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Sample records for star tracker performance

  1. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  2. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  3. Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS) star tracker test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tests performed on the TRW precision star tracker are described. The unit tested was a two-axis gimballed star tracker designed to provide star LOS data to an accuracy of 1 to 2 sec. The tracker features a unique bearing system and utilizes thermal and mechanical symmetry techniques to achieve high precision which can be demonstrated in a one g environment. The test program included a laboratory evaluation of tracker functional operation, sensitivity, repeatibility, and thermal stability.

  4. Small star trackers for modern space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzmin, Vladimir; Jushkov, Vladimir; Zaikin, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Based on experience of many years creation of spacecrafts' star trackers with diversified detectors (from the first star trackers of 60's to tens versions of star trackers in the following years), using technological achievements in the field of optics and electronics the NPP "Geofizika-Cosmos" has provided celestial orientation for all the space vehicles created in Russia and now has developed a series of new star trackers with CCD matrix and special processors, which are able to meet needs in celestial orientation of the modern spacecrafts for the nearest 10-15 years. In the given article the main characteristics and description of some star trackers' versions are presented. The star trackers have various levels of technical characteristics and use both combined (Russian and foreign) procurement parts, and only national (Russian) procurement parts for the main units.

  5. A low-cost, CCD solid state star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chmielowski, M.; Wynne, D.

    1992-01-01

    Applied Research Corporation (ARC) has developed an engineering model of a multi-star CCD-based tracker for space applications requiring radiation hardness, high reliability and low power consumption. The engineering unit compared favorably in functional performance tests to the standard NASA single-star tracker. Characteristics of the ARC star tracker are: field of view = 10 deg x 7.5 deg, sensitivity range of -1 to +5 star magnitude, NEA = 3 in x 3 in, linearity = 5 in x 5 in, and power consumption of 1-3 W (operating mode dependent). The software is upgradable through a remote link. The hardware-limited acquisition rate is 1-5 Hz for stars of +2 to +5 magnitude and 10-30 Hz for -1 to +2 magnitude stars. Mechanical and electrical interfaces are identical to the standard NASA star tracker.

  6. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  7. Combinations of 148 navigation stars and the star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, R.

    1980-01-01

    The angular separation of all star combinations for 148 nav star on the onboard software for space transportation system-3 flight and following missions is presented as well as the separation of each pair that satisfies the viewing constraints of using both star trackers simultaneously. Tables show (1) shuttle star catalog 1980 star position in M 1950 coordinates; (2) two star combination of 148 nav stars; and (3) summary of two star-combinations of the star tracker 5 deg filter. These 148 stars present 10,875 combinations. For the star tracker filters of plus or minus 5 deg, there are 875 combinations. Formalhaut (nav star 26) has the best number of combinations, which is 33.

  8. Autonomous star tracker based on active pixel sensors (APS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.

    2017-11-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used onboard of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years, star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The Jena-Optronik GmbH is active in the field of opto-electronic sensors like star trackers since the early 80-ties. Today, with the product family ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15, all marked segments like earth observation, scientific applications and geo-telecom are supplied to European and Overseas customers. A new generation of star trackers can be designed based on the APS detector technical features. The measurement performance of the current CCD based star trackers can be maintained, the star tracker functionality, reliability and robustness can be increased while the unit costs are saved.

  9. Exposure Time Optimization for Highly Dynamic Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinguo; Tan, Wei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Under highly dynamic conditions, the star-spots on the image sensor of a star tracker move across many pixels during the exposure time, which will reduce star detection sensitivity and increase star location errors. However, this kind of effect can be compensated well by setting an appropriate exposure time. This paper focuses on how exposure time affects the star tracker under highly dynamic conditions and how to determine the most appropriate exposure time for this case. Firstly, the effect of exposure time on star detection sensitivity is analyzed by establishing the dynamic star-spot imaging model. Then the star location error is deduced based on the error analysis of the sub-pixel centroiding algorithm. Combining these analyses, the effect of exposure time on attitude accuracy is finally determined. Some simulations are carried out to validate these effects, and the results show that there are different optimal exposure times for different angular velocities of a star tracker with a given configuration. In addition, the results of night sky experiments using a real star tracker agree with the simulation results. The summarized regularities in this paper should prove helpful in the system design and dynamic performance evaluation of the highly dynamic star trackers. PMID:24618776

  10. A survey of current solid state star tracker technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. W.; Staley, D. A.

    1985-12-01

    This paper is a survey of the current state of the art in design of star trackers for spacecraft attitude determination systems. Specific areas discussed are sensor technology, including the current state-of-the-art solid state sensors and techniques of mounting and cooling the sensor, analog image preprocessing electronics performance, and digital processing hardware and software. Three examples of area array solid state star tracker development are presented - ASTROS, developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Retroreflector Field Tracker (RFT) by Ball Aerospace, and TRW's MADAN. Finally, a discussion of solid state line arrays explores the possibilities for one-dimensional imagers which offer simplified scan control electronics.

  11. Novel approach to improve the attitude update rate of a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng; Wei, Minsong

    2018-03-05

    The star tracker is widely used in attitude control systems of spacecraft for attitude measurement. The attitude update rate of a star tracker is important to guarantee the attitude control performance. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to improve the attitude update rate of a star tracker. The electronic Rolling Shutter (RS) imaging mode of the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor in the star tracker is applied to acquire star images in which the star spots are exposed with row-to-row time offsets, thereby reflecting the rotation of star tracker at different times. The attitude estimation method with a single star spot is developed to realize the multiple attitude updates by a star image, so as to reach a high update rate. The simulation and experiment are performed to verify the proposed approaches. The test results demonstrate that the proposed approach is effective and the attitude update rate of a star tracker is increased significantly.

  12. Hubble Space Telescope Star Tracker ad Two-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanArsdall, John C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) normally requires three gyroscopes for three-axis rate control. The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-107 resulted in the cancellation of a shuttle-based HST Servicing Mission 4. Therefore, HST must operate using the on-board hardware until an alternate means of servicing can be accomplished. The probability of gyro failure indicates that fewer than three gyros will be operable before any servicing mission can be performe& To mitigate this, and to extend the HST life expectancy, a rate estimation and control algorithm was developed that requires two gyros to measure rate about two axes, with the remaining axis rate estimated using one of three alternate sensors. Three-axis magnetometers (MSS) are used for coarse rate estimation during large maneuvers and during occultations of other sensors. Fixed-Head Star Trackers (FHSTs) are used for rate estimation during safe mode recovery and during transition to science operations. Fine rate estimation during science operations is performed using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs). The FHST mode (T2G) relies on star vectors as measured by the FHSTs to estimate vehicle rate about the axis not measured by the gyros. Since the FHSTs were not designed to estimate body rate, this method involves a unique set of problems that had to be overcome in the final design, such as the effect of FHST break tracks and moving targets on rate estimation. The solutions to these problems, as well as a detailed description of the design and implementation of the rate estimation are presented Also included are the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the T2G control law. A high fidelity HST simulator (HSTSIM) was used to verify T2G performance prior to on-orbit use. Results of these simulations are also presented. Finally, analysis of actual T2G on-orbit test results is presented for design validation.

  13. Optical contacting for gravity probe star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, J. J.; Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A star-tracker telescope, constructed entirely of fused silica elements optically contacted together, has been proposed to provide submilliarc-second pointing accuracy for Gravity Probe. A bibliography and discussion on optical contacting (the bonding of very flat, highly polished surfaces without the use of adhesives) are presented. Then results from preliminary experiments on the strength of optical contacts including a tensile strength test in liquid helium are discussed. Suggestions are made for further study to verify an optical contacting method for the Gravity Probe star-tracker telescope.

  14. Effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Jin; Wei, Minsong; You, Zheng

    2016-12-20

    Benefiting from rapid development of imaging sensor technology, modern optical technology, and a high-speed computing chip, the star tracker's accuracy, dynamic performance, and update rate have been greatly improved with low power consumption and miniature size. The star tracker is currently one of the most competitive attitude measurement sensors. However, due to restrictions of the optical imaging system, difficulties still exist in moving star spot detection and star tracking when in special motion conditions. An effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers is proposed in this paper. Spot-based optical flow, based on a gray gradient between two adjacent star images, is analyzed to distinguish the star spot region and obtain an accurate star spot position so that the star tracking can keep continuous under high dynamic conditions. The obtained star vectors and extended Kalman filter (EKF) are then combined to conduct an angular velocity estimation to ensure region prediction of the star spot; this can be combined with the optical flow analysis result. Experiment results show that the method proposed in this paper has advantages in conditions of large angular velocity and large angular acceleration, despite the presence of noise. Higher functional density and better performance can be achieved; thus, the star tracker can be more widely applied in small satellites, remote sensing, and other complex space missions.

  15. Star tracker operation in a high density proton field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miklus, Kenneth J.; Kissh, Frank; Flynn, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Algorithms that reject transient signals due to proton effects on charge coupled device (CCD) sensors have been implemented in the HDOS ASTRA-l Star Trackers to be flown on the TOPEX mission scheduled for launch in July 1992. A unique technique for simulating a proton-rich environment to test trackers is described, as well as the test results obtained. Solar flares or an orbit that passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly can subject the vehicle to very high proton flux levels. There are three ways in which spurious proton generated signals can impact tracker performance: the many false signals can prevent or extend the time to acquire a star; a proton-generated signal can compromise the accuracy of the star's reported magnitude and position; and the tracked star can be lost, requiring reacquisition. Tests simulating a proton-rich environment were performed on two ASTRA-1 Star Trackers utilizing these new algorithms. There were no false acquisitions, no lost stars, and a significant reduction in reported position errors due to these improvements.

  16. SED16 autonomous star tracker night sky testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foisneau, Thierry; Piriou, Véronique; Perrimon, Nicolas; Jacob, Philippe; Blarre, Ludovic; Vilaire, Didier

    2017-11-01

    The SED16 is an autonomous multi-missions star tracker which delivers three axis satellite attitude in an inertial reference frame and the satellite angular velocity with no prior information. The qualification process of this star sensor includes five validation steps using optical star simulator, digitized image simulator and a night sky tests setup. The night sky testing was the final step of the qualification process during which all the functions of the star tracker were used in almost nominal conditions : Autonomous Acquisition of the attitude, Autonomous Tracking of ten stars. These tests were performed in Calern in the premises of the OCA (Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur). The test set-up and the test results are described after a brief review of the sensor main characteristics and qualification process.

  17. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) system design and analysis: Single-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility is evaluated of an evolutionary development for use of a single-axis gimbal star tracker from prior two-axis gimbal star tracker based system applications. Detailed evaluation of the star tracker gimbal encoder is considered. A brief system description is given including the aspects of tracker evolution and encoder evaluation. System analysis includes evaluation of star availability and mounting constraints for the geosynchronous orbit application, and a covariance simulation analysis to evaluate performance potential. Star availability and covariance analysis digital computer programs are included.

  18. Dynamic imaging model and parameter optimization for a star tracker.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinyun; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-03-21

    Under dynamic conditions, star spots move across the image plane of a star tracker and form a smeared star image. This smearing effect increases errors in star position estimation and degrades attitude accuracy. First, an analytical energy distribution model of a smeared star spot is established based on a line segment spread function because the dynamic imaging process of a star tracker is equivalent to the static imaging process of linear light sources. The proposed model, which has a clear physical meaning, explicitly reflects the key parameters of the imaging process, including incident flux, exposure time, velocity of a star spot in an image plane, and Gaussian radius. Furthermore, an analytical expression of the centroiding error of the smeared star spot is derived using the proposed model. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of centroiding accuracy is obtained based on the expression. Moreover, analytical solutions of the optimal parameters are derived to achieve the best performance in centroid estimation. Finally, we perform numerical simulations and a night sky experiment to validate the correctness of the dynamic imaging model, the centroiding error expression, and the optimal parameters.

  19. Spacecraft angular velocity estimation algorithm for star tracker based on optical flow techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yujie; Li, Jian; Wang, Gangyi

    2018-02-01

    An integrated navigation system often uses the traditional gyro and star tracker for high precision navigation with the shortcomings of large volume, heavy weight and high-cost. With the development of autonomous navigation for deep space and small spacecraft, star tracker has been gradually used for attitude calculation and angular velocity measurement directly. At the same time, with the dynamic imaging requirements of remote sensing satellites and other imaging satellites, how to measure the angular velocity in the dynamic situation to improve the accuracy of the star tracker is the hotspot of future research. We propose the approach to measure angular rate with a nongyro and improve the dynamic performance of the star tracker. First, the star extraction algorithm based on morphology is used to extract the star region, and the stars in the two images are matched according to the method of angular distance voting. The calculation of the displacement of the star image is measured by the improved optical flow method. Finally, the triaxial angular velocity of the star tracker is calculated by the star vector using the least squares method. The method has the advantages of fast matching speed, strong antinoise ability, and good dynamic performance. The triaxial angular velocity of star tracker can be obtained accurately with these methods. So, the star tracker can achieve better tracking performance and dynamic attitude positioning accuracy to lay a good foundation for the wide application of various satellites and complex space missions.

  20. Opportunity Science Using the Juno Magnetometer Investigation Star Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joergensen, J. L.; Connerney, J. E.; Bang, A. M.; Denver, T.; Oliversen, R. J.; Benn, M.; Lawton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetometer experiment onboard Juno is equipped with four non-magnetic star tracker camera heads, two of which reside on each of the magnetometer sensor optical benches. These are located 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. The star tracker, collectively referred to as the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), provides high accuracy attitude information for the magnetometer sensors throughout science operations. The star tracker camera heads are pointed +/- 13 deg off the spin vector, in the anti-sun direction, imaging a 13 x 20 deg field of view every ¼ second as Juno rotates at 1 or 2 rpm. The ASC is a fully autonomous star tracker, producing a time series of attitude quaternions for each camera head, utilizing a suite of internal support functions. These include imaging capabilities, autonomous object tracking, automatic dark-sky monitoring, and related capabilities; these internal functions may be accessed via telecommand. During Juno's cruise phase, this capability can be tapped to provide unique science and engineering data available along the Juno trajectory. We present a few examples of the JUNO ASC opportunity science here. As the Juno spacecraft approached the Earth-Moon system for the close encounter with the Earth on October 9, 2013, one of the ASC camera heads obtained imagery of the Earth-Moon system while the other three remained in full science (attitude determination) operation. This enabled the first movie of the Earth and Moon obtained by a spacecraft flying past the Earth in gravity assist. We also use the many artificial satellites in orbit about the Earth as calibration targets for the autonomous asteroid detection system inherent to the ASC autonomous star tracker. We shall also profile the zodiacal dust disk, using the interstellar image data, and present the outlook for small asteroid body detection and distribution being performed during Juno's passage from Earth flyby to Jovian orbit

  1. Adaptive Neural Star Tracker Calibration for Precision Spacecraft Pointing and Tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.

    1996-01-01

    The Star Tracker is an essential sensor for precision pointing and tracking in most 3-axis stabilized spacecraft. In the interest (of) improving pointing performance by taking advantage of dramatic increases in flight computer power and memory anticipated over the next decade, this paper investigates the use of a neural net for adaptive in-flight calibration of the Star Tracker.

  2. Star tracking method based on multiexposure imaging for intensified star trackers.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenbo; Jiang, Jie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-07-20

    The requirements for the dynamic performance of star trackers are rapidly increasing with the development of space exploration technologies. However, insufficient knowledge of the angular acceleration has largely decreased the performance of the existing star tracking methods, and star trackers may even fail to track under highly dynamic conditions. This study proposes a star tracking method based on multiexposure imaging for intensified star trackers. The accurate estimation model of the complete motion parameters, including the angular velocity and angular acceleration, is established according to the working characteristic of multiexposure imaging. The estimation of the complete motion parameters is utilized to generate the predictive star image accurately. Therefore, the correct matching and tracking between stars in the real and predictive star images can be reliably accomplished under highly dynamic conditions. Simulations with specific dynamic conditions are conducted to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. Experiments with real starry night sky observation are also conducted for further verification. Simulations and experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and shows excellent performance under highly dynamic conditions.

  3. Miniature star tracker for small remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Lawrence W.; Schlom, Leslie

    1995-01-01

    Designers of future remote sensing spacecraft, including platforms for Mission to Planet Earth and small satellites, will be driven to provide spacecraft designs that maximize data return and minimize hardware and operating costs. The attitude determination subsystems of these spacecraft must likewise provide maximum capability and versatility at an affordable price. Hughes Danbury Optical Systems (HDOS) has developed the Model HD-1003 Miniature Star Tracker which combines high accuracy, high reliability and growth margin for `all-stellar' capability in a compact, radiation tolerant design that meets these future spacecraft needs and whose cost is competitive with horizon sensors and digital fine sum sensors. Begun in 1991, our HD-1003 development program has now entered the hardware qualification phase. This paper acquaints spacecraft designers with the design and performance capabilities of the HD- 1003 tracker. We highlight the tracker's unique features which include: (1) Very small size (165 cu. in.). (2) Low weight (7 lbs). (3) Multi-star tracking (6 stars simultaneously). (4) Eighteen arc-sec (3-sigma) accuracy. (5) Growth margin for `all-stellar' attitude reference.

  4. Modeling Navigation System Performance of a Satellite-Observing Star Tracker Tightly Integrated with an Inertial Measurement Unit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    tracker, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and a barometric altimeter using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Models of each of these components are...Positioning 15 2.5 Detector Device Improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6 Kalman Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.6.1...Extended Kalman Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7 System Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.8 Sun Exitance

  5. Software and mathematical support of Kazakhstani star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, D.; Yelubayev, S.; Ten, V.; Bopeyev, T.; Alipbayev, K.; Sukhenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    Currently the specialists of Kazakhstan have been developing the star tracker that is further planned to use on Kazakhstani satellites of various purposes. At the first stage it has been developed the experimental model of star tracker that has following characteristics: field of view 20°, update frequency 2 Hz, exclusion angle 40°, accuracy of attitude determination of optical axis/around optical axis 15/50 arcsec. Software and mathematical support are the most high technology parts of star tracker. The results of software and mathematical support development of experimental model of Kazakhstani star tracker are represented in this article. In particular, there are described the main mathematical models and algorithms that have been used as a basis for program units of preliminary image processing of starry sky, stars identification and star tracker attitude determination. The results of software and mathematical support testing with the help of program simulation complex using various configurations of defects including image sensor noises, point spread function modeling, optical system distortion up to 2% are presented. Analysis of testing results has shown that accuracy of attitude determination of star tracker is within the permissible range

  6. Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.

  7. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  8. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  9. A brightness-referenced star identification algorithm for APS star trackers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-10-08

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4~5 times that of the pyramid method and 35~37 times that of the geometric method.

  10. Swarm- Validation of Star Tracker and Accelerometer Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schack, Peter; Schlicht, Anja; Pail, Roland; Gruber, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The ESA Swarm mission is designed to advance studies in the field of magnetosphere, thermosphere and gravity field. To be fortunate on this task precise knowledge of the orientation of the Swarm satellites is required together with knowledge about external forces acting on the satellites. The key sensors providing this information are the star trackers and the accelerometers. Based on star tracker studies conducted by the Denmark Technical University (DTU), we found interesting patterns in the interboresight angles on all three satellites, which are partly induced by temperature alterations. Additionally, structures of horizontal stripes seem to be caused by the unique distribution of observed stars on the charge-coupled device of the star trackers. Our accelerometer analyses focus on spikes and pulses in the observations. Those short term events on Swarm might originate from electrical processes introduced by sunlight illuminating the nadir foil. Comparisons to GOCE and GRACE are included.

  11. Miniaturized star tracker for micro spacecraft with high angular rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Zhifeng; Niu, Zhenhong; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-10-01

    There is a clear need for miniaturized, lightweight, accurate and inexpensive star tracker for spacecraft with large anglar rate. To face these new constraints, the Beijing Institute of Space Long March Vehicle has designed, built and flown a low cost miniaturized star tracker that provides autonomous ("Lost in Space") inertial attitude determination, 2 Hz 3-axis star tracking, and digital imaging with embedded compression. Detector with high sensitivity is adopted to meet the dynamic and miniature requirement. A Sun and Moon avoiding method based on the calculation of Sun and Moon's vector by astronomical theory is proposed. The produced prototype weight 0.84kg, and can be used for a spacecraft with 6°/s anglar rate. The average angle measure error is less than 43 arc second. The ground verification and application of the star tracker during the pick-up flight test showed that the capability of the product meet the requirement.

  12. Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) design and analysis. Two-axis gimbal star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Development of the Precision Attitude Determination System (PADS) focused chiefly on the two-axis gimballed star tracker and electronics design improved from that of Precision Pointing Control System (PPCS), and application of the improved tracker for PADS at geosynchronous altitude. System design, system analysis, software design, and hardware design activities are reported. The system design encompasses the PADS configuration, system performance characteristics, component design summaries, and interface considerations. The PADS design and performance analysis includes error analysis, performance analysis via attitude determination simulation, and star tracker servo design analysis. The design of the star tracker and electronics are discussed. Sensor electronics schematics are included. A detailed characterization of the application software algorithms and computer requirements is provided.

  13. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:23567527

  14. Angular velocity estimation from measurement vectors of star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jun-cai; Yi, Wen-jun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Yang, Jian-kun; Li, Xiu-jian; Tan, Ji-chun

    2012-06-01

    In most spacecraft, there is a need to know the craft's angular rate. Approaches with least squares and an adaptive Kalman filter are proposed for estimating the angular rate directly from the star tracker measurements. In these approaches, only knowledge of the vector measurements and sampling interval is required. The designed adaptive Kalman filter can filter out noise without information of the dynamic model and inertia dyadic. To verify the proposed estimation approaches, simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging minisatellite payload (CHAMP) satellite and experimental tests with night-sky observation are performed. Both the simulations and experimental testing results have demonstrated that the proposed approach performs well in terms of accuracy, robustness, and performance.

  15. True-sky demonstration of an autonomous star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bezooijen, Roelof W.

    1994-07-01

    An autonomous star tracker (AST) is basically a `star field in, attitude out' device capable of determining its attitude without requiring any a priori attitude knowledge. In addition to this attitude acquisition capability, an AST can perform attitude updates autonomously and is able to provide its attitude `continuously' while tracking a star field. The Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory is developing a reliable, low-cost, miniature AST that has a one arcsec overall accuracy, weighs less than 1.5 kg, consumes less than 7 watts of power, and is sufficiently sensitive to be used at all sky locations. The device performs attitude acquisition in a fraction of a second and outputs its attitude at a 10 Hz rate when operating in its tracking mode. Besides providing the functionality needed for future advanced attitude control and navigation systems, an AST also improves spacecraft reliability, mass, power, cost, and operating expenses. The AST comprises a-thermalized, refractive optics, a frame-transfer CCD with a sensitive area of 1024 by 1024 pixels, camera electronics implemented with application- specific integrated circuits, a compact single board computer with a radiation hard 32 bit RISC processor, and an all-sky guide star database. Star identification is performed by a memory- efficient and highly robust algorithm that finds the largest group of observed stars matching a group of guide stars. An important milestone has recently been achieved with the validation of the attitude acquisition capability through correct and rapid identification of all 704 true-sky star fields obtained at the Lick Observatory, using an uncalibrated prototype AST with a 512 by 1024 pixel frame-transfer CCD and a 50 mm f/1.2 lens that provided an effective 6.5 by 13.2 degree field of view. The overlapping fields cover 47% of the sky, including both rich and sparse areas. The paper contains a description of the AST, a summary of the functions enabled or improved by the device, an

  16. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers. PMID:26948412

  17. An accuracy measurement method for star trackers based on direct astronomic observation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; You, Zheng; Chu, Daping

    2016-03-07

    Star tracker is one of the most promising optical attitude measurement devices and it is widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. However, how to realize and verify such an accuracy remains a crucial but unsolved issue until now. The authenticity of the accuracy measurement method of a star tracker will eventually determine the satellite performance. A new and robust accuracy measurement method for a star tracker based on the direct astronomical observation is proposed here. In comparison with the conventional method with simulated stars, this method utilizes real navigation stars as observation targets which makes the measurement results more authoritative and authentic. Transformations between different coordinate systems are conducted on the account of the precision movements of the Earth, and the error curves of directional vectors are obtained along the three axes. Based on error analysis and accuracy definitions, a three-axis accuracy evaluation criterion has been proposed in this paper, which could determine pointing and rolling accuracy of a star tracker directly. Experimental measurements confirm that this method is effective and convenient to implement. Such a measurement environment is close to the in-orbit conditions and it can satisfy the stringent requirement for high-accuracy star trackers.

  18. Star tracker error analysis: Roll-to-pitch nonorthogonality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    An error analysis is described on an anomaly isolated in the star tracker software line of sight (LOS) rate test. The LOS rate cosine was found to be greater than one in certain cases which implied that either one or both of the star tracker measured end point unit vectors used to compute the LOS rate cosine had lengths greater than unity. The roll/pitch nonorthogonality matrix in the TNB CL module of the IMU software is examined as the source of error.

  19. Radiation-Hard Breadboard Star Tracker. Attachment 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    fdL RETURN DONE !! * . *• , . -+., -• -: . . E+ . . .. j , ’ - - V.r.*r - , It - ’Cjf0 Q -****r.. ... " * *. " . -. tu ’ * Checkadapt 3- 2"Jj...TRACK POSITION, it will use the 3 70! CURRENT STAR #, X POSITION, Y POSITION for 5180 ! information sent to the tracker interface. 7_390 5t0 0 Track _it...CRITERIA which is currently defines as the number of times 57 20 ! the tracker will try and track the star before it is dropped, 5730 it will also

  20. System and method for calibrating inter-star-tracker misalignments in a stellar inertial attitude determination system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Rongsheng (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Hein, Douglas H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining star tracker misalignments is disclosed. The method comprises the steps of defining a defining a reference frame for the star tracker assembly according to a boresight of the primary star tracker and a boresight of a second star tracker wherein the boresight of the primary star tracker and a plane spanned by the boresight of the primary star tracker and the boresight of the second star tracker at least partially define a datum for the reference frame for the star tracker assembly; and determining the misalignment of the at least one star tracker as a rotation of the defined reference frame.

  1. Ground Testing Strategies for Verifying the Slew Rate Tolerance of Star Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Dzamba, Tom; Enright, John

    2014-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker is largely based on the availability of its attitude solution. Several methods exist to assess star tracker availability under both static and dynamic imaging conditions. However, these methods typically make various idealizations that can limit the accuracy of these results. This study aims to increase the fidelity of star tracker availability modeling by accounting for the effects of detection logic and pixel saturation on star detection. We achieve this by developing an analytical model for the focal plane intensity distribution of a star in the presence of sensor slew. Using the developed model, we examine the effects of slew rate on star detection using simulations and lab tests. The developed approach allows us to determine the maximum slew rate for which a star of a given stellar magnitude can still be detected. This information can then be used to describe the availability of a star tracker attitude solution as a function of slew rate, both spatially, across the entire celestial sphere, or locally, along a specified orientation track. PMID:24577522

  2. Deep coupling of star tracker and MEMS-gyro data under highly dynamic and long exposure conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Star trackers and gyroscopes are the two most widely used attitude measurement devices in spacecrafts. The star tracker is supposed to have the highest accuracy in stable conditions among different types of attitude measurement devices. In general, to detect faint stars and reduce the size of the star tracker, a method with long exposure time method is usually used. Thus, under dynamic conditions, smearing of the star image may appear and result in decreased accuracy or even failed extraction of the star spot. This may cause inaccuracies in attitude measurement. Gyros have relatively good dynamic performance and are usually used in combination with star trackers. However, current combination methods focus mainly on the data fusion of the output attitude data levels, which are inadequate for utilizing and processing internal blurred star image information. A method for tracking deep coupling stars and MEMS-gyro data is proposed in this work. The method achieves deep fusion at the star image level. First, dynamic star image processing is performed based on the angular velocity information of the MEMS-gyro. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the star spot could be improved, and extraction is achieved more effectively. Then, a prediction model for optimal estimation of the star spot position is obtained through the MEMS-gyro, and an extended Kalman filter is introduced. Meanwhile, the MEMS-gyro drift can be estimated and compensated though the proposed method. These enable the star tracker to achieve high star centroid determination accuracy under dynamic conditions. The MEMS-gyro drift can be corrected even when attitude data of the star tracker are unable to be solved and only one navigation star is captured in the field of view. Laboratory experiments were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and the whole system.

  3. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  4. Reduction of low frequency error for SED36 and APS based HYDRA star trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouaknine, Julien; Blarre, Ludovic; Oddos-Marcel, Lionel; Montel, Johan; Julio, Jean-Marc

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the CNES Pleiades satellite, a reduction of the star tracker low frequency error, which is the most penalizing error for the satellite attitude control, was performed. For that purpose, the SED36 star tracker was developed, with a design based on the flight qualified SED16/26. In this paper, the SED36 main features will be first presented. Then, the reduction process of the low frequency error will be developed, particularly the optimization of the optical distortion calibration. The result is an attitude low frequency error of 1.1" at 3 sigma along transverse axes. The implementation of these improvements to HYDRA, the new multi-head APS star tracker developed by SODERN, will finally be presented.

  5. Interplanetary Radiation and Fault Tolerant Mini-Star Tracker System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakoczy, John; Paceley, Pete

    2015-01-01

    The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory, Inc. is partnering with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Engineering Directorate's Avionics Design Division and Flight Mechanics & Analysis Division to develop and test a prototype small, low-weight, low-power, radiation-hardened, fault-tolerant mini-star tracker (fig. 1). The project is expected to enable Draper Laboratory and its small business partner, L-1 Standards and Technologies, Inc., to develop a new guidance, navigation, and control sensor product for the growing small sat technology market. The project also addresses MSFC's need for sophisticated small sat technologies to support a variety of science missions in Earth orbit and beyond. The prototype star tracker will be tested on the night sky on MSFC's Automated Lunar and Meteor Observatory (ALAMO) telescope. The specific goal of the project is to address the need for a compact, low size, weight, and power, yet radiation hardened and fault tolerant star tracker system that can be used as a stand-alone attitude determination system or incorporated into a complete attitude determination and control system for emerging interplanetary and operational CubeSat and small sat missions.

  6. Miniature wide field-of-view star trackers for spacecraft attitude sensing and navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, William; Curtis, Eric; Hull, Anthony; Morgan, William

    1993-01-01

    Introducing a family of miniature, wide field-of-view star trackers for low cost, high performance spacecraft attitude determination and navigation applications. These devices, derivative of the WFOV Star Tracker Camera developed cooperatively by OCA Applied Optics and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Brilliant Pebbles program, offer a suite of options addressing a wide range of spacecraft attitude measurement and control requirements. These sensors employ much wider fields than are customary (ranging between 20 and 60 degrees) to assure enough bright stars for quick and accurate attitude determinations without long integration intervals. The key benefit of this approach are light weight, low power, reduced data processing loads and high information carrier rates for wide ACS bandwidths. Devices described range from the proven OCA/LLNL WFOV Star Tracker Camera (a low-cost, space-qualified star-field imager utilizing the spacecraft's own computer and centroiding and position-finding), to a new autonomous subsystem design featuring dual-redundant cameras and completely self-contained star-field data processing with output quaternion solutions accurate to 100 micro-rad, 3 sigma, for stand-alone applications.

  7. (abstract) Realization of a Faster, Cheaper, Better Mission and Its New Paradigm Star Tracker, the Advanced Stellar Compass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenman, Allan Read; Liebe, Carl Christian; Joergensen, John Lief; Jensen, Gunnar Bent

    1997-01-01

    The first Danish satellite, rsted, will be launched in August of 1997. The scientific objective of sted is to perform a precision mapping of the Earth's magnetic field. Attitude data for the payload and the satellite are provided by the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) star tracker. The ASC consists of a CCD star camera and a capable microprocessor which operates by comparing the star image frames taken by the camera to its internal star catalogs.

  8. Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) gimballed star tracker. [developed for the Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lana, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Design and development of six gimballed star trackers for Skylab's Apollo Telescope Mount, which performed successfully on all three manned Skylab missions and accumulated a total usage time of approximately 3,500 hours, is described in terms of configurations, materials and construction, qualification testing, performance, and reliability characteristics. A brief program history and design changes incorporated during the life of the program are also discussed. Extensive drawings, block diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  9. Optimal estimation for the satellite attitude using star tracker measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, J. T.-H.

    1986-01-01

    An optimal estimation scheme is presented, which determines the satellite attitude using the gyro readings and the star tracker measurements of a commonly used satellite attitude measuring unit. The scheme is mainly based on the exponential Fourier densities that have the desirable closure property under conditioning. By updating a finite and fixed number of parameters, the conditional probability density, which is an exponential Fourier density, is recursively determined. Simulation results indicate that the scheme is more accurate and robust than extended Kalman filtering. It is believed that this approach is applicable to many other attitude measuring units. As no linearization and approximation are necessary in the approach, it is ideal for systems involving high levels of randomness and/or low levels of observability and systems for which accuracy is of overriding importance.

  10. "Sturdy as a house with four windows," the star tracker of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duivenvoorde, Tom; Leijtens, Johan; van der Heide, Erik J.

    2017-11-01

    Ongoing miniaturization of spacecraft demands the reduction in size of Attitude and Orbit Control Systems (AOCS). Therefore TNO has created a new design of a multi aperture, high performance, and miniaturized star tracker. The innovative design incorporates the latest developments in camera technology, attitude calculation and mechanical design into a system with 5 arc seconds accuracy, making the system usable for many applications. In this paper the results are presented of the system design and analysis, as well as the performance predictions for the Multi Aperture Baffled Star Tracker (MABS). The highly integrated system consists of multiple apertures without the need for external baffles, resulting in major advantages in mass, volume, alignment with the spacecraft and relative aperture stability. In the analysis part of this paper, the thermal and mechanical stability are discussed. In the final part the simulation results will be described that have lead to the predicted accuracy of the star tracker system and a peek into the future of attitude sensors is given.

  11. Low-Frequency Error Extraction and Compensation for Attitude Measurements from STECE Star Tracker.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yuwang; Gu, Defeng; Liu, Junhong; Li, Wenping; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-10-12

    The low frequency errors (LFE) of star trackers are the most penalizing errors for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination. Two test star trackers- have been mounted on the Space Technology Experiment and Climate Exploration (STECE) satellite, a small satellite mission developed by China. To extract and compensate the LFE of the attitude measurements for the two test star trackers, a new approach, called Fourier analysis, combined with the Vondrak filter method (FAVF) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the LFE of the two test star trackers' attitude measurements are analyzed and extracted by the FAVF method. The remarkable orbital reproducibility features are found in both of the two test star trackers' attitude measurements. Then, by using the reproducibility feature of the LFE, the two star trackers' LFE patterns are estimated effectively. Finally, based on the actual LFE pattern results, this paper presents a new LFE compensation strategy. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed LFE compensation algorithm is demonstrated by the significant improvement in the consistency between the two test star trackers. The root mean square (RMS) of the relative Euler angle residuals are reduced from [27.95'', 25.14'', 82.43''], 3σ to [16.12'', 15.89'', 53.27''], 3σ.

  12. Compensation for Time-Dependent Star Tracker Thermal Deformation on the Aqua Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashmall, Joseph A.; Natanson, Gregory; Glickman, Jonathan; Sedlak, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of attitude sensor data from the Aqua mission showed small but systematic differences between batch least-squares and extended Kalman filter attitudes. These differences were also found to be correlated with star tracker residuals, gyro bias estimates, and star tracker baseplate temperatures. This paper describes the analysis that shows that these correlations are all consistent with a single cause: time-dependent thermal deformation of star tracker alignments. These varying alignments can be separated into relative and common components. The relative misalignments can be determined and compensated for. The common misalignments can only be determined in special cases.

  13. Lost in space: Onboard star identification using CCD star tracker data without an a priori attitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    There are many algorithms in use today which determine spacecraft attitude by identifying stars in the field of view of a star tracker. Some methods, which date from the early 1960's, compare the angular separation between observed stars with a small catalog. In the last 10 years, several methods have been developed which speed up the process and reduce the amount of memory needed, a key element to onboard attitude determination. However, each of these methods require some a priori knowledge of the spacecraft attitude. Although the Sun and magnetic field generally provide the necessary coarse attitude information, there are occasions when a spacecraft could get lost when it is not prudent to wait for sunlight. Also, the possibility of efficient attitude determination using only the highly accurate CCD star tracker could lead to fully autonomous spacecraft attitude determination. The need for redundant coarse sensors could thus be eliminated at substantial cost reduction. Some groups have extended their algorithms to implement a computation intense full sky scan. Some require large data bases. Both storage and speed are concerns for autonomous onboard systems. Neural network technology is even being explored by some as a possible solution, but because of the limited number of patterns that can be stored and large overhead, nothing concrete has resulted from these efforts. This paper presents an algorithm which, by descretizing the sky and filtering by visual magnitude of the brightness observed star, speeds up the lost in space star identification process while reducing the amount of necessary onboard computer storage compared to existing techniques.

  14. Post flight analysis of NASA standard star trackers recovered from the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    1985-01-01

    The flight hardware returned after the Solar Maximum Mission Repair Mission was analyzed to determine the effects of 4 years in space. The NASA Standard Star Tracker would be a good candidate for such analysis because it is moderately complex and had a very elaborate calibration during the acceptance procedure. However, the recovery process extensively damaged the cathode of the image dissector detector making proper operation of the tracker and a comparison with preflight characteristics impossible. Otherwise, the tracker functioned nominally during testing.

  15. Intelligent modular star and target tracker: a new generation of attitude sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe; Strobel, Rainer; Wunder, Dietmar; Graf, Eberhart

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "Intelligent modular star and target tracker: a new generation of attitude sensors," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  16. Managing the star performer.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Our culture seems to be endlessly fascinated with its stars in entertainment, athletics, politics, and business, and holds fast to the idea that extraordinary talent accounts for an individual's extraordinary performance. At first glance, managing a star performer in your medical practice may seem like it would be an easy task. However, there's much more to managing a star performer than many practice managers realize. The concern is how to keep the star performer happy and functioning at a high level without detriment to the rest of the medical practice team. This article offers tips for practice managers who manage star performers. It explores ways to keep the star performer motivated, while at the same time helping the star performer to meld into the existing medical practice team. This article suggests strategies for redefining the star performer's role, for holding the star performer accountable for his or her behavior, and for coaching the star performer. Finally, this article offers practical tips for keeping the star performer during trying times, for identifying and cultivating new star performers, and for managing medical practice prima donnas.

  17. Low-Frequency Error Extraction and Compensation for Attitude Measurements from STECE Star Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yuwang; Gu, Defeng; Liu, Junhong; Li, Wenping; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-01-01

    The low frequency errors (LFE) of star trackers are the most penalizing errors for high-accuracy satellite attitude determination. Two test star trackers- have been mounted on the Space Technology Experiment and Climate Exploration (STECE) satellite, a small satellite mission developed by China. To extract and compensate the LFE of the attitude measurements for the two test star trackers, a new approach, called Fourier analysis, combined with the Vondrak filter method (FAVF) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the LFE of the two test star trackers’ attitude measurements are analyzed and extracted by the FAVF method. The remarkable orbital reproducibility features are found in both of the two test star trackers’ attitude measurements. Then, by using the reproducibility feature of the LFE, the two star trackers’ LFE patterns are estimated effectively. Finally, based on the actual LFE pattern results, this paper presents a new LFE compensation strategy. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed LFE compensation algorithm is demonstrated by the significant improvement in the consistency between the two test star trackers. The root mean square (RMS) of the relative Euler angle residuals are reduced from [27.95′′, 25.14′′, 82.43′′], 3σ to [16.12′′, 15.89′′, 53.27′′], 3σ. PMID:27754320

  18. On-Orbit Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Star Tracker Warm Pixel Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felikson, Denis; Ekinci, Matthew; Hashmall, Joseph A.; Vess, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the process of identification and analysis of warm pixels in two autonomous star trackers on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission. A brief description of the mission orbit and attitude regimes is discussed and pertinent star tracker hardware specifications are given. Warm pixels are defined and the Quality Index parameter is introduced, which can be explained qualitatively as a manifestation of a possible warm pixel event. A description of the algorithm used to identify warm pixel candidates is given. Finally, analysis of dumps of on-orbit star tracker charge coupled devices (CCD) images is presented and an operational plan going forward is discussed. SDO, launched on February 11, 2010, is operated from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). SDO is in a geosynchronous orbit with a 28.5 inclination. The nominal mission attitude points the spacecraft X-axis at the Sun, with the spacecraft Z-axis roughly aligned with the Solar North Pole. The spacecraft Y-axis completes the triad. In attitude, SDO moves approximately 0.04 per hour, mostly about the spacecraft Z-axis. The SDO star trackers, manufactured by Galileo Avionica, project the images of stars in their 16.4deg x 16.4deg fields-of-view onto CCD detectors consisting of 512 x 512 pixels. The trackers autonomously identify the star patterns and provide an attitude estimate. Each unit is able to track up to 9 stars. Additionally, each tracker calculates a parameter called the Quality Index, which is a measure of the quality of the attitude solution. Each pixel in the CCD measures the intensity of light and a warns pixel is defined as having a measurement consistently and significantly higher than the mean background intensity level. A warns pixel should also have lower intensity than a pixel containing a star image and will not move across the field of view as the attitude changes (as would a dim star image). It should be noted that the maximum error introduced in the star tracker

  19. A Novel Performance Evaluation Methodology for Single-Target Trackers.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Matej; Matas, Jiri; Leonardis, Ales; Vojir, Tomas; Pflugfelder, Roman; Fernandez, Gustavo; Nebehay, Georg; Porikli, Fatih; Cehovin, Luka

    2016-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of single-target tracker performance evaluation. We consider the performance measures, the dataset and the evaluation system to be the most important components of tracker evaluation and propose requirements for each of them. The requirements are the basis of a new evaluation methodology that aims at a simple and easily interpretable tracker comparison. The ranking-based methodology addresses tracker equivalence in terms of statistical significance and practical differences. A fully-annotated dataset with per-frame annotations with several visual attributes is introduced. The diversity of its visual properties is maximized in a novel way by clustering a large number of videos according to their visual attributes. This makes it the most sophistically constructed and annotated dataset to date. A multi-platform evaluation system allowing easy integration of third-party trackers is presented as well. The proposed evaluation methodology was tested on the VOT2014 challenge on the new dataset and 38 trackers, making it the largest benchmark to date. Most of the tested trackers are indeed state-of-the-art since they outperform the standard baselines, resulting in a highly-challenging benchmark. An exhaustive analysis of the dataset from the perspective of tracking difficulty is carried out. To facilitate tracker comparison a new performance visualization technique is proposed.

  20. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  1. Analysis for Mar Vel Black and acetylene soot low reflectivity surfaces for star tracker sunshade applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, E.

    1974-01-01

    Mar Vel Black is a revolutionary new extremely low reflectivity anodized coating developed by Martin Marietta of Denver. It is of great interest in optics in general, and in star trackers specifically because it can reduce extraneous light reflections. A sample of Mar Vel Black was evaluated. Mar Vel Black looks much like a super black surface with many small peaks and very steep sides so that any light incident upon the surface will tend to reflect many times before exiting that surface. Even a high reflectivity surface would thus appear to have a very low reflectivity under such conditions. Conversely, acetylene soot does not have the magnified surface appearance of a super black surface. Its performance is, however, predictable from the surface structure, considering the known configuration of virtually pure carbon.

  2. Filtering Methods for Error Reduction in Spacecraft Attitude Estimation Using Quaternion Star Trackers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoun, Philip C.; Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Precision attitude determination for recent and planned space missions typically includes quaternion star trackers (ST) and a three-axis inertial reference unit (IRU). Sensor selection is based on estimates of knowledge accuracy attainable from a Kalman filter (KF), which provides the optimal solution for the case of linear dynamics with measurement and process errors characterized by random Gaussian noise with white spectrum. Non-Gaussian systematic errors in quaternion STs are often quite large and have an unpredictable time-varying nature, particularly when used in non-inertial pointing applications. Two filtering methods are proposed to reduce the attitude estimation error resulting from ST systematic errors, 1) extended Kalman filter (EKF) augmented with Markov states, 2) Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with a periodic measurement model. Realistic assessments of the attitude estimation performance gains are demonstrated with both simulation and flight telemetry data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  3. A new star tracker concept for satellite attitude determination based on a multi-purpose panoramic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele; Pernechele, Claudio; Dionisio, Cesare

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative algorithm developed for attitude determination of a space platform. The algorithm exploits images taken from a multi-purpose panoramic camera equipped with hyper-hemispheric lens and used as star tracker. The sensor architecture is also original since state-of-the-art star trackers accurately image as many stars as possible within a narrow- or medium-size field-of-view, while the considered sensor observes an extremely large portion of the celestial sphere but its observation capabilities are limited by the features of the optical system. The proposed original approach combines algorithmic concepts, like template matching and point cloud registration, inherited from the computer vision and robotic research fields, to carry out star identification. The final aim is to provide a robust and reliable initial attitude solution (lost-in-space mode), with a satisfactory accuracy level in view of the multi-purpose functionality of the sensor and considering its limitations in terms of resolution and sensitivity. Performance evaluation is carried out within a simulation environment in which the panoramic camera operation is realistically reproduced, including perturbations in the imaged star pattern. Results show that the presented algorithm is able to estimate attitude with accuracy better than 1° with a success rate around 98% evaluated by densely covering the entire space of the parameters representing the camera pointing in the inertial space.

  4. Which Eye Tracker is Right for Your Research Performance Evaluation of Several Cost Variant Eye Trackers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 21-10-16 Conference Proceedings 10/2015 – 03/2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Which eye tracker is right for...Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing Airman Systems Directorate Warfighter Interface Division Applied Neuroscience Branch Wright...88ABW-2016-1334; Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2016 Annual Meeting 19 – 23 Sept 2016 14. Though not often mentioned, the price point of many

  5. Optical analysis of the star-tracker telescope for Gravity Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zissa, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    A ray tracing modeling of the star tracker telescope for Gravity Probe was used to predict the character of the output signal and its sensitivity to fabrication errors. In particular, the impact of the optical subsystem on the requirement of 1 milliarc second signal linearity over a + or - 50 milliarc second range was examined. Photomultiplier and solid state detector options were considered. Recommendations are made.

  6. Integration of a Star Tracker and Inertial Sensors Using an Attitude Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-18

    and civilian applications because of its precision navigation capability. Unfortunately, GPS is not available in all environments (e.g., indoors...under sea, underground, or jamming environment ). The motivation of this research is to address the limitations of GPS by using star trackers as an...from him. In addition, I thank my thesis committee members, Dr. Meir Pachter and Dr. Kyle Kauffman for their teachings throughout my courses and

  7. Development of Star Tracker System for Accurate Estimation of Spacecraft Attitude

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    For a high- cost spacecraft with accurate pointing requirements, the use of a star tracker is the preferred method for attitude determination. The...solutions, however there are certain costs with using this algorithm. There are significantly more features a triangle can provide when compared to an...to the other. The non-rotating geocentric equatorial frame provides an inertial frame for the two-body problem of a satellite in orbit. In this

  8. Fixed-head star tracker attitude updates on the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadelman, Matthew S.; Karl, Jeffrey B.; Hallock, Lou

    1994-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was launched in April 1990 to begin observing celestial space to the edge of the universe. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) standard fixed-head star trackers (FHST's) are used operationally onboard the HST to regularly adjust ('update') the spacecraft attitude before the acquisition of guide stars for science observations. During the first 3 months of the mission, the FHST's updated the spacecraft attitude successfully only 85 percent of the time. During the other periods, the trackers were unable to find the selected stars -- either they failed to find any star, or worse, they selected incorrect stars and produced erroneous attitude updates. In July 1990, the HST project office at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) requested that Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) form an investigative 'tiger' team to examine these FHST update failures. This paper discusses the work of the FHST tiger team, describes the investigations that led the team to identify the sources of the errors, and defines the solutions that were subsequently developed, which ultimately increased the success rate of FHST updates to approximately 98 percent.

  9. A star tracker insensitive to stray light generated by radiation sources close to the field of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romoli, A.; Gambicorti, L.; Simonetti, F.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of this work is to propose an innovative star tracker, practically insensitive to the radiation coming from the sun or from other strong planetary sources out of (but near) the Field of View. These sources need to be stopped in some way. The classical solution to reject the unwanted radiation is to place a shadow (or baffle) before the star tracker objective. The shadow size depends on the Field of View and on the minimum angle subtended by the source (i.e. the sun) with respect to the optical axis of the star tracker. The lower is this angle the larger is the shadow. Requests for star trackers able to work with the sun as close as possible to the Field of View are increasing, due to the need of maximum mission flexibility. The innovation of this proposed star tracker is conceived by using spatial filtering with a concept complementary to that of coronagraph for sun corona observation, allowing to drastically reduce the size of the shadow. It can also work close to antennas and other part of the platform, which, when illuminated by the sun, become secondary sources capable to blind the star tracker. This kind of accommodation offers three main advantages: no cumbersome shadows (baffle), maximum flexibility in terms of mission profile, less platform location constraints. This new star sensor concept, dated 2007, is now patent pending. Galileo Avionica (now Selex Galileo) is the owner of the patent.

  10. Performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker in Run 1 of the LHC: tracker properties

    DOE PAGES

    Aaboud, M.; Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; ...

    2017-05-03

    The tracking performance parameters of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) as part of the ATLAS inner detector are described in this paper for different data-taking conditions in proton-proton, proton-lead and lead-lead collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The performance is studied using data collected during the first period of LHC operation (Run 1) and is compared with Monte Carlo simulations. The performance of the TRT, operating with two different gas mixtures (xenon-based and argon-based) and its dependence on the TRT occupancy is presented. Furthermore, these studies show that the tracking performance of the TRT is similar for themore » two gas mixtures and that a significant contribution to the particle momentum resolution is made by the TRT up to high particle densities.« less

  11. Fixed-head star tracker magnitude calibration on the solar maximum mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitone, Daniel S.; Twambly, B. J.; Eudell, A. H.; Roberts, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The sensitivity of the fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) is defined as the accuracy of the electronic response to the magnitude of a star in the sensor field-of-view, which is measured as intensity in volts. To identify stars during attitude determination and control processes, a transformation equation is required to convert from star intensity in volts to units of magnitude and vice versa. To maintain high accuracy standards, this transformation is calibrated frequently. A sensitivity index is defined as the observed intensity in volts divided by the predicted intensity in volts; thus, the sensitivity index is a measure of the accuracy of the calibration. Using the sensitivity index, analysis is presented that compares the strengths and weaknesses of two possible transformation equations. The effect on the transformation equations of variables, such as position in the sensor field-of-view, star color, and star magnitude, is investigated. In addition, results are given that evaluate the aging process of each sensor. The results in this work can be used by future missions as an aid to employing data from star cameras as effectively as possible.

  12. Contingency Operations during Failure of Inertial Attitude Acquisition Due to Star Tracker Blinding for Three-Axes-Stabilized Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Joachim; Herfort, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The three interplanetary ESA missions Mars-Express, Rosetta and Venus-Express (launched 2003, 2004 and 2005 resp.) are three-axes stabilized spacecraft (s/c) that estimate their inertial attitude (i.e. the attitude of the s/c w.r.t. the inertial frame) using measurements from a redundant set of star trackers (STR). Each s/c is equipped with four reaction wheels, a reaction control system based on thrusters and a redundant set of ring laser gyroscopes (gyros). The STR h/w layout of the three s/c is identical whereas there is a difference in the star pattern recognition algorithm of Rosetta which uses five neighbouring stars around a central star instead of star triads. The Rosetta algorithm has been implemented to cope with the presence of false stars which are expected to be seen during operations around the comet. The attitude acquisition capability from lost in space is different also in terms of AOCMS: The survival mode of Rosetta which is entered upon STR failure is presented. The AOCMS of Mars- and Venus-Express manages temporary STR outages during sky occultation by the planet not even by using redundancy. Though, a blinding of both STR during cruise lasting for the order of days confronts the ground operators with the limits of the AOCMS design. The operations and analyses that have been planned and partially been performed to compensate for the outage of the STR are demonstrated for Mars-Express. The caution measures taken before Venus orbit insertion of Venus-Express are detailed.

  13. Color/magnitude calibration for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) standard Fixed-Head Star Trackers (FHST)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, J.; Leid, Terry; Garber, A.; Lee, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper characterizes and analyzes the spectral response of Ball Aerospace fixed-head star trackers, (FHST's) currently in use on some three-axis stabilized spacecraft. The FHST output is a function of the frequency and intensity of the incident light and the position of the star image in the field of view. The FHST's on board the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) have had occasional problems identifying stars with a high B-V value. These problems are characterized by inaccurate intensity counts observed by the tracker. The inaccuracies are due to errors in the observed star magnitude values. These errors are unique to each individual FHST. For this reason, data were also collected and analyzed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). As a consequence of this work, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) hopes to improve the attitude accuracy on these missions and to adopt better star selection procedures for catalogs.

