Science.gov

Sample records for state moderate optical

  1. A moderate space mission for optical interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Rayman, M. D.; Shao, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Orbiting Stellar Interferometer (OSI) is a proposed space-based observatory which will open exciting new vistas in astronomy and address fundamental scientific questions by making extremely accurate (3 - 30 microarcsecond) astrometric measurements of the positions of stars, quasars, and other astronomical objects as faint as magnitude 20. In addition, it will be able to image objects with a resolution of 5 milliarcseconds. As the first optical interferometer in space, OSI will provide major advances in astrophysics while demonstrating a powerful concept applicable to major space-based observations of the future. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has developed a preliminary design of OSI to establish its feasibility and to estimate performance that can be achieved in a mission of moderate scale. In this first publication of the results of the first year of study, the science objectives are presented, and the design of the mission, instrument, and spacecraft are discussed.

  2. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  3. Solid state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, Ian T.

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  4. The relation between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 over the United States: a geographical comparison by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai; Hoff, Raymond M; Engel-Cox, Jill A

    2009-11-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) acquired from satellite measurements demonstrates good correlation with particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) in some regions of the United States and has been used for monitoring and nowcasting air quality over the United States. This work investigates the relation between Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) AOD and PM2.5 over the 10 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-defined geographic regions in the United States on the basis of a 2-yr (2005-2006) match-up dataset of MODIS AOD and hourly PM2.5 measurements. The AOD retrievals demonstrate a geographical and seasonal variation in their relation with PM2.5. Good correlations are mostly observed over the eastern United States in summer and fall. The southeastern United States has the highest correlation coefficients at more than 0.6. The southwestern United States has the lowest correlation coefficient of approximately 0.2. The seasonal regression relations derived for each region are used to estimate the PM2.5 from AOD retrievals, and it is shown that the estimation using this method is more accurate than that using a fixed ratio between PM2.5 and AOD. Two versions of AOD from Terra (v4.0.1 and v5.2.6) are also compared in terms of the inversion methods and screening algorithms. The v5.2.6 AOD retrievals demonstrate better correlation with PM2.5 than v4.0.1 retrievals, but they have much less coverage because of the differences in the cloud-screening algorithm.

  5. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOEpatents

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  6. Impact of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aerosol Optical Depth and AirNow PM2.5 assimilation on Community Multi-scale Air Quality aerosol predictions over the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tianfeng; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Li; Lee, Pius; Tong, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    In this study, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and AirNow PM2.5 measurements are assimilated into the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using an optimal interpolation (OI) method. Over a 30 day test period in July 2011, three assimilation configurations were used in which MODIS AOD and AirNow PM2.5 measurements were first assimilated separately before being assimilated simultaneously. The background error covariance is estimated using both the National Meteorological Center approach and the Hollingsworth-Lönnberg method. The AOD observations from Terra are assimilated at 17Z and the Aqua AOD observations are assimilated at 20Z each day. AirNow PM2.5 measurements are assimilated 4 times a day at 00Z, 06Z, 12Z, and 18Z. Model performances are measured by the daily averaged and domain-averaged biases and the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) obtained by comparing the predictions with the AirNow PM2.5 observations that were not assimilated. Either assimilating the MODIS AOD or assimilating the AirNow PM2.5 alone helps PM2.5 predictions over the entire 30 days. The case that assimilates the observations from both sources has the best performance. While the CMAQ PM2.5 results exhibit exaggerated diurnal variations compared to the AirNow measurements, this is not as severe at rural sites as at urban or suburban sites. It was also found that assimilating the total AOD observations is more beneficial for correcting the PM2.5 underestimations than directly assimilating the AirNow PM2.5 measurements every 6 h. While the simple approach of applying the AOD scaling factors uniformly throughout the vertical columns proved effective, it is liable to produce substantial errors. This is demonstrated by a high-AOD event.

  7. Optically excited states in positronium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, R. H.; Ziock, Klaus P.; Magnotta, F.; Dermer, Charles D.; Failor, R. A.; Jones, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optical excitation are reported of the 1 3S-2 3P transition in positronium, and a second excitation from n=2 to higher n states. The experiment used light from two pulsed dye lasers. Changes in the positronium annihilation rate during and after the laser pulse were used to deduce the excited state populations. The n=2 level was found to be saturable and excitable to a substantial fraction of n=2 positronium to higher levels. Preliminary spectroscopic measurements were performed on n=14 and n=15 positronium.

  8. Moderate Cortical Cooling Eliminates Thalamocortical Silent States during Slow Oscillation.

    PubMed

    Sheroziya, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2015-09-23

    Reduction in temperature depolarizes neurons by a partial closure of potassium channels but decreases the vesicle release probability within synapses. Compared with cooling, neuromodulators produce qualitatively similar effects on intrinsic neuronal properties and synapses in the cortex. We used this similarity of neuronal action in ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized mice and non-anesthetized mice to manipulate the thalamocortical activity. We recorded cortical electroencephalogram/local field potential (LFP) activity and intracellular activities from the somatosensory thalamus in control conditions, during cortical cooling and on rewarming. In the deeply anesthetized mice, moderate cortical cooling was characterized by reversible disruption of the thalamocortical slow-wave pattern rhythmicity and the appearance of fast LFP spikes, with frequencies ranging from 6 to 9 Hz. These LFP spikes were correlated with the rhythmic IPSP activities recorded within the thalamic ventral posterior medial neurons and with depolarizing events in the posterior nucleus neurons. Similar cooling of the cortex during light anesthesia rapidly and reversibly eliminated thalamocortical silent states and evoked thalamocortical persistent activity; conversely, mild heating increased thalamocortical slow-wave rhythmicity. In the non-anesthetized head-restrained mice, cooling also prevented the generation of thalamocortical silent states. We conclude that moderate cortical cooling might be used to manipulate slow-wave network activity and induce neuromodulator-independent transition to activated states. Significance statement: In this study, we demonstrate that moderate local cortical cooling of lightly anesthetized or naturally sleeping mice disrupts thalamocortical slow oscillation and induces the activated local field potential pattern. Mild heating has the opposite effect; it increases the rhythmicity of thalamocortical slow oscillation. Our results demonstrate that slow oscillation can be

  9. Harmonic oscillator states in aberration optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    1993-01-01

    The states of the three-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator classify optical aberrations of axis-symmetric systems due to the isomorphism between the two mathematical structures. Cartesian quanta and angular momentum classifications have their corresponding aberration classifications. The operation of concatenation of optical elements introduces a new operation between harmonic oscillator states.

  10. Moderate chill peach variety development for the Southeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southeastern U.S. peach industry is concentrated in two production areas, i.e. Central Georgia/South Carolina (high chill, main season) and the Lower Coastal Plain (moderate chill, early season) along the Gulf coast. These two areas have distinctly different climates, and consequently, require ...

  11. Sequential quantum teleportation of optical coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Furusawa, Akira; Loock, Peter van

    2007-09-15

    We demonstrate a sequence of two quantum teleportations of optical coherent states, combining two high-fidelity teleporters for continuous variables. In our experiment, the individual teleportation fidelities are evaluated as F{sub 1}=0.70{+-}0.02 and F{sub 2}=0.75{+-}0.02, while the fidelity between the input and the sequentially teleported states is determined as F{sup (2)}=0.57{+-}0.02. This still exceeds the optimal fidelity of one half for classical teleportation of arbitrary coherent states and almost attains the value of the first (unsequential) quantum teleportation experiment with optical coherent states.

  12. State of Ohio Curriculum Guide for Moderately Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Maxine.

    Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…

  13. Optical Scaling Relations of X-ray Selected Clusters at Moderate Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloster, Dylan; Rines, K.; Svoboda, B. E.; Arnold, R. L.; Welch, T. J.; Finn, R. A.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2011-01-01

    The relation between dark matter and galaxies is a fundamental problem in astrophysics. Here, we study this relation using optical observations of an X-ray-selected sample of clusters at moderate redshift (z=0.35-0.90). We collected griz images of 30 clusters with WIYN/OPTIC to measure the bright end of the luminosity function. Our imaging extends approximately 2 magnitudes fainter than M*, thus including most of the total cluster light. We use the red sequence and statistical background subtraction to estimate the richnesses and stellar luminosities of the clusters. We measure scaling relations by comparing the optical properties to X-ray mass estimates derived from Chandra observations. At low redshift, some studies indicate that total stellar luminosity is a better predictor of cluster mass than X-ray luminosity. We test whether a similar result holds at moderate redshift. In the future, we will compare the optical and X-ray properties to virial mass estimates from optical spectroscopy and to Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect observations. If photometric properties of clusters are good predictors of cluster mass, these relations could be applied to large surveys like SPT, Planck, DES, eROSITA, and LSST to improve constraints on the properties of dark energy.

  14. State-level moderation of genetic tendencies to smoke.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D

    2009-03-01

    I examined genetic influences on smoking among adolescents and differences in the heritability of smoking across states in the United States. With data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (participants aged 12-21 years), I used a multilevel twin- and sibling-pair (N = 2060 pairs) regression model. Daily smoking (hereditability estimate [h(2)] = 0.54) and smoking onset (h(2) = 0.42) were both highly heritable. Whereas the genetic influences on smoking onset were consistent across states, there was significant variation in these influences on daily smoking. Genetic influences on daily smoking were lower in states with relatively high taxes on cigarettes and in those with greater controls on the vending machines and cigarette advertising. Genetic influences were also negatively associated with rates of smoking among youths. At the state level, gene-environment interaction models are best characterized by the model of social control. State policies may influence genetic tendencies to smoke regularly, but they have not affected the genetic contributions to cigarette onset or experimentation. Future tobacco-control policies may emphasize the heritable endophenotypes that increase the likelihood that adolescents will initiate smoking.

  15. Moderating effects of music on resting state networks.

    PubMed

    Kay, Benjamin P; Meng, Xiangxiang; Difrancesco, Mark W; Holland, Scott K; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2012-04-04

    Resting state networks (RSNs) are spontaneous, synchronous, low-frequency oscillations observed in the brains of subjects who are awake but at rest. A particular RSN called the default mode network (DMN) has been shown to exhibit changes associated with neurological disorders such as temporal lobe epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. Previous studies have also found that differing experimental conditions such as eyes-open versus eyes-closed can produce measurable changes in the DMN. These condition-associated changes have the potential of confounding the measurements of changes in RSNs related to or caused by disease state(s). In this study, we use fMRI measurements of resting-state connectivity paired with EEG measurements of alpha rhythm and employ independent component analysis, undirected graphs of partial spectral coherence, and spatiotemporal regression to investigate the effect of music-listening on RSNs and the DMN in particular. We observed similar patterns of DMN connectivity in subjects who were listening to music compared with those who were not, with a trend toward a more introspective pattern of resting-state connectivity during music-listening. We conclude that music-listening is a valid condition under which the DMN can be studied.

  16. Cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2006-06-15

    We analyze in details a scheme for cloning of Gaussian states based on linear optical components and homodyne detection recently demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is evaluated for a generic (pure or mixed) Gaussian state taking into account the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency and unbalanced mode mixing. In addition, since in most quantum information protocols the covariance matrix of the set of input states is not perfectly known, we evaluate the average cloning fidelity for classes of Gaussian states with the degree of squeezing and the number of thermal photons being only partially known.

  17. Optical coherence tomography and low-frequency mechanics: A moderated discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, Dennis M.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2015-12-31

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of “Optical Coherence Tomography” and “Low-Frequency Mechanics”. The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12{sup th} International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  18. Optical coherence tomography and low-frequency mechanics: A moderated discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Dennis M.; Ruggero, Mario A.

    2015-12-01

    The following is an edited transcript of a recorded discussion session on the topics of "Optical Coherence Tomography" and "Low-Frequency Mechanics". The discussion, moderated by the authors, took place at the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing held at Cape Sounio, Greece, in June 2014. All participants knew that the session was being recorded. In view of both the spontaneous nature of the discussion and the editing, however, this transcript may not represent the considered or final views of the participants, and may not represent a consensus of experts in the field. The reader is advised to consult additional independent publications.

  19. Moderate plasma treatment enhances the quality of optically detected magnetic resonance signals of nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotoma, Shingo; Igarashi, Ryuji; Shirakawa, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that a moderate plasma treatment increases the quality of optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) signals from negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centres in nanodiamonds (NDs). We measured the statistics of the ODMR spectra of 50-nm-size NDs before and after plasma treatment. We then evaluated each ODMR spectrum in terms of fluorescence and ODMR intensities, line width and signal-to-noise (SN) ratio. Our results showed that plasma treatment for more than 10 min contributes to higher-quality ODMR signals, i.e. signals that are brighter, stronger, sharper and have a higher SN ratio. We showed that such signal improvement is due to alteration of the surface chemical states of the NDs by the plasma treatment. Our study contributes to the advancement of biosensing applications using ODMR of NDs.

  20. Global aerosol optical properties and application to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer aerosol retrieval over land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Robert C.; Remer, Lorraine A.; Dubovik, Oleg

    2007-07-01

    As more information about global aerosol properties has become available from remotely sensed retrievals and in situ measurements, it is prudent to evaluate this new information, both on its own and in the context of satellite retrieval algorithms. Using the climatology of almucantur retrievals from global Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer sites, we perform cluster analysis to determine aerosol type as a function of location and season. We find that three spherical-derived types (describing fine-sized dominated aerosol) and one spheroid-derived types (describing coarse-sized dominated aerosol, presumably dust) generally describe the range of AERONET observed global aerosol properties. The fine-dominated types are separated mainly by their single scattering albedo (ω0), ranging from nonabsorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.95) in developed urban/industrial regions, to moderately absorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.90) in forest fire burning and developing industrial regions, to absorbing aerosol (ω0 ˜ 0.85) in regions of savanna/grassland burning. We identify the dominant aerosol type at each site, and extrapolate to create seasonal 1° × 1° maps of expected aerosol types. Each aerosol type is bilognormal, with dynamic (function of optical depth) size parameters (radius, standard deviation, volume distribution) and complex refractive index. Not only are these parameters interesting in their own right, they can also be applied to aerosol retrieval algorithms, such as to aerosol retrieval over land from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Independent direct-Sun AERONET observations of spectral aerosol optical depth (τ) are consistent the spectral dependence of the models, indicating that our derived aerosol models are relevant.

  1. Optical Solid State Cooling within a Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M.; Heeg, B.; Khizhnyak, A.; DeBarber, P. A.

    2004-06-01

    Recent demonstrations of optical solid state cooling by anti-Stokes luminescence has yielded temperatures of 236 K, while it has been predicted that cooling efficiencies of the order of 1% are obtainable for temperatures as low as 40 to 50 K for some materials. In this paper, we will discuss a design of an optical cooling device based on the idea of locating the active cooling element inside a laser resonator. The inherent multi-passing of radiation within a laser cavity allows efficient pumping of the cooling medium. Results of a low power prototype version of the device are discussed and a method for optimizing the cooling efficiencies with this approach is presented.

  2. Arbitrary unitary transformations on optical states using a quantum memory

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Geoff T.; Pinel, Olivier; Hosseini, Mahdi; Buchler, Ben C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2014-12-04

    We show that optical memories arranged along an optical path can perform arbitrary unitary transformations on frequency domain optical states. The protocol offers favourable scaling and can be used with any quantum memory that uses an off-resonant Raman transition to reversibly transfer optical information to an atomic spin coherence.

  3. Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCusker, Kevin T.

    Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.

  4. Imaging the local density of states of optical corrals.

    PubMed

    Chicanne, C; David, T; Quidant, R; Weeber, J C; Lacroute, Y; Bourillot, E; Dereux, A; Colas Des Francs, G; Girard, C

    2002-03-04

    This paper reports the experimental observation, at optical frequencies, of the electromagnetic local density of states established by nanostructures corresponding to the recently introduced concept of optical corral [G. Colas des Francs et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 4950 (2001)]. The images obtained by a scanning near-field optical microscope under specific operational conditions are found in agreement with the theoretical maps of the optical local density of states. A clear functionality of detection by the scanning near-field optical microscope is thereby identified since the theoretical maps are computed without including any specific tip model.

  5. Generating entangled states of two ququarts using linear optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2007-03-15

    We propose linear optical schemes for generating entangled states of two ququarts (four-dimensional quantum systems) in which the single-ququart state is constructed with frequency-nondegenerate biphoton polarization states of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We show explicitly that it is possible to generate various two-ququart entangled states by interfering two ququarts at a linear optical beam splitter (an ordinary 50-50 beam splitter, a polarizing beam splitter, or a dichroic beam splitter)

  6. Nanoscale "Dark State" Optical Potentials for Cold Atoms.

    PubMed

    Łącki, M; Baranov, M A; Pichler, H; Zoller, P

    2016-12-02

    We discuss the generation of subwavelength optical barriers on the scale of tens of nanometers, as conservative optical potentials for cold atoms. These arise from nonadiabatic corrections to Born-Oppenheimer potentials from dressed "dark states" in atomic Λ configurations. We illustrate the concepts with a double layer potential for atoms obtained from inserting an optical subwavelength barrier into a well generated by an off-resonant optical lattice, and discuss bound states of pairs of atoms interacting via magnetic dipolar interactions. The subwavelength optical barriers represent an optical "Kronig-Penney" potential. We present a detailed study of the band structure in optical Kronig-Penney potentials, including decoherence from spontaneous emission and atom loss to open "bright" channels.

  7. Compact flat band states in optically induced flatland photonic lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travkin, Evgenij; Diebel, Falko; Denz, Cornelia

    2017-07-01

    We realize low-dimensional tight-binding lattices that host flat bands in their dispersion relation and demonstrate the existence of optical compact flat band states. The lattices are resembled by arrays of optical waveguides fabricated by the state-of-the-art spatio-temporal Bessel beam multiplexing optical induction in photorefractive media. We work out the decisive details of the transition from the discrete theory to the real optical system ensuring that the experimental lattices stand up to numerical scrutiny exhibiting well-approximated band structures. Our highly flexible system is a promising candidate for further experimental investigation of theoretically studied disorder effects in flat band lattices.

  8. Welding of glasses in optical and partial-optical contact via focal position adjustment of femtosecond-laser pulses at moderately high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hua; Duan, Ji'an

    2017-07-01

    We used 1030-nm femtosecond-laser pulses focused above/at/below the interface of two fused-silica glass substrates in optical and partial-optical contact to successfully weld them at a moderately high repetition rate of 600 kHz. Variation in the laser focal position for these two gap-distance regimes (optical and partial-optical contact) yields different bonding strengths (BSs) and machining mechanisms. The maximum bonding strength (58.2 MPa) can be achieved for a gap distance ≤λ /4 for optical-contact welding when laser focused below the interface, and the corresponding height of the welding seam was 23 μm. In addition, our results demonstrated that the "filamentation welding technique" is critical to the femtosecond-laser direct welding of glasses. Furthermore, line welding is significantly easier to realize when the femtosecond laser focuses at the interface in partial-optical-contact welding applications due to the combined effects of filamentation welding and ablation.

  9. Optical glass: standards - present state and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2015-10-01

    In 1996, the international organization for standardization ISO started the standards series ISO 10110 specifying indications in drawings of optical elements. Three parts cover material properties: part 2 (stress birefringence), 3 (bubbles and inclusions), and 4 (inhomogeneity and striae). Customers used to just send optical element drawings to glass manufacturers often leading to uncertainty, overspecification, and delivery problems. The raw glass standard ISO 12123 of 2010 allows direct addressing of raw glass specifications. Harmonizing ISO 10110 with ISO 12123 and progress in inspection methods require updating of the material specifying parts. A new part 18 containing all properties is under preparation and is meant to replace parts 2-4. ISO 12123 will be amended by introducing definitions for relative partial dispersions and reference normal lines and grade denominations for tolerance ranges. The working draft ISO/WD 10110 part 18 extends indication possibilities to allow relating to ISO 12123 while ensuring backward compatibility. Default optical glass quality and direct specification of raw glass simplify tolerancing considerably. Annexes support selection of appropriate quality classes referring to optical element size categories. Test and inspection standards on chemical resistances, hardness, stress birefringence, and optical homogeneity will be maintained. Standards for water resistance, refractive index, and striae inspection are being prepared.

  10. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test results obtained have confirmed the practicality of the solid state electro-optic filters as an optical control element in a television system. Neutral-density control range in excess of 1000:1 has been obtained on sample filters. Test results, measurements in a complete camera system, discussions of problem areas, analytical comparisons, and recommendations for future investigations are included.

  11. Optical Flow-Based State Estimation for Guided Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL-TR-7321 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Optical Flow-Based State Estimation for Guided Projectiles by Moshe... Guided Projectiles by Moshe Hamaoui Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL Approved for public release...

  12. State of the Art Review: Optical Processing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    lenses, optical fibers , or planar lightguides to illuminate a two-dimensional mask that represents the matrix A. Light from the mask that has been... polybenzobisoxazole 7. Polyester and polyesteramids 8. Polyetherketone 9. Polyquinoxalines 10. Porphyrins and metal-porphyrin complexes 11. Metal complexes of

  13. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  14. Self-awareness moderates the relation between maternal mental state language about desires and children's mental state vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Taumoepeau, Mele; Ruffman, Ted

    2016-04-01

    In this intervention study, we tested the differential effect of talking about children's desires versus talking about others' thoughts and knowledge on children's acquisition of mental state vocabulary for children who did and did not have mirror self-recognition. In a sample of 96 mother-toddler dyads, each mother was randomly assigned a specially constructed, interactive lift-the-flap book to read to her child three times a week for 4 weeks. In the child desire condition the story elicited comments regarding the child's desires, and in the cognitive condition the story elicited the mother's comments about her own thoughts and knowledge while reading the story. Children's mirror self-recognition and mental state vocabulary were assessed at pre- and post-test. Children in the condition that focused on the child's desires showed a significantly greater increase in their mental state vocabulary; however, this effect was moderated by their levels of self-awareness, with children benefitting more from the intervention if they also showed self-recognition at pre-test. We argue that the combination of specific types of maternal talk and children's prior insights facilitates gains in children's mental state vocabulary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical state-of-charge monitor for batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cell or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  16. The Moderating Effect of State Anger on Treatment Outcome in Female Adolescents With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Zhong, Jody; Foa, Edna B

    2016-08-01

    Trauma experienced in childhood and adolescence negatively affects the development of adaptive regulation of emotions and is associated with greater symptoms of anger. Prior research has suggested that high levels of anger may impede the outcome of treatment in adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study investigated whether high levels of anger resulted in poorer treatment outcomes in adolescent girls with PTSD. Participants included 61 female adolescent survivors of sexual abuse or assault who were randomized to either prolonged exposure for adolescents (PE-A) or client-centered therapy (CCT) for traumatized children for 8-14 weekly sessions. Participants were followed for 12 months posttreatment. High levels of state anger at baseline were associated with less improvement in PTSD symptoms in the CCT group than the PE-A group (d = 0.62). The moderating effects of state anger on improvement in PTSD symptoms was significant with emotion regulation difficulties, which may underlie anger symptoms (d = 0.58) in the model. The results of this study suggessted that high state anger was less of an impediment to treatment of PTSD for those receiving PE-A than those receiving less differentiated approaches such as CCT. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  17. Optical nanoscopy with excited state saturation at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Baby, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.

    2015-10-01

    Optical resolution of solid-state single quantum emitters at the nanometre scale is a challenging step towards the control of delocalized states formed by strongly and coherently interacting emitters. We have developed a simple super-resolution optical microscopy method operating at cryogenic temperatures, which is based on optical saturation of the excited state of single fluorescent molecules with a doughnut-shaped beam. Sub-10 nm resolution is achieved with extremely low excitation intensities, a million times lower than those used in room-temperature stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Compared with super-localization approaches, our technique offers a unique opportunity to super-resolve single molecules with overlapping optical resonance frequencies and paves the way to the study of coherent interactions between single emitters and to the manipulation of their degree of entanglement.

  18. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  19. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  20. Altered Resting State Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Stage Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Youngbin; Peltier, Scott; Bohnen, Nicolaas I.; Müller, Martijn L. T. M.; Dayalu, Praveen; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson's patients on and off l-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off l-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by l-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off l-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02–0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on l-DOPA. The l-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the l-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the l-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band correlated with the l-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and l-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and cortico-striatal network coherence. PMID:21206528

  1. Effect of Tongkat Ali on stress hormones and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Eurycoma longifolia is a medicinal plant commonly called tongkat ali (TA) and “Malaysian ginseng.” TA roots are a traditional “anti-aging” remedy and modern supplements are intended to improve libido, energy, sports performance and weight loss. Previous studies have shown properly-standardized TA to stimulate release of free testosterone, improve sex drive, reduce fatigue, and improve well-being. Methods We assessed stress hormones and mood state in 63 subjects (32 men and 31 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized hot-water extract of TA root (TA) or Placebo (PL) for 4 weeks. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with significance set at p < 0.05 was used to determine differences between groups. Results Significant improvements were found in the TA group for Tension (−11%), Anger (−12%), and Confusion (−15%). Stress hormone profile (salivary cortisol and testosterone) was significantly improved by TA supplementation, with reduced cortisol exposure (−16%) and increased testosterone status (+37%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with tongkat ali root extract improves stress hormone profile and certain mood state parameters, suggesting that this “ancient” remedy may be an effective approach to shielding the body from the detrimental effects of “modern” chronic stress, which may include general day-to-day stress, as well as the stress of dieting, sleep deprivation, and exercise training. PMID:23705671

  2. Use of Optical Fiber Imported Intra-Tissue Photodynamic Therapy for Treatment of Moderate to Severe Acne Vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Yuan, Dan; Liu, Wei; Chen, Jin; Lin, Xinyu; Cheng, Shi; Li, Fumin; Duan, Xiling

    2016-01-01

    Background To treat moderate to severe acne vulgaris, we developed an optical fiber imported intra-tissue photodynamic therapy: the optical fiber irradiation 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (OFI-ALA-PDT). The aim of this study was to compare the treatment effect and tolerability of OFI-ALA-PDT versus traditional ALA-PDT in the treatment of moderate to severe acne vulgaris. Material/Methods 60 patients with facial acne enrolled into this study were randomly divided into an OFI-ALA-PDT group and a traditional ALA-PDT group, with 30 patients in each group. The difference between these 2 groups was the red light irradiation methods used. In the OFI-ALA-PDT group we used intra-tissue irradiation (import the red light directly into the target lesion with optical fiber) for 5 min, while the traditional ALA-PDT group received whole-face irradiation for 20 min. All patients received 1 irradiation every 7 to 10 days for a total of 6 irradiations. Treatment effects and adverse reactions were recorded after the 4th and 6th irradiation, and at 4, 8, 16 weeks after the entire treatment. Results After the 4th irradiation, significantly different effective rates were observed in these groups (90.0% for the OFI-ALA-PDT group and 66.7% for the control group). However, no significant difference in effective rate was recorded in the later observations. There were 182 adverse reactions in the OFI-ALA-PDT group and 497 in the control group, which showed a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions OFI-ALA-PDT showed improved treatment effective rate in the early stage of irradiation, and it had fewer adverse reactions. PMID:26839152

  3. Nonadditive Mixed State Phases in Neutron Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Klepp, J.; Sponar, S.; Filipp, S.; Lettner, M.; Badurek, G.; Hasegawa, Y.

    2009-03-10

    In a neutron polarimetry experiment mixed neutron spin phases are determined. We consider evolutions leading to purely geometric, purely dynamical and combined phases. It is experimentally demonstrated that the sum of the geometric and dynamical phases--both obtained in separate measurements--is not equal to the associated total phase as obtained from a third measurement, unless the system is in a pure state. In this sense, mixed state phases are not additive.

  4. Frequency of positive states of mind as a moderator of the effects of stress on psychological functioning and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Bränström, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that individuals reporting more positive affect are healthier and live longer. The aim of this study was to examine if positive states of mind moderates the effect of perceived stress on psychological functioning and perceived health. A cross-sectional sample, n = 382, responded to questions regarding perceived stress, depression, anxiety, perceived health, and frequency of positive states of mind. Using a series of regression analyses, the results confirmed a moderating role of positive states of mind on the association between perceived stress and psychological outcomes. Among people experiencing a high frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress seems to have a low correspondence with depression, anxiety, and perceived health. But among those reporting a low frequency of positive states of mind, perceived stress was more strongly related and depression, anxiety, and perceived health suggesting a buffering effect of positive states of mind against the negative influence of stress.

  5. Development of the Los Alamos solid-state optical refrigerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Epstein, R.I.

    1998-05-01

    Laser-induced cooling of a solid by net anti-Stokes fluorescence, first experimentally demonstrated in 1995, can be the basis of a new type of cryocooler, an {ital optical refrigerator}. This article describes the physics and design issues of a practical optical refrigerator for operation at 77 K. In particular, the Los Alamos Solid-State Optical Refrigerator (LASSOR) which we are developing would have an operating efficiency comparable to commercial small cryocoolers, be completely vibration-free and operate for years without maintenance.

  6. Optical Detection of Nuclear Spin States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-31

    the control of a three-qubit solid state NMR quantum information processor. 2 . To explore multi-body spin dynamics and their sensitivity to...journals: 1. Entanglement Assisted Metrology, D. G. Cory, NMR Sensors Conference, Washington DC (2004). 2 . Tutorial on the use of nuclear spins for...between π/ 2 pulses is 30.3µs. Except for very short chains ( 3 -4 spins ), the optimal time between pulses is almost independent of the number of spins

  7. Feasible logic Bell-state analysis with linear optics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2016-01-01

    We describe a feasible logic Bell-state analysis protocol by employing the logic entanglement to be the robust concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state. This protocol only uses polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates, which are available in current experimental technology. We can conveniently identify two of the logic Bell states. This protocol can be easily generalized to the arbitrary C-GHZ state analysis. We can also distinguish two N-logic-qubit C-GHZ states. As the previous theory and experiment both showed that the C-GHZ state has the robustness feature, this logic Bell-state analysis and C-GHZ state analysis may be essential for linear-optical quantum computation protocols whose building blocks are logic-qubit entangled state. PMID:26877208

  8. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-01

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F / # systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. The repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100 nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  9. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    DOE PAGES

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; ...

    2016-10-10

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of evenmore » tight F/# systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. As a result, the repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.« less

  10. Moderate repetition rate ultra-intense laser targets and optics using variable thickness liquid crystal films

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, P. L.; Willis, C.; Cochran, G. E.; Hanna, R. T.; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.

    2016-10-10

    Liquid crystal films are variable thickness, planar targets for ultra-intense laser matter experiments such as ion acceleration. Their target qualities also make them ideal for high-power laser optics such as plasma mirrors and waveplates. By controlling parameters of film formation, thickness can be varied on-demand from 10 nm to above 50 μm, enabling real-time optimization of laser interactions. Presented here are results using a device that draws films from a bulk liquid crystal source volume with any thickness in the aforementioned range. Films form within 2 μm of the same location each time, well within the Rayleigh range of even tight F/# systems, thus removing the necessity for realignment between shots. As a result, the repetition rate of the device exceeds 0.1 Hz for sub-100nm films, facilitating higher repetition rate operation of modern laser facilities.

  11. Quantum state transfer through time reversal of an optical channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hush, M. R.; Bentley, C. D. B.; Ahlefeldt, R. L.; James, M. R.; Sellars, M. J.; Ugrinovskii, V.

    2016-12-01

    Rare-earth ions have exceptionally long coherence times, making them an excellent candidate for quantum information processing. A key part of this processing is quantum state transfer. We show that perfect state transfer can be achieved by time reversing the intermediate quantum channel, and suggest using a gradient echo memory (GEM) to perform this time reversal. We propose an experiment with rare-earth ions to verify these predictions, where an emitter and receiver crystal are connected with an optical channel passed through a GEM. We investigate the effect experimental imperfections and collective dynamics have on the state transfer process. We demonstrate that super-radiant effects can enhance coupling into the optical channel and improve the transfer fidelity. We lastly discuss how our results apply to state transfer of entangled states.

  12. Optical limiting and picosecond relaxation of carbocyanines upper electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulianov, D. A.; Dvornikov, A. S.; Rentzepis, P. M.

    2002-05-01

    Nonlinear absorption, anomalous fluorescence and relaxation of high-lying electronic states in six carbocyanine dyes, including cryptocyanine (DCI), DDI, DTDCI, DTTCI, DOTCI and HDIDCI, in solution and in polymer, were studied by means of picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy and nonlinear transmission experiments. Absorption cross-sections of the S 1→S n transition, and decay rates of the second singlet excited state, S 2, were measured. All dyes showed strong reverse saturable absorption in the 450-600 nm region with large excited to ground state absorption cross-section ratios. For DTDCI this ratio, at 470 nm, was measured to be 350, which is the largest ever reported. All molecules have shown strong optical limiting effect. However, in all molecules except DCI a saturation of the optical limiting process was observed as expected, owing to relatively long, up to 17.5 ps, lifetime of the S 2 state. The S 2 state fluorescence quantum yields were also measured.

  13. Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde

    2009-10-15

    We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.

  14. New, Efficient Optically Pumped Solid State Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-21

    Lasers", during the contract period from 15 August 1984 thru 11 November 1988 (AFOSR-88-0378) has led to some notable advances. This effort h,.s focused...lower laser states of both Er and 1Ho. This work has led to the inves t igation of the Nd,Er ion-ion interactions in other crystals such as Nd,Er:YALO...backed pyrex reflector. While the laser may work in a gold-plated cavity, the many visible, blue and near uv pump bands suggest better efficiency is

  15. Fault tolerance in parity-state linear optical quantum computing

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, A. J. F.; Ralph, T. C.; Haselgrove, H. L.; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2010-08-15

    We use a combination of analytical and numerical techniques to calculate the noise threshold and resource requirements for a linear optical quantum computing scheme based on parity-state encoding. Parity-state encoding is used at the lowest level of code concatenation in order to efficiently correct errors arising from the inherent nondeterminism of two-qubit linear-optical gates. When combined with teleported error-correction (using either a Steane or Golay code) at higher levels of concatenation, the parity-state scheme is found to achieve a saving of approximately three orders of magnitude in resources when compared to the cluster state scheme, at a cost of a somewhat reduced noise threshold.

  16. Subwavelength optical lattices induced by position-dependent dark states

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Qingqing; Evers, Joerg; Kiffner, Martin; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-05-15

    A method for the generation of subwavelength optical lattices based on multilevel dark states is proposed. The dark state is formed by a suitable combination of standing wave light fields, leading to position-dependent populations of the ground states. An additional field coupling dispersively to one of the ground states translates this position dependence into a subwavelength optical potential. We provide two semiclassical approaches to understand the involved physics, and demonstrate that they lead to identical results in a certain meaningful limit. Then we apply a Monte Carlo simulation technique to study the full quantum dynamics of the subwavelength trapping. Finally, we discuss the relevant time scales for the trapping, optimum conditions, and possible implementations.

  17. Leucine-enriched essential amino acid supplementation during moderate steady state exercise enhances postexercise muscle protein synthesis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: The effects of essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation during moderate steady state (ie, endurance) exercise on postexercise skeletal muscle metabolism are not well described, and the potential role of supplemental leucine on muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and associated molecular re...

  18. Optical control of charged exciton states in tungsten disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, M.; Hanbicki, A. T.; Jonker, B. T.; Kioseoglou, G.

    2015-05-18

    A method is presented for optically preparing WS{sub 2} monolayers to luminescence from only the charged exciton (trion) state–completely suppressing the neutral exciton. When isolating the trion state, we observed changes in the Raman A{sub 1g} intensity and an enhanced feature on the low energy side of the E{sup 1}{sub 2g} peak. Photoluminescence and optical reflectivity measurements confirm the existence of the prepared trion state. This technique also prepares intermediate regimes with controlled luminescence amplitudes of the neutral and charged exciton. This effect is reversible by exposing the sample to air, indicating the change is mitigated by surface interactions with the ambient environment. This method provides a tool to modify optical emission energy and to isolate physical processes in this and other two-dimensional materials.

  19. Large optical conductivity of Dirac semimetal Fermi arc surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Li-kun; Song, Justin C. W.

    2017-08-01

    Fermi arc surface states, a hallmark of topological Dirac semimetals, can host carriers that exhibit unusual dynamics distinct from that of their parent bulk. Here we find that Fermi arc carriers in intrinsic Dirac semimetals possess a strong and anisotropic light-matter interaction. This is characterized by a large Fermi arc optical conductivity when light is polarized transverse to the Fermi arc; when light is polarized along the Fermi arc, Fermi arc optical conductivity is significantly muted. The large surface spectral weight is locked to the wide separation between Dirac nodes and persists as a large Drude weight of Fermi arc carriers when the system is doped. As a result, large and anisotropic Fermi arc conductivity provides a novel means of optically interrogating the topological surfaces states of Dirac semimetals.

