stereotactic arrhythmia radioablation (STAR) of ventricular tachycardia (VT) was delivered at Stanford on a robotic radiosurgery system (CyberKnife® G4) in 2012. The results warranted further investigation of this treatment. Here we compare dosimetrically three possible treatment delivery platforms for STAR. Methods The anatomy and target volume of the first treated patient were used for this study. A dose of 25 Gy in one fraction was prescribed to the planning target volume (PTV). Treatment plans were created on three treatment platforms: CyberKnife® G4 system with Iris collimator (Multiplan, V. 4.6)(Plan #1), CyberKnife® M6 system with InCise 2TM multileaf collimator (Multiplan V. 5.3)(Plan #2) and Varian TrueBeamTM STx with HD 120TM MLC and 10MV flattening filter free (FFF) beam (Eclipse planning system, V.11) (Plan #3 coplanar and #4 noncoplanar VMAT plans). The four plans were compared by prescription isodose line, plan conformity index, dose gradient, as well as dose to the nearby critical structures. To assess the delivery efficiency, planned monitor units (MU) and estimated treatment time were evaluated. Results Plans #1-4 delivered 25 Gy to the PTV to the 75.0%, 83.0%, 84.3%, and 84.9% isodose lines and with conformity indices of 1.19, 1.16, 1.05, and 1.05, respectively. The dose gradients for plans #1-4 were 3.62, 3.42, 3.93, and 3.73 with the CyberKnife® MLC plan (Plan #2) the best, and the TrueBeamTM STx co-planar plan (Plan #3) the worst. The dose to nearby critical structures (lung, stomach, bowel, and esophagus) were all well within tolerance. The MUs for plans #1-4 were 27671, 16522, 6275, and 6004 for an estimated total-treatment-time/beam-delivery-time of 99/69, 65/35, 37/7, and 56/6 minutes, respectively, under the assumption of 30 minutes pretreatment setup time. For VMAT gated delivery, a 40% duty cycle, 2400MU/minute dose rate, and an extra 10 minutes per extra arc were assumed. Conclusion Clinically acceptable plans were

  14. Studies of circumstellar shells in AGB stars by multifrequency (sub)mm-VLBI observations of maser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomer, F.; Desmurs, J. F.; Bujarrabal, V.; Baudry, A.; de Vicente, P.; Soria-Ruiz, R.; Alcolea, J.; Diaz-Pulido, A.; Gómez, M.

    2017-03-01

    VLBI observations of maser emission are a basic tool to study the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) around evolved stars, mainly around AGB and post-AGB stars. The maser lines of water and silicon monoxide are particularly intense. They provide us with high spatial resolution data on the very inner CSEs around AGB stars, including the pulsating layers previous to grain formation and outer regions where the fast expansion characteristic of such envelopes is already present. The analysis of the pumping mechanism of SiO masers and of the physical conditions in the emitting clumps requires accurate maps of the various lines, which show different excitation requirements. A large observational effort is being done to obtain (quasi-)simultaneous multiline data at the highest spatial resolution, using VLBI techniques, which makes possible to compare the relative distribution of the maser lines. We present the state-of-the-art in the field, and discuss preliminary results of SiO masers observed with the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA) which provide a new view into the physics of these AGB envelopes. The participation of ALMA in these VLBI arrays will boost the study of these masers, at higher frequencies.

  15. Study of Dark-matter Admixed Neutron Stars Using the Equation of State from the Rotational Curves of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Z.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we employ the dark matter equations of state (DMEOSs) obtained from the rotational curves of galaxies as well as the fermionic DMEOS with m=1.0 {GeV} to study the structure of dark-matter admixed neutron stars (DMANSs). Applying the equation of state in the Skyrme framework for the neutron matter (NM), we calculate the mass–radius relation for different DMANSs with various DMEOSs and central pressure of dark matter (DM) to NM ratios. Our results show that for some DMEOSs, the mass–radius relations are in agreement with new observations, e.g., EXO 1745-248, 4U 1608-52, and 4U 1820-30, which are inconsistent with normal neutron stars. We conclude that both DMEOSs and central pressure ratios of DM to NM affect the slope of the mass–radius relation of DMANSs. This is because of the interaction between DM and NM, which leads to gravitationally or self-bound DMANSs. We study the radius of the NM sphere as well as the radius of the DM halo for different DMANSs. The results confirm that, in some cases, a NM sphere with a small radius is surrounded by a halo of DM with a larger radius. Our calculations verify that, due to the different degrees of DM domination in DMANSs, with a value of the visible radius of a star two possible DMANSs with different masses can exist. The gravitational redshift is also calculated for DMANSs with different DMEOSs and central pressure ratios. The results explain that the existence of DM in a DMANS leads to higher values of gravitational redshift of the star.

  16. Recovery From Giant Eruptions in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, A.; Davidson, K.; Humphreys, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    We perform radiation hydrodynamic simulations to study how very massive stars recover from giant eruptions. The post eruption star experience strong mass loss due to strong winds, driven by radial pulsations in the star*s interior, that operate by the κ-mechanism. The mass loss history obtained in our simulations resembles η Car*s history.

  17. The Natural History of the Progression of Atrophy Secondary to Stargardt Disease (ProgStar) Studies: Design and Baseline Characteristics: ProgStar Report No. 1.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Rupert W; Ho, Alex; Muñoz, Beatriz; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sahel, José-Alain; Sunness, Janet S; Birch, David G; Bernstein, Paul S; Michaelides, Michel; Traboulsi, Elias I; Zrenner, Eberhart; Sadda, SriniVas; Ervin, Ann-Margret; West, Sheila; Scholl, Hendrik P N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the design and baseline characteristics of patients enrolled into 2 natural history studies of Stargardt disease (STGD1). Multicenter retrospective and prospective cohort studies. Three hundred sixty-five unique patients aged 6 years and older at baseline harboring disease-causing variants in the ABCA4 gene and with specified ocular lesions were enrolled from 9 centers in the United States and Europe. In the retrospective study, patients contributed medical record data from at least 2 and up to 4 visits for at least 1 examination modality: fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and/or microperimetry (MP). The total observational period was at least 2 years and up to 5 years between single visits. Demographic and visual acuity (VA) data also were obtained. In the prospective study, eligible patients were examined at baseline using a standard protocol, with 6-month follow-up visits planned for a 2-year period for serial Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected VA, SD OCT, FAF, and MP. Design and rationale of a multicenter study to determine the progression of STGD1 in 2 large retrospective and prospective international cohorts. Detailed baseline characteristics of both cohorts are presented, including demographics, and structural and functional retinal metrics. Into the retrospective study, 251 patients (458 eyes) were enrolled; mean follow-up ± standard deviation was 3.9±1.6 years. At baseline, 36% had no or mild VA loss, and 47% of the study eyes had areas of definitely decreased autofluorescence (DDAF) with an average lesion area of 2.5±2.9 mm(2) (range, 0.02-16.03 mm(2)). Two hundred fifty-nine patients (489 eyes) were enrolled in the prospective study. At baseline, 20% had no or mild VA loss, and 64% had areas of DDAF with an average lesion area of 4.0±4.4 mm(2) (range, 0.03-24.24 mm(2)). The mean retinal sensitivity with MP was 10.8±5.0 dB. The ProgStar cohorts have

  18. Catch a Star!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    ESO and the European Association for Astronomy Education are launching today the 2007 edition of 'Catch a Star!', their international astronomy competition for school students. Now in its fifth year, the competition offers students the chance to win a once-in-a-lifetime trip to ESO's flagship observatory in Chile, as well as many other prizes. Students are invited to 'become astronomers' and embark on a journey to explore the Universe. ESO PR Photo 42/06 The competition includes separate categories - 'Catch a Star Researchers' and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' - to ensure that every student, whatever their level, has the chance to enter and win exciting prizes. For the artistically minded, 'Catch a Star!' also includes an artwork competition, 'Catch a Star Artists'. "'Catch a Star!' offers a unique opportunity for students to learn more about astronomy and about the methods scientists use to discover new things about the Universe", said Douglas Pierce-Price, Education Officer at ESO. In teams, students choose an astronomical topic to study and produce an in-depth report. An important part of the project for 'Catch a Star Researchers' is to think about how ESO's telescopes or a telescope of the future can contribute to their investigations of the subject. As well as the top prize - a trip to one of ESO's observatory sites in Chile - visits to observatories in Germany, Austria and Spain, and many other prizes are also available to be won. 'Catch a Star Researchers' winners will be chosen by an international jury, and 'Catch a Star Adventurers' will be awarded further prizes by lottery. Entries for 'Catch a Star Artists' will be displayed on the web and winners chosen with the help of a public online vote. The first editions of 'Catch a Star!' have attracted several hundred entries from more than 25 countries worldwide. Previous winning entries have included "Star clusters and the structure of the Milky Way" (Budapest, Hungary), "Vega" (Acqui Terme, Italy) and "Venus

  19. Advances in Telescope and Detector Technologies - Impacts on the Study and Understanding of Binary Star and Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott; Devinney, Edward J.

    2012-04-01

    Current and planned telescope systems (both on the ground and in space) as well as new technologies will be discussed with emphasis on their impact on the studies of binary star and exoplanet systems. Although no telescopes or space missions are primarily designed to study binary stars (what a pity!), several are available (or will be shortly) to study exoplanet systems. Nonetheless those telescopes and instruments can also be powerful tools for studying binary and variable stars. For example, early microlensing missions (mid-1990s) such as EROS, MACHO and OGLE were initially designed for probing dark matter in the halos of galaxies but, serendipitously, these programs turned out to be a bonanza for the studies of eclipsing binaries and variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds and in the Galactic Bulge. A more recent example of this kind of serendipity is the Kepler Mission. Although Kepler was designed to discover exoplanet transits (and so far has been very successful, returning many planetary candidates), Kepler is turning out to be a ``stealth'' stellar astrophysics mission returning fundamentally important and new information on eclipsing binaries, variable stars and, in particular, providing a treasure trove of data of all types of pulsating stars suitable for detailed Asteroseismology studies. With this in mind, current and planned telescopes and networks, new instruments and techniques (including interferometers) are discussed that can play important roles in our understanding of both binary star and exoplanet systems. Recent advances in detectors (e.g. laser frequency comb spectrographs), telescope networks (both small and large - e.g. Super-WASP, HAT-net, RoboNet, Las Combres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network), wide field (panoramic) telescope systems (e.g. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and Pan-Starrs), huge telescopes (e.g. the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the Overwhelming Large Telescope (OWL) and the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT

  20. STAR in CTO PCI: When is STAR not a star?

    PubMed

    Hira, Ravi S; Dean, Larry S

    2016-04-01

    Subintimal tracking and reentry (STAR) has been used as a bailout strategy and involves an uncontrolled dissection and recanalization into the distal lumen to reestablish vessel patency. In the current study, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow < 3 was the only variable which they found to be significantly associated with restenosis and reocclusion after stent placement. It may be reasonable to consider second generation drug eluting stent placement in patients receiving STAR that have TIMI 3 flow, however, this should only be done if there is no compromise of major side branches. If unsure, we recommend to perform balloon angioplasty without stenting. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Abhishek; Braaten, Eric; Zhang, Hong

    2016-03-01

    If the dark matter consists of axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound Bose-Einstein condensates of axions. In the previously known axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. If the axion mass energy is mc2 =10-4 eV, these dilute axion stars have a maximum mass of about 10-14M⊙ . We point out that there are also dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion condensate. We study axion stars using the leading term in a systematically improvable approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in which the kinetic pressure is neglected, we find a sequence of new branches of axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field interaction energy of the axion condensate. If mc2 =10-4 4 eV, the first branch of these dense axion stars has mass ranging from about 10-11M⊙ toabout M⊙.

  2. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  3. Dense Axion Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-01

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10-14M⊙ if the axion mass is 10-4 eV . We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10-20M⊙ to about M⊙ . If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  4. Differential rotation in rapidly rotating early-type stars. I. Motivations for combined spectroscopic and interferometric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Delaa, O.; Stee, P.; Mourard, D.; Cidale, L.; Martayan, C.; Georgy, C.; Ekström, S.

    2011-02-01

    Context. Since the external regions of the envelopes of rapidly rotating early-type stars are unstable to convection, a coupling may exist between the convection and the internal rotation. Aims: We explore what can be learned from spectroscopic and interferometric observations about the properties of the rotation law in the external layers of these objects. Methods: Using simple relations between the entropy and specific rotational quantities, some of which are found to be efficient at accounting for the solar differential rotation in the convective region, we derived analytical solutions that represent possible differential rotations in the envelope of early-type stars. A surface latitudinal differential rotation may not only be an external imprint of the inner rotation, but induces changes in the stellar geometry, the gravitational darkening, the aspect of spectral line profiles, and the emitted spectral energy distribution. Results: By studying the equation of the surface of stars with non-conservative rotation laws, we conclude that objects undergo geometrical deformations that are a function of the latitudinal differential rotation able to be scrutinized both spectroscopically and by interferometry. The combination of Fourier analysis of spectral lines with model atmospheres provides independent estimates of the surface latitudinal differential rotation and the inclination angle. Models of stars at different evolutionary stages rotating with internal conservative rotation laws were calculated to show that the Roche approximation can be safely used to account for the gravitational potential. The surface temperature gradient in rapid rotators induce an acceleration to the surface angular velocity. Although a non-zero differential rotation parameter may indicate that the rotation is neither rigid nor shellular underneath the stellar surface, still further information, perhaps non-radial pulsations, is needed to determine its characteristics as a function of depth

  5. Argus: a new 16-pixel millimeter-wave spectroscopic instrument for star formation studies at the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol; Frayer, David T.; Church, Sarah E.; Sieth, Matthew; Harris, Andrew I.; Cleary, Kieran; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Goldsmith, Paul; Chung, Dongwoo; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; gaier, todd; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Samoska, Lorene

    2017-01-01

    Argus is a new 16-pixel W-band focal plane array for millimeter spectroscopy at the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Built by a consortium led by Sarah Church at Stanford, this new instrument provides fast astronomical imaging over the 75-116 GHz band and at high spatial resolution. The frequency range covered by Argus is of particular interest for star formation studies and will be excellent at probing cold, dense cores within star-forming regions, along with constraining the dynamics of filamentary structures withing giant molecular cloud complexes. In particular, the 3mm band covers a large number of important spectral lines, including CO (J=1-0) and its isotopologues, as well as HCO+, H13CO+, SiO, N2H+, HCN and HNC. These molecular transitions trace a combination of dense cold gas, shocked emission from jets and outflows as well as the signatures of infall, all of which are imperative constituents in the early stages of star formation. Argus on the GBT will provide the high sensitivity of a filled aperture along with a high angular resolution of 6-10", this resolution is well-matched to the mid- and far-infrared observations from the Spitzer, SOFIA, and Herschel telescopes. We report on the current status of Argus and present recent commissioning and early science highlights from Argus of 12CO, 13CO and HCO+ emission towards the massive star forming region, DR 21. Argus, currently under commissioning, is expected to be in full science mode in the winter semester of 2016.

  6. Structure–function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins. PMID:23630077

  7. Structure-function studies of STAR family Quaking proteins bound to their in vivo RNA target sites

    SciTech Connect

    Teplova, Marianna; Hafner, Markus; Teplov, Dmitri; Essig, Katharina; Tuschl, Thomas; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2013-09-27

    Mammalian Quaking (QKI) and its Caenorhabditis elegans homolog, GLD-1 (defective in germ line development), are evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding proteins, which post-transcriptionally regulate target genes essential for developmental processes and myelination. We present X-ray structures of the STAR (signal transduction and activation of RNA) domain, composed of Qua1, K homology (KH), and Qua2 motifs of QKI and GLD-1 bound to high-affinity in vivo RNA targets containing YUAAY RNA recognition elements (RREs). The KH and Qua2 motifs of the STAR domain synergize to specifically interact with bases and sugar-phosphate backbones of the bound RRE. Qua1-mediated homodimerization generates a scaffold that enables concurrent recognition of two RREs, thereby plausibly targeting tandem RREs present in many QKI-targeted transcripts. Structure-guided mutations reduced QKI RNA-binding affinity in vitro and in vivo, and expression of QKI mutants in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) significantly decreased the abundance of QKI target mRNAs. Overall, our studies define principles underlying RNA target selection by STAR homodimers and provide insights into the post-transcriptional regulatory function of mammalian QKI proteins.