  14. Experience from the in-flight calibration of the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) and Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) fixed head star trackers (FHSTs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Since the original post-launch calibration of the FHSTs (Fixed Head Star Trackers) on EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite), the Flight Dynamics task has continued to analyze the FHST performance. The algorithm used for inflight alignment of spacecraft sensors is described and the equations for the errors in the relative alignment for the simple 2 star tracker case are shown. Simulated data and real data are used to compute the covariance of the relative alignment errors. Several methods for correcting the alignment are compared and results analyzed. The specific problems seen on orbit with UARS and EUVE are then discussed. UARS has experienced anomalous tracker performance on an FHST resulting in continuous variation in apparent tracker alignment. On EUVE, the FHST residuals from the attitude determination algorithm showed a dependence on the direction of roll during survey mode. This dependence is traced back to time tagging errors and the original post launch alignment is found to be in error due to the impact of the time tagging errors on the alignment algorithm. The methods used by the FDF (Flight Dynamics Facility) to correct for these problems is described.

  15. Using the GOCE star trackers for validating the calibration of its accelerometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, P. N. A. M.

    2017-12-01

    A method for validating the calibration parameters of the six accelerometers on board the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) from star tracker observations that was originally tested by an end-to-end simulation, has been updated and applied to real data from GOCE. It is shown that the method provides estimates of scale factors for all three axes of the six GOCE accelerometers that are consistent at a level significantly better than 0.01 compared to the a priori calibrated value of 1. In addition, relative accelerometer biases and drift terms were estimated consistent with values obtained by precise orbit determination, where the first GOCE accelerometer served as reference. The calibration results clearly reveal the different behavior of the sensitive and less-sensitive accelerometer axes.

  16. Star Tracker Based ATP System Conceptual Design and Pointing Accuracy Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orfiz, Gerardo G.; Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A star tracker based beaconless (a.k.a. non-cooperative beacon) acquisition, tracking and pointing concept for precisely pointing an optical communication beam is presented as an innovative approach to extend the range of high bandwidth (> 100 Mbps) deep space optical communication links throughout the solar system and to remove the need for a ground based high power laser as a beacon source. The basic approach for executing the ATP functions involves the use of stars as the reference sources from which the attitude knowledge is obtained and combined with high bandwidth gyroscopes for propagating the pointing knowledge to the beam pointing mechanism. Details of the conceptual design are presented including selection of an orthogonal telescope configuration and the introduction of an optical metering scheme to reduce misalignment error. Also, estimates are presented that demonstrate that aiming of the communications beam to the Earth based receive terminal can be achieved with a total system pointing accuracy of better than 850 nanoradians (3 sigma) from anywhere in the solar system.

  17. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  18. Performance of a day time star sensor for a stabilized balloon platform

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, E.; DiCocco, G.; Donati, A.

    1989-02-01

    A modified version of a CCD star tracker originally designed for use on the ROSAT X ray astronomy satellite, has been built for use on a three axis stabilized balloon platform. The first flight of this star sensor was planned for may 1988 from the NASA Balloon base at Palestine, Texas. The expected performance of this instrument is described along with the preflight results.

  19. Testing FlowTracker2 Performance and Wading Rod Flow Disturbance in Laboratory Tow Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, X.; Wagenaar, D.

    2016-12-01

    The FlowTracker2 was released in February 2016 by SonTek (Xylem) to be a more feature-rich and technologically advanced replacement to the Original FlowTracker ADV. These instruments are Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) used for taking high-precision wading discharge and velocity measurements. The accuracy of the FlowTracker2 probe was tested in tow tanks at three different facilities: the USGS Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF), the Swiss Federal Institute for Metrology (METAS), and at the SonTek Research and Development facility. Multiple mounting configurations were examined, including mounting the ADV probe directly to the tow carts, and incorporating the two most-used wading rods for the FlowTracker (round and hex). Tow speeds ranged from 5cm/s to 1.5m/s, and different tow tank seeding schemes and wait times were examined. In addition, the performance of the FlowTracker2 probe in low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) environments was compared to the Original FlowTracker ADV. Results confirmed that the FlowTracker2 probe itself performed well within the 1%+0.25cm/s accuracy specification advertised. Tows using the wading rods created a reduced measured velocity by 1.3% of the expected velocity due to flow disturbance, a result similar to the Original FlowTracker ADV despite the change in the FlowTracker2 probe design. Finally, due to improvements in its electronics, the FlowTracker2's performance in low SNR tests exceeded that of the Original FlowTracker ADV, showing less standard error in these conditions compared to its predecessor.

  20. A novel design of dual-channel optical system of star-tracker based on non-blind area PAL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yujie; Bai, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Star-tracker plays an important role in satellite navigation. Considering the satellites on near-Earth orbit, the system usually has two optical systems: one for observing the profile of Earth and the other for capturing the positions of stars. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel kind of dual-channel optical observation system of star-tracker with non-blind area PAL imaging system based on dichroic filter, which can combine both different observation channels into an integrated structure and realize the feature of miniaturization. According to the practical usage of star-tracker and the features of dichroic filter, we set the ultraviolet band as the PAL channel to observe the Earth with the FOV ranging from 40°-60°, and set the visible band as the front imaging channel to capture the stars far away from this system with the FOV ranging from 0°-20°. Consequently, the rays of both channels are converged on the same image plane, improving the efficiency of pixels of detector and reducing the weight and size of whole star-tracker system.

  1. Design of a Programmable Star Tracker-Based Reference System for a Simulated Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    This reduces the overall light intensity hitting the sensor, as indicated by the darker color. However, the red and green circles are also forming...may be beneficial on SimSat since we can control the light output depending on the source chosen. It is possible to sacrifice some star light intensity ...could be done to improve accuracy based on what could be controlled and changed easily. 3.2.3.1 Focal Length. The optics portion of the light collection

  2. A computer-aided telescope pointing system utilizing a video star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, J. P.; Lorell, K. R.; Swift, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The Video Inertial Pointing (VIP) System developed to satisfy the acquisition and pointing requirements of astronomical telescopes is described. A unique feature of the system is the use of a single sensor to provide information for the generation of three axis pointing error signals and for a cathode ray tube (CRT) display of the star field. The pointing error signals are used to update the telescope's gyro stabilization and the CRT display is used by an operator to facilitate target acquisition and to aid in manual positioning of the telescope optical axis. A model of the system using a low light level vidicon built and flown on a balloon-borne infrared telescope is briefly described from a state of the art charge coupled device (CCD) sensor. The advanced system hardware is described and an analysis of the multi-star tracking and three axis error signal generation, along with an analysis and design of the gyro update filter, are presented. Results of a hybrid simulation are described in which the advanced VIP system hardware is driven by a digital simulation of the star field/CCD sensor and an analog simulation of the telescope and gyro stabilization dynamics.

  3. Modeling the Solar Dust Environment at 9.5 Solar Radii: Revealing Radiance Trends with MESSENGER Star Tracker Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, S. B.; Strikwerda, T.; Lario, D.; Raouafi, N.; Decker, R.

    2010-12-01

    The main components of interplanetary dust are created through destruction, erosion, and collision of asteroids and comets (e.g. Mann et al. 2006). Solar radiation forces distribute these interplanetary dust particles throughout the solar system. The percent contribution of these source particulates to the net interplanetary dust distribution can reveal information about solar nebula conditions, within which these objects are formed. In the absence of observational data (e.g. Helios, Pioneer), specifically at distances less than 0.3 AU, the precise dust distributions remain unknown and limited to 1 AU extrapolative models (e.g. Mann et al. 2003). We have developed a model suitable for the investigation of scattered dust and electron irradiance incident on a sensor for distances inward of 1 AU. The model utilizes the Grün et al. (1985) and Mann et al. (2004) dust distribution theory combined with Mie theory and Thomson electron scattering to determine the magnitude of solar irradiance scattered towards an optical sensor as a function of helio-ecliptic latitude and longitude. MESSENGER star tracker observations (launch to 2010) of the ambient celestial background combined with Helios data (Lienert et al. 1982) reveal trends in support of the model predictions. This analysis further emphasizes the need to characterize the inner solar system dust environment in anticipation of near-Solar missions.

  4. Plume Tracker: Interactive mapping of volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions with high-performance radiative transfer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Berk, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development of Plume Tracker, an interactive toolkit for the analysis of multispectral thermal infrared observations of volcanic plumes and clouds. Plume Tracker is the successor to MAP_SO2, and together these flexible and comprehensive tools have enabled investigators to map sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from a number of volcanoes with TIR data from a variety of airborne and satellite instruments. Our objective for the development of Plume Tracker was to improve the computational performance of the retrieval procedures while retaining the accuracy of the retrievals. We have achieved a 300 × improvement in the benchmark performance of the retrieval procedures through the introduction of innovative data binning and signal reconstruction strategies, and improved the accuracy of the retrievals with a new method for evaluating the misfit between model and observed radiance spectra. We evaluated the accuracy of Plume Tracker retrievals with case studies based on MODIS and AIRS data acquired over Sarychev Peak Volcano, and ASTER data acquired over Kilauea and Turrialba Volcanoes. In the Sarychev Peak study, the AIRS-based estimate of total SO2 mass was 40% lower than the MODIS-based estimate. This result was consistent with a 45% reduction in the AIRS-based estimate of plume area relative to the corresponding MODIS-based estimate. In addition, we found that our AIRS-based estimate agreed with an independent estimate, based on a competing retrieval technique, within a margin of ± 20%. In the Kilauea study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates from 21 May 2012 were within ± 50% of concurrent ground-level concentration measurements. In the Turrialba study, the ASTER-based concentration estimates on 21 January 2012 were in exact agreement with SO2 concentrations measured at plume altitude on 1 February 2012.

  5. High-Accuracy Decoupling Estimation of the Systematic Coordinate Errors of an INS and Intensified High Dynamic Star Tracker Based on the Constrained Least Squares Method

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Yu, Wenbo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2017-01-01

    Navigation accuracy is one of the key performance indicators of an inertial navigation system (INS). Requirements for an accuracy assessment of an INS in a real work environment are exceedingly urgent because of enormous differences between real work and laboratory test environments. An attitude accuracy assessment of an INS based on the intensified high dynamic star tracker (IHDST) is particularly suitable for a real complex dynamic environment. However, the coupled systematic coordinate errors of an INS and the IHDST severely decrease the attitude assessment accuracy of an INS. Given that, a high-accuracy decoupling estimation method of the above systematic coordinate errors based on the constrained least squares (CLS) method is proposed in this paper. The reference frame of the IHDST is firstly converted to be consistent with that of the INS because their reference frames are completely different. Thereafter, the decoupling estimation model of the systematic coordinate errors is established and the CLS-based optimization method is utilized to estimate errors accurately. After compensating for error, the attitude accuracy of an INS can be assessed based on IHDST accurately. Both simulated experiments and real flight experiments of aircraft are conducted, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective and shows excellent performance for the attitude accuracy assessment of an INS in a real work environment. PMID:28991179

  6. ASME B89.4.19 Performance Evaluation Tests and Geometric Misalignments in Laser Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Muralikrishnan, B.; Sawyer, D.; Blackburn, C.; Phillips, S.; Borchardt, B.; Estler, W. T.

    2009-01-01

    Small and unintended offsets, tilts, and eccentricity of the mechanical and optical components in laser trackers introduce systematic errors in the measured spherical coordinates (angles and range readings) and possibly in the calculated lengths of reference artifacts. It is desirable that the tests described in the ASME B89.4.19 Standard [1] be sensitive to these geometric misalignments so that any resulting systematic errors are identified during performance evaluation. In this paper, we present some analysis, using error models and numerical simulation, of the sensitivity of the length measurement system tests and two-face system tests in the B89.4.19 Standard to misalignments in laser trackers. We highlight key attributes of the testing strategy adopted in the Standard and propose new length measurement system tests that demonstrate improved sensitivity to some misalignments. Experimental results with a tracker that is not properly error corrected for the effects of the misalignments validate claims regarding the proposed new length tests. PMID:27504211

  7. How Bell Labs creates star performers.

    PubMed

    Kelley, R; Caplan, J

    1993-01-01

    How can managers increase the productivity of professionals when most of their work goes on inside their heads? Robert Kelley and Janet Caplan believe that defining the difference between star performers and average workers is the answer. Many managers assume that top performers are just smarter. But the authors' research at the Bell Laboratories Switching Systems Business Unit (SSBU) has revealed that the real difference between stars and average workers is not IQ but the ways top performers do their jobs. Their study has led to a training program based on the strategies of star performers. The SSBU training program, known as the Productivity Enhancement Group (PEG), uses an expert model to demystify productivity. The star engineers selected to develop the expert model identified and ranked nine work strategies, such as taking initiative, networking, and self-management. Middle performers were also asked what makes for top-quality work, but their definitions and ranking of the strategies differed significantly from those of the top performers. Taking initiative, for example, meant something very different to an average worker than it did to a star. And for the middle performers, the ability to give good presentations was a core strategy, while it was peripheral for the top engineers. Once PEG got underway, respected engineers ran the training sessions, which included case studies, work-related exercises, and frank discussion. The benefits of the program were striking: participants and managers reported substantial productivity increases in both star and average performers. The PEG program may not be a blueprint for other companies, but its message is clear: managers must focus on people, not on technology, to increase productivity in the knowledge economy.

  8. Description and performance of track and primary-vertex reconstruction with the CMS tracker

    DOE PAGES

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-16

    A description is provided of the software algorithms developed for the CMS tracker both for reconstructing charged-particle trajectories in proton-proton interactions and for using the resulting tracks to estimate the positions of the LHC luminous region and individual primary-interaction vertices. Despite the very hostile environment at the LHC, the performance obtained with these algorithms is found to be excellent. For tbar t events under typical 2011 pileup conditions, the average track-reconstruction efficiency for promptly-produced charged particles with transverse momenta of p T > 0.9GeV is 94% for pseudorapidities of |η| < 0.9 and 85% for 0.9 < |η| < 2.5.more » The inefficiency is caused mainly by hadrons that undergo nuclear interactions in the tracker material. For isolated muons, the corresponding efficiencies are essentially 100%. For isolated muons of p T = 100GeV emitted at |η| < 1.4, the resolutions are approximately 2.8% in p T, and respectively, 10μm and 30μm in the transverse and longitudinal impact parameters. The position resolution achieved for reconstructed primary vertices that correspond to interesting pp collisions is 10–12μm in each of the three spatial dimensions. The tracking and vertexing software is fast and flexible, and easily adaptable to other functions, such as fast tracking for the trigger, or dedicated tracking for electrons that takes into account bremsstrahlung.« less

  9. Analysis of the effects of Eye-Tracker performance on the pulse positioning errors during refractive surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    Arba-Mosquera, Samuel; Aslanides, Ioannis M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the effects of Eye-Tracker performance on the pulse positioning errors during refractive surgery. Methods A comprehensive model, which directly considers eye movements, including saccades, vestibular, optokinetic, vergence, and miniature, as well as, eye-tracker acquisition rate, eye-tracker latency time, scanner positioning time, laser firing rate, and laser trigger delay have been developed. Results Eye-tracker acquisition rates below 100 Hz correspond to pulse positioning errors above 1.5 mm. Eye-tracker latency times to about 15 ms correspond to pulse positioning errors of up to 3.5 mm. Scanner positioning times to about 9 ms correspond to pulse positioning errors of up to 2 mm. Laser firing rates faster than eye-tracker acquisition rates basically duplicate pulse-positioning errors. Laser trigger delays to about 300 μs have minor to no impact on pulse-positioning errors. Conclusions The proposed model can be used for comparison of laser systems used for ablation processes. Due to the pseudo-random nature of eye movements, positioning errors of single pulses are much larger than observed decentrations in the clinical settings. There is no single parameter that ‘alone’ minimizes the positioning error. It is the optimal combination of the several parameters that minimizes the error. The results of this analysis are important to understand the limitations of correcting very irregular ablation patterns.

  10. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollodge, J. C.; Hubbard, M. W.; Jain, S.; Schons, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of a star tracker equipped with a focal plane detector was evaluated. The CID board is an array of 256 x 256 pixels which are 20 x 20 micrometers in dimension. The tracker used for test was a breadboard tracker system developed by BASD. Unique acquisition and tracking algorithms are employed to enhance performance. A pattern recognition process is used to test for proper image spread function and to avoid false acquisition on noise. A very linear, high gain, interpixel transfer function is derived for interpolating star position. The lens used in the tracker has an EFL of 100 mm. The tracker has an FOV of 2.93 degrees resulting in a pixel angular subtense of 41.253 arc sec in each axis. The test procedure used for the program presented a star to the tracker in a circular pattern of positions; the pattern was formed by projecting a simulated star through a rotatable deviation wedge. Further tests determined readout noise, Noise Equivalent Displacement during track, and spatial noise during acquisition by taking related data and reducing it.

  11. Breadboard stellar tracker system test report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Complete data from a test program designed to evaluate the performance of a star tracker, a breadboard tracker system, is presented in tabular form. All data presented was normalized to the pixel dimension of 20 micrometers. Data from determination of maximum spatial noise as it applies to the coarse and fine acquisition modes is presented. Pointing accuracy test data, raw pixel data for the track cycle, and data from equipment related tests is also presented.

  12. Improved performance of the LHCb Outer Tracker in LHC Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Argent, P.; Dufour, L.; Grillo, L.; de Vries, J. A.; Ukleja, A.; Aaij, R.; Archilli, F.; Bachmann, S.; Berninghoff, D.; Birnkraut, A.; Blouw, J.; De Cian, M.; Ciezarek, G.; Färber, C.; Demmer, M.; Dettori, F.; Gersabeck, E.; Grabowski, J.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Khanji, B.; Kolpin, M.; Kucharczyk, M.; Malecki, B. P.; Merk, M.; Mulder, M.; Müller, J.; Mueller, V.; Pellegrino, A.; Pikies, M.; Rachwal, B.; Schmelzer, T.; Spaan, B.; Szczekowski, M.; van Tilburg, J.; Tolk, S.; Tuning, N.; Uwer, U.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.

    2017-11-01

    The LHCb Outer Tracker is a gaseous detector covering an area of 5 × 6 m2 with 12 double layers of straw tubes. The performance of the detector is presented based on data of the LHC Run 2 running period from 2015 and 2016. Occupancies and operational experience for data collected in pp, pPb and PbPb collisions are described. An updated study of the ageing effects is presented showing no signs of gain deterioration or other radiation damage effects. In addition several improvements with respect to LHC Run 1 data taking are introduced. A novel real-time calibration of the time-alignment of the detector and the alignment of the single monolayers composing detector modules are presented, improving the drift-time and position resolution of the detector by 20%. Finally, a potential use of the improved resolution for the timing of charged tracks is described, showing the possibility to identify low-momentum hadrons with their time-of-flight.

  13. A robust star identification algorithm with star shortlisting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Deval Samirbhai; Chen, Shoushun; Low, Kay Soon

    2018-05-01

    A star tracker provides the most accurate attitude solution in terms of arc seconds compared to the other existing attitude sensors. When no prior attitude information is available, it operates in "Lost-In-Space (LIS)" mode. Star pattern recognition, also known as star identification algorithm, forms the most crucial part of a star tracker in the LIS mode. Recognition reliability and speed are the two most important parameters of a star pattern recognition technique. In this paper, a novel star identification algorithm with star ID shortlisting is proposed. Firstly, the star IDs are shortlisted based on worst-case patch mismatch, and later stars are identified in the image by an initial match confirmed with a running sequential angular match technique. The proposed idea is tested on 16,200 simulated star images having magnitude uncertainty, noise stars, positional deviation, and varying size of the field of view. The proposed idea is also benchmarked with the state-of-the-art star pattern recognition techniques. Finally, the real-time performance of the proposed technique is tested on the 3104 real star images captured by a star tracker SST-20S currently mounted on a satellite. The proposed technique can achieve an identification accuracy of 98% and takes only 8.2 ms for identification on real images. Simulation and real-time results depict that the proposed technique is highly robust and achieves a high speed of identification suitable for actual space applications.

  14. Performance of the STAR Event Plane Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewigleben, Justin; Justin Ewigleben Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Beam Energy Scan (BES) program at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider has shown hints of a critical point and first order phase transition at the BES energies. Key measurements for locating the critical point and determining the first order phase transition are limited by poor event plane resolution, limited statistics and a TPC-only centrality determination. A new event plane and collision centrality detector (EPD) is planned to replace the existing detector, the Beam-Beam Counter (BBC), with higher granularity and acceptance. The design of the EPD consists of two scintillator discs at z = +/- 3.75m from the center of STAR, covering 2.2 < η < 5.1. One quarter of a single disc was installed in STAR for the 2017 run for commissioning. In this talk we will discuss the detector performance during this commissioning run in both proton-proton collisions at √{ s = 510 } GeV and Au-Au collisions at √{sNN = 54.4 } GeV. NSF Grant 1614474.

  15. Satellite Ephemeris Correction via Remote Site Observation for Star Tracker Navigation Performance Improvement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    squared RMS root mean squared GCRF Geocentric Celestial Reference Frame xi List of Figures Figure Page 1 Geometry of single observation...RA and DEC in the celestial sphere. The Geocentric Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF) is the standard geocentric frame that measures the RA east in the...Figure 2. Right ascension (α) and declination (δ) in the celestial sphere[6] 7 made between geocentric and topocentric angles. Geocentric is referred to

  16. Performance of the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) detector in star experiment at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alruwaili, Manal

    With the growing technology, the number of the processors is becoming massive. Current supercomputer processing will be available on desktops in the next decade. For mass scale application software development on massive parallel computing available on desktops, existing popular languages with large libraries have to be augmented with new constructs and paradigms that exploit massive parallel computing and distributed memory models while retaining the user-friendliness. Currently, available object oriented languages for massive parallel computing such as Chapel, X10 and UPC++ exploit distributed computing, data parallel computing and thread-parallelism at the process level in the PGAS (Partitioned Global Address Space) memory model. However, they do not incorporate: 1) any extension at for object distribution to exploit PGAS model; 2) the programs lack the flexibility of migrating or cloning an object between places to exploit load balancing; and 3) lack the programming paradigms that will result from the integration of data and thread-level parallelism and object distribution. In the proposed thesis, I compare different languages in PGAS model; propose new constructs that extend C++ with object distribution and object migration; and integrate PGAS based process constructs with these extensions on distributed objects. Object cloning and object migration. Also a new paradigm MIDD (Multiple Invocation Distributed Data) is presented when different copies of the same class can be invoked, and work on different elements of a distributed data concurrently using remote method invocations. I present new constructs, their grammar and their behavior. The new constructs have been explained using simple programs utilizing these constructs.

  17. Tracker Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Steven J.; Palacios, David M.

    2013-01-01

    This software can track multiple moving objects within a video stream simultaneously, use visual features to aid in the tracking, and initiate tracks based on object detection in a subregion. A simple programmatic interface allows plugging into larger image chain modeling suites. It extracts unique visual features for aid in tracking and later analysis, and includes sub-functionality for extracting visual features about an object identified within an image frame. Tracker Toolkit utilizes a feature extraction algorithm to tag each object with metadata features about its size, shape, color, and movement. Its functionality is independent of the scale of objects within a scene. The only assumption made on the tracked objects is that they move. There are no constraints on size within the scene, shape, or type of movement. The Tracker Toolkit is also capable of following an arbitrary number of objects in the same scene, identifying and propagating the track of each object from frame to frame. Target objects may be specified for tracking beforehand, or may be dynamically discovered within a tripwire region. Initialization of the Tracker Toolkit algorithm includes two steps: Initializing the data structures for tracked target objects, including targets preselected for tracking; and initializing the tripwire region. If no tripwire region is desired, this step is skipped. The tripwire region is an area within the frames that is always checked for new objects, and all new objects discovered within the region will be tracked until lost (by leaving the frame, stopping, or blending in to the background).

  18. Intelligent robotic tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, W. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, K. C.; Rhoades, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    An intelligent tracker capable of robotic applications requiring guidance and control of platforms, robotic arms, and end effectors has been developed. This packaged system capable of supervised autonomous robotic functions is partitioned into a multiple processor/parallel processing configuration. The system currently interfaces to cameras but has the capability to also use three-dimensional inputs from scanning laser rangers. The inputs are fed into an image processing and tracking section where the camera inputs are conditioned for the multiple tracker algorithms. An executive section monitors the image processing and tracker outputs and performs all the control and decision processes. The present architecture of the system is presented with discussion of its evolutionary growth for space applications. An autonomous rendezvous demonstration of this system was performed last year. More realistic demonstrations in planning are discussed.

  19. Study of performance of the ATLAS transition radiation tracker in run 1 of the LHC: Tracking characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, N.; Krasnopevtsev, D.; Smirnov, N.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) contains more than 350000 large straw tubes and it is the outermost of the three subsystems of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID). The TRT contributes substantially to the ATLAS ID resolution for the tracks of high-energy particles, providing excellent particle identification capabilities and electron-pion separation. Basic performance parameters of the TRT related to its tracking function are described in this paper. The data used in this study were collected during the first period of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operation in 2012 with a proton collision energy of 8 TeV. The tracking performance of the TRT has been studied in the case of operating with a Xe-based gas mixture and as a function of the straw occupancy. Special attention was paid to investigation of tracking parameters inside hadronic jets. The experimental data and simulation are in reasonable agreement, even within the dense cores of the most energetic jets.

  20. Evaluation of the performance of irradiated silicon strip sensors for the forward detector of the ATLAS Inner Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, R.; Allport, P. P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Wilson, J. A.; Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D.; Arratia-Munoz, M. I.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Ullan, M.; Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Bloch, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Lohwasser, K.; Poley, L.; Tackmann, K.; Trofimov, A.; Yildirim, E.; Hauser, M.; Jakobs, K.; Kuehn, S.; Mahboubi, K.; Parzefall, U.; Clark, A.; Ferrere, D.; Sevilla, S. Gonzalez; Ashby, J.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Buttar, C.; Doherty, F.; McMullen, T.; McEwan, F.; O'Shea, V.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Unno, Y.; Takashima, R.; Chilingarov, A.; Fox, H.; Affolder, A. A.; Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Wonsak, S.; Wormald, M.; Cindro, V.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Gorelov, I.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Palni, P.; Seidel, S.; Taylor, A.; Toms, K.; Wang, R.; Hessey, N. P.; Valencic, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Dolezal, Z.; Kodys, P.; Bohm, J.; Stastny, J.; Mikestikova, M.; Bevan, A.; Beck, G.; Milke, C.; Domingo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Hibbard-Lubow, D.; Liang, Z.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; To, K.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Parker, K.; Jinnouchi, O.; Hara, K.; Sato, K.; Sato, K.; Hagihara, M.; Iwabuchi, S.; Bernabeu, J.; Civera, J. V.; Garcia, C.; Lacasta, C.; Garcia, S. Marti i.; Rodriguez, D.; Santoyo, D.; Solaz, C.; Soldevila, U.

    2016-09-01

    The upgrade to the High-Luminosity LHC foreseen in about ten years represents a great challenge for the ATLAS inner tracker and the silicon strip sensors in the forward region. Several strip sensor designs were developed by the ATLAS collaboration and fabricated by Hamamatsu in order to maintain enough performance in terms of charge collection efficiency and its uniformity throughout the active region. Of particular attention, in the case of a stereo-strip sensor, is the area near the sensor edge where shorter strips were ganged to the complete ones. In this work the electrical and charge collection test results on irradiated miniature sensors with forward geometry are presented. Results from charge collection efficiency measurements show that at the maximum expected fluence, the collected charge is roughly halved with respect to the one obtained prior to irradiation. Laser measurements show a good signal uniformity over the sensor. Ganged strips have a similar efficiency as standard strips.

  1. Rotational Dynamics with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eadkhong, T.; Rajsadorn, R.; Jannual, P.; Danworaphong, S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia ("I") of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction ("b") for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive…

  2. STAR Performance with SPEAR (Signal Processing Electronic Attack RFIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    STAR operation in the presence of 1 kW EIRP power , independently of the choice of transmitter in use. The paper reports on the status of the SPEAR...prototype will be presented. To the authors’ knowledge , the measured results from the prototype already demonstrate state-of-the-art STAR performance...self-generated high power interferers. SPEAR is an innovative approach to the full duplex challenge that meets the high demands of military systems

  3. Impact of star performance ratings in English acute hospital trusts.

    PubMed

    Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw; Marshall, Martin

    2005-01-01

    To explore some of the impacts of star performance ratings in acute hospital trusts in England. A multiple case study design was used which incorporated purposeful sampling of 'low' and 'high' performing trusts using the star rating system. In each case study site, data collection comprised semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis. Between eight and 12 senior managers and senior clinicians were interviewed in each organisation. There was a general view that the star ratings as presently constituted did not represent a rounded or balanced scorecard of their own organisation's performance and a widespread belief that the information used to calculate the ratings was often incomplete and inaccurate. The star ratings were viewed by some managers as useful, in that they gave added weight to their trust's modernisation agenda. In addition to driving beneficial change, the ratings were also sometimes reported to have inadvertently induced a range of unintended and dysfunctional consequences, including tunnel vision and a distortion of clinical priorities, bullying and intimidation, erosion of public trust and reduced staff morale, and ghettoisation. Set in the context of an international body of research, this study highlights some important gaps in knowledge and failings in current policy and practice. In particular, the many dysfunctional consequences of publishing star ratings indicate a need for a re-examination of performance management policies.

  4. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  5. Star Identification Without Attitude Knowledge: Testing with X-Ray Timing Experiment Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor

    1997-01-01

    As the budget for the scientific exploration of space shrinks, the need for more autonomous spacecraft increases. For a spacecraft with a star tracker, the ability to determinate attitude from a lost in space state autonomously requires the capability to identify the stars in the field of view of the tracker. Although there have been efforts to produce autonomous star trackers which perform this function internally, many programs cannot afford these sensors. The author previously presented a method for identifying stars without a priori attitude knowledge specifically targeted for onboard computers as it minimizes the necessary computer storage. The method has previously been tested with simulated data. This paper provides results of star identification without a priori attitude knowledge using flight data from two 8 by 8 degree charge coupled device star trackers onboard the X-Ray Timing Experiment.

  6. Construction and performance of a silicon photomultiplier/extruded scintillator tail-catcher and muon-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Blaising, J.-J.; Drancourt, C.; Espargilière, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Karyotakis, Y.; Prast, J.; Vouters, G.; Bilki, B.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Buanes, T.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Cârloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G. C.; Boona, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Dyshkant, A.; Hedin, D.; Lima, J. G. R.; Powell, J.; Rykalin, V.; Scurti, N.; Smith, M.; Tran, N.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Dietrich, J.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Feege, N.; Garutti, E.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P. D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Bartsch, V.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Soloviev, Y.; Buzhan, P.; Dolgoshein, B.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Smirnov, S.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Takeshita, T.

    2012-04-01

    A prototype module for an International Linear Collider (ILC) detector was built, installed, and tested between 2006 and 2009 at CERN and Fermilab as part of the CALICE test beam program, in order to study the possibilities of extending energy sampling behind a hadronic calorimeter and to study the possibilities of providing muon tracking. The ``tail catcher/muon tracker'' (TCMT) is composed of 320 extruded scintillator strips (dimensions 1000 × 50 × 5 mm3) packaged in 16 one-meter square planes interleaved between steel plates. The scintillator strips were read out with wavelength shifting fibers and silicon photomultipliers. The planes were arranged with alternating horizontal and vertical strip orientations. Data were collected for muons and pions in the energy range 6 GeV to 80 GeV. Utilizing data taken in 2006, this paper describes the design and construction of the TCMT, performance characteristics, and a beam-based evaluation of the ability of the TCMT to improve hadronic energy resolution in a prototype ILC detector. For a typical configuration of an ILC detector with a coil situated outside a calorimeter system with a thickness of 5.5 nuclear interaction lengths, a TCMT would improve relative energy resolution by 6-16% for pions between 20 and 80 GeV.

  7. A star-and-sky chopping polarimeter - Design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, S. K.; Srinivasulu, G.

    1991-09-01

    A star-and-sky chopping polarimeter is developed for accurate measurements of linear polarization of starlight in the standard astronomical photometric U, B, V, R, and I bands. The instrumental polarization, as determined by observing the standard unpolarized stars, is 0.04 percent. It is possible to use the instrument for the measurements of circular polarization as well. A Unicorn microcomputer controls the various operations of the instrument, acquires the data, and does the on-line data reduction. This paper describes the design and performance of the polarimeter.

  8. Boeing Satellite Television Airplane Receiving System (STARS) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertatschitsch, Edward J.; Fitzsimmons, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Boeing Defense and Space Group is developing a Satellite Television Airplane Receiving System (STARS) capable of delivering Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) television to an aircraft in-flight. This enables a new service for commercial airplanes that will make use of existing and future DBS systems. The home entertainment satellites, along with STARS, provide a new mobile satellite communication application. This paper will provide a brief background of the antenna issues associated with STARS for commercial airplanes and then describe the innovative Boeing phased-array solution to these problems. The paper then provides a link budget of the STARS using the Hughes DBS as an example, but the system will work with all of the proposed DBS satellites in the 12.2-12.7 GHz band. It concludes with operational performance calculations of the STARS system, supported by measured test data of an operational 16-element subarray. Although this system is being developed for commercial airplanes, it is well suited for a wide variety of mobile military and other commercial communications systems in air, on land and at sea. The applications include sending high quality video for the digital battlefield and large volumes of data on the information superhighway at rates in excess of 350 Mbps.

  9. Toward faster and more accurate star sensors using recursive centroiding and star identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaan, Malak Anees

    The objective of this research is to study different novel developed techniques for spacecraft attitude determination methods using star tracker sensors. This dissertation addresses various issues on developing improved star tracker software, presents new approaches for better performance of star trackers, and considers applications to realize high precision attitude estimates. Star-sensors are often included in a spacecraft attitude-system instrument suite, where high accuracy pointing capability is required. Novel methods for image processing, camera parameters ground calibration, autonomous star pattern recognition, and recursive star identification are researched and implemented to achieve high accuracy and a high frame rate star tracker that can be used for many space missions. This dissertation presents the methods and algorithms implemented for the one Field of View 'FOV'Star NavI sensor that was tested aboard the STS-107 mission in spring 2003 and the two fields of view StarNavII sensor for the EO-3 spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2007. The results of this research enable advances in spacecraft attitude determination based upon real time star sensing and pattern recognition. Building upon recent developments in image processing, pattern recognition algorithms, focal plane detectors, electro-optics, and microprocessors, the star tracker concept utilized in this research has the following key objectives for spacecraft of the future: lower cost, lower mass and smaller volume, increased robustness to environment-induced aging and instrument response variations, increased adaptability and autonomy via recursive self-calibration and health-monitoring on-orbit. Many of these attributes are consequences of improved algorithms that are derived in this dissertation.

  10. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  11. A proposed STAR microvertex detector using Active Pixel Sensors with some relevant studies on APS performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinfelder, S.; Li, S.; Bieser, F.; Gareus, R.; Greiner, L.; King, J.; Levesque, J.; Matis, H. S.; Oldenburg, M.; Ritter, H. G.; Retiere, F.; Rose, A.; Schweda, K.; Shabetai, A.; Sichtermann, E.; Thomas, J. H.; Wieman, H. H.; Bichsel, H.

    2006-09-01

    A vertex detector that can measure particles with charm or bottom quarks would dramatically expand the physics capability of the STAR detector at RHIC. To accomplish this, we are proposing to build the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) using 2×2 cm Active Pixels Sensors (APS). Ten of these APS chips will be arranged on a ladder (0.28% of a radiation length) at radii of 1.5 and at 5.0 cm. We have examined several properties of APS chips, so that we can characterize the performance of this detector. Using 1.5 GeV/ c electrons, we have measured the charge collected and compared it to the expected charge. To achieve high efficiency, we have considered two different cluster finding algorithms and found that the choice of algorithm is dependent on noise level. We have demonstrated that a Scanning Electron Microscope can probe properties of an APS chip. In particular, we studied several position resolution algorithms. Finally, we studied the properties of pixel pitches from 5 to 30 μm.

  12. Stochastic targeted (STAR) glycemic control: design, safety, and performance.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alicia; Le Compte, Aaron; Tan, Chia-Siong; Ward, Logan; Steel, James; Pretty, Christopher G; Penning, Sophie; Suhaimi, Fatanah; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Desaive, Thomas; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Tight glycemic control (TGC) has shown benefits but has been difficult to achieve consistently. STAR (Stochastic TARgeted) is a flexible, model-based TGC approach that directly accounts for intra- and interpatient variability with a stochastically derived maximum 5% risk of blood glucose (BG) below 72 mg/dl. This research assesses the safety, efficacy, and clinical burden of a STAR TGC controller modulating both insulin and nutrition inputs in virtual and clinical pilot trials. Clinically validated virtual trials using data from 370 patients in the SPRINT (Specialized Relative Insulin and Nutrition Titration) study were used to design the STAR protocol and test its safety, performance, and required clinical effort prior to clinical pilot trials. Insulin and nutrition interventions were given every 1-3 h as chosen by the nurse to allow them to manage workload. Interventions were designed to maximize the overlap of the model-predicted (5-95(th) percentile) range of BG outcomes with the 72-117 mg/dl band and thus provide a maximum 5% risk of BG <72 mg/dl. Interventions were calculated using clinically validated computer models of human metabolism and its variability in critical illness. Carbohydrate intake (all sources) was selected to maximize intake up to 100% of the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) goal (25 kg/kcal/h). Insulin doses were limited (8 U/h maximum), with limited increases based on current rate (0.5-2.0 U/h). Initial clinical pilot trials involved 3 patients covering ~450 h. Approval was granted by the Upper South A Regional Ethics Committee. Virtual trials indicate that STAR provides similar glycemic control performance to SPRINT with 2-3 h (maximum) measurement intervals. Time in the 72-126 mg/dl and 72-145 mg/dl bands was equivalent for all controllers, indicating that glycemic outcome differences between protocols were only shifted in this range. Safety from hypoglycemia was improved. Importantly

  13. Study the performance of star sensor influenced by space radiation damage of image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Yudong; Wen, Lin; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Xingyao

    2018-03-01

    Star sensor is an essential component of spacecraft attitude control system. Spatial radiation can cause star sensor performance degradation, abnormal work, attitude measurement accuracy and reliability reduction. Many studies have already been dedicated to the radiation effect on Charge-Coupled Device(CCD) image sensor, but fewer studies focus on the radiation effect of star sensor. The innovation of this paper is to study the radiation effects from the device level to the system level. The influence of the degradation of CCD image sensor radiation sensitive parameters on the performance parameters of star sensor is studied in this paper. The correlation among the radiation effect of proton, the non-uniformity noise of CCD image sensor and the performance parameter of star sensor is analyzed. This paper establishes a foundation for the study of error prediction and correction technology of star sensor on-orbit attitude measurement, and provides some theoretical basis for the design of high performance star sensor.

  14. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-01-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical…

  15. Data Characterization Using Artificial-Star Tests: Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yi; Deng, Licai; de Grijs, Richard; Liu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Traditional artificial-star tests are widely applied to photometry in crowded stellar fields. However, to obtain reliable binary fractions (and their uncertainties) of remote, dense, and rich star clusters, one needs to recover huge numbers of artificial stars. Hence, this will consume much computation time for data reduction of the images to which the artificial stars must be added. In this article, we present a new method applicable to data sets characterized by stable, well-defined, point-spread functions, in which we add artificial stars to the retrieved-data catalog instead of to the raw images. Taking the young Large Magellanic Cloud cluster NGC 1818 as an example, we compare results from both methods and show that they are equivalent, while our new method saves significant computational time.

  16. Autonomous star sensor ASTRO APS: flight experience on Alphasat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, U.; Fiksel, T.; Kwiatkowski, A.; Steinbach, I.; Pradarutti, B.; Michel, K.; Benzi, E.

    2015-06-01

    Jena-Optronik GmbH, located in Jena/Germany, has profound experience in designing and manufacturing star trackers since the early 80s. Today the company has a worldwide leading position in supplying geo-stationary and Earth observation satellites with robust and reliable star tracker systems. In the first decade of the new century Jena-Optronik received a development contract (17317/2003/F/WE) from the European Space Agency to establish the technologically challenging elements for which advanced star tracker technologies as CMOS Active Pixel Sensors were being introduced or were considered strategic. This activity was performed in the frame of the Alphabus large platform pre-development lead by ESA and the industrial Joint Project Team consisting of Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space), Thales Alenia Space and CNES (Centre national d'études spatiales). The new autonomous star tracker, ASTRO APS (Active Pixel Sensor), extends the Jena-Optronik A stro-series CCD-based star tracker products taken the full benefit of the CMOS APS technology. ASTRO APS is a fully autonomous compact star tracker carrying either the space-qualified radiation hard STAR1000 or the HAS2 APS detectors. The star tracker is one of four Technology Demonstration Payloads (TDP6) carried by Alphasat as hosted payload in the frame of a successful Private Public Partnership between ESA and Inmarsat who owns and operates the satellite as part of its geo-stationary communication satellites fleet. TDP6 supports also directly TDP1, a Laser Communication Terminal, for fine pointing tasks. Alphasat was flawlessly brought in orbit at the end of July 2013 by a European Ariane 5 launcher. Only a few hours after launch the star tracker received its switch ON command and acquired nominally within 6 s the inertial 3-axes attitude. In the following days of the early in-orbit operations of Alphasat the TDP6 unit tracked reliably all the spacecraft maneuvers including the 0.1 and 0.2°/s spin stabilization for

  17. A software package for evaluating the performance of a star sensor operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Mathew, Joice; Sreejith, A. G.; Nirmal, K.; Ambily, S.; Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant

    2017-02-01

    We have developed a low-cost off-the-shelf component star sensor ( StarSense) for use in minisatellites and CubeSats to determine the attitude of a satellite in orbit. StarSense is an imaging camera with a limiting magnitude of 6.5, which extracts information from star patterns it records in the images. The star sensor implements a centroiding algorithm to find centroids of the stars in the image, a Geometric Voting algorithm for star pattern identification, and a QUEST algorithm for attitude quaternion calculation. Here, we describe the software package to evaluate the performance of these algorithms as a star sensor single operating system. We simulate the ideal case where sky background and instrument errors are omitted, and a more realistic case where noise and camera parameters are added to the simulated images. We evaluate such performance parameters of the algorithms as attitude accuracy, calculation time, required memory, star catalog size, sky coverage, etc., and estimate the errors introduced by each algorithm. This software package is written for use in MATLAB. The testing is parametrized for different hardware parameters, such as the focal length of the imaging setup, the field of view (FOV) of the camera, angle measurement accuracy, distortion effects, etc., and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the performance of such algorithms in any star sensor. For its hardware implementation on our StarSense, we are currently porting the codes in form of functions written in C. This is done keeping in view its easy implementation on any star sensor electronics hardware.

  18. Performance of laser guide star adaptive optics at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S.S.; An, J.; Avicola, K.

    1995-07-19

    A sodium-layer laser guide star adaptive optics system has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for use on the 3-meter Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. The system is based on a 127-actuator continuous-surface deformable mirror, a Hartmann wavefront sensor equipped with a fast-framing low-noise CCD camera, and a pulsed solid-state-pumped dye laser tuned to the atomic sodium resonance line at 589 nm. The adaptive optics system has been tested on the Shane telescope using natural reference stars yielding up to a factor of 12 increase in image peak intensity and a factor of 6.5 reduction in image fullmore » width at half maximum (FWHM). The results are consistent with theoretical expectations. The laser guide star system has been installed and operated on the Shane telescope yielding a beam with 22 W average power at 589 nm. Based on experimental data, this laser should generate an 8th magnitude guide star at this site, and the integrated laser guide star adaptive optics system should produce images with Strehl ratios of 0.4 at 2.2 {mu}m in median seeing and 0.7 at 2.2 {mu}m in good seeing.« less

  19. Miniature Laser Tracker

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2003-09-09

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  20. Community pharmacy owners' views of star ratings and performance measurement: In-depth interviews.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Benjamin S; Fox, Brent I; Garza, Kimberly B; Harris, Stanley G; Nau, David P; Owensby, Justin K; Westrick, Salisa C

    2016-01-01

    The star rating system implemented by Medicare has the potential to positively affect patient health and may have financial implications for community pharmacies. Learning from owners of community pharmacies with high performance on these quality measures may help us to identify and further understand factors contributing to their success. This study described high-performing community pharmacy owners' current awareness and knowledge of star ratings, attitudes toward star ratings and performance measurement, and initiatives being offered in pharmacies that aim to improve the quality of care. Qualitative interviews with owners of independent community pharmacies were conducted in Spring 2015. Fifteen community pharmacies with high performance on the star rating measures were invited to participate. Recruitment did not end until the saturation point had been reached. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Interview data were analyzed with the use of ATLAS.ti by 2 coders trained in thematic analysis. Krippendorf's alpha was calculated to assess intercoder reliability. Ten high-performing pharmacy owners participated. Analysis identified 8 themes, which were organized into the following categories: 1) current awareness and knowledge (i.e., superficial or advanced knowledge); 2) attitudes toward star ratings (positive perceptions, skeptical of performance rewards, and lack a feeling of control); and 3) pharmacy initiatives (personal patient relationships, collaborative employee relationships, and use of technology). Intercoder reliability was good overall. Interviews with high-performing pharmacies suggested that awareness of the star rating measures, overall positive attitudes toward the star ratings, the relationships that pharmacy owners have with their patients and their employees, and the use of technology as a tool to enhance patient care may contribute to high performance on the star rating measures. Future research is needed to determine if and how these

  1. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  2. MediaTracker system

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D. M.; Strittmatter, R. B.; Abeyta, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    The initial objectives of this effort were to provide a hardware and software platform that can address the requirements for the accountability of classified removable electronic media and vault access logging. The Media Tracker system software assists classified media custodian in managing vault access logging and Media Tracking to prevent the inadvertent violation of rules or policies for the access to a restricted area and the movement and use of tracked items. The MediaTracker system includes the software tools to track and account for high consequence security assets and high value items. The overall benefits include: (1) real-time access tomore » the disposition of all Classified Removable Electronic Media (CREM), (2) streamlined security procedures and requirements, (3) removal of ambiguity and managerial inconsistencies, (4) prevention of incidents that can and should be prevented, (5) alignment with the DOE's initiative to achieve improvements in security and facility operations through technology deployment, and (6) enhanced individual responsibility by providing a consistent method of dealing with daily responsibilities. In response to initiatives to enhance the control of classified removable electronic media (CREM), the Media Tracker software suite was developed, piloted and implemented at the Los Alamos National Laboratory beginning in July 2000. The Media Tracker software suite assists in the accountability and tracking of CREM and other high-value assets. One component of the MediaTracker software suite provides a Laboratory-approved media tracking system. Using commercial touch screen and bar code technology, the MediaTracker (MT) component of the MediaTracker software suite provides an efficient and effective means to meet current Laboratory requirements and provides new-engineered controls to help assure compliance with those requirements. It also establishes a computer infrastructure at vault entrances for vault access logging, and can

  3. Technology transfer: Imaging tracker to robotic controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaguro, M. S.; Kesler, L. O.; Land, Ken; Erwin, Harry; Rhoades, Don

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of an imaging tracker to a robotic controller is described. A multimode tracker was developed for fire and forget missile systems. The tracker locks on to target images within an acquisition window using multiple image tracking algorithms to provide guidance commands to missile control systems. This basic tracker technology is used with the addition of a ranging algorithm based on sizing a cooperative target to perform autonomous guidance and control of a platform for an Advanced Development Project on automation and robotics. A ranging tracker is required to provide the positioning necessary for robotic control. A simple functional demonstration of the feasibility of this approach was performed and described. More realistic demonstrations are under way at NASA-JSC. In particular, this modified tracker, or robotic controller, will be used to autonomously guide the Man Maneuvering Unit (MMU) to targets such as disabled astronauts or tools as part of the EVA Retriever efforts. It will also be used to control the orbiter's Remote Manipulator Systems (RMS) in autonomous approach and positioning demonstrations. These efforts will also be discussed.

  4. Development of a Robust star identification technique for use in attitude determination of the ACE spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Mark; Rohrbaugh, Dave

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft is designed to fly in a spin-stabilized attitude. The spacecraft will carry two attitude sensors - a digital fine Sun sensor and a charge coupled device (CCD) star tracker - to allow ground-based determination of the spacecraft attitude and spin rate. Part of the processing that must be performed on the CCD star tracker data is the star identification. Star data received from the spacecraft must be matched with star information in the SKYMAP catalog to determine exactly which stars the sensor is tracking. This information, along with the Sun vector measured by the Sun sensor, is used to determine the spacecraft attitude. Several existing star identification (star ID) systems were examined to determine whether they could be modified for use on the ACE mission. Star ID systems which exist for three-axis stabilized spacecraft tend to be complex in nature and many require fairly good knowledge of the spacecraft attitude, making their use for ACE excessive. Star ID systems used for spinners carrying traditional slit star sensors would have to be modified to model the CCD star tracker. The ACE star ID algorithm must also be robust, in that it will be able to correctly identify stars even though the attitude is not known to a high degree of accuracy, and must be very efficient to allow real-time star identification. The paper presents the star ID algorithm that was developed for ACE. Results from prototype testing are also presented to demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and robustness of the algorithm.

  5. Method for star identification using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Clark S.; Lindblad, Thomas; Eide, Age J.

    1997-04-01

    Identification of star constellations with an onboard star tracker provides the highest precision of all attitude determination techniques for spacecraft. A method for identification of star constellations inspired by neural network (NNW) techniques is presented. It compares feature vectors derived from histograms of distances to multiple stars around the unknown star. The NNW method appears most robust with respect to position noise and would require a smaller database than conventional methods, especially for small fields of view. The neural network method is quite slow when performed on a sequential (serial) processor, but would provide very high speed if implemented in special hardware. Such hardware solutions could also yield lower low weight and low power consumption, both important features for small satellites.

  6. The design and performance of a scintillating-fibre tracker for the cosmic-ray muon tomography of legacy nuclear waste containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarkson, A.; Hamilton, D. J.; Hoek, M.; Ireland, D. G.; Johnstone, J. R.; Kaiser, R.; Keri, T.; Lumsden, S.; Mahon, D. F.; McKinnon, B.; Murray, M.; Nutbeam-Tuffs, S.; Shearer, C.; Staines, C.; Yang, G.; Zimmerman, C.

    2014-05-01

    Tomographic imaging techniques using the Coulomb scattering of cosmic-ray muons are increasingly being exploited for the non-destructive assay of shielded containers in a wide range of applications. One such application is the characterisation of legacy nuclear waste materials stored within industrial containers. The design, assembly and performance of a prototype muon tomography system developed for this purpose are detailed in this work. This muon tracker comprises four detection modules, each containing orthogonal layers of Saint-Gobain BCF-10 2 mm-pitch plastic scintillating fibres. Identification of the two struck fibres per module allows the reconstruction of a space point, and subsequently, the incoming and Coulomb-scattered muon trajectories. These allow the container content, with respect to the atomic number Z of the scattering material, to be determined through reconstruction of the scattering location and magnitude. On each detection layer, the light emitted by the fibre is detected by a single Hamamatsu H8500 MAPMT with two fibres coupled to each pixel via dedicated pairing schemes developed to ensure the identification of the struck fibre. The PMT signals are read out to standard charge-to-digital converters and interpreted via custom data acquisition and analysis software. The design and assembly of the detector system are detailed and presented alongside results from performance studies with data collected after construction. These results reveal high stability during extended collection periods with detection efficiencies in the region of 80% per layer. Minor misalignments of millimetre order have been identified and corrected in software. A first image reconstructed from a test configuration of materials has been obtained using software based on the Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximisation algorithm. The results highlight the high spatial resolution provided by the detector system. Clear discrimination between the low, medium and high

  7. The Full Monte Carlo: A Live Performance with Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiao-Li

    2014-06-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) is being applied increasingly often in modern Astrostatistics. It is indeed incredibly powerful, but also very dangerous. It is popular because of its apparent generality (from simple to highly complex problems) and simplicity (the availability of out-of-the-box recipes). It is dangerous because it always produces something but there is no surefire way to verify or even diagnosis that the “something” is remotely close to what the MCMC theory predicts or one hopes. Using very simple models (e.g., conditionally Gaussian), this talk starts with a tutorial of the two most popular MCMC algorithms, namely, the Gibbs Sampler and the Metropolis-Hasting Algorithm, and illustratestheir good, bad, and ugly implementations via live demonstration. The talk ends with a story of how a recent advance, the Ancillary-Sufficient Interweaving Strategy (ASIS) (Yu and Meng, 2011, http://www.stat.harvard.edu/Faculty_Content/meng/jcgs.2011-article.pdf)reduces the danger. It was discovered almost by accident during a Ph.D. student’s (Yaming Yu) struggle with fitting a Cox process model for detecting changes in source intensity of photon counts observed by the Chandra X-ray telescope from a (candidate) neutron/quark star.