  20. United States Atlas of Optical Telescopes. [2nd Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, Stephen Paul

    1987-01-01

    This atlas shows the locations of and gives information about optical telescopes used for astronomical research in the United States as of late 1986. Those instruments with mirror or lens diameters of 3/4 m (approx. 30 inches) and larger are included. These telescopes are concentrated in the Southwest, on the West Coast and on the island of Hawaii.

  1. Visual and optical performance of silicone hydrogel contact lenses for moderate myopia

    PubMed Central

    Keir, Nancy; Simpson, Trefford; Fonn, Desmond

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To compare the short-term visual and optical performance of silicone hydrogel contact lenses for myopia ≥ −3.00D. Methods This was a short-term, non-dispense, double-masked, randomized study investigating Night&Day (ND), PureVision (PV), O2 Optix (O2), Biofinity (BF), Acuvue Advance (AA) and Acuvue OASYS for myopia ≥ −3.00D. Testing was conducted under scotopic conditions. Measures (one eye only) included: high- and low-contrast visual acuity (HCVA/LCVA), contrast sensitivity, subjective clarity of vision ratings (0-100 scale using reference images, with test image representing grade 50) and ocular aberrations (up to the 4th order, analyzed across individual scotopic pupil sizes). Results Three males and 27 females participated, with a mean (± SD) age of 24.9 ± 7.7 yrs (range 19 to 53 yrs), sphere of −5.30 ± 1.73D (range −3.00 to −10.75D) and cylinder −0.36 ± 0.23D (range 0 to −0.75D). Mean (± SEM) logMAR HCVA ranged from 0.06 (PV) to 0.10 (AA) (± 0.02), LCVA from 0.33 (BF) to 0.40 (AA) (± 0.02) and contrast sensitivity from 2.33 (BF) to 2.53 (ND) (± 0.15) (differences not statistically significant; all p > 0.05). Subjective ratings for the test image ranged from 59 (PV) to 64 (ND) (± 4) and 56 (AA) to 65 (ND) (± 4), for monochromatic and polychromatic reference images, respectively (all p > 0.05). There was a statistically significant impact on ocular aberrations with all study lenses compared to no lens. Between-lens differences were statistically significant for defocus (Z02), horizontal coma (Z 13) and spherical aberration (Z04). Conclusions Despite some differences in ocular aberrations, there were no significant differences in HCVA, LCVA, contrast sensitivity or subjective ratings across lenses.

  2. Optical sensing and analyte manipulation in solid-state nanopores.

    PubMed

    Gilboa, Tal; Meller, Amit

    2015-07-21

    The field of nanopore sensing has been gaining increasing attention. Much progress has been made towards biotechnological applications that involve electrical measurements of temporal changes in the ionic current flowing through the pore. But in many cases the electrical signal is restricted by the non-ideal noise components, limited throughput, and insufficient temporal or spatial resolutions. To address these limitations, high-sensitivity optical detection techniques that complement the electrical measurements have been developed. The optical techniques involve high-bandwidth, multicolor and high-throughput measurements. Here we review the recent advancements and developments that have been taking place in the field of optical sensing in solid-state nanopores. We describe the main optical methods used in this field involving total internal reflection and confocal microscopy in addition to sophisticated background suppression strategies. We further present the phenomenon of light induced analyte manipulation at the pore and the contribution of the optical sensing approach to possible nanopore sensing applications such as optical based DNA sequencing using nanopores.

  3. Optimal local expansion of W states using linear optics and Fock states

    SciTech Connect

    Ikuta, Rikizo; Tashima, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-15

    We derive the maximum success probability of circuits with passive linear optics for postselectively expanding an N-photon W state to an (N+n)-photon W state, by accessing only one photon of the initial W state and adding n photons in a Fock state. We show that the maximum success probability is achieved by a polarization-dependent beamsplitter and n-1 polarization-independent beamsplitters.

  4. Quantum communication with coherent states and linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Lütkenhaus, Norbert

    2014-10-01

    We introduce a general mapping for encoding quantum communication protocols involving pure states of multiple qubits, unitary transformations, and projective measurements into another set of protocols that employ a coherent state of light in a linear combination of optical modes, linear-optics transformations, and measurements with single-photon threshold detectors. This provides a general framework for transforming protocols in quantum communication into a form in which they can be implemented with current technology. We explore the similarity between properties of the original qubit protocols and the coherent-state protocols obtained from the mapping and make use of the mapping to construct additional protocols in the context of quantum communication complexity and quantum digital signatures. Our results have the potential of bringing a wide class of quantum communication protocols closer to their experimental demonstration.

  5. Loss-resilient photonic entanglement swapping using optical hybrid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youngrong; Joo, Jaewoo; Spiller, Timothy P.; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2016-12-01

    We propose a scheme of loss-resilient entanglement swapping between two distant parties via an imperfect optical channel. In this scheme, two copies of hybrid entangled states are prepared and the continuous-variable parts propagate through lossy media. In order to perform successful entanglement swapping, several different measurement schemes are considered for the continuous-variable parts such as single-photon detection for ideal cases and a homodyne detection for practical cases. We find that the entanglement swapping using hybrid states with small amplitudes offers larger entanglement than the discrete-variable entanglement swapping in the presence of large losses. Remarkably, this hybrid scheme still offers excellent robustness of entanglement to the detection inefficiency. Thus, the proposed scheme could be used for the practical quantum key distribution in hybrid optical states under photon losses.

  6. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Haywood, J. M.; Johnson, B. T.; Murakami, H.; Nakajima, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty surrounding the role of mineral dust aerosols in the earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction), are poorly understood because ground observations are limited to several locations and the satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength. We develop a method in this paper to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0) and optical depth (τa), with daily 1 degree latitude and 1 degree longitude resolution, using data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We confirm that the uncertainties in our estimation of ω0 and τa are suitably minor and that the characteristic spatial distributions estimated over the Sahara and Asia are significant. The results for the Sahara indicate good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance and between ω0 and τa. Therefore, ω0 is determined mainly by the mineral composition of surface dust and/or the optical depth of airborne dust in the Sahara. On the other hand, the relationships between ω0, τa, and the surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the values of ω0 are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are thought to be transported, as reported in previous studies. Because the coal-burning and carbonaceous aerosols are known to be more absorptive and have smaller ω0 values than dust aerosols, our results indicate that the dust aerosols in Asia are contaminated by

  7. Enlargement of optical Schrödinger's cat states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, Demid V.; Ulanov, Alexander E.; Pushkina, Anastasia A.; Richards, Matthew W.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Lvovsky, Alexander I.

    2017-06-01

    Superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states, introduced in Schrödinger's famous Gedankenexperiment, are an epitome of quantum 'strangeness' and a natural tool for determining the validity limits of quantum physics. The optical incarnation of Schrödinger's cat (SC)—the superposition of two opposite-amplitude coherent states—is also the backbone of continuous-variable quantum information processing. However, the existing preparation methods limit the amplitudes of the component coherent states, which curtails the state's usefulness for fundamental and practical applications. Here, we convert a pair of negative squeezed SC states of amplitude 1.15 to a single positive SC state of amplitude 1.85 with a success probability of ∼0.2. The protocol consists in bringing the initial states into interference on a beamsplitter and a subsequent heralding quadrature measurement in one of the output channels. Our technique can be realized iteratively, so arbitrarily high amplitudes can, in principle, be reached.

  8. Optical isolation in topological-edge-state photonic arrays.

    PubMed

    El-Ganainy, Ramy; Levy, Miguel

    2015-11-15

    We introduce a new type of optical isolator based on breaking time reversal symmetry in dissipative finite Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) waveguide arrays that support topological edge states at one end of the structure. In the forward propagation direction, light is launched into the edge waveguide to excite the localized topological midgap state. As a result, most of the input optical power is transmitted to the output port. On the other hand, backward reflected light encounters a propagation constant mismatch in that same channel which shifts the otherwise midgap state into one of the bands and hence becomes delocalized over the whole array. We show that under these conditions, a judicious spatial distribution of the optical dissipation across the structure can produce an isolation ratio of -50 dB. The required nonreciprocal phase shift is introduced by depositing a magnetic garnet film only on the edge waveguide and, thus, the required magnetic field can be generated by an integrated micromagnet. Similar concepts can also be applied to SSH arrays made from optical resonators.

  9. Purely optical navigation with model-based state prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    State-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a model based state prediction our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system states drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.

  10. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    DOE PAGES

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; ...

    2016-02-05

    We report that since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈91K from room temperature.

  11. Solid-state optical refrigeration to sub-100 Kelvin regime

    PubMed Central

    Melgaard, Seth D.; Albrecht, Alexander R.; Hehlen, Markus P.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    Since the first demonstration of net cooling twenty years ago, optical refrigeration of solids has progressed to outperform all other solid-state cooling processes. It has become the first and only solid-state refrigerator capable of reaching cryogenic temperatures, and now the first solid-state cooling below 100 K. Such substantial progress required a multi-disciplinary approach of pump laser absorption enhancement, material characterization and purification, and thermal management. Here we present the culmination of two decades of progress, the record cooling to ≈ 91 K from room temperature. PMID:26847703

  12. Generating and probing entangled states for optical atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletic, Vladan

    2016-05-01

    The precision of quantum measurements is inherently limited by projection noise caused by the measurement process itself. Spin squeezing and more complex forms of entanglement have been proposed as ways of surpassing this limitation. In our system, a high-finesse asymmetric micromirror-based optical cavity can mediate the atom-atom interaction necessary for generating entanglement in an 171 Yb optical lattice clock. I will discuss approaches for creating, characterizing, and optimally utilizing these nonclassical states for precision measurement, as well as recent progress toward their realization. This research is supported by DARPA QuASAR, NSF, and NSERC.

  13. Optical properties of the pseudogap state in deeply underdoped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Adam; Carbotte, Jules; Nicol, Elisabeth

    2011-03-01

    Recent optical measurements of deeply underdoped cuprates have revealed that a coherent Drude response persists well below the end of the superconducting dome in the phase diagram. We show that this observation is consistent with the resonating valence bond spin-liquid model proposed by Yang, Rice, and Zhang. Within this model, we analyze the three elements that cause the overall reduction in optical conductivity in the approach to the Mott insulating state: a Gutzwiller factor associated with increased correlations, which causes a reduction in the coherent part of the carrier Green's function; a shrinking of the Fermi surface defining the hole Luttinger contours; and an increase in optical effective mass. We show that each of these elements yields qualitative agreement with various experimental observations. Finally, we show how the increased magnitude of the pseudogap at low doping modifies the microwave conductivity and the Wiedemann-Franz law.

  14. Teacher Preparation in Moderate and Severe Disabilities: A State Tool for Intern Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetstone, Patti; Abell, Michael; Collins, Belva C.; Kleinert, Harold L.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of students with moderate and severe disabilities must possess the skills and knowledge to address a unique set of needs and challenges. These may include, but are not limited to, management of challenging behaviors, performance of health-related procedures, use of assistive technology, and instruction using evidence-based strategies.…

  15. Experimental Implementation of a Quantum Optical State Comparison Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, Ross J.; Collins, Robert J.; Eleftheriadou, Electra; Barnett, Stephen M.; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S.

    2015-03-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of a practical nondeterministic quantum optical amplification scheme that employs two mature technologies, state comparison and photon subtraction, to achieve amplification of known sets of coherent states with high fidelity. The amplifier uses coherent states as a resource rather than single photons, which allows for a relatively simple light source, such as a diode laser, providing an increased rate of amplification. The amplifier is not restricted to low amplitude states. With respect to the two key parameters, fidelity and the amplified state production rate, we demonstrate significant improvements over previous experimental implementations, without the requirement of complex photonic components. Such a system may form the basis of trusted quantum repeaters in nonentanglement-based quantum communications systems with known phase alphabets, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signatures.

  16. Selective cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivares, Stefano

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the performance of a selective cloning machine based on linear optical elements and Gaussian measurements, which allows one to clone at will one of the two incoming input states. This machine is a complete generalization of a 1{yields}2 cloning scheme demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is studied for a generic Gaussian input state, and the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency is also taken into account. We show that, if the states to be cloned are squeezed states with known squeezing parameter, then the fidelity can be enhanced using a third suitable squeezed state during the final stage of the cloning process. A binary communication protocol based on the selective cloning machine is also discussed.

  17. Yeast metabolic state identification using micro-fiber optics spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. S.; Castro, C. C.; Vicente, A. A.; Tafulo, P.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Martins, R. C.

    2011-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae morphology is known to be dependent on the cell physiological state and environmental conditions. On their environment, wild yeasts tend to form complex colonies architectures, such as stress response and pseudohyphal filaments morphologies, far away from the ones found inside bioreactors, where the regular cell cycle is observed under controlled conditions (e.g. budding and flocculating colonies). In this work we explore the feasibility of using micro-fiber optics spectroscopy to classify Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C colony structures in YPD media, under different growth conditions, such as: i) no alcohol; ii) 1 % (v/v) Ethanol; iii) 1 % (v/v) 1-butanol; iv) 1 % (v/v) Isopropanol; v) 1 % (v/v) Tert-Amyl alcohol (2 Methyl-2-butanol); vi) 0,2 % (v/v) 2-Furaldehyde; vii) 5 % (w/v) 5 (Hydroxymethyl)-furfural; and viii) 1 % (w/v) (-)-Adenosine3', 5'cyclic monophosphate. The microscopy system includes a hyperspectral camera apparatus and a micro fiber (sustained by micro manipulator) optics system for spectroscopy. Results show that micro fiber optics system spectroscopy has the potential for yeasts metabolic state identification once the spectral signatures of colonies differs from each others. This technique associated with others physico-chemical information can benefit the creation of an information system capable of providing extremely detailed information about yeast metabolic state that will aid both scientists and engineers to study and develop new biotechnological products.

  18. Optical bending sensor using distributed feedback solid state dye lasers on optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Oomi, Soichiro; Yoshioka, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Oki, Yuji

    2012-07-02

    Novel type of optical fiber sensor was proposed and demonstrated. The print-like fabrication technique fabricates multiple distributed feedback solid state dye lasers on a polymeric optical fiber (POF) with tapered coupling. This multi-active-sidecore structure was easily fabricated and provides multiple functions. Mounting the lasers on the same point of a multimode POF demonstrated a bending radius sensitivity of 20 m without any supports. Two axis directional sensing without cross talk was also confirmed. A more complicated mounting formation can demonstrate a twisted POF. The temperature property of the sensor was also studied, and elimination of the temperature influence was experimentally attained.

  19. Socioeconomic position and lower dietary moderation among Chinese immigrant women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Marilyn; Fang, Carolyn Y.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine associations of education and occupation, as indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP), with dietary intake and diet quality in a sample of Chinese immigrant women. Design Cross-sectional. Data collection included four days of dietary recalls and information on education and current occupation for participants and their spouses. Setting Philadelphia, PA, USA. Subjects 423 Chinese immigrant women recruited 10/05-4/08. Results In multivariate models, both higher education level and occupation category were significantly associated with higher energy density and intake of energy and sugar. Education was additionally associated with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (p=0.01) and lower dietary moderation (p=0.01). With joint categorization based on both education and occupation, we observed significant trends indicating higher energy density (p=0.004) and higher intake of energy (p=0.001) and sugar (p=0.04), but less dietary moderation (p=0.02) with higher SEP. Conclusions In this sample of US Chinese immigrants, higher SEP as indicated by education level and occupation category was associated with differences in dietary intake, and with less dietary moderation. While higher SEP is typically linked to healthier diet in higher income nations, in these immigrants the association of SEP with diet follows the pattern of their country of origin – a lower-income country undergoing the nutrition transition. PMID:21806866

  20. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Al-Eisa, Einas S

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65-95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults.

  1. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise on Cognitive Abilities and Redox State Biomarkers in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S.

    2016-01-01

    We used a moderate aerobic exercise program for 24 weeks to measure the positive impact of physical activity on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and its association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults. A total of 100 healthy subjects (65–95 Yrs) were randomly classified into two groups: control group (n = 50) and exercise group (n = 50). Cognitive functioning, physical activity score, MDA, 8-OHdG, TAC, and hs-CRP were assessed using LOTCA battery, prevalidated PA questionnaire, and immunoassay techniques. LOTCA 7-set scores of cognitive performance showed a significant correlation with physical activity status and the regulation of both oxidative stress free radicals and inflammatory markers in all older subjects following 24 weeks of moderate exercise. Physically active persons showed a higher cognitive performance along with reduction in the levels of MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP and increase in TAC activity compared with sedentary participants. Cognitive performance correlated positively with the increase in TAC activity and physical fitness scores and negatively with MDA, 8-OHdG, and hs-CRP, respectively. There was a significant improvement in motor praxis, vasomotor organization, thinking operations, and attention and concentration among older adults. In conclusion, moderate aerobic training for 24 weeks has a positive significant effect in improving cognitive functions via modulating redox and inflammatory status of older adults. PMID:27195073

  2. Nonreciprocal quantum-state conversion between microwave and optical photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lin; Li, Zhen

    2017-07-01

    Optoelectromechanical quantum interfaces can be utilized to connect systems with distinctively different frequencies in hybrid quantum networks. Here we present a scheme of nonreciprocal quantum-state conversion between microwave and optical photons via an optoelectromechanical interface. By introducing an auxiliary cavity and manipulating the phase differences between the linearized light-matter couplings, unidirectional state transmission that is immune to mechanical noise can be achieved. This interface can function as an isolator, a circulator, and a two-way switch that routes the input state to a designated output channel. We show that under a generalized impedance matching condition the state conversion can prevent thermal fluctuations of the mechanical mode from propagating to the cavity outputs and reach high fidelity. The realization of this scheme is also discussed.

  3. Multimode entanglement in reconfigurable graph states using optical frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Ferrini, G.; Arzani, F.; Xu, X.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Multimode entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, multimode entangled states are generally constructed by targeting a specific graph configuration. This yields to a fixed experimental setup that therefore exhibits reduced versatility and scalability. Here we demonstrate an optical on-demand, reconfigurable multimode entangled state, using an intrinsically multimode quantum resource and a homodyne detection apparatus. Without altering either the initial squeezing source or experimental architecture, we realize the construction of thirteen cluster states of various sizes and connectivities as well as the implementation of a secret sharing protocol. In particular, this system enables the interrogation of quantum correlations and fluctuations for any multimode Gaussian state. This initiates an avenue for implementing on-demand quantum information processing by only adapting the measurement process and not the experimental layout.

  4. Multimode entanglement in reconfigurable graph states using optical frequency combs

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Ferrini, G.; Arzani, F.; Xu, X.; Fabre, C.; Treps, N.

    2017-01-01

    Multimode entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing and quantum metrology. However, multimode entangled states are generally constructed by targeting a specific graph configuration. This yields to a fixed experimental setup that therefore exhibits reduced versatility and scalability. Here we demonstrate an optical on-demand, reconfigurable multimode entangled state, using an intrinsically multimode quantum resource and a homodyne detection apparatus. Without altering either the initial squeezing source or experimental architecture, we realize the construction of thirteen cluster states of various sizes and connectivities as well as the implementation of a secret sharing protocol. In particular, this system enables the interrogation of quantum correlations and fluctuations for any multimode Gaussian state. This initiates an avenue for implementing on-demand quantum information processing by only adapting the measurement process and not the experimental layout. PMID:28585530

  5. Affect and state dysregulation as moderators of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury.

    PubMed

    Bolen, Rebecca M; Winter, Virginia Ramseyer; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study extends present research by modeling both affect and state dysregulation as moderators of NSSI. The findings are discussed as an extension of the tension reduction theory and within a conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as an asymmetry of the approach-avoidance neurophysiological system.

  6. A new method to infer ozone column amounts and cloud optical depth from moderate bandwidth filter instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lingling

    This study presents a new method based on a radial basis functions neural network (RBF-NN) approach to analyze data from moderate bandwidth filter instruments such as the NILU-UV Irradiance Meter. The NILU-UV Irradiance Meter is a ground-based, multi-channel, moderate bandwidth filter instrument that measures irradiances at ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelengths with five channels in the UV (302, 312, 320, 340 and 380 nm) and one channel in the visible (400-700 nm) part of the spectrum. Minute-by-minute irradiances recorded by the instruments are used to infer the total ozone column (TOC) amount, and a radiation modification factor (RMF), which represents the combined effect of clouds, aerosols and surface reflection. We used a cloud optical depth (COD) as a proxy for the RMF. Traditionally, these parameters are retrieved by using a look up table (LUT) method, which relates TOC and RMF values to UV irradiances recorded by the NILU-UV instrument. In this study we use a neural network available in Matlab. A radiative transfer model is used to compute irradiances in the NILU-UV channels (output parameters) as a function of 3 input parameters consisting of (i) the solar zenith angle, (ii) the TOC amount, and (iii) the COD. The resulting model data set is used in the neural network to create a relationship between the input and output parameters in terms of a set of coefficients. By applying the RBF-NN method to about 3 years of data from NILU-UV instruments deployed in the New York area, we found that compared to the LUT method, the results of the RBF-NN method had better agreement with TOC values inferred from satellite data with an increase of 3% in the correlation. Furthermore, the RBF-NN method retrieved more valid results than the LUT method. In addition, we discuss retrieved results, such as RMF, CIE weighted UV index (UVI), TOC from 3 NILU-UV instruments, and compare the TOC and UVI values derived from NILU-UV instruments with the corresponding values inferred

  7. Fiber optic systems for diode-pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery A.; Awad, H. R. I.; Vlasenko, Oleg A.; Zavartsev, Yury D.; Zagumennyi, Alexander I.; Studenikin, Pavel A.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.; Gordova, M. R.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    1996-03-01

    Radial nonsymmetrical fiber endface microlenses original fabrication technique has been used for high efficient pump laser diode radiation coupling (up to 93% without AR coating) into the standard optical fibers and for the form of a pump power diagram at the output fiber endfaces. Nd:GdVO4 laser (2.5 mm crystals length) parameters with semiconfocal (output mirror curvature radius 10 cm) and monolith plane mirrors cavities have been measured for different pump diagrams formed by plane endfaces, spherical microlenses, and Selfoc lenses. Compact diode-pumped solid state lasers may be used in optical communications, optical storage, medicine, and other applications. Diode laser (DL)-optical fiber coupling gives several advantages for these pumping systems -- a possibility to combine several DLs radiation, a remote DLs mounting, small size and electrical safety of the laser heads, simple schemes of active crystals cooling, axial symmetry of the pumping beam for longitudinal geometry. In general, high coupling efficiency between a semiconductor light source and optical fiber may be achieved by the use of microlens, formed on the endface of the fiber. In this case bulk optical components between DL and optical fiber are not needed. In addition, the only reflection surface exists in this coupling technique. Different techniques for producing microlenses on a fiber endface have been developed. For example, tapered hemispherical lenses, melted, etched, and polished lenses are commonly used for this coupling. However, all types of such techniques produce in general radial symmetry lenses: therefore, they do not provide efficient coupling between a round fiber core and a nonsymmetrical DL's radiation. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication technique of fiber endface radial nonsymmetrical microlenses with radii curvature from few micrometers to few tens micrometers by grinding/polishing process. This process may be used for producing different nonspherical microlenses

  8. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  9. Optical control of coupled molecular states by ac Stark effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianbing

    2014-05-01

    Quantum states with different spin multiplicity can be coupled through the interaction of the spin orbital motion of electrons. For example, the spin-orbit coupled rovibrational levels in diatomic alkali, which have different multiplicity in terms of total spin quantum number, and are classified as singlet states (if the total spin is zero) and triplet states (if the total spin is one), respectively. A transition from the singlet level can only go to singlet levels and a triplet only to triplet levels. Due to the spin-orbit coupling, however, the coupled states mix each other, therefore both states have singlet as well as triplet character. By coherently coupling the pair to an auxiliary quantum state, varying the Rabi frequency of the coupling laser and the detuning of the laser frequency, the coupling of the two mixed singlet-triplet molecular rovibrational levels can be modified by ac Stark effect. We use density matrix equations and a five-level molecular model to show that a coupled singlet-triplet pair of rovibrational levels can be used as a channel to optically control quantum states.

  10. Linear-optical access to topological insulator surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panna, Dmitry; Marjieh, Raja; Sabag, Evyatar; Rybak, Leonid; Ribak, Amit; Kanigel, Amit; Hayat, Alex

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate efficient linear-optical access to surface-state spin dynamics in Bi2Se3 by probing transitions between two surface-state Dirac cones, providing a practical technique for spin-current dynamics studies in topological-insulator devices. Using broadband transient-reflectivity pump-probe measurements, we distinguish bulk and surface state-responses, by controlling photon energy and circular polarization at oblique incidence. For pump-photon energies corresponding to bulk-state transitions, the probe polarized co-circularly with the pump shows stronger reflectivity change, compared to the anti-circularly polarized probe. However, pump photon energies corresponding to surface-state transitions result in an opposite effect, with the anti-circularly polarized probe exhibiting stronger reflectivity change. This surprising behavior stems from the surface-state in-plane spin orientation near the Dirac point, and the surface-state spin population remains at the injected energy for several ps. These results enable an efficient approach for studying spin current dynamics in topological-insulator based technologies.

  11. Resonant-state expansion applied to planar open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2012-02-01

    The resonant-state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbation theory of the Brillouin-Wigner type recently developed in electrodynamics[E. A. Muljarov, W. Langbein, and R. Zimmermann, Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/92/50010 92, 50010 (2010)], is applied to planar, effectively one-dimensional optical systems, such as layered dielectric slabs and Bragg reflector microcavities. It is demonstrated that the RSE converges with a power law in the basis size. Algorithms for error estimation and their reduction by extrapolation are presented and evaluated. Complex eigenfrequencies, electromagnetic fields, and the Green's function of a selection of optical systems are calculated, as well as the observable transmission spectra. In particular, we find that for a Bragg-mirror microcavity, which has sharp resonances in the spectrum, the transmission calculated using the RSE reproduces the result of the transfer- or scattering-matrix method.

  12. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A pair of solid state electro-optic filters (SSEF) in a binocular holder were designed and fabricated for evaluation of field sequential stereo TV applications. The electronic circuitry for use with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated, requiring only an external video input. A polarizing screen suitable for attachment to various size TV monitors for use in conjunction with the stereo goggles was designed and fabricated. An improved engineering model 2 filter was fabricated using the bonded holder technique developed previously and integrated to a GCTA color TV camera. An engineering model color filter was fabricated and assembled using PLZT control elements. In addition, a ruggedized holder assembly was designed, fabricated and tested. This assembly provides electrical contacts, high voltage protection, and support for the fragile PLZT disk, and also permits mounting and optical alignment of the associated polarizers.

  13. Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Christopher M.; Nielsen, Michael A.; Haselgrove, Henry L.

    2006-05-15

    In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3x10{sup -3} and the depolarization probability is less than 10{sup -4}. Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].

  14. Noise thresholds for optical cluster-state quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Christopher M.; Haselgrove, Henry L.; Nielsen, Michael A.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we do a detailed numerical investigation of the fault-tolerant threshold for optical cluster-state quantum computation. Our noise model allows both photon loss and depolarizing noise, as a general proxy for all types of local noise other than photon loss noise. We obtain a threshold region of allowed pairs of values for the two types of noise. Roughly speaking, our results show that scalable optical quantum computing is possible in the combined presence of both noise types, provided that the loss probability is less than 3×10-3 and the depolarization probability is less than 10-4 . Our fault-tolerant protocol involves a number of innovations, including a method for syndrome extraction known as telecorrection, whereby repeated syndrome measurements are guaranteed to agree. This paper is an extended version of Dawson [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 020501 (2006)].

  15. Quantum amplification and quantum optical tapping with squeezed states and correlated quantum states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ou, Z. Y.; Pereira, S. F.; Kimble, H. J.

    1994-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations in a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) are investigated experimentally with a squeezed state coupled into the internal idler mode of the NOPA. Reductions of the inherent quantum noise of the amplifier are observed with a minimum noise level 0.7 dB below the usual noise level of the amplifier with its idler mode in a vacuum state. With two correlated quantum fields as the amplifier's inputs and proper adjustment of the gain of the amplifier, it is shown that the amplifier's intrinsic quantum noise can be completely suppressed so that noise-free amplification is achieved. It is also shown that the NOPA, when coupled to either a squeezed state or a nonclassically correlated state, can realize quantum tapping of optical information.

  16. Recurrent state-switching of a two-state quantum dot laser by optical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virte, Martin; Breuer, Stefan; Sciamanna, Marc; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, we experimentally report recurrent switching between ground and excited state emission in a quantum dot laser controlled by optical feedback. We demonstrate that changing the phase of the optical feedback can efficiently induce switching between the two emission processes of the laser. Experimentally, by using an external mirror placed on a piezo-actuator, we were able to achieve incomplete switching between ground and excited state emission, i.e. without complete extinction of the modes. The switching takes place for variations of the external cavity length at the wavelength scale, i.e. around 1.2 um. Theoretically, we successfully link this switching behaviour with the evolution of the modal gain difference between the two modes induced by the variations of the optical feedback phase.

  17. Spatial distribution of dust's optical properties over the Sahara and Asia inferred from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, M.; Haywood, J. M.; Yokohata, T.; Murakami, H.; Nakajimae, T.

    2013-11-01

    There is great uncertainty regarding the role of mineral dust aerosols in Earth's climate system. One reason for this uncertainty is that the optical properties of mineral dust, such as its single scattering albedo (the ratio of scattering to total extinction), are poorly constrained because ground observations are limited to a few locations and satellite standard products are not available due to the excessively bright surface of the desert in the visible wavelength, which makes robust retrievals difficult. Here, we develop a method to estimate the spatial distributions of the aerosol single scattering albedo (ω0) and optical depth (τa), with daily 1°×1° spatial resolution using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as well as model simulations of radiative transfer. This approach is based on the "critical surface reflectance" method developed in the literature, which estimates ω0 from the top of the atmospheric radiance. We estimate the uncertainties in ω0 over the Sahara (Asia) to be approximately 0.020 and 0.010 (0.023 and 0.017) for bands 9 and 1, respectively, while the uncertainty in τa is approximately 0.235 and 0.228 (0.464 and 0.370) for bands 9 and 1, respectively. The 5-95% range of the spatial distribution of ω0 over the Sahara (Asia) is approximately 0.90-0.94 and 0.96-0.99 (0.87-0.94 and 0.89-0.97) for bands 9 and 1, respectively, and that of τa over the Sahara (Asia) is approximately 0.8-1.4 and 0.8-1.7 (0.7-2.0 and 0.7-1.9) for bands 9 and 1, respectively. The results for the Sahara indicate a good correlation between ω0 and the surface reflectance, and between ω0 and τa. However, the relationships between ω0, τa, and surface reflectance are less clear in Asia than in the Sahara, and the ω0 values are smaller than those in the Sahara. The regions with small ω0 values are consistent with the regions where coal-burning smoke and carbonaceous aerosols are reported to be transported in previous studies

  18. Hypoxic hypoxia at moderate altitudes: review of the state of the science.

    PubMed

    Petrassi, Frank A; Hodkinson, Peter D; Walters, P Lynne; Gaydos, Steven J

    2012-10-01

    Unpressurized aircraft routinely operate at altitudes where hypoxia may be of concern. A systematic literature review was conducted regarding hypoxic impairment, including mental functions, sensory deficits, and other pertinent research findings that may affect aviation-related duties at moderate altitude (8000 to 15,000 ft/2438 to 4572 m). The results of this review suggest that cognitive and psychomotor deficits may include learning, reaction time, decision-making, and certain types of memory. However, results are difficult to quantify and reliably reproduce. Inconsistency of results may be related to the subtlety of deficits compared to high altitude, differences among individual compensatory mechanisms, variation in methodology or sensitivity of metrics, presence or absence of exercise, heterogeneous neuronal central nervous system (CNS) response, and interindividual variation. Literature regarding hypoxic visual decrements is more consistent. Rod photoreceptors are more susceptible to hypoxia; visual degradation has been demonstrated at 4000 to 5000 ft (1219 to 1524 m) under scotopic and 10,000 ft (3048 m) under photopic conditions. Augmented night vision goggle resolution demonstrates more resilience to mild hypoxic effects than the unaided eye under starlight conditions. Hypocapnia enhances visual sensitivity and contrast discrimination. Hyperventilation with resulting respiratory alkalosis and cerebral vasoconstriction may confound both cognitive/ psychomotor and visual experimental results. Future research should include augmentation of validated neuropsychological metrics (surrogate investigational end points) with actual flight metrics, investigation of mixed gas formulations, contribution of hypocapnic vasoconstrictive effects on hypoxic performance, and further investigation into cellular- and systems-level approaches for heterogeneous CNS response. Research is also required into the contribution of mild-moderate hypoxia in human factors- and spatial

  19. Simulation of Five-Frequency Quasiperiodic and Related States For Convecting Flows In Moderate-Aspect-Ratio Box Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiam, Keng-Hwee; Lai, Ming-Chih; Cross, M. C.; Greenside, Henry

    2000-11-01

    We have developed a finite-difference code to integrate the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations for Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a box geometry with insulating or conducting side walls and no-slip boundary conditions. Motivated by the experimental observations of Walden et al [Phys. Rev. Lett., 53, 242 (1984)], we used this code to study the dynamics of moderate-aspect-ratio convecting flows as a function of Rayleigh number, Prandtl number, and aspect ratio. Our simulations were able to reproduce the occurrence of quasiperiodic states with up to five incommensurate frequencies, although the values of the frequencies differ quantitatively. We find that the five-frequency state is sensitive to small perturbations to the system, breaking down to mode-locking, intermittent, and chaotic states on small changes in the Rayleigh and Prandtl numbers and aspect ratio. In particular, small changes in the aspect ratio lead to a surprisingly large multiplicity of distinct planforms yielding vastly different dynamics.

  20. Hall Crystal States at ν = 2 and Moderate Landau Level Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Ganpathy

    2000-08-01

    The ν = 2 quantum Hall state at low Zeeman coupling is well known to be a translationally invariant singlet if Landau level mixing is small. At zero Zeeman interaction, as Landau level mixing increases, the translationally invariant state becomes unstable to an inhomogeneous state. This is the first realistic example of a full Hall crystal, which shows the coexistence of quantum Hall order and density wave order. The full Hall crystal differs from the more familiar Wigner crystal by a topological property, which results in it having only linearly dispersing collective modes at small q, and no q3/2 magnetophonon. I present calculations of the topological number and the collective modes.

  1. Optical Properties of a Vibrationally Modulated Solid State Mott Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, S.; Clark, S. R.; Nicoletti, D.; Cotugno, G.; Tobey, R. I.; Dean, N.; Lupi, S.; Okamoto, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2014-01-01

    Optical pulses at THz and mid-infrared frequencies tuned to specific vibrational resonances modulate the lattice along chosen normal mode coordinates. In this way, solids can be switched between competing electronic phases and new states are created. Here, we use vibrational modulation to make electronic interactions (Hubbard-U) in Mott-insulator time dependent. Mid-infrared optical pulses excite localized molecular vibrations in ET-F2TCNQ, a prototypical one-dimensional Mott-insulator. A broadband ultrafast probe interrogates the resulting optical spectrum between THz and visible frequencies. A red-shifted charge-transfer resonance is observed, consistent with a time-averaged reduction of the electronic correlation strength U. Secondly, a sideband manifold inside of the Mott-gap appears, resulting from a periodically modulated U. The response is compared to computations based on a quantum-modulated dynamic Hubbard model. Heuristic fitting suggests asymmetric holon-doublon coupling to the molecules and that electron double-occupancies strongly squeeze the vibrational mode. PMID:24448171

  2. Optical properties of the pseudogap state in underdoped cuprates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, A.; Carbotte, J. P.; Nicol, E. J.

    2011-05-01

    Recent optical measurements of deeply underdoped cuprates have revealed that a coherent Drude response persists well below the end of the superconducting dome. In addition, no large increase in optical effective mass has been observed, even at dopings as low as 1%. We show that this behavior is consistent with the resonating valence bond spin-liquid model proposed by Yang, Rice, and Zhang. In this model, the overall reduction in optical conductivity in the approach to the Mott insulating state is caused not by an increase in effective mass, but by a Gutzwiller factor, which describes decreased coherence due to correlations, and by a shrinking of the Fermi surface, which decreases the number of available charge carriers. We also show that in this model, the pseudogap does not modify the low-temperature, low-frequency behavior, though the magnitude of the conductivity is greatly reduced by the Gutzwiller factor. Similarly, the profile of the temperature dependence of the microwave conductivity is largely unchanged in shape, but the Gutzwiller factor is essential in understanding the observed difference in magnitude between ortho-I and -II YBa2Cu3O y .