  8. VLTI/AMBER Studies of the Atmospheric Structure and Fundamental Parameters of Red Giant and Supergiant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo-Torres, B.; Wittkowski, M.; Marcaide, J. M.; Abellan, F. J.; Chiavassa, A.; Fabregat, J.; Freytag, B.; Guirado, J. C.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Marti-Vidal, I.; Quirrenbach, A.; Scholz, M.; Wood, P. R.

    2015-08-01

    We present recent near-IR interferometric studies of red giant and supergiant stars, which are aimed at obtaining information on the structure of the atmospheric layers and constraining the fundamental parameters of these objects. The observed visibilities of six red supergiants (RSGs), and also of one of the five red giants observed, indicate large extensions of the molecular layers, as previously observed for Mira stars. These extensions are not predicted by hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmospheres, hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations of stellar convection, or self-excited pulsation models. All these models based on parameters of RSGs lead to atmospheric structures that are too compact compared to our observations. We discuss how alternative processes might explain the atmospheric extensions for these objects. As the continuum appears to be largely free of contamination by molecular layers, we can estimate reliable Rosseland angular radii for our stars. Together with distances and bolometric fluxes, we estimate the effective temperatures and luminosities of our targets, locate them in the HR diagram, and compare their positions to recent evolutionary tracks.

  9. X-Shooter study of accretion in ρ-Ophiucus: very low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manara, C. F.; Testi, L.; Natta, A.; Alcalá, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    We present new VLT/X-Shooter optical and near-infrared spectra of a sample of 17 candidate young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs located in the ρ-Ophiucus cluster. We derived the spectral type and extinction for all the targets, and then we determined their physical parameters. All the objects but one have M⋆≲0.6 M⊙, and eight have mass below or close to the hydrogen-burning limit. Using the intensity of various permitted emission lines present in their spectra, we determined the accretion luminosity and mass accretion rates (Ṁacc) for all the objects. When compared with previous works targeting the same sample, we find that, in general, these objects are not as strongly accreting as previously reported, and we suggest that the reason is our more accurate estimate of the photospheric parameters. We also compare our findings with recent works in other slightly older star-forming regions, such as Lupus, to investigate possible differences in the accretion properties, but we find that the accretion properties for our targets have the same dependence on the stellar and substellar parameters as in the other regions. This leads us to conclude that we do not find evidence for a different dependence of Ṁacc with M⋆ when comparing low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Moreover, we find a similar small (≲1 dex) scatter in the Ṁacc-M⋆ relation as in some of our recent works in other star-forming regions, and no significant differences in Ṁacc due to different ages or properties of the regions. The latter result suffers, however, from low statistics and sample selection biases in the current studies. The small scatter in the Ṁacc-M⋆ correlation confirms that mass accretion rate measurements in the literature based on uncertain photospheric parameters and single accretion indicators, such as the Hα width, can lead to a scatter that is unphysically large. Our studies show that only broadband spectroscopic surveys coupled with a detailed analysis of the

  10. A multifrequency study of star formation in the blue compact dwarf galaxy IZw 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viallefond, F.; Thuan, T. X.

    1983-01-01

    Radio, near IR, optical, and UV observations of I Zw 36 = Mrk 209 = Haro 29 are reported. The H I distribution shows a core-halo structure, the core containing half of the mass and showing systematic motions; the halo is diffuse and contains several H I clumps. The visible star formation region is associated with the core but is shifted slightly with respect to the H I peak column density; and the virial mass is 5 to 7 times the H I mass. Star formation models with an initial mass function of slope 1.5 (the Salpeter value being 1.35) and a burst age or duration of a few million years fit well the optical spectrophotometric measurements. The data also suggest that the column density of molecular hydrogen in I Zw 36 is 6 + or - 3 times that of the neutral hydrogen, about the right amount to account for the virial mass.

  11. A multifrequency study of star formation in the blue compact dwarf galaxy IZw 36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viallefond, F.; Thuan, T. X.

    1983-01-01

    Radio, near IR, optical, and UV observations of I Zw 36 = Mrk 209 = Haro 29 are reported. The H I distribution shows a core-halo structure, the core containing half of the mass and showing systematic motions; the halo is diffuse and contains several H I clumps. The visible star formation region is associated with the core but is shifted slightly with respect to the H I peak column density; and the virial mass is 5 to 7 times the H I mass. Star formation models with an initial mass function of slope 1.5 (the Salpeter value being 1.35) and a burst age or duration of a few million years fit well the optical spectrophotometric measurements. The data also suggest that the column density of molecular hydrogen in I Zw 36 is 6 + or - 3 times that of the neutral hydrogen, about the right amount to account for the virial mass.

  12. Are Field OB Stars Alone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oey, Sally

    2005-07-01

    This SNAP program offers an inexpensive, simple program to search for low-mass companions of field OB stars. Do field OB stars exist in true isolation, as suggested by a recent Galactic study, or are they the tip of the iceberg on a small cluster of low-mass stars as predicted by the cluster mass function and stellar IMF? Short ACS/WFC V and I observations proposed here may easily resolve this issue for field OB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Truly isolated OB stars represent a theoretical challenge and variation from clusters, in mode of star formation, and have important consequences for our understanding of the field stellar population in galaxies. Small clusters around the field OB stars, on the other hand, may confirm the universality of the stellar clustering law and IMF.

  13. A Spectroscopic Study of the Secondary Star of BM Ori: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitrichenko, E. A.; Klochkova, V. G.

    2001-05-01

    Two CCD spectra of the star BM Ori were obtained with the echelle spectrograph of the 6-m telescope. In one of the spectra, a large proportion of lines are distorted by emission. The emission component is blueshifted by 50 km/s, suggesting hot-gas outflow from the atmosphere. The equivalent-width ratio of measured lines in the spectra outside and during eclipse is consistent with the assumption that ~2/3 of the primary star's area is obscured during eclipse, as follows from light curves. Measured line equivalent widths were used to estimate atmospheric parameters of the secondary star, T_eff = 7300 K, log g = 5.2, and microturbulence xi_t = 6 km/s, and to determine its chemical composition. The C, Na, Al, Si, S, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Zn abundances are solar, within the error limits. Li, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Y are overabundant, while Mg, Cu, and Ba are underabundant. In general, the secondary is similar in chemical composition to the star V1016 Ori. Based on the secondary's mass determined by solving the radial-velocity curve and on log g estimated spectroscopically from iron ionization equilibrium, we calculated its photospheric radius, R_2 = 0.5 R_solar. However, the spectroscopic log g = 5.2 disagrees with log g = 3.5 calculated from the luminosity and effective temperature and with log g = 3.0 calculated from light and radial-velocity curves. If the secondary's photospheric radius is indeed small, this argues for the hypothesis that the eclipsing body is a dust envelope. The radial velocities measured from the two spectra are systematically higher than those calculated from the radial-velocity curve by +34 and +24 km/s. It is likely that the secondary's atmosphere occasionally shrinks.

  14. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Star Polymeric Molecules with Diblock Arms, a Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Swope, William C; Carr, Amber C; Parker, Amanda J; Sly, Joseph; Miller, Robert D; Rice, Julia E

    2012-10-09

    We have performed all atom explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations of three different star polymeric systems in water, each star molecule consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core. The arms of each system consist of an inner "hydrophobic" block (either polylactide, polyvalerolactone, or polyethylene) and an outer hydrophilic block (polyethylene oxide, PEO). These models exhibit unusual structure very close to the core (clearly an artifact of our model) but which we believe becomes "normal" or bulk-like at relatively short distances from this core. We report on a number of temperature-dependent thermodynamic (structural/energetic) properties as well as kinetic properties. Our observations suggest that under physiological conditions, the hydrophobic regions of these systems may be solid and glassy, with only rare and shallow penetration by water, and that a sharp boundary exists between the hydrophobic cores and either the PEO or water. The PEO in these models is seen to be fully water-solvated at low temperatures but tends to phase separate from water as the temperature is increased, reminiscent of a lower critical solution temperature exhibited by PEO-water mixtures. Water penetration concentration and depth is composition and temperature dependent with greater water penetration for the most ester-rich star polymer.

  15. The Star Formation Observatory (SFO) mission to study cosmic origins near and far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Cooke, Brian; Nikzad, Shouleh; Siegmund, Oswald; Woodruff, Robert; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Debbie; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier

    2008-07-01

    The Star Formation Observatory (SFO) is a 1.65m space telescope that addresses pivotal components in the 2007 NASA Science Plan, with a primary focus on Cosmic Origins. The design under consideration provides 100 times greater imaging efficiency and >10 times greater spectroscopic efficiency below 115 nm than existed on previous missions. The mission has a well-defined Origins scientific program at its heart: a statistically significant survey of local, intermediate, and high-redshift sites and indicators of star formation, to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program relies on focused capabilities unique to space and that no other planned NASA mission will provide: near- UV/visible (20-1100 nm) wide-field, diffraction-limited imaging; and high-efficiency, low- and high- resolution (R~40,000) UV (100-175 nm) spectroscopy using far-UV optimized coatings and recent advances in Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detector technology. The Observatory imager has a field of view in excess of 17' × 17' (>250 arcmin2) and uses a dichroic to create optimized UV/blue and red/near-IR channels for simultaneous observations, employing detectors that offer substantial quantum efficiency gains and that suffer lower losses due to cosmic rays.

  16. A hard X-ray study of the Jovian magnetosphere with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles James; Nynka, Melania; Grefenstette, Brian

    2016-01-01

    We report the first high-resolution hard X-ray observation of Jupiter with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in February 2015. This observation was targeted to probing a high energy extension of the X-ray continuum component detected from the Jovian aurorae by XMM-Newton, while the previous in-situ observation by the Ulysses failed to detect hard X-ray emission in the 27-48 keV band. NuSTAR has the unique capabilities of spatially resolving the two polar regions above 10 keV and detecting a spectral break which is expected between the XMM-Newton and Ulysses energy band. With 100 ksec exposure, our detection of X-ray emission from the south pole was only marginal possibly due to time variation of the auroral X-ray emission, while the north pole was hidden during our observation. In this poster, we present our imaging and spectral analysis, then discuss follow-up deeper NuSTAR observations.

  17. Dynamical mass ejection from binary neutron star mergers: Radiation-hydrodynamics study in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kiuchi, Kenta; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2015-03-01

    We perform radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of binary neutron-star mergers in numerical relativity on the Japanese "K" supercomputer, taking into account neutrino cooling and heating by an updated leakage-plus-transfer scheme for the first time. Neutron stars are modeled by three modern finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) developed by Hempel and his collaborators. We find that the properties of the dynamical ejecta of the merger such as total mass, average electron fraction, and thermal energy depend strongly on the EOS. Only for a soft EOS (the so-called SFHo), the ejecta mass exceeds 0.01 M⊙ . In this case, the distribution of the electron fraction of the ejecta becomes broad due to the shock heating during the merger. These properties are well-suited for the production of the solar-like r -process abundance. For the other stiff EOS (DD2 and TM1), for which a long-lived massive neutron star is formed after the merger, the ejecta mass is smaller than 0.01 M⊙, although broad electron-fraction distributions are achieved by the positron capture and the neutrino heating.

  18. Tabby's Star (Illustration)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-04

    This illustration depicts a hypothetical uneven ring of dust orbiting KIC 8462852, also known as Boyajian's Star or Tabby's Star. Astronomers have found the dimming of the star over long periods appears to be weaker at longer infrared wavelengths of light and stronger at shorter ultraviolet wavelengths. Such reddening is characteristic of dust particles and inconsistent with more fanciful "alien megastructure" concepts, which would evenly dim all wavelengths of light. By studying observations from NASA's Spitzer and Swift telescopes, as well as the Belgian AstroLAB IRIS observatory, the researchers have been able to better constrain the size of the dust particles. This places them within the range found in dust disks orbiting stars, and larger than the particles typically found in interstellar dust. The system is portrayed with a couple of comets, consistent with previous studies that have found evidence for cometary activity within the system. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22081

  19. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  20. Cooling of neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pethick, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    It is at present impossible to predict the interior constitution of neutron stars based on theory and results from laboratory studies. It has been proposed that it is possible to obtain information on neutron star interiors by studying thermal radiation from their surfaces, because neutrino emission rates, and hence the temperature of the central part of a neutron star, depend on the properties of dense matter. The theory predicts that neutron stars cool relatively slowly if their cores are made up of nucleons, and cool faster if the matter is in an exotic state, such as a pion condensate, a kaon condensate, or quark matter. This view has recently been questioned by the discovery of a number of other processes that could lead to copious neutrino emission and rapid cooling.

  1. Magnetospheres of massive stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küker, M.

    We study the interaction of line-driven winds from massive stars with the magnetic field rooted in these stars by carrying out numerical simulations using the Nirvana MHD code in 2D in spherical polar coordinates. The code's adaptive mesh refinement feature allows high spatial resolution across the whole simulation box. We study both O and Wolf-Rayet stars for a range of magnetic field strengths from weak to strong as measured by the confinement parameter. For weak fields our simulations show that the initially dipolar field opens up far away from the star and a thin disk-like structure forms in the equatorial plane of the magnetic field. For stronger fields the disk is disrupted close to the stellar surface and closed field lines persist at low latitudes. For very strong fields a pronounced magnetosphere forms where the gas is forced to move along the field lines and eventually falls back to the stellar surface.

  2. Star formation properties in barred galaxies. III. Statistical study of bar-driven secular evolution using a sample of nearby barred spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-Min; Wu, Hong; Cao, Chen E-mail: hwu@bao.ac.cn

    2015-01-01

    Stellar bars are important internal drivers of secular evolution in disk galaxies. Using a sample of nearby spiral galaxies with weak and strong bars, we explore the relationships between the star formation feature and stellar bars in galaxies. We find that galaxies with weak bars tend coincide with low concentrical star formation activity, while those with strong bars show a large scatter in the distribution of star formation activity. We find enhanced star formation activity in bulges toward stronger bars, although not predominantly, consistent with previous studies. Our results suggest that different stages of the secular process and many other factors may contribute to the complexity of the secular evolution. In addition, barred galaxies with intense star formation in bars tend to have active star formation in their bulges and disks, and bulges have higher star formation densities than bars and disks, indicating the evolutionary effects of bars. We then derived a possible criterion to quantify the different stages of the bar-driven physical process, while future work is needed because of the uncertainties.

  3. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES IN FILAMENTS AND THE FIELD AT z ∼ 0.5: EVIDENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRON DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Shivaei, Irene; Sobral, David; Nayyeri, Hooshang

    2015-12-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z ∼ 0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (∼8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that, on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal enriched (∼0.1–0.15 dex), possibly owing to the inflow of the already-enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ∼17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  4. Spectroscopic Study of Star-forming Galaxies in Filaments and the Field at z~0.5: Evidence for Environmental Dependence of Electron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Sobral, David; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Shivaei, Irene

    2016-01-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z~0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (~ 8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal-enriched (~ 0.1-0.15 dex), possibly due to the inflow of the already enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ~17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  5. Spectroscopic Study of Star-forming Galaxies in Filaments and the Field at z ~ 0.5: Evidence for Environmental Dependence of Electron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvish, Behnam; Mobasher, Bahram; Sobral, David; Hemmati, Shoubaneh; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Shivaei, Irene

    2015-12-01

    We study the physical properties of a spectroscopic sample of 28 star-forming galaxies in a large filamentary structure in the COSMOS field at z ˜ 0.53, with spectroscopic data taken with the Keck/DEIMOS spectrograph, and compare them with a control sample of 30 field galaxies. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of a large galaxy filament (˜8 Mpc), along which five confirmed X-ray groups exist. We show that within the uncertainties, the ionization parameter, equivalent width (EW), EW versus specific star-formation rate (sSFR) relation, EW versus stellar mass relation, line-of-sight velocity dispersion, dynamical mass, and stellar-to-dynamical mass ratio are similar for filament and field star-forming galaxies. However, we show that, on average, filament star-forming galaxies are more metal enriched (˜0.1-0.15 dex), possibly owing to the inflow of the already-enriched intrafilamentary gas into filament galaxies. Moreover, we show that electron densities are significantly lower (a factor of ˜17) in filament star-forming systems compared to those in the field, possibly because of a longer star-formation timescale for filament star-forming galaxies. Our results highlight the potential pre-processing role of galaxy filaments and intermediate-density environments on the evolution of galaxies, which has been highly underestimated.