  8. Novel Micromegas trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatie, Franck

    2017-09-01

    The latest development in Micromegas trackers includes the Micromegas Vertex Tracker (MVT) soon to be installed in Jefferson Lab Hall B, in the CLAS12 central tracking system. The MVT is composed of 6 cylindrical layers and 6 flat disks of resistive bulk Micromegas detectors. They have been designed to withstand the high particle flux environment and the high magnetic field using a low material budget of less than 0.5% of a radiation length per detector. The MVT is read out using front-end electronics based on the ``Dream'' Asic developed at CEA Saclay/Irfu. The low material budget requirements and very stringent space restrictions of the central tracking system surrounded by a 5T solenoid prevent the use of on-detector frontend electronics. The ability of the Dream chip to work with high-capacitance detectors allows deploying the electronics some 2 m away using flat micro-coaxial cables. After a short introduction to Micromegas detectors and the state-of-the-art achievements in this technology, I will focus on the CLAS12 MVT detector system, from the fabrication techniques to the readout electronics. Possible future developments will briefly be presented as well.

  9. A Methodology to Analyze Photovoltaic Tracker Uptime

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Matthew T; Ruth, Dan

    A metric is developed to analyze the daily performance of single-axis photovoltaic (PV) trackers. The metric relies on comparing correlations between the daily time series of the PV power output and an array of simulated plane-of-array irradiances for the given day. Mathematical thresholds and a logic sequence are presented, so the daily tracking metric can be applied in an automated fashion on large-scale PV systems. The results of applying the metric are visually examined against the time series of the power output data for a large number of days and for various systems. The visual inspection results suggest that overall,more » the algorithm is accurate in identifying stuck or functioning trackers on clear-sky days. Visual inspection also shows that there are days that are not classified by the metric where the power output data may be sufficient to identify a stuck tracker. Based on the daily tracking metric, uptime results are calculated for 83 different inverters at 34 PV sites. The mean tracker uptime is calculated at 99% based on 2 different calculation methods. The daily tracking metric clearly has limitations, but as there is no existing metrics in the literature, it provides a valuable tool for flagging stuck trackers.« less

  10. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  11. Rendezvous and docking tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Art J.; Ross, Susan E.; Deming, Douglas R.

    1986-01-01

    A conceptual solid-state rendezvous and docking tracker (RDT) has been devised for generating range and attitude data for a docking vehicle relative to a target vehicle. Emphasis is placed on the approach of the Orbiter to a link with the Space Station. Three laser illuminators ring the optical axis of the lens a directed toward retroreflectors on the target vehicle. Each retroreflector is equipped with a bandpass filter for a designated illumination frequency. Data are collected sequentially over a 20 deg field of view as the range closes to 100-1000 m. A fourth ranging retroreflector 0.3 m from center is employed during close-in maneuvers. The system provides tracking data on motions with 6 deg of freedom, and furnishes 500 msec updates (to be enhanced to 100 msec) to the operator at a computer console.

  12. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  13. Starring Students: Gender Performance at a Women's College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Jeni; Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand how gender is constructed at a women's college. Specifically, the researchers use Judith Butler's (1990) work on performativity to frame how members of the campus community perceive transgender students are integrated into the college. Through semi-structured interviews with faculty,…

  14. Dual mode scanner-tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mongeon, R. J.

    1984-11-01

    The beam of a laser radar is moved over the field of view by means of a pair of scanner/trackers arranged in cascade along the laser beam. One of the scanner/trackers operates at high speed, with high resolution and a wide field and is located in the demagnified portion of the laser beam. The two scanner/trackers complement each other to achieve high speed, high resolution scanning as well as tracking of moving targets. A beam steering telescope for an airborne laser radar which incorporates the novel dual mode scanner/tracker is also shown. The other scanner/tracker operates at low speed with low resolution and a wide field and is located in the magnified portion of the laser beam.

  15. WGM Temperature Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    This software implements digital control of a WGM (whispering-gallerymode) resonator temperature based on the dual-mode approach. It comprises one acquisition (dual-channel) and three control modules. The interaction of the proportional-integral loops is designed in the original way, preventing the loops from fighting. The data processing is organized in parallel with the acquisition, which allows the computational overhead time to be suppressed or often completely avoided. WGM resonators potentially provide excellent optical references for metrology, clocks, spectroscopy, and other applications. However, extremely accurate (below micro-Kelvin) temperature stabilization is required. This software allows one specifically advantageous method of such stabilization to be implemented, which is immune to a variety of effects that mask the temperature variation. WGM Temperature Tracker 2.3 (see figure) is a LabVIEW code developed for dual-mode temperature stabilization of WGM resonators. It has allowed for the temperature stabilization at the level of 200 nK with one-second integration time, and 6 nK with 10,000-second integration time, with the above room-temperature set point. This software, in conjunction with the appropriate hardware, can be used as a noncryogenic temperature sensor/ controller with sub-micro-Kelvin sensitivity, which at the time of this reporting considerably outperforms the state of the art.

  16. Lick sodium laser guide star: performance during the 1998 LGS observing campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, B; Friedman, H; Gavel, D T

    1999-07-19

    The performance of a sodium laser guide star adaptive optics system depends crucially on the characteristics of the laser guide star in the sodium layer. System performance is quite sensitive to sodium layer spot radiance, that is, return per unit sterradian on the sky, hence we have been working to improve projected beam quality via improvements to the laser and changes to the launched beam format. The laser amplifier was reconfigured to a ''bounce-beam'' geometry, which considerably improves wavefront quality and allows a larger round instead of square launch beam aperture. The smaller beacon makes it easier to block themore » unwanted Rayleigh light and improves the accuracy of Hartmann sensor wavefront measurements in the A0 system. We present measurements of the beam quality and of the resulting sodium beacon and compare to similar measurements from last year.« less

  17. LASL benchmark performance 1978. [CDC STAR-100, 6600, 7600, Cyber 73, and CRAY-1

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, A.L.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of running several benchmark programs on a CDC STAR-100, a Cray Research CRAY-1, a CDC 6600, a CDC 7600, and a CDC Cyber 73. The benchmark effort included CRAY-1's at several installations running different operating systems and compilers. This benchmark is part of an ongoing program at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory to collect performance data and monitor the development trend of supercomputers. 3 tables.

  18. Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agurok, Llya

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Imager-Tracker (HIT) is a technique for visualization and tracking of low-contrast, fast-moving objects. The HIT architecture is based on an innovative and only recently developed concept in imaging optics. This innovative architecture will give the Light Prescriptions Innovators (LPI) HIT the possibility of simultaneously collecting the spectral band images (hyperspectral cube), IR images, and to operate with high-light-gathering power and high magnification for multiple fast- moving objects. Adaptive Spectral Filtering algorithms will efficiently increase the contrast of low-contrast scenes. The most hazardous parts of a space mission are the first stage of a launch and the last 10 kilometers of the landing trajectory. In general, a close watch on spacecraft operation is required at distances up to 70 km. Tracking at such distances is usually associated with the use of radar, but its milliradian angular resolution translates to 100- m spatial resolution at 70-km distance. With sufficient power, radar can track a spacecraft as a whole object, but will not provide detail in the case of an accident, particularly for small debris in the onemeter range, which can only be achieved optically. It will be important to track the debris, which could disintegrate further into more debris, all the way to the ground. Such fragmentation could cause ballistic predictions, based on observations using high-resolution but narrow-field optics for only the first few seconds of the event, to be inaccurate. No optical imager architecture exists to satisfy NASA requirements. The HIT was developed for space vehicle tracking, in-flight inspection, and in the case of an accident, a detailed recording of the event. The system is a combination of five subsystems: (1) a roving fovea telescope with a wide 30 field of regard; (2) narrow, high-resolution fovea field optics; (3) a Coude optics system for telescope output beam stabilization; (4) a hyperspectral

  19. Semi-physical simulation test for micro CMOS star sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Zhang, Guang-jun; Jiang, Jie; Fan, Qiao-yun

    2008-03-01

    A designed star sensor must be extensively tested before launching. Testing star sensor requires complicated process with much time and resources input. Even observing sky on the ground is a challenging and time-consuming job, requiring complicated and expensive equipments, suitable time and location, and prone to be interfered by weather. And moreover, not all stars distributed on the sky can be observed by this testing method. Semi-physical simulation in laboratory reduces the testing cost and helps to debug, analyze and evaluate the star sensor system while developing the model. The test system is composed of optical platform, star field simulator, star field simulator computer, star sensor and the central data processing computer. The test system simulates the starlight with high accuracy and good parallelism, and creates static or dynamic image in FOV (Field of View). The conditions of the test are close to observing real sky. With this system, the test of a micro star tracker designed by Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics has been performed successfully. Some indices including full-sky autonomous star identification time, attitude update frequency and attitude precision etc. meet design requirement of the star sensor. Error source of the testing system is also analyzed. It is concluded that the testing system is cost-saving, efficient, and contributes to optimizing the embed arithmetic, shortening the development cycle and improving engineering design processes.

  20. Recent highlights from STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Wangmei

    2018-02-01

    The Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR) experiment takes advantage of its excellent tracking and particle identification capabilities at mid-rapidity to explore the properties of strongly interacting QCD matter created in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC. The STAR collaboration presented 7 parallel and 2 plenary talks at Strangeness in Quark Matter 2017 and covered various topics including heavy flavor measurements, bulk observables, electro-magnetic probes and the upgrade program. This paper highlights some of the selected results.

  1. Kinematic predictors of star excursion balance test performance in individuals with chronic ankle instability.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Matthew C; Gaven, Stacey L; Weinhandl, Joshua T

    2016-06-01

    The Star Excursion Balance Test has identified dynamic postural control deficits in individuals with chronic ankle instability. While kinematic predictors of Star Excursion Balance Test performance have been evaluated in healthy individuals, this has not been thoroughly examined in individuals with chronic ankle instability. Fifteen individuals with chronic ankle instability completed the anterior reach direction of the Star Excursion Balance Test and weight-bearing dorsiflexion assessments. Maximum reach distances on the Star Excursion Balance Test were measured in cm and normalized to leg length. Three-dimensional trunk, hip, knee, and ankle motion of the stance limb were recorded during each anterior reach trial using a motion capture system. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse plane displacement observed from trial initiation to the point of maximum reach was calculated for each joint or segment and averaged for analysis. Pearson product-moment correlations were performed to examine the relationships between kinematic variables, maximal reach, and weight-bearing dorsiflexion. A backward multiple linear regression model was developed with maximal reach as the criterion variable and kinematic variables as predictors. Frontal plane displacement of the trunk, hip, and ankle and sagittal plane knee displacement were entered into the analysis. The final model (p=0.004) included all three frontal plane variables and explained 81% of the variance in maximal reach. Maximal reach distance and several kinematic variables were significantly related to weight-bearing dorsiflexion. Individuals with chronic ankle instability who demonstrated greater lateral trunk displacement toward the stance limb, hip adduction, and ankle eversion achieved greater maximal reach. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. CMS tracker towards the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alunni Solestizi, L.

    2015-01-01

    In sight of the incoming new LHC era (High Luminosity - LHC), characterized by a jump forward in the precision boundary and in the event rate, all the CMS sub-detector are developing and studying innovative strategies of trigger, pattern recognition, event timing and so on. A crucial aspect will be the online event selection: a totally new paradigm is needed, given the huge amount of events. In this picture the most granular and innermost sub-detector, the tracker, will play a decisive role. The phase-2 tracker will be involved in the L1 Trigger and, taking advantage of both the Associative Memories and the FPGA, it can ensure a trigger decision in proper time and with satisfactory performances.

  3. A large array of high-performance artificial stars using airship-supported small mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Content, Robert; Foxwell, Mark; Murray, Graham J.

    2004-10-01

    We propose a practical system that can provide a large number of high performance artificial stars, of the order of a few hundred, using an array of small mirrors on an airship supported platform illuminated from the ground by a laser. Our concept offers several advantages over other guide star schemes: Airborne mirror arrays can furnish tip-tilt information; they also permit a considerable reduction in the total ground-laser power required; high intensity guide stars with very small angular image size are possible; and finally they offer very low scattered parasite laser light. More basic & simpler launch-laser & AO technologies can therefore be employed, with potentially huge cost savings, with potentially significant improvement in the quality of the AO correction. The general platform scheme and suitable lift technologies are also discussed. A novel concept for achieving precise positioning is presented whereby the platform & the lifting vehicle are linked by a tether, the platform having a degree of independent control. Our proposal would employ as the lift vehicle an autonomous high altitude airship of the type currently under widespread development in the commercial sector, for use as hubs for telecommunication networks, mobile telephone relay stations, etc.

  4. Centroid tracker and aimpoint selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswarlu, Ronda; Sujata, K. V.; Venkateswara Rao, B.

    1992-11-01

    Autonomous fire and forget weapons have gained importance to achieve accurate first pass kill by hitting the target at an appropriate aim point. Centroid of the image presented by a target in the field of view (FOV) of a sensor is generally accepted as the aimpoint for these weapons. Centroid trackers are applicable only when the target image is of significant size in the FOV of the sensor but does not overflow the FOV. But as the range between the sensor and the target decreases the image of the target will grow and finally overflow the FOV at close ranges and the centroid point on the target will keep on changing which is not desirable. And also centroid need not be the most desired/vulnerable point on the target. For hardened targets like tanks, proper aimpoint selection and guidance up to almost zero range is essential to achieve maximum kill probability. This paper presents a centroid tracker realization. As centroid offers a stable tracking point, it can be used as a reference to select the proper aimpoint. The centroid and the desired aimpoint are simultaneously tracked to avoid jamming by flares and also to take care of the problems arising due to image overflow. Thresholding of gray level image to binary image is a crucial step in centroid tracker. Different thresholding algorithms are discussed and a suitable algorithm is chosen. The real-time hardware implementation of centroid tracker with a suitable thresholding technique is presented including the interfacing to a multimode tracker for autonomous target tracking and aimpoint selection. The hardware uses very high speed arithmetic and programmable logic devices to meet the speed requirement and a microprocessor based subsystem for the system control. The tracker has been evaluated in a field environment.

  5. Beam-based measurement of the center of the new STAR pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Robert-Demolaize, G.

    During the RHIC Shutdown preceding Run13 for polarized protons, various upgrades were brought to the STAR detector, one of which being the partial installation of the Forward GEM Tracker (FGT). This installation includes a new beam pipe at the center of the detector with an internal radius half the size of what the replaced pipe was, from 40 mm to 20 mm. The following reviews the results of a vertical aperture scans in the STAR interaction region performed at injection energy with both beams, and gives an estimate of the measured transverse offset of the new STAR pipe.

  6. Precision star-tracking telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairbank, W. M.; Everitt, C. W. F.

    1972-01-01

    The design, construction, and preliminary testing of a new high accuracy star tracking telescope for the laboratory model of the Stanford gyro relativity experiment are described. The function of the telescope in the final flight experiment is to define (by reference to a suitable star) a direction in space for comparison with the relativistic precession of a group of gyroscopes. The design of the telescope has been strongly affected by designs for other portions of the overall experiments, for example the gyroscopes, the attitude control system of the satellite, and the instrumentation system used in processing relativity data. Main goals for the star tracker are: (1) independent readout of angular position in two planes; (2) absolute null stability over a one year period of mechanical parts; (3) readout linear to 0.001 arc-seconds over + or - 0.05 arc-second; (4) noise performance leading to a resolution of 0.05 arc-second in 0.1 second observation time of the chosen reference star; and (5) provision for automatic gain control capable of matching the gains of the gyroscopes and telescope readouts to 1% or better.

  7. Improved performance of the laser guide star adaptive optics system at Lick Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    An, J R; Avicola, K; Bauman, B J

    1999-07-20

    Results of experiments with the laser guide star adaptive optics system on the 3-meter Shane telescope at Lick Observatory have demonstrated a factor of 4 performance improvement over previous results. Stellar images recorded at a wavelength of 2 {micro}m were corrected to over 40% of the theoretical diffraction-limited peak intensity. For the previous two years, this sodium-layer laser guide star system has corrected stellar images at this wavelength to {approx}10% of the theoretical peak intensity limit. After a campaign to improve the beam quality of the laser system, and to improve calibration accuracy and stability of the adaptive optics systemmore » using new techniques for phase retrieval and phase-shifting diffraction interferometry, the system performance has been substantially increased. The next step will be to use the Lick system for astronomical science observations, and to demonstrate this level of performance with the new system being installed on the 10-meter Keck II telescope.« less

  8. Four-cell solar tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    Forty cm Sun tracker, consisting of optical telescope and four solar cells, stays pointed at Sun throughout day for maximum energy collection. Each solar cell generates voltage proportional to part of solar image it receives; voltages drive servomotors that keep image centered. Mirrored portion of cylinder extends acquisition angle of device by reflecting Sun image back onto solar cells.

  9. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; DeGroot, Anthony J.; Haigh, Ronald E.

    2002-01-01

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  10. Charging and performance of the CubeSTAR satellite studied by numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miloch, Wojciech; Bekkeng, Tore André; Lindem, Torfinn

    2012-07-01

    A good understanding of spacecraft-plasma interaction is important for all space missions and experiments. The spacecraft potential is determined by the plasma, photoemission and other currents [1]. A charged object can significantly disturb the surrounding plasma, and lead to wake formation. The wake features, such as ion focusing, can influence the measurements of the plasma by the instruments onboard. A study of this problem using analytical models is difficult and can not account for all phenomena. This has encouraged use of numerical models for self-consistent studies of the plasma-object interactions on a detailed kinetic level [2][3]. With three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations [3][4], we address the spacecraft-plasma interaction in various plasma environments, and account for the self-consistent charging of the spacecraft by plasma and photoemission currents. As a specific case, we consider the interactions between plasma and a CubeSTAR satellite. CubeSTAR is a nano-satellite for the space weather studies being constructed in Norway, with the launch scheduled for year 2013. With a novel Langmuir probe system [5], it will measure the absolute electron densities with a high spatial resolution, allowing for studies of small scale plasma irregularities. We perform a systematic study of the role of the wakefield on the measurements with the Langmuir probes onboard the CubeSTAR for the plasma conditions relevant for the planned polar orbit. The simulation results are of relevance also for other spacecraft missions. [1] Whipple E C, Rep. Prog. Phys. 44, 1197 (1981). [2] Roussel J F and Berthelier J J, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A01104 (2004). [3] Yaroshenko V V et al., J. Geophys. Res. 116, A12218 (2011). [4] Miloch W J Kroll M and Block D 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010). [5] Bekkeng T A et al. Meas. Sci. Technol. 21, 085903 (2010).

  11. Exploration of the environments of nearby stars with the NICMOS coronagraph: instrumental performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn; Thompson, Rodger I.; Smith, Bradford A.; Terrile, Richard J.

    1998-08-01

    The Near IR Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), installed into the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in February 1997, incorporates a coronagraphic imaging capability. The coronagraph is comprised of two optical elements. The camera 2 field divider mirror, upon which the HST f/24 input beam is imaged, includes a 170 micrometers diameter hole which contains approximately 93 percent of the encircled energy from a stellar Point Spread Function (PSF) at a wavelength of 1.6 micrometers . The coronagraphic hole lowers both the diffracted energy in the surrounding region by reducing the high spatial frequency components of the occulted core of the PSF< and down stream scattering. The geometrical radius of this occulting spot, when re-imaged through the camera 2 f/45 optics, is approximately 4 pixels at the detector focal plane. An oversized cold pupil-plane mask, with radial structures co-aligned with the HST secondary mirror spider, acts over the whole 19.1 inch by 19.2 field to further reduce the diffracted energy in the direction of the spider vanes. The absolute performance levels of the coronagraph were ascertained during the servicing mission observatory verification program. Using a differential imaging strategy we expect to achieve statistically significant detectors of sub-stellar companions at 1.6 micrometers with a (Delta) H of approximately 10 and separations as close as 0.5 inch. The NICMOS environments of nearby stars programs is exploiting this capability in systematic surveys of nearby, and young stars searching for brown dwarfs and giant planets, and protoplanetary disks around main-sequence stars.

  12. Four Star School Awards: Key Factors that Predict High Performance among Indiana School Corporations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veracco, Lawrence H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the Four Star status of Indiana school corporations in order to determine if certain variables currently existing among school corporations could be predictive of Four Star status. Differences in Four Star status were examined with respect to school corporation size, school corporation average teacher…

  13. Chapter 6: CPV Tracking and Trackers

    SciTech Connect

    Luque-Heredia, Ignacio; Magalhaes, Pedro; Muller, Matthew

    2016-04-15

    This chapter explains the functional requirements of a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) sun tracker. It derives the design specifications of a CPV tracker. The chapter presents taxonomy of trackers describing the most common tracking architectures, based on the number of axes, their relative position, and the foundation and placing of tracking drives. It deals with the structural issues related to tracker design, mainly related to structural flexure and its impact on the system's acceptance angle. The chapter analyzes the auto-calibrated sun tracking control, by describing the state of the art and its development background. It explores the sun tracking accuracy measurementmore » with a practical example. The chapter discusses tracker manufacturing and tracker field works. It reviews survey of different types of tracker designs obtained from different manufacturers. Finally, the chapter deals with IEC62817, the technical standard developed for CPV sun trackers.« less

  14. Smearing model and restoration of star image under conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-03-10

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. High dynamic performance is becoming its major restriction, and requires immediate focus and promotion. A star image restoration approach based on the motion degradation model of variable angular velocity is proposed in this paper. This method can overcome the problem of energy dispersion and signal to noise ratio (SNR) decrease resulting from the smearing of the star spot, thus preventing failed extraction and decreased star centroid accuracy. Simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted to verify the proposed methods. The restoration results demonstrate that the described method can recover the star spot from a long motion trail to the shape of Gaussian distribution under the conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time. The energy of the star spot can be concentrated to ensure high SNR and high position accuracy. These features are crucial to the subsequent star extraction and the whole performance of the star tracker.

  15. Two Trackers Are Better than One: Information about the Co-actor's Actions and Performance Scores Contribute to the Collective Benefit in a Joint Visuospatial Task.

    PubMed

    Wahn, Basil; Kingstone, Alan; König, Peter

    2017-01-01

    When humans collaborate, they often distribute task demands in order to reach a higher performance compared to performing the same task alone (i.e., a collective benefit). Here, we tested to what extent receiving information about the actions of a co-actor, performance scores, or receiving both types of information impacts the collective benefit in a collaborative multiple object tracking task. In a between-subject design, pairs of individuals jointly tracked a subset of target objects among several moving distractor objects on a computer screen for a 100 trials. At the end of a trial, pairs received performance scores (Experiment 1), information about their partner's target selections (Experiment 2), or both types of information (Experiment 3). In all experiments, the performance of the pair exceeded the individual performances and the simulated performance of two independent individuals combined. Initially, when receiving both types of information (Experiment 3), pairs achieved the highest performance and divided task demands most efficiently compared to the other two experiments. Over time, performances and the ability to divide task demands for pairs receiving a single type of information converged with those receiving both, suggesting that pairs' coordination strategies become equally effective over time across experiments. However, pairs' performances never reached a theoretical limit of performance in all experiments. For distributing task demands, members of a pair predominantly used a left-right division of labor strategy (i.e., the leftmost targets were tracked by one co-actor while the rightmost targets were tracked by the other co-actor). Overall, findings of the present study suggest that receiving information about actions of a co-actor, performance scores, or receiving both enables pairs to devise effective division of labor strategies in a collaborative visuospatial task. However, when pairs had both types of information available, the formation of

  16. Market Conditions and Performance in the Nursing Home Compare Five-Star Rating.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ae-Sook

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have documented that market conditions affect nursing home performance; however, the evidence is inconsistent and conflicting. This study introduces three groups of county market conditions and a peer effect variable, and tests their impacts on the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) Five-Star overall rating. Indiana nursing home data and county characteristics are taken mainly from the NHC and Census Bureau websites. The result of the ordered logistic regression analysis indicates that nursing homes in excess demand markets, namely those that are highly concentrated and have fewer nursing homes, tend to perform better than their counterparts in both excess supply and balanced markets. In addition, a peer effect variable, measured as the average overall rating of the competitors, promotes performance improvement. These findings imply that small markets enable consumers to be well informed about a provider's reputation for quality, consequently enhancing performance. Furthermore, not only consumers but also providers seem to seek performance information on the report card to understand their relative position in the market, which thus affects their market strategies and subsequently performance. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  17. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  18. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data : data and analyses.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    This report presents data and technical analyses for Texas Department of Transportation Project 0-5235. This : project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to de...

  19. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-09-01

    This project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to develop a nighttime driver needs specification for traffic signs. The : researchers used nighttime sign legi...

  20. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersi, S.; Bainbridge, R.; Baulieu, G.; Bel, S.; Cole, J.; Cripps, N.; Delaere, C.; Drouhin, F.; Fulcher, J.; Giassi, A.; Gross, L.; Hahn, K.; Mirabito, L.; Nikolic, M.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wingham, M.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system.

  1. Austin's Home Performance with Energy Star Program: Making a Compelling Offer to a Financial Institution Partner

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark

    2011-03-18

    Launched in 2006, over 8,700 residential energy upgrades have been completed through Austin Energy's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. The program's lending partner, Velocity Credit Union (VCU) has originated almost 1,800 loans, totaling approximately $12.5 million. Residential energy efficiency loans are typically small, and expensive to originate and service relative to larger financing products. National lenders have been hesitant to deliver attractive loan products to this small, but growing, residential market. In response, energy efficiency programs have found ways to partner with local and regional banks, credit unions, community development finance institutions (CDFIs) and co-ops to deliver energymore » efficiency financing to homeowners. VCU's experience with the Austin Energy HPwES program highlights the potential benefits of energy efficiency programs to a lending partner.« less

  2. Fabrication of coronagraph masks and laboratory scale star-shade masks: characteristics, defects, and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Riggs, A. J. Eldorado; Cady, Eric; White, Victor; Yee, Karl; Wilson, Daniel; Echternach, Pierre; Muller, Richard; Mejia Prada, Camilo; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Shi, Fang; Ryan, Daniel; Fregoso, Santos; Metzman, Jacob; Wilson, Robert Casey

    2017-09-01

    NASA WFIRST mission has planned to include a coronagraph instrument to find and characterize exoplanets. Masks are needed to suppress the host star light to better than 10-8 - 10-9 level contrast over a broad bandwidth to enable the coronagraph mission objectives. Such masks for high contrast coronagraphic imaging require various fabrication technologies to meet a wide range of specifications, including precise shapes, micron scale island features, ultra-low reflectivity regions, uniformity, wave front quality, etc. We present the technologies employed at JPL to produce these pupil plane and image plane coronagraph masks, and lab-scale external occulter masks, highlighting accomplishments from the high contrast imaging testbed (HCIT) at JPL and from the high contrast imaging lab (HCIL) at Princeton University. Inherent systematic and random errors in fabrication and their impact on coronagraph performance are discussed with model predictions and measurements.

  3. Design of a cost-effective laser spot tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artan, Göktuǧ Gencehan; Sari, Hüseyin

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important aspects of guided systems is detection. The most convenient detection in the sense of precision can be achieved with a laser spot tracker. This study deals with a military grade, high performance and cost-effective laser spot tracker for a guided system. The aim is to develop a high field of view system that will detect a laser spot from a distance of 3 kilometers in which the target is designated from 3 kilometers with a laser. The study basically consists of the system design, modeling, producing and the conducting performance tests of the whole system.

  4. Reducing Energy Use in Existing Homes by 30%: Learning From Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Liaukus, C.

    2014-12-01

    The improvement of existing homes in the United States can have a much greater impact on overall residential energy use than the construction of highly efficient new homes. There are over 130 million existing housing units in the U.S., while annually new construction represents less than two percent of the total supply (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013). Therefore, the existing housing stock presents a clear opportunity and responsibility for Building America (BA) to guide the remodeling and retrofit market toward higher performance existing homes. There are active programs designed to improve the energy performance of existing homes. Home Performance with ENERGYmore » STAR (HPwES) is a market-rate program among them. BARA's research in this project verified that the New Jersey HPwES program is achieving savings in existing homes that meet or exceed BA's goal of 30%. Among the 17 HPwES projects with utility data included in this report, 15 have actual energy savings ranging from 24% to 46%. Further, two of the homes achieved that level of energy savings without the costly replacement of heating and cooling equipment, which indicates that less costly envelope packages could be offered to consumers unable to invest in more costly mechanical packages, potentially creating broader market impact.« less

  5. Status of the KLOE-2 Inner Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lucia, Erika

    2018-01-01

    KLOE-2 at the DAΦNE Φ-factory is the main experiment of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF) and is the first high-energy experiment using the GEM technology with a cylindrical geometry, a novel idea developed at LNF. Four concentric cylindrical triple-GEM detectors compose the Inner Tracker, inserted around the interaction region and before the inner wall of the pre-existing KLOE Drift Chamber to improve the resolution on decay vertices close to the interaction point. State-of-the-art solutions have been expressly developed or tuned for this project: single-mask GEM etching, multi-layer XV patterned readout, PEEK spacer grid, GASTONE front-end board, a custom 64-channel ASIC with digital output, and the Global Interface Board for data collection, with a configurable FPGA architecture and Gigabit Ethernet. Alignment and calibration of a cylindrical GEM detector was never done before and represents one of the challenging activities of the experiment. The Inner Tracker detector construction, operation, calibration and performance obtained with cosmic-ray muons and Bhabha scattering events will be reported.

  6. Covariance analysis for evaluating head trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Donghoon

    2017-10-01

    Existing methods for evaluating the performance of head trackers usually rely on publicly available face databases, which contain facial images and the ground truths of their corresponding head orientations. However, most of the existing publicly available face databases are constructed by assuming that a frontal head orientation can be determined by compelling the person under examination to look straight ahead at the camera on the first video frame. Since nobody can accurately direct one's head toward the camera, this assumption may be unrealistic. Rather than obtaining estimation errors, we present a method for computing the covariance of estimation error rotations to evaluate the reliability of head trackers. As an uncertainty measure of estimators, the Schatten 2-norm of a square root of error covariance (or the algebraic average of relative error angles) can be used. The merit of the proposed method is that it does not disturb the person under examination by asking him to direct his head toward certain directions. Experimental results using real data validate the usefulness of our method.

  7. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR: Utility Bill Analysis on Homes Participating in Austin Energy's Program

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.; Mosey, G.; Plympton, P.

    2007-07-01

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a jointly managed program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This program focuses on improving energy efficiency in existing homes via a whole-house approach to assessing and improving a home's energy performance, and helping to protect the environment. As one of HPwES's local sponsors, Austin Energy's HPwES program offers a complete home energy analysis and a list of recommendations for efficiency improvements, along with cost estimates. To determine the benefits of this program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated with the Pacific Northwest Nationalmore » Laboratory (PNNL) to conduct a statistical analysis using energy consumption data of HPwES homes provided by Austin Energy. This report provides preliminary estimates of average savings per home from the HPwES Loan Program for the period 1998 through 2006. The results from this preliminary analysis suggest that the HPwES program sponsored by Austin Energy had a very significant impact on reducing average cooling electricity for participating households. Overall, average savings were in the range of 25%-35%, and appear to be robust under various criteria for the number of households included in the analysis.« less

  8. Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-11-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.

  9. Digital Imaging Star Camera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    NRL Code 8221) is the Lead Thermal Engineer for heater and blanket design for the mission. WORK COMPLETED The program developed a briefing...development of such science-enabling technology is critical for space-flight mission on small spacecraft , such as CubeSats, that cannot afford the mass, power...critical for space-flight mission on small spacecraft , such as CubeSats, that cannot afford the mass, power or cost of traditional star trackers but

  10. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the-loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 deg each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is two to eight visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arcsec. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arcsec and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arcsec. The purpose of this paper is to describe the IPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  11. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  12. Angular-Rate Estimation Using Star Tracker Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, R.; Bar-Itzhack, I.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for estimating the angular-rate vector of satellites using quaternion measurements. Two approaches are compared, one that uses differentiated quatemion measurements to yield coarse rate measurements which are then fed into two different estimators. In the other approach the raw quatemion measurements themselves are fed directly into the two estimators. The two estimators rely on the ability to decompose the non-linear rate dependent part of the rotational dynamics equation of a rigid body into a product of an angular-rate dependent matrix and the angular-rate vector itself This decomposition, which is not unique, enables the treatment of the nonlinear spacecraft dynamics model as a linear one and, consequently, the application of a Pseudo-Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA). It also enables the application of a special Kalman filter which is based on the use of the solution of the State Dependent Algebraic Riccati Equation (SDARE) in order to compute the Kalman gain matrix and thus eliminates the need to propagate and update the filter covariance matrix. The replacement of the elaborate rotational dynamics by a simple first order Markov model is also examined. In this paper a special consideration is given to the problem of delayed quatemion measurements. Two solutions to this problem are suggested and tested. Real Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data is used to test these algorithms, and results of these tests are presented.

  13. Angular-Rate Estimation using Star Tracker Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, R.; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Deutschmann, Julie K.; Harman, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents algorithms for estimating the angular-rate vector of satellites using quaternion measurements. Two approaches are compared, one that uses differentiated quaternion measurements to yield coarse rate measurements which are then fed into two different estimators. In the other approach the raw quaternion measurements themselves are fed directly into the two estimators. The two estimators rely on the ability to decompose the non-linear rate dependent part of the rotational dynamics equation of a rigid body into a product of an angular-rate dependent matrix and the angular-rate vector itself. This decomposition, which is not unique, enables the treatment of the nonlinear spacecraft dynamics model as a linear one and, consequently, the application of a Pseudo-Linear Kalman Filter (PSELIKA). It also enables the application of a special Kalman filter which is based on the use of the solution of the State Dependent Algebraic Riccati Equation (SDARE) in order to compute the Kalman gain matrix and thus eliminates the need to propagate and update the filter covariance matrix. The replacement of the elaborate rotational dynamics by a simple first order Markov model is also examined. In this paper a special consideration is given to the problem of delayed quaternion measurements. Two solutions to this problem are suggested and tested. Real Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data is used to test these algorithms, and results of these tests are presented.

  14. Star Excursion Balance Test Performance Varies by Sport in Healthy Division I Collegiate Athletes.

    PubMed

    Stiffler, Mikel R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Brooks, M Alison; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2015-10-01

    Cross-sectional. To describe performance and asymmetry on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) by sex and sport, and to determine if differences exist within a collegiate athlete population. Performance on the SEBT may differ between sexes and levels of competition, though the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. Investigation of performance and asymmetry differences between sports is limited. Sex- and sport-specific reference values likely need to be determined to best assess SEBT performance. Performance on the SEBT was retrospectively reviewed in 393 healthy National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I collegiate athletes from 8 sports. Means, standard deviations, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all variables. Normalized reach distance (percent limb length) and asymmetry between limbs were compared for the anterior (ANT), posterolateral (PL), and posteromedial (PM) directions and for the composite (COMP) score using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of sex by sport, and a 1-way ANOVA to separately compare sports within each sex. Average normalized reach distance ranged from 62% to 69%, 84% to 97%, and 99% to 113% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively, and from 82% to 92% in the COMP score. Normalized asymmetry ranged from 3% to 4%, 5% to 8%, and 5% to 6% in the ANT, PL, and PM directions, respectively. A significant sex-by-sport interaction (P = .039) was observed in the ANT direction, with a sex effect for soccer players (P<.001; men less than women). Significant differences were observed in the PL and PM directions and in the COMP score among women's teams, with women's ice hockey players reaching the farthest (COMP, 90.0%). Among men's teams, significant differences were observed in all directions and in the COMP score. Men's ice hockey players (COMP, 91.9%) and wrestlers achieved the farthest distances (COMP, 88.8%). Performance on the SEBT varies by team, with a difference between sexes also present for

  15. Performance Analysis of Modified Accelerative Preallocation MAC Protocol for Passive Star-Coupled WDMA Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Changho; Kim, Kiseon

    2006-04-01

    For the passive star-coupled wavelength-division multiple-access (WDMA) network, a modified accelerative preallocation WDMA (MAP-WDMA) media access control (MAC) protocol is proposed, which is based on AP-WDMA. To show the advantages of MAP-WDMA as an adequate MAC protocol for the network over AP-WDMA, the channel utilization, the channel-access delay, and the latency of MAP-WDMA are investigated and compared with those of AP-WDMA under various data traffic patterns, including uniform, quasi-uniform type, disconnected type, mesh type, and ring type data traffics, as well as the assumption that a given number of network stations is equal to that of channels, in other words, without channel sharing. As a result, the channel utilization of MAP-WDMA can be competitive with respect to that of AP-WDMA at the expense of insignificantly higher latency. Namely, if the number of network stations is small, MAP-WDMA provides better channel utilization for uniform, quasi-uniform-type, and disconnected-type data traffics at all data traffic loads, as well as for mesh and ring-type data traffics at low data traffic loads. Otherwise, MAP-WDMA only outperforms AP-WDMA for the first three data traffics at higher data traffic loads. In the aspect of channel-access delay, MAP-WDMA gives better performance than AP-WDMA, regardless of data traffic patterns and the number of network stations.

  16. Running STAR-CCM+ Software on the Peregrine System | High-Performance

    Science.gov Websites

    /bin/lmutil lmstat -c 1999@wind-lms.nrel.gov -a module load star-ccm export TMPDIR="/scratch/$USER + -power -rsh "ssh -oStrictHostKeyChecking=no" -machinefile nodelist -np $(($nodes*$cores , type the commands from the SLURM script and make sure the job runs: module load star-ccm export TMPDIR

  17. Ruby on Rails Issue Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan Jared

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to detail the tasks accomplished as a NASA NIFS intern for the summer 2014 session. This internship opportunity is to develop an issue tracker Ruby on Rails web application to improve the communication of developmental anomalies between the Support Software Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) teams, System Build and Information Architecture. As many may know software development is an arduous, time consuming, collaborative effort. It involves nearly as much work designing, planning, collaborating, discussing, and resolving issues as effort expended in actual development. This internship opportunity was put in place to help alleviate the amount of time spent discussing issues such as bugs, missing tests, new requirements, and usability concerns that arise during development and throughout the life cycle of software applications once in production.

  18. Performance and function of a high-speed multiple star topology image management system at Mayo Clinic Scottsdale.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, W; Zavalkovskiy, B; Eversman, W G

    1999-05-01

    Mayo Clinic Scottsdale (MCS) is a busy outpatient facility (150,000 examinations per year) connected via asynchronous transfer mode (ATM; OC-3 155 MB/s) to a new Mayo Clinic Hospital (178 beds) located more than 12 miles distant. A primary care facility staffed by radiology lies roughly halfway between the hospital and clinic connected to both. Installed at each of the three locations is a high-speed star topology image network providing direct fiber connection (160 MB/s) from the local image storage unit (ISU) to the local radiology and clinical workstations. The clinic has 22 workstations in its star, the hospital has 13, and the primary care practice has two. In response to Mayo's request for a seamless service among the three locations, the vendor (GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) provided enhanced connectivity capability in a two-step process. First, a transfer gateway (TGW) was installed, tested, and implemented to provide the needed communication of the examinations generated at the three sites. Any examinations generated at either the hospital or the primary care facility (specified as the remote stars) automatically transfer their images to the ISU at the clinic. Permanent storage (Kodak optical jukebox, Rochester, NY) is only connected to the hub (Clinic) star. Thus, the hub ISU is provided with a copy of all examinations, while the two remote ISUs maintain local exams. Prefetching from the archive is intelligently accomplished during the off hours only to the hub star, thus providing the remote stars with network dependent access to comparison images. Image transfer is possible via remote log-on. The second step was the installation of an image transfer server (ITS) to replace the slower Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)-based TGW, and a central higher performance database to replace the multiple database environment. This topology provides an enterprise view of the images at the three locations, while maintaining the high

  19. Sun tracker for clear or cloudy weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. R.; White, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Sun tracker orients solar collector so that they absorb maximum possible sunlight without being fooled by bright clouds, holes in cloud cover, or other atmospheric conditions. Tracker follows sun within 0.25 deg arc and is accurate within + or - 5 deg when sun is hidden.

  20. System for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yong (Inventor); Wu, Yeong-Wei Andy (Inventor); Li, Rongsheng (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    An apparatus for star catalog equalization to enhance attitude determination includes a star tracker, a star catalog and a controller. The star tracker is used to sense the positions of stars and generate signals corresponding to the positions of the stars as seen in its field of view. The star catalog contains star location data that is stored using a primary and multiple secondary arrays sorted by both declination (DEC) and right ascension (RA), respectively. The star location data stored in the star catalog is predetermined by calculating a plurality of desired star locations, associating one of a plurality of stars with each of the plurality of desired star locations based upon a neighborhood association angle to generate an associated plurality of star locations: If an artificial star gap occurs during association, then the neighborhood association angle for reassociation is increased. The controller uses the star catalog to determine which stars to select to provide star measurement residuals for correcting gyroscope bias and spacecraft attitude.

  1. A protocol for evaluating video trackers under real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Tahir; Cavallaro, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The absence of a commonly adopted performance evaluation framework is hampering advances in the design of effective video trackers. In this paper, we present a single-score evaluation measure and a protocol to objectively compare trackers. The proposed measure evaluates tracking accuracy and failure, and combines them for both summative and formative performance assessment. The proposed protocol is composed of a set of trials that evaluate the robustness of trackers on a range of test scenarios representing several real-world conditions. The protocol is validated on a set of sequences with a diversity of targets (head, vehicle and person) and challenges (occlusions, background clutter, pose changes and scale changes) using six state-of-the-art trackers, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses on more than 187000 frames. The software implementing the protocol and the evaluation results are made available online and new results can be included, thus facilitating the comparison of trackers.

  2. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  3. Personal Activity Trackers and the Quantified Self.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2016-01-01

    Personal activity trackers are an inexpensive and easy way for people to record their physical activity and simple biometric data. As these devices have increased in availability and sophistication, their use in daily life and in medicine has grown. This column will briefly explore what these devices are, what types of data they can track, and how that data can be used. It will also discuss potential problems with trackers and how librarians can help patients and physicians manage and protect activity data. A brief list of currently available activity trackers is also included.

  4. MWPC prototyping and performance test for the STAR inner TPC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fuwang; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Fangang; Bai, Shiwei; Li, Changyu; Videbæk, Flemming; Xu, Zhangbu; Zhu, Chengguang; Xu, Qinghua; Yang, Chi

    2018-07-01

    A new prototype of STAR inner Time Projection Chamber (iTPC) MWPC sector has been fabricated and tested in an X-ray test system. The wire chamber built at Shandong University has a wire tension precision better than 6% and wire pitch precision better than 10 μm. The gas gain uniformity and energy resolution are measured to be better than 1% (RMS) and 20% (FWHM), respectively, using an 55Fe X-ray source. The iTPC upgrade project is to replace all 24 STAR TPC inner sectors as a crucial detector upgrade for the RHIC beam energy scan phase II program. The test results show that the constructed iTPC prototype meets all project requirements.

  5. MWPC prototyping and performance test for the STAR inner TPC upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Shen, Fuwang; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Fangang; ...

    2018-04-16

    A new prototype of STAR inner Time Projection Chamber (iTPC) MWPC sector has been fabricated and tested in an X-ray test system. The wire chamber built at Shandong University has a wire tension precision better than 6% and wire pitch precision better than 10 μm. The gas gain uniformity and energy resolution are measured to be better than 1% (RMS) and 20% (FWHM), respectively, using an 55Fe X-ray source. The iTPC upgrade project is to replace all 24 STAR TPC inner sectors as a crucial detector upgrade for the RHIC beam energy scan phase II program. Furthermore, the test resultsmore » show that the constructed iTPC prototype meets all project requirements.« less

  6. MWPC prototyping and performance test for the STAR inner TPC upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Fuwang; Wang, Shuai; Kong, Fangang

    A new prototype of STAR inner Time Projection Chamber (iTPC) MWPC sector has been fabricated and tested in an X-ray test system. The wire chamber built at Shandong University has a wire tension precision better than 6% and wire pitch precision better than 10 μm. The gas gain uniformity and energy resolution are measured to be better than 1% (RMS) and 20% (FWHM), respectively, using an 55Fe X-ray source. The iTPC upgrade project is to replace all 24 STAR TPC inner sectors as a crucial detector upgrade for the RHIC beam energy scan phase II program. Furthermore, the test resultsmore » show that the constructed iTPC prototype meets all project requirements.« less

  7. Hydra multiple head star sensor and its in-flight self-calibration of optical heads alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, L.; Blarre, L.; Perrimon, N.; Kocher, Y.; Martinez, P. E.; Dussy, S.

    2017-11-01

    HYDRA is EADS SODERN new product line of APS-based autonomous star trackers. The baseline is a multiple head sensor made of three separated optical heads and one electronic unit. Actually the concept which was chosen offers more than three single-head star trackers working independently. Since HYDRA merges all fields of view the result is a more accurate, more robust and completely autonomous multiple-head sensor, releasing the AOCS from the need to manage the outputs of independent single-head star trackers. Specific to the multiple head architecture and the underlying data fusion, is the calibration of the relative alignments between the sensor optical heads. The performance of the sensor is related to its estimation of such alignments. HYDRA design is first reminded in this paper along with simplification it can bring at system level (AOCS). Then self-calibration of optical heads alignment is highlighted through descriptions and simulation results, thus demonstrating the performances of a key part of HYDRA multiple-head concept.

  8. Tracker: Image-Processing and Object-Tracking System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimek, Robert B.; Wright, Theodore W.

    1999-01-01

    Tracker is an object-tracking and image-processing program designed and developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center to help with the analysis of images generated by microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments. Experiments are often recorded on film or videotape for analysis later. Tracker automates the process of examining each frame of the recorded experiment, performing image-processing operations to bring out the desired detail, and recording the positions of the objects of interest. It can load sequences of images from disk files or acquire images (via a frame grabber) from film transports, videotape, laser disks, or a live camera. Tracker controls the image source to automatically advance to the next frame. It can employ a large array of image-processing operations to enhance the detail of the acquired images and can analyze an arbitrarily large number of objects simultaneously. Several different tracking algorithms are available, including conventional threshold and correlation-based techniques, and more esoteric procedures such as "snake" tracking and automated recognition of character data in the image. The Tracker software was written to be operated by researchers, thus every attempt was made to make the software as user friendly and self-explanatory as possible. Tracker is used by most of the microgravity combustion and fluid physics experiments performed by Lewis, and by visiting researchers. This includes experiments performed on the space shuttles, Mir, sounding rockets, zero-g research airplanes, drop towers, and ground-based laboratories. This software automates the analysis of the flame or liquid s physical parameters such as position, velocity, acceleration, size, shape, intensity characteristics, color, and centroid, as well as a number of other measurements. It can perform these operations on multiple objects simultaneously. Another key feature of Tracker is that it performs optical character recognition (OCR). This feature is useful in

  9. Synthesis and Performance of Highly Stable Star-Shaped Polyaniline Electrochromic Materials with Triphenylamine Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Shanxin; Li, Shuaishuai; Zhang, Xiangkai; Wang, Ru; Zhang, Runlan; Wang, Xiaoqin; Wu, Bohua; Gong, Ming; Chu, Jia

    2018-02-01

    The molecular architecture of conducting polymers has a significant impact on their conjugated structure and electrochemical properties. We have investigated the influence of star-shaped structure on the electrochemical and electrochromic properties of polyaniline (PANI). Star-shaped PANI (SPANI) was prepared by copolymerization of aniline with triphenylamine (TPA) using an emulsion polymerization method. With addition of less than 4.0 mol.% TPA, the resulting SPANI exhibited good solubility in xylene with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as doping acid. The structure and thermal stability of the SPANI were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis, and the electrochemical behavior was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrochromic properties of SPANI were tested using an electrochemical workstation combined with an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The results show that, with increasing TPA loading, the thermal stability of SPANI increased. With addition of 4.0 mol.% TPA, the weight loss of SPANI was 36.9% at 700°C, much lower than the value of 71.2% for PANI at the same temperature. The low oxidation potential and large enclosed area of the CV curves indicate that SPANI possesses higher electrochemical activity than PANI. Enhanced electrochromic properties including higher optical contrast and better electrochromic stability of SPANI were also obtained. SPANI with 1.6 mol.% TPA loading exhibited the highest optical contrast of 0.71, higher than the values of 0.58 for PANI, 0.66 for SPANI-0.4%, or 0.63 for SPANI-4.0%. Overdosing of TPA resulted in slow switching speed due to slow ion transport in short branched chains of star-shaped PANI electrochromic material. Long-term stability testing confirmed that all the SPANI-based devices exhibited better stability than the PANI-based device.

  10. The Living with a Star Program: NASA's Role in Assuring Performance in Space and Atmospheric Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Kenneth; Brewer, Dana; Withbroe, George; Kauffman, Billy

    2001-01-01

    NASA has initiated the Living with a Star (LWS) Program to develop the scientific understanding to address the aspects of the Connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A goal of the program is to bridge the gap between science, engineering, and user application communities. This will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. A pre-formulation study determined the optimum combination of science missions, modeling, and technology infusion elements to accomplish this goal. The results of the study are described.

  11. The KLOE-2 Inner Tracker: Detector commissioning and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balla, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Branchini, P.; Ciambrone, P.; Czerwinski, E.; De Lucia, E.; Cicco, A.; Di Domenici, D.; Felici, G.; Morello, G.

    2017-02-01

    The KLOE-2 experiment started its data taking campaign in November 2014 with an upgraded tracking system including an Inner Tracker built with the cylindrical GEM technology, to operate together with the Drift Chamber improving the apparatus tracking performance. The Inner Tracker is composed of four cylindrical triple-GEM, each provided with an X-V strips-pads stereo readout and equipped with the GASTONE ASIC developed inside the KLOE-2 collaboration. Although GEM detectors are already used in high energy physics experiment, this device is considered a frontier detector due to its cylindrical geometry: KLOE-2 is the first experiment to use this novel solution. The results of the detector commissioning, detection efficiency evaluation, calibration studies and alignment, both with dedicated cosmic-ray muon and Bhabha scattering events, will be reported.

  12. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR: Utility Bill Analysis on Homes Participating in Austin Energy's Program

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, D.; Mosey, G.; Dagher, L.

    2008-01-01

    Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a jointly managed program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This program focuses on improving energy efficiency in existing homes via a whole-house approach to assessing and improving a home's energy performance, and helping to protect the environment. As a local sponsor for HPwES, Austin Energy's HPwES program offers a complete home energy assessment and a list of recommendations for efficiency improvements, along with cost estimates. The owner can choose to implement only one or the complete set of energy conservation measures. Austin Energy facilitatesmore » the process by providing economic incentives to the homeowner through its HPwES Loan program and its HPwES Rebate program. In 2005, the total number of participants in both programs was approximately 1,400. Both programs are only available for improvements made by a participating HPwES contractor. The individual household billing data - encompassing more than 7,000 households - provided by Austin Energy provides a rich data set to estimate the impacts of its HPwES program. The length of the billing histories is sufficient to develop PRISM-type models of electricity use based on several years of monthly bills before and after the installation of the conservation measures. Individual household savings were estimated from a restricted version of a PRISM-type regression model where the reference temperature to define cooling (or heating degree days) was estimated along with other parameters. Because the statistical quality of the regression models varies across individual households, three separate samples were used to measure the aggregate results. The samples were distinguished on the basis of the statistical significance of the estimated (normalized) cooling consumption. A normalized measure of cooling consumption was based on average temperatures observed over the most recent nine-year period ending in

  13. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, S.; Kille, N.; Ortega, I.; Sinreich, R.; Thomson, D.; Hannigan, J.; Volkamer, R.

    2015-11-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometers making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Photochemistry and Pollution Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives, and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution, and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  14. Development of a digital mobile solar tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Kille, Natalie; Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Thomson, David; Hannigan, James; Volkamer, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    We have constructed and deployed a fast digital solar tracker aboard a moving ground-based platform. The tracker consists of two rotating mirrors, a lens, an imaging camera, and a motion compensation system that provides the Euler angles of the mobile platform in real time. The tracker can be simultaneously coupled to UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometers, making it a versatile tool to measure the absorption of trace gases using solar incoming radiation. The integrated system allows the tracker to operate autonomously while the mobile laboratory is in motion. Mobile direct sun differential optical absorption spectroscopy (mobile DS-DOAS) observations using this tracker were conducted during summer 2014 as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) in Colorado, USA. We demonstrate an angular precision of 0.052° (about 1/10 of the solar disk diameter) during research drives and verify this tracking precision from measurements of the center to limb darkening (CLD, the changing appearance of Fraunhofer lines) in the mobile DS-DOAS spectra. The high photon flux from direct sun observation enables measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant columns with high temporal resolution and reveals spatial detail in the variations of NO2 vertical column densities (VCDs). The NO2 VCD from DS-DOAS is compared with a co-located MAX-DOAS instrument. Overall good agreement is observed amid a highly heterogeneous air mass.

  15. A judicious multiple hypothesis tracker with interacting feature extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAnanama, James G.; Kirubarajan, T.