  3. Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuschewski, F.; Kehr, S. C.; Green, B.; Bauer, Ch.; Gensch, M.; Eng, L. M.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the fundamental and nanoscale understanding of complex phenomena in materials research and the life sciences, witnessed considerable progress. However, elucidating the underlying mechanisms, governed by entangled degrees of freedom such as lattice, spin, orbit, and charge for solids or conformation, electric potentials, and ligands for proteins, has remained challenging. Techniques that allow for distinguishing between different contributions to these processes are hence urgently required. In this paper we demonstrate the application of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) as a novel type of nano-probe for tracking transient states of matter. We introduce a sideband-demodulation technique that allows for probing exclusively the stimuli-induced change of near-field optical properties. We exemplify this development by inspecting the decay of an electron-hole plasma generated in SiGe thin films through near-infrared laser pulses. Our approach can universally be applied to optically track ultrafast/-slow processes over the whole spectral range from UV to THz frequencies.

  4. Optical nanoscopy of transient states in condensed matter

    PubMed Central

    Kuschewski, F.; Kehr, S.C.; Green, B.; Bauer, Ch.; Gensch, M.; Eng, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the fundamental and nanoscale understanding of complex phenomena in materials research and the life sciences, witnessed considerable progress. However, elucidating the underlying mechanisms, governed by entangled degrees of freedom such as lattice, spin, orbit, and charge for solids or conformation, electric potentials, and ligands for proteins, has remained challenging. Techniques that allow for distinguishing between different contributions to these processes are hence urgently required. In this paper we demonstrate the application of scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) as a novel type of nano-probe for tracking transient states of matter. We introduce a sideband-demodulation technique that allows for probing exclusively the stimuli-induced change of near-field optical properties. We exemplify this development by inspecting the decay of an electron-hole plasma generated in SiGe thin films through near-infrared laser pulses. Our approach can universally be applied to optically track ultrafast/-slow processes over the whole spectral range from UV to THz frequencies. PMID:26215769

  5. Quantum optics in the solid state with diamond nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Ruffin; de Leon, Nathalie; de Greve, Kristiaan; Chu, Yiwen; Shields, Brendan; Hausmann, Birgit; Burek, Michael; Maletinsky, Patrick; Zibrov, Alexander; Park, Hongkun; Loncar, Marko; Lukin, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Quantum networks require interfaces between photons and quantum bits. Nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising candidate for this interface: they are optically addressable, have spin degrees of freedom with long coherence times, and can be easily integrated into solid-state nanophotonic devices. The crucial optical feature of the NV is its zero-phonon line (ZPL), a cycling transition allowing coherent optical manipulation and read-out of the spin. However, the ZPL only accounts for 3-5% of the NV emission, and previous methods of producing NV centers yield unstable ZPLs. I will present methods for controlling NV emission by coupling NV centers to nanophotonic devices. In particular, we create a high-density layer of NVs with stable ZPLs in high purity diamond; carve waveguides out of the diamond substrate; and fabricate high quality factor, small mode volume photonic crystal cavities around NVs in these waveguides. We observe an enhancement of the NV emission at the cavity resonance by a factor of 100. These devices will become building blocks for quantum information processing such as single photon transistors, enabling distribution of entanglement over quantum networks.

  6. Quantum Optics in the Solid State with Diamond Nanophotonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Nathalie; Evans, Ruffin; de Greve, Kristiaan; Goldman, Michael; High, Alex; Markham, Matthew; Stacey, Alastair; Twitchen, Daniel; Loncar, Marko; Park, Hongkun; Lukin, Mikhail

    2015-05-01

    Large-scale quantum networks will require efficient interfaces between photons and stationary quantum bits. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a promising candidate for quantum information processing because they are optically addressable, have spin degrees of freedom with long coherence times, and as solid-state entities, can be integrated into nanophotonic devices. An enabling feature of the NV center is its zero-phonon line (ZPL), which acts as an atom-like cycling transition that can be used for coherent optical manipulation and read-out of the spin. However, the ZPL only accounts for 3-5% of the total emission, and previously demonstrated methods of producing high densities of NV centers yield unstable ZPLs. We have developed techniques to fabricate high quality factor, small mode volume photonic crystal cavities directly out of diamond, and to deterministically position these photonic crystal cavities so that a stable NV center sits at the maximum electric field. We observe an enhancement of the spontaneous emission at the cavity resonance by a factor of up to 100. Crucially, we are able to control the NV center precisely using both microwave and resonant optical manipulation. These nanophotonic elements in diamond will provide key building blocks for quantum information processing such as single photon transistors, enabling distribution of entanglement over quantum networks.

  7. Optomechanical design concept for GMACS: a wide-field multi-object moderate resolution optical spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Prochaska, Travis; Shectman, Stephen A.; Hammond, Randolph P.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; DePoy, D. L.; Marshall, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the conceptual optomechanical design for GMACS, a wide-field, multi-object, moderate-resolution optical spectrograph for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). GMACS is a candidate first-light instrument for the GMT and will be one of several instruments housed in the Gregorian Instrument Rotator (GIR) located at the Gregorian focus. The instrument samples a 9 arcminute x 18 arcminute field of view providing two resolution modes (i.e, low resolution, R ~ 2000, and moderate resolution, R ~ 4000) over a 3700 Å to 10200 Å wavelength range. To minimize the size of the optics, four fold mirrors at the GMT focal plane redirect the full field into four individual "arms", that each comprises a double spectrograph with a red and blue channel. Hence, each arm samples a 4.5 arcminute x 9 arcminute field of view. The optical layout naturally leads to three separate optomechanical assemblies: a focal plane assembly, and two identical optics modules. The focal plane assembly contains the last element of the telescope's wide-field corrector, slit-mask, tent-mirror assembly, and slit-mask magazine. Each of the two optics modules supports two of the four instrument arms and houses the aft-optics (i.e. collimators, dichroics, gratings, and cameras). A grating exchange mechanism, and articulated gratings and cameras facilitate multiple resolution modes. In this paper we describe the details of the GMACS optomechanical design, including the requirements and considerations leading to the design, mechanism details, optics mounts, and predicted flexure performance.

  8. Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    El Abouti, O.; El Boudouti, E. H.; El Hassouani, Y.; Noual, A.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we investigate localized and resonant optical waves associated with a semi-infinite superlattice made out of superconductor-dielectric bilayers and terminated with a cap layer. Both transverse electric and transverse magnetic waves are considered. These surface modes are analogous to the so-called Tamm states associated with electronic states found at the surface of materials. The surface guided modes induced by the cap layer strongly depend on whether the superlattice ends with a superconductor or a dielectric layer, the thickness of the surface layer, the temperature of the superconductor layer as well as on the polarization of the waves. Different kinds of surface modes are found and their properties examined. These structures can be used to realize the highly sensitive photonic crystal sensors.

  9. Automated correlation dimension analysis of optically injected solid state lasers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Valling, S; Lindberg, A M

    2009-04-27

    Nonlinear lasers are excellent systems from which to obtain high signal-to-noise experimental data of nonlinear dynamical variables to be used to develop and demonstrate robust nonlinear dynamics analysis techniques. Here we investigate the dynamical complexity of such a system: an optically injected Nd:YVO(4) solid state laser. We show that a map of the correlation dimension as a function of the injection strength and frequency detuning, extracted from the laser output power time-series data, is an excellent mirror of the dynamics map generated from a theoretical model of the system. An automated computational protocol has been designed and implemented to achieve this. The correlation dimension map is also contrasted with prior research that mapped the peak intensity of the output power as an experimentally accessible measurand reflecting the dynamical state of the system [Valling et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 033810 (2005)].

  10. Assessment of Moderate- and High-Temperature Geothermal Resources of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Colin F.; Reed, Marshall J.; Mariner, Robert H.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Galanis, S. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of our Nation's geothermal resources. Geothermal power plants are currently operating in six states: Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. The assessment indicates that the electric power generation potential from identified geothermal systems is 9,057 Megawatts-electric (MWe), distributed over 13 states. The mean estimated power production potential from undiscovered geothermal resources is 30,033 MWe. Additionally, another estimated 517,800 MWe could be generated through implementation of technology for creating geothermal reservoirs in regions characterized by high temperature, but low permeability, rock formations.

  11. Optoelectronic device simulation: Optical modeling for semiconductor optical amplifiers and solid state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Xue (Michael)

    2006-07-01

    transparency carrier densities; the differential gain is assumed constant accordingly. This assumption is only valid for wavelengths close to the gain peak wavelength. As a result, high accuracy for wideband wavelength conversion is not guaranteed. We proposed a steady state numerical model of wavelength converters based on cross-gain modulation in semiconductor optical amplifiers. In this model, a new model of the gain coefficient developed by Connelly was applied, which also includes the internal loss variation with the electron carrier density. Each physical variable, such as the carrier density, gain coefficient, differential gain, and internal loss, spatially varies across the SOA cavity and is numerically calculated throughout the device. This model can predicts wavelength-dependent characteristics of a wavelength converter of the SOA in both large and small signal regimes. Some key performance factors of SOA wavelength converters, such as selection of pump and probe wavelengths and power, length of SOA cavities, conversion efficiency and bandwidth, system performance difference between up and down conversions can be modeled and optimized using this numerical model. Most LED modeling techniques are based on optical ray tracing to predict the light extraction efficiency, and the light extraction efficiency is a critical parameter to evaluate LEDs. Here, we proposed a hybrid method to simulate the lighting efficiency of LED chips, where both guided wave theory and geometric optical ray tracing are applied. Guided wave optics is used to identify guided modes and leakage modes inside the LED active layer, and its device structure can be optimized to increase leakage modes so that the lighting extraction efficiency is improved. On the other hand, Monte Carlo optical ray tracing is used to quantitatively determine optical extraction efficiency. Moreover, this method can model the light distribution and far-field illumination pattern. Both single wavelength LEDs and dual

  12. Online technique for detecting state of onboard fiber optic gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, Zhiyong; He, Kunpeng Pang, Shuwan; Xu, Dingjie; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-02-15

    Although angle random walk (ARW) of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has been well modeled and identified before being integrated into the high-accuracy attitude control system of satellite, aging and unexpected failures can affect the performance of FOG after launch, resulting in the variation of ARW coefficient. Therefore, the ARW coefficient can be regarded as an indicator of “state of health” for FOG diagnosis in some sense. The Allan variance method can be used to estimate ARW coefficient of FOG, however, it requires a large amount of data to be stored. Moreover, the procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation is painful. To overcome the barriers, a weighted state-space model that directly models the ARW to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for FOG. Then, a neural extended-Kalman filter algorithm was implemented to estimate and track the variation of ARW in real time. The results of experiment show that the proposed approach is valid to detect the state of FOG. Moreover, the proposed technique effectively avoids the storage of data.

  13. Online technique for detecting state of onboard fiber optic gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zhiyong; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Pang, Shuwan; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-02-01

    Although angle random walk (ARW) of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) has been well modeled and identified before being integrated into the high-accuracy attitude control system of satellite, aging and unexpected failures can affect the performance of FOG after launch, resulting in the variation of ARW coefficient. Therefore, the ARW coefficient can be regarded as an indicator of "state of health" for FOG diagnosis in some sense. The Allan variance method can be used to estimate ARW coefficient of FOG, however, it requires a large amount of data to be stored. Moreover, the procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation is painful. To overcome the barriers, a weighted state-space model that directly models the ARW to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for FOG. Then, a neural extended-Kalman filter algorithm was implemented to estimate and track the variation of ARW in real time. The results of experiment show that the proposed approach is valid to detect the state of FOG. Moreover, the proposed technique effectively avoids the storage of data.

  14. Noninvasive optical cytochrome c oxidase redox state measurements using diffuse optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jangwoen; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David; Yoon, David; Boss, Gerry R.; Patterson, Steven E.; Rockwood, Gary; Isom, Gary; Brenner, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    A major need exists for methods to assess organ oxidative metabolic states in vivo. By contrasting the responses to cyanide (CN) poisoning versus hemorrhage in animal models, we demonstrate that diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) can detect cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) redox states. Intermittent decreases in inspired O2 from 100% to 21% were applied before, during, and after CN poisoning, hemorrhage, and resuscitation in rabbits. Continuous DOS measurements of total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and oxidized and reduced CcO from muscle were obtained. Rabbit hemorrhage was accomplished with stepwise removal of blood, followed by blood resuscitation. CN treated rabbits received 0.166 mg/min NaCN infusion. During hemorrhage, CcO redox state became reduced concurrently with decreases in oxyhemoglobin, resulting from reduced tissue oxygen delivery and hypoxia. In contrast, during CN infusion, CcO redox state decreased while oxyhemoglobin concentration increased due to CN binding and reduction of CcO with resultant inhibition of the electron transport chain. Spectral absorption similarities between hemoglobin and CcO make noninvasive spectroscopic distinction of CcO redox states difficult. By contrasting physiological perturbations of CN poisoning versus hemorrhage, we demonstrate that DOS measured CcO redox state changes are decoupled from hemoglobin concentration measurement changes.

  15. Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (−18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (−11%), Tension (−13%), Depression (−20%), Anger (−42%), Fatigue (−31%), and Confusion (−27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery

  16. Quantum state control and characterization in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrskog, Stefan Henrik

    In this dissertation I present experimental work on the measurement and manipulation of the center-of-mass motion of laser-cooled atoms. The first experiment described demonstrates cooling of an atom cloud by 'delta-kick cooling'. A thermal cloud of atoms in a vacuum expands ballistically, generating correlations between position and momentum. An appropriate momentum kick, proportional to position, results in slowing down all the atoms in the cloud. Through this technique a cloud of atoms can be cooled by greater than a factor of 10, preserving phase-space density, but decreasing the number density of atoms. By using laser-cooled atoms, it is also possible to confine atoms in potentials created by the AC-Stark shift of the atomic energy levels. Using interfering lasers to create the Stark shift, atoms are confined in a sinusoidal potential called an optical lattice. After preparing atoms in the lowest-energy band of the lattice, a spatial displacement can create coherent superpositions of many states of the potential. A combination of time delays and secondary displacements allows the measurement of the Q (Husimi) and W (Wigner) quasi-probability distributions, each of which completely characterizes the motional state of the atoms. Alternatively, a shallow lattice that only support two long-lived states can be used. The two-state system may be characterized with far fewer measurements, and furthermore, can be used as a model system for a qubit, a quantum representation of a single bit of information, useful for quantum computation. We demonstrate reconstruction of the density matrix in the 2-state system. The two-state system has be further used to characterize the physical action of an operation. By preparing a complete set of input density matrices we perform quantum process tomography for the intrinsic decoherence of the lattice, and two operations that correspond to single qubit rotations.

  17. Introducing single-crystal scattering and optical potentials into MCNPX: Predicting neutron emission from a convoluted moderator

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Iverson, E. B.; Lu, W.; Baxter, D. V.; Muhrer, G.; Ansell, S.

    2016-01-08

    Neutron transport simulation codes are an indispensable tool used for the design and construction of modern neutron scattering facilities and instrumentation. It has become increasingly clear that some neutron instrumentation has started to exploit physics that is not well-modelled by the existing codes. Particularly, the transport of neutrons through single crystals and across interfaces in MCNP(X), Geant4 and other codes ignores scattering from oriented crystals and refractive effects, and yet these are essential ingredients for the performance of monochromators and ultra-cold neutron transport respectively (to mention but two examples). In light of these developments, we have extended the MCNPX code to include a single-crystal neutron scattering model and neutron reflection/refraction physics. Furthermore, we have also generated silicon scattering kernels for single crystals of definable orientation with respect to an incoming neutron beam. As a first test of these new tools, we have chosen to model the recently developed convoluted moderator concept, in which a moderating material is interleaved with layers of perfect crystals to provide an exit path for neutrons moderated to energies below the crystal s Bragg cut off at locations deep within the moderator. Studies of simple cylindrical convoluted moderator systems of 100 mm diameter and composed of polyethylene and single crystal silicon were performed with the upgraded MCNPX code and reproduced the magnitude of effects seen in experiments compared to homogeneous moderator systems. Applying different material properties for refraction and reflection, and by replacing the silicon in the models with voids, we show that the emission enhancements seen in recent experiments are primarily caused by the transparency of the silicon/void layers. Finally the convoluted moderator experiments described by Iverson et al. were simulated and we find satisfactory agreement between the measurement and the results of

  18. Introducing single-crystal scattering and optical potentials into MCNPX: Predicting neutron emission from a convoluted moderator

    DOE PAGES

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Iverson, E. B.; Lu, W.; ...

    2016-01-08

    Neutron transport simulation codes are an indispensable tool used for the design and construction of modern neutron scattering facilities and instrumentation. It has become increasingly clear that some neutron instrumentation has started to exploit physics that is not well-modelled by the existing codes. Particularly, the transport of neutrons through single crystals and across interfaces in MCNP(X), Geant4 and other codes ignores scattering from oriented crystals and refractive effects, and yet these are essential ingredients for the performance of monochromators and ultra-cold neutron transport respectively (to mention but two examples). In light of these developments, we have extended the MCNPX codemore » to include a single-crystal neutron scattering model and neutron reflection/refraction physics. Furthermore, we have also generated silicon scattering kernels for single crystals of definable orientation with respect to an incoming neutron beam. As a first test of these new tools, we have chosen to model the recently developed convoluted moderator concept, in which a moderating material is interleaved with layers of perfect crystals to provide an exit path for neutrons moderated to energies below the crystal s Bragg cut off at locations deep within the moderator. Studies of simple cylindrical convoluted moderator systems of 100 mm diameter and composed of polyethylene and single crystal silicon were performed with the upgraded MCNPX code and reproduced the magnitude of effects seen in experiments compared to homogeneous moderator systems. Applying different material properties for refraction and reflection, and by replacing the silicon in the models with voids, we show that the emission enhancements seen in recent experiments are primarily caused by the transparency of the silicon/void layers. Finally the convoluted moderator experiments described by Iverson et al. were simulated and we find satisfactory agreement between the measurement and the results of

  19. Introducing single-crystal scattering and optical potentials into MCNPX: Predicting neutron emission from a convoluted moderator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Iverson, E. B.; Lu, W.; Baxter, D. V.; Muhrer, G.; Ansell, S.

    2016-04-01

    Neutron transport simulation codes are indispensable tools for the design and construction of modern neutron scattering facilities and instrumentation. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that some neutron instrumentation has started to exploit physics that is not well-modeled by the existing codes. In particular, the transport of neutrons through single crystals and across interfaces in MCNP(X), Geant4, and other codes ignores scattering from oriented crystals and refractive effects, and yet these are essential phenomena for the performance of monochromators and ultra-cold neutron transport respectively (to mention but two examples). In light of these developments, we have extended the MCNPX code to include a single-crystal neutron scattering model and neutron reflection/refraction physics. We have also generated silicon scattering kernels for single crystals of definable orientation. As a first test of these new tools, we have chosen to model the recently developed convoluted moderator concept, in which a moderating material is interleaved with layers of perfect crystals to provide an exit path for neutrons moderated to energies below the crystal's Bragg cut-off from locations deep within the moderator. Studies of simple cylindrical convoluted moderator systems of 100 mm diameter and composed of polyethylene and single crystal silicon were performed with the upgraded MCNPX code and reproduced the magnitude of effects seen in experiments compared to homogeneous moderator systems. Applying different material properties for refraction and reflection, and by replacing the silicon in the models with voids, we show that the emission enhancements seen in recent experiments are primarily caused by the transparency of the silicon and void layers. Finally we simulated the convoluted moderator experiments described by Iverson et al. and found satisfactory agreement between the measurements and the simulations performed with the tools we have developed.

  20. State diagrams for harmonically trapped bosons in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rigol, Marcos; Batrouni, George G.; Rousseau, Valery G.; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2009-05-15

    We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to obtain zero-temperature state diagrams for strongly correlated lattice bosons in one and two dimensions under the influence of a harmonic confining potential. Since harmonic traps generate a coexistence of superfluid and Mott insulating domains, we use local quantities such as the quantum fluctuations of the density and a local compressibility to identify the phases present in the inhomogeneous density profiles. We emphasize the use of the 'characteristic density' to produce a state diagram that is relevant to experimental optical lattice systems, regardless of the number of bosons or trap curvature and of the validity of the local-density approximation. We show that the critical value of U/t at which Mott insulating domains appear in the trap depends on the filling in the system, and it is in general greater than the value in the homogeneous system. Recent experimental results by Spielman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 120402 (2008)] are analyzed in the context of our two-dimensional state diagram, and shown to exhibit a value for the critical point in good agreement with simulations. We also study the effects of finite, but low (T{<=}t/2), temperatures. We find that in two dimensions they have little influence on our zero-temperature results, while their effect is more pronounced in one dimension.

  1. Acousto-optic modulation in diode pumped solid state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabczynski, Jan K.; Zendzian, Waldemar; Kwiatkowski, Jacek

    2007-02-01

    The main properties of acousto-optic modulators (AOM) applied in laser technology are presented and discussed in the paper. The critical review of application of AOMs in several types of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL) is given. The short description of few DPSSLs developed in our group is presented in the following chapters of the paper. The parameters of a simple AO-Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 laser (peak power up to 60 kW, pulse duration of 5-15 ns, repetition rate in the range 10-100 kHz, with average power above 5 W) are satisfactory for different application as follows: higher harmonic generation, pumping of 'eye-safe' OPOs etc. The achieved brightness of 10 17 W/m2/srd is comparable to the strongest technological Q-switched lasers of kW class of average power. The main aim of paper is to present novel type of lasers with acousto-optic modulation namely: AO-q-switched and mode locked (AO-QML) lasers. We have designed the 3.69-m long Z-type resonator of the frequency matched to the RF frequency of AOM. As a gain medium the Nd:YVO 4 crystal end pumped by 20 W laser diode was applied. The energy of envelope of QML pulse train was up to 130 μJ with sub-nanosecond mode locked pulse of maximum 30-μJ energy.

  2. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Marina; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jalisatgi, Satish; Jensen, Craig M.

    2011-02-17

    Thermal decomposition of magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2, in the solid state was studied by a combination of PCT, TGA/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 at 200 °C, results in the highly selective formation of magnesium triborane, Mg(B3H8)2. This process is reversible at 250 °C under 120 atm H2. Dehydrogenation at higher temperature, > 300 °C, produces a complex mixture of polyborane species. Solution phase 11B NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed decomposition products reveals the formation of the B3H8 anion, boric acid from hydrolysis of the unstable polyboranes (BnHx) (n = 3-11, x >8), and the closoborane B12H12 dianion as a minor product. A BH condensation mechanism involving metal hydride formation is proposed to explain the limited reversible hydrogen storage in magnesium borohydride.

  3. Optical Measurement of the Connection State in Laser Brazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenner, Felix; Ramoser, Stephan; Dobler, Michael; Zalevsky, Zeev; Schmidt, Michael

    The laser brazing of steel sheets is widely applied in car-body manufacturing. The critical value for the strength of the joint is the minimal connection width between the two sheets. However, this value is depending on the feed rate and power of the laser and the feed rate and preheating current of the filler wire used. Furthermore, the wetting behavior of the brazing solder is affected by the surface properties of the joining partners and is thus prone to errors. Currently, mostly destructive testing is used to evaluate the connection state. Therefore, we studied a novel optical measurement technique which is capable of remotely measuring oscillations of the joining partners. In the proposed study, we show how the oscillations are connected to the process behavior and the fusion area and how the setup might be applied as a post- and in-process measurement system.

  4. Wavelets and the squeezed states of quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defacio, B.

    1992-01-01

    Wavelets are new mathematical objects which act as 'designer trigonometric functions.' To obtain a wavelet, the original function space of finite energy signals is generalized to a phase-space, and the translation operator in the original space has a scale change in the new variable adjoined to the translation. Localization properties in the phase-space can be improved and unconditional bases are obtained for a broad class of function and distribution spaces. Operators in phase space are 'almost diagonal' instead of the traditional condition of being diagonal in the original function space. These wavelets are applied to the squeezed states of quantum optics. The scale change required for a quantum wavelet is shown to be a Yuen squeeze operator acting on an arbitrary density operator.

  5. Solid-State Electrolyte-Gated Graphene in Optical Modulators.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Francisco J; Aznakayeva, Diana E; Marshall, Owen P; Kravets, Vasyl G; Grigorenko, Alexander N

    2017-05-01

    The gate-tunable wide-band absorption of graphene makes it suitable for light modulation from terahertz to visible light. The realization of graphene-based modulators, however, faces challenges connected with graphene's low absorption and the high electric fields necessary to change graphene's optical conductivity. Here, a solid-state supercapacitor effect with the high-k dielectric hafnium oxide is demonstrated that allows modulation from the near-infrared to shorter wavelengths close to the visible spectrum with remarkably low voltages (≈3 V). The electroabsorption modulators are based on a Fabry-Perot-resonator geometry that allows modulation depths over 30% for free-space beams. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a ``pre-seizure'' state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways.

  7. Pre-seizure state identified by diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Jiang, Ruixin; Yang, Hao; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    In epilepsy it has been challenging to detect early changes in brain activity that occurs prior to seizure onset and to map their origin and evolution for possible intervention. Here we demonstrate using a rat model of generalized epilepsy that diffuse optical tomography (DOT) provides a unique functional neuroimaging modality for noninvasively and continuously tracking such brain activities with high spatiotemporal resolution. We detected early hemodynamic responses with heterogeneous patterns, along with intracranial electroencephalogram gamma power changes, several minutes preceding the electroencephalographic seizure onset, supporting the presence of a “pre-seizure” state. We also observed the decoupling between local hemodynamic and neural activities. We found widespread hemodynamic changes evolving from local regions of the bilateral cortex and thalamus to the entire brain, indicating that the onset of generalized seizures may originate locally rather than diffusely. Together, these findings suggest DOT represents a powerful tool for mapping early seizure onset and propagation pathways. PMID:24445927

  8. Combining anatomical, diffusion, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging for individual classification of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Schouten, Tijn M; Koini, Marisa; de Vos, Frank; Seiler, Stephan; van der Grond, Jeroen; Lechner, Anita; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Schmidt, Reinhold; de Rooij, Mark; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to structural and functional changes in the brain caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can therefore be used to help in diagnosing the disease. Improving classification of AD patients based on MRI scans might help to identify AD earlier in the disease's progress, which may be key in developing treatments for AD. In this study we used an elastic net classifier based on several measures derived from the MRI scans of mild to moderate AD patients (N = 77) from the prospective registry on dementia study and controls (N = 173) from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. We based our classification on measures from anatomical MRI, diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI. Our unimodal classification performance ranged from an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.760 (full correlations between functional networks) to 0.909 (grey matter density). When combining measures from multiple modalities in a stepwise manner, the classification performance improved to an AUC of 0.952. This optimal combination consisted of grey matter density, white matter density, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and sparse partial correlations between functional networks. Classification performance for mild AD as well as moderate AD also improved when using this multimodal combination. We conclude that different MRI modalities provide complementary information for classifying AD. Moreover, combining multiple modalities can substantially improve classification performance over unimodal classification.

  9. Combining anatomical, diffusion, and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging for individual classification of mild and moderate Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Schouten, Tijn M.; Koini, Marisa; de Vos, Frank; Seiler, Stephan; van der Grond, Jeroen; Lechner, Anita; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Schmidt, Reinhold; de Rooij, Mark; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is sensitive to structural and functional changes in the brain caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD), and can therefore be used to help in diagnosing the disease. Improving classification of AD patients based on MRI scans might help to identify AD earlier in the disease's progress, which may be key in developing treatments for AD. In this study we used an elastic net classifier based on several measures derived from the MRI scans of mild to moderate AD patients (N = 77) from the prospective registry on dementia study and controls (N = 173) from the Austrian Stroke Prevention Family Study. We based our classification on measures from anatomical MRI, diffusion weighted MRI and resting state functional MRI. Our unimodal classification performance ranged from an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.760 (full correlations between functional networks) to 0.909 (grey matter density). When combining measures from multiple modalities in a stepwise manner, the classification performance improved to an AUC of 0.952. This optimal combination consisted of grey matter density, white matter density, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and sparse partial correlations between functional networks. Classification performance for mild AD as well as moderate AD also improved when using this multimodal combination. We conclude that different MRI modalities provide complementary information for classifying AD. Moreover, combining multiple modalities can substantially improve classification performance over unimodal classification. PMID:26909327

  10. Emotional states of love moderate the association between catecholamines and female sexual responses in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Dundon, Carolyn M; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests that there are three interrelated, yet distinct, emotion-motivation brain systems for human love (lust, romantic love, and attachment), each associated with a unique catecholaminergic and hormonal profile. Of interest for the current study are norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), which have a hypothesized connection with romantic love. As NE and DA are also known to facilitate sexual arousal, it is plausible that NE and DA may have a greater positive association with the sexual arousal responses of women in romantic love compared with women in lust. This study investigated if the effects of NE and DA activity on sexual arousal responses would differ depending on emotion-motivation state (Lust or Romantic). Physiological sexual arousal was assessed by photoplethysmography and subjective sexual arousal was assessed with a participant-controlled lever. Seventeen women were included in the Lust group and 29 in the Romantic group. All participants provided a urine sample (to assess NE and DA) and completed a psychophysiological assessment. Elevated NE was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective and physiological sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. Similarly, elevated DA was positively and significantly associated with greater subjective sexual arousal for the Lust group, but not for the Romantic group. The sexual arousal responses of women in the Lust group, but not in the Romantic group, were positively and significantly associated with elevated NE and DA. It is feasible that, when women are seeking a partner (Lust), NE and DA may facilitate attention toward sexually relevant stimuli. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Solid-state detector and optical system for microchip analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Kamei, Toshihiro; Scherer, James R.; Street, Robert A.

    2005-03-15

    A miniaturized optical excitation and detector system is described for detecting fluorescently labeled analytes in electrophoretic microchips and microarrays. The system uses miniature integrated components, light collection, optical fluorescence filtering, and an amorphous a-Si:H detector for detection. The collection of light is accomplished with proximity gathering and/or a micro-lens system. Optical filtering is accomplished by integrated optical filters. Detection is accomplished utilizing a-Si:H detectors.

  12. State dissociation moderates response to dialectical behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in women with and without borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Priebe, Kathlen; Görg, Nora; Dyer, Anne; Steil, Regina; Lyssenko, Lisa; Winter, Dorina; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin

    2016-01-01

    dissociation during psychotherapeutic sessions moderates the success of an established treatment for PTSD. Patients were much more likely to substantially improve with respect to PTSD symptomatology if state dissociation during psychotherapeutic sessions was low. The article suggests that the relation between low dissociation and good response in highly symptomatic patients is stronger than previously thought. Future studies investigating the extent to which outcome might be improved when treating dissociation more vigorously than usually are necessary. PMID:27396380

  13. Optical Studies of the Metallic State in Conducting Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlman, Randolph Scott

    A systematic charge transport study was performed at direct current, optical (10-55,000 cm^ {-1}, and microwave (6.5 GHz) frequencies to probe the insulator-metal (IM) transition which occurs as a function of sample processing in conducting polymers, notably Polyaniline (PAN) and Polypyrrole (PPy). These measurements demonstrate the universality of the inhomogeneous metallic state in conducting polymers. Optical and microwave measurements of the dielectric function (varepsilon( omega)] demonstrate a crossover from positive to large negative values for samples processed to lie near the IM transition. The negative dielectric response is attributed to a small fraction of the conduction electron gas which demonstrates Drude dispersion. The majority of the conduction electrons remain localized. In contrast, samples far from the IM transition on the insulating side demonstrate localized hopping behavior with positive varepsilon(omega) at low frequency. Detailed studies of the transport properties of PAN samples approaching the IM transition reveal that, though the localization is controlled by structural disorder, the transition is not a conventional Anderson transition such as has been applied to doped semiconductors. This is asserted because (1) samples with conductivity ( sigma_{DC}) higher than the minimum metallic conductivity (sigma_{min}) become insulating at low temperature; (2) millikelvin sigma _{DC} for selected insulating samples is not consistent with hopping transport; (3) the density of free electrons present in a sample scales with sigma_{DC}(T) so that a sample which demonstrates metallic behavior at low temperature may have a smaller density of free electrons at room temperature than a sample which demonstrates insulating behavior at low temperature; (4) varepsilon( omega) and the optical conductivity ( sigma(omega)] for metallic samples are consistent with macroscopically inhomogeneous models but not Anderson localization models; and (5) the polymers

  14. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno

    2014-12-01

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  15. Magneto-optical controlled transmittance alteration of PbS quantum dots by moderately applied magnetic fields at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Akhilesh K.; Barik, Puspendu; Ullrich, Bruno E-mail: bruno.ullrich@yahoo.com

    2014-12-15

    We observed changes of the transmitted monochromatic light passing through a colloidal PbS quantum dot film on glass owing to an applied moderate (smaller than 1 T) magnetic field under ambient conditions. The observed alterations show a square dependence on the magnetic field increase that cannot be achieved with bulk semiconductors. The findings point to so far not recognized application potentials of quantum dots.

  16. Health care resource use, productivity, and costs among patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Caroline P; Cappelleri, Joseph C; Cheng, Rebecca; Cole, Jason C; Guenthner, Scott; Fowler, Joseph; Johnson, Sandy; Mamolo, Carla

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive studies on costs of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis (MSPP) have not been conducted in the United States. We sought to evaluate current health care resource use, productivity, and costs among patients with MSPP in routine practice. A total of 200 adults seeking MSPP treatment enrolled in 9 US sites. Consented patients reported symptoms, treatment, lost productivity, and costs; 6-month retrospective chart review captured health care resource use and clinical characteristics. Costs were assigned to health care resource use and lost productivity using standard algorithms. Differences by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) group, based on PASI score (≤10, >10-≤20, >20) at enrollment, were evaluated. Analyses included descriptive statistics and analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Most patients (79.5%) were prescribed 1 or more MSPP medications (mean: 1.5); 36.0% and 9.0% received self-administered biologics and systemic therapies, respectively. Mean number of nonprescription treatments was 12.3. Differences by PASI group were observed for overall work and activity impairment (P < .02). Six-month total MSPP direct costs per patient were $11,291; indirect costs were $2101 and differed across PASI groups (P = .0008). This study enrolled patients with MSPP actively seeking care. Despite treatment, a number of patients with MSPP continue to experience moderate to severe PASI scores, impaired functioning, and high costs suggesting a need for new treatment options. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optical pumping of metastable NH radicals into the paramagnetic ground state

    SciTech Connect

    Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y.T. van de; Mosk, Allard P.; Jongma, Rienk T.; Sartakov, Boris G.; Meijer, Gerard

    2003-09-01

    We here report on the optical pumping of both {sup 14}NH and {sup 15}NH radicals from the metastable a {sup 1}{delta} state into the X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -} ground state in a molecular beam experiment. By inducing the hitherto unobserved spin-forbidden A {sup 3}{pi} <- a {sup 1}{delta} transition, followed by spontaneous emission to the X {sup 3}{sigma}{sup -} state, a unidirectional pathway for population transfer from the metastable state into the electronic ground state is obtained. The optical pumping scheme demonstrated here opens up the possibility to accumulate NH radicals in a magnetic or optical trap.

  18. Vibrational states and optical transitions in hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannsen, P. G.

    1998-03-01

    Proton energies in hydrogen bonds are mostly calculated using a double Morse potential (the DMP model). This form, however, does not reproduce the experimentally observed correlation between the proton stretching frequency and the bond length in an extended bond-length region sufficiently well. An alternative potential is proposed in the present paper. The quantum states of this non-symmetric double-well potential are calculated numerically using the Numerov (Fox-Goodwin) algorithm. It is shown that the optical spectra of hydrogen bonds in various substances can be well approximated on the basis of the transition frequencies and intensities predicted by the present model. For weakly interacting OH impurities in 0953-8984/10/10/008/img1, the overtone spectrum and line intensities are well reproduced, whereas the line broadenings and the decrease of the fundamental stretching frequencies in intermediate and strong hydrogen bonds are traced back to the influence of the reduced height of the central barrier. The model is also extrapolated to the range of symmetric hydrogen bonds, and the calculated transition frequencies are discussed with respect to most recent infra-red experiments on ice under strong compression. A possible artificial infra-red signal from strained diamond anvils is thereby noted.