  6. Study of the inner dust envelope and stellar photosphere of the AGB star R Doradus using SPHERE/ZIMPOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouri, T.; Maercker, M.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Kervella, P.; de Koter, A.; Ginski, C.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; O'Gorman, E.; Schmid, H.-M.; Lombaert, R.; Lagadec, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. On the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) low- and intermediate-mass stars eject a large fraction of their envelope, but the mechanism driving these outflows is still poorly understood. For oxygen-rich AGB stars, the wind is thought to be driven by radiation pressure caused by scattering of radiation off dust grains. Aims: We study the photosphere, the warm molecular layer, and the inner wind of the close-by oxygen-rich AGB star R Doradus. We focus on investigating the spatial distribution of the dust grains that scatter light and whether these grains can be responsible for driving the outflow of this star. Methods: We use high-angular-resolution images obtained with SPHERE/ZIMPOL to study R Dor and its inner envelope in a novel way. We present observations in filters V, cntHα, and cnt820 and investigate the surface brightness distribution of the star and of the polarised light produced in the inner envelope. Thanks to second-epoch observations in cntHα, we are able to see variability on the stellar photosphere. We study the polarised-light data using a continuum-radiative-transfer code that accounts for direction-dependent scattering of photons off dust grains. Results: We find that in the first epoch the surface brightness of R Dor is asymmetric in V and cntHα, the filters where molecular opacity is stronger, while in cnt820 the surface brightness is closer to being axisymmetric. The second-epoch observations in cntHα show that the morphology of R Dor has changed completely in a timespan of 48 days to a more axisymmetric and compact configuration. This variable morphology is probably linked to changes in the opacity provided by TiO molecules in the extended atmosphere. The observations show polarised light coming from a region around the central star. The inner radius of the region from where polarised light is seen varies only by a small amount with azimuth. The value of the polarised intensity, however, varies by between a factor of 2.3 and 3.7 with

  7. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  8. Galactic massive star forming regions near and far: a (sub)millimeter study of the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 and W49A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tzu-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Massive stars play an important role in shaping the structure of galaxies due to the large energy output during their lifetime. However, because of the short evolutionary time scales, the large extinction toward their birth places, and the large distance of massive stars, our understanding of their formation is still sketchy. Hence, the observations of two well-known massive star forming regions in our Galaxy (W49A at 11.4 kpc and Orion Molecular Cloud 1 at 414 pc) were carried out using the IRAM 30 m and APEX telescopes, including large-scale mappings of various molecular line emission, such as CO isotopologues, HCN, HCO+, and SiO. The results of W49A show that its starburst was triggered by expanding shells, causing fragmentation that lead to the formation of massive stars. The cause of the shell expansion is not clear, but likely due to the stellar feedbacks from a first generation of young massive stars by strong stellar winds and ultraviolet radiation, or the interaction between stars in a cluster, which is possibly related to the large-scale gas ejections found in the W49 complex with a total kinetic energy of few times 1050 erg. Apart from W49A, the study in Orion Molecular Cloud 1 reveals a more detailed picture of young massive stars strongly interacting with their local environment. The highly excited CO emission in Orion Molecular Cloud 1 shows two main components: one is the north-south dense ridge where two active star-forming regions (Orion BN/KL and Orion South) are located, and the other one consists of photon-dominated regions (e.g., the Orion Bar and Orion East) spread over the whole area, where gas and dust are heated by ultraviolet photons from the Trapezium cluster. In addition, several outflows are detected in the higher-J transitions of CO, which indicates the important role of shock heating associated with star-forming activities.

  9. Fearsome Flashes: A Study Of The Evolution Of Flaring Rates In Cool Stars Using Kepler Cluster Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven

    Strong solar flares can damage power grids, satellites, interrupt communications and GPS information, and threaten astronauts and high latitude air travelers. Despite the potential cost, their frequency is poorly determined. Beyond purely current terrestrial concerns, how the rate of large flares (and associated coronal mass ejections [CMEs], high-energy particle fluxes and far UV emission) varies over the stellar lifetime holds considerable astrophysical interest. These include: the contributions of flares to coronal energy budgets; the importance of flares and CMEs to terrestrial and exoplanet atmospheric and biological evolution; and importance of CME mass loss for angular momentum evolution. We will explore the rate of strong flares and its variation with stellar age, mass and rotation by studying Kepler data of cool stars in two open clusters NGC 6811 (age ~ 1 Gyr) and NGC 6819 (~2.5 Gyr). We will use two flare analysis methods to build white-light flare distributions for cluster stars. One subtracts a low-pass filtered version of the data and analyzes the residue for positive flux deviations, the other does a statistical analysis of the flux deviations vs. time lags compared with a model. For near- solar stars, a known solar relation can then be used to estimate X-ray production by the white-light flares. For stars much hotter or cooler or with significantly different chromospheric density, we will use particle code flare models including bombardment effects to estimate how the X-ray to white light scaling changes. With the X-ray values, we can estimate far UV fluxes and CME rates, building a picture of the flare effects; with the two cluster ages, we can make a first estimate of the solar rate (by projecting to the Sun's age) and begin to build up an understanding of flare rate evolution with mass and age. Our proposal falls squarely in the "Stellar Astrophysics and Exoplanets" research area, and is relevant to NASA astrophysics goals in promoting better

  10. Integral field spectroscopy of local LCBGs: NGC 7673, a case study. Physical properties of star-forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Morales, A.; Gallego, J.; Pérez-Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Muñoz-Mateos, J. C.; Zamorano, J.; Sánchez, S. F.

    2011-03-01

    Physical properties of the star-forming regions in the local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy (LCBG) NGC 7673 are studied in detail using 3D spectroscopic data taken with the PMAS fibre pack (PPAK) integral field unit at the 3.5-m telescope in the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA). We derive integrated and spatially resolved properties such as extinction, star formation rate (SFR) and metallicity for this galaxy. Our data show an extinction map with maximum values located at the position of the main clumps of star formation showing small spatial variations [E(B-V)t= 0.12-0.21 mag]. We derive an Hα-based SFR for this galaxy of 6.2 ± 0.8 M⊙ yr-1 in agreement with the SFR derived from infrared and radio continuum fluxes. The star formation is located mainly in clumps A, B, C and F. Different properties measured in clump B make this region peculiar. We find the highest Hα luminosity with an SFR surface density of 0.5 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 in this clump. In our previous work, the kinematic analysis for this galaxy shows an asymmetrical ionized gas velocity field with a kinematic decoupled component located at the position of clump B. This region shows the absence of strong absorption features and the presence of a Wolf-Rayet stellar population indicating that this is a young burst of massive stars. Furthermore, we estimate a gas metallicity of 12 + log(O/H) = 8.20 ± 0.15 (0.32 solar) for the integrated galaxy using the R23 index. The values derived for the different clumps with this method show small metallicity variations in this galaxy, with values in the range 8.12 (for clump A) to 8.23 (for clump B) for 12 + log(O/H). The analysis of the emission-line ratios discards the presence of any active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity or shocks as the ionization source in this galaxy. Between the possible mechanisms to explain the starburst activity in this galaxy, our 3D spectroscopic data support the scenario of an on-going interaction with the possibility for clump B

  11. Optical and X-ray studies of chromospherically active stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559 and LO Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely FR Cnc (= BD +16 degrees 1753), HD 95559 and LO Peg (=BD +22 degrees 4409), including newly obtained optical photometry, (for FR Cnc) low-resolution optical spectroscopy, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out during the years 2001 - 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.826685 +/- 0.000034 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 years respectively are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 years. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca I1 H and K, H(sub beta) and H(sub alpha) emission features indicative of high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H(sub alpha) to H(sub beta), EH(sub alpha)/EH(sub beta), suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using 2MASS data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out by with the ROSAT observatory. The best fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with sub-solar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to

  12. Star Formation in the Filamentary Dark Cloud GF-9: a Multi-Wavelength Intra-Cloud Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, David Robert

    Filamentary dark clouds (FDCs) are a subclass of small molecular clouds containing small numbers of somewhat regularly spaced dense cores connected by lower density gas and dust. Most of the previous work performed on FDCs has concerned the star formation properties of individual dense cores within the FDCs and has not concerned the FDCs as entities of their own. As a result little is known about the general star formation properties of FDCs. The primary question addressed in this work is 'Within filamentary dark clouds, how does the star formation process within a core region compare to that within a filamentary region?' In order to address the above question, a multi-wavelength observational comparative study has been performed upon a representative dense core (hereafter, GF9-Core) and filamentary region (hereafter, GF9-Fila) within the FDC GF-9 (LDN 1082). At the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory, the core and filamentary region were observed in the rotational transitions of 12CO/ (J=1/to0),/ 13CO/ (J=1/to0)/ and/ CS/ (J=2/to1) covering a region of 10' x 8'. The temperature, density and kinematic structures of the two regions were deduced from the radio imaging spectroscopy data and were used to estimate the energy balance of the regions. We also obtained 70, 100, 135 and 200 μm images from the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) covering approximately 12' x 9' which were used to investigate the temperature and density distributions of the dust within the two regions. Finally, at the Wyoming Infrared Observatory using the Aerospace Corporation NICMOS3 camera, the core and filament were imaged in the near-infrared broadband filters J, H, and K-short covering a slightly smaller region of 7' x 7'. The near-infrared survey data were used to search for embedded Class I and Class II protostars and to investigate the density distribution of the dust. We have found that the evolutionary processes of the core region and the filament region proceed along similar

  13. Optical and X-ray studies of chromospherically active stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559 and LO Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely FR Cnc (= BD +16 degrees 1753), HD 95559 and LO Peg (=BD +22 degrees 4409), including newly obtained optical photometry, (for FR Cnc) low-resolution optical spectroscopy, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out during the years 2001 - 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.826685 +/- 0.000034 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 years respectively are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 years. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca I1 H and K, H(sub beta) and H(sub alpha) emission features indicative of high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H(sub alpha) to H(sub beta), EH(sub alpha)/EH(sub beta), suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using 2MASS data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out by with the ROSAT observatory. The best fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with sub-solar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to

  14. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J. K.

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  15. R Coronae Borealis stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuljan, Ljiljana; Cottrell, Peter L.

    2004-05-01

    In the last ten years a significant step forward has been made toward a better understanding of the evolutionary status and unusual nature of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, a rare class of hydrogen-poor and carbon-rich variable stars. More detailed abundance analyses of the majority of RCB stars, and objects related to them, have become available in the last couple of years. In addition to this, recent theoretical studies of the most popular evolutionary models (`Double Degenerate' and `Final Flash')provide a new insight into the origin of these stars. Regarding the nature of the RCB declines, more observations from the light maxima and the decline phase are now available, including more data from space. However, the characteristics of the various emission lines appearing during the RCB declines, and the nature of their emitting regions, are still not entirely understood.

  16. Winds from cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1995-01-01

    Spectral observations of cool stars enable study of the presence and character of winds and the mass loss process in objects with effective temperatures, gravities, and atmospheric compositions which differ from that of the Sun. A wealth of recent spectroscopic measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer complement high resolution ground-based measures in the optical and infrared spectral regions. Such observations when combined with realistic semi-empirical atmospheric modeling allow us to estimate the physical conditions in the atmospheres and winds of many classes of cool stars. Line profiles support turbulent heating and mass motions. In low gravity stars, evidence is found for relatively fast (approximately 200 km s(exp -1)), warm winds with rapid acceleration occurring in the chromosphere. In some cases outflows commensurate with stellar escape velocities are present. Our current understanding of cool star winds will be reviewed including the implications of stellar observations for identification of atmospheric heating and acceleration processes.

  17. Planets Around Neutron Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolszczan, Alexander; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Anderson, Stuart B.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this proposal was to continue investigations of neutron star planetary systems in an effort to describe and understand their origin, orbital dynamics, basic physical properties and their relationship to planets around normal stars. This research represents an important element of the process of constraining the physics of planet formation around various types of stars. The research goals of this project included long-term timing measurements of the planets pulsar, PSR B1257+12, to search for more planets around it and to study the dynamics of the whole system, and sensitive searches for millisecond pulsars to detect further examples of old, rapidly spinning neutron stars with planetary systems. The instrumentation used in our project included the 305-m Arecibo antenna with the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the 100-m Green Bank Telescope with the Berkeley- Caltech Pulsar Machine (BCPM), and the 100-m Effelsberg and 64-m Parkes telescopes equipped with the observatory supplied backend hardware.

  18. Conformally symmetric relativistic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Farook; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Sardar, Iftikar Hossain; Chakraborty, Koushik

    2017-03-01

    We investigate whether compact stars having Tolman-like interior geometry admit conformal symmetry. Taking anisotropic pressure along the two principal directions within the compact object, we obtain physically relevant quantities such as transverse and radial pressure, density and redshift function. We study the equation of state (EOS) for the matter distribution inside the star. From the relation between pressure and density function of the constituent matter, we explore the nature and properties of the interior matter. The redshift function and compactness parameter are found to be physically reasonable. The matter inside the star satisfies the null, weak and strong energy conditions. Finally, we compare the masses and radii predicted from the model with corresponding values in some observed stars.

  19. A messy star factory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-15

    This sprinkle of cosmic glitter is a blue compact dwarf galaxy known as Markarian 209. Galaxies of this type are blue-hued, compact in size, gas-rich, and low in heavy elements. They are often used by astronomers to study star formation, as their conditions are similar to those thought to exist in the early Universe. Markarian 209 in particular has been studied extensively. It is filled with diffuse gas and peppered with star-forming regions towards its core. This image captures it undergoing a particularly dramatic burst of star formation, visible as the lighter blue cloudy region towards the top right of the galaxy. This clump is filled with very young and hot newborn stars. This galaxy was initially thought to be a young galaxy undergoing its very first episode of star formation, but later research showed that Markarian 209 is actually very old, with an almost continuous history of forming new stars. It is thought to have never had a dormant period — a period during which no stars were formed — lasting longer than 100 million years. The dominant population of stars in Markarian 209 is still quite young, in stellar terms, with ages of under 3 million years. For comparison, the Sun is some 4.6 billion years old, and is roughly halfway through its expected lifespan. The observations used to make this image were taken using Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys, and span the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared parts of the spectrum. A scattering of other bright galaxies can be seen across the frame, including the bright golden oval that could, due to a trick of perspective, be mistaken as part of Markarian 209 but is in fact a background galaxy. A version of this image was entered into the Hubble's Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Nick Rose. Links: Nick Rose’s Hidden Treasures entry on Flickr

  20. A Study on the CO Isotopic Lines of the Star Forming Region AFGL 5157

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chun-hua; Yang, Ji; Lu, Deng-rong

    2014-01-01

    By the mapping observations simultaneously at the 12CO (J=1-0), 13CO (J=1-0), and C18O (J=1-0) lines on the area of 24’×24’ (12 pc×12 pc) of the star forming region AFGL 5157, we have obtained the distribution and averaged physical parameters for the respective 13CO and C18O cores of this molecu- lar cloud. At the edge of the molecular cloud, the isotopic abundance ratio is X [(13CO)/(C18O)] ≈ 10, close to the ratio of a giant molecular cloud. The viral masses of the 13CO and C18O cores are less than the masses of the molecu-lar cloud cores, so the molecular cloud cores are gravitationally unstable, and the C18O molecular cloud core is more easy to collapse. The column density distributions of the C18O molecular cloud core in the northeast and southwest directions are, respectively, 1.1 × 1023× z-0.43 and 4.6 × 1025× z-0.58, where z is the distance from the center of the molecular cloud core. The high velocity molecular outflow has been confirmed from our 12CO spectra, the mass loss rate of the outflow has been estimated, and the mass-velocity relation of the outflow is fitted by a power-law function of m ∝ v-1.8. The star formation rate of the 13CO molecular cloud core is as high as 23%, probably, under the influence of the reflection nebula NGC 1985, this region is forming medium and large mass stars or clusters.