    2009-05-01

    The multiple hypotheses tracker (mht) is recognized as an optimal tracking method due to the enumeration of all possible measurement-to-track associations, which does not involve any approximation in its original formulation. However, its practical implementation is limited by the NP-hard nature of this enumeration. As a result, a number of maintenance techniques such as pruning and merging have been proposed to bound the computational complexity. It is possible to improve the performance of a tracker, mht or not, using feature information (e.g., signal strength, size, type) in addition to kinematic data. However, in most tracking systems, the extraction of features from the raw sensor data is typically independent of the subsequent association and filtering stages. In this paper, a new approach, called the Judicious Multi Hypotheses Tracker (jmht), whereby there is an interaction between feature extraction and the mht, is presented. The measure of the quality of feature extraction is input into measurement-to-track association while the prediction step feeds back the parameters to be used in the next round of feature extraction. The motivation for this forward and backward interaction between feature extraction and tracking is to improve the performance in both steps. This approach allows for a more rational partitioning of the feature space and removes unlikely features from the assignment problem. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of the proposed approach.

  16. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  17. The AMS-02 Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haino, S.

    2011-06-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance cosmic-ray detector which will be installed as an independent module on the International Space Station (ISS). The instrument will provide a precise measurement of the cosmic-ray energy spectra and extensive antimatter search up to several TeV for particle charges up to Z = 26. The spectrometer will be delivered to the ISS by STS-134 flight in February 2011. In August 2010 the calibration and performance evaluation of the spectrometer were performed with test beam at CERN.

  18. HETDEX tracker control system design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beno, Joseph H.; Hayes, Richard; Leck, Ron; Penney, Charles; Soukup, Ian

    2012-09-01

    To enable the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment, The University of Texas at Austin Center for Electromechanics and McDonald Observatory developed a precision tracker and control system - an 18,000 kg robot to position a 3,100 kg payload within 10 microns of a desired dynamic track. Performance requirements to meet science needs and safety requirements that emerged from detailed Failure Modes and Effects Analysis resulted in a system of 13 precision controlled actuators and 100 additional analog and digital devices (primarily sensors and safety limit switches). Due to this complexity, demanding accuracy requirements, and stringent safety requirements, two independent control systems were developed. First, a versatile and easily configurable centralized control system that links with modeling and simulation tools during the hardware and software design process was deemed essential for normal operation including motion control. A second, parallel, control system, the Hardware Fault Controller (HFC) provides independent monitoring and fault control through a dedicated microcontroller to force a safe, controlled shutdown of the entire system in the event a fault is detected. Motion controls were developed in a Matlab-Simulink simulation environment, and coupled with dSPACE controller hardware. The dSPACE real-time operating system collects sensor information; motor commands are transmitted over a PROFIBUS network to servo amplifiers and drive motor status is received over the same network. To interface the dSPACE controller directly to absolute Heidenhain sensors with EnDat 2.2 protocol, a custom communication board was developed. This paper covers details of operational control software, the HFC, algorithms, tuning, debugging, testing, and lessons learned.

  19. Sun Tracker Operates a Year Between Calibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Low-cost modification of Sun tracker automatically compensates equation of time and seasonal variations in declination of Sun. Output of Scotch Yoke drive mechanism adjusted through proper sizing of crank, yoke and other components and through choice of gear ratios to approximate seasonal northand south motion of Sun. Used for industrial solar-energy monitoring and in remote meteorological stations.

  20. jTracker and Monte Carlo Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selensky, Lauren; SeaQuest/E906 Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    SeaQuest is designed to observe the characteristics and behavior of `sea-quarks' in a proton by reconstructing them from the subatomic particles produced in a collision. The 120 GeV beam from the main injector collides with a fixed target and then passes through a series of detectors which records information about the particles produced in the collision. However, this data becomes meaningful only after it has been processed, stored, analyzed, and interpreted. Several programs are involved in this process. jTracker (sqerp) reads wire or hodoscope hits and reconstructs the tracks of potential dimuon pairs from a run, and Geant4 Monte Carlo simulates dimuon production and background noise from the beam. During track reconstruction, an event must meet the criteria set by the tracker to be considered a viable dimuon pair; this ensures that relevant data is retained. As a check, a comparison between a new version of jTracker and Monte Carlo was made in order to see how accurately jTracker could reconstruct the events created by Monte Carlo. In this presentation, the results of the inquest and their potential effects on the programming will be shown. This work is supported by U.S. DOE MENP Grant DE-FG02-03ER41243.

  1. Star ratings. Stars of wonder.

    PubMed

    Dawes, David

    2002-09-12

    Analysis of trusts that changed their star-rating over the past two years indicates that a change of chief executive was not a significant factor. The length of time in post and the experience of the chief executive were also insignificant. This has serious implications for the theory behind franchising and the evaluation of franchised trusts. Holding chief executives to account for the organisation's performance within their first 12 months is unlikely to be effective.

  2. In Situ Methods, Infrastructures, and Applications on High Performance Computing Platforms, a State-of-the-art (STAR) Report

    DOE PAGES

    Bethel, EW; Bauer, A; Abbasi, H; ...

    2016-06-10

    The considerable interest in the high performance computing (HPC) community regarding analyzing and visualization data without first writing to disk, i.e., in situ processing, is due to several factors. First is an I/O cost savings, where data is analyzed /visualized while being generated, without first storing to a filesystem. Second is the potential for increased accuracy, where fine temporal sampling of transient analysis might expose some complex behavior missed in coarse temporal sampling. Third is the ability to use all available resources, CPU’s and accelerators, in the computation of analysis products. This STAR paper brings together researchers, developers and practitionersmore » using in situ methods in extreme-scale HPC with the goal to present existing methods, infrastructures, and a range of computational science and engineering applications using in situ analysis and visualization.« less

  3. Hubble Space Telescope Reduced-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Wirzburger, John H.; Smith, Daniel C.; VanArsadall, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Following gyro failures in April 2001 and April 2003, HST Pointing Control System engineers designed reduced-gyro control laws to extend the spacecraft science mission. The Two-Gyro Science (TGS) and One-Gyro Science (OGS) control laws were designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors in succession to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axes. Both TGS and OGS have demonstrated on-orbit pointing stability of 7 milli-arcseconds or less, which depends upon the guide star magnitude used by the Fine Guidance Sensor. This paper describes the design, implementation, and on-orbit performance of the TGS and OGS control law fine-pointing modes using Fixed Head Star Trackers and Fine Guidance Sensors, after successfully achieving coarse-pointing control using magnetometers.

  4. Experimental predictions drawn from a computational model of sign-trackers and goal-trackers.

    PubMed

    Lesaint, Florian; Sigaud, Olivier; Clark, Jeremy J; Flagel, Shelly B; Khamassi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying the individual variation observed in response to rewards and reward cues could help to identify and treat individuals more prone to disorders of impulsive control, such as addiction. Variation in response to reward cues is captured in rats undergoing autoshaping experiments where the appearance of a lever precedes food delivery. Although no response is required for food to be delivered, some rats (goal-trackers) learn to approach and avidly engage the magazine until food delivery, whereas other rats (sign-trackers) come to approach and engage avidly the lever. The impulsive and often maladaptive characteristics of the latter response are reminiscent of addictive behaviour in humans. In a previous article, we developed a computational model accounting for a set of experimental data regarding sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Here we show new simulations of the model to draw experimental predictions that could help further validate or refute the model. In particular, we apply the model to new experimental protocols such as injecting flupentixol locally into the core of the nucleus accumbens rather than systemically, and lesioning of the core of the nucleus accumbens before or after conditioning. In addition, we discuss the possibility of removing the food magazine during the inter-trial interval. The predictions from this revised model will help us better understand the role of different brain regions in the behaviours expressed by sign-trackers and goal-trackers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. C-STARS Baltimore Simulation Center Military Trauma Training Program: Training for High Performance Trauma Teams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-19

    for October 2010 to September 2013 Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing School of Aerospace Medicine Air Force...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) USAF School of Aerospace Medicine Air Force Expeditionary Medical Skills...Patient denies any performance enhancers or herbal use. BP – 110/68, P 124, R –28 shallow, and sweating from exercise. Patient states he never

  6. Reliability and Validity of Ten Consumer Activity Trackers Depend on Walking Speed.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, Tryntsje; Kooiman, Thea J M; Krijnen, Wim P; VAN DER Schans, Cees P; DE Groot, Martijn

    2017-04-01

    To examine the test-retest reliability and validity of ten activity trackers for step counting at three different walking speeds. Thirty-one healthy participants walked twice on a treadmill for 30 min while wearing 10 activity trackers (Polar Loop, Garmin Vivosmart, Fitbit Charge HR, Apple Watch Sport, Pebble Smartwatch, Samsung Gear S, Misfit Flash, Jawbone Up Move, Flyfit, and Moves). Participants walked three walking speeds for 10 min each; slow (3.2 km·h), average (4.8 km·h), and vigorous (6.4 km·h). To measure test-retest reliability, intraclass correlations (ICC) were determined between the first and second treadmill test. Validity was determined by comparing the trackers with the gold standard (hand counting), using mean differences, mean absolute percentage errors, and ICC. Statistical differences were calculated by paired-sample t tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and by constructing Bland-Altman plots. Test-retest reliability varied with ICC ranging from -0.02 to 0.97. Validity varied between trackers and different walking speeds with mean differences between the gold standard and activity trackers ranging from 0.0 to 26.4%. Most trackers showed relatively low ICC and broad limits of agreement of the Bland-Altman plots at the different speeds. For the slow walking speed, the Garmin Vivosmart and Fitbit Charge HR showed the most accurate results. The Garmin Vivosmart and Apple Watch Sport demonstrated the best accuracy at an average walking speed. For vigorous walking, the Apple Watch Sport, Pebble Smartwatch, and Samsung Gear S exhibited the most accurate results. Test-retest reliability and validity of activity trackers depends on walking speed. In general, consumer activity trackers perform better at an average and vigorous walking speed than at a slower walking speed.

  7. Collaborative engineering and design management for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollison, Nicholas T.; Hayes, Richard J.; Good, John M.; Booth, John A.; Savage, Richard D.; Jackson, John R.; Rafal, Marc D.; Beno, Joseph H.

    2010-07-01

    The engineering and design of systems as complex as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope's* new tracker require that multiple tasks be executed in parallel and overlapping efforts. When the design of individual subsystems is distributed among multiple organizations, teams, and individuals, challenges can arise with respect to managing design productivity and coordinating successful collaborative exchanges. This paper focuses on design management issues and current practices for the tracker design portion of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Wide Field Upgrade project. The scope of the tracker upgrade requires engineering contributions and input from numerous fields including optics, instrumentation, electromechanics, software controls engineering, and site-operations. Successful system-level integration of tracker subsystems and interfaces is critical to the telescope's ultimate performance in astronomical observation. Software and process controls for design information and workflow management have been implemented to assist the collaborative transfer of tracker design data. The tracker system architecture and selection of subsystem interfaces has also proven to be a determining factor in design task formulation and team communication needs. Interface controls and requirements change controls will be discussed, and critical team interactions are recounted (a group-participation Failure Modes and Effects Analysis [FMEA] is one of special interest). This paper will be of interest to engineers, designers, and managers engaging in multi-disciplinary and parallel engineering projects that require coordination among multiple individuals, teams, and organizations.

  8. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  9. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. Furthermore, the system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m 2 area. In each muon tracker there consists 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when themore » core is imaged from outside the reactor building.« less

  10. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; Bacon, J.; Borozdin, K. N.; Durham, J. M.; Fuzita, K.; Guardincerri, E.; Izumi, M.; Nakayama, K.; Saltus, M.; Sugita, T.; Takakura, K.; Yoshioka, K.

    2016-09-01

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. The system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m2 area. Each muon tracker consists of 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when the core is imaged from outside the reactor building.

  11. Muon trackers for imaging a nuclear reactor

    DOE PAGES

    Kume, N.; Miyadera, H.; Morris, C. L.; ...

    2016-09-21

    A detector system for assessing damage to the cores of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear reactors by using cosmic-ray muon tomography was developed. Furthermore, the system consists of a pair of drift-tube tracking detectors of 7.2× 7.2-m 2 area. In each muon tracker there consists 6 x-layer and 6 y-layer drift-tube detectors. Each tracker is capable of measuring muon tracks with 12 mrad angular resolutions, and is capable of operating under 50-μ Sv/h radiation environment by removing gamma induced background with a novel time-coincidence logic. An estimated resolution to observe nuclear fuel debris at Fukushima Daiichi is 0.3 m when themore » core is imaged from outside the reactor building.« less

  12. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  13. Miras among C stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battinelli, P.; Demers, S.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Carbon stars are among the brightest intermediate-age stars. They are seen in nearly all galaxies of the Local Group. In the Milky Way they are members of the thin disk but over a hundred have been identified in the Galactic halo. Since the halo consists essentially of an old stellar population, these carbon stars warrant special attention. We believe that such stars are trespassers and belong to streams left over by disrupted dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Aims: By performing photometric monitoring we intend to identify Miras among the halo carbon stars. Methods: We obtained, over several semesters, K and J images centered on the carbon stars in order to determine their variation and periodicity. Results: We establish the variability for a number of stars and identify the Miras among them. We collect data from the literature on the Miras among various carbon star populations and show that the fraction of Miras among carbon stars is fairly constant. We demonstrate that such fractions for the halo and Sagittarius are biased because of the way targets are selected. We finally investigate the near-infrared color distribution of Miras and carbon stars. Based on observations made with the REM Telescope, INAF Chile.The observed K and J magnitudes are available only at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A100

  14. Development and evaluation of a hand tracker using depth images captured from an overhead perspective.

    PubMed

    Czarnuch, Stephen; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-03-27

    We present the development and evaluation of a robust hand tracker based on single overhead depth images for use in the COACH, an assistive technology for people with dementia. The new hand tracker was designed to overcome limitations experienced by the COACH in previous clinical trials. We train a random decision forest classifier using ∼5000 manually labeled, unbalanced, training images. Hand positions from the classifier are translated into task actions based on proximity to environmental objects. Tracker performance is evaluated using a large set of ∼24 000 manually labeled images captured from 41 participants in a fully-functional washroom, and compared to the system's previous colour-based hand tracker. Precision and recall were 0.994 and 0.938 for the depth tracker compared to 0.981 and 0.822 for the colour tracker with the current data, and 0.989 and 0.466 in the previous study. The improved tracking performance supports integration of the depth-based tracker into the COACH toward unsupervised, real-world trials. Implications for Rehabilitation The COACH is an intelligent assistive technology that can enable people with cognitive disabilities to stay at home longer, supporting the concept of aging-in-place. Automated prompting systems, a type of intelligent assistive technology, can help to support the independent completion of activities of daily living, increasing the independence of people with cognitive disabilities while reducing the burden of care experienced by caregivers. Robust motion tracking using depth imaging supports the development of intelligent assistive technologies like the COACH. Robust motion tracking also has application to other forms of assistive technologies including gaming, human-computer interaction and automated assessments.

  15. Nebraska STARS: Achieving Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…

  16. Four new Delta Scuti stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Four new Delta Scuti stars are reported. Power, modified into amplitude, spectra, and light curves are used to determine periodicities. A complete frequency analysis is not performed due to the lack of a sufficient time base in the data. These new variables help verify the many predictions that Delta Scuti stars probably exist in prolific numbers as small amplitude variables. Two of these stars, HR 4344 and HD 107513, are possibly Am stars. If so, they are among the minority of variable stars which are also Am stars.

  17. Performance Evaluation of the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Array Radiometer (GeoSTAR) Demonstrator Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Wilson, William J.; Lambrigsten, Bjorn H.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka P.; Gaier, Todd C.; Ruf, C. S.; Gross, S. M.; Lim, B. H.; hide

    2006-01-01

    The design, error budget, and preliminary test results of a 50-56 GHz synthetic aperture radiometer demonstration system are presented. The instrument consists of a fixed 24-element array of correlation interferometers, and is capable of producing calibrated images with 0.8 degree spatial resolution within a 17 degree wide field of view. This system has been built to demonstrate performance and a design which can be scaled to a much larger geostationary earth imager. As a baseline, such a system would consist of about 300 elements, and would be capable of providing contiguous, full hemispheric images of the earth with 1 Kelvin of radiometric precision and 50 km spatial resolution.

  18. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  20. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar first flight to support Adaptive Performance Optimization study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Bearing the logos of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orbital's L-1011 Tristar lifts off the Meadows Field Runway at Bakersfield, California, on its first flight May 21, 1997, in NASA's Adaptive Performance Optimization project. Developed by engineers at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the experiment seeks to reduce fuel consumption of large jetliners by improving the aerodynamic efficency of their wings at cruise conditions. A research computer employing a sophisticated software program adapts to changing flight conditions by commanding small movements of the L-1011's outboard ailerons to give the wings the most efficient - or optimal - airfoil. Up to a dozen research flights will be flown in the current and follow-on phases of the project over the next couple years.

  1. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  2. Sports Stars: Analyzing the Performance of Astronomers at Visualization-based Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluke, C. J.; Parrington, L.; Hegarty, S.; MacMahon, C.; Morgan, S.; Hassan, A. H.; Kilborn, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    In this data-rich era of astronomy, there is a growing reliance on automated techniques to discover new knowledge. The role of the astronomer may change from being a discoverer to being a confirmer. But what do astronomers actually look at when they distinguish between “sources” and “noise?” What are the differences between novice and expert astronomers when it comes to visual-based discovery? Can we identify elite talent or coach astronomers to maximize their potential for discovery? By looking to the field of sports performance analysis, we consider an established, domain-wide approach, where the expertise of the viewer (i.e., a member of the coaching team) plays a crucial role in identifying and determining the subtle features of gameplay that provide a winning advantage. As an initial case study, we investigate whether the SportsCode performance analysis software can be used to understand and document how an experienced Hi astronomer makes discoveries in spectral data cubes. We find that the process of timeline-based coding can be applied to spectral cube data by mapping spectral channels to frames within a movie. SportsCode provides a range of easy to use methods for annotation, including feature-based codes and labels, text annotations associated with codes, and image-based drawing. The outputs, including instance movies that are uniquely associated with coded events, provide the basis for a training program or team-based analysis that could be used in unison with discipline specific analysis software. In this coordinated approach to visualization and analysis, SportsCode can act as a visual notebook, recording the insight and decisions in partnership with established analysis methods. Alternatively, in situ annotation and coding of features would be a valuable addition to existing and future visualization and analysis packages.

  3. Formation of star tracking reticles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, W. O.; Toft, A. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The present application is directed towards a process for producing high resolution, substantially non-reflective reticles or choppers suitable for use for transmitting in both the visible and near ultra-violet regions, able to withstand reasonable handling and extreme environmental conditions, and capable of operating at speeds of from 2800 to about 9000 revolutions per minute without distortion. In particular, the present invention is directed towards the production or reticles having a quartz base vacuum coated with chromium, chromium-silver alloy, and silver with electrodeposited copper and black chromium thereon, respectively, in the form of a reticle pattern. The quartz permits the transmission of light while the pattern is opaque to light. The reticles of the present invention are intended for use in optical trackers, such as star trackers used in outer space.

  4. Roadside Tracker Portal-less Portal Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter; Cheriyadat, Anil M.; Bradley, Eric Craig

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the full development cycle of the Roadside Tracker (RST) Portal-less Portal monitor (Fig. 1) funded by DHS DNDO. The project started with development of a proof-of-feasibility proto-type, proceeded through design and construction of a proof-of-concept (POC) prototype, a test-and-evaluation phase, participation in a Limited Use Exercise that included the Standoff Radiation Detections Systems developed under an Advanced Technology Demonstration and concluded with participation in a Characterization Study conducted by DNDO.

  5. An adaptive tracker for ShipIR/NTCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Srinivasan; Vaitekunas, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A key component in any image-based tracking system is the adaptive tracking algorithm used to segment the image into potential targets, rank-and-select the best candidate target, and the gating of the selected target to further improve tracker performance. This paper will describe a new adaptive tracker algorithm added to the naval threat countermeasure simulator (NTCS) of the NATO-standard ship signature model (ShipIR). The new adaptive tracking algorithm is an optional feature used with any of the existing internal NTCS or user-defined seeker algorithms (e.g., binary centroid, intensity centroid, and threshold intensity centroid). The algorithm segments the detected pixels into clusters, and the smallest set of clusters that meet the detection criterion is obtained by using a knapsack algorithm to identify the set of clusters that should not be used. The rectangular area containing the chosen clusters defines an inner boundary, from which a weighted centroid is calculated as the aim-point. A track-gate is then positioned around the clusters, taking into account the rate of change of the bounding area and compensating for any gimbal displacement. A sequence of scenarios is used to test the new tracking algorithm on a generic unclassified DDG ShipIR model, with and without flares, and demonstrate how some of the key seeker signals are impacted by both the ship and flare intrinsic signatures.

  6. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  7. CellTracker (not only) for dummies.

    PubMed

    Piccinini, Filippo; Kiss, Alexa; Horvath, Peter

    2016-03-15

    Time-lapse experiments play a key role in studying the dynamic behavior of cells. Single-cell tracking is one of the fundamental tools for such analyses. The vast majority of the recently introduced cell tracking methods are limited to fluorescently labeled cells. An equally important limitation is that most software cannot be effectively used by biologists without reasonable expertise in image processing. Here we present CellTracker, a user-friendly open-source software tool for tracking cells imaged with various imaging modalities, including fluorescent, phase contrast and differential interference contrast (DIC) techniques. CellTracker is written in MATLAB (The MathWorks, Inc., USA). It works with Windows, Macintosh and UNIX-based systems. Source code and graphical user interface (GUI) are freely available at: http://celltracker.website/ horvath.peter@brc.mta.hu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Older Adults' Acceptance of Activity Trackers

    PubMed Central

    Preusse, Kimberly C.; Mitzner, Tracy L.; Fausset, Cara Bailey; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the usability and acceptance of activity tracking technologies by older adults. Method First in our multi-method approach, we conducted heuristic evaluations of two activity trackers that revealed potential usability barriers to acceptance. Next, questionnaires and interviews were administered to 16 older adults (Mage=70, SDage=3.09, rangeage= 65-75) before and after a 28-day field study to understand facilitators and additional barriers to acceptance. These measurements were supplemented with diary and usage data and assessed if and why users overcame usability issues. Results The heuristic evaluation revealed usability barriers in System Status Visibility; Error Prevention; and Consistency and Standards. The field study revealed additional barriers (e.g., accuracy, format), and acceptance-facilitators (e.g., goal-tracking, usefulness, encouragement). Discussion The acceptance of wellness management technologies, such as activity trackers, may be increased by addressing acceptance-barriers during deployment (e.g., providing tutorials on features that were challenging, communicating usefulness). PMID:26753803

  9. Application of virtual distances methodology to laser tracker verification with an indexed metrology platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, R.; Santolaria, J.; Pueo, M.; Aguilar, J. J.; Brau, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-range measuring equipment like laser trackers need large dimension calibrated reference artifacts in their calibration and verification procedures. In this paper, a new verification procedure for portable coordinate measuring instruments based on the generation and evaluation of virtual distances with an indexed metrology platform is developed. This methodology enables the definition of an unlimited number of reference distances without materializing them in a physical gauge to be used as a reference. The generation of the virtual points and reference lengths derived is linked to the concept of the indexed metrology platform and the knowledge of the relative position and orientation of its upper and lower platforms with high accuracy. It is the measuring instrument together with the indexed metrology platform one that remains still, rotating the virtual mesh around them. As a first step, the virtual distances technique is applied to a laser tracker in this work. The experimental verification procedure of the laser tracker with virtual distances is simulated and further compared with the conventional verification procedure of the laser tracker with the indexed metrology platform. The results obtained in terms of volumetric performance of the laser tracker proved the suitability of the virtual distances methodology in calibration and verification procedures for portable coordinate measuring instruments, broadening and expanding the possibilities for the definition of reference distances in these procedures.

  10. A multi-hypothesis tracker for clicking whales.

    PubMed

    Baggenstoss, Paul M

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a tracker specially designed to track clicking beaked whales using widely spaced bottom-mounted hydrophones, although it can be adapted to different species and sensors. The input to the tracker is a sequence of static localization solutions obtained using time difference of arrival information at widely spaced hydrophones. To effectively handle input localizations with high ambiguity, the tracker is based on multi-hypothesis tracker concepts, so it considers all potential association hypotheses and keeps a large number of potential tracks in memory. The method is demonstrated on actual data and shown to successfully track multiple beaked whales at depth.

  11. Massive stars, disks, and clustered star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Nickolas Barry

    The formation of an isolated massive star is inherently more complex than the relatively well-understood collapse of an isolated, low-mass star. The dense, clustered environment where massive stars are predominantly found further complicates the picture, and suggests that interactions with other stars may play an important role in the early life of these objects. In this thesis we present the results of numerical hydrodynamic experiments investigating interactions between a massive protostar and its lower-mass cluster siblings. We explore the impact of these interactions on the orientation of disks and outflows, which are potentially observable indications of encounters during the formation of a star. We show that these encounters efficiently form eccentric binary systems, and in clusters similar to Orion they occur frequently enough to contribute to the high multiplicity of massive stars. We suggest that the massive protostar in Cepheus A is currently undergoing a series of interactions, and present simulations tailored to that system. We also apply the numerical techniques used in the massive star investigations to a much lower-mass regime, the formation of planetary systems around Solar- mass stars. We perform a small number of illustrative planet-planet scattering experiments, which have been used to explain the eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. We add the complication of a remnant gas disk, and show that this feature has the potential to stabilize the system against strong encounters between planets. We present preliminary simulations of Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto a protoplanetary disk, and consider the impact of the flow on the disk properties as well as the impact of the disk on the accretion flow.

  12. Herschel-PACS photometry of faint stars for sensitivity performance assessment and establishment of faint FIR primary photometric standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaas, U.; Balog, Z.; Nielbock, M.; Müller, T. G.; Linz, H.; Kiss, Cs.

    2018-05-01

    Aims: Our aims are to determine flux densities and their photometric accuracy for a set of seventeen stars that range in flux from intermediately bright (≲2.5 Jy) to faint (≳5 mJy) in the far-infrared (FIR). We also aim to derive signal-to-noise dependence with flux and time, and compare the results with predictions from the Herschel exposure-time calculation tool. Methods: We obtain aperture photometry from Herschel-PACS high-pass-filtered scan maps and chop/nod observations of the faint stars. The issues of detection limits and sky confusion noise are addressed by comparison of the field-of-view at different wavelengths, by multi-aperture photometry, by special processing of the maps to preserve extended emission, and with the help of large-scale absolute sky brightness maps from AKARI. This photometry is compared with flux-density predictions based on photospheric models for these stars. We obtain a robust noise estimate by fitting the flux distribution per map pixel histogram for the area around the stars, scaling it for the applied aperture size and correcting for noise correlation. Results: For 15 stars we obtain reliable photometry in at least one PACS filter, and for 11 stars we achieve this in all three PACS filters (70, 100, 160 μm). Faintest fluxes, for which the photometry still has good quality, are about 10-20 mJy with scan map photometry. The photometry of seven stars is consistent with models or flux predictions for pure photospheric emission, making them good primary standard candidates. Two stars exhibit source-intrinsic far-infrared excess: β Gem (Pollux), being the host star of a confirmed Jupiter-size exoplanet, due to emission of an associated dust disk, and η Dra due to dust emission in a binary system with a K1 dwarf. The investigation of the 160 μm sky background and environment of four sources reveals significant sky confusion prohibiting the determination of an accurate stellar flux at this wavelength. As a good model

  13. Infrared tracker for a portable missile launcher

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, J.J.

    1993-07-13

    An infrared beam tracker is described for arrangement to a housing that is unitary with a portable missile launcher, comprising: a rotating beam splitter positioned to intercept the infrared beam passing a first portion of the beam through the beam splitter along a first direction and reflecting the remaining portion along a different direction; a first infrared detector for receiving the beam reflected portion from the beam splitter and produce electric signals responsive thereto; a second infrared detector for receiving the beam portion that passes through the beam splitter and providing electric signals responsive thereto; and means interconnected to themore » first and second infrared detectors and responsive to the electric signals generated by said detectors for determining errors in missile flight direction and communicating course correction information to the missile.« less

  14. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker.

    PubMed

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-06-15

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses.

  15. Mechatronic Prototype of Parabolic Solar Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Morón, Carlos; Díaz, Jorge Pablo; Ferrández, Daniel; Ramos, Mari Paz

    2016-01-01

    In the last 30 years numerous attempts have been made to improve the efficiency of the parabolic collectors in the electric power production, although most of the studies have focused on the industrial production of thermoelectric power. This research focuses on the application of this concentrating solar thermal power in the unexplored field of building construction. To that end, a mechatronic prototype of a hybrid paraboloidal and cylindrical-parabolic tracker based on the Arduido technology has been designed. The prototype is able to measure meteorological data autonomously in order to quantify the energy potential of any location. In this way, it is possible to reliably model real commercial equipment behavior before its deployment in buildings and single family houses. PMID:27314359

  16. Fitness Tracker for Weight Lifting Style Workouts

    SciTech Connect

    Wihl, B. M.

    This document proposes an early, high level design for a fitness tracking system which can automatically log weight lifting style workouts. The system will provide an easy to use interface both physically through the use of several wireless wristband style motion trackers worn on the limbs, and graphically through a smartphone application. Exercise classification will be accomplished by calibration of the user’s specific motions. The system will accurately track a user’s workout, miscounting no more than one repetition in every 20, have sufficient battery life to last several hours, work with existing smartphones and have a cost similar to thosemore » of current fitness tracking devices. This document presents the mission background, current state-of-theart, stakeholders and their expectations, the proposed system’s context and concepts, implementation concepts, system requirements, first sublevel function decomposition, possible risks for the system, and a reflection on the design process.« less

  17. A holographic waveguide based eye tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changgeng; Pazzucconi, Beatrice; Liu, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye. The vector connecting the pupil center (PC) and the corneal reflex (CR) of the eye was used to compute eye position in the socket. An eye model, made of a high quality prosthetic eye, was used prototype validation. The benchtop prototype demonstrated a linear relationship between the angular eye position and the PC/CR vector over a range of 60 horizontal degrees and 30 vertical degrees at a resolution of 0.64-0.69 degrees/pixel by simple pixel count. The uncertainties of the measurements at different angular positions were within 1.2 pixels, which indicated that the prototype exhibited a high level of repeatability. These results confirmed that the holographic waveguide technology could be a feasible platform for developing a wearable eye tracker. Further development can lead to a compact, see-through eye tracker, which allows continuous monitoring of eye movement during real life tasks, and thus benefits diagnosis of oculomotor disorders.

  18. Project S.T.A.R.S. Student Training at Retail Stores. Cooperative Demonstration Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Barbara

    The Student Training at Retail Stores (STARS) project was evaluated during the 1989-90 school year. With the collaboration of business a 3-semester program of intense occupational, vocational, and career education was developed to enhance job skills and secure retail sales jobs for high school juniors with moderate learning, speech, emotional, and…

  19. Iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker for large-scale systems: a digital redesign approach.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Du, Yan-Yi; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San; Chen, Yuhua

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a digital redesign methodology of the iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of sampled-data linear large-scale control systems consisting of N interconnected multi-input multi-output subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory which may not be presented by the analytic reference model initially. To overcome the interference of each sub-system and simplify the controller design, the proposed model reference decentralized adaptive control scheme constructs a decoupled well-designed reference model first. Then, according to the well-designed model, this paper develops a digital decentralized adaptive tracker based on the optimal analog control and prediction-based digital redesign technique for the sampled-data large-scale coupling system. In order to enhance the tracking performance of the digital tracker at specified sampling instants, we apply the iterative learning control (ILC) to train the control input via continual learning. As a result, the proposed iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker not only has robust closed-loop decoupled property but also possesses good tracking performance at both transient and steady state. Besides, evolutionary programming is applied to search for a good learning gain to speed up the learning process of ILC. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Evolution of Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, S. Josephine

    1993-04-01

    -type stars (^13C-rich carbon stars) have been suggested to be transition objects between M-type stars and C-type stars. An optical spectroscopic study of these silicate carbon stars was performed at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory (DAO) in Victoria in 1991. CCGCS 1653, CCGCS 4222, CCGCS 4923 and CCGCS 5848 have been confirmed to be J stars. CCGCS 1158 and CCGCS 4729 are provisionally identified as J stars. A preliminary spectral analysis has also been carried out. Model calculations are presented on the evolution from the visual carbon stars to infrared carbon stars, and on the evolution of infrared carbon stars. A new empirical opacity function for the SiC grain is derived based on the LRS spectra of a selected sample of infrared carbon stars. A two-shell model has been developed with an oxygen-rich detached shell and a newly-forming SiC dust shell. The energy distributions of ~110 transition objects which are late-stage visual carbon stars or early-stage infrared carbon stars are fitted with this Interrupted Mass Loss Model. Furthermore, the model tracks successfully explain the "C" shaped distribution of the transition objects in the IRAS 12 microns/25 microns/60 microns colour-colour diagram. The energy distributions of ~150 infrared carbon stars are also matched with a radiative transfer dust shell model using only SiC dust. The colour evolution of infrared carbon stars can be explained with a continuous increase in mass loss rate on the AGB. An evolutionary scenario of AGB stars is suggested. There is a branching of M-type and C-type stars on the AGB with each branch evolving independently to the planetary nebula stage. The initial mass of the star in the main sequence may be the factor that determines which branch the star will follow. (SECTION: Dissertation Abstracts)

  1. Experience from the construction and operation of the STAR PXL detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, L.; Anderssen, E. C.; Contin, G.; Schambach, J.; Silber, J.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H. H.; Woodmansee, S.

    2015-04-01

    A new silicon based vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed at the Soleniodal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 2014 heavy ion run to improve the vertex resolution and extend the measurement capabilities of STAR in the heavy flavor domain. The HFT consists of four concentric cylinders around the STAR interaction point composed of three different silicon detector technologies based on strips, pads and for the first time in an accelerator experiment CMOS monolithic active pixels (MAPS) . The two innermost layers at a radius of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line are constructed with 400 high resolution MAPS sensors arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors giving a total silicon area of 0.16 m2. Each sensor consists of a pixel array of nearly 1 million pixels with a pitch of 20.7 μm with column-level discriminators, zero-suppression circuitry and output buffer memory integrated into one silicon die with a sensitive area of ~ 3.8 cm2. The pixel (PXL) detector has a low power dissipation of 170 mW/cm2, which allows air cooling. This results in a global material budget of 0.5% radiation length per layer for detector used in this run. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows for the installation and integration of the pixel sub detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going STAR run. The detector specifications, experience from the construction and operation, lessons learned and initial measurements of the PXL performance in the 200 GeV Au-Au run will be presented.

  2. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Popelka, Stanislav; Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe.

  3. EyeTribe Tracker Data Accuracy Evaluation and Its Interconnection with Hypothesis Software for Cartographic Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Stachoň, Zdeněk; Šašinka, Čeněk; Doležalová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    The mixed research design is a progressive methodological discourse that combines the advantages of quantitative and qualitative methods. Its possibilities of application are, however, dependent on the efficiency with which the particular research techniques are used and combined. The aim of the paper is to introduce the possible combination of Hypothesis with EyeTribe tracker. The Hypothesis is intended for quantitative data acquisition and the EyeTribe is intended for qualitative (eye-tracking) data recording. In the first part of the paper, Hypothesis software is described. The Hypothesis platform provides an environment for web-based computerized experiment design and mass data collection. Then, evaluation of the accuracy of data recorded by EyeTribe tracker was performed with the use of concurrent recording together with the SMI RED 250 eye-tracker. Both qualitative and quantitative results showed that data accuracy is sufficient for cartographic research. In the third part of the paper, a system for connecting EyeTribe tracker and Hypothesis software is presented. The interconnection was performed with the help of developed web application HypOgama. The created system uses open-source software OGAMA for recording the eye-movements of participants together with quantitative data from Hypothesis. The final part of the paper describes the integrated research system combining Hypothesis and EyeTribe. PMID:27087805

  4. Wellbeing in the Making: Peoples' Experiences with Wearable Activity Trackers.

    PubMed

    Karapanos, Evangelos; Gouveia, Rúben; Hassenzahl, Marc; Forlizzi, Jodi

    Wearable activity trackers have become a viable business opportunity. Nevertheless, research has raised concerns over their potentially detrimental effects on wellbeing. For example, a recent study found that while counting steps with a pedometer increased steps taken throughout the day, at the same time it decreased the enjoyment people derived from walking. This poses a serious threat to the incorporation of healthy routines into everyday life. Most studies aim at proving the effectiveness of activity trackers. In contrast, a wellbeing-oriented perspective calls for a deeper understanding of how trackers create and mediate meaningful experiences in everyday life. We present a study of real life experiences with three wearable activity trackers: Fitbit , Jawbone Up and Nike  +  Fuelband . Using need fulfillment as a theoretical lens, we study recent, memorable experiences submitted by 133 users of activity trackers. We reveal a two-dimensional structure of users' experience driven by the needs of physical thriving or relatedness. Our qualitative findings further show a nuanced picture of the adoption of activity trackers and their impact on wellbeing. For instance, while reflection about own exercising practices lost its relevance over time, users continued to wear the tracker to document and collect their runs. More than just supporting behavioral change, we find trackers to provide multiple psychological benefits. For instance, they enhance feelings of autonomy as people gain more control about their exercising regime. Others experience relatedness, when family members purchase a tracker for relatives and join them in their efforts towards a better, healthier self. The study highlights that activity trackers can be more than "tools" to change behavior. Through incorporation in daily life, they offer new social experiences, new ways of boosting our self-esteem and getting closer to our ideal selves.

  5. Star Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  6. The Performance of the Robo-AO Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics System at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Duev, Dmitry A.; Riddle, Reed; Salama, Maïssa; Baranec, Christoph; Law, Nicholas M.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ramprakash, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Robo-AO is an autonomous laser guide star adaptive optics (AO) system recently commissioned at the Kitt Peak 2.1 m telescope. With the ability to observe every clear night, Robo-AO at the 2.1 m telescope is the first dedicated AO observatory. This paper presents the imaging performance of the AO system in its first 18 months of operations. For a median seeing value of 1.″44, the average Strehl ratio is 4% in the i\\prime band. After post processing, the contrast ratio under sub-arcsecond seeing for a 2≤slant i\\prime ≤slant 16 primary star is five and seven magnitudes at radial offsets of 0.″5 and 1.″0, respectively. The data processing and archiving pipelines run automatically at the end of each night. The first stage of the processing pipeline shifts and adds the rapid frame rate data using techniques optimized for different signal-to-noise ratios. The second “high-contrast” stage of the pipeline is eponymously well suited to finding faint stellar companions. Currently, a range of scientific programs, including the synthetic tracking of near-Earth asteroids, the binarity of stars in young clusters, and weather on solar system planets are being undertaken with Robo-AO.

  7. How Accurate Is Your Activity Tracker? A Comparative Study of Step Counts in Low-Intensity Physical Activities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background As commercially available activity trackers are being utilized in clinical trials, the research community remains uncertain about reliability of the trackers, particularly in studies that involve walking aids and low-intensity activities. While these trackers have been tested for reliability during walking and running activities, there has been limited research on validating them during low-intensity activities and walking with assistive tools. Objective The aim of this study was to (1) determine the accuracy of 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) at different wearing positions (ie, pants pocket, chest, and wrist) during walking at 3 different speeds, 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, performed by healthy adults on a treadmill; (2) determine the accuracy of the mentioned trackers worn at different sites during activities of daily living; and (3) examine whether intensity of physical activity (PA) impacts the choice of optimal wearing site of the tracker. Methods We recruited 15 healthy young adults to perform 6 PAs while wearing 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) on their chest, pants pocket, and wrist. The activities include walking at 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, pushing a shopping cart, walking with aid of a walker, and eating while sitting. We compared the number of steps counted by each tracker with gold standard numbers. We performed multiple statistical analyses to compute descriptive statistics (ie, ANOVA test), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean absolute error rate, and correlation by comparing the tracker-recorded data with that of the gold standard. Results All the 3 trackers demonstrated good-to-excellent (ICC>0.75) correlation with the gold standard step counts during treadmill experiments. The correlation was poor (ICC<0.60), and the error rate was significantly higher in walker experiment compared to other activities. There was no significant difference between the trackers and the gold standard in the shopping cart experiment. The wrist

  8. How Accurate Is Your Activity Tracker? A Comparative Study of Step Counts in Low-Intensity Physical Activities.

    PubMed

    Alinia, Parastoo; Cain, Chris; Fallahzadeh, Ramin; Shahrokni, Armin; Cook, Diane; Ghasemzadeh, Hassan

    2017-08-11

    As commercially available activity trackers are being utilized in clinical trials, the research community remains uncertain about reliability of the trackers, particularly in studies that involve walking aids and low-intensity activities. While these trackers have been tested for reliability during walking and running activities, there has been limited research on validating them during low-intensity activities and walking with assistive tools. The aim of this study was to (1) determine the accuracy of 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) at different wearing positions (ie, pants pocket, chest, and wrist) during walking at 3 different speeds, 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, performed by healthy adults on a treadmill; (2) determine the accuracy of the mentioned trackers worn at different sites during activities of daily living; and (3) examine whether intensity of physical activity (PA) impacts the choice of optimal wearing site of the tracker. We recruited 15 healthy young adults to perform 6 PAs while wearing 3 Fitbit devices (ie, Zip, One, and Flex) on their chest, pants pocket, and wrist. The activities include walking at 2.5, 5, and 8 km/h, pushing a shopping cart, walking with aid of a walker, and eating while sitting. We compared the number of steps counted by each tracker with gold standard numbers. We performed multiple statistical analyses to compute descriptive statistics (ie, ANOVA test), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), mean absolute error rate, and correlation by comparing the tracker-recorded data with that of the gold standard. All the 3 trackers demonstrated good-to-excellent (ICC>0.75) correlation with the gold standard step counts during treadmill experiments. The correlation was poor (ICC<0.60), and the error rate was significantly higher in walker experiment compared to other activities. There was no significant difference between the trackers and the gold standard in the shopping cart experiment. The wrist worn tracker, Flex, counted several

  9. First planet confirmation with the exoplanet tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eyken, Julian C.; Ge, Jian C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; DeWitt, Curtis; Ren, Deqing

    2003-11-01

    The Exoplanet Tracker (ET) is a new concept of instrument for measuring stellar radial velocity variations. ET is based on a dispersed fixed-delay interferometer, a combination of Michelson interferometer and medium resolution (R~6700) spectrograph which overlays interferometer fringes on a long-slit stellar spectrum. By measuring shifts in the fringes rather than the Doppler shifts in the absorption lines themselves, we are able to make accurate stellar radial velocity measurements with a high throughput and low cost instrument. The single-order operation of the instrument can also in principle allow multi-object observations. We plan eventually to conduct deep large scale surveys for extra-solar planets using this technique. We present confirmation of the planetary companion to 51Peg from our first stellar observations at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope, showing results consistent with previous observations. We outline the fundamentals of the instrument, and summarize our current progress in terms of accuracy and throughput.

  10. Assessment of the performances of AcuStar HIT and the combination with heparin-induced multiple electrode aggregometry: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Minet, V; Bailly, N; Douxfils, J; Osselaer, J C; Laloy, J; Chatelain, C; Elalamy, I; Chatelain, B; Dogné, J M; Mullier, F

    2013-09-01

    Early diagnosis of immune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is challenging. HemosIL® AcuStar HIT and heparin-induced multiple electrode aggregometry (HIMEA) were recently proposed as rapid diagnostic methods. We conducted a study to assess performances of AcuStar HIT-IgG (PF4-H) and AcuStar HIT-Ab (PF4-H). The secondary objective was to compare the performances of the combination of Acustar HIT and HIMEA with standardised clinical diagnosis. Sera of 104 suspected HIT patients were retrospectively tested with AcuStar HIT. HIMEA was performed on available sera (n=81). The clinical diagnosis was established by analysing in a standardized manner the patient's medical records. These tests were also compared with PF4-Enhanced®, LTA, and SRA in subsets of patients. Thresholds were determined using ROC curve analysis with clinical outcome as reference. Using the recommended thresholds (1.00AU), the negative predictive value (NPV) of HIT-IgG and HIT-Ab were 100.0% (95% CI: 95.9%-100.0% and 95.7%-100.0%). The positive predictive value (PPV) were 64.3% (95% CI: 35.1%-87.2.2%) and 45.0% (95% CI: 23.2%-68.6%), respectively. Using our thresholds (HIT-IgG: 2.89AU, HIT-Ab: 9.41AU), NPV of HIT-IgG and HIT-Ab were 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0%-100.0% and 96.1%-100.0%). PPV were 75.0% (95% CI: 42.7%-94.5%) and 81.8% (95% CI: 48.3%-97.7%), respectively. Of the 79 patients with a medium-high pretest probability score, 67 were negative using HIT-IgG (PF4-H) test at our thresholds. HIMEA was performed on HIT-IgG positive patients. Using this combination, only one patient on 79 was incorrectly diagnosed. Acustar HIT showed good performances to exclude the diagnosis of HIT. Combination with HIMEA improves PPV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Guide star targeting success for the HEAO-B observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrenkopf, R. L.; Hoffman, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The statistics associated with the successful selection and acquisition of guide stars as attitude benchmarks for use in reorientation maneuvers of the HEAO-B observatory are considered as a function of the maneuver angle, initial attitude uncertainties, and the pertinent celestial region. Success likelihoods in excess of 0.99 are predicted assuming anticipated gyro and star tracker error sources. The maneuver technique and guide star selection constraints are described in detail. The results presented are specialized numerically to the HEAO-B observatory. However, the analytical techniques developed are considered applicable to broader classes of spacecraft requiring celestial targeting.

  12. Grumman S2F-1 Tracker at NACA Lewis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1956-08-21

    The NACA’s Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory acquired the Grumman S2F-1 Tracker from the Navy in 1955 to study icing instrumentation. Lewis’s icing research program was winding down at the time. The use of jet engines was increasing thus reducing the threat of ice accumulation. Nonetheless Lewis continued research on the instrumentation used to detect icing conditions. The S2F-1 Tracker was a carrier-based submarine hunter for the Navy. Grumman developed the Tracker as a successor to its Korean War-era Guardian patrol aircraft. Prototypes first flew in late 1952 and battle-ready versions entered Naval service in early 1954. The Navy utilized the Trackers to protect fleets from attack.

  13. Star centroiding error compensation for intensified star sensors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Xiong, Kun; Yu, Wenbo; Yan, Jinyun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2016-12-26

    A star sensor provides high-precision attitude information by capturing a stellar image; however, the traditional star sensor has poor dynamic performance, which is attributed to its low sensitivity. Regarding the intensified star sensor, the image intensifier is utilized to improve the sensitivity, thereby further improving the dynamic performance of the star sensor. However, the introduction of image intensifier results in star centroiding accuracy decrease, further influencing the attitude measurement precision of the star sensor. A star centroiding error compensation method for intensified star sensors is proposed in this paper to reduce the influences. First, the imaging model of the intensified detector, which includes the deformation parameter of the optical fiber panel, is established based on the orthographic projection through the analysis of errors introduced by the image intensifier. Thereafter, the position errors at the target points based on the model are obtained by using the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) optimization method. Last, the nearest trigonometric interpolation method is presented to compensate for the arbitrary centroiding error of the image plane. Laboratory calibration result and night sky experiment result show that the compensation method effectively eliminates the error introduced by the image intensifier, thus remarkably improving the precision of the intensified star sensors.

  14. User Acceptance of Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Mixed Method Study.

    PubMed

    Puri, Arjun; Kim, Ben; Nguyen, Olivier; Stolee, Paul; Tung, James; Lee, Joon

    2017-11-15

    Wearable activity trackers are newly emerging technologies with the anticipation for successfully supporting aging-in-place. Consumer-grade wearable activity trackers are increasingly ubiquitous in the market, but the attitudes toward, as well as acceptance and voluntary use of, these trackers in older population are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess acceptance and usage of wearable activity trackers in Canadian community-dwelling older adults, using the potentially influential factors as identified in literature and technology acceptance model. A mixed methods design was used. A total of 20 older adults aged 55 years and older were recruited from Southwestern Ontario. Participants used 2 different wearable activity trackers (Xiaomi Mi Band and Microsoft Band) separately for each segment in the crossover design study for 21 days (ie, 42 days total). A questionnaire was developed to capture acceptance and experience at the end of each segment, representing 2 different devices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 4 participants, and a content analysis was performed. Participants ranged in age from 55 years to 84 years (mean age: 64 years). The Mi Band gained higher levels of acceptance (16/20, 80%) compared with the Microsoft Band (10/20, 50%). The equipment characteristics dimension scored significantly higher for the Mi Band (P<.05). The amount a participant was willing to pay for the device was highly associated with technology acceptance (P<.05). Multivariate logistic regression with 3 covariates resulted in an area under the curve of 0.79. Content analysis resulted in the formation of the following main themes: (1) smartphones as facilitators of wearable activity trackers; (2) privacy is less of a concern for wearable activity trackers, (3) value proposition: self-awareness and motivation; (4) subjective norm, social support, and sense of independence; and (5) equipment characteristics matter: display, battery, comfort, and

  15. User Acceptance of Wrist-Worn Activity Trackers Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Mixed Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Arjun; Kim, Ben; Nguyen, Olivier; Stolee, Paul; Tung, James

    2017-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are newly emerging technologies with the anticipation for successfully supporting aging-in-place. Consumer-grade wearable activity trackers are increasingly ubiquitous in the market, but the attitudes toward, as well as acceptance and voluntary use of, these trackers in older population are poorly understood. Objective The aim of this study was to assess acceptance and usage of wearable activity trackers in Canadian community-dwelling older adults, using the potentially influential factors as identified in literature and technology acceptance model. Methods A mixed methods design was used. A total of 20 older adults aged 55 years and older were recruited from Southwestern Ontario. Participants used 2 different wearable activity trackers (Xiaomi Mi Band and Microsoft Band) separately for each segment in the crossover design study for 21 days (ie, 42 days total). A questionnaire was developed to capture acceptance and experience at the end of each segment, representing 2 different devices. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 4 participants, and a content analysis was performed. Results Participants ranged in age from 55 years to 84 years (mean age: 64 years). The Mi Band gained higher levels of acceptance (16/20, 80%) compared with the Microsoft Band (10/20, 50%). The equipment characteristics dimension scored significantly higher for the Mi Band (P<.05). The amount a participant was willing to pay for the device was highly associated with technology acceptance (P<.05). Multivariate logistic regression with 3 covariates resulted in an area under the curve of 0.79. Content analysis resulted in the formation of the following main themes: (1) smartphones as facilitators of wearable activity trackers; (2) privacy is less of a concern for wearable activity trackers, (3) value proposition: self-awareness and motivation; (4) subjective norm, social support, and sense of independence; and (5) equipment characteristics matter

  16. Adaptive Shape Kernel-Based Mean Shift Tracker in Robot Vision System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive shape kernel-based mean shift tracker using a single static camera for the robot vision system. The question that we address in this paper is how to construct such a kernel shape that is adaptive to the object shape. We perform nonlinear manifold learning technique to obtain the low-dimensional shape space which is trained by training data with the same view as the tracking video. The proposed kernel searches the shape in the low-dimensional shape space obtained by nonlinear manifold learning technique and constructs the adaptive kernel shape in the high-dimensional shape space. It can improve mean shift tracker performance to track object position and object contour and avoid the background clutter. In the experimental part, we take the walking human as example to validate that our method is accurate and robust to track human position and describe human contour. PMID:27379165

  17. Microprocessor-controlled step-down maximum-power-point tracker for photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazmuder, R. K.; Haidar, S.

    1992-12-01

    An efficient maximum power point tracker (MPPT) has been developed and can be used with a photovoltaic (PV) array and a load which requires lower voltage than the PV array voltage to be operated. The MPPT makes the PV array to operate at maximum power point (MPP) under all insolation and temperature, which ensures the maximum amount of available PV power to be delivered to the load. The performance of the MPPT has been studied under different insolation levels.