  19. Optically triggered solid state driver for shock wave therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2012-10-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) represents one of several first-line therapies for the treatment of stones located in the kidneys and ureters. Additional applications for shock wave therapy are also under exploration, including non-urinary calculi, orthopedics, and neovascularization. Except for the elimination of a large water bath in which the treatment is performed, current procedures remain largely unchanged, with one of the original commercial devices (the Dornier HM3) still considered a gold standard for comparison. To accelerate research in this area, Coleman, et al. published an experimental electrohydraulic shock wave generator capable of simulating the acoustic field generated by the HM3. We propose a further update of this system, replacing the triggered spark gap with an optically triggered solid state switch. The new system has better reliability, a wider operating range, and reduced timing jitter allowing synchronization with additional acoustic sources under exploration for improving efficacy and reducing injury. Originally designed for exciting electrohydraulic spark electrodes, the system can also be adapted for driving piezoelectric and electromagnetic sources.

  20. Optically Excited Entangled States in Organic Molecules Illuminate the Dark.

    PubMed

    Upton, L; Harpham, M; Suzer, O; Richter, M; Mukamel, S; Goodson, T

    2013-06-20

    We utilize quantum entangled photons to carry out nonlinear optical spectroscopy in organic molecules with an extremely small number of photons. For the first time, fluorescence is reported as a result of entangled photon absorption in organic nonlinear optical molecules. Selectivity of the entangled photon absorption process is also observed and a theoretical model of this process is provided. Through these experiments and theoretical modeling it is found that while some molecules may not have strong classical nonlinear optical properties due to their excitation pathways; these same excitation pathways may enhance the entangled photon processes. It is found that the opposite is also true. Some materials with weak classical nonlinear optical effects may exhibit strong non-classical nonlinear optical effects. Our entangled photon fluorescence results provide the first steps in realizing and demonstrating the viability of entangled two-photon microscopy, remote sensing, and optical communications.

  1. Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Susana; Werner, John S; Burns, Stephen A; Merigan, William H; Artal, Pablo; Atchison, David A; Hampson, Karen M; Legras, Richard; Lundstrom, Linda; Yoon, Geungyoung; Carroll, Joseph; Choi, Stacey S; Doble, Nathan; Dubis, Adam M; Dubra, Alfredo; Elsner, Ann; Jonnal, Ravi; Miller, Donald T; Paques, Michel; Smithson, Hannah E; Young, Laura K; Zhang, Yuhua; Campbell, Melanie; Hunter, Jennifer; Metha, Andrew; Palczewska, Grazyna; Schallek, Jesse; Sincich, Lawrence C

    2017-03-01

    Adaptive optics is a relatively new field, yet it is spreading rapidly and allows new questions to be asked about how the visual system is organized. The editors of this feature issue have posed a series of question to scientists involved in using adaptive optics in vision science. The questions are focused on three main areas. In the first we investigate the use of adaptive optics for psychophysical measurements of visual system function and for improving the optics of the eye. In the second, we look at the applications and impact of adaptive optics on retinal imaging and its promise for basic and applied research. In the third, we explore how adaptive optics is being used to improve our understanding of the neurophysiology of the visual system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Steady-state heating of active fibres under optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Gainov, V V; Shaidullin, R I; Ryabushkin, Oleg A

    2011-07-31

    We have measured the temperature in the core of rare-earth-doped optical fibres under lasing conditions at high optical pump powers using a fibre Mach - Zehnder interferometer and probe light of wavelength far away from the absorption bands of the active ions. From the observed heating kinetics of the active medium, the heat transfer coefficient on the polymer cladding - air interface has been estimated. The temperature of the active medium is shown to depend on the thermal and optical properties of the polymer cladding. (fiber and integrated optics)

  3. Long-term monitoring of PKS 2155-304 with ATOM and H.E.S.S.: investigation of optical/γ-ray correlations in different spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E. O.; Backes, M.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Cui, Y.; Dalton, M.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Hadsch, D.; Häffner, S.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Méhault, J.; Meintjes, P. J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; de Naurois, M.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Odaka, H.; Ohm, S.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reichardt, I.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Romoli, C.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Vuillaume, T.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we report on the analysis of all the available optical and very high-energy γ-ray (>200 GeV) data for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, collected simultaneously with the ATOM and H.E.S.S. telescopes from 2007 until 2009. This study also includes X-ray (RXTE, Swift) and high-energy γ-ray (Fermi-LAT) data. During the period analysed, the source was transitioning from its flaring to quiescent optical states, and was characterized by only moderate flux changes at different wavelengths on the timescales of days and months. A flattening of the optical continuum with an increasing optical flux can be noted in the collected dataset, but only occasionally and only at higher flux levels. We did not find any universal relation between the very high-energy γ-ray and optical flux changes on the timescales from days and weeks up to several years. On the other hand, we noted that at higher flux levels the source can follow two distinct tracks in the optical flux-colour diagrams, which seem to be related to distinct γ-ray states of the blazar. The obtained results therefore indicate a complex scaling between the optical and γ-ray emission of PKS 2155-304, with different correlation patterns holding at different epochs, and a γ-ray flux depending on the combination of an optical flux and colour rather than a flux alone.

  4. Spectroscopy of molecules in very high rotational states using an optical centrifuge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liwei; Toro, Carlos; Bell, Mack; Mullin, Amy S

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a high power optical centrifuge for measuring the spectroscopy of molecules in extreme rotational states. The optical centrifuge has a pulse energy that is more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than in earlier instruments. The large pulse energy allows us to drive substantial number densities of molecules to extreme rotational states in order to measure new spectroscopic transitions that are not accessible with traditional methods. Here we demonstrate the use of the optical centrifuge for measuring IR transitions of N2O from states that have been inaccessible until now. In these studies, the optical centrifuge drives N2O molecules into states with J ~ 200 and we use high resolution transient IR probing to measure the appearance of population in states with J = 93-99 that result from collisional cooling of the centrifuged molecules. High resolution Doppler broadened line profile measurements yield information about the rotational and translational energy distributions in the optical centrifuge.

  5. Effect of hybrid state of surface plasmon-polaritons, magnetic defect mode and optical Tamm state on nonreciprocal propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-tuan; Ni, Yue-xin; He, Hang-qing; Hu, Jian-xia

    2014-06-01

    A coupled system of semi-infinite one-dimensional photonic crystal coated with metal and magnetic films is proposed. The properties of hybrid states of surface plasmon-polaritons, magnetic defect mode and optical Tamm state from the system have been studied through the Bloch theorem of periodic structure and the transfer matrix method. In the hybrid states the magneto-optical effect is amplified due to the field resonance amplification at the interface between the metal and magneto-optical material. Tunable nonreciprocal propagation can be achieved from the hybrid states through changing the thickness of magneto-optical material layer. The nonreciprocity is found to be robust to the change of metal thickness.

  6. Characterizaticr of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-02

    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  7. Characterization of Solid State Laser and Nonlinear Optical Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-02

    materials useful in the different methods for obtaining frequency agility: narrow line emitters with multiple lasing channels and nonlinear optical materials . In...codoped with two or more rare-earth ions were studied and computers models developed to explain their spectral dynamics. The nonlinear optical materials investigated

  8. The moderating role of state inhibitory control in the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation and unhealthy snacking.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Ashleigh; Kemps, Eva; Moffitt, Robyn

    2015-12-01

    The current study sought to test the effect of a brief evaluative conditioning intervention on experienced temptation to indulge, and consumption of, unhealthy snack foods. We expected that a training task associating unhealthy food with negative affect would result in lower experienced temptation across the sample, but would lead to lower snack consumption only among individuals with low state inhibitory control. Undergraduate women (N=134) aged 17-25 years were randomised to complete an evaluative conditioning procedure pairing unhealthy food with either positive or negative affect. Snack consumption was subsequently assessed using a taste-test procedure which offered four snack foods for ad libitum consumption. Participants also reported the strength of their experienced temptation to indulge in the foods presented. Additionally, they completed a Stop Signal Task as a measure of state inhibitory control. As predicted, participants in the food negative condition ate less than those in the food positive condition, but this effect was only observed among individuals with low inhibitory control. The same moderation pattern was observed for the effect of evaluative conditioning on temptation: only participants with low inhibitory control reported feeling less tempted by the snack foods in the food negative condition compared to the food positive condition. In addition, temptation mediated the effect of evaluative conditioning on intake for individuals with low inhibitory control. Findings suggest that evaluative conditioning of unhealthy food stimuli could be especially useful for reducing temptation and consumption of unhealthy snacks in situations where individuals experience low inhibitory control capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Online Condition Measurement of High Power Solid State Laser Cutting Optics using Ultrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeier, Benedikt; Schmitt-Landsiedel, Doris

    The occurrence of thermally induced focal shifts in high power solid state laser cutting applications has been reported. A fraction of laser light is absorbed in transmissive optical elements and at optical surface contaminations, leading to a temperature rise of the optical elements. The object of this study is experimental identification of temperature changes in laser cutting head optics during processing, and development of a novel method utilizing ultrasound to measure the bulk temperature online for every optical element in the cutting head. A thermal model is provided for each optical element and allows to estimate the absorbed laser power, the condition and focal shift of the optics. The novel method is compared to existing techniques using thermopiles as temperature sensors. Our measurement system facilitates a closed loop focal shift compensation control and enables a fast reacting emergency shutdown when the temperature of an optical element reaches a damage threshold.

  10. Generation of two types of nonclassical optical states using an optical parametric oscillator with a PPKTP crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Meiru; Qin, Jiliang; Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-11-01

    As important members of nonclassical states of light, squeezed states and entangled states are basic resources for realizing quantum measurements and constructing quantum information networks. We experimentally demonstrate that the two types of nonclassical optical states can be generated from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) involving a periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a domain-inversion period of 51.7 μm, by changing the polarization of the pump laser. When a vertically polarized 671 nm laser is used to pump the OPO, the intra-cavity frequency-down-conversion with type-0 quasi-phase matching is realized and the output optical beam is a quadrature amplitude squeezed state of light at the wavelength of 1342 nm with the fluctuation of quadrature component of 3.17 dB below the quantum noise limit (QNL). If the pump laser is horizontally polarized, the condition of the type-II quasi-phase matching is satisfied and the output optical beam becomes Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state of light with correlation variances of both quadrature amplitude-sum and quadrature phase-difference of 2.2 dB below the corresponding QNL.

  11. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Liang; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Yan, Zhihui; Jia, Xiaojun Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-18

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  12. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  13. Quantum Coherent Feedback Control for Generation System of Optical Entangled State

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yaoyao; Jia, Xiaojun; Li, Fang; Yu, Juan; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2015-01-01

    The non-measurement based coherent feedback control (CFC) is a control method without introducing any backaction noise into the controlled system, thus is specially suitable to manipulate various quantum optical systems for preparing nonclassical states of light. By simply tuning the transmissivity of an optical controller in a CFC loop attached to a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA), the quantum entanglement degree of the output optical entangled state of the system is improved. At the same time, the threshold pump power of the NOPA is reduced also. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with the theoretical expectation. PMID:26047357

  14. Quantum simulation of topologically protected states using directionally unbiased linear-optical multiports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, David S.; Fitzpatrick, Casey A.; Osawa, Shuto; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2017-07-01

    It is shown that quantum walks on one-dimensional arrays of special linear-optical units allow the simulation of discrete-time Hamiltonian systems with distinct topological phases. In particular, a slightly modified version of the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) system can be simulated, which exhibits states of nonzero winding number and has topologically protected boundary states. In the large-system limit this approach uses quadratically fewer resources to carry out quantum simulations than previous linear-optical approaches and can be readily generalized to higher-dimensional systems. The basic optical units that implement this simulation consist of combinations of optical multiports that allow photons to reverse direction.

  15. Switching between ground and excited states by optical feedback in a quantum dot laser diode

    SciTech Connect

    Virte, Martin; Breuer, Stefan; Sciamanna, Marc; Panajotov, Krassimir

    2014-09-22

    We demonstrate switching between ground state and excited state emission in a quantum-dot laser subject to optical feedback. Even though the solitary laser emits only from the excited state, we can trigger the emission of the ground state by optical feedback. We observe recurrent but incomplete switching between the two emission states by variation of the external cavity length in the sub-micrometer scale. We obtain a good qualitative agreement of experimental results with simulation results obtained by a rate equation that accounts for the variations of the feedback phase.

  16. Remote sensing-based Information for crop monitoring: contribution of SAR and Moderate resolution optical data on Asian rice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschetti, Mirco; Holectz, Francesco; Manfron, Giacinto; Collivignarelli, Francesco; Nelson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Updated information on crop typology and status are strongly required to support suitable action to better manage agriculture production and reduce food insecurity. In this field, remote sensing has been demonstrated to be a suitable tool to monitor crop condition however rarely the tested system became really operative. The ones today available, such as the European Commission MARS, are mainly based on the analysis of NDVI time series and required ancillary external information like crop mask to interpret the seasonal signal. This condition is not always guarantied worldwide reducing the potentiality of the remote sensing monitoring. Moreover in tropical countries cloud contamination strongly reduce the possibility of using optical remote sensing data for crop monitoring. In this framework we focused our analysis on the rice production monitoring in Asian tropical area. Rice is in fact the staple food for half of the world population (FAO 2004), in Asia almost 90% of the world's rice is produced and consumed and Rice and poverty often coincide. In this contest the production of reliable rice production information is of extreme interest. We tried to address two important issue in terms of required geospatial information for crop monitoring: rice crop detection (rice map) and seasonal dynamics analysis (phenology). We use both SAR and Optical data in order to exploit the potential complementarity of this system. Multi-temporal ASAR Wide Swath data are in fact the best option to deal with cloud contamination. SAR can easily penetrate the clouds providing information on the surface target. Temporal analysis of archive ASAR data allowed to derived accurate map, at 100m spatial resolution, of permanent rice cultivated areas. On the other and high frequency revisiting optical data, in this case MODIS, have been used to extract seasonal information for the year under analysis. MOD09A1 Surface Reflectance 8-Day L3 Global 500m have been exploited to derive time series of

  17. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively

  18. Single-photon-state generation from a continuous-wave nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Moelmer, Klaus

    2007-02-15

    We present a theoretical treatment of conditional preparation of one-photon states from a continuous-wave nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator. We obtain an analytical expression for the output state Wigner function, and we maximize the one-photon state fidelity by varying the temporal mode function of the output state. We show that a higher production rate of high fidelity Fock states is obtained if we condition the outcome on dark intervals around trigger photo detection events.

  19. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  20. Optical Field-Strength Polarization of Two-Mode Single-Photon States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, J.; Nistal, M. C.; Barral, D.; Moreno, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a quantum analysis of two-mode single-photon states based on the probability distributions of the optical field strength (or position quadrature) in order to describe their quantum polarization characteristics, where polarization is understood as a significative confinement of the optical field-strength values on determined regions of…

  1. Influence of Imperfections of Radiation and Technology on the Thermally Deformed State of Optical Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanin, Yu. I.; Shanin, O. I.; Chernykh, A. V.; Sharapov, I. S.

    2017-05-01

    The authors have performed calculation and an analysis of the thermally stressed state of optical elements (mirror, passage windows, and beam splitters). A study has been made of the temperature fields, stresses, bending thermal displacements, and expansions of the optical surface of these elements under inhomogeneous local conditions of their loading depending on the defects existing in them.

  2. Radical ions and excited states in radiolysis. Optically detected time resolved EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Trifunac, A.D.; Smith, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Excited-state production and radical-ion recombination kinetics in pulse-irradiated solutions of aromatic solutes in cyclohexane are studied by a new method of optical detection of time-resolved electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. 7 figures.

  3. Energy shift and state mixing of Rydberg atoms in ponderomotive optical traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao; Robicheaux, F.

    2016-08-01

    We present a degenerate perturbation analysis in the spin-orbit coupled basis for Rydberg atoms in an optical trap. The perturbation matrix is found to be nearly the same for two states with the same total angular momentum j, and orbital angular momentum number l differing by 1, The same perturbation matrices result in the same state-mixing and energy shift. We also study the dependence of state mixing and energy shift on the periodicity and symmetry of the ponderomotive potentials induced by different optical traps. State mixing in a one-dimensional lattice formed with two counterpropagating Gaussian beams is studied and yields a state-dependent trap depth. We also calculate the state-mixing in an optical trap formed by four parallel, separated and highly focused Gaussian beams.

  4. Block-free optical quantum Banyan network based on quantum state fusion and fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chang-Hua; Meng, Yan-Hong; Quan, Dong-Xiao; Zhao, Nan; Pei, Chang-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Optical switch fabric plays an important role in building multiple-user optical quantum communication networks. Owing to its self-routing property and low complexity, a banyan network is widely used for building switch fabric. While, there is no efficient way to remove internal blocking in a banyan network in a classical way, quantum state fusion, by which the two-dimensional internal quantum states of two photons could be combined into a four-dimensional internal state of a single photon, makes it possible to solve this problem. In this paper, we convert the output mode of quantum state fusion from spatial-polarization mode into time-polarization mode. By combining modified quantum state fusion and quantum state fission with quantum Fredkin gate, we propose a practical scheme to build an optical quantum switch unit which is block free. The scheme can be extended to building more complex units, four of which are shown in this paper.

  5. Optical Limiting: An Overview State of the Art Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    optical limiting response of phthalocyanine and porphyrin complexes23.24.25. Explored structural variations include insertion of metal ions , extension...electromagnetic field, damage threshold, reverse saturable absorption (RSA), Porphyrin, 14. SUBJECT TERMS 49 Tetrabenzoporphyrin, Metal Bis( phthalocyanine ...Structure of Tetrabenzoporphyrin (A) and Tetraphenylporphyrin (B) 20 Chemical Structure of Phthalocyanine 21 Chemical Structure of Metal

  6. Pump-probe quantum state tomography in a semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Grosse, N B; Owschimikow, N; Aust, R; Lingnau, B; Koltchanov, A; Kolarczik, M; Lüdge, K; Woggon, U

    2014-12-29

    Pump-probe quantum state tomography was applied to the transmission of a coherent state through an In(Ga)As based quantum dot optical amplifier during the interaction with an optical pump pulse. The Wigner function and the statistical moments of the field were extracted and used to determine the degree of population inversion and the signal-to-noise ratio in a sub-picosecond time window.

  7. The rich get richer and the poor get poorer: Country- and state-level income inequality moderates the job insecurity-burnout relationship.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lixin; Probst, Tahira M

    2017-04-01

    Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i.e., material coping) and condition (i.e., nonmaterial coping) resources, thus serving as an environmental stressor exacerbating one's burnout reactions to JI. The predicted cross-level interaction effect of income inequality was tested in 2 studies. Study 1 consisting of 23,778 individuals nested in 30 countries explored the moderating effect of country-level income inequality on the relationship between individual JI and exhaustion. Study 2 collected data from 402 employees residing in 48 states in the United States, and tested the moderating effect of state-level income inequality on the relationship between JI and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism). Results of both studies converge to support the exacerbating role of higher-level income inequality on the JI -burnout relationship. Our findings contribute to the literature on psychological health disparities by exploring the contextual role of income inequality as a predictor of differential reactions to JI. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Optical State-of-Change Monitor for Lead-Acid Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1998-07-24

    A method and apparatus for determining the instantaneous state-of-charge of a battery in which change in composition with discharge manifests itself as a change in optical absorption. In a lead-acid battery, the sensor comprises a fiber optic system with an absorption cdl or, alternatively, an optical fiber woven into an absorbed-glass-mat battery. In a lithium-ion battery, the sensor comprises fiber optics for introducing light into the anode to monitor absorption when lithium ions are introduced.

  9. Spectral structure and decompositions of optical states, and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Peter P.; Mauerer, Wolfgang; Silberhorn, Christine

    2007-04-01

    We discuss the spectral structure and decomposition of multi-photon states. Ordinarily 'multi-photon states' and 'Fock states' are regarded as synonymous. However, when the spectral degrees of freedom are included this is not the case, and the class of 'multi-photon' states is much broader than the class of 'Fock' states. We discuss the criteria for a state to be considered a Fock state. We then address the decomposition of general multi-photon states into bases of orthogonal eigenmodes, building on existing multi-mode theory, and introduce an occupation number representation that provides an elegant description of such states. This representation allows us to work in bases imposed by experimental constraints, simplifying calculations in many situations. Finally we apply this technique to several example situations, which are highly relevant for state of the art experiments. These include Hong Ou Mandel interference, spectral filtering, finite bandwidth photo-detection, homodyne detection and the conditional preparation of Schrödinger kitten and Fock states. Our techniques allow for very simple descriptions of each of these examples.

  10. Quantum optics. Quantum harmonic oscillator state synthesis by reservoir engineering.

    PubMed

    Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Keitch, B; de Clercq, L; Leupold, F; Lindenfelser, F; Marinelli, M; Negnevitsky, V; Home, J P

    2015-01-02

    The robust generation of quantum states in the presence of decoherence is a primary challenge for explorations of quantum mechanics at larger scales. Using the mechanical motion of a single trapped ion, we utilize reservoir engineering to generate squeezed, coherent, and displaced-squeezed states as steady states in the presence of noise. We verify the created state by generating two-state correlated spin-motion Rabi oscillations, resulting in high-contrast measurements. For both cooling and measurement, we use spin-oscillator couplings that provide transitions between oscillator states in an engineered Fock state basis. Our approach should facilitate studies of entanglement, quantum computation, and open-system quantum simulations in a wide range of physical systems. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Communication: Momentum-resolved quantum interference in optically excited surface states.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wai-Lun; Tritsch, John; Dolocan, Andrei; Ligges, Manuel; Miaja-Avila, Luis; Zhu, X-Y

    2011-07-21

    Surface states play essential roles in condensed matter physics, e.g., as model two-dimensional (2D) electron gases and as the basis for topological insulators. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference in the optical excitation of 2D surface states using the model system of C(60)/Au(111). These surface states are transiently populated and probed in a femtosecond time- and angle-resolved two-photon photoemission experiment. We observe quantum interference within the excited populations of these surface states as a function of parallel momentum vector. Such quantum interference in momentum space may allow one to control 2D transport properties by optical fields.

  12. Nonmaximally entangled states can be better for multiple linear optical teleportation.

    PubMed

    Modławska, Joanna; Grudka, Andrzej

    2008-03-21

    We investigate multiple linear optical teleportation in the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn scheme with both maximally and nonmaximally entangled states. We show that if the qubit is teleported several times via a nonmaximally entangled state, then the errors introduced in the previous teleportations can be corrected by the errors introduced in the following teleportations. This effect is so strong that it leads to another interesting phenomenon: i.e., the total probability of successful multiple linear optical teleportation is higher for nonmaximally entangled states than maximally entangled states.

  13. Effect of rotational-state-dependent molecular alignment on the optical dipole force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Lee Yeong; Lee, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hye Ah; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Friedrich, Bretislav; Zhao, Bum Suk

    2016-07-01

    The properties of molecule-optical elements such as lenses or prisms based on the interaction of molecules with optical fields depend in a crucial way on the molecular quantum state and its alignment created by the optical field. Herein, we consider the effects of state-dependent alignment in estimating the optical dipole force acting on the molecules and, to this end, introduce an effective polarizability which takes proper account of molecular alignment and is directly related to the alignment-dependent optical dipole force. We illustrate the significance of including molecular alignment in the optical dipole force by a trajectory study that compares previously used approximations with the present approach. The trajectory simulations were carried out for an ensemble of linear molecules subject to either propagating or standing-wave optical fields for a range of temperatures and laser intensities. The results demonstrate that the alignment-dependent effective polarizability can serve to provide correct estimates of the optical dipole force, on which a state-selection method applicable to nonpolar molecules could be based. We note that an analogous analysis of the forces acting on polar molecules subject to an inhomogeneous static electric field reveals a similarly strong dependence on molecular orientation.

  14. Resonant-state expansion of dispersive open optical systems: Creating gold from sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muljarov, E. A.; Langbein, W.

    2016-02-01

    A resonant-state expansion (RSE) for open optical systems with a general frequency dispersion of the permittivity is presented. The RSE of dispersive systems converts Maxwell's wave equation into a linear matrix eigenvalue problem in the basis of unperturbed resonant states, in this way numerically exactly determining all relevant eigenmodes of the optical system. The dispersive RSE is verified by application to the analytically solvable system of a sphere in vacuum, with a dispersion of the permittivity described by the Drude and Drude-Lorentz models. We calculate the optical modes converting the sphere material from gold to nondispersive sand and back to gold, and evaluate the accuracy using exact solutions.

  15. Solid state electro-optic color filter and iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The electro-optic properties of lanthanum-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) ferroelectric ceramic material are evaluated when utilized as a variable density and/or spectral filter in conjunction with a television scanning system. Emphasis was placed on the development of techniques and procedures for processing the PLZT disks and for applying efficient electrode structures. A number of samples were processed using different combinations of cleaning, electrode material, and deposition process. Best overall performance resulted from the direct evaporation of gold over chrome electrodes. A ruggedized mounting holder assembly was designed, fabricated, and tested. The assembly provides electrical contacts, high voltage protection, and support for the fragile PLZT disk, and permits mounting and optical alignment of the associated polarizers. Operational measurements of a PLZT sample mounted in the holder assembly were performed in conjunction with a television camera and the associated drive circuits. The data verified achievement of the elimination of the observed white-line effect.

  16. Injection-induced, tunable all-optical gating in a two-state quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Viktorov, E A; Dubinkin, I; Fedorov, N; Erneux, T; Tykalewicz, B; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Goulding, D; Kelleher, B

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate a tunable all-optical gating phenomenon in a single-section quantum dot laser. The free-running operation of the device is emission from the excited state. Optical injection into the ground state of the material can induce a switch to emission from the ground state with complete suppression of the excited state. If the master laser is detuned from the ground-state emitting frequency, a periodic train of ground-state dropouts can be obtained. These dropouts act as gates for excited-state pulsations: during the dropout, the gate is opened and gain is made available for the excited state, and the gate is closed again when the dropout ends. Numerical simulations using a rate equation model are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  17. Optical indication for evaluation ecological state of water areas

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.G.; Goloudin, R.I.

    1996-11-01

    The results of spectral measurements of reed, leaves by using a two kinds or the spectrometers at the Neva Bay and in the east part of the Gulf of Finland are discussed. It is shown that the optical properties of the coastal-aqueous vegetation depend on the presence of heavy metals in them. Key words: ecology, spectral reflectance, pollution, aqueous vegetation, remote sensing, spectrometer. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Aerosol optical properties over the midcontinental United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halthore, Rangasayi N.; Markham, Brian L.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Aro, Theo. O.

    1992-01-01

    Solar and sky radiation measurements were analyzed to obtain aerosol properties such as the optical thickness and the size distribution. The measurements were conducted as part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project Field Experiment during the second intensive field campaign (IFC) from June 25 to July 14, 1987, and the fifth IFC from July 25 to August 12, 1989, on the Konza Prairie near Manhattan, Kansas. Correlations with climatological and meteorological parameters show that during the period of observations in 1987, two types of air masses dominated the area: an air mass with low optical thickness and low temperature air associated with a northerly breeze, commonly referred to as the continental air, and an air mass with a higher optical thickness and higher temperature air associated with a southerly wind which we call 'Gulf air'. The size distributions show a predominance of the larger size particles in 'Gulf air'. Because of the presence of two contrasting air masses, correlations with parameters such as relative humidity, specific humidity, pressure, temperature, and North Star sky radiance reveal some interesting aspects. In 1989, clear distinctions between continental and Gulf air cannot be made; the reason for this will be discussed.

  19. Optically induced hysteresis in a two-state quantum dot laser.

    PubMed

    Tykalewicz, B; Goulding, D; Hegarty, S P; Huyet, G; Dubinkin, I; Fedorov, N; Erneux, T; Viktorov, E A; Kelleher, B

    2016-03-01

    Quantum dot lasers can lase from the ground state only, simultaneously from both the ground and first excited states and from the excited state only. We examine the influence of optical injection at frequencies close to the ground state when the free-running operation of the device is excited state lasing only. We demonstrate the existence of an injection-induced bistability between ground state dominated emission and excited state dominated emission and the consequent hysteresis loop in the lasing output. Experimental and numerical investigations are in excellent agreement. Inhomogeneous broadening is found to be the underlying physical mechanism driving the phenomenon.

  20. Low States of Polars from CRTS Optical Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Joshua; Mason, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a study of light curves from the 10 year baseline for 98 polars observed using the Catalina Realtime Transit Survey (CRTS). In particular we investigate the stability of high and low luminosity states, for which these highly magnetic binaries are known. We identify several classes of behavior. Some polars have stable low states, (EF Eri, AR UMa, AM Her) in which they spend considerable time. About as many dip in brightness to low states followed by quick returns, (CE Gru, BM CrB). A few like FL Cet show 3 distinctive states.

  1. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry Is Enhanced by the Goal of Inferring Emotional States: Evidence for Moderation of “Automatic” Mimicry by Higher Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Aiko; Saito, Hisamichi; Schug, Joanna; Ogawa, Kenji; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like “automatic” response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target’s facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target’s emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target’s emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target’s emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target’s emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes. PMID:27055206

  2. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry Is Enhanced by the Goal of Inferring Emotional States: Evidence for Moderation of "Automatic" Mimicry by Higher Cognitive Processes.

    PubMed

    Murata, Aiko; Saito, Hisamichi; Schug, Joanna; Ogawa, Kenji; Kameda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that individuals often spontaneously mimic the facial expressions of others, a tendency known as facial mimicry. This tendency has generally been considered a reflex-like "automatic" response, but several recent studies have shown that the degree of mimicry may be moderated by contextual information. However, the cognitive and motivational factors underlying the contextual moderation of facial mimicry require further empirical investigation. In this study, we present evidence that the degree to which participants spontaneously mimic a target's facial expressions depends on whether participants are motivated to infer the target's emotional state. In the first study we show that facial mimicry, assessed by facial electromyography, occurs more frequently when participants are specifically instructed to infer a target's emotional state than when given no instruction. In the second study, we replicate this effect using the Facial Action Coding System to show that participants are more likely to mimic facial expressions of emotion when they are asked to infer the target's emotional state, rather than make inferences about a physical trait unrelated to emotion. These results provide convergent evidence that the explicit goal of understanding a target's emotional state affects the degree of facial mimicry shown by the perceiver, suggesting moderation of reflex-like motor activities by higher cognitive processes.

  3. Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit.

    PubMed

    Togan, E; Chu, Y; Trifonov, A S; Jiang, L; Maze, J; Childress, L; Dutt, M V G; Sørensen, A S; Hemmer, P R; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D

    2010-08-05

    Quantum entanglement is among the most fascinating aspects of quantum theory. Entangled optical photons are now widely used for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and applications such as quantum cryptography. Several recent experiments demonstrated entanglement of optical photons with trapped ions, atoms and atomic ensembles, which are then used to connect remote long-term memory nodes in distributed quantum networks. Here we realize quantum entanglement between the polarization of a single optical photon and a solid-state qubit associated with the single electronic spin of a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. Our experimental entanglement verification uses the quantum eraser technique, and demonstrates that a high degree of control over interactions between a solid-state qubit and the quantum light field can be achieved. The reported entanglement source can be used in studies of fundamental quantum phenomena and provides a key building block for the solid-state realization of quantum optical networks.

  4. Formalism of optical coherence and polarization based on material media states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntman, Ertan; Kuntman, M. Ali; Sancho-Parramon, Jordi; Arteaga, Oriol

    2017-06-01

    The fluctuations or disordered motion of the electromagnetic fields are described by statistical properties rather than instantaneous values. This statistical description of the optical fields is underlying in the Stokes-Mueller formalism that applies to measurable intensities. However, the fundamental concept of optical coherence, which is assessed by the ability of waves to interfere, is not treatable by this formalism because it omits the global phase. In this work we show that using an analogy between deterministic matrix states associated with optical media and quantum mechanical wave functions, it is possible to construct a general formalism that accounts for the additional terms resulting from the coherency effects that average out for incoherent treatments. This method generalizes further the concept of coherent superposition to describe how deterministic states of optical media can superpose to generate another deterministic media state. Our formalism is used to study the combined polarimetric response of interfering plasmonic nanoantennas.

  5. Subcycle Optical Response Caused by a Terahertz Dressed State with Phase-Locked Wave Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, K.; Otobe, T.; Mochizuki, T.; Kim, C.; Yoshita, M.; Akiyama, H.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Tanaka, K.; Hirori, H.

    2016-12-01

    The coherent interaction of light with matter imprints the phase information of the light field on the wave function of the photon-dressed electronic state. A driving electric field, together with a stable phase that is associated with the optical probe pulses, enables the role of the dressed state in the optical response to be investigated. We observed optical absorption strengths modulated on a subcycle time scale in a GaAs quantum well in the presence of a multicycle terahertz driving pulse using a near-infrared probe pulse. The measurements were in good agreement with the analytical formula that accounts for the optical susceptibilities caused by the dressed state of the excitons, which indicates that the output probe intensity was coherently reshaped by the excitonic sideband emissions.

  6. Mixing of quantum states: A new route to creating optical activity.

    PubMed

    Baimuratov, Anvar S; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Gun'ko, Yurii K; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Rukhlenko, Ivan D

    2016-12-01

    The ability to induce optical activity in nanoparticles and dynamically control its strength is of great practical importance due to potential applications in various areas, including biochemistry, toxicology, and pharmaceutical science. Here we propose a new method of creating optical activity in originally achiral quantum nanostructures based on the mixing of their energy states of different parities. The mixing can be achieved by selective excitation of specific states or via perturbing all the states in a controllable fashion. We analyze the general features of the so produced optical activity and elucidate the conditions required to realize the total dissymmetry of optical response. The proposed approach is applicable to a broad variety of real systems that can be used to advance chiroptical devices and methods.

  7. Optical description of solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells. I. Measurement of layer optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Moule, Adam J.; Snaith, Henry J.; Kaiser, Markus; Klesper, Heike; Meerholz, Klaus; Huang, David M.; Graetzel, Michael

    2009-10-01

    The efficiency of a photovoltaic device is limited by the portion of solar energy that can be captured. We discuss how to measure the optical properties of the various layers in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (SDSC). We use spectroscopic ellipsometry to determine the complex refractive index of each of the various layers in a SDSC. Each of the ellipsometry fits is used to calculate a transmission spectrum that is compared to a measured transmission spectrum. The complexities of pore filling on the fitting of the ellipsometric data are discussed. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy is shown to be an effective method for determining pore filling in SDSC layers. Accurate effective medium optical constants for each layer are presented and the material limits under which these optical constants can be used are discussed.

  8. Quantum Theory of Conditional Phonon States in a Dual-Pumped Raman Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Erin

    In this work, we theoretically and numerically investigate nonclassical phonon states created in the collective vibration of a Raman medium by the generation of a dual-pumped Raman optical frequency comb in an optical cavity. This frequency comb is generated by cascaded Raman scattering driven by two phase-locked pump lasers that are separated in frequency by three times the Raman phonon frequency. We characterize the variety of conditioned phonon states that are created when the number of photons in all optical frequency modes except the pump modes are measured. Almost all of these conditioned phonon states are extremely well approximated as three-phonon-squeezed states or Schrodinger-cat states, depending on the outcomes of the photon number measurements. We show how the combinations of first-, second-, and third-order Raman scattering that correspond to each set of measured photon numbers determine the fidelity of the conditioned phonon state with model three-phonon-squeezed states and Schrodinger-cat states. All of the conditioned phonon states demonstrate preferential growth of the phonon mode along three directions in phase space. That is, there are three preferred phase values that the phonon state takes on as a result of Raman scattering. We show that the combination of Raman processes that produces a given set of measured photon numbers always produces phonons in multiples of three. In the quantum number-state representation, these multiples of three are responsible for the threefold phase-space symmetry seen in the conditioned phonon states. With a semiclassical model, we show how this three-phase preference can also be understood in light of phase correlations that are known to spontaneously arise in single-pumped Raman frequency combs. Additionally, our semiclassical model predicts that the optical modes also grow preferentially along three phases, suggesting that the dual-pumped Raman optical frequency comb is partially phase-stabilized.

  9. Bandwidth-resonant Floquet states in honeycomb optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quelle, A.; Goerbig, M. O.; Morais Smith, C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate, within Floquet theory, topological phases in the out-of-equilibrium system that consists of fermions in a circularly shaken honeycomb optical lattice. We concentrate on the intermediate regime, in which the shaking frequency is of the same order of magnitude as the band width, such that adjacent Floquet bands start to overlap, creating a hierarchy of band inversions. It is shown that two-phonon resonances provide a topological phase that can be described within the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model of HgTe quantum wells. This allows for an understanding of out-of-equilibrium topological phases in terms of simple band inversions, similar to equilibrium systems.