  1. A comparative study of vitellogenesis in Echinodermata: Lessons from the sea star.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Khalid M; Lamare, Miles D; Grattan, Dave R; Damsteegt, Erin L; Schneider, Wolfgang J; Lokman, P Mark

    2016-08-01

    The provision of yolk precursor proteins to the oviparous egg is crucial for normal embryo development. In Echinodermata, a transferrin-like yolk component termed major yolk protein (MYP) is a major precursor protein in Echinoidea and Holothuroidea. In contrast, in Asteroidea a single vitellogenin (Vtg) was recently identified, but its role as primary yolk protein remains unclear. To resolve the apparent MYP-Vtg dichotomy in sea stars and to understand the dynamics of candidate yolk protein gene expression during the reproductive cycle, we investigated the molecular structures of sea star Vtg and MYP and quantified their transcript levels during oogenesis. By combining protein sequencing of the predominant proteins in ovulated eggs of Patiriella regularis with ovarian transcriptome sequencing and molecular cloning, we characterized two cDNAs encoding two bona fide Vtgs (PrVtg1 and PrVtg2) and a partial cDNA encoding MYP (PrMYP). PrMYP mRNA was found in low abundance in growing oocytes, possibly as maternal transcripts for translation after ovulation. In contrast, PrVtg transcripts, whose levels varied during the reproductive cycle, were not found in developing oocytes - rather, they were detected in ovarian follicle cells and pyloric caeca, indicating an extra-oocytic origin. Vtg accumulating in oocytes was stored in the form of cleaved products, which constituted the most abundant yolk polypeptides in ovulated sea star eggs; their levels decreased during early embryonic and larval development. Together, these traits are the hallmarks of a classical yolk protein - and hence, we contend that Vtg, and not MYP, is the main yolk protein in asteroids.

  2. Multi-wavelength study of triggered star formation around 25 H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Chuan-Peng

    2014-01-01

    We investigate 25 H II regions that show bubble morphology in 13CO(1-0) and infrared data, to search for quantitative evidence of triggered star formation by processes described by the collect and collapse (CC) and radiatively driven implosion (RDI) models. These H II regions display the morphology of a complete or partial bubble at 8 μm, and are all associated with the molecular clouds that surround them. We found that the electron temperature ranges from 5627 K to 6839 K in these H II regions, and the average electron temperature is 6083 K. The age of these H II regions is from 3.0 × 105 yr to 1.7 × 106 yr, and the mean age is 7.7 × 105 yr. Based on the morphology of the associated molecular clouds, we divide these H II regions into three groups, which may support CC and RDI models. We select 23 young IRAS sources which have an infrared luminosity of > 103Lsolar in 19 H II regions. In addition, we identify some young stellar objects (including Class I sources), which are only concentrated in H II regions G29.007+0.076, G44.339-0.827 and G47.028+0.232. The poly-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of the three H II regions all show a cometary globule. Comparing the age of each H II region with the characteristic timescales for star formation, we suggest that the three H II regions can trigger clustered star formation by an RDI process. In addition, we detect seven molecular outflows in the five H II regions for the first time. These outflow sources may be triggered by the corresponding H II regions.

  3. A Study of the Wide Main Sequence: The Long-Term Photometric Variability of Low Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pewett, Tiffany; Henry, Todd J.; Hosey, Altonio D.; Dieterich, Sergio; Jao, Wei-Chun; Winters, Jennifer G.; Riedel, Adric R.; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    The RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) team has carried out a long-term photometric variability study using the SMARTS 0.9m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The program has obtained up to 15 years of observations in the V band for hundreds of M dwarf stars. This unique study has provided insight into how the ubiquitous M dwarfs change over decadal timescales, revealing their long-term magnetic cycles and how the presence or lack of such activity may affect their sizes and consequent luminosities, and thus their positions on the H-R Diagram.Using carefully vetted parallaxes and photometric colors, many measured by the RECONS team, we have created a highly accurate H-R Diagram of the nearest (within 25pc) stars using their V-K colors to represent temperatures and absolute V magnitudes as proxies for luminosities. We find that for M dwarfs, the main sequence widens significantly, by up to four magnitudes in MV, corresponding to a factor of almost 40 in optical flux. This spread implies a wide range of stellar radii for M dwarfs of the same temperature. Our study of long-term photometric variability indicates that there is a trend in cyclic activity that is highest for the most luminous red dwarfs and lowest for the rare, cool red subdwarfs. This provides valuable insight into the complex interplay of age, metallicity, and magnetic fields that molds the character of the red dwarfs.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, STScI grant HST-GO-13724.001-A, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  4. A continuum and recombination line study of the Cep IV star formation region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosano, G. S.; Angerhofer, P. E.; Grayzeck, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Cep IV star formation region consists of the Cep IV OB association, the H II regions W 1 and NGC 7822, and an extensive fragmented dust cloud complex. Six- and nine-cm radio continuum observations and 6-cm hydrogen recombination line observations show that all of the emission nebulosity in this region, which includes a large loop-type structure suggested by Herbst and Assousa (1977) to be a supernova remnant, has a thermal spectrum. The two components of W 1 have been detected at H 110 alpha and are found to be kinematically distinct.

  5. A study of Herbig Ae Be star HD 163296: variability in co and oh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, Diana Lyn Hubis

    Spectra of the Herbig Ae Be star HD 163296 show variability in the CO and OH ro-vibrational emission lines. Documented here is the variance of OH emission lines between measurements separated by a period of three years. By comparing this variability to the variability of CO, we aim to determine whether the two are linked through an event such as disk winds. We find the profiles of OH and CO taken within three months of each other to have exceedingly similar profile shapes. However, the variability seen between the OH data sets needs further work to verify whether the changes we see are reproducible.

  6. Application of infrared two-dimensional speckle interferometry to the study of the young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Atmospheric turbulence limits the angular resolution of a telescope to about one arcsecond. Speckle interferometry is a diffraction-limited imaging technique, which gives access to the full resolution of the telescope (which is a function of its diameter). The implementation of a speckle mode on an infrared camera (CIRCUS) used at the focus of a 3.6 meter telescope (TCFH) is described; in the thermal near infrared, we obtain a resolution of 0.2 arcseconds. Since the array detector that equipped the camera has a high readout noise but a large storage capacity, speckle interferometry observations have been done at the wavelengths where the thermal emission noise is dominant, i.e., beyond 3 microns. For example, the limiting magnitude in the L band (3.8 microns) is ranging from 6 to 8 depending on turbulence conditions. I developed a user-friendly interface in order for the observer to control the acquisition and to get in real time either shift-and-add images or the power spectrum and the visibility of the source. I made available a data post-processing package (under IRAF) to build the complex visibility of the observed source. The modulus is computed from image power spectra using the method proposed by Labeyrie (1970) with seeing calibrations. A Gauss-Newton and gradient-conjugate algorithm is used to extract the phase from several sub-planes of the images cross-spectra. The shift-and-add method is also available. Image reconstruction is obtained by CLEAN and Lucy methods. Speckle observations of T Tauri stars carried out to detect infrared companions are presented. As a first result, there seems to be no systematic correlation between an infrared excess and the presence of an infrared companion among T Tauri stars. For example, RY Tau, which is the archetype of T tauri star with a flat IR spectrum has not revealed any companion. The binarity nature of DD Tau is established, both components have a strong IR excess. Z CMa binarity is confirmed on our data in the M

  7. Multiwavelength study of the high-latitude cloud L1642: chain of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Johanna

    2015-08-01

    L1642 is one of only two high Galactic latitude (|b| > 30 deg) clouds confirmed to have active star formation. We have mapped this cloud with Herschel as part of the Galactic Cold Cores project. We use multiwavelength observations to examine the properties of this cloud, especially the large-scale structure, dust properties, and compact sources at different stages of star formation. We present high-resolution far-infrared and submillimetre observations with the Herschel and AKARI satellites and millimetre observations with the AzTEC/ASTE telescope, which we combined with near- and mid-infrared data and millimetre Planck observations.The Herschel observations, combined with other data, show a sequence of objects from a cold clump to young stellar objects (YSOs) at different evolutionary stages. Source B-3 (2MASS J04351455-1414468) appears to be a YSO forming inside the L1642 cloud, instead of a foreground brown dwarf, as previously classified. Herschel data reveal striation in the diffuse dust emission around the cloud L1642. The western region shows striation towards the NE and has a steeper column density gradient on its southern side. The densest central region has a bow-shock like structure showing compression from the west and has a filamentary tail extending towards the east. The differences suggest that these may be spatially distinct structures, aligned only in projection. We derive values of the dust emission cross-section for different regions of the cloud. Modified black-body fits to the spectral energy distribution of Herschel and Planck data give emissivity spectral index β values 1.8-2.0 for the different regions. The compact sources have lower β values and show an anticorrelation between T and β. Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate the strong anticorrelation between β and T errors and the importance of combining Herschel data with millimetre Planck data in constraining the dust properties. L1642 reveals a more complex structure and

  8. SOAP-T: a tool to study the light curve and radial velocity of a system with a transiting planet and a rotating spotted star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshagh, M.; Boisse, I.; Boué, G.; Montalto, M.; Santos, N. C.; Bonfils, X.; Haghighipour, N.

    2013-01-01

    We present an improved version of SOAP named "SOAP-T", which can generate the radial velocity variations and light curves for systems consisting of a rotating spotted star with a transiting planet. This tool can be used to study the anomalies inside transit light curves and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, to better constrain the orbital configuration and properties of planetary systems and the active zones of their host stars. Tests of the code are presented to illustrate its performance and to validate its capability when compared with analytical models and real data. Finally, we apply SOAP-T to the active star, HAT-P-11, observed by the NASA Kepler space telescope and use this system to discuss the capability of this tool in analyzing light curves for the cases where the transiting planet overlaps with the star's spots. The tool's public interface is available at http://www.astro.up.pt/resources/soap-t/

  9. A TREASURY STUDY OF STAR-FORMING REGIONS IN THE LOCAL GROUP. I. HST PHOTOMETRY OF YOUNG POPULATIONS IN SIX DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Hodge, Paul; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.

    2012-03-15

    We present a comprehensive study of young stellar populations in six dwarf galaxies in or near the Local Group: Phoenix, Pegasus, Sextans A, Sextans B, WLM, and NGC 6822. Their star-forming regions, selected from GALEX wide-field far-UV imaging, were imaged (at sub-pc resolution) with the WFPC2 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in six bandpasses from far-UV to I to detect and characterize their hot massive star content. This study is part of HST treasury survey program HST-GO-11079; the general data characteristics and reduction procedures are detailed in this paper and results are presented for the first six galaxies. From a total of 180 HST images, we provide catalogs of the multi-band stellar photometry and derive the physical parameters of massive stars by analyzing it with model-atmosphere colors. We use the results to infer ages, number of massive stars, extinction, and spatial characteristics of the young stellar populations. The hot massive star content varies largely across our galaxy sample, from an inconspicuous presence in Phoenix and Pegasus to the highest relative abundance of young massive stars in Sextans A and WLM. Albeit to a largely varying extent, most galaxies show a very young population (a few Myrs, except for Phoenix), and older ones (a few 10{sup 7} years in Sextans A, Sextans B, NGC 6822, and WLM, {approx}10{sup 8}yr in Phoenix and Pegasus), suggesting discrete bursts of recent star formation in the mapped regions. The hot massive star content (indicative of the young populations) broadly correlates with the total galaxy stellar mass represented by the integrated optical magnitude, although it varies by a factor of {approx}3 between Sextans A, WLM, and Sextans B, which have similar M{sub V}. Extinction properties are also derived.

  10. A Treasury Study of Star-forming Regions in the Local Group. I. HST Photometry of Young Populations in Six Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Luciana; Efremova, Boryana; Hodge, Paul; Massey, Philip; Olsen, K. A. G.

    2012-03-01

    We present a comprehensive study of young stellar populations in six dwarf galaxies in or near the Local Group: Phoenix, Pegasus, Sextans A, Sextans B, WLM, and NGC 6822. Their star-forming regions, selected from GALEX wide-field far-UV imaging, were imaged (at sub-pc resolution) with the WFPC2 camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in six bandpasses from far-UV to I to detect and characterize their hot massive star content. This study is part of HST treasury survey program HST-GO-11079; the general data characteristics and reduction procedures are detailed in this paper and results are presented for the first six galaxies. From a total of 180 HST images, we provide catalogs of the multi-band stellar photometry and derive the physical parameters of massive stars by analyzing it with model-atmosphere colors. We use the results to infer ages, number of massive stars, extinction, and spatial characteristics of the young stellar populations. The hot massive star content varies largely across our galaxy sample, from an inconspicuous presence in Phoenix and Pegasus to the highest relative abundance of young massive stars in Sextans A and WLM. Albeit to a largely varying extent, most galaxies show a very young population (a few Myrs, except for Phoenix), and older ones (a few 107 years in Sextans A, Sextans B, NGC 6822, and WLM, ~108yr in Phoenix and Pegasus), suggesting discrete bursts of recent star formation in the mapped regions. The hot massive star content (indicative of the young populations) broadly correlates with the total galaxy stellar mass represented by the integrated optical magnitude, although it varies by a factor of ~3 between Sextans A, WLM, and Sextans B, which have similar MV . Extinction properties are also derived.

  11. An infrared study of the remarkable dusty M star HR 3126

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiar, J. E.; Whittet, D. C. B.; Aitken, D. K.; Roche, P. F.; Smith, C. H.; Walker, H. J.; Whitelock, P. A.; Wright, C.

    1993-01-01

    HR 3126 is a unique M giant star embedded in the bipolar reflection nebula IC 2220. In this paper we present new photometric and spectroscopic observations of HR 3126 and combine them with existing data from the literature in an extensive reappraisal of the star's properties at infrared wavelengths. The spectral energy distribution is consistent with an optical classification of M0-3 II with infrared excess. The dust shell cannot be fitted by a single-temperature blackbody: at least three components are required, with temperatures in the range 35-1300 K. On the basis of spectroscopy at 1-4 and 7-25 microns, combined with an assessment of various color-color diagrams, we are able to reject the hypothesis that HR 3126 is carbon-rich. Weak silicate emission features are detected at 10 and 19 microns, and a previous report of silicon carbide emission at 11.2 microns is not substantiated. It seems likely that HR 2136 is in a phase of advanced and rapid postmain-sequence evolution, possibly beginning its ascent of the asymptotic giant branch.

  12. FUV spectroscopic study of the circumstellar environment of the Herbig Be star HD 250550.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, C.; Bouret, J.-C.; Deleuil, M.; Simon, T.; Catala, C.; Roberge, A.

    2002-12-01

    We present FUSE observations of the Herbig Ae/Be star HD 250550, a well known analog to the prototype of the whole class, AB Aurigae. Previous optical and UV (IUE) observations showed that HD 250550 possesses a strong stellar wind and a dense chromosphere. Quite unexpectedly, the FUSE spectra of HD 250550 show only a faint emission feature at 977 Å, and emission from O VI resonance lines is barely visible, contrary to what was observed for AB Aurigae by FUSE. Several absorption features from molecular hydrogen are observed and show that H2 is thermalized up to J=3 and its radial velocity is identical to that of the surrounding molecular cloud's velocity. Similar velocities are measured on absorption features arising from excited levels of atomic species like N I, Cl I and Cl II, P II, Fe II and Fe III. This strongly favours a circumstellar origin for these gazeous components. Besides, the spectra also contains several other absorption features of interstellar origin (Ar I, Fe II, ...) as demonsrated by the lower radial velocities and excitation temperatures. Our results reveal a complex circumstellar environment with unxepected characteritics, and suggest that quite a large part of the original molecular cloud that collapsed to form the star is still present, though its spatial distribution is still unknown. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. FUSE is operated for NASA by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  13. THERMOHALINE INSTABILITIES INSIDE STARS: A SYNTHETIC STUDY INCLUDING EXTERNAL TURBULENCE AND RADIATIVE LEVITATION

    SciTech Connect

    Vauclair, Sylvie; Theado, Sylvie

    2012-07-01

    We have derived a new expression for the thermohaline mixing coefficient in stars, including the effects of radiative levitation and external turbulence, by solving Boussinesq equations in a nearly incompressible stratified fluid with a linear approximation. It is well known that radiative levitation of individual elements can lead to their accumulation in specific stellar layers. In some cases, it can induce important effects on the stellar structure. Here we confirm that this accumulation is moderated by thermohaline convection due to the resulting inverse {mu}-gradient. The new coefficient that we have derived shows that the effect of radiative accelerations on the thermohaline instability itself is small. This effect must however be checked in all computations. We also confirm that the presence of large horizontal turbulence can reduce or even suppress the thermohaline convection. These results are important as they concern all the cases of heavy element accumulation in stars. Computations of radiative diffusion must be revisited to include thermohaline convection and its consequences. It may be one of the basic reasons for the fact that the observed abundances are always smaller than those predicted by pure atomic diffusion. In any case, these processes have to compete with rotation-induced mixing, but this competition is more complex than previously thought due to their mutual interaction.