  18. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  19. Sounds of a Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-06-01

    in Alpha Cen A with the CORALIE spectrograph on the 1.2-m Swiss telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory. Several "eigenmodes" appear as high peaks in the frequency interval between 1.7 and 3 mHz; they correspond to oscillation periods in the range from 5 to 10 min. A very similar pattern is observed in the Sun. The data from five nights of observations were then searched to detect any changes of velocity and hence, oscillations. Astronomers use sophisticated mathematical methods for this kind of analysis, and normally present their results in terms of a "power spectrum" ( PR Photo 23b/01 ). It displays the "intensity" of oscillations at different frequencies, that is, of different periods; particularly high "peaks" indicate a "real" oscillation of that frequency. The comb of peaks visible between 2-3 mHz is the unambiguous and typical signature of solar-like oscillations . This frequency corresponds to a period of about 7 minutes, close to the well-known 5-minute oscillations of our Sun. This is in full agreement with expectations from theoretical models of the two stars. Continued detailed modeling of these new results will further improve the associated determination of the mass, radius, age, chemical composition and other properties of Alpha Cen A . This result is another proof of the excellent performance of the CORALIE spectrograph, providing extremely accurate measurements without the present investigation would have been impossible. Models of stellar interiors Our current understanding of stellar interiors is severely limited by lack of detailed and accurate observations of stars other than the Sun. In technical terms, for a complete description of the conditions inside a star, we need detailed knowledge of at least five stellar parameters (mass, age, initial content of helium and heavier elements, and a parameter describing the convection). However, in most cases, only two stellar properties can be measured directly (the temperature and the luminosity), so

  20. Symbiotic stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    The physical characteristics of symbiotic star systems are discussed, based on a review of recent observational data. A model of a symbiotic star system is presented which illustrates how a cool red-giant star is embedded in a nebula whose atoms are ionized by the energetic radiation from its hot compact companion. UV outbursts from symbiotic systems are explained by two principal models: an accretion-disk-outburst model which describes how material expelled from the tenuous envelope of the red giant forms an inwardly-spiralling disk around the hot companion, and a thermonuclear-outburst model in which the companion is specifically a white dwarf which superheats the material expelled from the red giant to the point where thermonuclear reactions occur and radiation is emitted. It is suspected that the evolutionary course of binary systems is predetermined by the initial mass and angular momentum of the gas cloud within which binary stars are born. Since red giants and Mira variables are thought to be stars with a mass of one or two solar mass, it is believed that the original cloud from which a symbiotic system is formed can consist of no more than a few solar masses of gas.

  1. THE FMOS-COSMOS SURVEY OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1.6. III. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, J. D.; Sugiyama, N.; Kashino, D.

    We present a spectroscopic survey of galaxies in the COSMOS field using the Fiber Multi-object Spectrograph (FMOS), a near-infrared instrument on the Subaru Telescope. Our survey is specifically designed to detect the Hα emission line that falls within the H-band (1.6–1.8 μm) spectroscopic window from star-forming galaxies with 1.4 < z < 1.7 and M{sub stellar} ≳ 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. With the high multiplex capability of FMOS, it is now feasible to construct samples of over 1000 galaxies having spectroscopic redshifts at epochs that were previously challenging. The high-resolution mode (R ∼ 2600) effectively separates Hα and [N ii]λ6585,more » thus enabling studies of the gas-phase metallicity and photoionization state of the interstellar medium. The primary aim of our program is to establish how star formation depends on stellar mass and environment, both recognized as drivers of galaxy evolution at lower redshifts. In addition to the main galaxy sample, our target selection places priority on those detected in the far-infrared by Herschel/PACS to assess the level of obscured star formation and investigate, in detail, outliers from the star formation rate (SFR)—stellar mass relation. Galaxies with Hα detections are followed up with FMOS observations at shorter wavelengths using the J-long (1.11–1.35 μm) grating to detect Hβ and [O iii]λ5008 which provides an assessment of the extinction required to measure SFRs not hampered by dust, and an indication of embedded active galactic nuclei. With 460 redshifts measured from 1153 spectra, we assess the performance of the instrument with respect to achieving our goals, discuss inherent biases in the sample, and detail the emission-line properties. Our higher-level data products, including catalogs and spectra, are available to the community.« less

  2. A hardware fast tracker for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbah, Nedaa

    2016-09-01

    The trigger system of the ATLAS experiment is designed to reduce the event rate from the LHC nominal bunch crossing at 40 MHz to about 1 kHz, at the design luminosity of 1034 cm-2 s-1. After a successful period of data taking from 2010 to early 2013, the LHC already started with much higher instantaneous luminosity. This will increase the load on High Level Trigger system, the second stage of the selection based on software algorithms. More sophisticated algorithms will be needed to achieve higher background rejection while maintaining good efficiency for interesting physics signals. The Fast TracKer (FTK) is part of the ATLAS trigger upgrade project. It is a hardware processor that will provide, at every Level-1 accepted event (100 kHz) and within 100 microseconds, full tracking information for tracks with momentum as low as 1 GeV. Providing fast, extensive access to tracking information, with resolution comparable to the offline reconstruction, FTK will help in precise detection of the primary and secondary vertices to ensure robust selections and improve the trigger performance. FTK exploits hardware technologies with massive parallelism, combining Associative Memory ASICs, FPGAs and high-speed communication links.

  3. Making star teams out of star players.

    PubMed

    Mankins, Michael; Bird, Alan; Root, James

    2013-01-01

    Top talent is an invaluable asset: In highly specialized or creative work, for instance, "A" players are likely to be six times as productive as "B" players. So when your company has a crucial strategic project, why not multiply all that firepower and have a team of your best performers tackle it? Yet many companies hesitate to do this, believing that all-star teams don't work: Big egos will get in the way. The stars won't be able to work with one another. They'll drive the team Leader crazy. Mankins, Bird, and Root of Bain & Company believe it's time to set aside that thinking. They have seen all-star teams do extraordinary work. But there is a right way and a wrong way to organize them. Before you can even begin to assemble such a team, you need to have the right talent management practices, so you hire and develop the best people and know what they're capable of. You have to give the team appropriate incentives and leaders and support staffers who are stars in their own right. And projects that are ill-defined or small scale are not for all-star teams. Use them only for critical missions, and make sure their objectives are clear. Even with the right setup, things can still go wrong. The wise executive will take steps to manage egos, prune non-team-players, and prevent average coworkers from feeling completely undervalued. She will also invest a lot of time in choosing the right team Leader and will ask members for lots of feedback to monitor how that leader is doing.

  4. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Institute of Physicotechnical Problems and Material Science of the NAS of the Kyrgyz Republic, 265 a, Chui Street, Bishkek, 720071; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  5. The Parallel Worm Tracker: A Platform for Measuring Average Speed and Drug-Induced Paralysis in Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, Daniel; Johnson, Brandon E.; Berry, Tommie L.; Carnell, Lucinda; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2008-01-01

    Background Caenorhabditis elegans locomotion is a simple behavior that has been widely used to dissect genetic components of behavior, synaptic transmission, and muscle function. Many of the paradigms that have been created to study C. elegans locomotion rely on qualitative experimenter observation. Here we report the implementation of an automated tracking system developed to quantify the locomotion of multiple individual worms in parallel. Methodology/Principal Findings Our tracking system generates a consistent measurement of locomotion that allows direct comparison of results across experiments and experimenters and provides a standard method to share data between laboratories. The tracker utilizes a video camera attached to a zoom lens and a software package implemented in MATLAB®. We demonstrate several proof-of-principle applications for the tracker including measuring speed in the absence and presence of food and in the presence of serotonin. We further use the tracker to automatically quantify the time course of paralysis of worms exposed to aldicarb and levamisole and show that tracker performance compares favorably to data generated using a hand-scored metric. Conclusions/Signficance Although this is not the first automated tracking system developed to measure C. elegans locomotion, our tracking software package is freely available and provides a simple interface that includes tools for rapid data collection and analysis. By contrast with other tools, it is not dependent on a specific set of hardware. We propose that the tracker may be used for a broad range of additional worm locomotion applications including genetic and chemical screening. PMID:18493300

  6. Determinants for Sustained Use of an Activity Tracker: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Moons, Jonas; Kerkhof, Peter; Wiekens, Carina; De Groot, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Background A lack of physical activity is considered to cause 6% of deaths globally. Feedback from wearables such as activity trackers has the potential to encourage daily physical activity. To date, little research is available on the natural development of adherence to activity trackers or on potential factors that predict which users manage to keep using their activity tracker during the first year (and thereby increasing the chance of healthy behavior change) and which users discontinue using their trackers after a short time. Objective The aim of this study was to identify the determinants for sustained use in the first year after purchase. Specifically, we look at the relative importance of demographic and socioeconomic, psychological, health-related, goal-related, technological, user experience–related, and social predictors of feedback device use. Furthermore, this study tests the effect of these predictors on physical activity. Methods A total of 711 participants from four urban areas in France received an activity tracker (Fitbit Zip) and gave permission to use their logged data. Participants filled out three Web-based questionnaires: at start, after 98 days, and after 232 days to measure the aforementioned determinants. Furthermore, for each participant, we collected activity data tracked by their Fitbit tracker for 320 days. We determined the relative importance of all included predictors by using Random Forest, a machine learning analysis technique. Results The data showed a slow exponential decay in Fitbit use, with 73.9% (526/711) of participants still tracking after 100 days and 16.0% (114/711) of participants tracking after 320 days. On average, participants used the tracker for 129 days. Most important reasons to quit tracking were technical issues such as empty batteries and broken trackers or lost trackers (21.5% of all Q3 respondents, 130/601). Random Forest analysis of predictors revealed that the most influential determinants were age, user

  7. A front-end read out chip for the OPERA scintillator tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucotte, A.; Bondil, S.; Borer, K.; Campagne, J. E.; Cazes, A.; Hess, M.; de La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Repellin, J. P.

    2004-04-01

    Multi-anode photomultipliers H7546 are used to readout signal from the OPERA Scintillator Tracker (CERN/SPSC 2000-028, SPSC/P318, LNGSP 25/2000; CERN/SPSC 2001-025, SPSC/M668, LNGS-EXP30/2001). A 32-channel front-end Read Out Chip prototype accommodating the H7546 has been designed at LAL. This device features a low-noise, variable gain preamplifier to correct for multi-anode non-uniformity, an auto-trigger capability 100% efficient at a 0.3 photo-electron, and a charge measurement extending over a large dynamic range [0-100] photo-electrons. In this article we describe the ASIC architecture that is being implemented for the Target Tracker in OPERA, with a special emphasis put on the designs and the measured performance.

  8. Star quality.

    PubMed

    Dent, Emma

    2007-09-20

    Around 150 wards are participating in the voluntary Star Wards scheme to provide mental health inpatients with more activities with therapeutic value. Suggested activities range from a library, to horse riding Internet access and comedy. Service users are particularly keen to have more exercise, which can be a challenge in inpatient settings.

  9. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2018-01-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  10. S-band range tracker and Surveillance Lab interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, B. D.

    1983-09-01

    This report documents the design, construction, test and laboratory integration of the range tracker and associated subsystems for the RADC/OC Surveillance Laboratory's S-Band tracking radar. This development was accomplished over the period from December 1981 to November 1983 and was designed, constructed and tested entirely in-house. This report contains information on the use of the range tracker, its interfaces to other laboratory equipment, the philosophy behind its design, the detailed design of the hardware (including schematics, timing and cabling diagrams), the detailed software design (including flowcharts), and the mathematical description of its algorithms. The range tracker will be used in conjunction with other equipment in the OC Surveillance Lab in the taking and recording of radar data during flight tests.

  11. Context Aware Programmable Trackers for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Pedro

    This work introduces and proposes the concept of context aware programmable trackers for the next generation Internet. The proposed solution gives ground for the development of advanced applications based on the P2P paradigm and will foster collaborative efforts among several network entities (e.g. P2P applications and ISPs). The proposed concept of context aware programmable trackers allows that several peer selection strategies might be supported by a P2P tracker entity able to improve the peer selection decisions according with pre-defined objectives and external inputs provided by specific services. The flexible, adaptive and enhanced peer selection semantics that might be achieved by the proposed solution will contribute for devising novel P2P based services and business models for the future Internet.

  12. Performance of ground attitude determination procedures for HEAO-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, L., III; Sturch, C. R.

    1978-01-01

    Ground attitude support for HEAO 1 provided at GSFC by the HEAO 1 Attitude Ground Support System (AGSS) is described. Information telemetered from Sun sensors, gyroscopes, star trackers, and an onboard computer are used by the AGSS to compute updates to the onboard attitude reference and gyro calibration parameters. The onboard computer utilizes these updates in providing continuous attitudes (accurate to 0.25degree) for use in the observatory's attitude control procedures. The relationship between HEAO 1 onboard and ground processing, the procedures used by the AGSS in computing attitude and gyro calibration updates, and the performance of these procedures in the HEAO 1 postlaunch environment is discussed.

  13. MONDO: a neutron tracker for particle therapy secondary emission characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafini, M.; Gasparini, L.; Mirabelli, R.; Pinci, D.; Patera, V.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.; Stoppa, D.; Traini, G.; Sarti, A.

    2017-04-01

    Tumour control is performed in particle therapy using particles and ions, whose high irradiation precision enhances the effectiveness of the treatment, while sparing the healthy tissue surrounding the target volume. Dose range monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interacting with the patient’s body have already been proposed, but no attempt has been made yet to exploit the detection of the abundant neutron component. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, precise measurements of their flux, production energy and angle distributions are eagerly sought in order to improve the treatment planning system (TPS) software. It will thus be possible to predict not only the normal tissue toxicity in the target region, but also the risk of late complications in the whole body. The aforementioned issues underline the importance of an experimental effort devoted to the precise characterisation of neutron production, aimed at the measurement of their abundance, emission point and production energy. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aimed at high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision are addressed within the MONDO (monitor for neutron dose in hadrontherapy) project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector that can target fast and ultrafast neutrons. A full reconstruction of two consecutive elastic scattering interactions undergone by the neutrons inside the detector material will be used to measure their energy and direction. The preliminary results of an MC simulation performed using the FLUKA software are presented here, together with the DSiPM (digital SiPM) readout implementation. New detector readout implementations specifically tailored to the MONDO tracker are also discussed, and the neutron detection efficiency attainable with the proposed neutron tracking strategy are reported.

  14. MONDO: a neutron tracker for particle therapy secondary emission characterisation.

    PubMed

    Marafini, M; Gasparini, L; Mirabelli, R; Pinci, D; Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Spiriti, E; Stoppa, D; Traini, G; Sarti, A

    2017-04-21

    Tumour control is performed in particle therapy using particles and ions, whose high irradiation precision enhances the effectiveness of the treatment, while sparing the healthy tissue surrounding the target volume. Dose range monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interacting with the patient's body have already been proposed, but no attempt has been made yet to exploit the detection of the abundant neutron component. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumour region, precise measurements of their flux, production energy and angle distributions are eagerly sought in order to improve the treatment planning system (TPS) software. It will thus be possible to predict not only the normal tissue toxicity in the target region, but also the risk of late complications in the whole body. The aforementioned issues underline the importance of an experimental effort devoted to the precise characterisation of neutron production, aimed at the measurement of their abundance, emission point and production energy. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aimed at high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision are addressed within the MONDO (monitor for neutron dose in hadrontherapy) project, whose main goal is to develop a tracking detector that can target fast and ultrafast neutrons. A full reconstruction of two consecutive elastic scattering interactions undergone by the neutrons inside the detector material will be used to measure their energy and direction. The preliminary results of an MC simulation performed using the FLUKA software are presented here, together with the DSiPM (digital SiPM) readout implementation. New detector readout implementations specifically tailored to the MONDO tracker are also discussed, and the neutron detection efficiency attainable with the proposed neutron tracking strategy are reported.

  15. False star detection and isolation during star tracking based on improved chi-square tests.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Guohua

    2017-08-01

    The star sensor is a precise attitude measurement device for a spacecraft. Star tracking is the main and key working mode for a star sensor. However, during star tracking, false stars become an inevitable interference for star sensor applications, which may result in declined measurement accuracy. A false star detection and isolation algorithm in star tracking based on improved chi-square tests is proposed in this paper. Two estimations are established based on a Kalman filter and a priori information, respectively. The false star detection is operated through adopting the global state chi-square test in a Kalman filter. The false star isolation is achieved using a local state chi-square test. Semi-physical experiments under different trajectories with various false stars are designed for verification. Experiment results show that various false stars can be detected and isolated from navigation stars during star tracking, and the attitude measurement accuracy is hardly influenced by false stars. The proposed algorithm is proved to have an excellent performance in terms of speed, stability, and robustness.

  16. Counting Steps in Activities of Daily Living in People With a Chronic Disease Using Nine Commercially Available Fitness Trackers: Cross-Sectional Validity Study.

    PubMed

    Ummels, Darcy; Beekman, Emmylou; Theunissen, Kyra; Braun, Susy; Beurskens, Anna J

    2018-04-02

    Measuring physical activity with commercially available activity trackers is gaining popularity. People with a chronic disease can especially benefit from knowledge about their physical activity pattern in everyday life since sufficient physical activity can contribute to wellbeing and quality of life. However, no validity data are available for this population during activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of 9 commercially available activity trackers for measuring step count during activities of daily living in people with a chronic disease receiving physiotherapy. The selected activity trackers were Accupedo (Corusen LLC), Activ8 (Remedy Distribution Ltd), Digi-Walker CW-700 (Yamax), Fitbit Flex (Fitbit inc), Lumoback (Lumo Bodytech), Moves (ProtoGeo Oy), Fitbit One (Fitbit inc), UP24 (Jawbone), and Walking Style X (Omron Healthcare Europe BV). In total, 130 persons with chronic diseases performed standardized activity protocols based on activities of daily living that were recorded on video camera and analyzed for step count (gold standard). The validity of the trackers' step count was assessed by correlation coefficients, t tests, scatterplots, and Bland-Altman plots. The correlations between the number of steps counted by the activity trackers and the gold standard were low (range: -.02 to .33). For all activity trackers except for Fitbit One, a significant systematic difference with the gold standard was found for step count. Plots showed a wide range in scores for all activity trackers; Activ8 showed an average overestimation and the other 8 trackers showed underestimations. This study showed that the validity of 9 commercially available activity trackers is low measuring steps while individuals with chronic diseases receiving physiotherapy engage in activities of daily living. ©Darcy Ummels, Emmylou Beekman, Kyra Theunissen, Susy Braun, Anna J Beurskens. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http

  17. Reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers.

    PubMed

    Kooiman, Thea J M; Dontje, Manon L; Sprenger, Siska R; Krijnen, Wim P; van der Schans, Cees P; de Groot, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Activity trackers can potentially stimulate users to increase their physical activity behavior. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of ten consumer activity trackers for measuring step count in both laboratory and free-living conditions. Healthy adult volunteers (n = 33) walked twice on a treadmill (4.8 km/h) for 30 min while wearing ten different activity trackers (i.e. Lumoback, Fitbit Flex, Jawbone Up, Nike+ Fuelband SE, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Fitbit Zip, Omron HJ-203, Yamax Digiwalker SW-200 and Moves mobile application). In free-living conditions, 56 volunteers wore the same activity trackers for one working day. Test-retest reliability was analyzed with the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Validity was evaluated by comparing each tracker with the gold standard (Optogait system for laboratory and ActivPAL for free-living conditions), using paired samples t-tests, mean absolute percentage errors, correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Test-retest analysis revealed high reliability for most trackers except for the Omron (ICC .14), Moves app (ICC .37) and Nike+ Fuelband (ICC .53). The mean absolute percentage errors of the trackers in laboratory and free-living conditions respectively, were: Lumoback (-0.2, -0.4), Fibit Flex (-5.7, 3.7), Jawbone Up (-1.0, 1.4), Nike+ Fuelband (-18, -24), Misfit Shine (0.2, 1.1), Withings Pulse (-0.5, -7.9), Fitbit Zip (-0.3, 1.2), Omron (2.5, -0.4), Digiwalker (-1.2, -5.9), and Moves app (9.6, -37.6). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated that the limits of agreement varied from 46 steps (Fitbit Zip) to 2422 steps (Nike+ Fuelband) in the laboratory condition, and 866 steps (Fitbit Zip) to 5150 steps (Moves app) in the free-living condition. The reliability and validity of most trackers for measuring step count is good. The Fitbit Zip is the most valid whereas the reliability and validity of the Nike+ Fuelband is low.

  18. Retroreflector field tracker. [noncontact optical position sensor for space application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wargocki, F. E.; Ray, A. J.; Hall, G. E.

    1984-01-01

    An electrooptical position-measuring instrument, the Retroreflector Field Tracker or RFT, is described. It is part of the Dynamic Augmentation Experiment - a part of the payload of Space Shuttle flight 41-D in Summer 1984. The tracker measures and outputs the position of 23 reflective targets placed on a 32-m solar array to provide data for determination of the dynamics of the lightweight structure. The sensor uses a 256 x 256 pixel CID detector; the processor electronics include three Z-80 microprocessors. A pulsed laser diode illuminator is used.

  19. Characterization of the Ecosole HCPV tracker and single module inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpanelli, Maurizio; Borelli, Gianni; Verdilio, Daniele; De Nardis, Davide; Migali, Fabrizio; Cancro, Carmine; Graditi, Giorgio

    2015-09-01

    BECAR, the Beghelli group's R&D company, is leading ECOSOLE (Elevated COncentration SOlar Energy), one of the largest European Demonstration projects in solar photovoltaic. ECOSOLE, started in 2012, is focused on the study, design, and realization of new HCPV generator made of high efficiency PV modules equipped with SoG (Silicone on Glass) fresnel lenses and III-V solar cells, and a low cost matched solar tracker with distributed inverters approach. The project also regards the study and demonstration of new high throughput methods for the industrial large scale productions, at very low manufacturing costs. This work reports the description of the characterization of the tracker and single module.

  20. Reconstruction software of the silicon tracker of DAMPE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tykhonov, A.; Gallo, V.; Wu, X.; Zimmer, S.

    2017-10-01

    DAMPE is a satellite-borne experiment aimed to probe astroparticle physics in the GeV-TeV energy range. The Silicon tracker (STK) is one of the key components of DAMPE, which allows the reconstruction of trajectories (tracks) of detected particles. The non-negligible amount of material in the tracker poses a challenge to its reconstruction and alignment. In this paper we describe methods to address this challenge. We present the track reconstruction algorithm and give insight into the alignment algorithm. We also present our CAD-to-GDML converter, an in-house tool for implementing detector geometry in the software from the CAD drawings of the detector.

  1. Precise attitude rate estimation using star images obtained by mission telescope for satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamori, Takaya; Hosonuma, Takayuki; Ikari, Satoshi; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shinichi

    2015-02-01

    Recently, small satellites have been employed in various satellite missions such as astronomical observation and remote sensing. During these missions, the attitudes of small satellites should be stabilized to a higher accuracy to obtain accurate science data and images. To achieve precise attitude stabilization, these small satellites should estimate their attitude rate under the strict constraints of mass, space, and cost. This research presents a new method for small satellites to precisely estimate angular rate using star blurred images by employing a mission telescope to achieve precise attitude stabilization. In this method, the angular velocity is estimated by assessing the quality of a star image, based on how blurred it appears to be. Because the proposed method utilizes existing mission devices, a satellite does not require additional precise rate sensors, which makes it easier to achieve precise stabilization given the strict constraints possessed by small satellites. The research studied the relationship between estimation accuracy and parameters used to achieve an attitude rate estimation, which has a precision greater than 1 × 10-6 rad/s. The method can be applied to all attitude sensors, which use optics systems such as sun sensors and star trackers (STTs). Finally, the method is applied to the nano astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, and we investigate the problems that are expected to arise with real small satellites by performing numerical simulations.

  2. Incorporating Added Sugar Improves the Performance of the Health Star Rating Front-of-Pack Labelling System in Australia.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sanne A E; Dunford, Elizabeth; Jones, Alexandra; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Crino, Michelle; Taylor, Fraser; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2017-07-05

    The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally present in dairy, fruits, and vegetables are treated the same as sugars added during food processing. We assessed whether the HSR could better discriminate between core and discretionary foods by including added sugar in the underlying algorithm. Nutrition information was extracted for 34,135 packaged foods available in The George Institute's Australian FoodSwitch database. Added sugar levels were imputed from food composition databases. Products were classified as 'core' or 'discretionary' based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The ability of each of the nutrients included in the HSR algorithm, as well as added sugar, to discriminate between core and discretionary foods was estimated using the area under the curve (AUC). 15,965 core and 18,350 discretionary foods were included. Of these, 8230 (52%) core foods and 15,947 (87%) discretionary foods contained added sugar. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0, 4.5) for core foods and 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) for discretionary foods. Median added sugar contents (g/100 g) were 3.3 (1.5, 5.5) for core foods and 14.6 (1.8, 37.2) for discretionary foods. Of all the nutrients used in the current HSR algorithm, total sugar had the greatest individual capacity to discriminate between core and discretionary foods; AUC 0.692 (0.686; 0.697). Added sugar alone achieved an AUC of 0.777 (0.772; 0.782). A model with all nutrients in the current HSR algorithm had an AUC of 0.817 (0.812; 0.821), which increased to 0.871 (0.867; 0.874) with inclusion of added sugar. The HSR nutrients discriminate well between core and discretionary packaged foods. However, discrimination was improved when added sugar was also included. These data argue for inclusion of added

  3. Incorporating Added Sugar Improves the Performance of the Health Star Rating Front-of-Pack Labelling System in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Sanne A. E.; Jones, Alexandra; Crino, Michelle; Taylor, Fraser; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Health Star Rating (HSR) is an interpretive front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged foods. The algorithm underpinning the HSR includes total sugar content as one of the components. This has been criticised because intrinsic sugars naturally present in dairy, fruits, and vegetables are treated the same as sugars added during food processing. We assessed whether the HSR could better discriminate between core and discretionary foods by including added sugar in the underlying algorithm. Methods: Nutrition information was extracted for 34,135 packaged foods available in The George Institute’s Australian FoodSwitch database. Added sugar levels were imputed from food composition databases. Products were classified as ‘core’ or ‘discretionary’ based on the Australian Dietary Guidelines. The ability of each of the nutrients included in the HSR algorithm, as well as added sugar, to discriminate between core and discretionary foods was estimated using the area under the curve (AUC). Results: 15,965 core and 18,350 discretionary foods were included. Of these, 8230 (52%) core foods and 15,947 (87%) discretionary foods contained added sugar. Median (Q1, Q3) HSRs were 4.0 (3.0, 4.5) for core foods and 2.0 (1.0, 3.0) for discretionary foods. Median added sugar contents (g/100 g) were 3.3 (1.5, 5.5) for core foods and 14.6 (1.8, 37.2) for discretionary foods. Of all the nutrients used in the current HSR algorithm, total sugar had the greatest individual capacity to discriminate between core and discretionary foods; AUC 0.692 (0.686; 0.697). Added sugar alone achieved an AUC of 0.777 (0.772; 0.782). A model with all nutrients in the current HSR algorithm had an AUC of 0.817 (0.812; 0.821), which increased to 0.871 (0.867; 0.874) with inclusion of added sugar. Conclusion: The HSR nutrients discriminate well between core and discretionary packaged foods. However, discrimination was improved when added sugar was

  4. Tracking Multiple Video Targets with an Improved GM-PHD Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaolong; Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai; Li, Youfu

    2015-01-01

    Tracking multiple moving targets from a video plays an important role in many vision-based robotic applications. In this paper, we propose an improved Gaussian mixture probability hypothesis density (GM-PHD) tracker with weight penalization to effectively and accurately track multiple moving targets from a video. First, an entropy-based birth intensity estimation method is incorporated to eliminate the false positives caused by noisy video data. Then, a weight-penalized method with multi-feature fusion is proposed to accurately track the targets in close movement. For targets without occlusion, a weight matrix that contains all updated weights between the predicted target states and the measurements is constructed, and a simple, but effective method based on total weight and predicted target state is proposed to search the ambiguous weights in the weight matrix. The ambiguous weights are then penalized according to the fused target features that include spatial-colour appearance, histogram of oriented gradient and target area and further re-normalized to form a new weight matrix. With this new weight matrix, the tracker can correctly track the targets in close movement without occlusion. For targets with occlusion, a robust game-theoretical method is used. Finally, the experiments conducted on various video scenarios validate the effectiveness of the proposed penalization method and show the superior performance of our tracker over the state of the art. PMID:26633422

  5. Fusion of electromagnetic trackers to improve needle deflection estimation: simulation study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Hossein; Hashtrudi-Zaad, Keyvan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-10-01

    We present a needle deflection estimation method to anticipate needle bending during insertion into deformable tissue. Using limited additional sensory information, our approach reduces the estimation error caused by uncertainties inherent in the conventional needle deflection estimation methods. We use Kalman filters to combine a kinematic needle deflection model with the position measurements of the base and the tip of the needle taken by electromagnetic (EM) trackers. One EM tracker is installed on the needle base and estimates the needle tip position indirectly using the kinematic needle deflection model. Another EM tracker is installed on the needle tip and estimates the needle tip position through direct, but noisy measurements. Kalman filters are then employed to fuse these two estimates in real time and provide a reliable estimate of the needle tip position, with reduced variance in the estimation error. We implemented this method to compensate for needle deflection during simulated needle insertions and performed sensitivity analysis for various conditions. At an insertion depth of 150 mm, we observed needle tip estimation error reductions in the range of 28% (from 1.8 to 1.3 mm) to 74% (from 4.8 to 1.2 mm), which demonstrates the effectiveness of our method, offering a clinically practical solution.

  6. The AGILE silicon tracker: an innovative /γ-ray instrument for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Bordignon, G.; Fedel, G.; Liello, F.; Longo, F.; Pontoni, C.; Vallazza, E.

    2003-03-01

    AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) is the first small scientific mission of ASI, the Italian Space Agency. It is a light (100kg for the scientific instrument) satellite for the detection of /γ-ray sources in the energy range 30MeV-50GeV within a large field of view (1/4 of the sky). It is planned to be operational in the years 2003-2006, a period in which no other gamma-ray mission in the same energy range is foreseen. AGILE is made of a silicon tungsten tracker, a CsI(Tl) minicalorimeter (1.5X0), an anticoincidence system of segmented plastic scintillators and a X-ray imaging detector sensitive in the 10-40keV range. The tracker consists of 14 planes, each of them made of two layers of 16 single-sided, AC coupled, 410μm thick, 9.5×9.5cm2 silicon detectors with a readout pitch of 242μm and a floating strip. The readout ASIC is the TAA1, an analog-digital, low noise, self-triggering ASIC used in a very low power configuration (<400μW/channel) with full analog readout. The trigger of the satellite is given by the tracker. The total number of readout channels is around 43000. We present a detailed description of the tracker, its trigger and readout logic, its assembly procedures and the prototype performance in several testbeam periods at the CERN PS.

  7. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  8. Calibration Test Set for a Phase-Comparison Digital Tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boas, Amy; Li, Samuel; McMaster, Robert

    2007-01-01

    An apparatus that generates four signals at a frequency of 7.1 GHz having precisely controlled relative phases and equal amplitudes has been designed and built. This apparatus is intended mainly for use in computer-controlled automated calibration and testing of a phase-comparison digital tracker (PCDT) that measures the relative phases of replicas of the same X-band signal received by four antenna elements in an array. (The relative direction of incidence of the signal on the array is then computed from the relative phases.) The present apparatus can also be used to generate precisely phased signals for steering a beam transmitted from a phased antenna array. The apparatus (see figure) includes a 7.1-GHz signal generator, the output of which is fed to a four-way splitter. Each of the four splitter outputs is attenuated by 10 dB and fed as input to a vector modulator, wherein DC bias voltages are used to control the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. The bias voltages are generated by digital-to-analog- converter circuits on a control board that receives its digital control input from a computer running a LabVIEW program. The outputs of the vector modulators are further attenuated by 10 dB, then presented at high-grade radio-frequency connectors. The attenuation reduces the effects of changing mismatch and reflections. The apparatus was calibrated in a process in which the bias voltages were first stepped through all possible IQ settings. Then in a reverse interpolation performed by use of MATLAB software, a lookup table containing 3,600 IQ settings, representing equal amplitude and phase increments of 0.1 , was created for each vector modulator. During operation of the apparatus, these lookup tables are used in calibrating the PCDT.

  9. Low bandwidth eye tracker for scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Zachary G.; Dubra, Alfredo; Cahill, Nathan D.; Lopez Alarcon, Sonia

    2012-02-01

    The incorporation of adaptive optics to scanning ophthalmoscopes (AOSOs) has allowed for in vivo, noninvasive imaging of the human rod and cone photoreceptor mosaics. Light safety restrictions and power limitations of the current low-coherence light sources available for imaging result in each individual raw image having a low signal to noise ratio (SNR). To date, the only approach used to increase the SNR has been to collect large number of raw images (N >50), to register them to remove the distortions due to involuntary eye motion, and then to average them. The large amplitude of involuntary eye motion with respect to the AOSO field of view (FOV) dictates that an even larger number of images need to be collected at each retinal location to ensure adequate SNR over the feature of interest. Compensating for eye motion during image acquisition to keep the feature of interest within the FOV could reduce the number of raw frames required per retinal feature, therefore significantly reduce the imaging time, storage requirements, post-processing times and, more importantly, subject's exposure to light. In this paper, we present a particular implementation of an AOSO, termed the adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) equipped with a simple eye tracking system capable of compensating for eye drift by estimating the eye motion from the raw frames and by using a tip-tilt mirror to compensate for it in a closed-loop. Multiple control strategies were evaluated to minimize the image distortion introduced by the tracker itself. Also, linear, quadratic and Kalman filter motion prediction algorithms were implemented and tested and tested using both simulated motion (sinusoidal motion with varying frequencies) and human subjects. The residual displacement of the retinal features was used to compare the performance of the different correction strategies and prediction methods.

  10. Using analog instruments in Tracker video-based experiments to understand the phenomena of electricity and magnetism in physics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Marín, Pablo; Chavez-Bacilio, Mario; Jáuregui-Rosas, Segundo

    2018-05-01

    Tracker is a piece of freeware software, designed to use video recorded images of the motion of objects as input data, and has been mostly applied in physics education to analyse and simulate physical phenomena in mechanics. In this work we report the application of Tracker to the study of experiments in electricity and magnetism using analog instruments for electrical signal measurements. As we are unable to directly video-track the motion of electrons in electric circuits, the angular deflections of the instruments’ pointers were video captured instead. The kinematic variables (angular position as a function of time) had to be related to the electrical ones (voltages and currents as a function of time). Two well-known experiments in physics teaching, the RC circuit for charging and discharging a capacitor and Faraday electromagnetic induction, were chosen to illustrate the procedures. The third experiment analysed and modeled with Tracker was the rather well-known electromagnetic retardation of disk- or cylinder-shaped magnets falling inside non-magnetic metallic pipes. Instead of metallic pipes we used an aluminum plate with an arrangement of a couple of parallelepiped-shaped magnets falling parallel to the plate. In the three cases studied, the experimental and the Tracker simulation results were in very good agreement. These outcomes show that it is possible to exploit the potential of Tracker software in areas other than mechanics, in areas where electrical signals are involved. The experiments are inexpensive and simple to perform, and are suitable for high school and introductory undergraduate courses in electricity, magnetism and electronics. We propose the use of Tracker combined with analog measuring devices to explore further its applications in electricity, magnetism, electronics and in other experimental sciences where electrical signals are involved.

  11. A New GPU-Enabled MODTRAN Thermal Model for the PLUME TRACKER Volcanic Emission Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, P. K.; Berk, A.; Guiang, C.; Kennett, R.; Perkins, T.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantification of volcanic gaseous and particulate releases is important for (1) recognizing rapid increases in SO2 gaseous emissions which may signal an impending eruption; (2) characterizing ash clouds to enable safe and efficient commercial aviation; and (3) quantifying the impact of volcanic aerosols on climate forcing. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed state-of-the-art algorithms, embedded in their analyst-driven Plume Tracker toolkit, for performing SO2, NH3, and CH4 retrievals from remotely sensed multi-spectral Thermal InfraRed spectral imagery. While Plume Tracker provides accurate results, it typically requires extensive analyst time. A major bottleneck in this processing is the relatively slow but accurate FORTRAN-based MODTRAN atmospheric and plume radiance model, developed by Spectral Sciences, Inc. (SSI). To overcome this bottleneck, SSI in collaboration with JPL, is porting these slow thermal radiance algorithms onto massively parallel, relatively inexpensive and commercially-available GPUs. This paper discusses SSI's efforts to accelerate the MODTRAN thermal emission algorithms used by Plume Tracker. Specifically, we are developing a GPU implementation of the Curtis-Godson averaging and the Voigt in-band transmittances from near line center molecular absorption, which comprise the major computational bottleneck. The transmittance calculations were decomposed into separate functions, individually implemented as GPU kernels, and tested for accuracy and performance relative to the original CPU code. Speedup factors of 14 to 30× were realized for individual processing components on an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 295 graphics card with no loss of accuracy. Due to the separate host (CPU) and device (GPU) memory spaces, a redesign of the MODTRAN architecture was required to ensure efficient data transfer between host and device, and to facilitate high parallel throughput. Currently, we are incorporating the separate GPU kernels into a

  12. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  13. Using Tracker as a Pedagogical Tool for Understanding Projectile Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wee, Loo Kang; Chew, Charles; Goh, Giam Hwee; Tan, Samuel; Lee, Tat Leong

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Tracker as a pedagogical tool in the effective learning and teaching of projectile motion in physics. When a computer model building learning process is supported and driven by video analysis data, this free Open Source Physics tool can provide opportunities for students to engage in active enquiry-based…

  14. Development and Testing of the AMEGO Silicon Tracker System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Sean; Amego Team

    2018-01-01

    The All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) is a probe-class mission in consideration for the 2020 decadal review designed to operate at energies from ˜ 200 keV to > 10 GeV. Operating a detector in this energy regime is challenging due to the crossover in the interaction cross-section for Compton scattering and pair production. AMEGO is made of four major subsystems: a plastic anticoincidence detector for rejecting cosmic-ray events, a silicon tracker for measuring the energies of Compton scattered electrons and pair-production products, a CZT calorimeter for measuring the energy and location of Compton scattered photons, and a CsI calorimeter for measuring the energy of the pair-production products at high energies. The tracker comprises layers of dual-sided silicon strip detectors which provide energy and localization information for Compton scattering and pair-production events. A prototype tracker system is under development at GSFC; in this contribution we provide details on the verification, packaging, and testing of the prototype tracker, as well as present plans for the development of the front-end electronics, beam tests, and a balloon flight.

  15. Analyzing Impulse Using iPhone and Tracker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayop, Shahrul Kadri

    2017-01-01

    The iPhone 6 introduced a new feature of recording video in Slo-Mo mode at 240 fps (4.17 ms interval). This great capability when integrated with video analysis freeware such as Tracker offers in-depth exploration for physical phenomena such as collisions that occur in a very short duration of time. This article discusses one such usage in…

  16. Intraoperative magnetic tracker calibration using a magneto-optic hybrid tracker for 3-D ultrasound-based navigation in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masahiko; Nakada, Kazuhisa; Sato, Yoshinobu; Konishi, Kozo; Hashizume, Makoto; Tamura, Shinichi

    2008-02-01

    This paper describes a ultrasound (3-D US) system that aims to achieve augmented reality (AR) visualization during laparoscopic surgery, especially for the liver. To acquire 3-D US data of the liver, the tip of a laparoscopic ultrasound probe is tracked inside the abdominal cavity using a magnetic tracker. The accuracy of magnetic trackers, however, is greatly affected by magnetic field distortion that results from the close proximity of metal objects and electronic equipment, which is usually unavoidable in the operating room. In this paper, we describe a calibration method for intraoperative magnetic distortion that can be applied to laparoscopic 3-D US data acquisition; we evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of the method by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Although calibration data can be acquired freehand using a magneto-optic hybrid tracker, there are two problems associated with this method--error caused by the time delay between measurements of the optical and magnetic trackers, and instability of the calibration accuracy that results from the uniformity and density of calibration data. A temporal calibration procedure is developed to estimate the time delay, which is then integrated into the calibration, and a distortion model is formulated by zeroth-degree to fourth-degree polynomial fitting to the calibration data. In the in vivo experiment using a pig, the positional error caused by magnetic distortion was reduced from 44.1 to 2.9 mm. The standard deviation of corrected target positions was less than 1.0 mm. Freehand acquisition of calibration data was performed smoothly using a magneto-optic hybrid sampling tool through a trocar under guidance by realtime 3-D monitoring of the tool trajectory; data acquisition time was less than 2 min. The present study suggests that our proposed method could correct for magnetic field distortion inside the patient's abdomen during a laparoscopic procedure within a clinically permissible period of time, as well as

  17. Radar range data signal enhancement tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and performance characteristics are described of two digital data signal enhancement filters which are capable of being inserted between the Space Shuttle Navigation Sensor outputs and the guidance computer. Commonality of interfaces has been stressed so that the filters may be evaluated through operation with simulated sensors or with actual prototype sensor hardware. The filters will provide both a smoothed range and range rate output. Different conceptual approaches are utilized for each filter. The first filter is based on a combination low pass nonrecursive filter and a cascaded simple average smoother for range and range rate, respectively. Filter number two is a tracking filter which is capable of following transient data of the type encountered during burn periods. A test simulator was also designed which generates typical shuttle navigation sensor data.

  18. Navistar eStar Vehicle Performance Evaluation - 4th Quarter 2012; Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO)

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2013-05-01

    The Fleet Test and Evaluation Team at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory is evaluating and documenting the performance of electric and plug-in hybrid electric drive systems in medium-duty trucks across the nation. U.S. companies participating in this evaluation project received funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to cover part of the cost of purchasing these vehicles. Through this project, Navistar will build and deploy all-electric medium-duty trucks. The trucks will be deployed in diverse climates across the country.

  19. Laser SRS tracker for reverse prototyping tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmakov, Egor; Redka, Dmitriy; Grishkanich, Aleksandr; Tsvetkov, Konstantin

    2017-10-01

    According to the current great interest concerning Large-Scale Metrology applications in many different fields of manufacturing industry, technologies and techniques for dimensional measurement have recently shown a substantial improvement. Ease-of-use, logistic and economic issues, as well as metrological performance, are assuming a more and more important role among system requirements. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of chip and microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The project is planned to conduct experimental studies aimed at identifying the impact of the application of the basic laws of microlasers as radiators on the linear-angular characteristics of existing measurement systems. The system consists of a distributed network-based layout, whose modularity allows to fit differently sized and shaped working volumes by adequately increasing the number of sensing units. Differently from existing spatially distributed metrological instruments, the remote sensor devices are intended to provide embedded data elaboration capabilities, in order to share the overall computational load.

  20. Counting Steps in Activities of Daily Living in People With a Chronic Disease Using Nine Commercially Available Fitness Trackers: Cross-Sectional Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Beekman, Emmylou; Theunissen, Kyra; Braun, Susy; Beurskens, Anna J

    2018-01-01

    Background Measuring physical activity with commercially available activity trackers is gaining popularity. People with a chronic disease can especially benefit from knowledge about their physical activity pattern in everyday life since sufficient physical activity can contribute to wellbeing and quality of life. However, no validity data are available for this population during activities of daily living. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of 9 commercially available activity trackers for measuring step count during activities of daily living in people with a chronic disease receiving physiotherapy. Methods The selected activity trackers were Accupedo (Corusen LLC), Activ8 (Remedy Distribution Ltd), Digi-Walker CW-700 (Yamax), Fitbit Flex (Fitbit inc), Lumoback (Lumo Bodytech), Moves (ProtoGeo Oy), Fitbit One (Fitbit inc), UP24 (Jawbone), and Walking Style X (Omron Healthcare Europe BV). In total, 130 persons with chronic diseases performed standardized activity protocols based on activities of daily living that were recorded on video camera and analyzed for step count (gold standard). The validity of the trackers’ step count was assessed by correlation coefficients, t tests, scatterplots, and Bland-Altman plots. Results The correlations between the number of steps counted by the activity trackers and the gold standard were low (range: –.02 to .33). For all activity trackers except for Fitbit One, a significant systematic difference with the gold standard was found for step count. Plots showed a wide range in scores for all activity trackers; Activ8 showed an average overestimation and the other 8 trackers showed underestimations. Conclusions This study showed that the validity of 9 commercially available activity trackers is low measuring steps while individuals with chronic diseases receiving physiotherapy engage in activities of daily living. PMID:29610110

  1. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Michael J.; Matthews, Bryan L.

    2017-01-01

    In this exploratory archival study we mined the performance of 24 major US airports area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs) over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We investigated STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed altitudes and their frequencies of occurrence for altitude restrictions. Full-lateral compliance was generally greater than Full-lateral/full-vertical, but the delta between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical usage medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systemic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This work is a preliminary investigation into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track how procedural concepts and design intervention function. In addition, this tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  2. Validity, reliability and feasibility of commercially available activity trackers in physical therapy for people with a chronic disease: a study protocol of a mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Emmylou; Braun, Susy M; Ummels, Darcy; van Vijven, Kim; Moser, Albine; Beurskens, Anna J

    2017-01-01

    For older people and people with a chronic disease, physical activity provides health benefits. Patients and healthcare professionals can use commercially available activity trackers to objectively monitor (alterations in) activity levels and patterns and to support physical activity. However, insight in the validity, reliability, and feasibility of these trackers in people with a chronic disease is needed. In this article, a study protocol is described in which the validity, reliability (part A), and feasibility from a patient and therapist's point of view (part B) of commercially available activity trackers in daily life and health care is investigated. In part A, a quantitative cross-sectional study, an activity protocol that simulates everyday life activities will be used to determine the validity and reliability of nine commercially available activity trackers. Video recordings will act as the gold standard. In part B, a qualitative participatory action research study will be performed to gain insight in the use of activity trackers in peoples' daily life and therapy settings. Objective feasibility of the activity trackers will be measured with questionnaires, and subjective feasibility (experiences) will be explored in a community of practice. Physical therapists ( n  = 8) will regularly meet during 6 months to learn from each other regarding the actual use of activity trackers in therapy. Therapists and patients ( n  = 48) will decide together which tracker will be used in therapy and for which purpose (e.g., monitoring, goal setting). Data from the therapist' and patients' experiences will be collected by interviews (individual and focus groups) and analyzed by a directed content analysis. At the time of submission, selection of activity trackers, development of the activity protocol, and the ethical approval process are finished. Data collection and data processing are ongoing. The relevance of the study as well as the advantages and disadvantages of

  3. Surface abundances of ON stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Palacios, A.; Howarth, I.; Georgy, C.; Walborn, N. R.; Bouret, J.-C.; Barbá, R.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient or when mass transfer in binary systems occurs, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. Aims: ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. Methods: We performed a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determined the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measured the projected rotational velocities. We compared the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. Results: We show that ON stars are usually rich in helium. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Mass transfer is therefore not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. Conclusions: We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present. Based on observations obtained 1) at the Anglo-Australian Telescope; 2) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Science de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii; 3) at the ESO/La Silla Observatory under programs 081.D-2008, 083.D-0589, 086.D-0997; 4) the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La

  4. Lockheed L-1011 TriStar to support Adaptive Performance Optimization study with NASA F-18 chase plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This Lockheed L-1011 Tristar, seen here June 1995, is currently the subject of a new flight research experiment developed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to improve the effiecency of large transport aircraft. Shown with a NASA F-18 chase plane over California's Sierra Nevada mountains during an earlier baseline flight, the jetliner operated by Oribtal Sciences Corp., recently flew its first data-gathering mission in the Adaptive Performance Optimization project. The experiment seeks to reduce fuel comsumption of large jetliners by improving the aerodynamic efficiency of their wings at cruise conditions. A research computer employing a sophisticated software program adapts to changing flight conditions by commanding small movements of the L-1011's outboard ailerons to give its wings the most efficient - or optimal - airfoil. Up to a dozen research flights will be flown in the current and follow-on phases of the project over the next couple years.

  5. NuSTAR: system engineering and modeling challenges in pointing reconstruction for a deployable x-ray telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. Isaiah; Liebe, Carl Christian; Craig, William; Harrison, Fiona; Kruse-Madsen, Kristin; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will make the first sensitive images of the sky in the high energy X-ray band (6 - 80 keV). The NuSTAR observatory consists of two co-aligned grazing incidence hard X-ray telescopes with a ~10 meter focal length, achieved by the on-orbit extension of a deployable mast. A principal science objective of the mission is to locate previously unknown high-energy X-ray sources to an accuracy of 10 arcseconds (3-sigma), sufficient to uniquely identify counterparts at other wavelengths. In order to achieve this, a star tracker and laser metrology system are an integral part of the instrument; in conjunction, they will determine the orientation of the optics bench in celestial coordinates and also measure the flexures in the deployable mast as it responds to the varying on-orbit thermal environment, as well as aerodynamic and control torques. The architecture of the NuSTAR system for solving the attitude and aspect problems differs from that of previous X-ray telescopes, which did not require ex post facto reconstruction of the instantaneous observatory alignment on-orbit. In this paper we describe the NuSTAR instrument metrology system architecture and implementation, focusing on the systems engineering challenges associated with validating the instantaneous transformations between focal plane and celestial coordinates to within the required accuracy. We present a mathematical solution to photon source reconstruction, along with a detailed error budget that relates component errors to science performance. We also describe the architecture of the instrument simulation software being used to validate the end-to-end performance model.

  6. Atoms, Stars, and Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aller, Lawrence H.

    1991-09-01

    1. Introducing stars and nebulae; 2. Stellar rainbows; 3. Atoms and molecules; 4. The climate in a stellar atmosphere; 5. Analysing the stars; 6. Dwarfs, giants, and supergiants; 7. What makes a star shine?; 8. The youth and middle age of a common star; 9. Wind, dust and pulsations; 10. A star's last hurray?; 11. The interstellar medium and gaseous nebulae; 12. Uncommon stars and their sometimes violent behaviour; 13. High energy astronomy.

  7. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research.

    PubMed

    Radics, B; Nagata, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Ishikawa, S; Kuroda, N; Matsuda, Y; Anfreville, M; Aune, S; Boyer, M; Chateau, F; Combet, M; Granelli, R; Legou, P; Mandjavidze, I; Procureur, S; Riallot, M; Vallage, B; Vandenbroucke, M

    2015-08-01

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays.

  8. The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker: A cylindrical, bulk Micromegas detector for antimatter research

    SciTech Connect

    Radics, B., E-mail: balint.radics@riken.jp; Nagata, Y.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2015-08-15

    The ASACUSA Micromegas Tracker (AMT; ASACUSA: Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons) was designed to be able to reconstruct antiproton-nucleon annihilation vertices in three dimensions. The goal of this device is to study antihydrogen formation processes in the ASACUSA cusp trap, which was designed to synthesise a spin-polarised antihydrogen beam for precise tests of Charge, Parity, and Time (CPT) symmetry invariance. This paper discusses the structure and technical details of an AMT detector built into such an environment, its data acquisition system and the first performance with cosmic rays.

  9. RNAV STAR Procedural Adherence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Bryan L.; Stewart, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design functionality. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this exploratory archival study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying radar track data on top of RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateralfull-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions and their occurrence rates. Full-lateral adherence was generally greater than Full-lateralfull-vertical, but the difference between the rates was not always consistent. Full-lateralfull-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0 in KDEN (Denver) to 21 in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0 to nearly 100 for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  10. RFA-based 589-nm guide star lasers for ESO VLT: a paradigm shift in performance, operational simplicity, reliability, and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedenauer, Axel; Karpov, Vladimir; Wei, Daoping; Hager, Manfred; Ernstberger, Bernhard; Clements, Wallace R. L.; Kaenders, Wilhelm G.

    2012-07-01

    Large telescopes equipped with adaptive optics require 20-25W CW 589-nm sources with emission linewidths of ~5 MHz. These Guide Star (GS) lasers should also be highly reliable and simple to operate and maintain for many years at the top of a mountain facility. Under contract from ESO, industrial partners TOPTICA and MPBC are nearing completion of the development of GS lasers for the ESO VLT, with delivery of the first of four units scheduled for December 2012. We report on the design and performance of the fully-engineered Pre-Production Unit (PPU), including system reliability/availability analysis, the successfully-concluded qualification testing, long-term component and system level tests and long-term maintenance and support planning. The chosen approach is based on ESO's patented narrow-band Raman Fiber Amplifier (EFRA) technology. A master oscillator signal from a linearly-polarized TOPTICA 20-mW, 1178-nm CW diode laser, with stabilized emission frequency and controllable linewidth up to a few MHz, is amplified in an MPBC polarization-maintaining (PM) RFA pumped by a high-power 1120-nm PM fiber laser. With efficient stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression, an unprecedented 40W of narrow-band RFA output has been obtained. This is then mode-matched into a resonant-cavity doubler with a free-spectral-range matching the sodium D2a to D2b separation, allowing simultaneous generation of an additional frequency component (D2b line) to re-pump the sodium atom electronic population. With this technique, the return flux can be increased without having to resort to electro-optical modulators and without the risk of introducing optical wave front distortions. The demonstrated output powers with doubling efficiencies >80% at 589 nm easily exceed the 20W design goal and require less than 700 W of electrical power. In summary, the fiber-based guide star lasers provide excellent beam quality and are modular, turn-key, maintenance-free, reliable, efficient, and ruggedized

  11. STAR Healthy Schools: Environmental Factors, Children’s Health and Performance, and Sustainable Building Practices Kick-off Meeting and Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    STAR grantees will describe their planned research and hear from EPA programs and a regional schools coordinator about EPA’s programs and resources. A guest speaker will provide a lunchtime seminar.

  12. The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is

  13. Thermal Tracker: The Secret Lives of Bats and Birds Revealed

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Offshore wind developers and stakeholders can accelerate the sustainable, widespread deployment of offshore wind using a new open-source software program, called ThermalTracker. Researchers can now collect the data they need to better understand the potential effects of offshore wind turbines on bird and bat populations. This plug and play software can be used with any standard desktop computer, thermal camera, and statistical software to identify species and behaviors of animals in offshore locations.