  10. Compact motorized circular wheel of polarization optics for ultra-broadband polarization state generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Chun-Jen; Liu, Da-Ren; Hsu, Ken-Yuh; Chen, Yung-Fu

    2012-10-01

    This study proposes an innovative optical mechanism with a miniature motorized circular wheel for polarization optics for an ultra-broadband polarization state generator. The proposed apparatus can be suitable for a polarimetric microspectrophotometer for measurements of micro optics and metamaterials with circular dichroism and linear dichroism. Different types of micro optics have their own wavelength dependence, meaning different curves in the broadband range of light. This study presents an ultra-broadband platform for measuring and identifying micro optics such as chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarizers, and patterned retarders. The key component of a polarimetric microspectrophotometer is a polarization state generator (PSG). A simple PSG consists of a polarizer and a waveplate. An arbitrary polarization state can be created by rotating either the polarizer or the waveplate. Sheet polarizers and achromatic waveplates have a limited bandwidth range. For the ultra-broadband measurement range of 400 nm to 1700 nm, the PSG needs at least three sheet polarizers and three achromatic waveplates: 400 nm-700 nm, 700 nm-1000 nm, and 1000 nm-1700 nm. This optical mechanism, which consists of only one control motor and two high precision unidirectional bearings, includes several polarizers and waveplates arranged in a matrix on a circular wheel. This apparatus can shift one of the polarizers and waveplates to a predetermined position and rotate all the polarizers to change the polarization status. An ultra-broadband polarimetric microspectrophotometer with a compact motorized wheel is an advanced polarization optical instrument for research on chiral metamaterials, plasmonics, micro polarization optics, green optics, and bio optics.

  11. Magneto-optical contrast in liquid-state optically detected NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pagliero, Daniela; Meriles, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    We use optical Faraday rotation (OFR) to probe nuclear spins in real time at high-magnetic field in a range of diamagnetic sample fluids. Comparison of OFR-detected NMR spectra reveals a correlation between the relative signal amplitude and the fluid Verdet constant, which we interpret as a manifestation of the variable detuning between the probe beam and the sample optical transitions. The analysis of chemical-shift-resolved, optically detected spectra allows us to set constraints on the relative amplitudes of hyperfine coupling constants, both for protons at chemically distinct sites and other lower-gyromagnetic-ratio nuclei including carbon, fluorine, and phosphorous. By considering a model binary mixture we observe a complex dependence of the optical response on the relative concentration, suggesting that the present approach is sensitive to the solvent-solute dynamics in ways complementary to those known in inductive NMR. Extension of these experiments may find application in solvent suppression protocols, sensitivity-enhanced NMR of metalloproteins in solution, the investigation of solvent-solute interactions, or the characterization of molecular orbitals in diamagnetic systems. PMID:22100736

  12. The Absurdity of Moderation in War: Is Military Force a Credible Means to Compel United States Political Will in the 21st Century?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Cooper, a former Director of the Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency, spelt out the underlying cultural calculus : “It’s my view that this society...POLITICAL WILL IN THE 21ST CENTURY? Mark C. P. Ellwood MBE Lt Col, British Army Joint Forces Staff College - NDU Joint Advanced Warfighting School 7800...COLLEGE JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL THE ABSURDITY OF MODERATION IN WAR: IS MILITARY FORCE A CREDIBLE MEANS TO COMPEL UNITED STATES

  13. Nonclassical states of the second optical harmonic in the presence of self-action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirkin, A. S.; Korolkova, N. V.

    1993-01-01

    The quantum theory of coherent radiation frequency doubling in crystals with quadratic and cubic optical nonlinearities is developed. The possibility of producing the quadrature-squeezed state of the second harmonic (SH) field is shown. The nonclassical SH states arise due to self-action effect.

  14. Optical fingerprint of dark 2p-states in transition metal dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berghäuser, Gunnar; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

    2017-03-01

    Atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides exhibit a remarkably strong Coulomb interaction. This results in a fascinating many-particle physics including a variety of bright and dark excitonic states that determine optical and electronic properties of these materials. So far, the impact of dark states has remained literally in the dark to a large extent, since a measurement of these optically forbidden states is very challenging. Here we demonstrate a strategy to measure a direct fingerprint of dark states even in standard linear absorption spectroscopy. We present a microscopic study on bright and dark higher excitonic states in the presence of disorder for the exemplary material of tungsten disulfide (WS2). We show that the geometric phase cancels the degeneration of 2s and 2p states and that a significant disorder-induced coupling of these bright and dark states offers a strategy to circumvent optical selection rules. As a proof, we show a clear fingerprint of dark 2p states in the absorption spectrum of WS2. The predicted softening of optical selection rules through exciton-disorder coupling is of general nature and therefore applicable to related two-dimensional semiconductors.

  15. Statistical reconstruction of optical quantum states based on mutually complementary quadrature quantum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanov, Yu. I. Avosopyants, G. V.; Belinskii, L. V.; Katamadze, K. G.; Kulik, S. P.; Lukichev, V. F.

    2016-08-15

    We describe a new method for reconstructing the quantum state of the electromagnetic field from the results of mutually complementary optical quadrature measurements. This method is based on the root approach and displaces squeezed Fock states are used as the basis. Theoretical analysis and numerical experiments demonstrate the considerable advantage of the developed tools over those described in the literature.

  16. Tailoring cyanine dark states for improved optically modulated fluorescence recovery.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Daniel P; Owens, Eric A; Fan, Chaoyang; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Henary, Maged M; Dickson, Robert M

    2015-04-02

    Cyanine dyes are well-known for their bright fluorescence and utility in biological imaging. However, cyanines also readily photoisomerize to produce nonemissive dark states. Co-illumination with a secondary, red-shifted light source on-resonance with the longer wavelength absorbing dark state reverses the photoisomerization and returns the cyanine dye to the fluorescent manifold, increasing steady-state fluorescence intensity. Modulation of this secondary light source dynamically alters emission intensity, drastically improving detection sensitivity and facilitating fluorescence signals to be recovered from an otherwise overwhelming background. Red and near-IR emitting cyanine derivatives have been synthesized with varying alkyl chain lengths and halogen substituents to alter dual-laser fluorescence enhancement. Photophysical properties and enhancement with dual laser modulation were coupled with density functional calculations to characterize substituent effects on dark state photophysics, potentially improving detection in high background biological environments.

  17. Tailoring Cyanine Dark States for Improved Optically Modulated Fluorescence Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, Daniel P.; Owens, Eric A.; Fan, Chaoyang; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Henary, Maged M.; Dickson, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Cyanine dyes are well known for their bright fluorescence and utility in biological imaging. Yet, cyanines also readily photoisomerize to produce non-emissive dark states. Co-illumination with a secondary, red-shifted light source on-resonance with the longer wavelength absorbing dark state reverses the photoisomerization and returns the cyanine dye to the fluorescent manifold, increasing steady-state fluorescence intensity. Modulation of this secondary light source dynamically alters emission intensity, drastically improving detection sensitivity and facilitating fluorescence signals to be recovered from otherwise overwhelming background. Red and near-IR emitting cyanine derivatives have been synthesized with varying alkyl chain lengths and halogen substituents to alter dual-laser fluorescence enhancement. Photophysical properties and enhancement with dual laser modulation were coupled with density functional calculations to characterize substituent effects on dark state photophysics, potentially improving detection in high background biological environments. PMID:25763888

  18. Arbitrarily complete Bell-state measurement using only linear optical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Grice, W. P.

    2011-10-15

    A complete Bell-state measurement is not possible using only linear-optic elements, and most schemes achieve a success rate of no more than 50%, distinguishing, for example, two of the four Bell states but returning degenerate results for the other two. It is shown here that the introduction of a pair of ancillary entangled photons improves the success rate to 75%. More generally, the addition of 2{sup N}-2 ancillary photons yields a linear-optic Bell-state measurement with a success rate of 1-1/2{sup N}.

  19. Single and two-mode mechanical squeezing of an optically levitated nanodiamond via dressed-state coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Wenchao; Bhattacharya, M.

    2016-10-01

    Nonclassical states of macroscopic objects are promising for ultrasensitive metrology as well as testing quantum mechanics. In this work, we investigate dissipative mechanical quantum state engineering in an optically levitated nanodiamond. First, we study single-mode mechanical squeezed states by magnetically coupling the mechanical motion to a dressed three-level system provided by a nitrogen-vacancy center in the nanoparticle. Quantum coherence between the dressed levels is created via microwave fields to induce a two-phonon transition, which results in mechanical squeezing. Remarkably, we find that in ultrahigh vacuum quantum squeezing is achievable at room temperature with feedback cooling. For moderate vacuum, quantum squeezing is possible with cryogenic temperature. Second, we present a setup for two mechanical modes coupled to the dressed three levels, which results in two-mode squeezing analogous to the mechanism of the single-mode case. In contrast to previous works, our study provides a deterministic method for engineering macroscopic squeezed states without the requirement for a cavity.

  20. Possibility of triple magic trapping of clock and Rydberg states of divalent atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, T.; Derevianko, A.

    2016-07-01

    We predict the possibility of ‘triply magic’ optical lattice trapping of neutral divalent atoms. In such a lattice, the {}1{{{S}}}0 and {}3{{{P}}}0 clock states and an additional Rydberg state experience identical optical potentials, fully mitigating detrimental effects of the motional decoherence. In particular, we show that this triply magic trapping condition can be satisfied for Yb atom at optical wavelengths and for various other divalent systems (Ca, Mg, Hg and Sr) in the UV region. We assess the quality of triple magic trapping conditions by estimating the probability of excitation out of the motional ground state as a result of the excitations between the clock and the Rydberg states. We also calculate trapping laser-induced photoionization rates of divalent Rydberg atoms at magic frequencies. We find that such rates are below the radiative spontaneous-emission rates, due to the presence of Cooper minima in photoionization cross-sections.

  1. Proposed optical realisation of a two photon, four-qubit entangled χ state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritboon, Atirach; Croke, Sarah; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-07-01

    The four-qubit states | {χ }{ij}> , exhibiting genuine multi-partite entanglement have been shown to have many interesting properties and have been suggested for novel applications in quantum information processing. In this work we propose a simple quantum circuit and its corresponding optical embodiment with which to prepare photon pairs in the | {χ }{ij}> states. Our approach uses hyper-entangled photon pairs, produced by the type-I spontaneous parametric down-conversion process in two contiguous nonlinear crystals, together with a set of simple linear-optical transformations. Our photon pairs are maximally hyper-entangled in both their polarisation and orbital angular momentum. After one of these daughter photons passes through our optical setup, we obtain photon pairs in the hyper-entangled state | {χ }00> , and the | {χ }{ij}> states can be achieved by further simple transformations.

  2. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  3. The relationship between religiosity and cancer screening among Vietnamese women in the United States: the moderating role of acculturation.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh B; Hood, Kristina B; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors explore the relationship between intrinsic, personal extrinsic, and social extrinsic religiosity to breast and cervical cancer screening efficacy and behavior among Vietnamese women recruited from a Catholic Vietnamese church and a Buddhist temple in the Richmond, Virginia metropolitan area. The potential moderating effect of acculturation was of interest. Participants were 111 Vietnamese women who participated in a larger cancer screening intervention. Data collection began early fall of 2010 and ended in late spring 2011. High levels of acculturation were associated with increased self-efficacy for Pap tests and having received a Pap test. Acculturation moderated the relationships between religiosity and self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of social extrinsic religiosity were associated with increased efficacy for cancer screening among less acculturated women. Acculturation also moderated the relationship between religiosity and breast cancer screening. Specifically, for less acculturated women, increasing levels of intrinsic religiosity and personal extrinsic religiosity were associated with lower likelihood probability of Pap testing. For highly acculturated women, increasing levels of intrinsic religiosity and personal extrinsic religiosity were associated with higher likelihood probability of Pap testing. The authors' findings demonstrate the need for further investigation of the dynamic interplay of multi-level factors that influence cancer screening.

  4. Enhanced optical absorption in nanopatterned Yb-doped thin films for solid state laser application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Wenda; Hua, Weihong; Wang, Hongyan; Kai, Han; Xu, Xiaojun

    2017-05-01

    The excitation and emission properties of optical materials can be adjusted by nanostructures and to achieve high optical efficiency in the optically pump laser with short absorption length and high threshold pump power, we present and theoretically investigate a Yb-doped thin film on a 1D grating structure in this paper. High reflectivity at the pump and emission wavelength are realized simultaneously and in terms of the guided-mode resonance theory, the local field of high reflected light is enhanced which will increase the absorption of associated laser wavelength. we analyze parameters of the nanostructure in detail based on rigorous coupled-wave theory and an appropriate structure is decided. We set up a simple quasi-three-level model and demonstrate that this designed structure can effectively improve the optical efficiency of optically pump solid state laser.

  5. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles.

  6. Light, sound, chemistry… action: state of the art optical methods for animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, Jorge; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    During recent years, macroscopic optical methods have been promoted from backstage to main actors in biological imaging. Many possible forms of energy conservation have been explored that involve light, including fluorescence emission, sound generated through absorption and bioluminescence, that is light generated through a chemical reaction. These physicochemical approaches for contrast generation have resulted in optical imaging methods that come with potent performance characteristics over simple epi-illumination optical imaging approaches of the past, and can play a central role in imaging applications in vivo as it pertains to modern biological and drug discovery, pre-clinical imaging and clinical applications. This review focuses on state of the art optical and opto-acoustic (photo-acoustic) imaging methods and discusses key performance characteristics that convert optical imaging from a qualitative modality to a powerful high-resolution and quantitative volumetric interrogation tool for operation through several millimeters of tissue depth.: © 2011 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  7. Role of photonic angular momentum states in nonreciprocal diffraction from magneto-optical cylinder arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Tian-Jing; Wu, Li-Ting; Yang, Mu; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Hai-Xu; Chen, Jing

    2014-07-15

    Optical eigenstates in a concentrically symmetric resonator are photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs) with quantized optical orbital angular momentums (OAMs). Nonreciprocal optical phenomena can be obtained if we lift the degeneracy of PAMSs. In this article, we provide a comprehensive study of nonreciprocal optical diffraction of various orders from a magneto-optical cylinder array. We show that nonreciprocal diffraction can be obtained only for these nonzero orders. Role of PAMSs, the excitation of which is sensitive to the directions of incidence, applied magnetic field, and arrangement of the cylinders, are studied. Some interesting phenomena such as a dispersionless quasi-omnidirectional nonreciprocal diffraction and spikes associated with high-OAM PAMSs are present and discussed.

  8. Integrated optical modulator manipulating the polarization and rotation handedness of Orbital Angular Momentum states.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, S Faezeh; Nouroozi, Rahman; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo

    2017-06-19

    Recent studies demonstrated that the optical channels encoded by Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) are capable candidates for improving the next generation of communication systems. OAM states can enhance the capacity and security of high-dimensional communication channels in both classical and quantum regimes based on optical fibre and free space. Hence, fast and precise control of the beams encoded by OAM can provide their commercial applications in the compatible communication networks. Integrated optical devices are good miniaturized options to perform this issue. This paper proposes a numerically verified integrated high-frequency electro-optical modulator for manipulation of the guided modes encoded in both OAM and polarization states. The proposed modulator is designed as an electro-optically active Lithium Niobate (LN) core photonic wire with silica as its cladding in a LN on Insulator (LNOI) configuration. It consists of two successive parts; a phase shifter to reverse the rotation handedness of the input OAM state and a polarization converter to change the horizontally polarized OAM state to the vertically polarized one. It is shown that all four possible output polarization-OAM encoded states can be achieved with only 6 V and 7 V applied voltages to the electrodes in the two parts of the modulator.

  9. Optical limiting and excited-state absorption in fullerene solutions and doped glasses

    SciTech Connect

    McBranch, D.; Smilowitz, L.; Klimov, V.

    1995-09-01

    We report the ground state and excited state optical absorption spectra in the visible and near infrared for several substituted fullerenes and higher fullerenes in toluene solutions. Based on these measurements, broadband predictions of the optical limiting performance of these molecules can be deduced. These predictions are then tested at 532 to 700 nm in intensity-dependent transmission measurements. We observe optical limiting in all fullerenes measured; higher fullerenes show the greatest potential for limiting in the near infrared (650-1000 nm), while substituted C{sub 60} shows optimal limiting in the visible (450-700 nm). We observe dramatically reduced limiting for solid forms of C{sub 60} (thin films and C{sub 60}-doped porous glasses), indicating that efficient optical limiting in fullerenes requires true molecular solutions.

  10. Quasi-optical solid-state power combining for millimeter-wave active seeker applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halladay, R. H.; Terrill, S. D.; Bowling, D. R.; Gagnon, D. R.

    1992-05-01

    Consideration is given to quasi-optical power combining techniques, state-of-the-art demonstrated performance, and system issues as they apply to endoatmospheric homing seeker insertion. Quasi-optical power combining is based on combining microwave and millimeter-wave solid-state device power in space through the use of antennas and lenses. It is concluded that quasi-optical power combining meets the severe electrical requirements and packaging constraints of active MMW seekers for endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missiles. The approach provides the possibility of wafer-scale integration of major components for low cost production and offers high reliability. Critical issues include thermal loading and system integration, which must be resolved before the quasi-optical power combining technology will be applied to an active MMW seeker.

  11. Chiral optical local density of states in a spiral plasmonic cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Aline; Berthel, Martin; Jiang, Quanbo; Bellessa, Joel; Huant, Serge; Genet, Cyriaque; Drezet, Aurélien

    2016-11-01

    We discuss an alternate paradigm: the chiral electromagnetic local density of states (LDOS) in a spiral plasmonic nanostructure. In both classical and quantum regimes, we reveal using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) in combination with spin analysis that a spiral cavity possesses spin-dependent local optical modes. We expect this work to lead to promising directions for future quantum plasmonic device development, highlighting the potentials of chirality in quantum information processing.

  12. An investigation of optical feedback to extend the frequency response of solid-state detector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A primary limitation of many solid-state photodetectors used in electro-optical systems such as the facsimile camera is their slow response in converting light intensities into electrical signals. An optical feedback technique is presented which can extend the frequency response of systems that use these detectors by orders of magnitude without significantly degrading their signal-to-noise performance. This technique is analyzed to predict improvement, implemented, and evaluated to verify analytical results.

  13. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. Finally, we demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ± 0.018, and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  14. New optical diagnostics for equation of state experiments on the Janus laser

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, D. K.; Jeanloz, R.; Hicks, D. G.; Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Collins, G. W.; McWilliams, R. S.

    2007-12-12

    We describe the configuration of two new optical diagnostics for laser-driven dynamic-compression experiments to multi-Mbar pressures. A streaked optical pyrometer (SOP) has been developed to provide temporally and spatially-resolved records of the thermal emission from shock-compressed samples. In addition, temporally-resolved broadband reflectivity is measured between 532 and {approx}850 nm by supercontinuum generation in an optical fiber. These new tools expand capabilities to probe the thermal and electronic states of matter at high pressures and temperatures using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Janus laser.

  15. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    PubMed

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-08

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  16. Optical Tamm state and giant asymmetry of light transmission through an array of nanoholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Vasily V.; Treshin, Ilya V.; Shalin, Alexander S.; Melentiev, Pavel N.; Kuzin, Artur A.; Afanasiev, Anton E.; Balykin, Victor I.

    2015-12-01

    We have predicted theoretically and verified experimentally the occurrence of a giant asymmetry of the transmission of arbitrarily polarized light propagating through a linear nonmagnetic optical system that consists of a metal film with a two-dimensional array of nanoholes in it and that is deposited on the surface of a planar dielectric photonic crystal. The asymmetry of the light transmission is caused by two factors: (i) the excitation of an optical Tamm state in the system, and (ii) the existence of many secondary lobes in the diffraction pattern. Our results are of interest for the development of efficient planar optical diodelike systems and related nanophotonic devices.

  17. Superdense Coding over Optical Fiber Links with Complete Bell-State Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Brian P.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Humble, Travis S.

    2017-02-01

    Adopting quantum communication to modern networking requires transmitting quantum information through a fiber-based infrastructure. We report the first demonstration of superdense coding over optical fiber links, taking advantage of a complete Bell-state measurement enabled by time-polarization hyperentanglement, linear optics, and common single-photon detectors. We demonstrate the highest single-qubit channel capacity to date utilizing linear optics, 1.665 ±0.018 , and we provide a full experimental implementation of a hybrid, quantum-classical communication protocol for image transfer.

  18. The effects of advertisements that sexually objectify women on state body dissatisfaction and judgments of women: The moderating roles of gender and internalization.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Ross; Thompson, J Kevin

    2015-09-01

    Experimental studies have demonstrated that exposure to idealized images of women increases state body image disturbance. However, little work has experimentally examined the effects of exposure to images that sexually objectify women, especially as it relates to women and men's state body dissatisfaction and judgments of women. In the current study, 437 women and men were randomly assigned to view advertisements that sexually objectify women and portray appearance ideals, or to view non-appearance-related advertisements. Results indicated that state body dissatisfaction increased for women and men exposed to advertisements that sexually objectified women, although this effect was larger for women. Trait internalization of appearance ideals moderated this effect, indicating that women and men with higher internalization exhibited greater state body dissatisfaction after viewing women sexually objectified in advertisements. Exposure to women sexually objectified in advertisements did not affect women's or men's attractiveness or competence ratings of women in university advertisements.

  19. Generation of concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entangled coherent state based on linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Rui; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-03-01

    The concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state is a new type of multipartite entangled state, which has potential application in future quantum information. In this paper, we propose a protocol of constructing arbitrary C-GHZ entangled state approximatively. Different from previous protocols, each logic qubit is encoded in the coherent state. This protocol is based on the linear optics, which is feasible in experimental technology. This protocol may be useful in quantum information based on the C-GHZ state.

  20. An optical-optical double resonance experiment in LiH molecules: Lifetime measurements in the C state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloufa, N.; Cabaret, L.; Luc, P.; Vetter, R.; Luh, W. T.

    2004-10-01

    An optical-optical double resonance sub-Doppler experiment is used to measure short nonradiative lifetimes in the C 1Σ+ state of LiH. These lifetimes are expected to result from the strong electronic interaction between the C 1Σ+ state and the continuum of the A 1Σ+ state and to vary with the vibrational quantum number, from nanoseconds to milliseconds [F. Gemperlé and F. X. Gadéa, J. Chem. Phys. 110, 11197 (1999)]. The experimental setup combines a molecular beam of LiH, a first cw laser beam locked to a given A-X absorption line, and a second cw laser beam scanned over C-A absorption profiles. Analysis of these absorption profiles in terms of Voigt profiles shows that their Lorentzian components significantly vary with the vibrational quantum numbers of the C state. Nonradiative decay rates deduced this way are systematically larger than the calculated ones but their variations are similar. Coherent saturation effects cannot be invoked to explain this discrepancy.

  1. Chip-level solid state optical waveguide chemical sensor for detecting and measuring hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klainer, Stanley M.; Coulter, Steve L.; Arrasate, Michael E.; Saini, Devinder P.

    1996-11-01

    Effective field monitoring systems are needed to improve the quality and increase the use of environmental monitoring. Most laboratory-based systems, although powerful tools for the laboratory analyst, are not well-suited for field applications. Continuous, in-situ sensors provide real time data with high accuracy and low cost for multiple analyses. Optical sensor technologies are highly accurate and sensitive, are capable of being used in-situ and are highly versatile in terms of their potential applications. Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors (FOCSTM) utilize the characteristics of optical sensors to provide an effective tool for continuous environmental monitoring. The FOCSTM technology has recently been adapted to a new platform: a chip-level, solid state, optical waveguide, chemical sensor. This new optical platform provides several advantages of the FOCSTM, and further improves the effectiveness of optical sensors for environmental monitoring. The chip-level optical sensor platform has been used with different optical sensing mechanisms (e.g., refractive index, absorbance and fluorescence) for the detection of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxygen and pesticides.

  2. Evidence for the conjecture that sampling generalized cat states with linear optics is hard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Peter P.; Motes, Keith R.; Knott, Paul A.; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Munro, William J.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Boson sampling has been presented as a simplified model for linear optical quantum computing. In the boson-sampling model, Fock states are passed through a linear optics network and sampled via number-resolved photodetection. It has been shown that this sampling problem likely cannot be efficiently classically simulated. This raises the question as to whether there are other quantum states of light for which the equivalent sampling problem is also computationally hard. We present evidence, without using a full complexity proof, that a very broad class of quantum states of light—arbitrary superpositions of two or more coherent states—when evolved via passive linear optics and sampled with number-resolved photodetection, likely implements a classically hard sampling problem.

  3. Optical Pulse Interactions in Nonlinear Excited State Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-14

    parameters - the absorption cross sections and decay rates - in our analysis and do not attempt to derive these parameters either from microscopic quantum...operating in the UV to near IR spectral regions, the vibrational and/or rotational energy sublevels within a manifold of states may exhibit very...Renewable Energy Laboratory/Univ of Colorado74 and the other is at Los Alamos National Laboratory81. A typical energy level diagram for a

  4. Unconventional fermionic pairing states in a monochromatically tilted optical lattice

    DOE PAGES

    Nocera, Alberto; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Feiguin, Adrian E.

    2017-02-01

    We study the one-dimensional attractive fermionic Hubbard model under the influence of periodic driving with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We show that the system can be driven into an unconventional pairing state characterized by a condensate made of Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum similar to a Fulde-Ferrell state. We obtain results both in the laboratory and the rotating reference frames demonstrating that the momentum of the condensate can be finely tuned by changing the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the driving. In particular, by quenching this ratio to the value corresponding tomore » suppression of the tunneling and the Coulomb interaction strength to zero, we are able to “freeze” the condensate. We finally study the effects of different initial conditions and compare our numerical results to those obtained from a time-independent Floquet theory in the large frequency regime. Lastly, our work offers the possibility of engineering and controlling unconventional pairing states in fermionic condensates.« less

  5. Unconventional fermionic pairing states in a monochromatically tilted optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocera, A.; Polkovnikov, A.; Feiguin, A. E.

    2017-02-01

    We study the one-dimensional attractive fermionic Hubbard model under the influence of periodic driving with the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method. We show that the system can be driven into an unconventional pairing state characterized by a condensate made of Cooper pairs with a finite center-of-mass momentum similar to a Fulde-Ferrell state. We obtain results both in the laboratory and the rotating reference frames demonstrating that the momentum of the condensate can be finely tuned by changing the ratio between the amplitude and the frequency of the driving. In particular, by quenching this ratio to the value corresponding to suppression of the tunneling and the Coulomb interaction strength to zero, we are able to "freeze" the condensate. We finally study the effects of different initial conditions and compare our numerical results to those obtained from a time-independent Floquet theory in the large frequency regime. Our work offers the possibility of engineering and controlling unconventional pairing states in fermionic condensates.

  6. Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications.

    PubMed

    Saeedi, K; Szech, M; Dluhy, P; Salvail, J Z; Morse, K J; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Nötzel, N; Litvinenko, K L; Murdin, B N; Thewalt, M L W

    2015-05-20

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.

  7. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    DOE PAGES

    Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; ...

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneousmore » detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.« less

  8. Resource-efficient generation of linear cluster states by linear optics with postselection

    SciTech Connect

    Uskov, D. B.; Alsing, P. M.; Fanto, M. L.; Kaplan, L.; Kim, R.; Szep, A.; Smith, A. M.

    2015-01-30

    Here we report on theoretical research in photonic cluster-state computing. Finding optimal schemes of generating non-classical photonic states is of critical importance for this field as physically implementable photon-photon entangling operations are currently limited to measurement-assisted stochastic transformations. A critical parameter for assessing the efficiency of such transformations is the success probability of a desired measurement outcome. At present there are several experimental groups that are capable of generating multi-photon cluster states carrying more than eight qubits. Separate photonic qubits or small clusters can be fused into a single cluster state by a probabilistic optical CZ gate conditioned on simultaneous detection of all photons with 1/9 success probability for each gate. This design mechanically follows the original theoretical scheme of cluster state generation proposed more than a decade ago by Raussendorf, Browne, and Briegel. The optimality of the destructive CZ gate in application to linear optical cluster state generation has not been analyzed previously. Our results reveal that this method is far from the optimal one. Employing numerical optimization we have identified that the maximal success probability of fusing n unentangled dual-rail optical qubits into a linear cluster state is equal to 1/2n-1; an m-tuple of photonic Bell pair states, commonly generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion, can be fused into a single cluster with the maximal success probability of 1/4m-1.

  9. The local density of optical states of a metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Lunnemann, Per; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2016-01-01

    While metamaterials are often desirable for near-field functions, such as perfect lensing, or cloaking, they are often quantified by their response to plane waves from the far field. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the local density of states near lattices of discrete magnetic scatterers, i.e., the response to near field excitation by a point source. Based on a pointdipole theory using Ewald summation and an array scanning method, we can swiftly and semi-analytically evaluate the local density of states (LDOS) for magnetoelectric point sources in front of an infinite two-dimensional (2D) lattice composed of arbitrary magnetoelectric dipole scatterers. The method takes into account radiation damping as well as all retarded electrodynamic interactions in a self-consistent manner. We show that a lattice of magnetic scatterers evidences characteristic Drexhage oscillations. However, the oscillations are phase shifted relative to the electrically scattering lattice consistent with the difference expected for reflection off homogeneous magnetic respectively electric mirrors. Furthermore, we identify in which source-surface separation regimes the metasurface may be treated as a homogeneous interface, and in which homogenization fails. A strong frequency and in-plane position dependence of the LDOS close to the lattice reveals coupling to guided modes supported by the lattice. PMID:26868601

  10. Improved Fluorescent Protein Contrast and Discrimination by Optically Controlling Dark State Lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Cheng; Dickson, Robert M

    2017-02-16

    Modulation and optical control of photoswitchable fluorescent protein (PS-FP) dark state lifetimes drastically improves sensitivity and selectivity in fluorescence imaging. The dark state population of PS-FPs generates an out-of-phase fluorescence component relative to the sinusoidally modulated 488 nm laser excitation. Because this apparent phase advanced emission results from slow recovery to the fluorescent manifold, we hasten recovery and, therefore, modulation frequency by varying coillumination intensity at 405 nm. As 405 nm illumination regenerates the fluorescent ground state more rapidly than via thermal recovery, we experimentally demonstrate that secondary illumination can control PS-FPs dark state lifetime to act as an additional dimension for discriminating spatially and spectrally overlapping emitters. This experimental combination of out of phase imaging after optical modulation (OPIOM) and synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) optically controls the fluorescent protein dark state lifetimes for improved time resolution, with the resulting modulation-based selective signal recovery being quantitatively modeled. The combined experimental results and quantitative numerical simulations further demonstrate the potential of SAFIRe-OPIOM for wide-field biological imaging with improved speed, sensitivity, and optical resolution over other modulation-based fluorescence microscopies.

  11. Measurement-based generation of shaped single photons and coherent state superpositions in optical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecamwasam, Ruvindha L.; Hush, Michael R.; James, Matthew R.; Carvalho, André R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose related schemes to generate arbitrarily shaped single photons, i.e., photons with an arbitrary temporal profile, and coherent state superpositions using simple optical elements. The first system consists of two coupled cavities, a memory cavity and a shutter cavity, containing a second-order optical nonlinearity and electro-optic modulator (EOM), respectively. Photodetection events of the shutter cavity output herald preparation of a single photon in the memory cavity, which may be stored by immediately changing the optical length of the shutter cavity with the EOM after detection. On-demand readout of the photon, with arbitrary shaping, can be achieved through modulation of the EOM. The second scheme consists of a memory cavity with two outputs, which are interfered, phase shifted, and measured. States that closely approximate a coherent state superposition can be produced through postselection for sequences of detection events, with more photon detection events leading to a larger superposition. We furthermore demonstrate that no-knowledge feedback can be easily implemented in this system and used to preserve the superposition state, as well as provide an extra control mechanism for state generation.

  12. Aerosol optical depth and fine mode fraction variations deduced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over four urban areas in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, S.

    2007-08-01

    Interannual and intra-annual variations in aerosol optical depths (AOD) and fine mode fraction (FMF) analyzed from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) during 2001-2005 over four urban areas in India, Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi, are investigated. MODIS derived AODs and FMFs are found to compare well with in situ Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) Sun photometer results over Kanpur. Monthly mean 550 nm AODs are higher than 0.30 in all the four locations and show prominent seasonal variations of summer high and winter low. FMF values are low during premonsoon and summer over Chennai, Mumbai and New Delhi, while they are 0.9 or higher over Kolkata during the entire year. AODs exhibit a positive correlation with rainfall. A strong convection in summer accompanied by a deeper boundary layer and hygroscopic growth of fine mode water soluble aerosols result in higher AODs during summer monsoon. The 5-year mean AOD is 0.4 in Chennai and Mumbai while in Kolkata and New Delhi it is >0.55. AODs <0.4 contribute 50% or more in Chennai and Mumbai, while in Kolkata and New Delhi AODs in the 0.4-0.8 range contribute higher than 50%. Variation in annual mean FMF is the lowest in Kolkata and highest in New Delhi, consistent with seasonal variations in FMF values in these locations. In Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata, FMF values >0.6 contribute higher than 75%, while over Kolkata FMF values in the 0.8-1.0 range contribute 94% which indicates the dominance of fine mode aerosols in Kolkata throughout the year.

  13. Intramyocellular lipids form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance-trained males in a fasted state.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Luc J C; Koopman, Rene; Stegen, Jos H C H; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Keizer, Hans A; Saris, Wim H M

    2003-12-01

    Both stable isotope methodology and fluorescence microscopy were applied to define the use of intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) stores as a substrate source during exercise on a whole-body as well as on a fibre type-specific intramyocellular level in trained male cyclists. Following an overnight fast, eight subjects were studied at rest, during 120 min of moderate intensity exercise (60 % maximal oxygen uptake capacity (VO2,max)) and 120 min of post-exercise recovery. Continuous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate and [6,6-2H2]glucose were administered at rest and during subsequent exercise to quantify whole-body plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and glucose oxidation rates and the contribution of other fat sources (sum of muscle- plus lipoprotein-derived TG) and muscle glycogen to total energy expenditure. Fibre type-specific intramyocellular lipid content was determined in muscle biopsy samples collected before, immediately after and 2 h after exercise. At rest, fat oxidation provided 66 +/- 5 % of total energy expenditure, with FFA and other fat sources contributing 48 +/- 6 and 17 +/- 3 %, respectively. FFA oxidation rates increased during exercise, and correlated well with the change in plasma FFA concentrations. Both the use of other fat sources and muscle glycogen declined with the duration of exercise, whereas plasma glucose production and utilisation increased (P < 0.001). On average, FFA, other fat sources, plasma glucose and muscle glycogen contributed 28 +/- 3, 15 +/- 2, 12 +/- 1 and 45 +/- 4 % to total energy expenditure during exercise, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy revealed a 62 +/- 7 % net decline in muscle lipid content following exercise in the type I fibres only, with no subsequent change during recovery. We conclude that IMTG stores form an important substrate source during moderate intensity exercise in endurance-trained male athletes following an overnight fast, with the oxidation rate of muscle- plus lipoprotein-derived TG being decreased with

  14. State estimation Kalman filter using optical processings Noise statistics known

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Casasent et al. (1983), which gave a description of a frequency-multiplexed acoustooptic processor and showed how it was capable of performing all the individual operations required in Kalman filtering. The data flow and organization of all required operations however, were not detailed in that study. Consideration is given here to a simpler Kalman filter state estimation problem. Equally spaced time-sampled intervals (k times T sub s, with k the iterative time index) are assumed. It is further assumed that the system noise vector w and the measurement noise vector v are uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed and that the noise statistics (Q and R) and the system model (Phi, Gamma, H) are known. The error covariance matrix P and the extrapolated error covariance matrix M can thus be precomputed and the Kalman gain matrix K sub k can be precomputed and stored for each input time sample.

  15. Multipass diode-pumped solid-state optical amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry; Re, Sean A.; Alonis, Joseph J.; Vecht, David L.; Grossman, William M.

    1993-01-01

    A new diode-pumped solid-state multipass amplifier produced 38-dB small-signal gain at 1.047 micron in Nd:YLF with 1.6-W pump power and 37 percent extraction efficiency near saturation. The amplifier had a 1:1 confocally reimaging multipass design that generated both high gain and high efficiency. The same amplifier design with 13 W of pump power was tested with Nd:YAG at 1.064 micron, which gave 38-dB small-signal gain and 3.2 W of output power, and with Nd:YVO4, also at 1.064 micron, which gave greater than 50-dB small-signal gain and 4.3 W of output power.