  14. Spectral study of GX 339-4 with TCAF using Swift and NuSTAR observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak

    2016-09-01

    We fit spectra of galactic transient source GX 339-4 during its 2013 outburst using Two Component Advective Flow (TCAF) solution. For the first time, we are fitting combined NuSTAR and Swift observation with TCAF. We use TCAF to fit 0.8-9.0 keV Swift and 4-79 keV NuSTAR spectra along with the LAOR model. To fit the data we use disk accretion rate, halo accretion rate, size of the Compton cloud and the density jump of advective flows at this cloud boundary as model parameters. From TCAF fitted flow parameters, and energy spectral index we conclude that the source was in the hard state throughout this particular outburst. The present analysis also gives some idea about the broadening of Fe K_{α } with the accretion rate. Since TCAF does not include Fe line yet, we make use of the `LAOR model' as a phenomenological model and find an estimate of the Kerr parameter to be {˜} 0.99 for this candidate.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of magnetized accretion phenomena in young stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiar, Benjamin; Ciardi, Andrea; Revet, Guilhem; Vinci, Tommaso; Fuchs, Julien; Orlando, Salvatore; Inaf Team; Luli Team; Lerma Team

    2016-10-01

    Newly formed stars accrete mass from the circumstellar disc via magnetized accretion funnels that connect the inner disc regions to the star. The ensuing impact of this free-falling plasma onto the stellar surface generates a strong shock, whose emission is used as a proxy to determine the accretion rates. Observations show that the X-ray luminosity arising from the shock heated plasma at the base of accretion columns is largelybelow the value expected on the basis of optical/UV observations. As a result, current 2D numerical simulations matching X-ray accretion rates cannot reproduce optical accretion rates. To understand the impact of accretion flows on the stellar surface in the presence of a strong magnetic field we have developed laboratory experiments reproducing crucial aspects of the accretion dynamics in Young Stellar Objects. As a model of accretion columns, we use laser-produced super-Alfvenic magnetically confined jets to collide them on solid targets. Here we present results from these experiments and from multi-dimensional MHD simulations. The authors acknowledge the support from the Ile-de-France DIM ACAV, from the LABEX Plas@par and from the ANR Grant SILAMPA.

  16. Studying the inner regions of young stars and their disks with aperture masking interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Alexandra; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; GPI Instrument Team; NIRISS Instrument Team

    2017-01-01

    High resolution aperture masking interferometry complements coronagraphic imagers to provide a unique perspective on star and planet formation at more moderate contrast. By targeting young stars, especially those with disks, we aim to understand complex protoplanetary environments. Ground-based non-redundant masking (NRM) paired with spectrographs and polarimeters probes both thermally emitting young companions, possibly embedded in the disk or gap and scattered light in protoplanetary disks. And soon the community will have access to the most stable NRM conditions yet, with the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode on the James Webb Space Telescope. I will present my thesis work commissioning the Gemini Planet Imager’s NRM, highlighting results through both its spectroscopy and polarimetry modes, which set the stage for future space-based imaging. I will also give an overview of NIRISS-AMI capabilities and performance predictions for imaging young low-mass companions and disks, and how it will complement other instruments on JWST.

  17. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  18. Collapsing Enormous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    One of the big puzzles in astrophysics is how supermassive black holes (SMBHs) managed to grow to the large sizes weve observed in the very early universe. In a recent study, a team of researchers examines the possibility that they were formed by the direct collapse of supermassive stars.Formation MysterySMBHs billions of times as massive as the Sun have been observed at a time when the universe was less than a billion years old. But thats not enough time for a stellar-mass black hole to grow to SMBH-size by accreting material so another theory is needed to explain the presence of these monsters so early in the universes history. A new study, led by Tatsuya Matsumoto (Kyoto University, Japan), poses the following question: what if supermassive stars in the early universe collapsed directly into black holes?Previous studies of star formation in the early universe have suggested that, in the hot environment of these primordial times, stars might have been able to build up mass much faster than they can today. This could result in early supermassive stars roughly 100,000 times more massive than the Sun. But if these early stars end their lives by collapsing to become massive black holes in the same way that we believe massive stars can collapse to form stellar-mass black holes today this should result in enormously violent explosions. Matusmoto and collaborators set out to model this process, to determine what we would expect to see when it happens!Energetic BurstsThe authors modeled the supermassive stars prior to collapse and then calculated whether a jet, created as the black hole grows at the center of the collapsing star, would be able to punch out of the stellar envelope. They demonstrated that the process would work much like the widely-accepted collapsar model of massive-star death, in which a jet successfully punches out of a collapsing star, violently releasing energy in the form of a long gamma-ray burst (GRB).Because the length of a long GRB is thought to

  19. A Detailed Study of Giants and Horizontal Branch Stars in M68: Atmospheric Parameters and Chemical Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeuble, M.; Preston, G.; Sneden, C.; Thompson, I. B.; Shectman, S. A.; Burley, G. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed high-resolution spectroscopic study of post main sequence stars in the globular cluster (GC) M68. Our sample, which covers a range of 4000 K in {{T}eff}, and 3.5 dex in log(g), is comprised of members from the red giant, red horizontal, and blue horizontal branch, making this the first high-resolution GC study covering such a large evolutionary and parameter space. Initially, atmospheric parameters were determined using photometric as well as spectroscopic methods, both of which resulted in unphysical and unexpected {{T}eff}, log(g), {{ξ }t}, and [Fe/H] combinations. We therefore developed a hybrid approach that addresses most of these problems, and yields atmospheric parameters that agree well with other measurements in the literature. Furthermore, our derived stellar metallicities are consistent across all evolutionary stages, with < [Fe/H]> = -2.42 (σ = 0.14) from 25 stars. Chemical abundances obtained using our methodology also agree with previous studies and bear all the hallmarks of GCs, such as a Na-O anti-correlation, constant Ca abundances, and mild r-process enrichment.

  20. Poor response to antidepressant medication of patients with depression accompanied by somatic symptomatology in the STAR*D Study.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Brett; Patel, Priya

    2011-05-15

    Studies suggest that the gender difference in the prevalence of depression results because women exhibit higher prevalence than men of a depressive phenotype associated with somatic symptoms. Because this phenotype has been found to be based in psychosocial forces, it may not respond well to antidepressant medication. In this study, data from the STAR*D Study were analyzed to compare remission rates in response to an SSRI and to several other antidepressants of patients exhibiting depression accompanied by somatic symptomatology versus other patients. Scores on the Clinician Rated Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used to measure clinical remission in response to medication. Patients exhibiting depression accompanied by somatic symptomatology exhibited less remission to the SSRI Citalopram (31% versus 43%) and to the various medications administered in level 3 (14% versus 25%) than did other patients in STAR*D. The low rates of remission in response to medication of patients exhibiting somatic symptomatology were not due to the greater proportion of women, nor to the greater proportion of patients exhibiting anxiety disorders, among patients exhibiting somatic symptomatology. Remission rates were found to be related to exhibiting somatic symptomatology not to exhibiting nonsomatic symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new family of magnetic stars: the Am stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazère, A.; Neiner, C.; Petit, P.; Lignières, F.

    2016-12-01

    We presented the discovery of an ultra-weak field in three Am stars, β UMa, θ Leo, and Alhena, thanks to ultra-deep spectropolarimetric observations. Two of the three stars of this study shown peculiar magnetic signatures with prominent positive lobes like the one of Sirius A that are not expected in the standard theory of the Zeeman effect. Alhena, contrary to Sirius A, β UMa and θ Leo, show normal signatures. These detections of ultra-weak fields in Am stars suggest the existence of a new family of magnetic intermediate-mass stars: the Am stars. However the various shapes of the signatures required further observation to identify the physical processes at work in these stars. A preliminary explanation is based on microturbulence.

  2. Sounds of a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    the models are necessarily quite uncertain (i.e., they are not well "constrained"). It is therefore imperative to enlarge the number of observables and this is possible with asteroseismology. Helioseismology has opened up the way. These observations severely constrain the possible models of the Sun's internal structure. But, depending on their mass and age, stars have very different internal structures, and may also harbour physical processes that are quite different from those in the Sun. Asteroseismological observations of stellar oscillations add crucial information that constrain the models of their inner structure, since the measured frequencies may be compared directly with those computed for the models. The observation of the full stellar disk allows to characterize certain (low degree) oscillation modes which penetrate deep inside the star and it is not necessary to resolve the stellar disk (as we can do for the Sun) in order to obtain useful seismological information. More stars to be observed Observations of bright solar-like stars are already planned with the CORALIE spectrograph. Even fainter stars can be observed with the HARPS spectrograph which will be installed on the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory at the end of 2002. It will be able to observe stars that are one hundred times fainter than those now reachable with CORALIE and with even better accuracy of the velocity measurements. While it will be mostly dedicated to the search of exoplanets, HARPS will be able to conduct an asteroseismological study of about 100 solar-like stars. More information The research reported in this Press Release is described in a scientific article ("P-mode observations on Alpha Cen A" by François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier) that has been accepted for publication as a Letter in the European journal "Astronomy & Astrophysics". Note [1]: Alpha Centauri was earlier known as Rigil Centauri , but that name is not much used because of the similarity with the name of the

  3. Multiwavelength study of the high-latitude cloud L1642: chain of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, J.; Juvela, M.; Zahorecz, S.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Montillaud, J.; Arimatsu, K.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Doi, Y.; Haikala, L. K.; Kawabe, R.; Marton, G.; McGehee, P.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Ristorcelli, I.; Shimajiri, Y.; Takita, S.; Tóth, L. V.; Tsukagoshi, T.; Ysard, N.

    2014-03-01

    Context. L1642 is one of the two high galactic latitude (|b| > 30°) clouds confirmed to have active star formation. Aims: We examine the properties of this cloud, especially the large-scale structure, dust properties, and compact sources at different stages of star formation. Methods: We present high-resolution far-infrared and submillimetre observations with the Herschel and AKARI satellites and millimetre observations with the AzTEC/ASTE telescope, which we combined with archive data from near- and mid-infrared (2MASS, WISE) to millimetre wavelength observations (Planck). Results: The Herschel observations, combined with other data, show a sequence of objects from a cold clump to young stellar objects (YSOs) at different evolutionary stages. Source B-3 (2MASS J04351455-1414468) appears to be a YSO forming inside the L1642 cloud, instead of a foreground brown dwarf, as previously classified. Herschel data reveal striation in the diffuse dust emission around the cloud L1642. The western region shows striation towards the NE and has a steeper column density gradient on its southern side. The densest central region has a bow-shock like structure showing compression from the west and has a filamentary tail extending towards the east. The differences suggest that these may be spatially distinct structures, aligned only in projection. We derive values of the dust emission cross-section per H nucleon of σe(250 μm) = 0.5-1.5 × 10-25 cm2/H for different regions of the cloud. Modified black-body fits to the spectral energy distribution of Herschel and Planck data give emissivity spectral index β values 1.8-2.0 for the different regions. The compact sources have lower β values and show an anticorrelation between T and β. Conclusions: Markov chain Monte Carlo calculations demonstrate the strong anticorrelation between β and T errors and the importance of millimetre wavelength Planck data in constraining the estimates. L1642 reveals a more complex structure and

  4. Work related injury among Saudi Star Agro Industry workers in Gambella region, Ethiopia; a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Chercos, Daniel Haile; Berhanu, Demeke

    2017-01-01

    Work injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, much of these work injuries burden can be found in industry required heavy manual work such as, agriculture and fishers. Hence; agriculture is consistently cited as one of the most hazardous industry in the world. The objective of this study isto assess the magnitude and associated factors of work related injury among Saudi Star Agro Industry workers in Gambella region, South West Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted on Saudi Star Agro Industry located in Gambella region, from February - June 2014 on 449 randomly selected workers who arestratifiedby working department. Anobservation checklist, factory clinical records and a structured interview questioner were used as a data collection tools. The prevalence of work related injury was 36.7%. Marital status [AOR;1.69, 95%; CI;(1.1-2.7)], service year [AOR;1.9,95%; CI;(1.17-3.1)], working more than 48 h per week [AOR;9.87, 95%; CI;(5.95-16.28)],safety training [AOR;3.38, 95%;CI;1.14-9.98)], regular health checkup [AOR; 12.29, 95%; CI (9-51.35)] and usage of personal protective equipment [AOR; 2.36, 95%; CI; (1.06-5.25)] were significant factors for the occurrence of work related injury. The prevalence of work related injury was high. Working hours, safety training and regular health checkup increases the risk of work related injury.

  5. Source Contamination in X-ray Studies of Star-forming Regions: Application to the Chandra Carina Complex Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getman, Konstantin V.; Broos, Patrick S.; Feigelson, Eric D.; Townsley, Leisa K.; Povich, Matthew S.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Montmerle, Thierry; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Fukui, Yasuo

    2011-05-01

    We describe detailed simulations of X-ray-emitting populations to evaluate the levels of contamination by both Galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources unrelated to a star-forming region under study. For Galactic contaminations, we consider contribution from main-sequence stars and giants (not including cataclysmic variables and other classes of accretion-driven X-ray binary systems), as they make the dominant contribution at the position of the Carina Nebula. The simulations take into consideration a variety of technical factors involving a Galactic population synthesis model, stellar X-ray luminosity functions, Chandra telescope response, source detection methodology, and possible spatial variations in the X-ray background and absorption through molecular clouds. When applied to the 1.42 deg2 field of the Chandra Carina Complex Project (CCCP), the simulations predict ~5000 contaminating sources (1 source arcmin-2 of the survey), evenly distributed across the field. The results of the simulations are further employed in a companion CCCP study to assign membership probabilities to individual sources.

  6. Population studies. XIII. A new analysis of the Bidelman-Macconnell 'weak-metal' stars - confirmation of metal-poor stars in the thick disk of the galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr E-mail: daniela.carollo@mq.edu.au

    2014-10-10

    A new set of very high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100/1), medium-resolution (R ∼ 3000) optical spectra have been obtained for 302 of the candidate 'weak-metal' stars selected by Bidelman and MacConnell. We use these data to calibrate the recently developed generalization of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameter Pipeline, and obtain estimates of the atmospheric parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) for these non-Sloan Digital Sky Survey/SEGUE data; we also obtain estimates of [C/Fe]. The new abundance measurements are shown to be consistent with available high-resolution spectroscopic determinations, and represent a substantial improvement over the accuracies obtained from the previous photometric estimates reported in Paper I of this series. The apparent offset in the photometric abundances of the giants in this sample noted by several authors is confirmed by our new spectroscopy; no such effect is found for the dwarfs. The presence of a metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) population is clearly supported by these new abundance data. Some 25% of the stars with metallicities –1.8 < [Fe/H] ≤–0.8 exhibit orbital eccentricities e < 0.4, yet are clearly separated from members of the inner-halo population with similar metallicities by their location in a Lindblad energy versus angular momentum diagram. A comparison is made with recent results for a similar-size sample of Radial Velocity Experiment stars from Ruchti et al. We conclude, based on both of these samples, that the MWTD is real, and must be accounted for in discussions of the formation and evolution of the disk system of the Milky Way.

  7. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  8. Rainbow's stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, Remo; Mandanici, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a growing interest in the equilibrium of compact astrophysical objects like white dwarf and neutron stars has been manifested. In particular, various modifications due to Planck-scale energy effects have been considered. In this paper we analyze the modification induced by gravity's rainbow on the equilibrium configurations described by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation. Our purpose is to explore the possibility that the rainbow Planck-scale deformation of space-time could support the existence of different compact stars.

  9. The physics of neutron stars.

    PubMed

    Lattimer, J M; Prakash, M

    2004-04-23

    Neutron stars are some of the densest manifestations of massive objects in the universe. They are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of dense matter physics and provide connections among nuclear physics, particle physics, and astrophysics. Neutron stars may exhibit conditions and phenomena not observed elsewhere, such as hyperon-dominated matter, deconfined quark matter, superfluidity and superconductivity with critical temperatures near 10(10) kelvin, opaqueness to neutrinos, and magnetic fields in excess of 10(13) Gauss. Here, we describe the formation, structure, internal composition, and evolution of neutron stars. Observations that include studies of pulsars in binary systems, thermal emission from isolated neutron stars, glitches from pulsars, and quasi-periodic oscillations from accreting neutron stars provide information about neutron star masses, radii, temperatures, ages, and internal compositions.