  14. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  15. Seeing Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchin, Chris; Forrest, Robert W.

    Seeing Stars is written for astronomers, regardless of the depth of their theoretical knowledge, who are taking their first steps in observational astronomy. Chris Kitchin and Bob Forrest - both professional astronomers - take a conducted tour of the night sky and suggest suitable observing programmes for everyone from beginners to experts. How is this book different? We are all familiar with the beautiful images of planets and galaxies obtained by spacecraft and giant telescopes - but what can you really see with a small telescope? What should you expect from a small refractor or reflector? And what is the effect of observing from a site near a city? The answers are all here, with many photographs that will illustrate exactly what can be seen with different instruments (everything from the naked eye to a 300mm telescope) - and from different locations.

  16. Ice Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Ice Stars - August 4th, 2002 Description: Like distant galaxies amid clouds of interstellar dust, chunks of sea ice drift through graceful swirls of grease ice in the frigid waters of Foxe Basin near Baffin Island in the Canadian Arctic. Sea ice often begins as grease ice, a soupy slick of tiny ice crystals on the ocean's surface. As the temperature drops, grease ice thickens and coalesces into slabs of more solid ice. Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  17. A post-processing algorithm for time domain pitch trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specker, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a powerful post-processing algorithm for time-domain pitch trackers. On two successive passes, the post-processing algorithm eliminates errors produced during a first pass by a time-domain pitch tracker. During the second pass, incorrect pitch values are detected as outliers by computing the distribution of values over a sliding 80 msec window. During the third pass (based on artificial intelligence techniques), remaining pitch pulses are used as anchor points to reconstruct the pitch train from the original waveform. The algorithm produced a decrease in the error rate from 21% obtained with the original time domain pitch tracker to 2% for isolated words and sentences produced in an office environment by 3 male and 3 female talkers. In a noisy computer room errors decreased from 52% to 2.9% for the same stimuli produced by 2 male talkers. The algorithm is efficient, accurate, and resistant to noise. The fundamental frequency micro-structure is tracked sufficiently well to be used in extracting phonetic features in a feature-based recognition system.

  18. Shooting Star Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) is designed to develop and demonstrate the technology required to focus the sun's energy and use the energy for inexpensive space Propulsion Research. Pictured is an engineering model (Pathfinder III) of the Shooting Star Experiment (SSE). This model was used to test and characterize the motion and deformation of the structure caused by thermal effects. In this photograph, alignment targets are being placed on the engineering model so that a theodolite (alignment telescope) could be used to accurately measure the deformation and deflections of the engineering model under extreme conditions, such as the coldness of deep space and the hotness of the sun as well as vacuum. This thermal vacuum test was performed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility because of the size of the test article and the capabilities of the facility to simulate in-orbit conditions

  19. Improved instrumental magnitude prediction expected from version 2 of the NASA SKY2000 master star catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sande, C. B.; Brasoveanu, D.; Miller, A. C.; Home, A. T.; Tracewell, D. A.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The SKY2000 Master Star Catalog (MC), Version 2 and its predecessors have been designed to provide the basic astronomical input data needed for satellite acquisition and attitude determination on NASA spacecraft. Stellar positions and proper motions are the primary MC data required for operations support followed closely by the stellar brightness observed in various standard astronomical passbands. The instrumental red-magnitude prediction subsystem (REDMAG) in the MMSCAT software package computes the expected instrumental color index (CI) [sensor color correction] from an observed astronomical stellar magnitude in the MC and the characteristics of the stellar spectrum, astronomical passband, and sensor sensitivity curve. The computation is more error prone the greater the mismatch of the sensor sensitivity curve characteristics and those of the observed astronomical passbands. This paper presents the preliminary performance analysis of a typical red-sensitive CCDST during acquisition of sensor data from the two Ball CT-601 ST's onboard the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A comparison is made of relative star positions measured in the ST FOV coordinate system with the expected results computed from the recently released Tycho Catalogue. The comparison is repeated for a group of observed stars with nearby, bright neighbors in order to determine the tracker behavior in the presence of an interfering, near neighbor (NN). The results of this analysis will be used to help define a new photoelectric photometric instrumental sensor magnitude system (S) that is based on several thousand bright star magnitudes observed with the PXTE ST's. This new system will be implemented in Version 2 of the SKY2000 MC to provide improved predicted magnitudes in the mission run catalogs.

  20. Concurrent change in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and functional performance in the oldest old: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, J L; Cappola, A R; Arnold, A M; Boudreau, R M; Chaves, P H; Robbins, J; Cushman, M; Newman, A B

    2010-09-01

    The correlation between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) decline and age led to the hypothesis that DHEAS might be a marker of primary aging, though conflicting data from observational studies of mortality do not support this. We evaluated concurrent DHEAS and functional decline in a very old cohort to test if DHEAS change tracks with functional change during aging. DHEAS and functional performance (gait speed, grip strength, Modified Mini-Mental State Examination [3MSE] score, and digit symbol substitution test [DSST] score) were measured in 1996-1997 and 2005-2006 in 989 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars study (mean age 85.2 years in 2005-2006, 63.5% women and 16.5% African American). We used multivariable linear regression to test the association of DHEAS decline with functional decline. After adjustment, each standard deviation decrease in DHEAS was associated with greater declines in gait speed (0.12 m/s, p = .01), grip strength (0.09 kg, p = .03), 3MSE score (0.13 points, p < .001), and DSST score (0.14 points, p = .001) in women only. Additional adjustment for baseline DHEAS attenuated the association with grip strength but did not alter other estimates appreciably, and baseline DHEAS was unassociated with functional decline. In this cohort of very old individuals, DHEAS decline tracked with declines in gait speed, 3MSE score, and DSST score, but not grip strength, in women independent of baseline DHEAS level. DHEAS decline might be a marker for age-associated performance decline, but its relevance is specific to women.

  1. The relationship between performance on the modified star excursion balance test and the knee muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Paula Calori; Serenza, Felipe de Souza; Muniz, Thiago Batista; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Kfuri, Mauricio; Ferreira, Aline Miranda

    2018-06-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic balance of the injured and uninjured limb before and after the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the control group. Prospective longitudinal. Biomechanics laboratory. Participants are 24 males (mean age, 27.5 years) with unilateral ACL injury (ACLG) and 24 male healthy volunteers (CG). The modified star excursion balance test (SEBT) and isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength were applied in the ACLG preoperatively and after surgery. The dominant limb of CG was evaluated at a single time. There was no difference between the injured and the uninjured limb of the ACLG (P > 0.05) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, both ACLG limbs had a significantly lower reach distance in posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) directions and in composite reach (CR) score compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, no significant differences were found between ACLG and CG (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between preoperative PL (0.59) and CR (0.51), postoperative PM (0.36), PL (0.36) and CR (0.46) with flexor strength at 12 months after surgery. Patients with ACL injury presented a worse performance in the SEBT in the preoperative period compared to the control group. After ligament reconstruction, the performance in the SEBT became equivalent to that of the control group. The strong correlation between flexor strength and posterior directions of the injured limb demonstrates the importance of the knee flexor muscles in the neuromuscular control of patients submitted to ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Field testing of a next generation pointer/tracker for IRCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Stuart; Wildgoose, Iain; McDonald, Eric; Duncan, Stuart

    2008-10-01

    SELEX Galileo has been involved in the development, manufacture and support of high performance electro-optic pointing and stabilisation systems for over forty years. The Company currently supplies the pointer/trackers for the AN/AAQ-24(V) NEMESIS DIRCM system, for which over 1,000 combat-proven units have been produced and deployed in the US, the UK and other nations. In 2007, SELEX Galileo embarked on an internally funded programme to develop ECLIPSE, a new advanced, lightweight, low-cost IRCM pointer/tracker, exploiting the extensive knowledge and experience gained from previous targeting and IRCM programmes. The ECLIPSE design is centred on a low inertia, two-axis servo mechanism with a strap-down inertial sensor and advanced sightline control algorithms, allowing effective tracking through the nadir and providing superior sightline performance. The programme involved the production of three demonstrator units in 2007, and two pre-production units in 2008. The demonstrator units were first trialled as part of a NEMESIS DIRCM system in late 2007, and in April 2008 100% success was achieved in jamming live-fire demonstrations. Helicopter installation and ground testing of a UK only trials system is complete, initial flight testing has just begun, and the airborne test and evaluation scheduled for late summer 2008 will bring the ECLIPSE System to technology readiness to level 7 (TRL7). This paper describes the Eclipse performance demonstrated to date.

  3. Measurement of D0 elliptic flow using the heavy flavor tracker detector in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiec, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    In heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies conducted at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, Upton, USA) a new state of matter, Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP), is produced. QGP is a state of matter with partonic (i.e. gluons + quarks) degrees of freedom and is believed to be existing only during first moments after the Big Bang, and possibly inside of the heaviest neutron stars. One of the key QGP signatures is the elliptic flow (v2) - a coefficient that describes spatial assymetry of particle yield. It has been observed that v2 of particles composed of light quarks (i.e. up, down and strange) follow the same trends when scaled to the number of constituent quarks. Such observations implied that all light quarks gain the same flow in the heavy ion collision. On the other hand it was speculated that heavy quarks (charm and bottom) should have smaller v2 because of their in-medium energy losses. Due to their heavy mass, c quarks are produced mostly before QGP is formed, which makes them excellent probes to study this hot, dense and strongly interacting medium. The Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC (STAR) experiment took data with the newly installed Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) detector. Thanks to the state-of-the-art tracking resolution of the HFT it is possible to measure D0 mesons with unprecedented precision. This paper presents the STAR experiment measurement of D0 elliptic flow.

  4. Design, fabrication and performance of two grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampton, M.; Cash, W.; Malina, R. F.; Bowyer, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and performance of grazing incidence telescopes for celestial extreme ultraviolet (EUV) astronomy are described. The telescopes basically consist of a star tracker, collimator, grazing incidence mirror, vacuum box lid, vacuum housing, filters, a ranicon detector, an electronics box, and an aspect camera. For the survey mirror a Wolter-Schwarzschild type II configuration was selected. Diamond-turning was used for mirror fabrication, a technique which machines surfaces to the order of 10 microns over the required dimensions. The design of the EUV spectrometer is discussed with particular reference to the optics for a primarily spectroscopic application and the fabrication of the f/10 optics.

  5. The mass spectrum of the first stars

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Hajime; Tominaga, Nozomu; Hasegawa, Kenji, E-mail: susa@konan-u.ac.jp

    2014-09-01

    We perform cosmological hydrodynamics simulations with non-equilibrium primordial chemistry to obtain 59 minihalos that host first stars. The obtained minihalos are used as the initial conditions of local three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations to investigate the formation of the first stars. We find that two-thirds of the minihalos host multiple stars, while the other third has single stars. The mass of the stars found in our simulations are in the range of 1 M {sub ☉} ≲ M ≲ 300 M {sub ☉}, peaking at several× 10 M {sub ☉}. Most of the very massive stars of ≳ 140 M {submore » ☉} are born as single stars, although not all of the single stars are very massive. We also find a few stars of ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} that are kicked by the gravitational three body interactions to the position distant from the center of mass. The frequency that a star forming minihalo contains a binary system is ∼50%. We also investigate the abundance pattern of the stellar remnants by summing up the contributions from the first stars in the simulations. Consequently, the pattern is compatible with that of the low metallicity damped Lyα systems or the extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars, if the mass spectrum obtained in our experiment is shifted to the low mass side by 0.2 dex. If we consider the case that an EMP star is born in the remnant of the individual minihalo without mixing with others, the chemical signature of the pair instability supernova is more prominent, because most of them are born as single stars.« less

  6. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  7. The Chemical Composition of the Active Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazunova, L. V.

    The comparison of the results of the studies of the active stars' chemical composition obtained by different authors has been performed. It was concluded that the difference between the abundances of some elements in active and inactive stars becomes significant (> 3σ) only for the active stars with high chromospheric activity (lgR'HK > -4). This is the case primarily for the light elements, namely Li, Na and Al, as well as heavy elements with Z > 30.

  8. A Vanishing Star Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    unsual star in question is designated NN Serpentis , or just NN Ser . As the name indicates, it is located in the constellation of Serpens (The Serpent), about 12° north of the celestial equator. A double letter, here "NN", is used to denote variable stars [2]. It is a rather faint object of magnitude 17, about 25,000 times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. The distance is about 600 light-years (180 pc). In July 1988, Reinhold Häfner performed observations of NN Ser (at that time still known by its earlier name PG 1550+131 ) with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at La Silla. He was surprised, but also very pleased to discover that it underwent a very deep eclipse every 187 minutes. Within less than 2 minutes, the brightness dropped by a factor of more than 100 (5 magnitudes). During the next 9 minutes, the star completely disappeared from view - it was too faint to be observed with this telescope. It then again reappeared and the entire event was over after just 11 minutes. Why eclipses are so important for stellar studies An eclipse occurs when one of the stars in a binary stellar system moves in front of the other, as seen by the observer. The effect is similar to what happens during a solar eclipse when the Moon moves in front of the Sun. In both cases, the eclipse may be partial or total , depending on whether or not the eclipsed star (or the Sun) is completely hidden from view. The occurence of eclipses in stellar systems, as seen from the Earth, depends on the spatial orientation of the orbital plane and the sizes of the two stars. Two eclipses take place during one orbital revolution, but they may not both be observable. The physical properties of the two stars in a binary system (e.g., the sizes of the stars, the size and shape of the orbit, the distribution of the light on the surfaces of the stars, their temperatures etc.) can be determined from the measured "light-curve" of the system (a plot of brightness vrs. time). The stars are always

  9. LysoTracker and MitoTracker Red are transport substrates of P-glycoprotein: implications for anticancer drug design evading multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhitomirsky, Benny; Farber, Hodaya; Assaraf, Yehuda G

    2018-04-01

    LysoTracker and MitoTracker Red are fluorescent probes widely used for viable cell staining of lysosomes and mitochondria, respectively. They are utilized to study organelle localization and their resident proteins, assess organelle functionality and quantification of organelle numbers. The ATP-driven efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in normal and malignant tissues and extrudes structurally distinct endogenous and exogenous cytotoxic compounds. Thus, once aromatic hydrophobic compounds such as the above-mentioned fluorescent probes are recognized as transport substrates, efflux pumps including P-gp may abolish their ability to reach their cellular target organelles. Herein, we show that LysoTracker and MitoTracker Red are expelled from P-gp-overexpressing cancer cells, thus hindering their ability to fluorescently mark target organelles. We further demonstrate that tariquidar, a potent P-gp transport inhibitor, restores LysoTracker and MitoTracker Red cell entry. We conclude that LysoTracker and MitoTracker Red are P-gp transport substrates, and therefore, P-gp expression must be taken into consideration prior to cellular applications using these probes. Importantly, as MitoTracker was a superior P-gp substrate than LysoTracker Red, we discuss the implications for the future design of chemotherapeutics evading cancer multidrug resistance. Furthermore, restoration of MitoTracker Red fluorescence in P-gp-overexpressing cells may facilitate the identification of potent P-gp transport inhibitors (i.e. chemosensitizers). © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  11. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  12. Sun-Relative Pointing for Dual-Axis Solar Trackers Employing Azimuth and Elevation Rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Daniel; Hansen, Clifford W.

    Dual axis trackers employing azimuth and elevation rotations are common in the field of photovoltaic (PV) energy generation. Accurate sun-tracking algorithms are widely available. However, a steering algorithm has not been available to accurately point the tracker away from the sun such that a vector projection of the sun beam onto the tracker face falls along a desired path relative to the tracker face. We have developed an algorithm which produces the appropriate azimuth and elevation angles for a dual axis tracker when given the sun position, desired angle of incidence, and the desired projection of the sun beam ontomore » the tracker face. Development of this algorithm was inspired by the need to accurately steer a tracker to desired sun-relative positions in order to better characterize the electro-optical properties of PV and CPV modules.« less

  13. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operationmore » in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance

  14. Enhancement of ELDA Tracker Based on CNN Features and Adaptive Model Update.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changxin; Shi, Huizhang; Yu, Jin-Gang; Sang, Nong

    2016-04-15

    Appearance representation and the observation model are the most important components in designing a robust visual tracking algorithm for video-based sensors. Additionally, the exemplar-based linear discriminant analysis (ELDA) model has shown good performance in object tracking. Based on that, we improve the ELDA tracking algorithm by deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and adaptive model update. Deep CNN features have been successfully used in various computer vision tasks. Extracting CNN features on all of the candidate windows is time consuming. To address this problem, a two-step CNN feature extraction method is proposed by separately computing convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Due to the strong discriminative ability of CNN features and the exemplar-based model, we update both object and background models to improve their adaptivity and to deal with the tradeoff between discriminative ability and adaptivity. An object updating method is proposed to select the "good" models (detectors), which are quite discriminative and uncorrelated to other selected models. Meanwhile, we build the background model as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to adapt to complex scenes, which is initialized offline and updated online. The proposed tracker is evaluated on a benchmark dataset of 50 video sequences with various challenges. It achieves the best overall performance among the compared state-of-the-art trackers, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm.

  15. The AGILE silicon tracker: testbeam results of the prototype silicon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiellini, G.; Fedel, G.; Liello, F.; Longo, F.; Pontoni, C.; Prest, M.; Tavani, M.; Vallazza, E.

    2002-09-01

    AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) is a small scientific satellite for the detection of cosmic γ-ray sources in the energy range 30MeV-50GeV with a very large field of view (1/4 of the sky). It is planned to be operational in the years 2003-2006, a period in which no other γ-ray mission in the same energy range is foreseen. The heart of the AGILE scientific instrument is a silicon-tungsten tracker made of 14 planes of single sided silicon detectors for a total of 43000 readout channels. Each detector has a dimension of 9.5×9.5cm2 and a thickness of 410μm. We present here a detailed description of the performance of the detector prototype during a testbeam period at the CERN PS in May 2000. The Tracker performance is described in terms of position resolution and signal-to-noise ratio for on and off-axis incident charged particles. The measured 40μm resolution for a large range of incident angles will provide an excellent angular resolution for cosmic γ-ray imaging.

  16. Investigation of HV/HR-CMOS technology for the ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadeyev, V.; Galloway, Z.; Grabas, H.; Grillo, A. A.; Liang, Z.; Martinez-Mckinney, F.; Seiden, A.; Volk, J.; Affolder, A.; Buckland, M.; Meng, L.; Arndt, K.; Bortoletto, D.; Huffman, T.; John, J.; McMahon, S.; Nickerson, R.; Phillips, P.; Plackett, R.; Shipsey, I.; Vigani, L.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Kanisauskas, K.; Maneuski, D.; Benoit, M.; Di Bello, F.; Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Grenier, P.; Kenney, C.; Rubbo, F.; Segal, J.; Su, D.; Tamma, C.; Das, D.; Dopke, J.; Turchetta, R.; Wilson, F.; Worm, S.; Ehrler, F.; Peric, I.; Gregor, I. M.; Stanitzki, M.; Hoeferkamp, M.; Seidel, S.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Kramberger, G.; Mandić, I.; Mikuž, M.; Muenstermann, D.; Wang, R.; Zhang, J.; Warren, M.; Song, W.; Xiu, Q.; Zhu, H.

    2016-09-01

    ATLAS has formed strip CMOS project to study the use of CMOS MAPS devices as silicon strip sensors for the Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade. This choice of sensors promises several advantages over the conventional baseline design, such as better resolution, less material in the tracking volume, and faster construction speed. At the same time, many design features of the sensors are driven by the requirement of minimizing the impact on the rest of the detector. Hence the target devices feature long pixels which are grouped to form a virtual strip with binary-encoded z position. The key performance aspects are radiation hardness compatibility with HL-LHC environment, as well as extraction of the full hit position with full-reticle readout architecture. To date, several test chips have been submitted using two different CMOS technologies. The AMS 350 nm is a high voltage CMOS process (HV-CMOS), that features the sensor bias of up to 120 V. The TowerJazz 180 nm high resistivity CMOS process (HR-CMOS) uses a high resistivity epitaxial layer to provide the depletion region on top of the substrate. We have evaluated passive pixel performance, and charge collection projections. The results strongly support the radiation tolerance of these devices to radiation dose of the HL-LHC in the strip tracker region. We also describe design features for the next chip submission that are motivated by our technology evaluation.

  17. Alignment of the CMS Tracker: Latest Results from LHC Run-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, Gregor; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The all-silicon design of the tracking system of the CMS experiment provides excellent measurements of charged-particle tracks and an efficient tagging of jets. Conditions of the CMS tracker changed repeatedly during the 2015/2016 shutdown and the 2016 data-taking period. Still the true position and orientation of each of the 15 148 silicon strip and 1440 silicon pixel modules need to be known with high precision for all intervals. The alignment constants also need to be promptly re-adjusted each time the state of the CMS magnet is changed between 0T and 3.8 T. Latest Run-II results of the CMS tracker alignment and resolution performance are presented, which are obtained using several millions of reconstructed tracks from collision and cosmic-ray data of 2016. The geometries and the resulting performance of physics observables are carefully validated. In addition to the offline alignment, an online procedure has been put in place which continuously monitors movements of the pixel high-level structures and triggers updates of the alignment constants if certain thresholds are exceeded.

  18. Enhancement of ELDA Tracker Based on CNN Features and Adaptive Model Update

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Changxin; Shi, Huizhang; Yu, Jin-Gang; Sang, Nong

    2016-01-01

    Appearance representation and the observation model are the most important components in designing a robust visual tracking algorithm for video-based sensors. Additionally, the exemplar-based linear discriminant analysis (ELDA) model has shown good performance in object tracking. Based on that, we improve the ELDA tracking algorithm by deep convolutional neural network (CNN) features and adaptive model update. Deep CNN features have been successfully used in various computer vision tasks. Extracting CNN features on all of the candidate windows is time consuming. To address this problem, a two-step CNN feature extraction method is proposed by separately computing convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Due to the strong discriminative ability of CNN features and the exemplar-based model, we update both object and background models to improve their adaptivity and to deal with the tradeoff between discriminative ability and adaptivity. An object updating method is proposed to select the “good” models (detectors), which are quite discriminative and uncorrelated to other selected models. Meanwhile, we build the background model as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to adapt to complex scenes, which is initialized offline and updated online. The proposed tracker is evaluated on a benchmark dataset of 50 video sequences with various challenges. It achieves the best overall performance among the compared state-of-the-art trackers, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our tracking algorithm. PMID:27092505

  19. Can a Free Wearable Activity Tracker Change Behavior? The Impact of Trackers on Adults in a Physician-Led Wellness Group.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, Lisa; Rosenbluth, Sandra; Phillips, Jeffrey

    2016-11-30

    Wearable activity trackers (trackers) are increasingly popular devices used to track step count and other health indicators. Trackers have the potential to benefit those in need of increased physical activity, such as adults who are older and face significant health challenges. These populations are least likely to purchase trackers and most likely to face challenges in using them, yet may derive educational, motivational, and health benefits from their use once these barriers are removed. The aim of this pilot research is to investigate the use of trackers by adults with chronic medical conditions who have never used trackers previously. Specifically, we aim to determine (1) if participants would accept and use trackers to increase their physical activity; (2) if there were barriers to use besides cost and training; (3) if trackers would educate participants on their baseline and ongoing activity levels and support behavior change; and (4) if clinical outcomes would show improvements in participants' health. This study was conducted with patients (N=10) in a 12-week physician-led wellness group offered by Family Doctors, LLC. Patients were given trackers in the second week of The Wellness Group and were interviewed 2 to 4 weeks after it ended. The study investigators analyzed the interview notes to extract themes about the participants' attitudes and behavior changes and collected and analyzed participants' clinical data, including weight and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol over the course of the study. Over the 12 to 14 weeks of tracker use, improvements were seen in clinical outcomes, attitudes towards the trackers, and physical activity behaviors. Participants lost an average of 0.5 lbs per week (SD 0.4), with a mean total weight loss of 5.97 lbs (P=.004). Other short-term clinical outcomes included a 9.2% decrease in LDL levels (P=.038). All participants reported an increase in well-being and confidence in their ability to lead more active lives. We

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor and Two-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    For fifteen years, the science mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) required using at least three rate gyros for n Controlling with alternate sensors to replace failing gyros can extend the HST science mission. A two-gyro control law has been designed and implemented using magnetometers, star trackers, and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axis. The three aforementioned sensors are used in succession to reduce HST boresight jitter to less than 7 milli-arcseconds rms prior to science imaging. The Magnetometer and 2-Gyro (M2G) control law is used for large angle maneuvers and attitude control during earth. occultation of star trackers and FGSs. The Tracker and 2-Gyro (T2G) control law dampens M2G rates and controls attitude in preparation for guide star acquisition with the FGSs. The Fine Guidance Sensor and 2-Gyro (F2G) control law dampens T2G rates and controls HST attitude during science imaging. This paper describes the F2G control law. Details of F2G algorithms are presented, including computation of the FGS-measured star vector using non-linear equations, optimal estimation of HST body rate, design of the F2G control laws and gyro bias observer, SISO and MIMO linear stability analyses, and design of the F2G intramode transition and guide star acquisition logic. Results from an FGS flight spare ground test are presented that define acceptable HST jitter levels for successful guide star acquisition under two-gyro control. HST-specific disturbance and noise models are described that are based upon flight telemetry; these models are used in HSTSIM, a high-fidelity non-linear time domain simulation, to predict HST on-orbit disturbance responses and FGS interferometer Loss of Lock (LOL) characteristics under F2G control. Additional HSTSIM results are presented predicting HST quiescent boresight jitter performance, science maneuver performance, and observer configuration performance during F2G operation. Simulation

  1. Compact stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estevez-Delgado, Gabino; Estevez-Delgado, Joaquin

    2018-05-01

    An analysis and construction is presented for a stellar model characterized by two parameters (w, n) associated with the compactness ratio and anisotropy, respectively. The reliability range for the parameter w ≤ 1.97981225149 corresponds with a compactness ratio u ≤ 0.2644959374, the density and pressures are positive, regular and monotonic decrescent functions, the radial and tangential speed of sound are lower than the light speed, moreover, than the plausible stability. The behavior of the speeds of sound are determinate for the anisotropy parameter n, admitting a subinterval where the speeds are monotonic crescent functions and other where we have monotonic decrescent functions for the same speeds, both cases describing a compact object that is also potentially stable. In the bigger value for the observational mass M = 2.05 M⊙ and radii R = 12.957 Km for the star PSR J0348+0432, the model indicates that the maximum central density ρc = 1.283820319 × 1018 Kg/m3 corresponds to the maximum value of the anisotropy parameter and the radial and tangential speed of the sound are monotonic decrescent functions.

  2. STARS Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2011-07-27

    Senate - 07/27/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. STAR Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Hagan, Kay R. [D-NC

    2011-05-12

    Senate - 05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. STAR Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Hagan, Kay R. [D-NC

    2013-03-14

    Senate - 03/14/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. STAR Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2009-06-11

    Senate - 06/11/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses

  7. The Stars behind the Curtain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    ESO is releasing a magnificent VLT image of the giant stellar nursery surrounding NGC 3603, in which stars are continuously being born. Embedded in this scenic nebula is one of the most luminous and most compact clusters of young, massive stars in our Milky Way, which therefore serves as an excellent "local" analogue of very active star-forming regions in other galaxies. The cluster also hosts the most massive star to be "weighed" so far. NGC 3603 is a starburst region: a cosmic factory where stars form frantically from the nebula's extended clouds of gas and dust. Located 22 000 light-years away from the Sun, it is the closest region of this kind known in our galaxy, providing astronomers with a local test bed for studying intense star formation processes, very common in other galaxies, but hard to observe in detail because of their great distance from us. The nebula owes its shape to the intense light and winds coming from the young, massive stars which lift the curtains of gas and clouds revealing a multitude of glowing suns. The central cluster of stars inside NGC 3603 harbours thousands of stars of all sorts (eso9946): the majority have masses similar to or less than that of our Sun, but most spectacular are several of the very massive stars that are close to the end of their lives. Several blue supergiant stars crowd into a volume of less than a cubic light-year, along with three so-called Wolf-Rayet stars - extremely bright and massive stars that are ejecting vast amounts of material before finishing off in glorious explosions known as supernovae. Using another recent set of observations performed with the SINFONI instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), astronomers have confirmed that one of these stars is about 120 times more massive than our Sun, standing out as the most massive star known so far in the Milky Way [1]. The clouds of NGC 3603 provide us with a family picture of stars in different stages of their life, with gaseous structures that are

  8. Monitoring with Trackers Based on Semi-Quantitative Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuipers, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    In three years of NASA-sponsored research preceding this project, we successfully developed a technology for: (1) building qualitative and semi-quantitative models from libraries of model-fragments, (2) simulating these models to predict future behaviors with the guarantee that all possible behaviors are covered, (3) assimilating observations into behaviors, shrinking uncertainty so that incorrect models are eventually refuted and correct models make stronger predictions for the future. In our object-oriented framework, a tracker is an object which embodies the hypothesis that the available observation stream is consistent with a particular behavior of a particular model. The tracker maintains its own status (consistent, superceded, or refuted), and answers questions about its explanation for past observations and its predictions for the future. In the MIMIC approach to monitoring of continuous systems, a number of trackers are active in parallel, representing alternate hypotheses about the behavior of a system. This approach is motivated by the need to avoid 'system accidents' [Perrow, 1985] due to operator fixation on a single hypothesis, as for example at Three Mile Island. As we began to address these issues, we focused on three major research directions that we planned to pursue over a three-year project: (1) tractable qualitative simulation, (2) semiquantitative inference, and (3) tracking set management. Unfortunately, funding limitations made it impossible to continue past year one. Nonetheless, we made major progress in the first two of these areas. Progress in the third area as slower because the graduate student working on that aspect of the project decided to leave school and take a job in industry. I enclosed a set of abstract of selected papers on the work describe below. Several papers that draw on the research supported during this period appeared in print after the grant period ended.

  9. Detecting Anastasis In Vivo by CaspaseTracker Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ho Man; Fung, Ming Chiu; Tang, Ho Lam

    2018-02-01

    Anastasis (Greek for "rising to life") is a recently discovered cell recovery phenomenon whereby dying cells can reverse late-stage cell death processes that are generally assumed to be intrinsically irreversible. Promoting anastasis could in principle rescue or preserve injured cells that are difficult to replace such as cardiomyocytes or neurons, thereby facilitating tissue recovery. Conversely, suppressing anastasis in cancer cells, undergoing apoptosis after anti-cancer therapies, may ensure cancer cell death and reduce the chances of recurrence. However, these studies have been hampered by the lack of tools for tracking the fate of cells that undergo anastasis in live animals. The challenge is to identify the cells that have reversed the cell death process despite their morphologically normal appearance after recovery. To overcome this difficulty, we have developed Drosophila and mammalian CaspaseTracker biosensor systems that can identify and permanently track the anastatic cells in vitro or in vivo. Here, we present in vivo protocols for the generation and use of the CaspaseTracker dual biosensor system to detect and track anastasis in Drosophila melanogaster after transient exposure to cell death stimuli. While conventional biosensors and protocols can label cells actively undergoing apoptotic cell death, the CaspaseTracker biosensor can permanently label cells that have recovered after caspase activation - a hallmark of late-stage apoptosis, and simultaneously identify active apoptotic processes. This biosensor can also track the recovery of the cells that attempted other forms of cell death that directly or indirectly involved caspase activity. Therefore, this protocol enables us to continuously track the fate of these cells and their progeny, facilitating future studies of the biological functions, molecular mechanisms, physiological and pathological consequences, and therapeutic implications of anastasis. We also discuss the appropriate controls to

  10. Lineage mapper: A versatile cell and particle tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalfoun, Joe; Majurski, Michael; Dima, Alden; Halter, Michael; Bhadriraju, Kiran; Brady, Mary

    2016-11-01

    The ability to accurately track cells and particles from images is critical to many biomedical problems. To address this, we developed Lineage Mapper, an open-source tracker for time-lapse images of biological cells, colonies, and particles. Lineage Mapper tracks objects independently of the segmentation method, detects mitosis in confluence, separates cell clumps mistakenly segmented as a single cell, provides accuracy and scalability even on terabyte-sized datasets, and creates division and/or fusion lineages. Lineage Mapper has been tested and validated on multiple biological and simulated problems. The software is available in ImageJ and Matlab at isg.nist.gov.

  11. Evaluating a robust contour tracker on echocardiographic sequences.

    PubMed

    Jacob, G; Noble, J A; Mulet-Parada, M; Blake, A

    1999-03-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of a robust visual image tracker on echocardiographic image sequences. We show how the tracking framework can be customized to define an appropriate shape space that describes heart shape deformations that can be learnt from a training data set. We also investigate energy-based temporal boundary enhancement methods to improve image feature measurement. Results are presented demonstrating real-time tracking on real normal heart motion data sequences and abnormal synthesized and real heart motion data sequences. We conclude by discussing some of our current research efforts.

  12. Analyzing Impulse Using iPhone and Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayop, Shahrul Kadri

    2017-11-01

    The iPhone 6 introduced a new feature of recording video in Slo-Mo mode at 240 fps (4.17 ms interval). This great capability when integrated with video analysis freeware such as Tracker offers in-depth exploration for physical phenomena such as collisions that occur in a very short duration of time. This article discusses one such usage in analyzing impulse for a simple collision experiment. Students can benefit through investigation of various related mechanics concepts in the collision.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled laser tracker for atmospheric sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. A.; Webster, C. R.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    An optical tracking system comprising a visible HeNe laser, an imaging detector, and a microprocessor-controlled mirror, has been designed to track a moving retroreflector located up to 500 m away from an atmospheric instrument and simultaneously direct spectrally tunable infrared laser radiation to the retroreflector for double-ended, long-path absorption measurements of atmospheric species. The tracker has been tested during the recent flight of a balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer which monitors the concentrations of stratospheric species within a volume defined by a 0.14-m-diameter retroreflector lowered 500 m below the instrument gondola.

  14. Laser tracker orientation in confined space using on-board targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Kyle, Stephen; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yu; Zhu, Jigui

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel orientation method for two laser trackers using on-board targets attached to the tracker head and rotating with it. The technique extends an existing method developed for theodolite intersection systems which are now rarely used. This method requires only a very narrow space along the baseline between the instrument heads, in order to establish the orientation relationship. This has potential application in environments where space is restricted. The orientation parameters can be calculated by means of two-face reciprocal measurements to the on-board targets, and measurements to a common point close to the baseline. An accurate model is then applied which can be solved through nonlinear optimization. Experimental comparison has been made with the conventional orientation method, which is based on measurements to common intersection points located off the baseline. This requires more space and the comparison has demonstrated the feasibility of the more compact technique presented here. Physical setup and testing suggest that the method is practical. Uncertainties estimated by simulation indicate good performance in terms of measurement quality.

  15. A bipolar analog front-end integrated circuit for the SDC silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipnis, I.; Spieler, H.; Collins, T.

    1993-11-01

    A low noise, low power, high bandwidth, radiation hard, silicon bipolar transistor full-custom integrated circuit (IC) containing 64 channels of analog signal processing has been developed for the SDC silicon tracker. The IC was designed and tested at LBL and was fabricated using CBIC-U2, 4 GHz f(sub T) complementary bipolar technology. Each channel contains the following functions: low noise preamplification, pulse shaping, and threshold discrimination. This is the first iteration of the production analog IC for the SDC silicon tracker. The IC is laid out to directly match the 50 micron pitch double-sided silicon strip detector. The chip measures 6.8 mm by 3.1 mm and contains 3,600 transistors. Three stages of amplification provide 180 mV/fC of gain with a 35 nsec peaking time at the comparator input. For a 14 pF detector capacitance, the equivalent noise charge is 1300 el. rms at a power consumption of 1 mW/channel from a single 3.5 V supply. With the discriminator threshold set to four times the noise level, a 16 nsec time-walk for 1.25 to 10 fC signals is achieved using a time-walk compensation network. Irradiation tests at TRIUMF to a Phi = 10(exp 14) protons/sq cm have been performed on the IC, demonstrating the radiation hardness of the complementary bipolar process.

  16. How star women build portable skills.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris

    2008-02-01

    In May 2004, with the war for talent in high gear, Groysberg and colleagues from Harvard Business School wrote in these pages about the risks of hiring star performers away from competitors. After studying the fortunes of more than 1,000 star stock analysts, they found that when a star switched companies, not only did his performance plunge, so did the effectiveness of the group he joined and the market value of his new company. But further analysis of the data reveals that it's not that simple. In fact, one group of analysts reliably maintained star rankings even after changing employers: women. Unlike their male counterparts, female stars who switched firms performed just as well, in the aggregate, as those who stayed put. The 189 star women in the sample (18% of the star analysts studied) achieved a higher rank after switching firms than the men did. Why the discrepancy? First, says the author, the best female analysts appear to have built their franchises on portable, external relationships with clients and the companies they covered, rather than on relationships rooted within their firms. By contrast, male analysts built up greater firm- and team-specific human capital by investing more in the internal networks and unique capabilities and resources of their own companies. Second, women took greater care when assessing a prospective new employer. In this article, Groysberg explores the reasons behind the star women's portable performance.

  17. Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation contains an overview of the mission of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICE), a proposed International Space Station (ISS) payload dedicated ot the study of neutron stars. There are also reviews of the Science Objectives of the payload,the science measurements, the design and the expected performance for the instruments for NICE,

  18. Design and DSP implementation of star image acquisition and star point fast acquiring and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guohui; Wang, Xiaodong; Hao, Zhihang

    2006-02-01

    Star sensor is a special high accuracy photoelectric sensor. Attitude acquisition time is an important function index of star sensor. In this paper, the design target is to acquire 10 samples per second dynamic performance. On the basis of analyzing CCD signals timing and star image processing, a new design and a special parallel architecture for improving star image processing are presented in this paper. In the design, the operation moving the data in expanded windows including the star to the on-chip memory of DSP is arranged in the invalid period of CCD frame signal. During the CCD saving the star image to memory, DSP processes the data in the on-chip memory. This parallelism greatly improves the efficiency of processing. The scheme proposed here results in enormous savings of memory normally required. In the scheme, DSP HOLD mode and CPLD technology are used to make a shared memory between CCD and DSP. The efficiency of processing is discussed in numerical tests. Only in 3.5ms is acquired the five lightest stars in the star acquisition stage. In 43us, the data in five expanded windows including stars are moved into the internal memory of DSP, and in 1.6ms, five star coordinates are achieved in the star tracking stage.

  19. A new mapping function in table-mounted eye tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qinqin; Hua, Xiao; Qiu, Jian; Luo, Kaiqing; Peng, Li; Han, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Eye tracker is a new apparatus of human-computer interaction, which has caught much attention in recent years. Eye tracking technology is to obtain the current subject's "visual attention (gaze)" direction by using mechanical, electronic, optical, image processing and other means of detection. While the mapping function is one of the key technology of the image processing, and is also the determination of the accuracy of the whole eye tracker system. In this paper, we present a new mapping model based on the relationship among the eyes, the camera and the screen that the eye gazed. Firstly, according to the geometrical relationship among the eyes, the camera and the screen, the framework of mapping function between the pupil center and the screen coordinate is constructed. Secondly, in order to simplify the vectors inversion of the mapping function, the coordinate of the eyes, the camera and screen was modeled by the coaxial model systems. In order to verify the mapping function, corresponding experiment was implemented. It is also compared with the traditional quadratic polynomial function. And the results show that our approach can improve the accuracy of the determination of the gazing point. Comparing with other methods, this mapping function is simple and valid.

  20. CosmoQuest Transient Tracker: Opensource Photometry & Astrometry software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Joseph L.; Lehan, Cory; Gay, Pamela; Richardson, Matthew; CosmoQuest Team

    2018-01-01

    CosmoQuest is moving from online citizen science, to observational astronomy with the creation of Transient Trackers. This open source software is designed to identify asteroids and other transient/variable objects in image sets. Transient Tracker’s features in final form will include: astrometric and photometric solutions, identification of moving/transient objects, identification of variable objects, and lightcurve analysis. In this poster we present our initial, v0.1 release and seek community input.This software builds on the existing NIH funded ImageJ libraries. Creation of this suite of opensource image manipulation routines is lead by Wayne Rasband and is released primarily under the MIT license. In this release, we are building on these libraries to add source identification for point / point-like sources, and to do astrometry. Our materials released under the Apache 2.0 license on github (http://github.com/CosmoQuestTeam) and documentation can be found at http://cosmoquest.org/TransientTracker.

  1. Research and development of the laser tracker measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z. L.; Zhou, W. H.; Lao, D. B.; Yuan, J.; Dong, D. F. F.; Ji, R. Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    The working principle and system design of the laser tracker measurement system are introduced, as well as the key technologies and solutions in the implementation of the system. The design and implementation of the hardware and configuration of the software are mainly researched. The components of the hardware include distance measuring unit, angle measuring unit, tracking and servo control unit and electronic control unit. The distance measuring devices include the relative distance measuring device (IFM) and the absolute distance measuring device (ADM). The main component of the angle measuring device, the precision rotating stage, is mainly comprised of the precision axis and the encoders which are both set in the tracking head. The data processing unit, tracking and control unit and power supply unit are all set in the control box. The software module is comprised of the communication module, calibration and error compensation module, data analysis module, database management module, 3D display module and the man-machine interface module. The prototype of the laser tracker system has been accomplished and experiments have been carried out to verify the proposed strategies of the hardware and software modules. The experiments showed that the IFM distance measuring error is within 0.15mm, the ADM distance measuring error is within 3.5mm and the angle measuring error is within 3" which demonstrates that the preliminary prototype can realize fundamental measurement tasks.

  2. Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, David C.; Conti, Peter S.

    1987-01-01

    The properties and evolutionary status of WR stars are examined, reviewing the results of recent observational and theoretical investigations. Topics discussed include spectral types and line strengths, magnitudes and colors, intrinsic variability, IR and radio observations, X-ray observations, the Galactic distribution of WR stars, WR stars in other galaxies, and WR binaries. Consideration is given to the inferred masses, composition, and stellar winds of WR stars; model atmospheres; WR stars and the Galactic environment; and WR stars as a phase of stellar evolution. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  3. Feasibility Study of Utilizing Existing Infrared Array Cameras for Daylight Star Tracking on NASA's Ultra Long Duration Balloon (ULDB) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tueller, Jack (Technical Monitor); Fazio, Giovanni G.; Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a daytime star tracker for ULDB flights using a commercially available off-the-shelf infrared array camera. This report describes the system used for ground-based tests, the observations, the test results, and gives recommendations for continued development.

  4. North American CO2 fluxes for 2007-2015 from NOAA's CarbonTracker-Lagrange Regional Inverse Modeling Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Hu, L.; Thoning, K. W.; Nehrkorn, T.; Mountain, M. E.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Worthy, D. E. J.; Miller, J. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Biraud, S.; van der Velde, I. R.; Basu, S.; Tans, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    CarbonTracker-Lagrange (CT-L) is a new high-resolution regional inverse modeling system for improved estimation of North American CO2 fluxes. CT-L uses footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model driven by high-resolution (10 to 30 km) meteorological fields from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We performed a suite of synthetic-data experiments to evaluate a variety of inversion configurations, including (1) solving for scaling factors to an a priori flux versus additive corrections, (2) solving for fluxes at 3-hrly resolution versus at coarser temporal resolution, (3) solving for fluxes at 1o × 1o resolution versus at large eco-regional scales. Our framework explicitly and objectively solves for the optimal solution with a full error covariance matrix with maximum likelihood estimation, thereby enabling rigorous uncertainty estimates for the derived fluxes. In the synthetic-data inversions, we find that solving for weekly scaling factors of a priori Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) at 1o × 1o resolution with optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes yields faithful retrieval of the specified "true" fluxes as those solved at 3-hrly resolution. In contrast, a scheme that does not allow for optimization of diurnal cycles of CO2 fluxes suffered from larger aggregation errors. We then applied the optimal inversion setup to estimate North American fluxes for 2007-2015 using real atmospheric CO2 observations, multiple prior estimates of NEE, and multiple boundary values estimated from the NOAA's global Eulerian CarbonTracker (CarbonTracker) and from an empirical approach. Our derived North American land CO2 fluxes show larger seasonal amplitude than those estimated from the CarbonTracker, removing seasonal biases in the CarbonTracker's simulated CO2 mole fractions. Independent evaluations using in-situ CO2 eddy covariance flux measurements and independent aircraft profiles also suggest an improved estimation on North

  5. Design and Performance Evaluation of Sensors and Actuators for Advanced Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art commercial sensors and actuators do not meet many of NASA s next generation spacecraft and instrument needs. Nor do they satisfy the DoD needs for satellite missions, especially micro/nano satellite missions. In an effort to develop advanced optical devices and instruments that meet mission requirements, NASA Langley recently completed construction of a new cleanroom housing equipment capable of fabricating high performance active optic and adaptive optic technologies including deformable mirrors, reconfigurable lenses (both refractive and diffractive), spectrometers, spectro-polarimeters, tunable filters and many other active optic devices. In addition to performance, these advanced optic technologies offer advantages in speed, size, weight, power consumption, and radiation tolerance. The active optic devices described in this paper rely on birefringent liquid crystal materials to alter either the phase or the polarization of the incoming light. Design considerations and performance evaluation results for various NASA applications are presented. Applications presented will include large space telescopes, optical communications, spacecraft windows, coronagraphs, and star trackers. Keywords: Photonics, Adaptive Optics, Tunable Filters, MEMs., MOEMs, Coronagraph, Star Tracker

  6. Geometric Model for Tracker-Target Look Angles and Line of Slight Distance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-20

    412TW-PA-15239 Geometric Model for Tracker -Target Look Angles and Line of Slight Distance DANIEL T. LAIRD AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS...15 – 23 OCT 15 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Geometric Model for Tracker -Target Look Angles and Line of Slight Distance 5a. CONTRACT...include area code) 661-277-8615 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 GEOMETRIC MODEL FOR TRACKER -TARGET LOOK ANGLES

  7. Integration of an Apple II Plus Computer into an Existing Dual Axis Sun Tracker System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    Identify by block number) S, tpec l Sun Tracker System Solar Energy Apple II Plus Computer 20. ABSTRACT (’ ntlnue on reveree ide If neceesery end...14 4. Dual Axis Sun Tracker (Side View) ----------------- 15 5. Solar Tracker System Block Diagram ---------------- 17 6. Plug Wiring Diagram for Top...sources will be competitive. Already many homes have solar collectors and other devices designed to decrease the consumption of gas, oil, and

  8. An Overview of Plume Tracker: Mapping Volcanic Emissions with Interactive Radiative Transfer Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Berk, A.; Guiang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Infrared remote sensing is a vital tool for the study of volcanic plumes, and radiative transfer (RT) modeling is required to derive quantitative estimation of the sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfate aerosol (SO4), and silicate ash (pulverized rock) content of these plumes. In the thermal infrared, we must account for the temperature, emissivity, and elevation of the surface beneath the plume, plume altitude and thickness, and local atmospheric temperature and humidity. Our knowledge of these parameters is never perfect, and interactive mapping allows us to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on our estimates of plume composition. To enable interactive mapping, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is collaborating with Spectral Sciences, Inc., (SSI) to develop the Plume Tracker toolkit. This project is funded by a NASA AIST Program Grant (AIST-11-0053) to SSI. Plume Tracker integrates (1) retrieval procedures for surface temperature and emissivity, SO2, NH3, or CH4 column abundance, and scaling factors for H2O vapor and O3 profiles, (2) a RT modeling engine based on MODTRAN, and (3) interactive visualization and analysis utilities under a single graphics user interface. The principal obstacle to interactive mapping is the computational overhead of the RT modeling engine. Under AIST-11-0053 we have achieved a 300-fold increase in the performance of the retrieval procedures through the use of indexed caches of model spectra, optimization of the minimization procedures, and scaling of the effects of surface temperature and emissivity on model radiance spectra. In the final year of AIST-11-0053 we will implement parallel processing to exploit multi-core CPUs and cluster computing, and optimize the RT engine to eliminate redundant calculations when iterating over a range of gas concentrations. These enhancements will result in an additional 8 - 12X increase in performance. In addition to the improvements in performance, we have improved the accuracy of the Plume Tracker

  9. Reconnaissance of the Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Todd

    1999-01-01

    Accomplishments by the PI during this grant period include: 1. Creating, enhancing, and testing the NStars Database website. During the spring and summer of 1999, the PI performed roughly a dozen extensive "stress tests" of the website. Each test included checking data for individual stars and conducting searches that produced lists of stars from the Database to verify that each entry was correct. In the process, errors were discovered and rectified before the website was made public in July 1999. 2. "Advertising" NStars as a Project to astronomers worldwide. 3. Providing data that has been incorporated into the NStars Database. 4. Observations in Support of the NStars Project.

  10. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-12-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

  11. Assembly Line of Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-06

    This image from NASA Herschel, in the constellation of Vulpecula, shows an entire assembly line of newborn stars. The diffuse glow reveals the widespread cold reservoir of raw material that our Milky Way galaxy has in stock for building stars.

  12. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2016-11-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  13. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  14. Massive Star Makes Waves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-18

    The giant star Zeta Ophiuchi, a young, large and hot star located around 370 light-years away, is having a hocking effect on the surrounding dust clouds in this infrared image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope.

  15. Sloshing Star Goes Supernova

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-19

    NuSTAR has provided the first observational evidence in support of a theory that says exploding stars slosh around before detonating. That theory, referred to as mild asymmetries, is shown here in a simulation by Christian Ott.

  16. AgSTAR Accomplishments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Showcases AgSTAR's accomplishments reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the agriculture sector. Through outreach, education, training, and other tools, AgSTAR continues to help evaluate, construct, and maintain anaerobic digesters on livestock farms.

  17. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  18. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  19. Another Death Star?

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-03

    Although Mimas holds the unofficial designation of Death Star moon, Tethys is seen here also vaguely resembling the space station from Star Wars. Apparently, Tethys doesnt want Mimas to have all the fun!

  20. e-Stars Template Builder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    2003-01-01

    e-Stars Template Builder is a computer program that implements a concept of enabling users to rapidly gain access to information on projects of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The information about a given project is not stored in a data base, but rather, in a network that follows the project as it develops. e-Stars Template Builder resides on a server computer, using Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) scripts to create what are called "e-STARS node templates," which are software constructs that allow for project-specific configurations. The software resides on the server and does not require specific software on the user machine except for an Internet browser. A user's computer need not be equipped with special software (other than an Internet-browser program). e-Stars Template Builder is compatible with Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX operating systems. A user invokes e-Stars Template Builder from a browser window. Operations that can be performed by the user include the creation of child processes and the addition of links and descriptions of documentation to existing pages or nodes. By means of this addition of "child processes" of nodes, a network that reflects the development of a project is generated.

  1. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  2. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  3. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  4. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  5. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    What happens when a magnetized star is torn apart by the tidal forces of a supermassive black hole, in a violent process known as a tidal disruption event? Two scientists have broken new ground by simulating the disruption of stars with magnetic fields for the first time.The magnetic field configuration during a simulation of the partial disruption of a star. Top left: pre-disruption star. Bottom left: matter begins to re-accrete onto the surviving core after the partial disruption. Right: vortices form in the core as high-angular-momentum debris continues to accrete, winding up and amplifying the field. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]What About Magnetic Fields?Magnetic fields are expected to exist in the majority of stars. Though these fields dont dominate the energy budget of a star the magnetic pressure is a million times weaker than the gas pressure in the Suns interior, for example they are the drivers of interesting activity, like the prominences and flares of our Sun.Given this, we can wonder what role stars magnetic fields might play when the stars are torn apart in tidal disruption events. Do the fields change what we observe? Are they dispersed during the disruption, or can they be amplified? Might they even be responsible for launching jets of matter from the black hole after the disruption?Star vs. Black HoleIn a recent study, James Guillochon (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Michael McCourt (Hubble Fellow at UC Santa Barbara) have tackled these questions by performing the first simulations of tidal disruptions of stars that include magnetic fields.In their simulations, Guillochon and McCourt evolve a solar-mass star that passes close to a million-solar-mass black hole. Their simulations explore different magnetic field configurations for the star, and they consider both what happens when the star barely grazes the black hole and is only partially disrupted, as well as what happens when the black hole tears the star apart

  6. Fusion of P300 and eye-tracker data for spelling using BCI2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, Dmitry; Collins, Leslie; Caves, Kevin; Throckmorton, Chandra

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Various augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices have been developed in order to aid communication for individuals with communication disorders. Recently, there has been interest in combining EEG data and eye-gaze data with the goal of developing a hybrid (or ‘fused’) BCI (hBCI) AAC system. This work explores the effectiveness of a speller that fuses data from an eye-tracker and the P300 speller in order to create a hybrid P300 speller. Approach. This hybrid speller collects both eye-tracking and EEG data in parallel, and the user spells characters on the screen in the same way that they would if they were only using the P300 speller. Online and offline experiments were performed. The online experiments measured the performance of the speller for sixteen non-disabled participants, while the offline simulations were used to assess the robustness of the hybrid system. Main results. Online results showed that for fifteen non-disabled participants, using eye-gaze in a Bayesian framework with EEG data from the P300 speller improved accuracy (0.0163+/- 2.72 , 0.085+/- 0.111 , 0.080+/- 0.106 for estimated, medium and high variance configurations) and reduced the average number of flashes required to spell a character compared to the standard P300 speller that relies solely on EEG data (-53.27+/- 25.87 , -36.15+/- 19.3 , -18.85+/- 12.43 for estimated, medium and high variance configurations). Offline simulations indicate that the system provides more robust performance than a standalone eye gaze system. Significance. The results of this work on non-disabled participants shows the potential efficacy of hybrid P300 and eye-tracker speller. Further validation on the amyotrophic lateral sceloris population is needed to assess the benefit of this hybrid system.