  16. Quantum state engineering of light with continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators.

    PubMed

    Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien

    2014-05-30

    Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics(1,2). Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems(3). We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator(3,4). This system is based on a non-linear χ(2) crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states(5). Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ(3) non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode.

  17. Quantum State Engineering of Light with Continuous-wave Optical Parametric Oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Olivier; Liu, Jianli; Huang, Kun; Barbosa, Felippe; Fabre, Claude; Laurat, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Engineering non-classical states of the electromagnetic field is a central quest for quantum optics1,2. Beyond their fundamental significance, such states are indeed the resources for implementing various protocols, ranging from enhanced metrology to quantum communication and computing. A variety of devices can be used to generate non-classical states, such as single emitters, light-matter interfaces or non-linear systems3. We focus here on the use of a continuous-wave optical parametric oscillator3,4. This system is based on a non-linear χ2 crystal inserted inside an optical cavity and it is now well-known as a very efficient source of non-classical light, such as single-mode or two-mode squeezed vacuum depending on the crystal phase matching. Squeezed vacuum is a Gaussian state as its quadrature distributions follow a Gaussian statistics. However, it has been shown that number of protocols require non-Gaussian states5. Generating directly such states is a difficult task and would require strong χ3 non-linearities. Another procedure, probabilistic but heralded, consists in using a measurement-induced non-linearity via a conditional preparation technique operated on Gaussian states. Here, we detail this generation protocol for two non-Gaussian states, the single-photon state and a superposition of coherent states, using two differently phase-matched parametric oscillators as primary resources. This technique enables achievement of a high fidelity with the targeted state and generation of the state in a well-controlled spatiotemporal mode. PMID:24961685

  18. Microscopic modeling of the effect of phonons on the optical properties of solid-state emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norambuena, Ariel; Reyes, Sebastián A.; Mejía-Lopéz, José; Gali, Adam; Maze, Jerónimo R.

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the effect of vibrations in optically active nanosystems is crucial for successfully implementing applications in molecular-based electro-optical devices, quantum information communications, single photon sources, and fluorescent markers for biological measurements. Here, we present a first-principles microscopic description of the role of phonons on the isotopic shift presented in the optical emission spectrum associated to the negatively charged silicon-vacancy color center in diamond. We use the spin-boson model and estimate the electron-phonon interactions using a symmetrized molecular description of the electronic states and a force-constant model to describe molecular vibrations. Group theoretical arguments and dynamical symmetry breaking are presented in order to explain the optical properties of the zero-phonon line and the isotopic shift of the phonon sideband.

  19. Robust Light State by Quantum Phase Transition in Non-Hermitian Optical Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Han; Longhi, Stefano; Feng, Liang

    2015-11-01

    Robust light transport is the heart of optical information processing, leading to the search for robust light states by topological engineering of material properties. Here, it is shown that quantum phase transition, rather than topology, can be strategically exploited to design a novel robust light state. We consider an interface between parity-time (PT) symmetric media with different quantum phases and use complex Berry phase to reveal the associated quantum phase transition and topological nature. While the system possesses the same topological order within different quantum phases, phase transition from PT symmetry to PT breaking across the interface in the synthetic non-Hermitian metamaterial system facilitates novel interface states, which are robust against a variety of gain/loss perturbations and topological impurities and disorder. The discovery of the robust light state by quantum phase transition may promise fault-tolerant light transport in optical communications and computing.

  20. Robust Light State by Quantum Phase Transition in Non-Hermitian Optical Materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Han; Longhi, Stefano; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Robust light transport is the heart of optical information processing, leading to the search for robust light states by topological engineering of material properties. Here, it is shown that quantum phase transition, rather than topology, can be strategically exploited to design a novel robust light state. We consider an interface between parity-time (PT) symmetric media with different quantum phases and use complex Berry phase to reveal the associated quantum phase transition and topological nature. While the system possesses the same topological order within different quantum phases, phase transition from PT symmetry to PT breaking across the interface in the synthetic non-Hermitian metamaterial system facilitates novel interface states, which are robust against a variety of gain/loss perturbations and topological impurities and disorder. The discovery of the robust light state by quantum phase transition may promise fault-tolerant light transport in optical communications and computing. PMID:26592765

  1. Robust Light State by Quantum Phase Transition in Non-Hermitian Optical Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Han; Longhi, Stefano; Feng, Liang

    2015-11-23

    Robust light transport is the heart of optical information processing, leading to the search for robust light states by topological engineering of material properties. Here, it is shown that quantum phase transition, rather than topology, can be strategically exploited to design a novel robust light state. We consider an interface between parity-time (PT) symmetric media with different quantum phases and use complex Berry phase to reveal the associated quantum phase transition and topological nature. While the system possesses the same topological order within different quantum phases, phase transition from PT symmetry to PT breaking across the interface in the synthetic non-Hermitian metamaterial system facilitates novel interface states, which are robust against a variety of gain/loss perturbations and topological impurities and disorder. The discovery of the robust light state by quantum phase transition may promise fault-tolerant light transport in optical communications and computing.

  2. Fractional quantum Hall states of dipolar fermions in a strained optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Nakagawa, Yuya O.; Ashida, Yuto; Furukawa, Shunsuke

    2016-10-01

    We study strongly correlated ground states of dipolar fermions in a honeycomb optical lattice with spatial variations in hopping amplitudes. Similar to strained graphene, such nonuniform hopping amplitudes produce valley-dependent pseudomagnetic fields for fermions near the two Dirac points, resulting in the formation of Landau levels. The dipole moments aligned perpendicular to the honeycomb plane yield a long-range repulsive interaction. By exact diagonalization in the zeroth-Landau-level basis, we show that this repulsive interaction stabilizes a variety of valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall states such as Laughlin and composite-fermion states. The present system thus offers an intriguing platform for emulating fractional quantum Hall physics in a static optical lattice. We calculate the energy gaps above these incompressible states and discuss the temperature scales required for their experimental realization.

  3. Practical entanglement concentration of nonlocal polarization-spatial hyperentangled states with linear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-Hang; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Wen-Xuan; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2017-05-01

    We present some different hyperentanglement concentration protocols (hyper-ECPs) for nonlocal N-photon systems in partially polarization-spatial hyperentangled states with known parameters, resorting to linear optical elements only, including those for hyperentangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-class states and the ones for hyperentangled cluster-class states. Our hyper-ECPs have some interesting features. First, they require only one copy of nonlocal N-photon systems and do not resort to ancillary photons. Second, they work with linear optical elements, neither Bell-state measurement nor two-qubit entangling gates. Third, they have the maximal success probability with only a round of entanglement concentration, not repeating the concentration process some times. Fourth, they resort to some polarizing beam splitters and wave plates, not unbalanced beam splitters, which make them more convenient in experiment.

  4. Discriminating quantum-optical beam-splitter channels with number-diagonal signal states: Applications to quantum reading and target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Ranjith

    2011-09-01

    We consider the problem of distinguishing, with minimum probability of error, two optical beam-splitter channels with unequal complex-valued reflectivities using general quantum probe states entangled over M signal and M' idler mode pairs of which the signal modes are bounced off the beam splitter while the idler modes are retained losslessly. We obtain a lower bound on the output state fidelity valid for any pure input state. We define number-diagonal signal (NDS) states to be input states whose density operator in the signal modes is diagonal in the multimode number basis. For such input states, we derive series formulas for the optimal error probability, the output state fidelity, and the Chernoff-type upper bounds on the error probability. For the special cases of quantum reading of a classical digital memory and target detection (for which the reflectivities are real valued), we show that for a given input signal photon probability distribution, the fidelity is minimized by the NDS states with that distribution and that for a given average total signal energy Ns, the fidelity is minimized by any multimode Fock state with Ns total signal photons. For reading of an ideal memory, it is shown that Fock state inputs minimize the Chernoff bound. For target detection under high-loss conditions, a no-go result showing the lack of appreciable quantum advantage over coherent state transmitters is derived. A comparison of the error probability performance for quantum reading of number state and two-mode squeezed vacuum state (or EPR state) transmitters relative to coherent state transmitters is presented for various values of the reflectances. While the nonclassical states in general perform better than the coherent state, the quantitative performance gains differ depending on the values of the reflectances. The experimental outlook for realizing nonclassical gains from number state transmitters with current technology at moderate to high values of the reflectances is

  5. Discriminating quantum-optical beam-splitter channels with number-diagonal signal states: Applications to quantum reading and target detection

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ranjith

    2011-09-15

    We consider the problem of distinguishing, with minimum probability of error, two optical beam-splitter channels with unequal complex-valued reflectivities using general quantum probe states entangled over M signal and M' idler mode pairs of which the signal modes are bounced off the beam splitter while the idler modes are retained losslessly. We obtain a lower bound on the output state fidelity valid for any pure input state. We define number-diagonal signal (NDS) states to be input states whose density operator in the signal modes is diagonal in the multimode number basis. For such input states, we derive series formulas for the optimal error probability, the output state fidelity, and the Chernoff-type upper bounds on the error probability. For the special cases of quantum reading of a classical digital memory and target detection (for which the reflectivities are real valued), we show that for a given input signal photon probability distribution, the fidelity is minimized by the NDS states with that distribution and that for a given average total signal energy N{sub s}, the fidelity is minimized by any multimode Fock state with N{sub s} total signal photons. For reading of an ideal memory, it is shown that Fock state inputs minimize the Chernoff bound. For target detection under high-loss conditions, a no-go result showing the lack of appreciable quantum advantage over coherent state transmitters is derived. A comparison of the error probability performance for quantum reading of number state and two-mode squeezed vacuum state (or EPR state) transmitters relative to coherent state transmitters is presented for various values of the reflectances. While the nonclassical states in general perform better than the coherent state, the quantitative performance gains differ depending on the values of the reflectances. The experimental outlook for realizing nonclassical gains from number state transmitters with current technology at moderate to high values of the

  6. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lo, Shin-Yi; Wang, Andrew H-J; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Chromoproteins (CPs) have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP). In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε) of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development.

  7. Chromophore Deprotonation State Alters the Optical Properties of Blue Chromoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lo, Shin-Yi; Wang, Andrew H.-J.; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Chromoproteins (CPs) have unique colors and can be used in biological applications. In this work, a novel blue CP with a maximum absorption peak (λmax) at 608 nm was identified from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla gigantea (sgBP). In vivo expression of sgBP in zebrafish would change the appearance of the fishes to have a blue color, indicating the potential biomarker function. To enhance the color properties, the crystal structure of sgBP at 2.25 Å resolution was determined to allow structure-based protein engineering. Among the mutations conducted in the Gln-Tyr-Gly chromophore and chromophore environment, a S157C mutation shifted the λmax to 604 nm with an extinction coefficient (ε) of 58,029 M-1·cm-1 and darkened the blue color expression. The S157C mutation in the sgBP chromophore environment could affect the color expression by altering the deprotonation state of the phenolic group in the chromophore. Our results provide a structural basis for the blue color enhancement of the biomarker development. PMID:26218063

  8. Race and Ethnicity, Religion Involvement, Church-based Social Support and Subjective Health in United States: A Case of Moderated Mediation

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2013-01-01

    Background: To test if social support and ethnicity mediate/moderate the association between religion involvement and subjective health in the United States. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of National Survey of American Life, 2003. Hierarchical regression was fit to a national household probability sample of adult African Americans (n = 3570), Caribbean Blacks (n = 1621), and Whites (n = 891). Frequency of church attendance, positive/negative church-based social support, ethnicity, and subjective health (overall life satisfaction and self-rated mental health) were considered as predictor, mediator, moderator and outcome, respectively. Results: Frequency of church attendance had a significant and positive association with mental health and life satisfaction among all ethnic groups. Frequency of church attendance was also correlated with positive and negative social support among all ethnic groups. Church-based social support fully mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall life satisfaction among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks, or Whites. Church-based social support, however, partially mediated the association between frequency of church attendance and overall mental health among African Americans but not among Caribbean Blacks or Whites. Conclusion: Ethnicity shapes how church-based social support mediates the association between religious involvement and subjective health. Our results showed a moderating mediation effect of ethnicity and social support on the religious involvement-subjective health linkage, in a way that it is only among African Americans that social support is a pathway for the beneficial health effect of religious involvement. PMID:23543791

  9. The Development of Replicated Optical Integral Field Spectrographs and their Application to the Study of Lyman-alpha Emission at Moderate Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chonis, Taylor Steven

    volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings for VIRUS is presented, which highlights the challenge and success associated with producing of a very large number of highly customized optical elements whose performance is crucial to meeting the efficiency requirements of the spectrograph system. To accommodate VIRUS, the HET is undergoing a substantial wide-field upgrade to increase its field of view to 22' in diameter. The previous HET facility Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS), which was directly fed by the telescope's previous spherical aberration corrector, must be removed from the prime focus instrument package as a result of the telescope upgrades and instead be fiber-coupled to the telescope focal plane. For a similar cost as modifying LRS to accommodate these changes, a new second generation instrument (LRS2) will be based on the VIRUS unit spectrograph. The design, operational concept, construction, and laboratory testing and characterization of LRS2 is the primary focus of this dissertation, which highlights the benefits of leveraging the large engineering investment, economies of scale, and laboratory and observatory infrastructure associated with the massively replicated VIRUS instrument. LRS2 will provide integral field spectroscopy for a seeing-limited field of 12" x 6". The multiplexed VIRUS framework facilitates broad wavelength coverage from 370 nm to 1.0 mum spread between two dual-channel spectrographs at a moderate spectral resolving power of R ≈ 2000. The design departures from VIRUS are presented, including the novel integral field unit, VPH grism dispersers, and various optical changes for accommodating the broadband wavelength coverage. Laboratory testing has verified that LRS2 largely meets its image quality specification and is nearly ready for delivery to the HET where its final verification and validation tasks will be executed. LRS2 will enable the continuation of most legacy LRS science programs and provide improved capability for

  10. Enhanced optical cycling and slowing of YO through rotational state microwave mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Bo; Hummon, Matthew; Yeo, Mark; Collopy, Alejandra; Hemmerling, Boerge; Chae, Eunmi; Anderegg, Loic; Ravi, Aakash; Doyle, John; Ye, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In order to address rotational dark states in the molecule yttrium (II) monoxide (YO) and to enhance optical cycling, we demonstrate the remixing of ground electronic state rotational levels using microwave radiation. This mixing technique, in conjunction with a broadband modulated and frequency chirped laser, is used to decelerate a beam of YO from a cryogenic buffer gas cell. The result is a population of molecules with velocities less than 10 m/s, which are sufficiently slow to be loaded into a magneto-optical trap. With two vibrational repump lasers, the cycling transition is closed to the 10-6 level. Additionally, we present progress towards a three dimensional implementation of a magneto-optical trap for YO. This work was supported in part by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF3852. We also acknowledge support from ARO, AFOSR (MURI), NIST, and NSF.

  11. Generation of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, C.; Zanthier, J. von; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2007-11-09

    We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states.

  12. Generation and purification of maximally entangled atomic states in optical cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Lougovski, P.; Walther, H.; Solano, E.

    2005-01-01

    We present a probabilistic scheme for generating and purifying maximally entangled states of two atoms inside an optical cavity via no-photon detection at the cavity output, where ideal detectors are not required. The intermediate mixed states can be continuously purified so as to violate Bell inequalities in a parametrized manner. The scheme relies on an additional strong-driving field that realizes, atypically, simultaneous Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings interactions.

  13. Optically induced effective mass renormalization: the case of graphite image potential states.

    PubMed

    Montagnese, M; Pagliara, S; Galimberti, G; Dal Conte, S; Ferrini, G; van Loosdrecht, P H M; Parmigiani, F

    2016-10-14

    Many-body interactions with the underlying bulk electrons determine the properties of confined electronic states at the surface of a metal. Using momentum resolved nonlinear photoelectron spectroscopy we show that one can tailor these many-body interactions in graphite, leading to a strong renormalization of the dispersion and linewidth of the image potential state. These observations are interpreted in terms of a basic self-energy model, and may be considered as exemplary for optically induced many-body interactions.

  14. Optical interferometry diagnostics in laser-driven equation of state experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cauble, R C; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W; Da Silva, L B; Gold, D M; Kalantar, D H; Remington, B A; Weber, S V

    1999-06-18

    We have developed and tested several optical interferometric diagnostics to measure preheat and shock velocity in high-pressure equation of state experiments on the Nova laser. Theory and practical application of interferometric measurement techniques with illustrative experimental results are presented.

  15. Multiplexing free-space optical signals using superimposed collinear orbital angular momentum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Yuan, X.-C.; Tao, S. H.; Burge, R. E.

    2007-07-01

    As a proof of concept, we experimentally demonstrate multiplexing of free-space optical signals in multiple channels labeled with different states of orbital angular momentum. The multiplexing process is carried out by a dynamic liquid-crystal spatial light modulator, while the phase function is calculated by an iterative algorithm. A binary amplitude computer-generated hologram serves as a demultiplexer.

  16. Two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jun; Li Xiaoying; Kumar, Prem

    2005-09-15

    A quantum theory of two-photon-state generation via four-wave mixing in optical fibers is studied, with emphasis on the case where the pump is a classical, narrow (picosecond-duration) pulse. One of the experiments performed in our lab is discussed and analyzed. Numerical predictions from the theory are shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. Solid-state reversible quadratic nonlinear optical molecular switch with an exceptionally large contrast.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhihua; Luo, Junhua; Zhang, Shuquan; Ji, Chengmin; Zhou, Lei; Li, Shenhui; Deng, Feng; Hong, Maochun

    2013-08-14

    Exceptional nonlinear optical (NLO) switching behavior, including an extremely large contrast (on/off) of ∼35 and high NLO coefficients, is displayed by a solid-state reversible quadratic NLO switch. The favorable results, induced by very fast molecular motion and anionic ordering, provides impetus for the design of a novel second-harmonic-generation switch involving molecular motion.

  18. All-Optical Formation of Coherent Dark States of Silicon-Vacancy Spins in Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingault, Benjamin; Becker, Jonas N.; Schulte, Carsten H. H.; Arend, Carsten; Hepp, Christian; Godde, Tillmann; Tartakovskii, Alexander I.; Markham, Matthew; Becher, Christoph; Atatüre, Mete

    2014-12-01

    Spin impurities in diamond can be versatile tools for a wide range of solid-state-based quantum technologies, but finding spin impurities that offer sufficient quality in both photonic and spin properties remains a challenge for this pursuit. The silicon-vacancy center has recently attracted much interest because of its spin-accessible optical transitions and the quality of its optical spectrum. Complementing these properties, spin coherence is essential for the suitability of this center as a spin-photon quantum interface. Here, we report all-optical generation of coherent superpositions of spin states in the ground state of a negatively charged silicon-vacancy center using coherent population trapping. Our measurements reveal a characteristic spin coherence time, T2* , exceeding 45 nanoseconds at 4 K. We further investigate the role of phonon-mediated coupling between orbital states as a source of irreversible decoherence. Our results indicate the feasibility of all-optical coherent control of silicon-vacancy spins using ultrafast laser pulses.

  19. Local density of optical states of an asymmetric waveguide grating at photonic band gap resonant wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Husin; Sumaryada, Tony I.; Ahmad, Faozan

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of local density of optical states (LDOS) at photonic band gap resonant wavelength of an asymmetric waveguide grating based on Green's function formulation. It is found that the LDOS of the considered structure exhibits different characteristics in its localization between the upper and lower resonant wavelengths of the corresponding photonic band gap edges.

  20. Incompressible states of a two-component Fermi gas in a double-well optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Crepin, Francois; Simon, Pascal; Citro, Roberta

    2010-07-15

    We propose a scheme to investigate the effect of frustration on the magnetic phase transitions of cold atoms confined in an optical lattice. We also demonstrate how to get two-leg spin ladders with frustrated spin-exchange coupling that display a phase transition from a spin liquid to a fully incompressible state. Further, various experimental quantities are analyzed for describing this phase.

  1. Disrupted Small-World Brain Networks in Moderate Alzheimer's Disease: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiangbin; Liu, Bing; Xi, Qian; Guo, Qihao; Jiang, Hong; Jiang, Tianzi; Wang, Peijun

    2012-01-01

    The small-world organization has been hypothesized to reflect a balance between local processing and global integration in the human brain. Previous multimodal imaging studies have consistently demonstrated that the topological architecture of the brain network is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, these studies have reported inconsistent results regarding the topological properties of brain alterations in AD. One potential explanation for these inconsistent results lies with the diverse homogeneity and distinct progressive stages of the AD involved in these studies, which are thought to be critical factors that might affect the results. We investigated the topological properties of brain functional networks derived from resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of carefully selected moderate AD patients and normal controls (NCs). Our results showed that the topological properties were found to be disrupted in AD patients, which showing increased local efficiency but decreased global efficiency. We found that the altered brain regions are mainly located in the default mode network, the temporal lobe and certain subcortical regions that are closely associated with the neuropathological changes in AD. Of note, our exploratory study revealed that the ApoE genotype modulates brain network properties, especially in AD patients. PMID:22457774

  2. Concentrating partially entangled W-class states on nonlocal atoms using low- Q optical cavity and linear optical elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cong; Chen, Xi; Duan, YuWen; Fan, Ling; Zhang, Ru; Wang, TieJun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-10-01

    Entanglement plays an important role in quantum information science, especially in quantum communications. Here we present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for nonlocal atom systems in the partially entangled W-class states, using the single-photon input-output process regarding low- Q cavity and linear optical elements. Compared with previously published ECPs for the concentration of non-maximally entangled atomic states, our protocol is much simpler and more efficient as it employs the Faraday rotation in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and the parameter-splitting method. The Faraday rotation requires the cavity with low- Q factor and weak coupling to the atom, which makes the requirement for entanglement concentration much less stringent than the previous methods, and achievable with current cavity QED techniques. The parameter-splitting method resorts to linear-optical elements only. This ECP has high efficiency and fidelity in realistic experiments, and some imperfections during the experiment can be avoided efficiently with currently available techniques.

  3. Affect and State Dysregulation as Moderators of the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolen, Rebecca M.; Ramseyer Winter, Virginia; Hodges, Liz

    2013-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a significant problem in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Affect and state dysregulation are frequently observed in survivors of childhood sexual abuse and in those who engage in NSSI. Both have been found to predict NSSI, and affect regulation has also been modeled as a mediator of NSSI. This study…

  4. State-of-the-art silicon carbide optical telescope assembly for the JMAPS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catropa, Dan; Azad, Farsh

    2013-09-01

    L-3 Communications IOS-SSG (L-3 SSG) has recently completed development of an ultra low wavefront error and highly stable Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical payload for the Joint Milli-Arcsecond Pathfinder Survey (JMAPS) mission. Selection of SiC as the opto-mechanical material was driven by the JMAPS requirements for extremely low residual optical aberrations and distortion, and state-of-the-art temporal and thermal stability. JMAPS utilizes a passively athermalized design, combining SiC optics with aggressively lightweighted SiC metering structures. The resulting hardware has been optically tested over temperature, demonstrating an exceptionally low and stable system level wavefront error. This exceptional performance, combined with the aggressively lightweighted sinterbonded SiC structures developed result in an instrument which represents the state-of-the-art from the perspective of optical performance and structural efficiency. We will provide an overview of the system, with emphasis on the SiC opto-mechanics, and system level test results.

  5. Generating multi-mode entangled coherent W and GHZ states via optical system based fusion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Xue-Ping; Yang, Ming; Wu, Wei-Feng; Fan, Hong-Yi

    2017-05-01

    Fusion technology has been demonstrated to be a good method for generating a large-scale entangled coherent W or GHZ state from two small ones in QED system. It is of importance to study how to fuse small-scale entangled coherent W or GHZ states via optical system. In this paper, we present a scheme for generating larger entangled coherent W or GHZ state in an optical system by virtue of fusion technology. The key fusion mechanism is realized by photon detectors and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with its two arms immersed in Kerr media, by which an n-mode entangled coherent W state and an m-mode entangled coherent W state can be probabilistically fused into an (n+m-2)-mode entangled coherent W state. This fusion scheme applies to entangled coherent GHZ state too but with a unit probability of success. Feasibility analysis indicates that our fusion scheme may be realized with current experimental technology. Large-scale entangled coherent W and GHZ states may find new applications in quantum communication.

  6. Brief state-of-the-art review on optical communications for the NASA ISES workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.

    1990-01-01

    The current state of the art of optical communications is briefly reviewed. This review covers NASA programs, DOD and other government agency programs, commercial aerospace programs, and foreign programs. Included is a brief summary of a recent NASA workshop on optical communications. The basic conclusions from all the program reviews is that optical communications is a technology ready to be accepted but needed to be demonstrated. Probably the most advanced and sophisticated optical communications system is the Laser Intersatellite Transmission Experiment (LITE) system developed for flight on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Optical communications technology is available for the applications of data communications at data rates in the under 300 MBits/sec for nearly all applications under 2 times GEO distances. Applications for low-earth orbiter (LEO) to ground will allow data rates in the multi-GBits/sec range. Higher data rates are limited by currently available laser power. Phased array lasers offer technology which should eliminate this problem. The major problem of cloud coverage can probably be eliminated by look ahead pointing, multiple ground stations, and knowledge of weather conditions to control the pointing. Most certainly, optical communications offer a new spectral region to relieve the RF bands and very high data communications rates that will be required in less than 10 years to solve the communications problems on Earth.

  7. "I am resting but rest less well with you." The moderating effect of anxious attachment style on alpha power during EEG resting state in a social context.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Willem J M I; Pozharliev, Rumen; Van Strien, Jan W; Belschak, Frank; Bagozzi, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    We took EEG recordings to measure task-free resting-state cortical brain activity in 35 participants under two conditions, alone (A) or together (T). We also investigated whether psychological attachment styles shape human cortical activity differently in these two settings. The results indicate that social context matters and that participants' cortical activity is moderated by the anxious, but not avoidant attachment style. We found enhanced alpha, beta and theta band activity in the T rather than the A resting-state condition, which was more pronounced in posterior brain regions. We further found a positive correlation between anxious attachment style and enhanced alpha power in the T vs. A condition over frontal and parietal scalp regions. There was no significant correlation between the absolute powers registered in the other two frequency bands and the participants' anxious attachment style.

  8. State anxiety as a moderator of real world grocery shopping performance among people with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Racette, Elise H; Fowler, Christopher A; Rempfer, Melisa V

    2016-12-30

    Anxiety is frequently overlooked as a factor when examining task performance among individuals with serious mental illness. Given the known effects of anxiety on performance in general populations, it is important to examine anxiety and performance within a serious mental illness population. This study examined state anxiety during a grocery-shopping task among 106 individuals diagnosed with a serious mental illness. Results indicate that state anxiety may impact task performance through its relationship with knowledge about grocery-shopping skills. These data suggest the need to examine further the impact of anxiety on task performance in serious mental illness. Furthermore, the identification and treatment of anxiety in persons with SMI may serve to improve functional outcomes and rehabilitation efforts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Semiclassical Wigner distribution for a two-mode entangled state generated by an optical parametric oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Dechoum, K.; Hahn, M. D.; Khoury, A. Z.

    2010-04-15

    We derive the steady-state solution of the Fokker-Planck equation that describes the dynamics of the nondegenerate optical parametric oscillator in the truncated Wigner representation of the density operator. We assume that the pump mode is strongly damped, which permits its adiabatic elimination. When the elimination is correctly executed, the resulting stochastic equations contain multiplicative noise terms and do not admit a potential solution. However, we develop a heuristic scheme leading to a satisfactory steady-state solution. This provides a clear view of the intracavity two-mode entangled state valid in all operating regimes of the optical parametric oscillator. A non-Gaussian distribution is obtained for the above threshold solution.

  10. Two-photon induced excited-state absorption and optical limiting properties in a chiral polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yi; Wang, Changshun; Zhao, Fuli; Qin, Mu; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of a chiral polymer were investigated by employing Z-scan technique in femtosecond regime. Reverse saturable absorption was observed in the polymer at 800 nm and the nonlinear absorption coefficient of 5.97 cm/GW was obtained at the irradiance of 2.75 GW/cm2. The nonlinear absorption coefficient versus the input irradiance was measured to meet a linear increasing function, giving evidence of two-photon induced excited-state absorption existing. Particularly, the chiral polymer was shown to possess a large ratio (˜251) of excited-state to ground-state absorption cross-section and a remarkable optical limiting behavior was achieved in it.

  11. Optical study of nonuniform quantum-Hall ferromagnetic states in bilayer and trilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrette, Manuel; Côté, René

    2015-03-01

    The chiral two-dimensional electron gas in the N = 0 Landau level of a Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene is host to a variety of broken-symmetry ground states that can be described as layer, spin, or orbital quantum Hall ferromagnets (QHFs). At filling factors ν = 1 , 3 , an externally applied electric field between the two layers can induce a transition from uniform to nonuniform orbital QHF states with an helical or skyrmionic texture of electric dipoles. A similar skyrmionic texture can also arise in the N = 0 Landau level of an ABC-stacked trilayer graphene. In this talk, we discuss the optical properties of these textured ground states. We compute their electromagnetic absorption as well as the Kerr and Faraday rotations induced by their collective excitations and show that each textured phase has a distinct optical signature.

  12. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  13. Cs 728 nm excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter with indirect pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xiaogang; Chen, Mo; Liu, Zhongzheng; Zhu, Chuanwen; Liu, Zhiwen; Chen, Jingbiao

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a Cs excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (ESFADOF) operating at 728 nm using a novel pump method, by which the pump beam and the probe beam in the ESFADOF realized here have no a common energy level. Using this method, the ESFADOF achieves a transmission of 2.39% with a bandwidth of 22.52 MHz, which can be applied to both laser frequency stabilization and future four-level active optical clocks. Under the 455 nm laser pump, in addition to 52D5/2, other states such as 72S1/2, 72P3/2, 62P3/2, 62P1/2 and 52D3/2 have also been populated effectively. Meanwhile, multiple wavelength filters exploiting atomic transitions to these states can be realized.

  14. Quantum phases of the extended Bose-Hubbard hamiltonian: possibility of a supersolid state of cold atoms in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Scarola, V W; Das Sarma, S

    2005-07-15

    Cold atom optical lattices typically simulate zero-range Hubbard models. We discuss the theoretical possibility of using excited states of optical lattices to generate extended range Hubbard models. We find that bosons confined to higher bands of optical lattices allow for a rich phase diagram, including the supersolid phase. Using Gutzwiller, mean-field theory we establish the parameter regime necessary to maintain metastable states generated by an extended Bose-Hubbard model.

  15. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  16. Variable pulse repetition frequency output from an optically injected solid state laser.

    PubMed

    Kane, D M; Toomey, J P

    2011-02-28

    An optically injected solid state laser (OISSL) system is known to generate complex nonlinear dynamics within the parameter space of varying the injection strength of the master laser and the frequency detuning between the master and slave lasers. Here we show that within these complex nonlinear dynamics, a system which can be operated as a source of laser pulses with a pulse repetition frequency (prf) that can be continuously varied by a single control, is embedded. Generation of pulse repetition frequencies ranging from 200 kHz up to 4 MHz is shown to be achievable for an optically injected Nd:YVO4 solid state laser system from analysis of prior experimental and simulation results. Generalizing this to other optically injected solid state laser systems, the upper bound on the repetition frequency is of order the relaxation oscillation frequency for the lasers. The system is discussed in the context of prf versatile laser systems more generally. Proposals are made for the next generation of OISSLs that will increase understanding of the variable pulse repetition frequency operation, and determine its practical limitations. Such variable prf laser systems; both low powered, and, higher powered systems achieved using one or more optical power amplifier stages; have many potential applications from interrogating resonance behaviors in microscale structures, through sensing and diagnostics, to laser processing.

  17. Low-Entropy States of Neutral Atoms in Polarization-Synthesized Optical Lattices.

    PubMed

    Robens, Carsten; Zopes, Jonathan; Alt, Wolfgang; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2017-02-10

    We create low-entropy states of neutral atoms by utilizing a conceptually new optical-lattice technique that relies on a high-precision, high-bandwidth synthesis of light polarization. Polarization-synthesized optical lattices provide two fully controllable optical lattice potentials, each of them confining only atoms in either one of the two long-lived hyperfine states. By employing one lattice as the storage register and the other one as the shift register, we provide a proof of concept using four atoms that selected regions of the periodic potential can be filled with one particle per site. We expect that our results can be scaled up to thousands of atoms by employing an atom-sorting algorithm with logarithmic complexity, which is enabled by polarization-synthesized optical lattices. Vibrational entropy is subsequently removed by sideband cooling methods. Our results pave the way for a bottom-up approach to creating ultralow-entropy states of a many-body system.

  18. What students think they feel differs from what they really feel--academic self-concept moderates the discrepancy between students' trait and state emotional self-reports.

    PubMed

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students' trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students' scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students' academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment) and what they really feel (state assessment). Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed.

  19. Infant Negative Affect and Maternal Interactive Behavior During the Still-Face Procedure: The Moderating Role of Adult Attachment States of Mind

    PubMed Central

    Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Supple, Andrew J.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between attachment state of mind measured prenatally (N = 259) and maternal behavior in the reunion episode of the still-face procedure when infants were six months of age both as a main effect and in conjunction with infant negative affect. Using a dimensional approach to adult attachment measurement, dismissing and preoccupied states of mind were negatively associated with maternal sensitivity, and each correlated with distinct parenting behaviors. Positive associations were found between dismissing states of mind and maternal monitoring and preoccupied states of mind and maternal withdraw. Maternal preoccupation moderated associations between infant negative affect and maternal intrusive, withdrawn, and monitoring behaviors, supporting the notion that maternal attachment influences parenting behavior via a modulatory process in which infant distress cues are selectively filtered and responded to. Analyses using a traditional AAI scale and classification approach also provided evidence for distinct parenting behavior correlates of insecure adult attachment representations. The importance of measuring global and stylistic differences in maternal behavior in contexts which allow for the activation of the entire range of infant affective states is discussed. PMID:24329015

  20. Autonomous regulation mode moderates the effect of actual physical activity on affective states: an ambulant assessment approach to the role of self-determination.

    PubMed

    Kanning, Martina; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Brand, Ralf

    2012-04-01

    Studies have shown that physical activity influences affective states. However, studies have seldom depicted these associations in ongoing real-life situations, and there is no investigation showing that motivational states (i.e., more or less autonomously regulated) would moderate these effects in situ. To investigate the interaction of autonomous regulation and actual physical activity (aPA) with affective states, we use an ambulatory assessment approach. The participants were 44 university students (mean age: 26.2 ± 3.2 years). We assessed aPA through 24-hr accelerometry and affective states and autonomous regulation via electronic diaries. Palmtop devices prompted subjects every 45 min during a 14-hr daytime period. We performed hierarchical multilevel analyses. Both aPA and autonomous regulation significantly influenced affective states. The interaction was significant for two affects. The higher the volume of aPA and thereby the more autonomously regulated the preceding bout of aPA was, the more our participants felt energized (r = .16) but agitated (r = -.18).

  1. What Students Think They Feel Differs from What They Really Feel – Academic Self-Concept Moderates the Discrepancy between Students’ Trait and State Emotional Self-Reports

    PubMed Central

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether there is a discrepancy pertaining to trait and state academic emotions and whether self-concept of ability moderates this discrepancy. A total of 225 secondary school students from two different countries enrolled in grades 8 and 11 (German sample; n = 94) and grade 9 (Swiss sample; n = 131) participated. Students’ trait academic emotions of enjoyment, pride, anger, and anxiety in mathematics were assessed with a self-report questionnaire, whereas to assess their state academic emotions experience-sampling method was employed. The results revealed that students’ scores on the trait assessment of emotions were generally higher than their scores on the state assessment. Further, as expected, students’ academic self-concept in the domain of mathematics was shown to partly explain the discrepancy between scores on trait and state emotions. Our results indicate that there is a belief-driven discrepancy between what students think they feel (trait assessment) and what they really feel (state assessment). Implications with regard to the assessment of self-reported emotions in future studies and practical implications for the school context are discussed. PMID:24647760

  2. Infant negative affect and maternal interactive behavior during the still-face procedure: the moderating role of adult attachment states of mind.