  10. A further study on Palatini f(R)-theories for polytropic stars

    SciTech Connect

    Mana, Annalisa; Fatibene, Lorenzo; Ferraris, Marco E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it

    2015-10-01

    After briefly reviewing the results about polytropic stars in Palatini f(R)-theories, we first show how these results rely on the assumption of a regular function f(R). In particular, singular models allow to extend the parameter interval in which no singularity is formed. Furthermore, we show how the conformal metric can be matched smoothly in the cases where the original metric generates a singularity. In fact, the singularity comes from a singular conformal factor which is continuous though not differentiable at the stellar surface. This suggests that the correct metric to be considered as physical is the conformal metric.This is relevant because, even when matching the original metric is possible, the use of the conformal metric generates different stellar models.

  11. Red supergiant star studies with CO5BOLD and Optim3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plez, B.; Chiavassa, A.

    We describe recent work focused towards a better understanding of red supergiant stars using 3D radiative-hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations with CO5BOLD. A small number of simulations now exist that span up to seven years of stellar time, at various numerical resolutions. Our discussion concentrates on interferometric and spectroscopic observations. We point out a number of problems, in particular the line depth and line width that are not well reproduced by simulations. The most recent introduction of a non-grey treatment of the radiation field dramatically improved the match with observations, without solving all difficulties. We also review the newly revived effective temperature scale controversy, and argue that it will only be solved using 3D RHD models.

  12. Studies of three-particle correlations and reaction-plane correlators from STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribedy, Prithwish

    2017-04-01

    We present STAR measurements of various harmonics of three-particle correlations in √SNN = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at RHIC. The quantity is measured for inclusive charged particles for different harmonics m and n as a function of collision centrality, transverse momentum pT and relative pseudorapidity Δη. These observables provide detailed information on global event properties like correlations between event planes of different harmonics and are particularly sensitive to the expansion dynamics of the matter produced in the collisions. We compare our measurements to different viscous hydrodynamic models. We argue that these measurements probe the three dimensional structure of the initial state and provide unique ways to constrain the transport parameters involved in hydrodynamic modeling of heavy-ion collisions.

  13. A study of circumstellar disk properties in low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Basmah

    We present Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC and MIPS observations for a sample of eight M dwarfs: six dMe, one dM, and one sdMe star. All of our targets are found to have Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) which are fitted within the error bars by a purely photospheric spectrum out to 24m m . The estimated ages for all are >10 Myr, suggesting that enough disk dissipation has occurred within the inner several AU of the star. Scaling from Houdebine's model of the AU Mic chromosphere, we have computed the free-free infrared excesses for a range of densities. Our Spitzer 24m m data shows that the chromospheres in two of our targets are less dense than in AU Mic by a factor of 10 or more. Our models also indicate that the chromospheric contribution to the observed AU Mic emission at submillimeter wavelengths is only about 2%. We present Spitzer IRAC, MIPS and IRS observations for three sub-stellar members of the TW Hydrae Association (TWA): 2MASSW J1207334-393254 (2M1207), SSSPM J1102-3431 (SSSPM 1102), and 2MASS J1139511-315921 (2M1139). The near- to mid-infrared SEDs indicate the presence of flat optically thick disks around 2M1207 and SSSPM 1102, and a transition disk around 2M1139. 2M1207 shows absorption in the 10 m m silicate feature, with a peak near 11.3 m m due to crystalline forsterite. The absorption can be attributed to a close to edge-on disk. No silicate absorption/emission is observed towards SSSPM 1102. We have performed detailed modeling of these two brown dwarf disks. The best-fits have been obtained using a flat disk of mass 10 -4 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -10 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 75=B0 for 2M1207, whereas a disk mass of 10 -5 [Special characters omitted.] , M of 10 -11 [Special characters omitted.] /yr, and an inclination angle of 63° provides a good fit to SSSPM 1102. Modeling of the 10 m m silicate feature requires the presence of large (>50 m m ) grains in the disk midplane, which indicates

  14. An asteroseismic study of the Southern β Cephei star ALS 3721

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, C.; Niemczura, E.; Ulaş, B.; Gülmez, T.

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of a new investigation aimed to identify the pulsational characteristics of the Southern β Cephei star ALS 3721. Spectroscopic and multicolour photometric data were acquired at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), South Africa in 2011. Frequency analysis showed that the oscillations of ALS 3721 could be attributed to the two main frequencies with higher significance. Stellar parameters and projected rotational velocity obtained by the spectra were also used to perform photometric mode identification. In order to determine spherical harmonic degrees (l), a principal method was followed by comparing the observed light amplitude ratios in different passbands with those computed from non-adiabatic pulsation models. In general case, therefore, the spherical harmonic degrees corresponding of the frequencies were found in the expected β Cephei range.

  15. Molecular structure and conformations of caramboxin, a natural neurotoxin from the star fruit: A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichierri, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Using density functional theory calculations we investigate the molecular structure and conformations of caramboxin, a neurotoxin recently isolated from the star fruit Averroha carambola. Among the seven conformers that exist within an energy window of ∼16.0 kcal/mol, two of them are the most favored ones with an energy difference of less than 2.0 kcal/mol. The computed chemical shifts of these two low-energy conformers are in good agreement with the experimental values determined in deuterated dimethylsulfoxide thus confirming the 2D chemical structure assigned to the neurotoxin. A topological analysis of the theoretical electronic charge density of four caramboxin conformers reveals the existence of intramolecular CH⋯O/N interactions which, in addition to the classical OH⋯O/N H-bonding interactions, contribute to decrease the conformational freedom of the neurotoxin.

  16. Evolutionary studies of the young star clusters: NGC 1960, NGC 2453 and NGC 2384

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Priya; Kilambi, G. C.; Hasan, S. N.

    2008-02-01

    We report the analysis of the young star clusters NGC 1960, NGC 2453 and NGC 2384 observed in the J (1.12 μm), H (1.65 μm) and K' (2.2 μm) bands. Estimates of reddening, distance and age as E( B- V)=0.25, d=1380 pc and t=31.6 to 125 Myr for NGC 1960, E( B- V)=0.47, d=3311 pc and t=40 to 200 Myr for NGC 2453 and E( B- V)=0.25, d=3162 pc and t=55 to 125 Myr for NGC 2384 have been obtained. Also, we have extended the color magnitude diagrams of these clusters to the fainter end and thus extended the luminosity functions to fainter magnitudes. The evolution of the main sequence and luminosity functions of these clusters have been compared with themselves as well as Lyngå 2 and NGC 1582.

  17. A Small-angle Study of the Solution Properties of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Pople, John A

    2001-03-22

    The solution properties of poly(e-caprolactone) dendritic polymers are investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) techniques. Comparisons of the scattering function in the intermediate region of the SANS patterns with molecular dynamic simulations indicate that the dendritic polymers are relatively extended in their conformation. We report a decay exponent, which scales as l/{nu}, of -1.2, which suggests a conformation more extended than star polymers, approaching the case of sea urchins. Guinier plots of SANS patterns yield radius of gyration measurements R{sub g} {approx} 30{angstrom}, which increase with generation number. Modeling the scattering profiles according to a ''blob'' model yields values of the random walk persistence length <{xi}{sub E}> {approx} 10{angstrom}, which decreases with increasing polymerization generation.

  18. A multi-frequency study of symbiotic stars. I - Near-simultaneous optical and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivison, R. J.; Bode, M. F.; Roberts, J. A.; Meaburn, J.; Davis, R. J.; Nelson, R. F.; Spencer, R. E.

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between optical line flux and 5 GHz radio flux is investigated for a sample of 17 northern sky symbiotic stars. Data were obtained near-simultaneously with the Manchester Echelle Spectrograph mounted on the Issac Newton Telescope, La Palma and the Broad Band Interferometer at Jodrell Bank. Color excesses, calculated from Balmer hydrogen line fluxes assuming Case B recombination ratios, are compared with other reddening estimates and also combined with extinction maps to provide improved distance estimates. Optical line fluxes are used in combination with radio fluxes to estimate physical parameters of these objects, including mass-loss rates. The suggestion that the ionized regions of D-type symbiotics are much more extensive than those in S-type is confirmed. This in turn strengthens the hypothesis that S-type symbiotics are more likely to be undergoing Roche-lobe overflow than their D-type counterparts.

  19. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II - The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars.

  20. Hot Subluminous Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  1. HIGH-RESOLUTION STUDY OF THE MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGION IRAS 06061+2151

    SciTech Connect

    Trinidad, M. A.; RodrIguez, T.

    2010-12-15

    We present observations of 3.6 cm continuum and water maser emission toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 06061+2151 (AFGL 5182), made at {approx}0.''3 and {approx}0.''1 resolution, respectively, using the Very Large Array (VLA) in the A configuration. Continuum and maser emission are not detected toward the center of AFGL 5182. However, we detected two groups of continuum sources located {approx}12'' and {approx}3' to the west and northeast of AFGL 5182, respectively. The first group, labeled as the G188.79+1.03 complex, is composed of three continuum sources in a region of about 6'' x 10'', while the second group, associated with the source G188.77+1.07, is composed of at least two continuum sources in a region {approx}1'' in diameter. The physical parameters estimated, based on the morphology and the continuum emission, suggest that all the continuum sources in both groups are ultracompact H II regions, associated with ZAMS B-type stars. Water maser emission is only detected toward the compact source VLA N2, which is located in the G188.79+1.03 complex. Accuracy in the relative positions between the radio continuum source and the water masers is of the order of 15 mas. In addition, the observed spatial and kinematical distribution of the water maser features has remained stable for several years, and we confirm that they are tracing a bipolar outflow, where the best candidate of the source powering the water masers and the outflow is VLA 2N.

  2. The star formation history of low-mass disk galaxies: A case study of NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Fenghui; Chang, Ruixiang; Wang, Lang; Cheng, Liantao

    2016-01-01

    Context. Since NGC 300 is a bulgeless, isolated low-mass galaxy and it has not experienced radial migration during its evolution history, it can be treated as an ideal laboratory to test the simple galactic chemical evolution model. Aims: Our main aim is to investigate the main properties of the star formation history (SFH) of NGC 300 and compare its SFH with that of M 33 to explore the common properties and differences between these two nearby low-mass systems. Methods: We construct a simple chemical evolution model for NGC 300, assuming its disk forms gradually from continuous accretion of primordial gas and including the gas-outflow process. The model allows us to build a bridge between the SFH and observed data of NGC 300, in particular, the present-day radial profiles and global observed properties (e.g., cold gas mass, star formation rate, and metallicity). By means of comparing the model predictions with the corresponding observations, we adopt the classical χ2 methodology to find out the best combination of free parameters a, b, and bout. Results: Our results show that by assuming an inside-out formation scenario and an appropriate outflow rate, our model reproduces well most of the present-day observational values. The model not only reproduces well the radial profiles, but also the global observational data for the NGC 300 disk. Our results suggest that NGC 300 may experience a rapid growth of its disk. Through comparing the best-fitting, model-predicted SFH of NGC 300 with that of M 33, we find that the mean stellar age of NGC 300 is older than that of M 33 and there is a recent lack of primordial gas infall onto the disk of NGC 300. Our results also imply that the local environment may play a key role in the secular evolution of galaxy disks.

  3. A new photometric study of the triple star system EF Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Gui

    2012-04-01

    We present new charge-coupled device (CCD) photometry for the triple star EF Draconis, obtained in 2009 and 2011. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney program, the photometric solutions were deduced from two sets of light curves. The results indicate that EF Dra is an A-type W UMa binary with a contact degree of f = 46.7%(±0.6%) and a third light of l3 ≃ 1.5%. Through analyzing the O — C curve, it is found that the orbital period shows a long-time increase with a light-time orbit. The period, semi-amplitude and eccentricity of the third body are Pmod = 17.20(±0.18) yr, A = 0.0039d(±0.0002d) and e = 0.49(±0.02) respectively. This kind of tertiary companion may extract angular momentum from the central system. The orbital period of EF Dra secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +3.72(±0.07) × 10-7 d yr-1, which may be interpreted by mass transfer from the less massive to the more massive component. As period increases, the separation between components may increase, which will cause the contact degree to decrease. With mass transferring, the spin angular momentum will increase, while the orbital angular momentum will decrease. Only if the contact configuration would merge at could this kind of deep-contact binary with period increasing, such as EF Dra, evolve into a rapidly-rotating single star.

  4. A study of four galactic small H II regions: Searching for spontaneous and sequential star formation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sung-Ju

    This thesis describes observational studies of four small star-forming H II regions (KR 7, KR 81, KR 120 and KR 140) and star-formation scenario associated with the Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) in each region. In addition to that, we also present an analysis of HCO+ (J=3→2) and H13CO+ (J=3→2) observations of the Massive (M ˜ 20 M[special character omitted] ) submillimeter/infrared source IRAS 01202+6133 located on the periphery of the H II region. In this research, we improved existing 1-D radiative transfer model for a collapsing core that happens in the early phase -- Class I protostar -- of star formation. The molecular gas surrounding an H II region is thought to be a place where star formation can be induced. We selected four small H II region in order to minimize the feedbacks and dynamics from multiple exciting sources. These regions are very young and ionized by the single O or B spectral type stars. A space based telescope Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) used for identifying and classifying the YSOs population surrounding a sample of H II regions. First, we used WISE data from AllWISE catalog with some constrains such as spatial coordinates, signal-to-noise ratio and contaminations. After we retrieved sources from catalog in each region, we classified YSOs with two different methods; color-color diagram and spectral index (alpha). Based on the color-color diagram using WISE 3.4 mum, 4.6 mum and 12 mum bands, we classified the YSOs as Class I, Class II and using 3.4 mum, 4.6 mum and 22 mum, we were able to classify Transition Disks and Class III YSOs. 2MASS and WISE combined color-color diagram also used in order to compare the classification only use of WISE color-color diagram. Considering a reddening effect from 2MASS Ks band, the classification from both WISE only and 2MASS, WISE combined color-colordiagram. A spectral index (alpha) also can be used as classifying YSOs. Based on the WISE magnitude, spectral index (alpha) can be derived

  5. Fragmentation in massive star formation.

    PubMed

    Beuther, Henrik; Schilke, Peter

    2004-02-20

    Studies of evolved massive stars indicate that they form in a clustered mode. During the earliest evolutionary stages, these regions are embedded within their natal cores. Here we present high-spatial-resolution interferometric dust continuum observations disentangling the cluster-like structure of a young massive star-forming region. The derived protocluster mass distribution is consistent with the stellar initial mass function. Thus, fragmentation of the initial massive cores may determine the initial mass function and the masses of the final stars. This implies that stars of all masses can form via accretion processes, and coalescence of intermediate-mass protostars appears not to be necessary.

  6. Accretion Onto Magnetic Degenerate Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Juhan

    2000-01-01

    While the original objectives of this research program included the study of radiative processes in cataclysmic variables and the evolution of neutron star magnetic fields, the scope of the reported research expanded to other related topics as this project developed. This final report therefore describes the results of our research in the following areas: 1) Irradiation-driven mass transfer cycles in cataclysmic variables and low-mass X-ray binaries; 2) Propeller effect and magnetic field decay in isolated old neutron stars; 3) Decay of surface magnetic fields in accreting neutron stars and pulsars; 4) Finite-Difference Hydrodynamic simulations of mass transfer in binary stars.

  7. Theoretical studies of massive stars. I - Evolution of a 15-solar-mass star from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endal, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The evolution of a star with mass 15 times that of the sun from the zero-age main sequence to neon ignition has been computed by the Henyey method. The hydrogen-rich envelope and all shell sources were explicitly included in the models. An algorithm has been developed for approximating the results of carbon burning, including the branching ratio for the C-12 + C-12 reaction and taking some secondary reactions into account. Penetration of the convective envelope into the core is found to be unimportant during the stages covered by the models. Energy transfer from the carbon-burning shell to the core by degenerate electron conduction becomes important after the core carbon-burning stage. Neon ignition will occur in a semidegenerate core and will lead to a mild 'flash.' Detailed numerical results are given in an appendix. Continuation of the calculations into later stages and variations with the total mass of the star will be discussed in later papers.

  8. Stellar populations in star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Yuan; de Grijs, Richard; Deng, Li-Cai

    2016-12-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star cluster formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ages. We present the history and progress of research in this active field, as well as some of the most recent improvements, including observational results and scenarios that have been proposed to explain the observations. Although our current ability to determine the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters is unsatisfactory, we propose a number of promising projects that may contribute to a significantly improved understanding of this subject.