  7. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  8. Seeing Stars in Serpens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-12-08

    Infant stars are glowing gloriously in this image of the Serpens star-forming region, captured by NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. The reddish-pink dots are baby stars deeply embedded in the cosmic cloud of gas and dust that collapsed to create it.

  9. Magnetized anisotropic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelea, Cristian; Dariescu, Marina-Aura; Dariescu, Ciprian

    2018-05-01

    We extend a known solution-generating technique for isotropic fluids in order to construct more general models of anisotropic stars with poloidal magnetic fields. In particular, we discuss the magnetized versions of some well-known exact solutions describing anisotropic stars and dark energy stars, and we describe some of their properties.

  10. Star sightings by satellite for image navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Ekman, Donald E. (Inventor); Savides, John (Inventor); Zwirn, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Stars are sensed by one or more instruments (1, 2) on board a three-axis stabilized satellite, for purposes of assisting in image navigation. A star acquistion computer (64), which may be located on the earth, commands the instrument mirror (33, 32) to slew just outside the limb of the earth or other celestial body around which the satellite is orbiting, to look for stars that have been cataloged in a star map stored within the computer (64). The instrument (1, 2) is commanded to dwell for a period of time equal to a star search window time, plus the maximum time the instrument (1, 2) takes to complete a current scan, plus the maximum time it takes for the mirror (33, 32) to slew to the star. When the satellite is first placed in orbit, and following first stationkeeping and eclipse, a special operation is performed in which the star-seeking instrument (1, 2) FOV is broadened. The elevation dimension can be broadened by performing repetitive star seeks; the azimuth dimension can be broadened by lengthening the commanded dwell times.

  11. A MAPS Based Micro-Vertex Detector for the STAR Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Schambach, Joachim; Anderssen, Eric; Contin, Giacomo; ...

    2015-06-18

    For the 2014 heavy ion run of RHIC a new micro-vertex detector called the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) was installed in the STAR experiment. The HFT consists of three detector subsystems with various silicon technologies arranged in 4 approximately concentric cylinders close to the STAR interaction point designed to improve the STAR detector’s vertex resolution and extend its measurement capabilities in the heavy flavor domain. The two innermost HFT layers are placed at radii of 2.8 cm and 8 cm from the beam line. These layers are constructed with 400 high resolution sensors based on CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensormore » (MAPS) technology arranged in 10-sensor ladders mounted on 10 thin carbon fiber sectors to cover a total silicon area of 0.16 m 2. Each sensor of this PiXeL (“PXL”) sub-detector combines a pixel array of 928 rows and 960 columns with a 20.7 μm pixel pitch together with front-end electronics and zero-suppression circuitry in one silicon die providing a sensitive area of ~3.8 cm 2. This sensor architecture features 185.6 μs readout time and 170 mW/cm 2 power dissipation. This low power dissipation allows the PXL detector to be air-cooled, and with the sensors thinned down to 50 μm results in a global material budget of only 0.4% radiation length per layer. A novel mechanical approach to detector insertion allows us to effectively install and integrate the PXL sub-detector within a 12 hour period during an on-going multi-month data taking period. The detector requirements, architecture and design, as well as the performance after installation, are presented in this paper.« less

  12. A novel star extraction method based on modified water flow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Ouyang, Zibiao; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-11-01

    Star extraction is the essential procedure for attitude measurement of star sensor. The great challenge for star extraction is to segment star area exactly from various noise and background. In this paper, a novel star extraction method based on Modified Water Flow Model(MWFM) is proposed. The star image is regarded as a 3D terrain. The morphology is adopted for noise elimination and Tentative Star Area(TSA) selection. Star area can be extracted through adaptive water flowing within TSAs. This method can achieve accurate star extraction with improved efficiency under complex conditions such as loud noise and uneven backgrounds. Several groups of different types of star images are processed using proposed method. Comparisons with existing methods are conducted. Experimental results show that MWFM performs excellently under different imaging conditions. The star extraction rate is better than 95%. The star centroid accuracy is better than 0.075 pixels. The time-consumption is also significantly reduced.

  13. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    PubMed

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X).

  14. A technical innovation for improving identification of the trackers by the LED cameras in navigation-assisted total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Darmanis, Spyridon; Toms, Andrew; Durman, Robert; Moore, Donna; Eyres, Keith

    2007-07-01

    To reduce the operating time in computer-assisted navigated total knee replacement (TKR), by improving communication between the infrared camera and the trackers placed on the patient. The innovation involves placing a routinely used laser pointer on top of the camera, so that the infrared cameras focus precisely on the trackers located on the knee to be operated on. A prospective randomized study was performed involving 40 patients divided into two groups, A and B. Both groups underwent navigated TKR, but for group B patients a laser pointer was used to improve the targeting capabilities of the cameras. Without the laser pointer, the camera had to move a mean 9.2 times in order to identify the trackers. With the introduction of the laser pointer, this was reduced to 0.9 times. Accordingly, the additional mean time required without the laser pointer was 11.6 minutes. Time delays are a major problem in computer-assisted surgery, and our technical suggestion can contribute towards reducing the delays associated with this particular application.

  15. Standard metrics for a plug-and-play tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Young, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The Motion Imagery Standards Board (MISB) has previously established a metadata "micro-architecture" for standards-based tracking. The intent of this work is to facilitate both the collaborative development of competent tracking systems, and the potentially distributed and dispersed execution of tracker system components in real-world execution environments. The approach standardizes a set of five quasi-sequential modules in image-based tracking. However, in order to make the plug-and-play architecture truly useful we need metrics associated with each module (so that, for instance, a researcher who "plugs in" a new component can ascertain whether he/she did better or worse with the component). This paper proposes the choice of a new, unifying set of metrics based on an informationtheoretic approach to tracking, which the MISB is nominating as DoD/IC/NATO standards.

  16. Echo tracker/range finder for radars and sonars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinides, N. J. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An echo tracker/range finder or altimeter is described. The pulse repetition frequency (PFR) of a predetermined plurality of transmitted pulses is adjusted so that echo pulses received from a reflecting object are positioned between transmitted pulses and divided their interpulse time interval into two time intervals having a predetermined ratio with respect to each other. The invention described provides a means whereby the arrival time of a plurality of echo pulses is defined as the time at which a composite echo pulse formed of a sum of the individual echo pulses has the highest amplitude. The invention is applicable to radar systems, sonar systems, or any other kind of system in which pulses are transmitted and echoes received therefrom.

  17. LoyalTracker: Visualizing Loyalty Dynamics in Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Shi, Conglei; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2014-12-01

    The huge amount of user log data collected by search engine providers creates new opportunities to understand user loyalty and defection behavior at an unprecedented scale. However, this also poses a great challenge to analyze the behavior and glean insights into the complex, large data. In this paper, we introduce LoyalTracker, a visual analytics system to track user loyalty and switching behavior towards multiple search engines from the vast amount of user log data. We propose a new interactive visualization technique (flow view) based on a flow metaphor, which conveys a proper visual summary of the dynamics of user loyalty of thousands of users over time. Two other visualization techniques, a density map and a word cloud, are integrated to enable analysts to gain further insights into the patterns identified by the flow view. Case studies and the interview with domain experts are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of our technique in understanding user loyalty and switching behavior in search engines.

  18. FPGA Online Tracking Algorithm for the PANDA Straw Tube Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yutie; Ye, Hua; Galuska, Martin J.; Gessler, Thomas; Kuhn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soren; Wagner, Milan N.; Liu, Zhen'an; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2017-06-01

    A novel FPGA based online tracking algorithm for helix track reconstruction in a solenoidal field, developed for the PANDA spectrometer, is described. Employing the Straw Tube Tracker detector with 4636 straw tubes, the algorithm includes a complex track finder, and a track fitter. Implemented in VHDL, the algorithm is tested on a Xilinx Virtex-4 FX60 FPGA chip with different types of events, at different event rates. A processing time of 7 $\\mu$s per event for an average of 6 charged tracks is obtained. The momentum resolution is about 3\\% (4\\%) for $p_t$ ($p_z$) at 1 GeV/c. Comparing to the algorithm running on a CPU chip (single core Intel Xeon E5520 at 2.26 GHz), an improvement of 3 orders of magnitude in processing time is obtained. The algorithm can handle severe overlapping of events which are typical for interaction rates above 10 MHz.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Biomolecular Concentration Tracker

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    As a field, synthetic biology strives to engineer increasingly complex artificial systems in living cells. Active feedback in closed loop systems offers a dynamic and adaptive way to ensure constant relative activity independent of intrinsic and extrinsic noise. In this work, we use synthetic protein scaffolds as a modular and tunable mechanism for concentration tracking through negative feedback. Input to the circuit initiates scaffold production, leading to colocalization of a two-component system and resulting in the production of an inhibitory antiscaffold protein. Using a combination of modeling and experimental work, we show that the biomolecular concentration tracker circuit achieves dynamic protein concentration tracking in Escherichia coli and that steady state outputs can be tuned. PMID:24847683

  20. Articulated Arm Coordinate Measuring Machine Calibration by Laser Tracker Multilateration

    PubMed Central

    Majarena, Ana C.; Brau, Agustín; Velázquez, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    A new procedure for the calibration of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. First, a self-calibration algorithm of four laser trackers (LTs) is developed. The spatial localization of a retroreflector target, placed in different positions within the workspace, is determined by means of a geometric multilateration system constructed from the four LTs. Next, a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the identification procedure of the AACMM is explained. An objective function based on Euclidean distances and standard deviations is developed. This function is obtained from the captured nominal data (given by the LTs used as a gauge instrument) and the data obtained by the AACMM and compares the measured and calculated coordinates of the target to obtain the identified model parameters that minimize this difference. Finally, results show that the procedure presented, using the measurements of the LTs as a gauge instrument, is very effective by improving the AACMM precision. PMID:24688418

  1. How Do We See Art: An Eye-Tracker Study

    PubMed Central

    Quiroga, Rodrigo Quian; Pedreira, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pattern of fixations of subjects looking at figurative and abstract paintings from different artists (Molina, Mondrian, Rembrandt, della Francesca) and at modified versions in which different aspects of these art pieces were altered with simple digital manipulations. We show that the fixations of the subjects followed some general common principles (e.g., being attracted to saliency regions) but with a large variability for the figurative paintings, according to the subject’s personal appreciation and knowledge. In particular, we found different gazing patterns depending on whether the subject saw the original or the modified version of the painting first. We conclude that the study of gazing patterns obtained by using the eye-tracker technology gives a useful approach to quantify how subjects observe art. PMID:21941476

  2. Circumnutation Tracker: novel software for investigation of circumnutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An endogenous, helical plant organ movement named circumnutation is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Plant shoots, stems, tendrils, leaves, and roots commonly circumnutate but their appearance is still poorly described. To support such investigations, novel software Circumnutation Tracker (CT) for spatial-temporal analysis of circumnutation has been developed. Results CT works on time-lapse video and collected circumnutation parameters: period, length, rate, shape, angle, and clockwise- and counterclockwise directions. The CT combines a filtering algorithm with a graph-based method to describe the parameters of circumnutation. The parameters of circumnutation of Helianthus annuus hypocotyls and the relationship between cotyledon arrangement and circumnutation geometry are presented here to demonstrate the CT options. Conclusions We have established that CT facilitates and accelerates analysis of circumnutation. In combination with the physiological, molecular, and genetic methods, this software may be a powerful tool also for investigations of gravitropism, biological clock, and membrane transport, i.e. processes involved in the mechanism of circumnutation.

  3. Two-axis tracker for solar panels and the like

    DOEpatents

    Liao, Henry H.

    2013-04-16

    A tracker including an outer post having elongated bore and a lower end mounted on a sub-structure, an inner pole rotatably received in the elongated bore, a lower bearing in the bore adjacent a lower end of the outer post and attached thereto to be constrained from lateral movement and mounted on the sub-structure such that a lower end of the inner pole rests on and is supported by the lower bearing, an upper bearing near an upper end of the outer post, a circumferential drive supported on the outer post for rotating the inner pole relative to the outer post, such that substantially a full weight of a load on the inner pole is directly transmitted to the sub-structure and lateral force and torque leverage are placed on a full length of the outer post by way of the upper and lower bearing.

  4. Latest Results from the Multi-Object Keck Exoplanet Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Eyken, Julian C.; Ge, J.; Wan, X.; Zhao, B.; Hariharan, A.; Mahadevan, S.; DeWitt, C.; Guo, P.; Cohen, R.; Fleming, S. W.; Crepp, J.; Warner, C.; Kane, S.; Leger, F.; Pan, K.

    2006-12-01

    The W. M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker is a precision Doppler radial velocity instrument based on dispersed fixed-delay interferometry (DFDI) which takes advantage of the new technique to allow multi-object RV surveying. Installed at the 2.5m Sloan telescope at Apache Point Observatory, the combination of Michelson interferometer and medium resolution spectrograph allows design for simultaneous Doppler measurements of up to 60 targets, while maintaining high instrument throughput. Using a single-object prototype of the instrument at the Kitt Peak National Observatory 2.1m telescope, we previously discovered a 0.49MJup planet, HD 102195b (ET-1), orbiting with a 4.11d period, and other interesting targets are being followed up. From recent trial observations, the Keck Exoplanet Tracker now yields 59 usable simultaneous fringing stellar spectra, of a quality sufficient to attempt to detect short period hot-Jupiter type planets. Recent engineering improvements reduced errors by a factor of 2, and typical photon limits for stellar data are now at the 30m/s level for magnitude V 10.5 (depending on spectral type and v sin i), with a best value of 6.9m/s at V=7.6. Preliminary RMS precisions from solar data (daytime sky) are around 10m/s over a few days, with some spectra reaching close to their photon limit of 6-7m/s on the short term ( 1 hour). A number of targets showing interesting RV variability are currently being followed up independently. Additional engineering work is planned which should make for further significant gains in Doppler precision. Here we present the latest results and updates from the most recent engineering and observing runs with the Keck ET.

  5. Induced Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.

    Overview: Induced Star Formation and Interactions Introduction Historical Background: First Hints Systematic Studies: Starbursts Interactions and Nuclear activity IRAS and Ultralumious starburst Galaxies The 1990's: HST, Supercomputers, and the Distant Universe Key Questions and Issues Organization of Lectures Star Formation Properties of Normal Galaxies Observational Techniques Results: Star Formation in Normal Galaxies Interpretation: Star Formation Histories Global Star Formation in interacting Galaxies A Gallery of Interactions and Mergers Star Formation Statistics: Guilt By Association Tests SFRs in Interacting vs Noninteracting Galaxies Kinematic Properties and Regulation of SFRs Induced Nuclear Activity and Star Formation Background: Nuclear Spectra and Classification Nuclear Star Formation and Starbursts Nuclear Star Formation and Interactions Induced AGN Activity: Statistics of Seyfert Galaxies Environments of Quasars Kinematic Clues to the Triggering of AGNs Infrared Luminous Galaxies and Starbursts Background: IR Luminous Galaxies and IRAS Infrared Luminosity Function and Spectra Infrared Structure and Morphology Interstellar Gas X-Ray Emission and Superwinds Optical, UV, and Near-Infrared Spectra Radio Continuum Emission Evidence for Interactions and Mergers The Power Source: Starbursts or Dusty AGNs? Spectral Diagnostics of Starbursts Evolutionary Synthesis Models Applications: Integrated Colors of Interacting Galaxies Applications: Hα Emission, Colors, and SFRs Applications: Spectral Modelling of Evolved Starbursts Infrared Starbursts and the IMF in starbursts Triggering and Regulation of Star Formation: The Problem Introduction: Star Formation as a Nonlinear Process The schmidt Law in Normal Galaxies Star Formation Regimes in Interacting Galaxies Summary Triggering and Regulation of Starbusts: Theoretical Ideas Gravitational Star Formation Thresholds Cloud Collision Models Radial Transport of Gas: Clues from Barred Galaxies Simulations of Starbursts

  6. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    Far from the galactic suburbs where the Sun resides, a cluster of stars in the nucleus of the Milky Way orbits a supermassive black hole. Can chemical abundance measurements help us understand the formation history of the galactic center nuclear star cluster?Studying Stellar PopulationsMetallicity distributions for stars in the inner two degrees of the Milky Way (blue) and the central parsec (orange). [Do et al. 2018]While many galaxies host nuclear star clusters, most are too distant for us to study in detail; only in the Milky Way can we resolve individual stars within one parsec of a supermassive black hole. The nucleus of our galaxy is an exotic and dangerous place, and its not yet clear how these stars came to be where they are were they siphoned off from other parts of the galaxy, or did they form in place, in an environment rocked by tidal forces?Studying the chemical abundances of stars provides a way to separate distinct stellar populations and discern when and where these stars formed. Previous studies using medium-resolution spectroscopy have revealed that many stars within the central parsec of our galaxy have very high metallicities possibly higher than any other region of the Milky Way. Can high-resolution spectroscopy tell us more about this unusual population of stars?Spectral Lines on DisplayTuan Do (University of California, Los Angeles, Galactic Center Group) and collaborators performed high-resolution spectroscopic observations of two late-type giant starslocated half a parsec from the Milky Ways supermassive black hole.Comparison of the observed spectra of the two galactic center stars (black) with synthetic spectra with low (blue) and high (orange) [Sc/Fe] values. Click to enlarge. [Do et al. 2018]In order to constrain the metallicities of these stars, Do and collaborators compared the observed spectra to a grid of synthetic spectra and used a spectral synthesis technique to determine the abundances of individual elements. They found that

  7. A neural-based remote eye gaze tracker under natural head motion.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Diego; Conforto, Silvia; Schmid, Maurizio; D'Alessio, Tommaso

    2008-10-01

    A novel approach to view-based eye gaze tracking for human computer interface (HCI) is presented. The proposed method combines different techniques to address the problems of head motion, illumination and usability in the framework of low cost applications. Feature detection and tracking algorithms have been designed to obtain an automatic setup and strengthen the robustness to light conditions. An extensive analysis of neural solutions has been performed to deal with the non-linearity associated with gaze mapping under free-head conditions. No specific hardware, such as infrared illumination or high-resolution cameras, is needed, rather a simple commercial webcam working in visible light spectrum suffices. The system is able to classify the gaze direction of the user over a 15-zone graphical interface, with a success rate of 95% and a global accuracy of around 2 degrees , comparable with the vast majority of existing remote gaze trackers.

  8. Comparison of P&O and INC Methods in Maximum Power Point Tracker for PV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hesheng; Cui, Yuanhui; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhisen

    2018-03-01

    In the context of renewable energy, the maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is often used to increase the solar power efficiency, taking into account the randomness and volatility of solar energy due to changes in temperature and photovoltaic. In all MPPT techniques, perturb & observe and incremental conductance are widely used in MPPT controllers, because of their simplicity and ease of operation. According to the internal structure of the photovoltaic cell and the output volt-ampere characteristic, this paper established the circuit model and establishes the dynamic simulation model in Matlab/Simulink with the preparation of the s function. The perturb & observe MPPT method and the incremental conductance MPPT method were analyzed and compared by the theoretical analysis and digital simulation. The simulation results have shown that the system with INC MPPT method has better dynamic performance and improves the output power of photovoltaic power generation.

  9. A generalised optimal linear quadratic tracker with universal applications. Part 2: discrete-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Faezeh; Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Chung, Min-Ching; Liao, Ying Ting; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San; Wang, Li

    2017-01-01

    Contrastive to Part 1, Part 2 presents a generalised optimal linear quadratic digital tracker (LQDT) with universal applications for the discrete-time (DT) systems. This includes (1) a generalised optimal LQDT design for the system with the pre-specified trajectories of the output and the control input and additionally with both the input-to-output direct-feedthrough term and known/estimated system disturbances or extra input/output signals; (2) a new optimal filter-shaped proportional plus integral state-feedback LQDT design for non-square non-minimum phase DT systems to achieve a minimum-phase-like tracking performance; (3) a new approach for computing the control zeros of the given non-square DT systems; and (4) a one-learning-epoch input-constrained iterative learning LQDT design for the repetitive DT systems.

  10. 8-channel prototype of SALT readout ASIC for Upstream Tracker in the upgraded LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellan Beteta, C.; Bugiel, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kane, C.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Wang, J.

    2017-02-01

    SALT is a new 128-channel readout ASIC for silicon strip detectors in the upgraded Upstream Tracker of the LHCb experiment. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the sensor, perform digital processing and transmit serial output data. SALT is designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of an analogue front-end and an ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) fast (40 MSps) sampling 6-bit ADC in each channel. An 8-channel prototype (SALT8), comprising all important functionalities was designed, fabricated and tested. A full 128-channel version was also submitted. The design and test results of the SALT8 prototype are presented showing its full functionality.

  11. Undercover Stars Among Exoplanet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Very Large Telescope Finds Planet-Sized Transiting Star Summary An international team of astronomers have accurately determined the radius and mass of the smallest core-burning star known until now. The observations were performed in March 2004 with the FLAMES multi-fibre spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT Kueyen telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). They are part of a large programme aimed at measuring accurate radial velocities for sixty stars for which a temporary brightness "dip" has been detected during the OGLE survey. The astronomers find that the dip seen in the light curve of the star known as OGLE-TR-122 is caused by a very small stellar companion, eclipsing this solar-like star once every 7.3 days. This companion is 96 times heavier than planet Jupiter but only 16% larger. It is the first time that direct observations demonstrate that stars less massive than 1/10th of the solar mass are of nearly the same size as giant planets. This fact will obviously have to be taken into account during the current search for transiting exoplanets. In addition, the observations with the Very Large Telescope have led to the discovery of seven new eclipsing binaries, that harbour stars with masses below one-third the mass of the Sun, a real bonanza for the astronomers. PR Photo 06a/05: Brightness "Dip" and Velocity Variations of OGLE-TR-122. PR Photo 06b/05: Properties of Low-Mass Stars and Planets. PR Photo 06c/05: Comparison Between OGLE-TR-122b, Jupiter and the Sun. The OGLE Survey When a planet happens to pass in front of its parent star (as seen from the Earth), it blocks a small fraction of the star's light from our view [1]. These "planetary transits" are of great interest as they allow astronomers to measure in a unique way the mass and the radius of exoplanets. Several surveys are therefore underway which attempt to find these faint signatures of other worlds. One of these programmes is the OGLE survey which was originally devised to detect microlensing

  12. Inside NuSTAR Nose Cone

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-03-02

    A spacecraft technician is performing closeout work inside the fairing that will be installed around NASA Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array NuSTAR spacecraft in a processing facility at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.

  13. The most luminous stars.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, R M; Davidson, K

    1984-01-20

    Stars with individual luminosities more than a million times that of the sun are now being studied in a variety of contexts. Observational and theoretical ideas about the most luminous stars have changed greatly in the past few years. They can be observed spectroscopically even in nearby galaxies. They are not very stable; some have had violent outbursts in which large amounts of mass were lost. Because of their instabilities, these stars do not evolve to become red superglants as less luminous stars do. Theoretical scenarios for the evolution of these most massive stars depend on the effects of turbulence and mixing combined with high radition densities.

  14. Physical Activity Assessment Using an Activity Tracker in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Axial Spondyloarthritis: Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Servy, Hervé; Molto, Anna; Sellam, Jérémie; Foltz, Violaine; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Hudry, Christophe; Mitrovic, Stéphane; Fautrel, Bruno; Gossec, Laure

    2018-01-01

    significantly related to less physical activity (odds ratio 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14). The activity trackers were worn during a mean of 79 (SD 17) days over the 90 days follow-up. Overall, patients considered the use of the tracker very acceptable, with a mean score of 8 out 10. Conclusions Patients with RA and axSpA performed insufficient physical activity with similar levels in both groups, despite the differences between the 2 diseases. Activity trackers allow longitudinal assessment of physical activity in these patients. The good adherence to this study and the good acceptability of wearing activity trackers confirmed the feasibility of the use of a mobile activity tracker in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:29295810

  15. Dissipation of circumstellar disks of Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabogal, B. E.; Ubaque, K. Y.; García-Varela, A.; álvarez, M.; Salas, L.

    2017-07-01

    Studies of L-band spectra of Be stars are useful to set constraints to the models of formation and evolution mechanisms of the circumstellar disks around these stars. Because few such studies have been performed, more of them are needed to confirm the characteristics reported about the optical depth and evolution of these disks. In this work, we studied new L-band spectra of 7 bright galactic Be stars that were obtained by using CID-InSb spectrograph at the 2.1-m telescope at OAN/UNAM San Pedro Martir Observatory, Baja California, Mexico. We used these data to locate these stars, and the Be stars previously studied in the IR, on a flux ratio diagram (log Hu14/Pfγ vs log Hu14/Brα). We found that 28 Cyg has moved significantly along this diagram implying strong changes of its disk from optically thick to an optically thin one between 2001 and 2014. On the base of the absence of emission lines in the spectra, the circumstellar disks of θ CrB and 66 Oph have been almost totally dissipated. These three stars have decaying circumstellar disks. The other stars: γ Cas, φ Per, 28 Tau and o Her have optically thin disks, that have been almost stable in time. It will be important monitoring these and other Be stars in the L-band to observe the changes on their circumstellar disks, and to observe also in this band, the building-up stars, i.e. stars that create a new disk, or that change it from a very tenuous one to an optically thick circumstellar disk. Our spectra contribute to enlarge the infrared spectroscopic database of Be stars.

  16. Neutrino Processes in Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeitsev, E. E.; Voskresensky, D. N.

    2010-10-01

    The aim of these lectures is to introduce basic processes responsible for cooling of neutron stars and to show how to calculate the neutrino production rate in dense strongly interacting nuclear medium. The formalism is presented that treats on equal footing one-nucleon and multiple-nucleon processes and reactions with virtual bosonic modes and condensates. We demonstrate that neutrino emission from dense hadronic component in neutron stars is subject of strong modifications due to collective effects in the nuclear matter. With the most important in-medium processes incorporated in the cooling code an overall agreement with available soft X ray data can be easily achieved. With these findings the so-called “standard” and “non-standard” cooling scenarios are replaced by one general “nuclear medium cooling scenario” which relates slow and rapid neutron star coolings to the star masses (interior densities). The lectures are split in four parts. Part I: After short introduction to the neutron star cooling problem we show how to calculate neutrino reaction rates of the most efficient one-nucleon and two-nucleon processes. No medium effects are taken into account in this instance. The effects of a possible nucleon pairing are discussed. We demonstrate that the data on neutron star cooling cannot be described without inclusion of medium effects. It motivates an assumption that masses of the neutron stars are different and that neutrino reaction rates should be strongly density dependent. Part II: We introduce the Green’s function diagram technique for systems in and out of equilibrium and the optical theorem formalism. The latter allows to perform calculations of production rates with full Green’s functions including all off-mass-shell effects. We demonstrate how this formalism works within the quasiparticle approximation. Part III: The basic concepts of the nuclear Fermi liquid approach are introduced. We show how strong interaction effects can be

  17. A Star Close Encounter

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-10-03

    The potential planet-forming disk (or "protoplanetary disk") of a sun-like star is being violently ripped away by the powerful winds of a nearby hot O-type star in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. At up to 100 times the mass of sun-like stars, O stars are the most massive and energetic stars in the universe. The O star can be seen to the right of the image, as the large orange spot with the white center. To the left, the comet-like structure is actually a neighboring solar system that is being destroyed by the O star's powerful winds and intense ultraviolet light. In a process called "photoevaporation," immense output from the O star heats up the nearby protoplanetary disk so much that gas and dust boil off, and the disk can no longer hold together. Photon (or light) blasts from the O star then strip the potential planet-forming disk off its neighbor star by blowing away evaporated material. This effect is illustrated in the smaller system's comet-like structure. The system is located about 2,450 light-years away in the star-forming cloud IC 1396. The image was taken with Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer instrument at 24 microns. The picture is a pseudo-color stretch representing intensity. Yellow and white represent hot areas, whereas purple and blue represent relatively cooler, fainter regions.

  18. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  19. Spectrophotometry of Symbiotic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, David

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic stars are fascinating objects - complex binary systems comprising a cool red giant star and a small hot object, often a white dwarf, both embedded in a nebula formed by a wind from the giant star. UV radiation from the hot star ionises the nebula producing a range of emission lines. These objects have composite spectra with contributions from both stars plus the nebula and these spectra can change on many timescales. Being moderately bright, they lend themselves well to amateur spectroscopy. This paper describes the symbiotic star phenomenon, shows how spectrophotometry can be used to extract astrophysically useful information about the nature of these systems, and gives results for three symbiotic stars based on the author's observations.

  20. Magnetized Neutron Stars in the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropina, O. D.; Romanova, M. M.; Lovelace, R. V. E.

    2014-09-01

    We investigate the propagation of magnetized, isolated old neutron stars through the interstellar medium. We performed axisymmetric, non-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the supersonic motion of neutron star with dipole magnetic field aligned with its velocity through the interstellar medium (ISM). We consider two cases: (1) where the accretion radius is larger than Alfvén radius, i.e. Racc>>RA and gravitational focusing is important; and (2) where Racc<star interacts with the ISM as a “georotator”, without significant gravitational focusing. In the first case we observe Bondi-Hoyle accretion onto an isolated magnetized neutron star. In the second case magnetic field lines are stretched downwind from the star and form a hollow elongated magnetotail. Reconnection of the magnetic field is observed in the tail which may lead to acceleration of particles.

  1. Mapping RNA-seq Reads with STAR

    PubMed Central

    Dobin, Alexander; Gingeras, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Mapping of large sets of high-throughput sequencing reads to a reference genome is one of the foundational steps in RNA-seq data analysis. The STAR software package performs this task with high levels of accuracy and speed. In addition to detecting annotated and novel splice junctions, STAR is capable of discovering more complex RNA sequence arrangements, such as chimeric and circular RNA. STAR can align spliced sequences of any length with moderate error rates providing scalability for emerging sequencing technologies. STAR generates output files that can be used for many downstream analyses such as transcript/gene expression quantification, differential gene expression, novel isoform reconstruction, signal visualization, and so forth. In this unit we describe computational protocols that produce various output files, use different RNA-seq datatypes, and utilize different mapping strategies. STAR is Open Source software that can be run on Unix, Linux or Mac OS X systems. PMID:26334920

  2. Mapping RNA-seq Reads with STAR.

    PubMed

    Dobin, Alexander; Gingeras, Thomas R

    2015-09-03

    Mapping of large sets of high-throughput sequencing reads to a reference genome is one of the foundational steps in RNA-seq data analysis. The STAR software package performs this task with high levels of accuracy and speed. In addition to detecting annotated and novel splice junctions, STAR is capable of discovering more complex RNA sequence arrangements, such as chimeric and circular RNA. STAR can align spliced sequences of any length with moderate error rates, providing scalability for emerging sequencing technologies. STAR generates output files that can be used for many downstream analyses such as transcript/gene expression quantification, differential gene expression, novel isoform reconstruction, and signal visualization. In this unit, we describe computational protocols that produce various output files, use different RNA-seq datatypes, and utilize different mapping strategies. STAR is open source software that can be run on Unix, Linux, or Mac OS X systems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Early experience of placing image-guided minimally invasive pedicle screws without K-wires or bone-anchored trackers.

    PubMed

    Malham, Gregory M; Parker, Rhiannon M

    2018-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Image guidance for spine surgery has been reported to improve the accuracy of pedicle screw placement and reduce revision rates and radiation exposure. Current navigation and robot-assisted techniques for percutaneous screws rely on bone-anchored trackers and Kirchner wires (K-wires). There is a paucity of published data regarding the placement of image-guided percutaneous screws without K-wires. A new skin-adhesive stereotactic patient tracker (SpineMask) eliminates both an invasive bone-anchored tracker and K-wires for pedicle screw placement. This study reports the authors' early experience with the use of SpineMask for "K-wireless" placement of minimally invasive pedicle screws and makes recommendations for its potential applications in lumbar fusion. METHODS Forty-five consecutive patients (involving 204 screws inserted) underwent K-wireless lumbar pedicle screw fixation with SpineMask and intraoperative neuromonitoring. Screws were inserted by percutaneous stab or Wiltse incisions. If required, decompression with or without interbody fusion was performed using mini-open midline incisions. Multimodality intraoperative neuromonitoring assessing motor and sensory responses with triggered electromyography (tEMG) was performed. Computed tomography scans were obtained 2 days postoperatively to assess screw placement and any cortical breaches. A breach was defined as any violation of a pedicle screw involving the cortical bone of the pedicle. RESULTS Fourteen screws (7%) required intraoperative revision. Screws were removed and repositioned due to a tEMG response < 13 mA, tactile feedback, and 3D fluoroscopic assessment. All screws were revised using the SpineMask with the same screw placement technique. The highest proportion of revisions occurred with Wiltse incisions (4/12, 33%) as this caused the greatest degree of SpineMask deformation, followed by a mini midline incision (3/26, 12%). Percutaneous screws via a single stab incision resulted in the

  4. Study of a stereo electro-optical tracker system for the measurement of model deformations at the national transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertel, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    An electro-optical method to measure the aeroelastic deformations of wind tunnel models is examined. The multitarget tracking performance of one of the two electronic cameras comprising the stereo pair is modeled and measured. The properties of the targets at the model, the camera optics, target illumination, number of targets, acquisition time, target velocities, and tracker performance are considered. The electronic camera system is shown to be capable of locating, measuring, and following the positions of 5 to 50 targets attached to the model at measuring rates up to 5000 targets per second.

  5. Tracking Historical NASA EVA Training: Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Development of the EVA Suit Exposure Tracker (EVA SET)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2017-01-01

    During a spacewalk, designated as extravehicular activity (EVA), an astronaut ventures from the protective environment of the spacecraft into the vacuum of space. EVAs are among the most challenging tasks during a mission, as they are complex and place the astronaut in a highly stressful environment dependent on the spacesuit for survival. Due to the complexity of EVA, NASA has conducted various training programs on Earth to mimic the environment of space and to practice maneuvers in a more controlled and forgiving environment. However, rewards offset the risks of EVA, as some of the greatest accomplishments in the space program were accomplished during EVA, such as the Apollo moonwalks and the Hubble Space Telescope repair missions. Water has become the environment of choice for EVA training on Earth, using neutral buoyancy as a substitute for microgravity. During EVA training, an astronaut wears a modified version of the spacesuit adapted for working in water. This high fidelity suit allows the astronaut to move in the water while performing tasks on full-sized mockups of space vehicles, telescopes, and satellites. During the early Gemini missions, several EVA objectives were much more difficult than planned and required additional time. Later missions demonstrated that "complex (EVA) tasks were feasible when restraints maintained body position and underwater simulation training ensured a high success probability".1,2 EVA training has evolved from controlling body positioning to perform basic tasks to complex maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station (ISS). Today, preparation is centered at special facilities built specifically for EVA training, such as the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center ([JSC], Houston) and the Hydrolab at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Centre ([GCTC], Star City, outside Moscow). Underwater training for an EVA is also considered hazardous duty for NASA

  6. Space infrared telescope pointing control system. Automated star pattern recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Vanbezooijen, R. W. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) is a free flying spacecraft carrying a 1 meter class cryogenically cooled infrared telescope nearly three oders of magnitude most sensitive than the current generation of infrared telescopes. Three automatic target acquisition methods will be presented that are based on the use of an imaging star tracker. The methods are distinguished by the number of guidestars that are required per target, the amount of computational capability necessary, and the time required for the complete acquisition process. Each method is described in detail.

  7. Pulsating B and Be stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diago, P. D.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Fabregat, J.; Martayan, C.

    2008-03-01

    Context: Stellar pulsations in main-sequence B-type stars are driven by the κ-mechanism due to the Fe-group opacity bump. The current models do not predict the presence of instability strips in the B spectral domain at very low metallicities. As the metallicity of the SMC is lower than Z = 0.005, it constitutes a very suitable object to test these predictions. Aims: The main objective is to investigate the existence of B-type pulsators at low metallicities, searching for short-term periodic variability in absorption-line B and Be stars in the SMC. The analysis has been performed in a sample of 313 B and Be stars with fundamental astrophysical parameters accurately determined from high-resolution spectroscopy. Methods: Photometric light curves of the MACHO project have been analyzed using standard Fourier techniques and linear and non-linear least squares fitting methods. The position of the pulsating stars in the HR diagram has been used to ascertain their nature and to map the instability regions in the SMC. Results: We have detected 9 absorption-line B stars showing short-period variability, two among them being multiperiodic. One star is most likely a β Cephei variable and the remaining 8 are SPB stars. The SPB instability strip in the SMC is shifted towards higher temperatures than the Galaxy. In the Be star sample, 32 stars are short-period variables, 20 among them multiperiodic. 4.9% of B stars and 25.3% of Be stars are pulsating stars. Conclusions: β Cephei and SPB stars do exist at the SMC metallicity. The fractions of SPB stars and pulsating Be stars in the SMC are lower than in the Galaxy. The fraction of pulsating Be stars in the SMC is much higher than the fraction of pulsating absorption-line B stars, as in the Galaxy.

  8. A novel adaptive sun tracker for spacecraft solar panel based on hybrid unsymmetric composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhangming; Li, Hao

    2017-11-01

    This paper proposes a novel adaptive sun tracker which is constructed by hybrid unsymmetric composite laminates. The adaptive sun tracker could be applied on spacecraft solar panels to increase their energy efficiency through decreasing the inclined angle between the sunlight and the solar panel normal. The sun tracker possesses a large rotation freedom and its rotation angle depends on the laminate temperature, which is affected by the light condition in the orbit. Both analytical model and finite element model (FEM) are developed for the sun tracker to predict its rotation angle in different light conditions. In this work, the light condition of the geosynchronous orbit on winter solstice is considered in the numerical prediction of the temperatures of the hybrid laminates. The final inclined angle between the sunlight and the solar panel normal during a solar day is computed using the finite element model. Parametric study of the adaptive sun tracker is conducted to improve its capacity and effectiveness of sun tracking. The improved adaptive sun tracker is lightweight and has a state-of-the-art design. In addition, the adaptive sun tracker does not consume any power of the solar panel, since it has no electrical driving devices. The proposed adaptive sun tracker provides a potential alternative to replace the traditional sophisticated electrical driving mechanisms for spacecraft solar panels.

  9. Advantages and Limitations of Wearable Activity Trackers: Considerations for Patients and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Walker, Rachel K; Hickey, Amanda M; Freedson, Patty S

    2016-12-01

    Exercise, light physical activity, and decreased sedentary time all have been associated with health benefits following cancer diagnoses. Commercially available wearable activity trackers may help patients monitor and self-manage their behaviors to achieve these benefits. This article highlights some advantages and limitations clinicians should be aware of when discussing the use of activity trackers with cancer survivors. Limited research has assessed the accuracy of commercially available activity trackers compared to research-grade devices. Because most devices use confidential, proprietary algorithms to convert accelerometry data to meaningful output like total steps, assessing whether these algorithms account for differences in gait abnormalities, functional limitations, and different body morphologies can be difficult. Quantification of sedentary behaviors and light physical activities present additional challenges. The global market for activity trackers is growing, which presents clinicians with a tremendous opportunity to incorporate these devices into clinical practice as tools to promote activity. This article highlights important considerations about tracker accuracy and usage by cancer survivors.

  10. WR and LBV stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochiashvili, Nino; Beradze, Sophie; Kochiashvili, Ia; Natsvlishvili, Rezo; Vardosanidze, Manana

    Evolutionary scenarios of massive stars were revised in recent decades, after finding "unusual", blue progenitor of SN 1987A and after detecting the more massive stars than the accepted 120 M ⊙ maximum limit of stellar masses. A very important relation exists between WR and LBV stars. They represent the earlier, pre-SN evolutionary states of massive stars. WR and LBV stars and "classic" evolutionary scheme of the relation between the different type massive stars are discussed in this article. There also exist the newest evolutionary scenarios for low metallicity massive stars, which give us a different picture of their post main-sequence evolution. There is a rather good tradition of observations and investigations of massive stars at Abastumani Astrophysical Observatory. The authors discuss the new findings on the fate of P Cygni, the LBV star. These results on the reddening of the star and about its next possible outburst in the near future were obtained on the basis of UBV long-term electrophotometric observations of P Cygni by Eugene Kharadze and Nino Magalashvili. The observations were held in 1951-1983 at Abastumani Observatory using 33-cm and 48-cm reflectors.

  11. Star Clusters within FIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Adrianna; Moreno, Jorge; Naiman, Jill; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the environments surrounding star clusters of simulated merging galaxies. Our framework employs Feedback In Realistic Environments (FIRE) model (Hopkins et al., 2014). The FIRE project is a high resolution cosmological simulation that resolves star forming regions and incorporates stellar feedback in a physically realistic way. The project focuses on analyzing the properties of the star clusters formed in merging galaxies. The locations of these star clusters are identified with astrodendro.py, a publicly available dendrogram algorithm. Once star cluster properties are extracted, they will be used to create a sub-grid (smaller than the resolution scale of FIRE) of gas confinement in these clusters. Then, we can examine how the star clusters interact with these available gas reservoirs (either by accreting this mass or blowing it out via feedback), which will determine many properties of the cluster (star formation history, compact object accretion, etc). These simulations will further our understanding of star formation within stellar clusters during galaxy evolution. In the future, we aim to enhance sub-grid prescriptions for feedback specific to processes within star clusters; such as, interaction with stellar winds and gas accretion onto black holes and neutron stars.

  12. Dark stars: a review.

    PubMed

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only [Formula: see text]0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (∼10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ∼10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ∼[Formula: see text] as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >[Formula: see text] and luminosities  >[Formula: see text], making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  13. Dark stars: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Katherine; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Spolyar, Douglas; Valluri, Monica

    2016-06-01

    Dark stars are stellar objects made (almost entirely) of hydrogen and helium, but powered by the heat from dark matter annihilation, rather than by fusion. They are in hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, but with an unusual power source. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), among the best candidates for dark matter, can be their own antimatter and can annihilate inside the star, thereby providing a heat source. Although dark matter constitutes only ≲ 0.1% of the stellar mass, this amount is sufficient to power the star for millions to billions of years. Thus, the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the Universe may have been dark stars. We review how dark stars come into existence, how they grow as long as dark matter fuel persists, and their stellar structure and evolution. The studies were done in two different ways, first assuming polytropic interiors and more recently using the MESA stellar evolution code; the basic results are the same. Dark stars are giant, puffy (˜10 AU) and cool (surface temperatures  ˜10 000 K) objects. We follow the evolution of dark stars from their inception at  ˜1{{M}⊙} as they accrete mass from their surroundings to become supermassive stars, some even reaching masses  >{{10}6}{{M}⊙} and luminosities  >{{10}10}{{L}⊙} , making them detectable with the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Once the dark matter runs out and the dark star dies, it may collapse to a black hole; thus dark stars may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed throughout the Universe and at early times. Other sites for dark star formation may exist in the Universe today in regions of high dark matter density such as the centers of galaxies. The current review briefly discusses dark stars existing today, but focuses on the early generation of dark stars.

  14. MONDO: A neutron tracker for particle therapy secondary emission fluxes measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marafini, M.; Patera, V.; Pinci, D.; Sarti, A.; Sciubba, A.; Spiriti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Cancer treatment is performed, in Particle Therapy, using accelerated charged particles whose high irradiation precision and conformity allows the tumor destruction while sparing the surrounding healthy tissues. Dose release monitoring devices using photons and charged particles produced by the beam interaction with the patient body have already been proposed, but no attempt based on the detection of the abundant secondary radiation neutron component has been made yet. The reduced attenuation length of neutrons yields a secondary particle sample that is larger in number when compared to photons and charged particles. Furthermore, neutrons allow for a backtracking of the emission point that is not affected by multiple scattering. Since neutrons can release a significant dose far away from the tumor region, a precise measurement of their flux, production energy and angle distributions is eagerly needed in order to improve the Treatment Planning Systems (TPS) software, so to predict not only the normal tissue toxicity in the target region but also the risk of late complications in the whole body. All the aforementioned issues underline the importance for an experimental effort devoted to the precise characterization of the neutron production gaining experimental access both to the emission point and production energy. The technical challenges posed by a neutron detector aiming for a high detection efficiency and good backtracking precision will be addressed within the MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project. The MONDO's main goal is to develop a tracking detector targeting fast and ultrafast secondary neutrons. The tracker is composed by a scintillating fiber matrix (4 × 4 × 8cm3). The full reconstruction of protons, produced in elastic interactions, will be used to measure energy and direction of the impinging neutron. The neutron tracker will measure the neutron production yields, as a function of production angle and energy, using different

  15. In-flight evaluation of an optical head motion tracker III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawada, Kazuho; Okamoto, Masakazu

    2011-06-01

    We have presented a new approach for Optical HMT (Head Motion Tracker) past years [1]-[4]. In existing Magnetic HMT, it is inevitable to conduct pre-mapping in order to obtain sufficient accuracy because of magnetic field's distortion caused by metallic material around HMT, such as cockpit and helmet. Optical HMT is commonly known as mapping-free tracker; however, it has some disadvantages on accuracy, stability against sunlight conditions, in terms of comparison with Magnetic HMT. We had succeeded to develop new HMT system, which can overcome particular disadvantages by integration with two area cameras, optical markers, image processing techniques and inertial sensors with simple algorithm in laboratory level environment (2008). We have also reported some experimental results conducted in flight test, which proved good accuracy even in the sunlight condition (2009). We have also reported some experimental results conducted in flight test, which proved good performance even in the night flight (2010). Shimadzu Corp. and JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) are conducting joint research named SAVERH (Situation Awareness and Visual Enhancer for Rescue Helicopter) [2]-[4] that aims at inventing method of presenting suitable information to the pilot to support search and rescue missions by helicopters. The HMT system has been evaluated through a series of flight evaluation in SAVERH and demonstrated the operation concept. In this report, we show result of the final evaluation of the HMD system through 12 flights including night flight. Also, those evaluation was done by integrated HMT system that was newly developed for the tests in this year.

  16. Multiple Objects Fusion Tracker Using a Matching Network for Adaptively Represented Instance Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Il; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2017-01-01

    Multiple-object tracking is affected by various sources of distortion, such as occlusion, illumination variations and motion changes. Overcoming these distortions by tracking on RGB frames, such as shifting, has limitations because of material distortions caused by RGB frames. To overcome these distortions, we propose a multiple-object fusion tracker (MOFT), which uses a combination of 3D point clouds and corresponding RGB frames. The MOFT uses a matching function initialized on large-scale external sequences to determine which candidates in the current frame match with the target object in the previous frame. After conducting tracking on a few frames, the initialized matching function is fine-tuned according to the appearance models of target objects. The fine-tuning process of the matching function is constructed as a structured form with diverse matching function branches. In general multiple object tracking situations, scale variations for a scene occur depending on the distance between the target objects and the sensors. If the target objects in various scales are equally represented with the same strategy, information losses will occur for any representation of the target objects. In this paper, the output map of the convolutional layer obtained from a pre-trained convolutional neural network is used to adaptively represent instances without information loss. In addition, MOFT fuses the tracking results obtained from each modality at the decision level to compensate the tracking failures of each modality using basic belief assignment, rather than fusing modalities by selectively using the features of each modality. Experimental results indicate that the proposed tracker provides state-of-the-art performance considering multiple objects tracking (MOT) and KITTIbenchmarks. PMID:28420194

  17. An on-line acoustic fluorocarbon coolant mixture analyzer for the ATLAS silicon tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.

    2011-07-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoro-propane (C{sub 3}F{sub 8}) evaporative cooling fluid - to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoro-ethane (C{sub 2}F{sub 6}). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} mixturemore » ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound 'chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C{sub 3}F{sub 8}/C{sub 2}F{sub 6} flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semiconductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures. (authors)« less

  18. An On-Line Acoustic Fluorocarbon Coolant Mixture Analyzer for the ATLAS Silicon Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Battistin, M.; Berry, S.; Bitadze, A.; Bonneau, P.; Bousson, N.; Boyd, G.; Botelho-Direito, J.; DiGirolamo, B.; Doubek, M.; Egorov, K.; Godlewski, J.; Hallewell, G.; Katunin, S.; Mathieu, M.; McMahon, S.; Nagai, K.; Perez-Rodriguez, E.; Rozanov, A.; Vacek, V.; Vitek, M.

    2012-10-01

    The ATLAS silicon tracker community foresees an upgrade from the present octafluoropropane (C3F8) evaporative cooling fluid to a composite fluid with a probable 10-20% admixture of hexafluoroethane (C2F6). Such a fluid will allow a lower evaporation temperature and will afford the tracker silicon substrates a better safety margin against leakage current-induced thermal runaway caused by cumulative radiation damage as the luminosity profile at the CERN Large Hadron Collider increases. Central to the use of this new fluid is a new custom-developed speed-of-sound instrument for continuous real-time measurement of the C3F8/C2F6 mixture ratio and flow. An acoustic vapour mixture analyzer/flow meter with new custom electronics allowing ultrasonic frequency transmission through gas mixtures has been developed for this application. Synchronous with the emission of an ultrasound `chirp' from an acoustic transmitter, a fast readout clock (40 MHz) is started. The clock is stopped on receipt of an above threshold sound pulse at the receiver. Sound is alternately transmitted parallel and anti-parallel with the vapour flow for volume flow measurement from transducers that can serve as acoustic transmitters or receivers. In the development version, continuous real-time measurement of C3F8/C2F6 flow and calculation of the mixture ratio is performed within a graphical user interface developed in PVSS-II, the Supervisory, Control and Data Acquisition standard chosen for LHC and its experiments at CERN. The described instrument has numerous potential applications - including refrigerant leak detection, the analysis of hydrocarbons, vapour mixtures for semi-conductor manufacture and anesthetic gas mixtures.

  19. Motion Tracker: Camera-Based Monitoring of Bodily Movements Using Motion Silhouettes

    PubMed Central

    Westlund, Jacqueline Kory; D’Mello, Sidney K.; Olney, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in the cognitive and affective sciences investigate how thoughts and feelings are reflected in the bodily response systems including peripheral physiology, facial features, and body movements. One specific question along this line of research is how cognition and affect are manifested in the dynamics of general body movements. Progress in this area can be accelerated by inexpensive, non-intrusive, portable, scalable, and easy to calibrate movement tracking systems. Towards this end, this paper presents and validates Motion Tracker, a simple yet effective software program that uses established computer vision techniques to estimate the amount a person moves from a video of the person engaged in a task (available for download from http://jakory.com/motion-tracker/). The system works with any commercially available camera and with existing videos, thereby affording inexpensive, non-intrusive, and potentially portable and scalable estimation of body movement. Strong between-subject correlations were obtained between Motion Tracker’s estimates of movement and body movements recorded from the seat (r =.720) and back (r = .695 for participants with higher back movement) of a chair affixed with pressure-sensors while completing a 32-minute computerized task (Study 1). Within-subject cross-correlations were also strong for both the seat (r =.606) and back (r = .507). In Study 2, between-subject correlations between Motion Tracker’s movement estimates and movements recorded from an accelerometer worn on the wrist were also strong (rs = .801, .679, and .681) while people performed three brief actions (e.g., waving). Finally, in Study 3 the within-subject cross-correlation was high (r = .855) when Motion Tracker’s estimates were correlated with the movement of a person’s head as tracked with a Kinect while the person was seated at a desk (Study 3). Best-practice recommendations, limitations, and planned extensions of the system are discussed. PMID:26086771

  20. An analog front-end bipolar-transistor integrated circuit for the SDC silicon tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipnis, I.; Spieler, H.; Collins, T.