    PubMed

    Haltigan, John D; Leerkes, Esther M; Supple, Andrew J; Calkins, Susan D

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined associations between attachment state of mind measured prenatally (N = 259) and maternal behavior in the reunion episode of the still-face procedure when infants were six months of age both as a main effect and in conjunction with infant negative affect. Using a dimensional approach to adult attachment measurement, dismissing and preoccupied states of mind were negatively associated with maternal sensitivity, and each correlated with distinct parenting behaviors. Positive associations were found between dismissing states of mind and maternal monitoring and preoccupied states of mind and maternal withdraw. Maternal preoccupation moderated associations between infant negative affect and maternal intrusive, withdrawn, and monitoring behaviors, supporting the notion that maternal attachment influences parenting behavior via a modulatory process in which infant distress cues are selectively filtered and responded to. Analyses using a traditional AAI scale and classification approach also provided evidence for distinct parenting behavior correlates of insecure adult attachment representations. The importance of measuring global and stylistic differences in maternal behavior in contexts which allow for the activation of the entire range of infant affective states is discussed.

  3. Unconventional optical Tamm defect states in metal-terminated opal photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergei G.

    2016-04-01

    Optical Tamm surface states are formed in 3-dimensional photonic crystals coated by thin metal films. These states appear in registry with diffraction resonances and localize the electromagnetic energy in resonators formed by diffraction mirrors of lattice planes and metal semishells. Tamm defect states provide the bypass for light in the spectral range of photonic stop-bands and thus reduce the efficiency of the Bragg diffraction resonances. In spite of hidden nature of this effect, its magnitude is comparable to the extraordinary transmission associated with tunneling of surface plasmon polaritons, which are simultaneously excited at surfaces of corrugated metal film coating.

  4. Unconventional optical Tamm states in metal-terminated three-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korovin, Alexander V.; Romanov, Sergei G.

    2016-03-01

    Unconventional optical Tamm surface states have been demonstrated in transmission and reflectance spectra of three-dimensional opal photonic crystals coated by thin metal films. These states appear in registry with diffraction resonances and localize the electromagnetic energy in asymmetric resonators formed by stacks of lattice planes and metal semishells. Tamm defect states provide the bypass for light at the edges of the Bragg diffraction resonances and thus reduce the diffraction efficiency. Despite the hidden nature of this effect, its magnitude is comparable to the extraordinary transmission associated with the surface-plasmon polaritons that are simultaneously excited at the surfaces of the corrugated metal films.

  5. Spectral engineering by flexible tunings of optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity resonance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Lin; Song, Jun-Feng; Feng, Jing; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2013-11-01

    We present a design for spectral engineering in a metal dual distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-based structure. Optical Tamm states and Fabry-Perot cavity mode, dual windows for light-matter interaction enhancement, can be excited simultaneously and tuned flexibly, including their respective bandwidth and resonant wavelength, due to the variable reflection phase from the outer DBR's internal surface. The design can find applications in solar cells for light trappings. Via calculations of overall absorptivity, the proposed simpler dual-states-based scheme is demonstrated to be almost as effective as the coherent-light-trapping scheme, owing to the dual-states-induced broader-band absorption enhancement.

  6. Aerosol optical properties and mixing state of black carbon in the Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Haobo; Liu, Li; Fan, Shaojia; Li, Fei; Yin, Yan; Cai, Mingfu; Chan, P. W.

    2016-04-01

    Aerosols contribute the largest uncertainty to the total radiative forcing estimate, and black carbon (BC) that absorbs solar radiation plays an important role in the Earth's energy budget. This study analysed the aerosol optical properties from 22 February to 18 March 2014 at the China Meteorological Administration Atmospheric Watch Network (CAWNET) station in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. The representative values of dry-state particle scattering coefficient (σsp), hemispheric backscattering coefficient (σhbsp), absorption coefficient (σabsp), extinction coefficient (σep), hemispheric backscattering fraction (HBF), single scattering albedo (SSA), as well as scattering Ångström exponent (α) were presented. A comparison between a polluted day and a clean day shows that the aerosol optical properties depend on particle number size distribution, weather conditions and evolution of the mixing layer. To investigate the mixing state of BC at the surface, an optical closure study of HBF between measurements and calculations based on a modified Mie model was employed for dry particles. The result shows that the mixing state of BC might be between the external mixture and the core-shell mixture. The average retrieved ratio of the externally mixed BC to the total BC mass concentration (rext-BC) was 0.58 ± 0.12, and the diurnal pattern of rext-BC can be found. Furthermore, considering that non-light-absorbing particles measured by a Volatility-Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser (V-TDMA) exist independently with core-shell and homogenously internally mixed BC particles, the calculated optical properties were just slightly different from those based on the assumption that BC exist in each particle. This would help understand the influence of the BC mixing state on aerosol optical properties and radiation budget in the PRD.

  7. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    DOE PAGES

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexingmore » in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.« less

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of tetrapyrazinoporphyrazinato indium chloride complexes due to excited-state absorption processes.

    PubMed

    Dini, Danilo; Hanack, Michael; Meneghetti, Moreno

    2005-07-07

    The multiphoton absorption properties of the axially substituted tetrapyrazinotetraazaporphyrinato complex Pyz(4)TAPInCl (1) are reported and interpreted. In particular, the nonlinear optical transmission of the complex and the excited states involved in the nonlinear absorption have been determined at the frequency of the second harmonic generation of a Nd:YAG laser in the nanosecond time regime. Pyz(4)TAPInCl has an excited-state absorption cross section larger than its ground state in the 460-540 nm spectral region, and it shows an optical limiting (OL) behavior at 532 nm, which derives from a sequential two-photon absorption with a larger absorption cross section of the excited triplet state with respect to the ground state. It results that the absorption cross section of 1 in the excited triplet state is 7.8 x 10(-18) cm(2) vs 0.9 x 10(-18) cm(2) of the ground state at the wavelength of OL analysis.

  9. Continuous Variable Cluster State Generation over the Optical Spatial Mode Comb

    SciTech Connect

    Pooser, Raphael C.; Jing, Jietai

    2014-10-20

    One way quantum computing uses single qubit projective measurements performed on a cluster state (a highly entangled state of multiple qubits) in order to enact quantum gates. The model is promising due to its potential scalability; the cluster state may be produced at the beginning of the computation and operated on over time. Continuous variables (CV) offer another potential benefit in the form of deterministic entanglement generation. This determinism can lead to robust cluster states and scalable quantum computation. Recent demonstrations of CV cluster states have made great strides on the path to scalability utilizing either time or frequency multiplexing in optical parametric oscillators (OPO) both above and below threshold. The techniques relied on a combination of entangling operators and beam splitter transformations. Here we show that an analogous transformation exists for amplifiers with Gaussian inputs states operating on multiple spatial modes. By judicious selection of local oscillators (LOs), the spatial mode distribution is analogous to the optical frequency comb consisting of axial modes in an OPO cavity. We outline an experimental system that generates cluster states across the spatial frequency comb which can also scale the amount of quantum noise reduction to potentially larger than in other systems.

  10. Interleukin-1 antagonism moderates the inflammatory state associated with Type 1 diabetes during clinical trials conducted at disease onset.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Susanne M; Wang, Xujing; Chen, Yi-Guang; Jia, Shuang; Kaldunski, Mary L; Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hessner, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    It was hypothesized that IL-1 antagonism would preserve β-cell function in new onset Type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the Anti-Interleukin-1 in Diabetes Action (AIDA) and TrialNet Canakinumab (TN-14) trials failed to show efficacy of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) or canakinumab, as measured by stimulated C-peptide response. Additional measures are needed to define immune state changes associated with therapeutic responses. Here, we studied these trial participants with plasma-induced transcriptional analysis. In blinded analyses, 70.2% of AIDA and 68.9% of TN-14 participants were correctly called to their treatment arm. While the transcriptional signatures from the two trials were distinct, both therapies achieved varying immunomodulation consistent with IL-1 inhibition. On average, IL-1 antagonism resulted in modest normalization relative to healthy controls. At endpoint, signatures were quantified using a gene ontology-based inflammatory index, and an inverse relationship was observed between measured inflammation and stimulated C-peptide response in IL-1Ra- and canakinumab-treated patients. Cytokine neutralization studies showed that IL-1α and IL-1β additively contribute to the T1D inflammatory state. Finally, analyses of baseline signatures were indicative of later therapeutic response. Despite the absence of clinical efficacy by IL-1 antagonist therapy, transcriptional analysis detected immunomodulation and may yield new insight when applied to other clinical trials.

  11. Resolving phase information of the optical local density of state with scattering near-field probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R.; Vincent, R.

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically discuss the link between the phase measured using a scattering optical scanning near-field microscopy (s-SNOM) and the local density of optical states (LDOS). A remarkable result is that the LDOS information is directly included in the phase of the probe. Therefore by monitoring the spatial variation of the trans-scattering phase, we locally measure the phase modulation associated with the probe and the optical paths. We demonstrate numerically that a technique involving two-phase imaging of a sample with two different sized tips should allow to obtain the image the pLDOS. For this imaging method, numerical comparison with extinction probe measurement shows crucial qualitative and quantitative improvement.

  12. The gamma-ray blazar quest: new optical spectra, state of art and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Álvarez Crespo, N.; D'Abrusco, R.; Landoni, M.; Masetti, N.; Ricci, F.; Milisavljevic, D.; Paggi, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Strader, J.; Chomiuk, L.; La Franca, F.; Smith, Howard A.; Tosti, G.

    2016-10-01

    We recently developed a procedure to recognize γ-ray blazar candidates within the positional uncertainty regions of the unidentified/unassociated γ-ray sources (UGSs). Such procedure was based on the discovery that Fermi blazars show peculiar infrared colors. However, to confirm the real nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic data are necessary. Thus, we performed an extensive archival search for spectra available in the literature in parallel with an optical spectroscopic campaign aimed to reveal and confirm the nature of the selected γ-ray blazar candidates. Here, we first search for optical spectra of a selected sample of γ-ray blazar candidates that can be potential counterparts of UGSs using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS DR12). This search enables us to update the archival search carried out to date. We also describe the state-of-art and the future perspectives of our campaign to discover previously unknown γ-ray blazars.

  13. Optical diode action from axially asymmetric nonlinearity in an all-carbon solid-state device.

    PubMed

    Anand, Benoy; Podila, Ramakrishna; Lingam, Kiran; Krishnan, S R; Siva Sankara Sai, S; Philip, Reji; Rao, Apparao M

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured carbons are posited to offer an alternative to silicon and lead to further miniaturization of photonic and electronic devices. Here, we report the experimental realization of the first all-carbon solid-state optical diode that is based on axially asymmetric nonlinear absorption in a thin saturable absorber (graphene) and a thin reverse saturable absorber (C60) arranged in tandem. This all-optical diode action is polarization independent and has no phase-matching constraints. The nonreciprocity factor of the device can be tuned by varying the number of graphene layers and the concentration or thickness of the C60 coating. This ultracompact graphene/C60 based optical diode is versatile with an inherently large bandwidth, chemical and thermal stability, and is poised for cost-effective large-scale integration with existing fabrication technologies.

  14. State-projective scheme for generating pair coherent states in traveling-wave optical fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Mimih, Jihane; Birrittella, Richard

    2011-08-15

    The pair coherent states of a two-mode quantized electromagnetic field introduced by Agarwal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 827 (1986)] have yet to be generated in the laboratory. The states can mathematically be obtained from a product of ordinary coherent states via projection onto a subspace wherein identical photon number states of each mode are paired. We propose a scheme by which this projection can be engineered. The scheme requires relatively weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, the ability to perform a displacement operation on a beam mode, and photon detection ability able to distinguish between zero and any other number of photons. These requirements can be fulfilled with currently available technology or technology that is on the horizon.

  15. Fano resonances in photonic crystal slabs near optical bound states in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Cédric; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Sauvan, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    Photonic crystal slabs are able to support optical bound states in the continuum. The latter are eigenmodes of the structure that are truly guided (no radiation leakage) despite the fact that they lie above the light cone within the continuum of radiation modes. Such peculiar states can be viewed as modes with an infinite quality factor Q . Therefore, the question of the behavior of Fano resonances, as optogeometrical parameters are tuned close to optical bound states in the continuum, is of importance for applications of photonic crystal slabs with ultrahigh Q factors. We study theoretically the reflection and transmission of a photonic crystal slab close to an optical bound state in the continuum with a phenomenological approach involving the poles and zeros of the scattering matrix. In particular, we derive a general relation valid for asymmetric structures that gives the position of a pole in the complex plane as a function of the positions of the zeros. We provide closed-form expressions for the reflection and transmission. The proposed phenomenological approach is validated through rigorous numerical calculations.

  16. Sensitivity of mixing states on optical properties of fresh secondary organic carbon aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yu; Cheng, Tianhai; Zheng, Lijuan; Chen, Hao

    2017-07-01

    At the beginning of the interaction of black carbon (or soot) and organic particles, fresh secondary organic carbon aerosols are generated by the dominant fractal aggregated soot monomers and the slight organic coatings. The complex morphologies and mixing states of these fresh secondary organic carbon aerosols significantly influence their optical properties. In this study, these heterogeneous particles were reconstructed using the fixed volume fraction model, and their optical properties are calculated using the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method. For soot particles aged in a short time, the simulated absorption, scattering and single scattering albedo (SSA) showed a good agreement with the measurements. The amplifications of absorption and scattering between the thinly coated states (soot volume fraction equals 0.8, or the shell/core diameter ratio equals 1.08) and the freshly emitted states (bare soot with soot volume fraction equals 1) can reach to 15% and 35%, respectively. The simulations with these thinly coated states also indicated that the variations of morphologies may lead to the significant relative deviations on the absorption (up to 15%) and scattering (up to 100%) of these secondary aerosols. The effects of soot compactness and size on their optical properties were sensitive to the thickness of organic coatings, and larger organic refractive index may lead to larger absorption enhancements.

  17. Scheme for generating the singlet state of three atoms trapped in distant cavities coupled by optical fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong-Yang; Wen, Jing-Ji; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Hu, Shi; Cui, Wen-Xue; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2015-09-15

    An effective scheme is proposed to generate the singlet state with three four-level atoms trapped in three distant cavities connected with each other by three optical fibers, respectively. After a series of appropriate atom–cavity interactions, which can be arbitrarily controlled via the selective pairing of Raman transitions and corresponding optical switches, a three-atom singlet state can be successfully generated. The influence of atomic spontaneous decay, photon leakage of cavities and optical fibers on the fidelity of the state is numerically simulated showing that the three-atom singlet state can be generated with high fidelity by choosing the experimental parameters appropriately.

  18. Effect of an excited-state optical transition on the linewidth enhancement factor of quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhukov, A. E. Savelyev, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Arakcheeva, E. M.; Zubov, F. I.; Krasivichev, A. A.; Kryzhanovskaya, N. V.

    2012-02-15

    An analytical expression is derived for the linewidth enhancement factor of a quantum-dot laser, which makes it possible to describe its dependence on optical loss and photon density in an explicit form. The model accounts for refractive index variations at the ground-state optical transition due to gain/absorption variations upon the first excited-state transition in quantum dots. It is shown that a decrease in optical loss, an increase in saturated gain, and an increase in the energy separation between the excited-state and ground-state transitions results in a decrease in the {alpha} factor both at and above the lasing threshold.

  19. Excited-State Absorption from Real-Time Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Optical Limiting in Zinc Phthalocyanine.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sean A; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2016-04-07

    Optical-limiting materials are capable of attenuating light to protect delicate equipment from high-intensity light sources. Phthalocyanines have attracted a lot of attention for optical-limiting applications due to their versatility and large nonlinear absorption. With excited-state absorption (ESA) being the primary mechanism for optical limiting behavior in phthalocyanines, the ability to tune the optical absorption of ground and excited states in phthalocyanines would allow for the development of advanced optical limiters. We recently developed a method for the calculation of ESA based on real-time time-dependent density functional theory propagation of an excited-state density. In this work, we apply the approach to zinc phthalocyanine, demonstrating the ability of our method to efficiently identify the optical limiting potential of a molecular complex.

  20. High precision optical spectroscopy and quantum state selected photodissociation of ultracold 88Sr2 molecules in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Mickey Patrick

    Over the past several decades, rapid progress has been made toward the accurate characterization and control of atoms, made possible largely by the development of narrow-linewidth lasers and techniques for trapping and cooling at ultracold temperatures. Extending this progress to molecules will have exciting implications for chemistry, condensed matter physics, and precision tests of physics beyond the Standard Model. These possibilities are all consequences of the richness of molecular structure, which is governed by physics substantially different from that characterizing atomic structure. This same richness of structure, however, increases the complexity of any molecular experiment manyfold over its atomic counterpart, magnifying the difficulty of everything from trapping and cooling to the comparison of theory with experiment. This thesis describes work performed over the past six years to establish the state of the art in manipulation and quantum control of ultracold molecules. Our molecules are produced via photoassociation of ultracold strontium atoms followed by spontaneous decay to a stable ground state. We describe a thorough set of measurements characterizing the rovibrational structure of very weakly bound (and therefore very large) 88Sr2 molecules from several different perspectives, including determinations of binding energies; linear, quadratic, and higher order Zeeman shifts; transition strengths between bound states; and lifetimes of narrow subradiant states. The physical intuition gained in these experiments applies generally to weakly bound diatomic molecules, and suggests extensive applications in precision measurement and metrology. In addition, we present a detailed analysis of the thermally broadened spectroscopic lineshape of molecules in a non-magic optical lattice trap, showing how such lineshapes can be used to directly determine the temperature of atoms or molecules in situ, addressing a long-standing problem in ultracold physics

  1. Effect of substrate on optical bound states in the continuum in 1D photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrieva, Z. F.; Sinev, I. S.; Samusev, A. K.; Iorsh, I. V.; Koshelev, K. L.; Takayama, O.; Malureanu, R.; Lavrinenko, A. V.; Bogdanov, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Optical bound states in the continuum (BIC) are localized states with energy lying above the light line and having infinite lifetime. Any losses taking place in real systems result in transformation of the bound states into resonant states with finite lifetime. In this work, we analyze properties of BIC in CMOS-compatible one-dimensional photonic structure based on silicon-on-insulator wafer at telecommunication wavelengths, where the absorption of silicon is negligible. We reveal that a high-index substrate could destroy both off-Γ BIC and in-plane symmetry protected at-Γ BIC turning them into resonant states due to leakage into the diffraction channels opening in the substrate.

  2. All-Optical Switching in Bacteriorhodopsin Based on Excited-State Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukhdev

    2008-03-01

    Switching light with light is of tremendous importance for both fundamental and applied science. The advent of nano-bio-photonics has led to the design, synthesis and characterization of novel biomolecules that exhibit an efficient nonlinear optical response, which can be utilized for designing all-optical biomolecular switches. Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein found in the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium has been the focus of intense research due to its unique properties that can also be tailored by physical, chemical and genetic engineering techniques to suit desired applications. The talk would focus on our recent results on all-optical switching in bR and its mutants, based on excited-state absorption, using the pump-probe technique. We would discuss the all-optical control of various features of the switching characteristics such as switching contrast, switching time, switching pump intensity, switched probe profile and phase, and relative phase-shift. Optimized conditions for all-optical switching that include optimized values of the small-signal absorption coefficient (for cw case), the pump pulse width and concentration for maximum switching contrast (for pulsed case), would be presented. We would discuss the desired optimal spectral and kinetic properties for device applications. We would also discuss the application of all-optical switching to design low power all-optical computing devices, such as, spatial light modulators, logic gates and multiplexers and compare their performance with other natural photoreceptors such as pharaonis phoborhodopsin, proteorhodopsin, photoactive yellow protein and the blue light plant photoreceptor phototropin.

  3. Through-wafer optical probe characterization for microelectromechanical systems positional state monitoring and feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jeremy M.; Chen, Jingdong; Brown, Kolin S.; Famouri, Parviz F.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    2000-12-01

    Implementation of closed-loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) control enables mechanical microsystems to adapt to the demands of the environment that they are actuating, opening a broad range of new opportunities for future MEMS applications. Integrated optical microsystems have the potential to enable continuous in situ optical interrogation of MEMS microstructure position fully decoupled from the means of mechanical actuation that is necessary for realization of feedback control. We present the results of initial research evaluating through-wafer optical microprobes for surface micromachined MEMS integrated optical position monitoring. Results from the through-wafer free-space optical probe of a lateral comb resonator fabricated using the multiuser MEMS process service (MUMPS) indicate significant positional information content with an achievable return probe signal dynamic range of up to 80% arising from film transmission contrast. Static and dynamic deflection analysis and experimental results indicate a through-wafer probe positional signal sensitivity of 40 mV/micrometers for the present setup or 10% signal change per micrometer. A simulation of the application of nonlinear sliding control is presented illustrating position control of the lateral comb resonator structure given the availability of positional state information.

  4. Self-assembly solid-state enhanced red emission of quinolinemalononitrile: optical waveguides and stimuli response.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chuanxing; Guo, Zhiqian; Yan, Yongli; Zhu, Shiqin; Xie, Yongshu; Zhao, Yong Sheng; Zhu, Weihong; Tian, He

    2013-01-01

    The fluorescence of luminescent emitters is often quenched in the solid state, because of the typical aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect, which is a thorny obstacle to high-performance organic optoelectronic materials. The exploration of solid-state enhanced long wavelength, red-emitting chromophores, especially possessing one-dimensional (1D) assembly features, is of great importance. Interestingly, an excellent solid-state enhanced red emission system (denoted as ED) based on quinolinemalononitrile has been developed via the delicate modification of the conventional ACQ dicyanomethylene-4H-pyran (DCM) derivative (denoted as BD) through crystal engineering. ED exhibits extraordinary self-assembly property in a variety of solvents, even realizing the "waving ribbons" with a length of 6 mm and a diameter of 10 μm. Crystal analysis shows that the CH···π and CH···N supramolecular interactions of ED contribute to the twisted self-assembly solid-state enhanced emission phenomenon. However, for BD, strong face-to-face stacking leads to fluorescence quenching in the solid state. Because of such easy assembly and strong solid-state emission properties, application for optical waveguides of ED is realized with a low optical loss. Stimuli-responsive behavior is also elaborated with color change between orange and red by grinding/fuming or pressing/heating.

  5. Silicon-nanowire-based optical hybrid with insensitive operation for TE/TM states of polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Zhai, Yumeng; Mao, Jinbin; Lu, Yunqing; Xu, Ji; Dai, Daoxin

    2017-02-01

    An optical 90° hybrid consisting of a polarization splitter-rotator (PSR) and a multimode interferometer (MMI) is proposed to realize insensitive optical frequency mixing for TE/TM states of polarization. The PSR is based on the mode hybridization and mode coupling between waveguides; input light at a fundamental transverse electric (TE) mode and a transverse magnetic (TM) mode are output at separate ports, but both output signals are in the fundamental TE mode. These two output fields are then guided to the MMI, where the optical frequency mixing with the light of a local oscillator takes place. This mixing is then independent of the state of polarization of the hybrid input light. We designed such an optical hybrid based on silicon-nanowire waveguides. At a wavelength of 1540 nm, simulation results for the hybrid show a transmission efficiency of 98.6% or 95.8% for TE- or TM-polarized input light, respectively, while the transmission efficiencies for both polarizations are above 90% in a 30 nm wavelength range, namely [1525 nm, 1555 nm]. Further, in the wavelength range [1510 nm, 1565 nm], the transmission imbalance between the output fields is below 0.85 dB for TE- or TM-polarized input light, respectively, while the phase errors in both cases are less than 4°.

  6. Molecular states in double quantum wells: nanochemistry for metatmaterials with new optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Rafael M.; Castañeda, Arcesio

    2009-08-01

    Quantum mechanics explains the existence and properties of the chemical bond responsible for the formation of molecules from isolated atoms. In this work we study quantum states of Double Quantum Wells, DQW, formed from isolated Single Quantum Wells, SQWs, that can be considered metamaterials. Using the quantum chemistry definition of the covalent bond, we discuss molecular states in DQW as a kind of nanochemistry of metamaterials with new properties, in particular new optical properties. An important particularity of such nanochemistry, is the possible experimental control of the geometrical parameters and effective masses characterizing the semiconductor heterostructures represented by the corresponding DQW. This implies a great potential for new applications of the controlled optical properties of the metamaterials. The use of ab initio methods of intensive numerical calculations permits to obtain macroscopic optical properties of the metamaterials from the fundamental components: the spatial distribution of the atoms and molecules constituting the semiconductor layers. The metamaterial new optical properties emerge from the coexistence of many body processes at atomic and molecular level and complex quantum phenomena such as covalent-like bonds at nanometric dimensions.

  7. Charge-transfer states and optical transitions at the pentacene-TiO2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, M. P.; Vänskä, O.; Koval, P.; Koch, S. W.; Kira, M.; Sánchez-Portal, D.

    2017-03-01

    Pentacene molecules have recently been observed to form a well-ordered monolayer on the (110) surface of rutile TiO2, with the molecules adsorbed lying flat, head to tail. With the geometry favorable for direct optical excitation and given its ordered character, this interface seems to provide an intriguing model to study charge-transfer excitations where the optically excited electrons and holes reside on different sides of the organic-inorganic interface. In this work, we theoretically investigate the structural and electronic properties of this system by means of ab initio calculations and compute its excitonic absorption spectrum. Molecular states appear in the band gap of the clean TiO2 surface, which enables charge-transfer excitations directly from the molecular HOMO to the TiO2 conduction band. The calculated optical spectrum shows a strong polarization dependence and displays excitonic resonances corresponding to the charge-transfer states, which could stimulate new experimental work on the optical response of this interface.

  8. Does social policy moderate the impact of unemployment on health? A multilevel analysis of 23 welfare states.

    PubMed

    Vahid Shahidi, Faraz; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Muntaner, Carles

    2016-12-01

    The magnitude of observable health inequalities between the unemployed and their employed counterparts differs considerably across countries. Few attempts have been made to test theoretical explanations for this cross-national variation. Moreover, existing studies suffer from important theoretical and methodological limitations. This study addresses these limitations and investigates whether differences in the generosity of social protection policies and in public attitudes towards those policies explain why unemployment-related health inequalities are steeper in some societies than in others. Multilevel logistic modelling was used to link contextual-level variables on social protection policies and public attitudes in 23 European countries to individual-level data on self-rated health from the 2012 wave of the European Social Survey. The magnitude of inequalities in self-rated health between the unemployed and their employed counterparts varies significantly across countries as a function of cross-national differences in the level of social protection awarded to the unemployed and the level of public support for the welfare state. The results provide empirical support for the claim that governments can play a more active role in mitigating unemployment-related health inequalities by expanding the generosity and scope of social protection policies. Whether such an expansion of social protection will take place in the current climate of fiscal austerity is a political question whose implications merit the attention of population health scholars. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Nature of electronic states and optical functions of sodium oxyanionic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, Yu. N.; Korabel'Nikov, D. V.

    2009-01-01

    The band structure, the density of states, the partial electron densities, and optical functions (such as permittivity, refraction index, reflection and absorption coefficients) of sodium nitrite, nitrate, carbonate, chlorate, sulfite, perchlorate, and sulfate are calculated in a local approximation of the density-functional theory using the Troullier-Martins pseudopotentials in the basis of numerical pseudoatomic orbitals. The nature of the upper valence bands and the lower empty bands is established. It is shown that the specific features of the optical functions at energies of up to 8 eV and at E> 8 eV are due to the excitation of electrons into a localized anionic conduction band and into the bands of anion-cation states, respectively. The results are compared to experimental photoelectron spectra and reflection and absorption spectra.

  10. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, K. J.; Crump, O. B.

    1994-01-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR's large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity have restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of and underground nuclear detonation. The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped Nd:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensors were developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISAR. The system has proven itself as a reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).

  11. Ultrasensitive optical absorption in graphene based on bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingda; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    We have designed a sphere-graphene-slab structure so that the electromagnetic wave can be well confined in the graphene due to the formation of a bound state in a continuum (BIC) of radiation modes. Based on such a bound state, we have realized strong optical absorption in the monolayer graphene. Such a strong optical absorption exhibits many advantages. It is ultrasensitive to the wavelength because the Q factor of the absorption peak can be more than 2000. By taking suitable BICs, the selective absorption for S and P waves has not only been realized, but also all-angle absorption for the S and P waves at the same time has been demonstrated. We have also found that ultrasensitive strong absorptions can appear at any wavelength from mid-infrared to far-infrared band. These phenomena are very beneficial to biosensing, perfect filters and waveguides. PMID:25652437

  12. Optical excitation of trapping states in Fe doped InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessner, J.

    1983-06-01

    The knowledge that defect states affect the performance and speed of semiconductors is well known. Defect and trapping states are categorized according to their sex (hole or electron trap), energy in the gap and capture cross sections. The Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) technique that is useful for electrical pulsing, becomes increasingly profitable using optical pulsing. The optical pulsing was accomplished using a simple, but efficient, infrared light emitting diode (LED). The LED had the fortunate property that with decreasing temperature, the average energy output of the LED stayed about equal to the bandgap for the 3-5 semiconductor InP. Because of these findings, emphasis was put on Fe-doped Inp using LED excitation. These particular samples are being studied by Naval Research Labs (NRL) in connection with lasing that results from Fe transitions. Models were set up for both the p+n junction and Fe transitions to help explain experimental results obtained.

  13. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.

    1994-08-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR`s large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity has restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation (UGT). The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped Nd:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensors was developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISCAR. The system has proven itself as reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).

  14. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled Doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B.

    1994-03-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR`s large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity have restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation. The solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped ND:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensors were developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISAR. The system has proven itself as a reliable, easy to use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction using only a notebook personal computer (PC).

  15. Portable, solid state, fiber optic coupled doppler interferometer system for detonation and shock diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, K.J.; Crump, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a specialized Doppler interferometer system that is gaining world-wide acceptance as the standard for shock phenomena analysis. The VISAR's large power and cooling requirements, and the sensitive and complex nature of the interferometer cavity has restricted the traditional system to the laboratory. This paper describes the new portable VISAR, its peripheral sensors, and the role it played in optically measuring ground shock of an underground nuclear detonation (UGT). The Solid State VISAR uses a prototype diode pumped ND:YAG laser and solid state detectors that provide a suitcase-size system with low power requirements. A special window and sensor was developed for fiber optic coupling (1 kilometer long) to the VISAR. The system has proven itself as a reliable, easy-to-use instrument that is capable of field test use and rapid data reduction employing only a personal computer (PC).

  16. Theory of edge-state optical absorption in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Maxim; Kelleher, Edmund J. R.; Hasan, Tawfique

    2016-10-01

    We develop an analytical model to describe sub-band-gap optical absorption in two-dimensional semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenide (s-TMD) nanoflakes. The material system represents an array of few-layer molybdenum disulfide crystals, randomly orientated in a polymer matrix. We propose that optical absorption involves direct transitions between electronic edge states and bulk bands, depends strongly on the carrier population, and is saturable with sufficient fluence. For excitation energies above half the band gap, the excess energy is absorbed by the edge-state electrons, elevating their effective temperature. Our analytical expressions for the linear and nonlinear absorption could prove useful tools in the design of practical photonic devices based on s-TMDs.

  17. Topological phases and edge states in a non-Hermitian trimerized optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, L.

    2017-09-01

    Topologically engineered optical materials support robust light transport. Herein, the investigated non-Hermitian lattice is trimerized and inhomogeneously coupled using uniform intracell coupling. The topological properties of the coupled waveguide lattice are evaluated and we find that the PT -symmetric phase of a PT -symmetric lattice can have different topologies; the edge states depend on the lattice size, boundary configuration, and competition between the coupling and degree of non-Hermiticity. The topologically nontrivial region is extended in the presence of periodic gain and loss. The nonzero geometric phases accumulated by the Bloch bands indicate the existence of topologically protected edge states between the band gaps. The unidirectional amplification and attenuation zero modes appear above a threshold degree of non-Hermiticity, which facilitates the development of a robust optical diode.

  18. The Initial State of Optically Polarized 8Li+ from the β-NMR in Bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacFarlane, W. A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Pearson, M. R.; Buck, T.; Chow, K. H.; Hariwal, A. N.; Kiefl, R. F.; McGee, F. H.; Morris, G. D.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    Unlike the positive muon, β-NMR probe nuclei must be actively polarized. At the TRIUMF ISAC facility this is accomplished by in-flight collinear optical pumping with resonant circularly polarized laser light. This reliably produces a high degree of polarization, but the detailed state populations in the beam emerging from the optical polarizer are not well known. These populations are significant as they represent the initial state of the ensemble of probe spins implanted in a β-NMR experiment. Here we use the well-resolved quadrupolar split spectrum of 8Li+ in a high purity single crystal of bismuth to extract the sublevel populations under typical polarizer operating conditions, accounting for the spin relaxation in this semimetal.

  19. Tunable metasurfaces and optical Tamm states with liquid crystals (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ping; Lin, Meng-Ying

    2016-09-01

    Planar photonics, like metasurfaces and nanoantennas, got immense attention because of the ability controlling the flow of light. The tunability of metasurfaces system could be realized by combining with liquid crystals. In this work, several novel devices, like tunable nanoantennas array with color, diffraction control of binary gratings metasurfaces, and optical Tamm states would be presented. 1. By comparing different dimensions of nanoantennas, the anchoring energy of liquid crystal could be adjusted in nanoscale. The different shapes of nanoantennas show the difference in color or monotone change when applying different voltages. 2. The diffraction ratio of metasurface could be controlled by nematic liquid crystal by controlling the polarization direction by applying voltages. 3. Optical Tamm states could be realized and adjustable by combining liquid photonic crystal with metasurface. All of those ideas are realized in both modeling and experimental, which could give a great impact to the field of future application in tunable metasurfaces.

  20. Surface-modified Wannier-Stark states in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maury, A.; Donaire, M.; Gorza, M.-P.; Lambrecht, A.; Guérout, R.

    2016-11-01

    We study the energy spectrum of atoms trapped in a vertical one-dimensional optical lattice in close proximity to a reflective surface. We propose an effective model to describe the interaction between the atoms and the surface at any distance. Our model includes the long-range Casimir-Polder potential together with a short-range Lennard-Jones potential, which are considered nonperturbatively with respect to the optical lattice potential. We find an intricate energy spectrum which contains a pair of loosely bound states localized close to the surface in addition to a surface-modified Wannier-Stark ladder at long distances. Atomic interferometry involving those loosely bound atom-surface states is proposed to probe the adsorption dynamics of atoms on mirrors.

  1. Nonlinear Sensing With Collective States of Ultracold Atoms in Optical Lattices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-02

    Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Nonlinear quantum sensing, quantum metrology, ultracold atoms, optical lattices REPORT...not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of Maryland - College Park Research...Administration 3112 Lee Building College Park , MD 20742 -5141 31-Aug-2014 ABSTRACT Nonlinear Sensing With Collective States of Ultracold Atoms in

  2. Creating Ground State Molecules with Optical Feshbach Resonances in Tight Traps

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2005-05-20

    We propose to create ultracold ground state molecules in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate by adiabatic crossing of an optical Feshbach resonance. We envision a scheme where the laser intensity and possibly also frequency are linearly ramped over the resonance. Our calculations for {sup 87}Rb show that for sufficiently tight traps it is possible to avoid spontaneous emission while retaining adiabaticity, and conversion efficiencies of up to 50% can be expected.

  3. Excited state properties and quadratic optical nonlinearities in charged organic chromophores: theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Inerbaev, Talgat M; Saito, Shigeki; Belosludov, Rodion V; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masae; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2006-12-21

    As it has been found experimentally [K. Clays and B. Coe, Chem. Mater. 15, 642 (2003); B. J. Coe et al., 126, 10418 (2004)], elongation of the conjugation path length and N-arylation in stilbazolium chromophores both lead to substantial enhancement of the molecular optical nonlinearities. In the present contribution the authors perform a quantum chemical analysis of the excited state properties and quadratic nonlinear optical responses of a series of this type of dyes. Nonlinear optical responses are estimated by both finite-field and two-state model approaches that demonstrate an excellent qualitative mutual agreement. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations on the isolated cations predict redshift in the energy of the intramolecular charge transfer transition that is overestimated for cations with the longer conjugation path length. At the same time, in comparison with the Stark spectroscopy measurements the differences between the excited and ground state dipole moments are grossly underestimated for all compounds. The inclusion of solvent effect by polarizable continuum model affords a better agreement with experiment for these quantities. The authors' calculations demonstrate the crucial dependence of the electronic excitation properties on the way of the investigated compound geometry optimization. The origin of such dependence is discussed.