  9. STAR FORMATION IN ORION'S L1630 CLOUD: AN INFRARED AND MULTI-EPOCH X-RAY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Principe, David A.; Kastner, J. H.; Richmond, Michael; Grosso, Nicolas; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2014-07-01

    X-ray emission is characteristic of young stellar objects (YSOs) and is known to be highly variable. We investigate, via an infrared and multi-epoch X-ray study of the L1630 dark cloud, whether and how X-ray variability in YSOs is related to protostellar evolutionary state. We have analyzed 11 Chandra X-Ray Observatory observations, obtained over the course of four years and totaling ∼240 ks exposure time, targeting the eruptive Class I YSO V1647 Ori in L1630. We used Two Micron All Sky Survey and Spitzer data to identify and classify IR counterparts to L1630 X-ray sources and identified a total of 52 X-ray-emitting YSOs with IR counterparts, including four Class I sources and one Class 0/I source. We have detected cool (<3 MK) plasma, possibly indicative of accretion shocks, in three classical T Tauri stars. A subsample of 27 X-ray-emitting YSOs were covered by 9 of the 11 Chandra observations targeting V1647 Ori and the vicinity. For these 27 YSOs, we have constructed X-ray light curves spanning approximately four years. These light curves highlight the variable nature of pre-main-sequence X-ray-emitting young stars; many of the L1630 YSOs vary by orders of magnitude in count rate between observations. We discuss possible scenarios to explain apparent trends between various X-ray spectral properties, X-ray variance, and YSO classification.

  10. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  11. Morning Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-03-04

    Dawn on Saturn is greeted across the vastness of interplanetary space by the morning star, Venus, in this image from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Venus appears just off the edge of the planet directly above the white streak of Saturn G ring.

  12. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  13. Exploding massive stars in real time: highlights from iPTF studies of core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal-Yam, Avishay

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate explosions of massive stars as core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are an extremely diverse phenomenon, not well understood theoretically. iPTF has provided interesting contributions to this field in several aspects. I will highlight mainly two of these: studies of the early emission from SNe, including the rising part of the light curve and very early flash spectroscopy, which are quite unique to iPTF due to its high cadence; and studies of rare and unusual objects. These span a range of properties from rapidly evolving events to the most extended SNe we know of, events in the luminous and faint ends of the SN luminosity range, and events with complex temporal behavior, such as multiple light-curve bumps. Prospects for future studies with the upcoming ZTF will be briefly presented.

  14. Studies of precursors of prebiotic molecules in the laboratory and in the spectra of regions of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez Giret, Aurelia

    2013-02-01

    The physical and chemical conditions of the first stages of star formation are favourable for the formation of complex organic molecules containing carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen which could be the precursors of the prebiotic species discovered in meteorites. Studies suggest that this complexity begins with chemical reactions on interstellar grains and the subsequent evaporation of the species formed on these grains in the warm core region of the forming star. Recently, the Herschel Space Observatory (HSO) and the ALMA interferometer have begun to make available new sensitive high spectral and/or high spatial resolution studies in the submillimetre and terahertz domains. Thus many molecules can now be studied with unequalled sensitivity over a wide spectral range. However, accurate spectroscopic data necessary to identify some of the complex molecules which interest us are missing because of the dissertationfficulties in measuring and especially in analysing their laboratory spectra. During my thesis I have been particularly interested in the 13C and deuterated isotopologues of complex molecules, both from a spectroscopic and from an astrophysical point of view. The study of the abundances of these isotopologues in the interstellar medium could supply information to help us to understand reactions pathways which lead to molecular complexity and determine which reaction take place in the gas phase and which on grains. First of all, I will present the notions useful to understand this work linking molecular spectroscopy and radioastronomy as well as the tools used; also I will introduce the different instruments available for observations. Secondly, I will detail the work carried out on 13C-substituted ethanol and deuterated glycolaldehyde, two complex organic molecules of astrophysical interest. The work involved laboratory measurements and analysis leading to a set of molecular parameters used to subsequently produce predictions of astrophysical spectra for the

  15. Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Wolf-Rainer; Sander, Andreas; Todt, Helge

    Nearly 150 years ago, the French astronomers Charles Wolf and Georges Rayet described stars with very conspicuous spectra that are dominated by bright and broad emission lines. Meanwhile termed Wolf-Rayet Stars after their discoverers, those objects turned out to represent important stages in the life of massive stars. As the first conference in a long time that was specifically dedicated to Wolf-Rayet stars, an international workshop was held in Potsdam, Germany, from 1.-5. June 2015. About 100 participants, comprising most of the leading experts in the field as well as as many young scientists, gathered for one week of extensive scientific exchange and discussions. Considerable progress has been reported throughout, e.g. on finding such stars, modeling and analyzing their spectra, understanding their evolutionary context, and studying their circumstellar nebulae. While some major questions regarding Wolf-Rayet stars still remain open 150 years after their discovery, it is clear today that these objects are not just interesting stars as such, but also keystones in the evolution of galaxies. These proceedings summarize the talks and posters presented at the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet workshop. Moreover, they also include the questions, comments, and discussions emerging after each talk, thereby giving a rare overview not only about the research, but also about the current debates and unknowns in the field. The Scientific Organizing Committee (SOC) included Alceste Bonanos (Athens), Paul Crowther (Sheffield), John Eldridge (Auckland), Wolf-Rainer Hamann (Potsdam, Chair), John Hillier (Pittsburgh), Claus Leitherer (Baltimore), Philip Massey (Flagstaff), George Meynet (Geneva), Tony Moffat (Montreal), Nicole St-Louis (Montreal), and Dany Vanbeveren (Brussels).

  16. Apollo Project- star projector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    The specially designed star projector used in the Projection Planetarium. From A.W. Vogeley, 'Piloted Space-Flight Simulation at Langley Research Center,' Paper presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1966 Winter Meeting, New York, NY, November 27 - December 1, 1966. 'Another approach to the scene-generation problem is the point-light-source projection technique. This technique has been used in the Langley Projection Planetarium,... to study Apollo launch-abort problems. This method was very effective in providing the required horizon-to-horizon view of Florida as seen from about 100,000 feet.' 'This projector operates on a concept developed by Spitz. It consists of a point-light source reflecting off a centrally located highly reflective sphere which directs the light outward through the many holes representing the stars. The size of the holes is varied to vary star magnitude. The star images are brought into focus on the inside of the planetarium by lenses glued to the surface of the projector and the diameter of the projection sphere govern the focal length required for these lenses. Although this type of projector does not have the precision required for the study of navigation problems it is very adequate for pilot control problems such as rendezvous where the star field is primarily used as an attitude reference.'

  17. Nursery of New Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope image (right) of a vast nebula called NGC 604, which lies in the neighboring spiral galaxy M33, located 2.7 million light-years away in the constellation Triangulum. This is a site where new stars are being born in a spiral arm of the galaxy. Though such nebulae are common in galaxies, this one is particularly large, nearly 1,500 light-years across. The nebula is so vast it is easily seen in ground-based telescopic images (left). At the heart of NGC 604 are over 200 hot stars, much more massive than our Sun (15 to 60 solar masses). They heat the gaseous walls of the nebula making the gas fluoresce. Their light also highlights the nebula's three-dimensional shape, like a lantern in a cavern. By studying the physical structure of a giant nebula, astronomers may determine how clusters of massive stars affect the evolution of the interstellar medium of the galaxy. The nebula also yields clues to its star formation history and will improve understanding of the starburst process when a galaxy undergoes a 'firestorm' of star formation. The image was taken on January 17, 1995 with Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. Separate exposures were taken in different colors of light to study the physical properties of the hot gas (17,000 degrees Fahrenheit, 10,000 degrees Kelvin

  18. A DYNAMICAL STUDY OF SUSPECTED RUNAWAY STARS AS TRACES OF PAST SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS IN THE REGION OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Jilinski, E.; Ortega, V. G.; Drake, N. A.; De la Reza, R.

    2010-09-20

    We address the question of identifying possible past supernovae events taking place in the region of the Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) OB association based on stars proposed by Hoogerwerf et al. With this purpose, we obtained a time series of high-resolution spectra of six stars (HIP 42038, HIP 46950, HIP 48943, HIP 69491, HIP 76013, and HIP 82868) which, according to Hoogerwerf et al., may have been runaway stars with origins in the region of the Sco-Cen association. This also includes the nearby young open clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602. If confirmed, such supernovae events could, in principle, have played a role in triggering the formation of some small stellar groups thought to be associated with the Sco-Cen association. Our analysis shows that, except for HIP 48943, the remaining stars are spectroscopic binary systems. For HIP 46950 and HIP 69491, this was already noted by other authors. Our high-resolution spectra allowed us to obtain the radial velocities for all the stars which, combined with their proper motions and parallaxes from Hipparcos, provide a means to investigate, by retracing their orbits, if the Sco-Cen region was, in fact, the origin of these stars. We find that none of these systems originated in the Sco-Cen region. Exploring the possibility that the birthplace of the studied stars occurred in the clusters IC 2391 and IC 2602, we noticed that at the epoch of 2-3 Myr ago these clusters were at a distance comparable with their tidal radii.

  19. Amphiphilic model conetworks based on cross-linked star copolymers of benzyl methacrylate and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate: synthesis, characterization, and DNA adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Demetra S; Georgiou, Theoni K; Patrickios, Costas S

    2006-12-01

    Six amphiphilic model conetworks of a new structure, that of cross-linked "in-out" star copolymers, were synthesized by the group transfer polymerization (GTP) of the hydrophobic monomer benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) and the ionizable hydrophilic monomer 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) in a one-pot preparation. The synthesis took place in tetrahydrofuran (THF) using tetrabutylammonium bibenzoate (TBABB) as the catalyst, 1-methoxy-1-(trimethylsiloxy)-2-methyl-propene (MTS) as the initiator, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker. Three heteroarm star-, two star block-, one statistical copolymer star-, and one homopolymer star-based networks were prepared. The synthesis of these star-based networks involved four to six steps, including the preparation of the linear (co)polymers, the "arm-first" and the "in-out" star copolymers, and finally the network. The precursors and the extractables were characterized using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. The degrees of swelling (DSs) of all the networks were measured in THF, while the aqueous DSs were measured as a function of pH. The DSs at low pH were higher than those at neutral or high pH because of the protonation of the DMAEMA units and were found to be dependent on the structure of the network. The DSs in THF were higher than those in neutral water and were independent of the structure. Finally, DNA adsorption studies onto the networks indicated that the DNA binding was governed by electrostatics.

  20. The problem of the barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, E.; Nemec, J.; Proffitt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Ultraviolet observations of barium stars and other cool stars with peculiar element abundances are reported. Those observations attempted to find hot white dwarf companions. Among six real barium stars studied, only Zeta Cap was found to have a white dwarf companion. Among seven mild, or marginal, barium stars studied, at least three were found to have hot subluminous companions. It is likely that all of them have white dwarf companions.

  1. A Chandra X-ray study of the young star cluster NGC 6231: low-mass population and initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiani, F.; Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.

    2016-12-01

    Context. NGC 6231 is a massive young star cluster, near the center of the Sco OB1 association. While its OB members are well studied, its low-mass population has received little attention. We present high-spatial resolution Chandra ACIS-I X-ray data, where we detect 1613 point X-ray sources. Aims: Our main aim is to clarify global properties of NGC 6231 down to low masses through a detailed membership assessment, and to study the cluster stars' spatial distribution, the origin of their X-ray emission, the cluster age and formation history, and initial mass function. Methods: We use X-ray data, complemented by optical and IR data, to establish cluster membership. The spatial distribution of different stellar subgroups also provides highly significant constraints on cluster membership, as does the distribution of X-ray hardness. We perform spectral modelling of group-stacked X-ray source spectra. Results: We find a large cluster population down to 0.3 M⊙ (complete to 1 M⊙), with minimal non-member contamination, with a definite age spread (1-8 Myr) for the low-mass PMS stars. We argue that low-mass cluster stars also constitute the majority of the few hundreds unidentified X-ray sources. We find mass segregation for the most massive stars. The fraction of circumstellar-disk bearing members is found to be 5%. Photoevaporation of disks under the action of massive stars is suggested by the spatial distribution of the IR-excess stars. We also find strong Hα emission in 9% of cluster PMS stars. The dependence of X-ray properties on mass, stellar structure, and age agrees with extrapolations based on other young clusters. The cluster initial mass function, computed over 2 dex in mass, has a slope Γ -1.14. The total mass of cluster members above 1 M⊙ is 2.28 × 103M⊙, and the inferred total mass is 4.38 × 103M⊙. We also study the peculiar, hard X-ray spectrum of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 79. Full Tables B.1 and B.2 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp

  2. Condensate dark matter stars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X.Y.; Harko, T.; Cheng, K.S. E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the structure and stability properties of compact astrophysical objects that may be formed from the Bose-Einstein condensation of dark matter. Once the critical temperature of a boson gas is less than the critical temperature, a Bose-Einstein Condensation process can always take place during the cosmic history of the universe. Therefore we model the dark matter inside the star as a Bose-Einstein condensate. In the condensate dark matter star model, the dark matter equation of state can be described by a polytropic equation of state, with polytropic index equal to one. We derive the basic general relativistic equations describing the equilibrium structure of the condensate dark matter star with spherically symmetric static geometry. The structure equations of the condensate dark matter stars are studied numerically. The critical mass and radius of the dark matter star are given by M{sub crit} ≈ 2(l{sub a}/1fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2}M{sub s}un and R{sub crit} ≈ 1.1 × 10{sup 6}(l{sub a}/1 fm){sup 1/2}(m{sub χ}/1 GeV){sup −3/2} cm respectively, where l{sub a} and m{sub χ} are the scattering length and the mass of dark matter particle, respectively.

  3. Hα observations of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Rawat, S. D.; Janardhan, P.

    2000-12-01

    We present here the Hα spectra of 44 Be stars taken at a resolution of 0.5 Å. From the spectra, different emission line parameters have been deduced. A study of the correlations between different pairs of these parameters has been made with a view to understanding the mechanisms of line formation and shaping in Be stars.

  4. Four Neglected Southern Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cragg, T. A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper is a continuation of the study of several southern Mira stars presented at the 1996 Fall Meeting of the AAVSO in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The four stars herein included are 0828-44, CT Vel; 1553-23, BK Sco; 1557-23, TY Sco; and 2011-52, X Tel. X Tel is now on the regular observing list of the RASNZ.

  5. STARS/LiBerACE: Segmented silicon and high-purity germanium detector arrays for low-energy nuclear reaction and structure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesher, S. R.; Phair, L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bleuel, D. L.; Burke, J. T.; Church, J. A.; Fallon, P.; Gibelin, J.; Scielzo, N. D.; Wiedeking, M.

    2010-09-01

    The Silicon Telescope Array for Reaction Studies (STARS) consists of large-area annular double-sided silicon detectors for charged-particle identification. The Livermore Berkeley Array for Collaborative Experiments (LiBerACE) is an array of six Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium Clover detectors for efficient detection of γ-rays. These detector arrays are versatile tools for studies of neutron-induced reaction cross-sections, fission, light neutron-rich nuclei, and other low-energy nuclear physics topics through transfer, fusion, incomplete-fusion, and inelastic-scattering reactions. The STARS and LiBerACE arrays and typical experimental configurations are described in detail.

  6. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  7. Critical study of the distribution of rotational velocities of Be stars. I. Deconvolution methods, effects due to gravity darkening, macroturbulence, and binarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorec, J.; Frémat, Y.; Domiciano de Souza, A.; Royer, F.; Cidale, L.; Hubert, A.-M.; Semaan, T.; Martayan, C.; Cochetti, Y. R.; Arias, M. L.; Aidelman, Y.; Stee, P.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Among intermediate-mass and massive stars, Be stars are the fastest rotators in the main sequence (MS) and, as such, these stars are a cornerstone to validate models of structure and evolution of rotating stars. Several phenomena, however, induce under- or overestimations either of their apparent Vsini, or true velocity V. Aims: In the present contribution we aim at obtaining distributions of true rotational velocities corrected for systematic effects induced by the rapid rotation itself, macroturbulent velocities, and binarity. Methods: We study a set of 233 Be stars by assuming they have inclination angles distributed at random. We critically discuss the methods of Cranmer and Lucy-Richardson, which enable us to transform a distribution of projected velocities into another distribution of true rotational velocities, where the gravitational darkening effect on the Vsini parameter is considered in different ways. We conclude that iterative algorithm by Lucy-Richardson responds at best to the purposes of the present work, but it requires a thorough determination of the stellar fundamental parameters. Results: We conclude that once the mode of ratios of the true velocities of Be stars attains the value V/Vc ≃ 0.77 in the main-sequence (MS) evolutionary phase, it remains unchanged up to the end of the MS lifespan. The statistical corrections found on the distribution of ratios V/Vc for overestimations of Vsini, due to macroturbulent motions and binarity, produce a shift of this distribution toward lower values of V/Vc when Be stars in all MS evolutionary stages are considered together. The mode of the final distribution obtained is at V/Vc ≃ 0.65. This distribution has a nearly symmetric distribution and shows that the Be phenomenon is characterized by a wide range of true velocity ratios 0.3 ≲ V/Vc ≲ 0.95. It thus suggests that the probability that Be stars are critical rotators is extremely low. Conclusions: The corrections attempted in the present

  8. Star clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labhardt, Lukas; Binggeli, Bruno

    Star clusters are at the heart of astronomy, being key objects for our understanding of stellar evolution and galactic structure. Observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and other modern equipment have revealed fascinating new facts about these galactic building blocks. This book provides two comprehensive and up-to-date, pedagogically designed reviews on star clusters by two well-known experts in the field. Bruce Carney presents our current knowledge of the relative and absolute ages of globular clusters and the chemical history of our Galaxy. Bill Harris addresses globular clusters in external galaxies and their use as tracers of galaxy formation and cosmic distance indicators. The book is written for graduate students as well as professionals in astronomy and astrophysics.