    1994-08-01

    A low-noise, low-power, high-bandwidth, radiation hard, silicon bipolar-transistor full-custom integrated circuit (IC) containing 64 channels of analog signal processing has been developed for the SDC silicon tracker The IC was designed and tested at LBL and was fabricated using AT&T's CBIC-U2, 4 GHz f/sub /spl tau// complementary bipolar technology. Each channel contains the following functions: low-noise preamplification, pulse shaping and threshold discrimination. This is the first iteration of the production analog IC for the SDC silicon tracker. The IC is laid out to directly match the 50 /spl mu/m pitch double-sided silicon strip detector. The chip measures 6.8 mm/spl times/3.1 mm and contains 3,600 transistors. Three stages of amplification provide 180 mV/fC of gain with a 35 nsec peaking time at the comparator input. For a 14 pF detector capacitance, the equivalent noise charge is 1300 el. RMS at a power consumption of 1 mW/channel from a single 3.5 V supply. With the discriminator threshold set to 4 times the noise level, a 16 nsec time-walk for 1.25 to 10 fC signals is achieved using a time-walk compensation network. Irradiation tests at TRIUMF to a /spl Phi/=10/sup 14/ protons/cm/sup 2/ have been performed on the IC, demonstrating the radiation hardness of the complementary bipolar process.

  1. Downscaling the NOAA CarbonTracker Inversion for North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petron, G.; Andrews, A. E.; Chen, H.; Trudeau, M. E.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Henderson, J.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Masarie, K.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, J. B.; Miller, B. R.; Peters, W.; Gourdji, S. M.; Mueller, K. L.; Michalak, A. M.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    We are developing a regional extension of the NOAA CarbonTracker CO2 data-assimilation system for a limited domain covering North America. The regional assimilation will use pre-computed and species-independent atmospheric sampling footprints from a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model. Each footprint relates an observed trace gas concentration to upwind fluxes. Once a footprint library has been computed, it can be used repeatedly to quickly test different inversion strategies and, importantly, for inversions using multiple species data (e.g., anthropogenic tracers such as radiocarbon and carbon monoxide and biological tracers such as carbonyl sulfide and stable isotopes of CO2). The current global CarbonTracker (CT) assimilation framework has some important limitations. For example, the assimilation adjusts scaling factors for different vegetation classes within large regions. This means, for example, that all crops within temperate North America are scaled together. There is currently no distinction between crops such as corn and sorghum, which utilize the C4 photosynthesis pathway and C3 crops like soybeans, wheat, cotton, etc. The optimization scales only the net CO2 flux, rather than adjusting photosynthesis and respiration fluxes separately, which limits the flexibility of the inversion and sometimes results in unrealistic diurnal cycles of CO2 flux. The time-series of residuals (CT - observed) for continental sites in North America reveals a persistent excess of CO2 during summer. This summertime positive bias is also apparent in the comparison of CT posterior CO2 with aircraft data and with data from Pacific marine boundary layer sites, suggesting that some of the problem may originate outside of North America. For the regional inversion, we will use footprints from the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport Model driven by meteorological fields from a customized high-resolution simulation with the Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model. We will use

  2. Age-Defying Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-29

    An age-defying star called IRAS 19312+1950 exhibits features characteristic of a very young star and a very old star. The object stands out as extremely bright inside a large, chemically rich cloud of material, as shown in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. IRAS 19312+1950 is the bright red star in the center of this image. A NASA-led team of scientists thinks the star -- which is about 10 times as massive as our sun and emits about 20,000 times as much energy -- is a newly forming protostar. That was a big surprise, because the region had not been known as a stellar nursery before. But the presence of a nearby interstellar bubble, which indicates the presence of a recently formed massive star, also supports this idea. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20914

  3. Planar waveguide concentrator used with a seasonal tracker.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Solar concentrators offer good promise for reducing the cost of solar power. Planar waveguides equipped with a microlens slab have already been proposed as an excellent approach to produce medium to high concentration levels. Instead, we suggest the use of a cylindrical microlens array to get useful concentration without tracking during the day. To use only a seasonal tracking system and get the highest possible concentration, cylindrical microlenses are placed in the east-west orientation. Our new design has an acceptance angle in the north-south direction of ±9° and ±54° in the east-west axis. Simulation of our optimized system achieves a 4.6× average concentration level from 8:30 to 16:30 with a maximum of 8.1× and 80% optical efficiency. The low-cost advantage of waveguide-based solar concentrators could support their use in roof-mounted solar panels and eliminate the need for an expensive and heavy active tracker.

  4. The Soldier Fitness Tracker: global delivery of Comprehensive Soldier Fitness.

    PubMed

    Fravell, Mike; Nasser, Katherine; Cornum, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    Carefully implemented technology strategies are vital to the success of large-scale initiatives such as the U.S. Army's Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) program. Achieving the U.S. Army's vision for CSF required a robust information technology platform that was scaled to millions of users and that leveraged the Internet to enable global reach. The platform needed to be agile, provide powerful real-time reporting, and have the capacity to quickly transform to meet emerging requirements. Existing organizational applications, such as "Single Sign-On," and authoritative data sources were exploited to the maximum extent possible. Development of the "Soldier Fitness Tracker" is the most recent, and possibly the best, demonstration of the potential benefits possible when existing organizational capabilities are married to new, innovative applications. Combining the capabilities of the extant applications with the newly developed applications expedited development, eliminated redundant data collection, resulted in the exceeding of program objectives, and produced a comfortable experience for the end user, all in less than six months. This is a model for future technology integration. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. [Assessment of laparoscopic training based on eye tracker and electroencephalograph].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Wang, Shuyi; Zhang, Yangun; Xu, Mingzhe; Ye, Shasha; Wang, Peng

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic simulation training with different attention. Attention was appraised using the sample entropy and θ/β value, which were calculated according to electroencephalograph(EEG) signal collected with Brain Link. The effect of laparoscopic simulation training was evaluated using the completion time, error number and fixation number, which were calculated according to eye movement signal collected with Tobii eye tracker. Twenty volunteers were recruited in this study. Those with the sample entropy lower than0.77 were classified into group A and those higher than 0.77 into group B. The results showed that the sample entropy of group A was lower than that of group B, and fluctuations of A were more steady. However, the sample entropy of group B showed steady fluctuations in the first five trainings, and then demonstrated relatively dramatic fluctuates in the later five trainings. Compared with that of group B, the θ/β value of group A was smaller and shows steady fluctuations. Group A has a shorter completion time, less errors and faster decrease of fixation number. Therefore, this study reached the following conclusion that the attention of the trainees would affect the training effect. Members in group A, who had a higher attention were more efficient and faster training. For those in group B, although their training skills have been improved, they needed a longer time to reach a plateau.

  6. Commodity Tracker: Mobile Application for Food Security Monitoring in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; Baird, J.; Gourley, J. R.; Morelli, R.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Haiti Food Security Monitoring Mobile App Team

    2011-12-01

    Megan Chiu, Jason Baird, Xu Huang, Trishan de Lanerolle, Ralph Morelli, Jonathan Gourley Trinity College, Computer Science Department and Environmental Science Program, 300 Summit Street, Hartford, CT 06106 megan.chiu@trincoll.edu, Jason.baird@trincoll.edu, xu.huang@trincoll.edu, trishan.delanerolle@trincoll.edu, ralph.morelli@trincoll.edu, jonathan.gourley@trincoll.edu Price data for Haiti commodities such as rice and potatoes have been traditionally recorded by hand on paper forms for many years. The information is then entered onto computer manually, thus making the process a long and arduous one. With the development of the Haiti Commodity Tracker mobile app, we are able to make this commodity price data recording process more efficient. Officials may use this information for making inferences about the difference in commodity prices and for food distribution during critical time after natural disasters. This information can also be utilized by governments and aid agencies on their food assistance programs. Agronomists record the item prices from several sample sites in a marketplace and compare those results from other markets across the region. Due to limited connectivity in rural areas, data is first saved to the phone's database and then retransmitted to a central server via SMS messaging. The mobile app is currently being field tested by an international NGO providing agricultural aid and support in rural Haiti.

  7. Volumetric Verification of Multiaxis Machine Tool Using Laser Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to present a method of volumetric verification in machine tools with linear and rotary axes using a laser tracker. Beyond a method for a particular machine, it presents a methodology that can be used in any machine type. Along this paper, the schema and kinematic model of a machine with three axes of movement, two linear and one rotational axes, including the measurement system and the nominal rotation matrix of the rotational axis are presented. Using this, the machine tool volumetric error is obtained and nonlinear optimization techniques are employed to improve the accuracy of the machine tool. The verification provides a mathematical, not physical, compensation, in less time than other methods of verification by means of the indirect measurement of geometric errors of the machine from the linear and rotary axes. This paper presents an extensive study about the appropriateness and drawbacks of the regression function employed depending on the types of movement of the axes of any machine. In the same way, strengths and weaknesses of measurement methods and optimization techniques depending on the space available to place the measurement system are presented. These studies provide the most appropriate strategies to verify each machine tool taking into consideration its configuration and its available work space. PMID:25202744

  8. HVMUX, a high voltage multiplexing for the ATLAS Tracker upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giulio Villani, E.; Phillips, P.; Matheson, J.; Zhang, Z.; Lynn, D.; Kuczewski, P.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Gregor, I.; Bessner, M.; Tackmann, K.; Newcomer, F. M.; Spencer, E.; Greenall, A.

    2017-01-01

    The HV biasing solution adopted in the current ATLAS detector uses one HV conductor for each sensor. This approach easily allows disabling of malfunctioning sensors without affecting the others, but space constraints and material budget considerations renders this approach impractical for the Upgraded detector. In fact, the increased luminosity of the Upgraded LHC will require more channels in the upgraded ATLAS Tracker, as a result of the finer detector segmentation. Different approaches to bring the HV biasing to the detectors, including the use of a shared HV line to bias several sensors and employing semiconductor switches for the HV routing (HVMUX), have been investigated. Beside the size constraints, particular attention must be paid to the radiation tolerance of any proposed solution, which, for the strips detector, requires proper operation up to fluences of the order of 2ṡ 1015 1MeV neq/cm2 and TID in excess of 300 kGy. In this paper, a description of the proposed HVMUX solution, along with electrical and radiation tests results will be presented and discussed.

  9. Nagyszombat and the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zsoldos, E.

    Péter Pázmány, founder of the University of Nagyszombat, considered stars in terms inherited from medieval times. The theses, connected to the university graduation, soon left this definition, and imagined stars as made from sublunar elements. The 1753 decree of the Empress Maria Theresia ordered university professors to publish textbooks. These textbooks, together with the theses showed a definite improvement, defining stars according to contemporary knowledge.

  10. Sizing up the stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.

    For the main part of this dissertation, I have executed a survey of nearby, main sequence A, F, and G-type stars with the CHARA Array, successfully measuring the angular diameters of forty-four stars to better than 4% accuracy. The results of these observations also yield empirical determinations of stellar linear radii and effective temperatures for the stars observed. In addition, these CHARA-determined temperatures, radii, and luminosities are fit to Yonsei-Yale isochrones to constrain the masses and ages of the stars. These quantities are compared to the results found in Allende Prieto & Lambert (1999), Holmberg et al. (2007), and Takeda (2007), who indirectly determine these same properties by fitting models to observed photometry. I find that for most cases, the models underestimate the radius of the star by ~ 12%, while in turn they overestimate the effective temperature by ~ 1.5-4%, when compared to my directly measured values, with no apparent correlation to the star's metallicity or color index. These overestimated temperatures and underestimated radii in these works appear to cause an additional offset in the star's surface gravity measurements, which consequently yield higher masses and younger ages, in particular for stars with masses greater than ~ 1.3 [Special characters omitted.] . Alternatively, these quantities I measure are also compared to direct measurements from a large sample of eclipsing binary stars in Andersen (1991), and excellent agreement is seen within both data sets. Finally, a multi-parameter solution is found to fit color-temperature-metallicity values of the stars in this sample to provide a new calibration of the effective temperature scale for these types of stars. Published work in the field of stellar interferometry and optical spectroscopy of early-type stars are presented in Appendix D and E, respectively. INDEX WORDS: Interferometry, Infrared, Stellar Astronomy, Fundamental Properties, Effective Temperatures, Stellar Radii

  11. RR Lyrae type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samus, N. N.

    Basic observational data on RR Lyrae type stars are reviewed. It is noted that these stars are used widely to investigate the structure and kinematics of the spherical and intermediate components of the Galaxy, with correct data on the absolute magnitude of these variables being decisive. Attention is given to the relationship between the orbit eccentricity and inclination of osculating RR Lyrae type stars in the Galaxy and their metallicity index.

  12. Introduction to neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattimer, James M.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts can set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.

  13. Strangeon and Strangeon Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaoyu, Lai; Renxin, Xu

    2017-06-01

    The nature of pulsar-like compact stars is essentially a central question of the fundamental strong interaction (explained in quantum chromo-dynamics) at low energy scale, the solution of which still remains a challenge though tremendous efforts have been tried. This kind of compact objects could actually be strange quark stars if strange quark matter in bulk may constitute the true ground state of the strong-interaction matter rather than 56Fe (the so-called Witten’s conjecture). From astrophysical points of view, however, it is proposed that strange cluster matter could be absolutely stable and thus those compact stars could be strange cluster stars in fact. This proposal could be regarded as a general Witten’s conjecture: strange matter in bulk could be absolutely stable, in which quarks are either free (for strange quark matter) or localized (for strange cluster matter). Strange cluster with three-light-flavor symmetry is renamed strangeon, being coined by combining “strange nucleon” for the sake of simplicity. A strangeon star can then be thought as a 3-flavored gigantic nucleus, and strangeons are its constituent as an analogy of nucleons which are the constituent of a normal (micro) nucleus. The observational consequences of strangeon stars show that different manifestations of pulsarlike compact stars could be understood in the regime of strangeon stars, and we are expecting more evidence for strangeon star by advanced facilities (e.g., FAST, SKA, and eXTP).

  14. Introduction to neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.

    Neutron stars contain the densest form of matter in the present universe. General relativity and causality set important constraints to their compactness. In addition, analytic GR solutions are useful in understanding the relationships that exist among the maximum mass, radii, moments of inertia, and tidal Love numbers of neutron stars, all of which are accessible to observation. Some of these relations are independent of the underlying dense matter equation of state, while others are very sensitive to the equation of state. Recent observations of neutron stars from pulsar timing, quiescent X-ray emission from binaries, and Type I X-ray bursts canmore » set important constraints on the structure of neutron stars and the underlying equation of state. In addition, measurements of thermal radiation from neutron stars has uncovered the possible existence of neutron and proton superfluidity/superconductivity in the core of a neutron star, as well as offering powerful evidence that typical neutron stars have significant crusts. These observations impose constraints on the existence of strange quark matter stars, and limit the possibility that abundant deconfined quark matter or hyperons exist in the cores of neutron stars.« less

  15. Massive soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The structure of nontopological solutions of Einstein field equations as proposed by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang (1987) is examined. This analysis incorporates finite temperature effects and pair creation. Quarks are assumed to be the only species that exist in interior of soliton stars. The possibility of primordial creation of soliton stars in the incomplete decay of the degenerate vacuum in early universe is explored. Because of dominance of pair creation inside soliton stars, the luminosity of soliton stars is not determined by its radiative transfer characteristics, and the surface temperature of soliton stars can be the same as its interior temperature. It is possible that soliton stars are intense X-ray radiators at large distances. Soliton stars are nearly 100 percent efficient energy converters, converting the rest energy of baryons entering the interior into radiation. It is possible that a sizable number of baryons may also be trapped inside soliton stars during early epochs of the universe. In addition, if soliton stars exist they could assume the role played by massive black holes in galactic centers.

  16. The risky business of hiring stars.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Nanda, Ashish; Nohria, Nitin

    2004-05-01

    With the battle for the best and brightest people heating up again, you're most likely out there looking for first-rate talent in the ranks of your competitors. Chances are, you're sold on the idea of recruiting from outside your organization, since developing people within the firm takes time and money. But the authors, who have tracked the careers of high-flying CEOs, researchers, software developers, and leading professionals, argue that top performers quickly fade after leaving one company for another. To study this phenomenon in greater detail, the authors analyzed the ups and downs of more than 1,000 star stock analysts, a well-defined group for which there are abundant data. The results were striking. After a star moves, not only does her performance plunge, but so does the effectiveness of the group she joins--and the market value of her new company. Moreover, transplanted stars don't stay with their new organizations for long, despite the astronomical salaries firms pay to lure them from rivals. Most companies that hire stars overlook the fact that an executive's performance is not entirely transferable because his personal competencies inevitably include company-specific skills. When the star leaves the old company for the new, he cannot take with him many of the resources that contributed to his achievements. As a result, he is unable to repeat his performance in another company--at least not until he learns to work the new system, which could take years. The authors conclude that companies cannot gain a competitive advantage or successfully grow by hiring stars from outside. Instead, they should focus on cultivating talent from within and do everything possible to retain the stars they create. Firms shouldn't fight the star wars, because winning could be the worst thing that happens to them.

  17. Identifying Young, Nearby Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Rich; Song, Inseok; Zuckerman, Ben; Bessell, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Young stars have certain characteristics, e.g., high atmospheric abundance of lithium and chromospheric activity, fast rotation, distinctive space motion and strong X-ray flux compared to that of older main sequence stars. We have selected a list of candidate young (<100Myr) and nearby (<60pc) stars based on their space motion and/or strong X-ray flux. To determine space motion of a star, one needs to know its coordinates (RA, DEC), proper motion, distance, and radial velocity. The Hipparcos and Tycho catalogues provide all this information except radial velocities. We anticipate eventually searching approx. 1000 nearby stars for signs of extreme youth. Future studies of the young stars so identified will help clarify the formation of planetary systems for times between 10 and 100 million years. Certainly, the final output of this study will be a very useful resource, especially for adaptive optics and space based searches for Jupiter-mass planets and dusty proto-planetary disks. We have begun spectroscopic observations in January, 2001 with the 2.3 m telescope at Siding Spring Observatory (SSO) in New South Wales, Australia. These spectra will be used to determine radial velocities and other youth indicators such as Li 6708A absorption strength and Hydrogen Balmer line intensity. Additional observations of southern hemisphere stars from SSO are scheduled in April and northern hemisphere observations will take place in May and July at the Lick Observatory of the University of California. AT SSO, to date, we have observed about 100 stars with a high resolution spectrometer (echelle) and about 50 stars with a medium spectral resolution spectrometer (the "DBS"). About 20% of these stars turn out to be young stars. Among these, two especially noteworthy stars appear to be the closest T-Tauri stars ever identified. Interestingly, these stars share the same space motions as that of a very famous star with a dusty circumstellar disk--beta Pictoris. This new finding better

  18. Merging strangeon stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Yun-Wei; Zhou, En-Ping; Li, Yun-Yang; Xu, Ren-Xin

    2018-02-01

    The state of supranuclear matter in compact stars remains puzzling, and it is argued that pulsars could be strangeon stars. What would happen if binary strangeon stars merge? This kind of merger could result in the formation of a hyper-massive strangeon star, accompanied by bursts of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation (and even a strangeon kilonova explained in the paper). The tidal polarizability of binary strangeon stars is different from that of binary neutron stars, because a strangeon star is self-bound on the surface by the fundamental strong force while a neutron star by the gravity, and their equations of state are different. Our calculation shows that the tidal polarizability of merging binary strangeon stars is favored by GW170817. Three kinds of kilonovae (i.e., of neutron, quark and strangeon) are discussed, and the light curve of the kilonova AT 2017 gfo following GW170817 could be explained by considering the decaying strangeon nuggets and remnant star spin-down. Additionally, the energy ejected to the fireball around the nascent remnant strangeon star, being manifested as a gamma-ray burst, is calculated. It is found that, after a prompt burst, an X-ray plateau could follow in a timescale of 102 ‑ 103 s. Certainly, the results could be tested also by further observational synergies between gravitational wave detectors (e.g., Advanced LIGO) and X-ray telescopes (e.g., the Chinese HXMT satellite and eXTP mission), and especially if the detected gravitational wave form is checked by peculiar equations of state provided by the numerical relativistical simulation.

  19. Co-training Framework of Generative and Disciminative Trackers with Partial Occlusion Handling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    ARO W911NF-06-1-0094. The first author was also supported by the Vietnam Education Foundation. We thank Zdenek Kalal for his help with the P-N Tracker...handling challenging situations with cluttered background. Recently, Kalal et al. [11] proposed the P-N Tracker us- ing positive and negative constraints to...Vietnam Education Foundation. We thank Zdenek Kalal for his help with the P-N Tracker [11]. References [1] A. Adam, E. Rivlin, and I. Shimshoni. Robust

  20. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  1. Stars Brewing in Cygnus X

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-10

    A bubbling cauldron of star birth is highlighted in this image from NASA Spitzer Space Telescope. Massive stars have blown bubbles, or cavities, in the dust and gas -- a violent process that triggers both the death and birth of stars.

  2. Cooking up the First Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-10

    Scientists are simulating how the very first stars in our universe were born. The stars we see today formed out of collapsing clouds of gas and dust. In the very early universe, however, the stars had fewer ingredients available.

  3. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-05-01

    Large Ground-Based Telescopes and Hubble Team-Up to Perform First Direct Brown Dwarf Mass Measurement [1] Summary Using ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal and a suite of ground- and space-based telescopes in a four-year long study, an international team of astronomers has measured for the first time the mass of an ultra-cool star and its companion brown dwarf. The two stars form a binary system and orbit each other in about 10 years. The team obtained high-resolution near-infrared images; on the ground, they defeated the blurring effect of the terrestrial atmosphere by means of adaptive optics techniques. By precisely determining the orbit projected on the sky, the astronomers were able to measure the total mass of the stars. Additional data and comparison with stellar models then yield the mass of each of the components. The heavier of the two stars has a mass around 8.5% of the mass of the Sun and its brown dwarf companion is even lighter, only 6% of the solar mass. Both objects are relatively young with an age of about 500-1,000 million years. These observations represent a decisive step towards the still missing calibration of stellar evolution models for very-low mass stars. PR Photo 19a/04: Orbit of the ultra-cool stars in 2MASSW J0746425+2000321. PR Photo 19b/04: Animated Gif of the orbital motion. Telephone number star Even though astronomers have found several hundreds of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs, the fundamental properties of these extreme objects, such as masses and surface temperatures, are still not well known. Within the cosmic zoo, these ultra-cool stars represent a class of "intermediate" objects between giant planets - like Jupiter - and "normal" stars less massive than our Sun, and to understand them well is therefore crucial to the field of stellar astrophysics. The problem with these ultra-cool stars is that contrary to normal stars that burn hydrogen in their central core, no unique relation exists between the luminosity of the

  4. Dusty Dead Star

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-29

    A composite image from NASA Chandra and Spitzer space telescopes shows the dusty remains of a collapsed star, a supernova remnant called G54.1+0.3. The white source at the center is a dead star called a pulsar.

  5. Science Through ARts (STAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph; Petersen, Ruth; Williams, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is an educational initiative designed to teach students through a multidisciplinary approach to learning. This presentation describes the STAR pilot project, which will use Mars exploration as the topic to be integrated. Schools from the United Kingdom, Japan, the United States, and possibly eastern Europe are expected to participate in the pilot project.

  6. Star System Bonanza Illustration

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-27

    This illustration shows the unusual orbit of planet Kepler-413b around a close pair of orange and red dwarf stars. The planet 66-day orbit is tilted 2.5 degrees with respect to the plane of the binary stars orbit.

  7. Observing Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Fulton, B. J.; Bianco, Federica B.; Martinez, John; Baxter, John; Brewer, Mark; Carro, Joseph; Collins, Sarah; Estrada, Chris; Johnson, Jolyon; Salam, Akash; Wallen, Vera; Warren, Naomi; Smith, Thomas C.; Armstrong, James D.; McGaughey, Steve; Pye, John; Mohanan, Kakkala; Church, Rebecca

    2012-05-01

    Double stars have been systematically observed since William Herschel initiated his program in 1779. In 1803 he reported that, to his surprise, many of the systems he had been observing for a quarter century were gravitationally bound binary stars. In 1830 the first binary orbital solution was obtained, leading eventually to the determination of stellar masses. Double star observations have been a prolific field, with observations and discoveries - often made by students and amateurs - routinely published in a number of specialized journals such as the Journal of Double Star Observations. All published double star observations from Herschel's to the present have been incorporated in the Washington Double Star Catalog. In addition to reviewing the history of visual double stars, we discuss four observational technologies and illustrate these with our own observational results from both California and Hawaii on telescopes ranging from small SCTs to the 2-meter Faulkes Telescope North on Haleakala. Two of these technologies are visual observations aimed primarily at published "hands-on" student science education, and CCD observations of both bright and very faint doubles. The other two are recent technologies that have launched a double star renaissance. These are lucky imaging and speckle interferometry, both of which can use electron-multiplying CCD cameras to allow short (30 ms or less) exposures that are read out at high speed with very low noise. Analysis of thousands of high speed exposures allows normal seeing limitations to be overcome so very close doubles can be accurately measured.

  8. Science through ARts (STAR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Densmore, Marycay; Kolecki, Joseph C.; Miller, Allan; Petersen, Ruth; Terrell, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Science Through ARts (STAR) is a free, international, cross-curricular program thematically aligned with "The Vision for Space Exploration," a framework of goals and objectives published by NASA in February 2004. Through the STAR program, students in grades 5 through 12 are encouraged to apply their knowledge in creative ways as they approach a…

  9. By Draconis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    An optical spectroscopic survey of dK-M stars has resulted in the discovery of several new H-alpha emission objects. Available optical data suggest these stars have a level of chromospheric activity midway between active BY Dra stars and quiet dM's. These "marginal" BY Dra stars are single objects that have rotation velocities slightly higher than that of quiet field stars but below that of active flare/BY Dra objects. The marginal BY Dra stars provide us with a class of objects rotating very near a "trigger velocity" (believed to be 5 km/s) which appears to divide active flare/BY Dra stars from quiet dM's. UV data on Mg II emission fluxes and strength of transition region features such as C IV will serve to fix activity levels in the marginal objects and determine chromosphere and transition-region heating rates. Simultaneous optical magnetic field measures will be used to explore the connection between fieldstrength/filling-factor and atmospheric heating. Comparison of these data with published information on active and quiet dM stars will yield information on the character of the stellar dynamo as it makes a transition from "low" to "high" activity.

  10. How do stars form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tscharnuter, W. M.

    1980-02-01

    Modes and model concept of star formation are reviewed, beginning with the theory of Kant (1755), via Newton's exact mathematical formulation of the laws of motion, his recognition of the universal validity of general gravitation, to modern concepts and hypotheses. Axisymmetric and spherically symmetric collapse models are discussed, and the origin of double and multiple star systems is examined.

  11. INFRARED TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS, POST-AGB STARS, AND PLANETARY NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, Kyung-Won, E-mail: kwsuh@chungbuk.ac.kr

    2015-08-01

    We present various infrared two-color diagrams (2CDs) for asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, post-AGB stars, and Planetary Nebulae (PNe) and investigate possible evolutionary tracks. We use catalogs from the available literature for the sample of 4903 AGB stars (3373 O-rich; 1168 C-rich; 362 S-type), 660 post-AGB stars (326 post-AGB; 334 pre-PN), and 1510 PNe in our Galaxy. For each object in the catalog, we cross-identify the IRAS, AKARI, Midcourse Space Experiment, and 2MASS counterparts. The IR 2CDs can provide useful information about the structure and evolution of the dust envelopes as well as the central stars. To find possible evolutionarymore » tracks from AGB stars to PNe on the 2CDs, we investigate spectral evolution of post-AGB stars by making simple but reasonable assumptions on the evolution of the central star and dust shell. We perform radiative transfer model calculations for the detached dust shells around evolving central stars in the post-AGB phase. We find that the theoretical dust shell model tracks using dust opacity functions of amorphous silicate and amorphous carbon roughly coincide with the densely populated observed points of AGB stars, post-AGB stars, and PNe on various IR 2CDs. Even though some discrepancies are inevitable, the end points of the theoretical post-AGB model tracks generally converge in the region of the observed points of PNe on most 2CDs.« less

  12. Young Star HD 141569

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-30

    This image shows the dusty disk of planetary material surrounding the young star HD 141569, located 380 light-years away from Earth. It was taken using the vortex coronagraph on the W.M. Keck Observatory. The vortex suppressed light from the star in the center, revealing light from the innermost ring of planetary material around the star (blue). The disk around the star, made of olivine particles, extends from 23 to 70 astronomical units from the star. By comparison, Uranus is over 19 astronomical units from our sun, and Neptune about 30 astronomical units. One astronomical unit is the distance between Earth and our sun. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21090

  13. 'Marginal' BY Draconis stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.

    1987-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of 52 dK-dM stars, obtained at 640-665 nm (with spectral resolution 70-90 pm) using CCD detectors on the coude-feed telescope at KPNO since 1982, are reported. Data for four stars found to have diluted absorption or weak emission above continuum at H-alpha are presented in tables and spectra and discussed in detail. These objects (Gliese numbers 256, 425A, 900, and 907.1) are shown to be 'marginal' BY Dra stars, single objects of age 2.5-3 Gyr with activity and rotational velocity (3-5 km/s) between those of normal dM stars and those of true BY Dra stars. An explanation based on evolution from the BY Dra stage through marginal BY Dra to inactive dM is proposed.

  14. Rotating stars in relativity.

    PubMed

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  15. Activity Cycles in Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Starspots and stellar activity can be detected in other stars using high precision photometric and spectrometric measurements. These observations have provided some surprises (starspots at the poles - sunspots are rarely seen poleward of 40 degrees) but more importantly they reveal behaviors that constrain our models of solar-stellar magnetic dynamos. The observations reveal variations in cycle characteristics that depend upon the stellar structure, convection zone dynamics, and rotation rate. In general, the more rapidly rotating stars are more active. However, for stars like the Sun, some are found to be inactive while nearly identical stars are found to be very active indicating that periods like the Sun's Maunder Minimum (an inactive period from 1645 to 1715) are characteristic of Sun-like stars.

  16. Producing Runaway Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    How are the hypervelocity stars weve observed in our galaxy produced? A recent study suggests that these escapees could be accelerated by a massive black hole in the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud.A Black Hole SlingshotSince their discovery in 2005, weve observed dozens of candidate hypervelocity stars stars whose velocity in the rest frame of our galaxy exceeds the local escape velocity of the Milky Way. These stars present a huge puzzle: how did they attain these enormous velocities?One potential explanation is known as the Hills mechanism. In this process, a stellar binary is disrupted by a close encounter with a massive black hole (like those thought to reside at the center of every galaxy). One member of the binary is flung out of the system as a result of the close encounter, potentially reaching very large velocities.A star-forming region known as LHA 120-N 11, located within the LMC. Some binary star systems within the LMC might experience close encounters with a possible massive black hole at the LMCs center. [ESA/NASA/Hubble]Blame the LMC?Usually, discussions of the Hills mechanism assume that Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way, is the object guilty of accelerating the hypervelocity stars weve observed. But what if the culprit isnt Sgr A*, but a massive black hole at the center of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), one of the Milky Ways satellite galaxies?Though we dont yet have evidence of a massive black hole at the center of the LMC, the dwarf galaxy is large enough to potentially host one as large as 100,000 solar masses. Assuming that it does, two scientists at the University of Cambridge, Douglas Boubert and Wyn Evans, have now modeled how this black hole might tear apart binary star systems and fling hypervelocity stars around the Milky Way.Models for AccelerationBoubert and Evans determined that the LMCs hypothetical black hole could easily eject stars at ~100 km/s, which is the escape velocity of the

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  18. Exceptional thermoelectric performance of a "star-like" SnSe nanotube with ultra-low thermal conductivity and a high power factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chensheng; Cheng, Wendan; Guo, Zhengxiao; Chai, Guoliang; Zhang, Hao

    2017-08-30

    Efficient thermoelectric energy conversion is both crucial and challenging, and requires new material candidates by design. From first principles simulations, we identify that a "star-like" SnSe nanotube - with alternating dense and loose rings along the tube direction - gives rise to an ultra-low lattice thermal conductivity, 0.18 W m -1 K -1 at 750 K, and a large Seebeck coefficient, compared with single crystal SnSe. The power factor of the p-type SnSe nanotube reaches its maximum value of 235 μW cm -1 K -2 at a moderate doping level of around 10 20 -10 21 cm -3 . The p-type nanotube shows better thermoelectric properties than the n-type one. The phonon anharmonic scattering rate of the SnSe nanotube is larger than that of the SnSe crystal. All of these factors lead to an exceptional figure-of-merit (ZT) value of 3.5-4.6 under the optimal conditions, compared to 0.6-2.6 for crystalline SnSe. Such a large ZT value should lead to a six-fold increase in the energy conversion efficiency to about 30%.

  19. On the origin of high-velocity runaway stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.; Gualandris, Alessia; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2009-06-01

    We explore the hypothesis that some high-velocity runaway stars attain their peculiar velocities in the course of exchange encounters between hard massive binaries and a very massive star (either an ordinary 50-100Msolar star or a more massive one, formed through runaway mergers of ordinary stars in the core of a young massive star cluster). In this process, one of the binary components becomes gravitationally bound to the very massive star, while the second one is ejected, sometimes with a high speed. We performed three-body scattering experiments and found that early B-type stars (the progenitors of the majority of neutron stars) can be ejected with velocities of >~200-400kms-1 (typical of pulsars), while 3-4Msolar stars can attain velocities of >~300-400kms-1 (typical of the bound population of halo late B-type stars). We also found that the ejected stars can occasionally attain velocities exceeding the Milky Ways's escape velocity.

  20. WE-G-17A-05: Real-Time Catheter Localization Using An Active MR Tracker for Interstitial Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W; Damato, A; Viswanathan, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel active MR-tracking system which can provide accurate and rapid localization of brachytherapy catheters, and assess its reliability and spatial accuracy in comparison to standard catheter digitization using MR images. Methods: An active MR tracker for brachytherapy was constructed by adding three printed-circuit micro-coils to the shaft of a commercial metallic stylet. A gel phantom with an embedded framework was built, into which fifteen 14-Gauge catheters were placed, following either with parallel or crossed paths. The tracker was inserted sequentially into each catheter, with MR-tracking running continuously. Tracking was also performed during the tracker's removal frommore » each catheter. Catheter trajectories measured from the insertion and the removal procedures using the same micro-coil were compared, as well as trajectories obtained using different micro-coils. A 3D high-resolution MR image dataset of the phantom was acquired and imported into a treatment planning system (TPS) for catheter digitization. A comparison between MR-tracked positions and positions digitized from MR images by TPS was performed. Results: The MR tracking shows good consistency for varying catheter paths and for all micro-coils (mean difference ∼1.1 mm). The average distance between the MR-tracking trajectory and catheter digitization from the MR images was 1.1 mm. Ambiguity in catheter assignment from images due to crossed paths was resolved by active tracking. When tracking was interleaved with imaging, real-time images were continuously acquired at the instantaneous tip positions and displayed on an external workstation. Conclusion: The active MR tracker may be used to provide an independent measurement of catheter location in the MR environment, potentially eliminating the need for subsequent CT. It may also be used to control realtime imaging of catheter placement. This will enable MR-based brachytherapy planning of interstitial implants without

  1. Oregon regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) integration program. Final phase III report, transit tracker information displays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-11-14

    Transit Tracker uses global positioning system (GPS) technology to track how far a bus is along its scheduled route. This document presents the evaluation strategies and objectives, the data collection methodologies, and the results of the evaluation...

  2. Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    DOE PAGES

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; ...

    2017-04-21

    Here, the CMS tracker consists of 206 m 2 of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from –25 to +25°C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few μm resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011–2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30μm. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements ofmore » tracker structures of about 2μm°C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.« less

  3. Mechanical stability of the CMS strip tracker measured with a laser alignment system

    SciTech Connect

    Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.

    Here, the CMS tracker consists of 206 m 2 of silicon strip sensors assembled on carbon fibre composite structures and is designed for operation in the temperature range from –25 to +25°C. The mechanical stability of tracker components during physics operation was monitored with a few μm resolution using a dedicated laser alignment system as well as particle tracks from cosmic rays and hadron-hadron collisions. During the LHC operational period of 2011–2013 at stable temperatures, the components of the tracker were observed to experience relative movements of less than 30μm. In addition, temperature variations were found to cause displacements ofmore » tracker structures of about 2μm°C, which largely revert to their initial positions when the temperature is restored to its original value.« less

  4. Development of the FitSight Fitness Tracker to Increase Time Outdoors to Prevent Myopia.

    PubMed

    Verkicharla, Pavan K; Ramamurthy, Dharani; Nguyen, Quang Duc; Zhang, Xinquan; Pu, Suan-Hui; Malhotra, Rahul; Ostbye, Truls; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Saw, Seang-Mei

    2017-06-01

    To develop a fitness tracker (FitSight) to encourage children to increase time spent outdoors. To evaluate the wear pattern for this tracker and outdoor time pattern by estimating light illumination levels among children. The development of the FitSight fitness tracker involved the designing of two components: (1) the smartwatch with custom-made FitSight watch application (app) to log the instant light illuminance levels the wearer is exposed to, and (2) a companion smartphone app that synchronizes the time outdoors recorded by the smartwatch to smartphone via Bluetooth communication. Smartwatch wear patterns and tracker-recorded daily light illuminance levels data were gathered over 7 days from 23 Singapore children (mean ± standard deviation age: 9.2 ± 1.4 years). Feedback about the tracker was obtained from 14 parents using a three-level rating scale: very poor/poor/good. Of the 14 parents, 93% rated the complete "FitSight fitness tracker" as good and 64% rated its wearability as good. While 61% of 23 children wore the watch on all study days (i.e., 0 nonwear days), 26% had 1 nonwear day, and 4.5% children each had 3, 4, and 5 nonwear days, respectively. On average, children spent approximately 1 hour in light levels greater than 1000 lux on weekdays and 1.3 hours on weekends (60 ± 46 vs. 79 ± 53 minutes, P = 0.19). Mean number of outdoor "spurts" (light illuminance levels >1000 lux) per day was 8 ± 3 spurts with spurt duration of 34 ± 32 minutes. The FitSight tracker with its novel features may motivate children to increase time outdoors and play an important role in supplementing community outdoor programs to prevent myopia. If the developed noninvasive, wearable, smartwatch-based fitness tracker, FitSight, promotes daytime outdoor activity among children, it will be beneficial in addressing the epidemic of myopia.

  5. Minimum Error Bounded Efficient L1 Tracker with Occlusion Detection (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Minimum Error Bounded Efficient `1 Tracker with Occlusion Detection Xue Mei\\ ∗ Haibin Ling† Yi Wu†[ Erik Blasch‡ Li Bai] \\Assembly Test Technology...proposed BPR-L1 tracker is tested on several challenging benchmark sequences involving chal- lenges such as occlusion and illumination changes. In all...point method de - pends on the value of the regularization parameter λ. In the experiments, we found that the total number of PCG is a few hundred. The

  6. Fuzzy System-Based Target Selection for a NIR Camera-Based Gaze Tracker

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Arsalan, Muhammad; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2017-01-01

    Gaze-based interaction (GBI) techniques have been a popular subject of research in the last few decades. Among other applications, GBI can be used by persons with disabilities to perform everyday tasks, as a game interface, and can play a pivotal role in the human computer interface (HCI) field. While gaze tracking systems have shown high accuracy in GBI, detecting a user’s gaze for target selection is a challenging problem that needs to be considered while using a gaze detection system. Past research has used the blinking of the eyes for this purpose as well as dwell time-based methods, but these techniques are either inconvenient for the user or requires a long time for target selection. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for fuzzy system-based target selection for near-infrared (NIR) camera-based gaze trackers. The results of experiments performed in addition to tests of the usability and on-screen keyboard use of the proposed method show that it is better than previous methods. PMID:28420114

  7. Laser vision seam tracking system based on image processing and continuous convolution operator tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yanbiao; Chen, Tao

    2018-06-01

    To address the problem of low welding precision caused by the poor real-time tracking performance of common welding robots, a novel seam tracking system with excellent real-time tracking performance and high accuracy is designed based on the morphological image processing method and continuous convolution operator tracker (CCOT) object tracking algorithm. The system consists of a six-axis welding robot, a line laser sensor, and an industrial computer. This work also studies the measurement principle involved in the designed system. Through the CCOT algorithm, the weld feature points are determined in real time from the noise image during the welding process, and the 3D coordinate values of these points are obtained according to the measurement principle to control the movement of the robot and the torch in real time. Experimental results show that the sensor has a frequency of 50 Hz. The welding torch runs smoothly with a strong arc light and splash interference. Tracking error can reach ±0.2 mm, and the minimal distance between the laser stripe and the welding molten pool can reach 15 mm, which can significantly fulfill actual welding requirements.

  8. Initial Performance of the Attitude Control and Aspect Determination Subsystems on the Chandra Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, R.; Aldcroft, T.; Podgorski, W. A.; Freeman, M. D.

    2000-01-01

    The aspect determination system of the Chandra X-ray Observatory plays a key role in realizing the full potential of Chandra's X-ray optics and detectors. We review the performance of the spacecraft hardware components and sub-systems, which provide information for both real time control of the attitude and attitude stability of the Chandra Observatory and also for more accurate post-facto attitude reconstruction. These flight components are comprised of the aspect camera (star tracker) and inertial reference units (gyros), plus the fiducial lights and fiducial transfer optics which provide an alignment null reference system for the science instruments and X-ray optics, together with associated thermal and structural components. Key performance measures will be presented for aspect camera focal plane data, gyro performance both during stable pointing and during maneuvers, alignment stability and mechanism repeatability.

  9. Users' experiences of wearable activity trackers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Maher, Carol; Ryan, Jillian; Ambrosi, Christina; Edney, Sarah

    2017-11-15

    Wearable activity trackers offer considerable promise for helping users to adopt healthier lifestyles. This study aimed to explore users' experience of activity trackers, including usage patterns, sharing of data to social media, perceived behaviour change (physical activity, diet and sleep), and technical issues/barriers to use. A cross-sectional online survey was developed and administered to Australian adults who were current or former activity tracker users. Results were analysed descriptively, with differences between current and former users and wearable brands explored using independent samples t-tests, Mann-Whitney, and chi square tests. Participants included 200 current and 37 former activity tracker users (total N = 237) with a mean age of 33.1 years (SD 12.4, range 18-74 years). Fitbit (67.5%) and Garmin devices (16.5%) were most commonly reported. Participants typically used their trackers for sustained periods (5-7 months) and most intended to continue usage. Participants reported they had improved their physical activity (51-81%) more commonly than they had their diet (14-40%) or sleep (11-24%), and slightly more participants reported to value the real time feedback (89%) compared to the long-term monitoring (78%). Most users (70%) reported they had experienced functionality issues with their devices, most commonly related to battery life and technical difficulties. Results suggest users find activity trackers appealing and useful tools for increasing perceived physical activity levels over a sustained period.

  10. Do you see what I see? Mobile eye-tracker contextual analysis and inter-rater reliability.

    PubMed

    Stuart, S; Hunt, D; Nell, J; Godfrey, A; Hausdorff, J M; Rochester, L; Alcock, L

    2018-02-01

    Mobile eye-trackers are currently used during real-world tasks (e.g. gait) to monitor visual and cognitive processes, particularly in ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, contextual analysis involving fixation locations during such tasks is rarely performed due to its complexity. This study adapted a validated algorithm and developed a classification method to semi-automate contextual analysis of mobile eye-tracking data. We further assessed inter-rater reliability of the proposed classification method. A mobile eye-tracker recorded eye-movements during walking in five healthy older adult controls (HC) and five people with PD. Fixations were identified using a previously validated algorithm, which was adapted to provide still images of fixation locations (n = 116). The fixation location was manually identified by two raters (DH, JN), who classified the locations. Cohen's kappa correlation coefficients determined the inter-rater reliability. The algorithm successfully provided still images for each fixation, allowing manual contextual analysis to be performed. The inter-rater reliability for classifying the fixation location was high for both PD (kappa = 0.80, 95% agreement) and HC groups (kappa = 0.80, 91% agreement), which indicated a reliable classification method. This study developed a reliable semi-automated contextual analysis method for gait studies in HC and PD. Future studies could adapt this methodology for various gait-related eye-tracking studies.

  11. Development of a Star Tracker-Based Reference System for Accurate Attitude Determination of a Simulated Spacecraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    the mathematical pretext for quaternions, which summarizes as: In three- dimensional space , any displacement of a rigid body such that a ...for the patch board was selected, with a uniform 8 mm spacing between LED centers. Figure 33 is schematic of the patch board layout, and Fig. 34 shows...attitude determination since the dawn of the space age. Without accurate attitude determination, a “Lost- in-

  12. Dense Axion Stars.

    PubMed

    Braaten, Eric; Mohapatra, Abhishek; Zhang, Hong

    2016-09-16

    If the dark matter particles are axions, gravity can cause them to coalesce into axion stars, which are stable gravitationally bound systems of axions. In the previously known solutions for axion stars, gravity and the attractive force between pairs of axions are balanced by the kinetic pressure. The mass of these dilute axion stars cannot exceed a critical mass, which is about 10^{-14}M_{⊙} if the axion mass is 10^{-4}  eV. We study axion stars using a simple approximation to the effective potential of the nonrelativistic effective field theory for axions. We find a new branch of dense axion stars in which gravity is balanced by the mean-field pressure of the axion Bose-Einstein condensate. The mass on this branch ranges from about 10^{-20}M_{⊙} to about M_{⊙}. If a dilute axion star with the critical mass accretes additional axions and collapses, it could produce a bosenova, leaving a dense axion star as the remnant.

  13. Heartbeat Stars Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    This artist's concept depicts "heartbeat stars," which have been detected by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope and others. The illustration shows two heartbeat stars swerving close to one another in their closest approach along their highly elongated orbits around one another. The mutual gravitation of the two stars would cause the stars themselves to become slightly ellipsoidal in shape. A third, more distant star in the system is shown in the upper left. Astronomers speculate that such unseen companions may exist in some of these heartbeat star systems, and could be responsible for maintaining these oddly stretched-out orbits. The overlaid curve depicts the inferred cyclic change in velocities in one such system, called KIC 9965691, looking something like the graph of an electrocardiogram (hence the name "heartbeat stars"). The solid points represent measurements made by the HIRES instrument at the W.M. Keck Observatory, and the curve is the best fit model for the motions of this system. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21075

  14. Young and Waltzing Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-10-01

    binary system and the third object that shines with constant light. Both the primary, deeper and the secondary, less deep eclipses are well visible. The primary eclipse was observed on December 8, 2000 and is here displayed at phase zero. During this minimum, the brightness of the binary system decreases by about 45% (0.4 magnitudes). The primary eclipse takes place when the smaller component blocks the light from the brighter and hotter star. The orbital motions of the two stars are illustrated by a computer-generated, animated sequence. The secondary eclipse (at phase 0.5) dims the light from the system less; it occurs when the larger and brighter star almost completely (about 90%) hides its smaller companion. The second minimum was recorded on January 12, 2001. None of the eclipses is therefore "total". The stellar parameters A detailed analysis of these high-precision light curves allowed the astronomers to determine the orbits and hence, to perform an extremely accurate measurement of the fundamental stellar parameters for the two young stars of RXJ 0529.4+0041 . The star that is eclipsed during the primary eclipse (the "primary") is the more massive and also the hotter and brighter of the two stars. Its mass is 1.3 times that of our Sun, i.e., about 2.6 10 30 kg [2]. Its diameter is nearly 1.6 times larger than that of our Sun (i.e., about 2.2 million km) and the surface temperature is found to be a little more than 5000 °C, or a few hundred degrees cooler than the Sun. The "secondary" star is slightly lighter than our Sun. Its weight is about 90% of that of the Sun (1.8 10 30 kg) and the diameter is 20% larger (about 1.7 million km), while the surface temperature is 4000 degrees. In fact, these two stars are still so young that most of their energy comes from the contraction process - the first phase during which they are formed from an interstellar cloud by this process is not yet over and they are still getting smaller. It is by this process that collapsing

  15. Highly-evolved stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heap, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The ways in which the IUE has proved useful in studying highly evolved stars are reviewed. The importance of high dispersion spectra for abundance analyses of the sd0 stars and for studies of the wind from the central star of NGC 6543 and the wind from the 0 type component of Vela X-1 is shown. Low dispersion spectra are used for absolute spectrophotometry of the dwarf nova, Ex Hya. Angular resolution is important for detecting and locating UV sources in globular clusters.

  16. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiongbiao

    2014-06-01

    Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model was designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0-10 min(-1). The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. An electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy system was

  17. A bronchoscopic navigation system using bronchoscope center calibration for accurate registration of electromagnetic tracker and CT volume without markers

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Xiongbiao, E-mail: xiongbiao.luo@gmail.com

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Various bronchoscopic navigation systems are developed for diagnosis, staging, and treatment of lung and bronchus cancers. To construct electromagnetically navigated bronchoscopy systems, registration of preoperative images and an electromagnetic tracker must be performed. This paper proposes a new marker-free registration method, which uses the centerlines of the bronchial tree and the center of a bronchoscope tip where an electromagnetic sensor is attached, to align preoperative images and electromagnetic tracker systems. Methods: The chest computed tomography (CT) volume (preoperative images) was segmented to extract the bronchial centerlines. An electromagnetic sensor was fixed at the bronchoscope tip surface. A model wasmore » designed and printed using a 3D printer to calibrate the relationship between the fixed sensor and the bronchoscope tip center. For each sensor measurement that includes sensor position and orientation information, its corresponding bronchoscope tip center position was calculated. By minimizing the distance between each bronchoscope tip center position and the bronchial centerlines, the spatial alignment of the electromagnetic tracker system and the CT volume was determined. After obtaining the spatial alignment, an electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was established to real-timely track or locate a bronchoscope inside the bronchial tree during bronchoscopic examinations. Results: The electromagnetic navigation bronchoscopy system was validated on a dynamic bronchial phantom that can simulate respiratory motion with a breath rate range of 0–10 min{sup −1}. The fiducial and target registration errors of this navigation system were evaluated. The average fiducial registration error was reduced from 8.7 to 6.6 mm. The average target registration error, which indicates all tracked or navigated bronchoscope position accuracy, was much reduced from 6.8 to 4.5 mm compared to previous registration methods. Conclusions

  18. Autonomous Low Earth Orbit Satellite and Orbital Debris Tracking Using Mid Aperture COTS Optical Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhorn, B.; Azari, D.

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Orbital Debris tracking have become considerably important with regard to Space Situational Awareness (SSA). This paper discusses the capabilities of autonomous LEO and Orbital Debris Tracking Systems using commercially available (mid aperture 20-24 inch) telescopes, tracking gimbals, and CCD imagers. RC Optical Systems has been developing autonomous satellite trackers that allow for unattended acquisition, imaging, and orbital determination of LEOs using low cost COTS equipment. The test setup from which we are gathering data consists of an RC Optical Systems Professional Series Elevation over Azimuth Gimbal with field de-rotation, RC Optical Systems 20 inch Ritchey-Chretien Telescope coupled to an e2v CCD42-40 CCD array, and 77mm f/4 tracking lens coupled to a KAF-0402ME CCD array. Central to success of LEO acquisition and open loop tracking is accurate modeling of Gimbal and telescope misalignments and flexures. Using pro-TPoint and a simple automated mapping routine we have modeled our primary telescope to achieve pointing and tracking accuracies within a population standard deviation of 1.3 arc-sec (which is 1.1 arc-sec RMS). Once modeled, a mobile system can easily and quickly be calibrated to the sky using a simple 6-10 star map to solve for axis tilt and collimation coefficients. Acquisition of LEO satellites is accomplished through the use of a wide field imager. Using a 77mm f/4 lens and 765 x 510 x 9mu CCD array yields a 1.28 x 0.85 degree field of view in our test setup. Accurate boresite within the acquisition array is maintained throughout the full range of motion through differential tpoint modeling of the main and acquisition imagers. Satellite identification is accomplished by detecting a stationary centroid as a point source and differentiating from the background of streaked stars in a single frame. We found 100% detection rate of LEO with radar cross sections (RCS) of > 0.5 meter*meter within the acquisition array, and

  19. Blue Star/Gold Star Flag Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Webb, Jim [D-VA

    2011-02-17

    Senate - 02/17/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. STAR -Space Time Asymmetry Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zoest, Tim; Braxmaier, Claus; Schuldt, Thilo; Allab, Mohammed; Theil, Stephan; Pelivan, Ivanka; Herrmann, Sven; Lümmerzahl, Claus; Peters, Achim; Mühle, Katharina; Wicht, Andreas; Nagel, Moritz; Kovalchuk, Evgeny; Düringshoff, Klaus; Dittus, Hansjürg

    STAR is a proposed satellite mission that aims for significantly improved tests of fundamental space-time symmetry and the foundations of special and general relativity. In total STAR comprises a series of five subsequent missions. The STAR1 mission will measure the constancy of the speed of light to one part in 1019 and derive the Kennedy Thorndike (KT) coefficient of the Mansouri-Sexl test theory to 7x10-10 . The KT experiment will be performed by compar-ison of an iodine standard with a highly stable cavity made from ultra low expansion (ULE) ceramics. With an orbital velocity of 7 km/s the sensitivity to a boost dependent violation of Lorentz invariance as modeled by the KT term in the Mansouri Sexl test theory or a Lorentz violating extension of the standard model (SME) will be significantly enhanced as compared to Earth based experiments. The low noise space environment will additionally enhance the measurement precision such that an overall improvement by a factor of 400 over current Earth based experiments is expected.