  9. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  10. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and photovoltaic fission fragment detector arrays for light-ion induced fission correlation studies

    DOE PAGES

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; ...

    2017-02-20

    Here, the Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE–E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution ofmore » 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.« less

  11. Exact versus Taylor-expanded energy density in the study of the neutron star crust-core transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routray, T. R.; Viñas, X.; Basu, D. N.; Pattnaik, S. P.; Centelles, M.; Robledo, L. B.; Behera, B.

    2016-10-01

    The importance of the fourth and higher order terms in the Taylor series expansion of energy of isospin asymmetric nuclear matter in studies of the neutron star crust-core phase transition is investigated using the finite-range simple effective interaction. Analytic expressions for the evaluation of the second and fourth order derivative terms in the Taylor series expansion for any general finite-range interaction of Yukawa, exponential or Gaussian form have been obtained. The effect of the nuclear matter incompressibility, symmetry energy and slope parameters on the predictions for the crust-core transition density is examined. The crustal moment of inertia is calculated and the prediction for the radius of the Vela pulsar is analyzed using different equations of state.

  12. DEATH-STAR: Silicon and Photovoltaic Fission Fragment Detector Arrays for Light-Ion Induced Fission Correlation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koglin, J. D.; Burke, J. T.; Fisher, S. E.; Jovanovic, I.

    2017-05-01

    The Direct Excitation Angular Tracking pHotovoltaic-Silicon Telescope ARray (DEATH-STAR) combines a series of 12 silicon detectors in a ΔE - E configuration for charged particle identification with a large-area array of 56 photovoltaic (solar) cells for detection of fission fragments. The combination of many scattering angles and fission fragment detectors allows for an angular-resolved tool to study reaction cross sections using the surrogate method, anisotropic fission distributions, and angular momentum transfers through stripping, transfer, inelastic scattering, and other direct nuclear reactions. The unique photovoltaic detectors efficiently detect fission fragments while being insensitive to light ions and have a timing resolution of 15.63±0.37 ns. Alpha particles are detected with a resolution of 35.5 keV 1σ at 7.9 MeV. Measured fission fragment angular distributions are also presented.

  13. Christmas star.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biała, J.

    There are continuous attempts to identify the legendary Christmas Star with a real astronomical event accompanying the birth of Jesus from Nazareth. Unfortunately, the date of birth is difficult to establish on the basis of historical records with better accuracy than a few years. During that period a number of peculiar astronomical events were observed and it seem to be impossible to identify the right one unambiguously.

  14. VLT-SINFONI sub-kpc study of the star formation in local LIRGs and ULIRGs. Analysis of the global ΣSFR structure and characterisation of individual star-forming clumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueras López, J.; Colina, L.; Arribas, S.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Alonso-Herrero, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional study of star formation at kiloparsec and sub-kiloparsec scales of a sample of local (z < 0.1) luminous (10) and ultraluminous (7) infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs), based on near-infrared VLT-SINFONI integral field spectroscopy (IFS). We obtained integrated measurements of the star formation rate and star formation rate surface density, together with their 2D distributions, based on Brγ and Paα emission. In agreement with previous studies, we observe a tight linear correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) derived from our extinction-corrected Paα measurements and that derived from Spitzer 24 μm data, and a reasonable agreement with SFR derived from LIR. We also compared our SFRPaα values with optical measurements from Hα emission and find that the SFRPaα is on average a factor ~3 larger than the SFRHα, even when the extinction corrections are applied. Within the angular resolution and sizes sampled by the SINFONI observations, we found that LIRGs have a median-observed star formation rate surface density of ΣLIRGsobs=1.16 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, and ΣLIRGscorr=1.72 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the extinction-corrected distribution. The median-observed and the extinction-corrected ΣSFR values for ULIRGs are ΣULIRGsobs=0.16 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 and ΣULIRGscorr=0.23 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, respectively. These median values for ULIRGs increase up to 1.38 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 and 2.90 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2, when only their inner regions, covering the same size as the average FoV of LIRGs, are considered. For a given fixed angular sampling, our simulations show that the predicted median of the ΣSFR distribution increases artificially with distance, a factor ~2-3 when the original measurements for LIRGs are simulated at the average distance of our ULIRGs. This could have consequences on any estimates of the star formation surface brightness in high-z galaxies, and consequently on the derivation of the universality of star formation laws at all redshifts. We

  15. A study of faint companions of nearby stars in the near-IR with the Mt.Wilson 100 inch telescope and adaptive optics system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Ge, J.; Debes, J. H.; Brown, R.; McCarthy, D.; Ftaclas, C.

    2001-12-01

    We have initiated a study of the nature of faint companions to nearby stars within 25pc using the Penn State near IR Imaging Spectrometer (PIRIS) and a PICNIC 256x256 pixel array. This instrument is equipped with direct imaging modes, coronographic modes, a special Gaussian pupil mask mode, and low resolution (vision prism, R=25), medium resolution (commercial fused silica grisms, R=200 to 400), and high resolution (silicon grisms, R=1000 to 5000) spectroscopy modes from 0.8 micron to 2.4 micron. We report here initial results from our first observations of HD 190067 and other stars on the Mt. Wilson 100 inch telescope using its natural guide star Adaptive Optics System. We find the H-K color of the companion of HD 190067 to be 1.1, and H magnitude to be 10.7, suggesting that it could be a very late M type dwarf, and its central hydrogen may not burn. Low resolution (R=25) spectra of this star along with other faint companion stars were also obtained to put a constraint on their nature.

  16. Spectrophotometric study in the near-IR of a sample of H alpha-selected galaxies with active star formation at z = 0.84

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Gallego, J.; Villar, V.; Zamorano, J.; Acosta, J.; Pérez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Barro, G.

    2011-11-01

    In this work we present the results of the spectroscopic analysis in the near-infrared J band of a sample of 48 star forming galaxies at z = 0.84. Half of the sample was selected by a narrow-band filter tuned to Hα at that redshift and the other half was selected by photometric redshifts at the same redshift. We provide Hα luminosities and star formation rates for all galaxies at that redshift. We were able to estimate metallicities from [NII]6584 Å for a sub sample of eight galaxies, two of the galaxies were from neckband selection. To analyze their physical properties we have computed their sizes, colors, stellar masses, extinctions and other parameters available in literature and in the Rainbow database. In particular the dependence of the stellar mass with the specific star formation rate and metallicity have been studied and compared with the results of other samples of galaxies at several redshifts. For a fixed mass, the metallicities of our galaxies are compatible than those similar at the local Universe, although with higher dispersion. This fact implies that selection in Hα is less biased than a selection in UV, since it includes galaxies with more evolved populations besides objects dominated by star formation. The comparison of the observed properties with models of evolution leads us to think that z = 0.8 star-forming galaxies have already undergone significant changes and begin to developed in a more passive way.

  17. A Star on Earth

    ScienceCinema

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2016-07-12

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  18. A Star on Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, Stewart; Zwicker, Andrew; Hammet, Greg; Tresemer, Kelsey; Diallo, Ahmed

    2014-03-05

    At the Energy Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, scientists are trying to accomplish what was once considered the realm of science fiction: create a star on Earth. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a magnetic fusion device that is used to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas -- hot ionized gases in which, under the right conditions, nuclear fusion will occur. Fusion is the energy source of the sun and all of the stars. Not just limited to theoretical work, the NSTX is enabling cutting-edge research to develop fusion as a future energy source.

  19. NuSTAR Briefing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-30

    Yunjin Kim, NuSTAR project manager at the Jet Propulsion Laborartory (JPL), talks about NASA's Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuStar) during a briefing, Wednesday, May 30, 2012, at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Imaging light in the high-energy, short-wavelength X-ray range, the telescope will aim to study how black holes form and evolve along with galaxies. The instrument, packed aboard an Orbital Sciences Pegasus XL rocket is set to launch from a plane in midair no earlier than June 13 from Kwajalein Atoll in the Marshall Islands. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  20. Exceptional Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Hansen, B.; van Kerkwijk, M.; Phinney, E. S.

    2005-12-01

    As part of our Interdisciplinary Scientist effort (PI, Kulkarni) for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) we proposed an investigation with SIM of a number of exceptional stars. With SIM we plan to observe dozens of nearby white dwarfs and search for planets surviving the evolution away from the main sequence as well as (newly formed) planets formed in the circumbinary disks of post-AGB binaries or as a result of white dwarf mergers. We propose to measure the proper motion of a sample of X-ray binaries and Be star binaries with the view of understanding the originof high latitude objects and inferring natal kicks and pre-supernova orbits. We plan to observe several compact object binaries to determine the mass of the compact star. Of particular importance is the proposed observation of SS 433 (for which we propose to use the spectrometer on SIM to measure the proper motion of the emission line clumps embedded in the relativistic jets). Separately we are investigating the issue of frame tie between SIM and the ecliptic frame (by observing binary millisecond pulsars with SIM; the position of these objects is very well determined by pulsar timing) and the degree to which highly precise visibility amplitude measurements can be inverted to infer binary parameters.

  1. Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Ed

    Radio pulsars are unique laboratories for a wide range of physics and astrophysics. Understanding how they are created, how they evolve and where we find them in the Galaxy, with or without binary companions, is highly constraining of theories of stellar and binary evolution. Pulsars' relationship with a recently discovered variety of apparently different classes of neutron stars is an interesting modern astrophysical puzzle which we consider in Part I of this review. Radio pulsars are also famous for allowing us to probe the laws of nature at a fundamental level. They act as precise cosmic clocks and, when in a binary system with a companion star, provide indispensable venues for precision tests of gravity. The different applications of radio pulsars for fundamental physics will be discussed in Part II. We finish by making mention of the newly discovered class of astrophysical objects, the Fast Radio Bursts, which may or may not be related to radio pulsars or neutron stars, but which were discovered in observations of the latter.

  2. Exploring What Factors Mediate Treatment Effect: Example of the STarT Back Study High-Risk Intervention.

    PubMed

    Mansell, Gemma; Hill, Jonathan C; Main, Chris; Vowles, Kevin E; van der Windt, Daniëlle

    2016-11-01

    Interventions developed to improve disability outcomes for low back pain (LBP) often show only small effects. Mediation analysis was used to investigate what led to the effectiveness of the STarT Back trial, a large primary care-based trial that treated patients consulting with LBP according to their risk of a poor outcome. The high-risk subgroup, randomized to receive either psychologically-informed physiotherapy (n = 93) or current best care (n = 45), was investigated to explore pain-related distress and pain intensity as potential mediators of the relationship between treatment allocation and change in disability. Structural equation modeling was used to generate latent variables of pain-related distress and pain intensity from measures used to identify patients at high risk (fear-avoidance beliefs, depression, anxiety, and catastrophizing thoughts). Outcome was measured using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Change in pain-related distress and pain intensity were found to have a significant mediating effect of .25 (standardized estimate, bootstrapped 95% confidence interval, .09-.39) on the relationship between treatment group allocation and change in disability outcome. This study adds to the evidence base of treatment mediation studies in pain research and the role of distress in influencing disability outcome in those with complex LBP. Mediation analysis using structural equation modeling found that change in pain-related distress and pain intensity mediated treatment effect in the STarT Back trial. This type of analysis can be used to gain further insight into how interventions work, and lead to the design of more effective interventions in future. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  4. Upscaling Self-Sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR): Experimental Study of Scaling Relationships for Smouldering Combustion to Remediate Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsman, L.; Gerhard, J.; Torero, J.; Scholes, G.; Murray, C.

    2013-12-01

    Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation (STAR) is a relatively new remediation approach for soil contaminated with organic industrial liquids. This technology uses smouldering combustion, a controlled, self-sustaining burning reaction, to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and thereby render soil clean. While STAR has been proven at the bench scale, success at industrial scales requires the process to be scaled-up significantly. The objective of this study was to conduct an experimental investigation into how liquid smouldering combustion phenomena scale. A suite of detailed forward smouldering experiments were conducted in short (16 cm dia. x 22 cm high), intermediate (16 cm dia. x 127 cm high), and large (97 cm dia. x 300 cm high; a prototype ex-situ reactor) columns; this represents scaling of up to 530 times based on the volume treated. A range of fuels were investigated, with the majority of experiments conducted using crude oil sludge as well as canola oil as a non-toxic surrogate for hazardous contaminants. To provide directly comparable data sets and to isolate changes in the smouldering reaction which occurred solely due to scaling effects, sand grain size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration and air injection rates were controlled between the experimental scales. Several processes could not be controlled and were identified to be susceptible to changes in scale, including: mobility of the contaminant, heat losses, and buoyant flow effects. For each experiment, the propagation of the smouldering front was recorded using thermocouples and analyzed by way of temperature-time and temperature-distance plots. In combination with the measurement of continuous mass loss and gaseous emissions, these results were used to evaluate the fundamental differences in the way the reaction front propagates through the mixture of sand and fuel across the various scales. Key governing parameters were compared between the small, intermediate, and large

  5. Faint star studies in the magellanic clouds. II. Field regions 9/sup 0/ northeast of the large magellanic cloud bar

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, L.L.

    1984-06-01

    Photographic photometry is reported for 16 halo field regions. These fields lie 9./sup 0/1 northeast of the LMC bar, surrounding the old globular cluster NGC 2257. Field color-magnitude diagrams show a red horizontal branch, a subgiant branch redder than that of the cluster, and a profusion of blue stars delineating a younger main-sequence. Possible sources of the blue stars are discussed. The field is significantly younger than the cluster, showing that star formation, even in the outer regions of the LMC where the gas density is presently minimal, proceeded long after the formation of the old clusters. It appears that the major portion of stars in the LMC is of intermediate age. That this is true of a region 9 kpc from the bar is of great importance to the eventual derivation of a global history of star formation in the LMC.

  6. Computational astrophysics: Pulsating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. G.

    The field of computational astrophysics in pulsating star studies has grown considerably since the advent of the computer. Initially calculations were done on the IBM 704 with 32K of memory and now we use the CRAY YMP computers with considerably more memory. Our early studies were for models of pulsating stars using a 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic code (SPEC) with radiation diffusion. The radiative transfer was treated in the equilibrium diffusion approximation and the hydrodynamics was done utilizing the approximation of artificial viscosity. The early calculations took many hours of 704 CPU time. Early in 1965 we decided to improve on the usual treatment of the radiative transfer used in our codes by utilizing the method of moments, the so-called variable Eddington approximation. In this approximation the material energy field is uncoupled from the radiation energy field and the angular dependence is introduced through the Eddington factor. A multigroup frequency dependent method may also be applied. The Eddington factor is determined by snapshots of the stars structure utilizing a y-line approximation. The full radiative transfer approximation appears necessary in order to understand the light curves for W Virginia stars and may be important for the light curves of RR Lyrae stars. A detailed radiative transfer method does not appear to be necessary for the understanding of Cepheid light curves. A recent improvement to our models for pulsating stars is in the use of an adaptive mesh scheme to resolve the sharp features in the nonlinear hydrodynamic structure. From these improved structures, better analysis of the radius, velocity, and light curves could be obtained.

  7. Physics of primordial star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Naoki

    2012-09-01

    The study of primordial star formation has a history of nearly sixty years. It is generally thought that primordial stars are one of the key elements in a broad range of topics in astronomy and cosmology, from Galactic chemical evolution to the formation of super-massive blackholes. We review recent progress in the theor