  4. Excited state properties and quadratic optical nonlinearities in charged organic chromophores: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Saito, Shigeki; Belosludov, Rodion V.; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Masae; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2006-12-01

    As it has been found experimentally [K. Clays and B. Coe, Chem. Mater. 15, 642 (2003); B. J. Coe et al., 126, 10418 (2004)], elongation of the conjugation path length and N-arylation in stilbazolium chromophores both lead to substantial enhancement of the molecular optical nonlinearities. In the present contribution the authors perform a quantum chemical analysis of the excited state properties and quadratic nonlinear optical responses of a series of this type of dyes. Nonlinear optical responses are estimated by both finite-field and two-state model approaches that demonstrate an excellent qualitative mutual agreement. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations on the isolated cations predict redshift in the energy of the intramolecular charge transfer transition that is overestimated for cations with the longer conjugation path length. At the same time, in comparison with the Stark spectroscopy measurements the differences between the excited and ground state dipole moments are grossly underestimated for all compounds. The inclusion of solvent effect by polarizable continuum model affords a better agreement with experiment for these quantities. The authors' calculations demonstrate the crucial dependence of the electronic excitation properties on the way of the investigated compound geometry optimization. The origin of such dependence is discussed.

  5. Model of Laser-Induced Temperature Changes in Solid-State Optical Refrigerators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Model of laser-induced temperature changes in solid-state optical refrigerators W. M. Patterson,1,a M. Sheik- Bahae ,1 R. I . Epstein,2 and M. P...Applications of Laser Cooling of Sol- ids, edited by R. I . Epstein and M. Sheik- Bahae Wiley, Weinheim, 2009. 2W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser...2004. 19D. V. Seletskiy, S. D. Melgaard, S. Bigotta, A. Di Lieto, M. Tonelli, R. I . Epstein, and M. Sheik- Bahae , in Conference on Lasers and Electro

  6. Quantum Entanglement and Correlation of Two Qubit Atoms Interacting with the Coherent State Optical Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing

    2017-10-01

    Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.

  7. Optical phase information writing and storage in populations of metastable quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Djotyan, G. P.; Sandor, N.; Bakos, J. S.; Soerlei, Zs.

    2009-10-15

    We propose a scheme for robust writing and storage of optical phase information in populations of metastable states of the atoms with a tripod structure of levels by using frequency-chirped laser pulses. The method provides much longer storage times compared with the schemes based on the collective atomic spin coherences. A negligible excitation of the atom provides immunity to decoherence induced by decay of the excited states. The method is robust against small-to-medium variations in the laser pulse intensity and speed of the chirp and, being insensitive to resonance conditions, it is effective both in homogeneously and inhomogeneously broadened media.

  8. Description of the states of two-photon interference in an optical gating Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongophas, Ekkarat; Sriklin, Watthana; Sinsarp, Asawin; Suwanna, Sujin; Chunwachirasiri, Withoon; Singhsomroje, Wisit

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the interference of two photons in an optical gating Michelson interferometer. The phenomenon is studied using two different representations of photons: the space-time domain and a step-by-step two-photon state evolution. Both representations lead to identical results. The evolution analysis describes the result by the interference of four two-photon traveling states, whereas the space-time domain analysis reveals that the classical interference of the high-intensity light source is identical to two-photon interference in the quantum regime, except for a multiplicative factor of (n2), where n is the number of photons.

  9. Optical isolation in the LIGO gravitational wave laser detector in transient states

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, A A; Khazanov, Efim A

    2012-04-30

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the degree of optical isolation of the laser source by the Faraday isolator in transient states of the laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (LIGO) detector. This system may be in transient states where the power of the light reflected from the detector to the laser source can exceed many times the power of the source. The present results can be used to analyse the need for installing an additional active mechanical isolation of the source and to evaluate its response time.

  10. Intrinsic exciton-state mixing and nonlinear optical properties in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glazov, M. M.; Golub, L. E.; Wang, G.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Urbaszek, B.

    2017-01-01

    Optical properties of transition metal dichalcogenides monolayers are controlled by Wannier-Mott excitons forming a series of 1 s ,2 s ,2 p ,... hydrogen-like states. We develop the theory of the excited excitonic states energy spectrum fine structure. We predict that p - and s -shell excitons are mixed due to the specific D3 h point symmetry of the transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Hence, both s - and p -shell excitons are active in both single- and two-photon processes, providing an efficient mechanism of second harmonic generation. The corresponding contribution to the nonlinear susceptibility is calculated.

  11. Optical detection and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin States.

    PubMed

    Yang, A; Steger, M; Karaiskaj, D; Thewalt, M L W; Cardona, M; Itoh, K M; Riemann, H; Abrosimov, N V; Churbanov, M F; Gusev, A V; Bulanov, A D; Kaliteevskii, A K; Godisov, O N; Becker, P; Pohl, H-J; Ager, J W; Haller, E E

    2006-12-01

    We resolve the remarkably sharp bound exciton transitions of highly enriched 28Si using a single-frequency laser and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, as well as photocurrent spectroscopy. Well-resolved doublets in the spectrum of the 31P donor reflect the hyperfine coupling of the electronic and nuclear donor spins. The optical detection of the nuclear spin state, and selective pumping and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin states, suggests a number of new possibilities which could be useful for the realization of silicon-based quantum computers.

  12. Optically induced effective mass renormalization: the case of graphite image potential states

    PubMed Central

    Montagnese, M.; Pagliara, S.; Galimberti, G.; Dal Conte, S.; Ferrini, G.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-01-01

    Many-body interactions with the underlying bulk electrons determine the properties of confined electronic states at the surface of a metal. Using momentum resolved nonlinear photoelectron spectroscopy we show that one can tailor these many-body interactions in graphite, leading to a strong renormalization of the dispersion and linewidth of the image potential state. These observations are interpreted in terms of a basic self-energy model, and may be considered as exemplary for optically induced many-body interactions. PMID:27739489

  13. Temporal-mode continuous-variable cluster states using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2011-06-15

    An extensible experimental design for optical continuous-variable cluster states of arbitrary size using four offline (vacuum) squeezers and six beam splitters is presented. This method has all the advantages of a temporal-mode encoding [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 250503 (2010)], including finite requirements for coherence and stability even as the computation length increases indefinitely, with none of the difficulty of inline squeezing. The extensibility stems from a construction based on Gaussian projected entangled pair states. The potential for use of this design within a fully fault-tolerant model is discussed.

  14. Power of food moderates food craving, perceived control, and brain networks following a short-term post-absorptive state in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rejeski, W Jack; Burdette, Jonathan; Burns, Marley; Morgan, Ashley R; Hayasaka, Satoru; Norris, James; Williamson, Donald A; Laurienti, Paul J

    2012-06-01

    The Power of Food Scale (PFS) is a new measure that assesses the drive to consume highly palatable food in an obesogenic food environment. The data reported in this investigation evaluate whether the PFS moderates state cravings, control beliefs, and brain networks of older, obese adults following either a short-term post-absorptive state, in which participants were only allowed to consume water, or a short-term energy surfeit treatment condition, in which they consumed BOOST®. We found that the short-term post-absorptive condition, in which participants consumed water only, was associated with increases in state cravings for desired food, a reduction in participants' confidence related to the control of eating behavior, and shifts in brain networks that parallel what is observed with other addictive behaviors. Furthermore, individuals who scored high on the PFS were at an increased risk for experiencing these effects. Future research is needed to examine the eating behavior of persons who score high on the PFS and to develop interventions that directly target food cravings.

  15. Power of Food ModeratesFood Craving, Perceived Control, and Brain Networks Following a Short-Term Post-Absorptive State in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W. Jack; Burdette, Jonathan; Burns, Marley; Morgan, Ashley R.; Hayasaka, Satoru; Norris, James; Williamson, Donald; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Food Scale (PFS) is a new measure that assesses the drive to consume highly palatable food in an obesogenic food environment. The data reported in this investigation evaluate whether the PFS moderates state cravings, control beliefs, and brain networks of older, obese adults following either a short-term post-absorptive state, in which participants were only allowed to consume water, or a short-term energy surfeit treatment condition, in which they consumed BOOST®. We found that the short-term post-absorptive condition,in which participants consumed water only, was associated withincreases in state cravings for desired food, a reduction in participants' confidence related to the control of eating behavior, and shifts in brain networks that parallel what is observed with other addictive behaviors. Furthermore, individuals who scored high on the PFSwere at an increased risk for experiencing these effects. Future research is needed to examine the eating behavior of persons who score high on the PFS and to develop interventions that directly target food cravings. PMID:22329987

  16. Optical pumping and readout of bismuth hyperfine states in silicon for atomic clock applications

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, K.; Szech, M.; Dluhy, P.; Salvail, J.Z.; Morse, K.J.; Riemann, H.; Abrosimov, N.V.; Nötzel, N.; Litvinenko, K.L.; Murdin, B.N.; Thewalt, M.L.W.

    2015-01-01

    The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched 28Si. PMID:25990870

  17. Interaction-induced exotic vortex states in an optical lattice clock with spin-orbit coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaofan; Pan, Jian-Song; Yi, Wei; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2017-08-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [L. F. Livi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 220401 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.220401], we study the ground-state properties of interacting fermions in a one-dimensional optical lattice clock with spin-orbit coupling. As the electronic and the hyperfine-spin states in the clock-state manifolds can be treated as effective sites along distinct synthetic dimensions, the system can be considered as multiple two-leg ladders with uniform magnetic flux penetrating the plaquettes of each ladder. As the interorbital spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds couple individual ladders together, we show that exotic interaction-induced vortex states emerge in the coupled-ladder system, which compete with existing phases of decoupled ladders and lead to a rich phase diagram. Adopting the density matrix renormalization group approach, we map out the phase diagram, and investigate in detail the currents and the density-density correlations of the various phases. Our results reveal the impact of interactions on spin-orbit coupled systems, and are particularly relevant to the ongoing exploration of spin-orbit coupled optical lattice clocks.

  18. Efficient generation of many-body singlet states of spin-1 bosons in optical superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Huanying; Xu, Peng; Pu, Han; Zhang, Wenxian

    2017-06-01

    We propose an efficient stepwise adiabatic merging (SAM) method to generate many-body singlet states in antiferromagnetic spin-1 bosons in concatenated optical superlattices with isolated double-well arrays, by adiabatically ramping up the double-well bias. With an appropriate choice of bias sweeping rate and magnetic field, the SAM protocol predicts a fidelity as high as 90% for a 16-body singlet state and even higher fidelities for smaller even-body singlet states. During their evolution, the spin-1 bosons exhibit interesting squeezing dynamics, manifested by an odd-even oscillation of the experimentally observable squeezing parameter. The generated many-body singlet states may find practical applications in precision measurement of magnetic field gradient and in quantum information processing.

  19. Electro-optical parameters in excited states of some spectrally active molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benchea, Andreea Celia; Closca, Valentina; Rusu, Cristina Marcela; Morosanu, Cezarina; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-08-01

    The spectral shifts measured in different solvents are expressed as functions of the solvent macroscopic parameters. The value of the correlation coefficient multiplying the functions of electric permittivity was determined by statistical means. The correlation coefficient depends on the electric dipole moment of the spectrally active molecules. The electro-optical parameters in the ground state of the solute molecules can be approximated by molecular modeling. The excited state parameters are usually estimated using the results obtained both by HyperChem Programme and solvatochromic study. The importance of this approximate method is that it offers information about of the excited state of solute molecule for which our measuring possibilities are very restrictive. The information about the excited electronic state is affected by the limits in which the theories of liquid solutions are developed. Our results refer to two molecules of vitamins from B class, namely B3 and B6.

  20. Microwave control of atomic motional states in a spin-dependent optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmechri, Noomen; Förster, Leonid; Alt, Wolfgang; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Spin-dependent optical potentials allow us to use microwave radiation to manipulate the motional state of trapped neutral atoms (Förster et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 233001). Here, we discuss this method in greater detail, comparing it to the widely employed Raman sideband coupling method. We provide a simplified model for sideband cooling in a spin-dependent potential, and we discuss it in terms of the generalized Lamb-Dicke parameter. Using a master equation formalism, we present a quantitative analysis of the cooling performance for our experiment, which can be generalized to other experimental settings. We additionally use microwave sideband transitions to engineer motional Fock states and coherent states, and we devise a technique for measuring the population distribution of the prepared states.

  1. Dynamic saturation optical microscopy: employing dark-state formation kinetics for resolution enhancement.

    PubMed

    Humpolíčková, Jana; Benda, Aleš; Macháň, Radek; Enderlein, Jörg; Hof, Martin

    2010-10-21

    Fluorescence microscopy has become one of the most rapidly developing observation techniques in the field of molecular biology, since its high sensitivity, contrast and labeling specificity together with being non-invasive fulfill the most important requirements of live cell imaging. The biggest limitation of the technique seems to be the spatial resolution which is, based on Abbe's diffraction law, restricted to some hundreds of nanometres. Recently, various approaches have been developed that overcome the limit imposed by the diffraction barrier and these methods currently lead the development in the field of fluorescence microscopy. In this contribution, we present dynamic saturation optical microscopy (DSOM)--a new technique that monitors the temporal decay of the excited singlet state due to a dark state formation. By mapping the intensity dependent decay kinetics, enhanced resolution images can be obtained. Generally, any dark state of fluorescent molecules can be employed in DSOM. Here, we focus our attention on triplet state formation.

  2. Generation of optical 'Schrödinger cats' from photon number states.

    PubMed

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-16

    Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a 'cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger 'kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the 'dead' and 'alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.

  3. Generation of optical `Schrödinger cats' from photon number states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Jeong, Hyunseok; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-08-01

    Schrödinger's cat is a Gedankenexperiment in quantum physics, in which an atomic decay triggers the death of the cat. Because quantum physics allow atoms to remain in superpositions of states, the classical cat would then be simultaneously dead and alive. By analogy, a `cat' state of freely propagating light can be defined as a quantum superposition of well separated quasi-classical states-it is a classical light wave that simultaneously possesses two opposite phases. Such states play an important role in fundamental tests of quantum theory and in many quantum information processing tasks, including quantum computation, quantum teleportation and precision measurements. Recently, optical Schrödinger `kittens' were prepared; however, they are too small for most of the aforementioned applications and increasing their size is experimentally challenging. Here we demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, a protocol that allows the generation of arbitrarily large squeezed Schrödinger cat states, using homodyne detection and photon number states as resources. We implemented this protocol with light pulses containing two photons, producing a squeezed Schrödinger cat state with a negative Wigner function. This state clearly exhibits several quantum phase-space interference fringes between the `dead' and `alive' components, and is large enough to become useful for quantum information processing and experimental tests of quantum theory.

  4. A Simple Method on Generating any Bi-Photon Superposition State with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wei, Jie; Wang, Qin

    2017-04-01

    We present a simple method on the generation of any bi-photon superposition state using only linear optics. In this scheme, the input states, a two-mode squeezed state and a bi-photon state, meet on a beam-splitter and the output states are post-selected with two threshold single-photon detectors. We carry out corresponding numerical simulations by accounting for practical experimental conditions, calculating both the Wigner function and the state fidelity of those generated bi-photon superposition states. Our simulation results demonstrate that not only distinct nonclassical characteristics but also very high state fidelities can be achieved even under imperfect experimental conditions. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61475197, 61590932, 11274178, the Natural Science Foundation of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. 15KJA120002, the Outstanding Youth Project of Jiangsu Province under Grant No. BK20150039, and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. YX002001

  5. Moderate views of abortion.

    PubMed

    Sumner, L W

    1997-01-01

    This essay offers a moderate view of abortion that imposes a time limit for unrestricted abortion and specific indications for later abortions. The introduction notes that the discussion will provide a defense for this policy based on a moral analysis but that other options for moderates, especially options provided by freestanding views (the defense of which does not rest on any prior commitment about the morality of abortion), will also be considered. The next section considers the moral status of the fetus grounded in a criterion of moral standing that stipulates the necessary characteristics to achieve moral standing. This discussion concludes that a fetus acquires moral standing only when it becomes sentient. Section 3 moves the argument from ethics to politics to prove that a moderate policy must place no limitations on abortion before the time the fetus becomes sentient because before that time the fetus has no interest for the state to protect. The final section notes that some pro-choice advocates may be happier with the moderate policy proposed than with its controversial defense based on the moral status of the fetus and that another defense of a moderate policy could be based on a finding that the ethical issue can not be decided and that no view about abortion ethics is more reasonable than any other. The essay concludes that the ethical debate is ultimately unavoidable.

  6. Space-bound optical source for satellite-ground decoy-state quantum key distribution.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Liao, Sheng-Kai; Chen, Xie-Le; Chen, Wei; Cheng, Kun; Cao, Yuan; Yong, Hai-Lin; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hua-Qiang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Yin, Juan; Liang, Hao; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2014-11-03

    Satellite-ground quantum key distribution has embarked on the stage of engineering implementation, and a global quantum-secured network is imminent in the foreseeable future. As one payload of the quantum-science satellite which will be ready before the end of 2015, we report our recent work of the space-bound decoy-state optical source. Specialized 850 nm laser diodes have been manufactured and the integrated optical source has gotten accomplished based on these LDs. The weak coherent pulses produced by our optical source feature a high clock rate of 100 MHz, intensity stability of 99.5%, high polarization fidelity of 99.7% and phase randomization. A series of space environment tests have been conducted to verify the optical source's performance and the results are satisfactory. The emulated final secure keys are about 120 kbits during one usable pass of the low Earth orbit satellite. This work takes a significant step forward towards satellite-ground QKD and the global quantum-secured network.

  7. Effect of Aerosol Size and Hygroscopicity on Aerosol Optical Depth in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles; Wagner, Nick; Gordon, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is affected by the size, optical characteristics, and hygroscopicity of particles, confounding attempts to link remote sensing observations of AOD to measured or modeled aerosol mass concentrations. In situ airborne observations of aerosol optical, chemical, microphysical and hygroscopic properties were made in the southeastern United States in the daytime in summer 2013. We use these observations to constrain a simple model that is used to test the sensitivity of AOD to the various measured parameters. As expected, the AOD was found to be most sensitive to aerosol mass concentration and to aerosol water content, which is controlled by aerosol hygroscopicity and the ambient relative humidity. However, AOD was also fairly sensitive to the mean particle diameter and the width of the size distribution. These parameters are often prescribed in global models that use simplified modal parameterizations to describe the aerosol, suggesting that the values chosen could substantially bias the calculated relationship between aerosol mass and optical extinction, AOD, and radiative forcing.

  8. State of the art in high-temperature fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of pressure sensors to 500psi at a gas temperature of 800°C. Additionally, pressure sensors were demonstrated at 800°C in combination with a high-speed (1.0MHz) fiber optic readout system enabling previously unobtainable dynamic measurements at high-temperatures. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400°C and as low as -195°C. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

  9. Optical transitions from the lowest to higher exciton and biexciton Rydberg states in CuCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyajima, K.; Sakaniwa, K.; Sugawara, M.

    2016-11-01

    We measured the optical transitions due to the internal energy levels of an exciton and biexciton in a CuCl single crystal using pump-probe spectroscopy. The transient absorption bands due to the transitions from the 1 s to 2 p and from the 1 s to 3 p exciton states were observed at 3 K, which is consistent with their reported energies. Simultaneously, the transient absorption peak due to the biexciton was observed, which corresponds to a transition from the lowest state (composed of two 1 s excitons) to higher states (composed of 1 s and 2 p excitons). The value of the observed biexciton peak energy was reasonable considering the hydrogen molecule orbitals and the electron-to-hole effective mass ratio. In addition, the transient absorption peaks were broadened at 77 K, because of the increase in the homogeneous width of the 2 p exciton state. The transient absorption spectrum was almost completely determined by this width. Our findings are of importance with regard to the optical phenomena in the infrared region related to the quantum coherence of excitons and biexcitons in semiconductors.

  10. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    SciTech Connect

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; Fanto, Michael L.; Kaplan, Lev; Smith, Amos Matthew

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally, we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.

  11. Optimal mode transformations for linear-optical cluster-state generation

    DOE PAGES

    Uskov, Dmitry B.; Lougovski, Pavel; Alsing, Paul M.; ...

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we analyze the generation of linear-optical cluster states (LOCSs) via sequential addition of one and two qubits. Existing approaches employ the stochastic linear-optical two-qubit controlled-Z (CZ) gate with success rate of 1/9 per operation. The question of optimality of the CZ gate with respect to LOCS generation has remained open. We report that there are alternative schemes to the CZ gate that are exponentially more efficient and show that sequential LOCS growth is indeed globally optimal. We find that the optimal cluster growth operation is a state transformation on a subspace of the full Hilbert space. Finally,more » we show that the maximal success rate of postselected entangling n photonic qubits or m Bell pairs into a cluster is (1/2)n-1 and (1/4)m-1, respectively, with no ancilla photons, and we give an explicit optical description of the optimal mode transformations.« less

  12. Generation and excitation of different orbital angular momentum states in a tunable microstructure optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Liu, Yan-ge; Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Wanchen; Luo, Mingming; Liu, Xiaoqi; Guo, Junqi; Liu, Bo; Lin, Lie

    2015-12-28

    A tunable microstructure optical fiber for different orbital angular momentum states generation is proposed and investigated by simulation. The microstructure optical fiber is composed of a high refractive index ring and a hollow core surrounded by four small air holes. The background material of the microstructure fiber is pure silica. The hollow core and the surrounded four small air holes are infiltrated by optical functional material whose refractive index can be modulated via physical parameters, leading to the conversion between circular polarized fundamental mode and different orbital angular momentum states at tunable operating wavelengths. A theoretical model is established and the coupling mechanism is systematically analyzed and investigated based on coupled mode theory. The fiber length can be designed specifically to reach the maximum coupling efficiency for every OAM mode respectively, and can also be fixed at a certain value for several OAM modes generation under tunable refractive index conditions. The proposed fiber coupler is flexible and compact, making it a good candidate for tunable OAM generation and sensing systems.

  13. Aging in a cultural context: cross-national differences in disability and the moderating role of personal control among older adults in the United States and England.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Philippa; Smith, Jacqui

    2011-07-01

    We investigate cross-national differences in late-life health outcomes and focus on an intriguing difference in beliefs about personal control found between older adult populations in the U.K. and United States. We examine the moderating role of control beliefs in the relationship between physical function and self-reported difficulty with daily activities. Using national data from the United States (Health and Retirement Study) and England (English Longitudinal Study on Ageing), we examine the prevalence in disability across the two countries and show how it varies according to the sense of control. Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between objective measures of physical function (gait speed) and disability and the modifying effects of control. Older Americans have a higher sense of personal control than the British, which operates as a psychological resource to reduce disability among older Americans. However, the benefits of control are attenuated as physical impairments become more severe. These results emphasize the importance of carefully considering cross-national differences in the disablement process as a result of cultural variation in underlying psychosocial resources. This paper highlights the role of culture in shaping health across adults aging in different sociopolitical contexts.

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis TP53 mutation analysis reflects a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Magri; de Almeida Pereira, Thiago; Gonçalves, Patrícia Lofego; Jarske, Robson Dettmann; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Louro, Iuri Drumond

    2013-08-01

    The close relationship between aflatoxins and 249ser TP53 gene mutation (AGG to AGT, Arg to Ser) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes this mutation an indirect indicator of dietary contamination with this toxin. We have examined the prevalence of codon 249 TP53 mutation in 41 HCC and 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases diagnosed at the HUCAM University Hospital in Vitoria, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. DNA was extracted from paraffin sections and from plasma. The mutation was detected by DNA amplification, followed by restriction endonuclease digestion and confirmed by direct sequencing. DNA restriction showed 249ser mutation in 16 HCC and 13 liver cirrhosis, but sequencing confirmed mutations in only 6 HCC and 1 liver cirrhosis. In addition, sequencing revealed 4 patients with mutations at codon 250 (250ser and 250leu) in HCC cases. The prevalence of TP53 mutation was 10/41 (24.3%) in HCC and 1/74 (1.4%) in liver cirrhosis. No relationship between the presence of mutations and the etiology of HCC was observed. TP53 exon 7 mutations, which are related to aflatoxins exposure, were found at 14.6% (249ser), 7.3% (250leu) and 2.4% (250ser) in 41 cases of HCC and 1.4% in 74 liver cirrhosis (without HCC) cases, suggesting a moderate dietary exposure to aflatoxins in the Espírito Santo State, Brazil.

  15. Aging in a Cultural Context: Cross-national Differences in Disability and the Moderating Role of Personal Control Among Older Adults in the United States and England

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jacqui

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigate cross-national differences in late-life health outcomes and focus on an intriguing difference in beliefs about personal control found between older adult populations in the U.K. and United States. We examine the moderating role of control beliefs in the relationship between physical function and self-reported difficulty with daily activities. Method. Using national data from the United States (Health and Retirement Study) and England (English Longitudinal Study on Ageing), we examine the prevalence in disability across the two countries and show how it varies according to the sense of control. Poisson regression was used to examine the relationship between objective measures of physical function (gait speed) and disability and the modifying effects of control. Results. Older Americans have a higher sense of personal control than the British, which operates as a psychological resource to reduce disability among older Americans. However, the benefits of control are attenuated as physical impairments become more severe. Discussion. These results emphasize the importance of carefully considering cross-national differences in the disablement process as a result of cultural variation in underlying psychosocial resources. This paper highlights the role of culture in shaping health across adults aging in different sociopolitical contexts. PMID:21666145

  16. A State-of-the-Science Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Acute Management of Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Bragge, Peter; Synnot, Anneliese; Maas, Andrew I; Menon, David K; Cooper, D James; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Gruen, Russell L

    2016-08-15

    Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major global challenge, with rising incidence, unchanging mortality and lifelong impairments. State-of-the-science reviews are important for research planning and clinical decision support. This review aimed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions for acute management of moderate/severe TBI, synthesize key RCT characteristics and findings, and determine their implications on clinical practice and future research. RCTs were identified through comprehensive database and other searches. Key characteristics, outcomes, risk of bias, and analysis approach were extracted. Data were narratively synthesized, with a focus on robust (multi-center, low risk of bias, n > 100) RCTs, and three-dimensional graphical figures also were used to explore relationships between RCT characteristics and findings. A total of 207 RCTs were identified. The 191 completed RCTs enrolled 35,340 participants (median, 66). Most (72%) were single center and enrolled less than 100 participants (69%). There were 26 robust RCTs across 18 different interventions. For 74% of 392 comparisons across all included RCTs, there was no significant difference between groups. Positive findings were broadly distributed with respect to RCT characteristics. Less than one-third of RCTs demonstrated low risk of bias for random sequence generation or allocation concealment, less than one-quarter used covariate adjustment, and only 7% employed an ordinal analysis approach. Considerable investment of resources in producing 191 completed RCTs for acute TBI management has resulted in very little translatable evidence. This may result from broad distribution of research effort, small samples, preponderance of single-center RCTs, and methodological shortcomings. More sophisticated RCT design, large multi-center RCTs in priority areas, increased focus on pre-clinical research, and alternatives to RCTs, such as comparative

  17. A State-of-the-Science Overview of Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Acute Management of Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Synnot, Anneliese; Maas, Andrew I.; Menon, David K.; Cooper, D. James; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.; Gruen, Russell L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a major global challenge, with rising incidence, unchanging mortality and lifelong impairments. State-of-the-science reviews are important for research planning and clinical decision support. This review aimed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating interventions for acute management of moderate/severe TBI, synthesize key RCT characteristics and findings, and determine their implications on clinical practice and future research. RCTs were identified through comprehensive database and other searches. Key characteristics, outcomes, risk of bias, and analysis approach were extracted. Data were narratively synthesized, with a focus on robust (multi-center, low risk of bias, n > 100) RCTs, and three-dimensional graphical figures also were used to explore relationships between RCT characteristics and findings. A total of 207 RCTs were identified. The 191 completed RCTs enrolled 35,340 participants (median, 66). Most (72%) were single center and enrolled less than 100 participants (69%). There were 26 robust RCTs across 18 different interventions. For 74% of 392 comparisons across all included RCTs, there was no significant difference between groups. Positive findings were broadly distributed with respect to RCT characteristics. Less than one-third of RCTs demonstrated low risk of bias for random sequence generation or allocation concealment, less than one-quarter used covariate adjustment, and only 7% employed an ordinal analysis approach. Considerable investment of resources in producing 191 completed RCTs for acute TBI management has resulted in very little translatable evidence. This may result from broad distribution of research effort, small samples, preponderance of single-center RCTs, and methodological shortcomings. More sophisticated RCT design, large multi-center RCTs in priority areas, increased focus on pre-clinical research, and alternatives to RCTs, such as comparative

  18. Sildenafil does not improve steady state cardiovascular hemodynamics, peak power, or 15-km time trial cycling performance at simulated moderate or high altitudes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Kressler, Jochen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Roos, Bernard A; Friedlander, Anne L; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2011-12-01

    Sildenafil improves oxygen delivery and maximal exercise capacity at very high altitudes (≥ 4,350 m), but it is unknown whether sildenafil improves these variables and longer-duration exercise performance at moderate and high altitudes where competitions are more common. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), peak exercise capacity (W (peak)), and 15-km time trial performance in endurance-trained subjects at simulated moderate (MA; ~2,100 m, 16.2% F(I)O(2)) and high (HA; ~3,900 m, 12.8% F(I)O(2)) altitudes. Eleven men and ten women completed two HA W (peak) trials after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. Subjects then completed four exercise trials (30 min at 55% of altitude-specific W (peak) + 15-km time trial) at MA and HA after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. All trials were performed in randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion. Sildenafil had little influence on cardiovascular hemodynamics at MA or HA, but did result in higher SaO(2) values (+3%, p < 0.05) compared to placebo during steady state and time trial exercise at HA. W (peak) at HA was 19% lower than SL (p < 0.001) and was not significantly affected by sildenafil. Similarly, the significantly slower time trial performance at MA (28.1 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.016) and HA (30.3 ± 0.6 min, p < 0.001) compared to SL (27.5 ± 0.6 min) was unaffected by sildenafil. We conclude that sildenafil is unlikely to exert beneficial effects at altitudes <4,000 m for a majority of the population.

  19. Quantum-state tomography of a single nuclear spin qubit of an optically manipulated ytterbium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, Atsushi; Kozuma, Mikio; Eto, Yujiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2011-09-15

    A single Yb atom is loaded into a high-finesse optical cavity with a moving lattice, and its nuclear spin state is manipulated using a nuclear magnetic resonance technique. A highly reliable quantum state control with fidelity and purity greater than 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, is confirmed by the full quantum state tomography; a projective measurement with high speed (500 {mu}s) and high efficiency (0.98) is accomplished using the cavity QED technique. Because a hyperfine coupling is induced only when the projective measurement is operational, the long coherence times (T{sub 1}=0.49 s and T{sub 2}=0.10 s) are maintained.

  20. Coherent manipulation, measurement and entanglement of individual solid-state spins using optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W. B.; Imamoglu, A.; Bernien, H.; Hanson, R.

    2015-06-01

    Realization of a quantum interface between stationary and flying qubits is a requirement for long-distance quantum communication and distributed quantum computation. The prospects for integrating many qubits on a single chip render solid-state spins promising candidates for stationary qubits. Certain solid-state systems, including quantum dots and nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond, exhibit spin-state-dependent optical transitions, allowing for fast initialization, manipulation and measurement of the spins using laser excitation. Recent progress has brought spin photonics research in these materials into the quantum realm, allowing the demonstration of spin-photon entanglement, which in turn has enabled distant spin entanglement as well as quantum teleportation. Advances in the fabrication of photonic nanostructures hosting spin qubits suggest that chips incorporating a high-efficiency spin-photon interface in a quantum photonic network are within reach.

  1. Formation of ultracold polar ground state molecules via an optical process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulieu, Olivier; Borsalino, Dimitri; Orban, Andrea; Vexiau, Romain; Londono-Florez, Beatriz; Crubellier, Anne; Luc, Eliane; Bouloufa-Maafa, Nadia

    2015-05-01

    Based on spectroscopic studies available in the literature completed by accurate ab initio calculations for potentail energy curves, spin-orbit couplings, and transition dipole moments, we investigate several optical coherent schemes to create ultracold bosonic and fermionic ultracold polar molecules in their absolute rovibrational ground level, starting from a weakly bound level of their electronic ground state manifold. The processes rely on the existence of convenient electronically excited states allowing an efficient stimulated Raman adiabatic transfer (STIRAP) of the level population. Illustrations are given for KRb and KCs. A model for the hyperfine structure of the excited molecular states is also presented. Supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), project COPOMOL (# ANR-13-IS04-0004-01).

  2. Description of states of two-photon interference in optical gating Michelson interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongophas, Ekkarat; Sinsarp, Asawin; Suwanna, Sujin; Chunwachirasiri, Withoon; Singhsomroje, Wisit

    2015-07-01

    The interference of two photons in the optical gating Michelson interferometer is investigated. The phenomenon is studied using two different representations of photons: the space-time domain and a step-by-step two photon state evolution. Both representations lead to an equivalent description of the two-photon states which is the interference of four cases of two-photon traveling states, as implied by the evolution analysis. Additionally, the space-time domain analysis reveals that the classical interference of high-intensity light source is identical to the two-photon interference in the quantum regime except for a multiplicative factor of (n 2), where n is the number of photons.

  3. Critical field enhancement of asymptotic optical bound states in the continuum

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jae Woong; Song, Seok Ho; Magnusson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral singularities and critical field enhancement factors associated with embedded photonic bound states in subwavelength periodic Si films. Ultrahigh-Q resonances supporting field enhancement factor exceeding 108 are obtained in the spectral vicinity of exact embedded eigenvalues in spite of deep surface modulation and vertical asymmetry of the given structure. Treating relations between the partial resonance Q and field enhancement factors with an analytical coupled-mode model, we derive a general strategy to maximize the field enhancement associated with these photonic bound states in the presence of material dissipation. The analytical expression for the field enhancement quantitatively agrees with rigorous numerical calculations. Therefore, our results provide a general knowledge for designing practical resonance elements based on optical bound states in the continuum in various applications. PMID:26673548

  4. Implementing general quantum measurements on linear optical and solid-state qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ota, Yukihiro; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2013-03-01

    We show a systematic construction for implementing general measurements on a single qubit, including both strong (or projection) and weak measurements. We mainly focus on linear optical qubits. The present approach is composed of simple and feasible elements, i.e., beam splitters, wave plates, and polarizing beam splitters. We show how the parameters characterizing the measurement operators are controlled by the linear optical elements. We also propose a method for the implementation of general measurements in solid-state qubits. Furthermore, we show an interesting application of the general measurements, i.e., entanglement amplification. YO is partially supported by the SPDR Program, RIKEN. SA and FN acknowledge ARO, NSF grant No. 0726909, JSPS-RFBR contract No. 12-02-92100, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S), MEXT Kakenhi on Quantum Cybernetics, and the JSPS via its FIRST program.

  5. Optical sensing of the fatigue damage state of CFRP under realistic aeronautical load sequences.

    PubMed

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-03-09

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others.

  6. Optical Sensing of the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP under Realistic Aeronautical Load Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arconada, Álvaro; Frövel, Malte; Belenguer, Tomás; Salazar, Félix

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical sensing methodology to estimate the fatigue damage state of structures made of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), by measuring variations on the surface roughness. Variable amplitude loads (VAL), which represent realistic loads during aeronautical missions of fighter aircraft (FALSTAFF) have been applied to coupons until failure. Stiffness degradation and surface roughness variations have been measured during the life of the coupons obtaining a Pearson correlation of 0.75 between both variables. The data were compared with a previous study for Constant Amplitude Load (CAL) obtaining similar results. Conclusions suggest that the surface roughness measured in strategic zones is a useful technique for structural health monitoring of CFRP structures, and that it is independent of the type of load applied. Surface roughness can be measured in the field by optical techniques such as speckle, confocal perfilometers and interferometry, among others. PMID:25760056

  7. New Method for Characterizing the State of Optical and Opto-Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Saif, Babak; Feinberg, Lee; Chaney, David; Bluth, Marcel; Greenfield, Perry; Hack, Warren; Smith, Scott; Sanders, James

    2014-01-01

    James Webb Space Telescope Optical Telescope Element (OTE) is a three mirror anastigmat consisting of a 6.5 m primary mirror (PM), secondary mirror (SM) and a tertiary mirror. The primary mirror is made out of 18 segments. The telescope and instruments will be assembled at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to make it the Optical Telescope Element-Integrated Science Instrument Module (OTIS). The OTIS will go through environmental testing at GSFC before being transported to Johnson Space Center for testing at cryogenic temperature. The objective of the primary mirror Center of Curvature test (CoC) is to characterize the PM before and after the environmental testing for workmanship. This paper discusses the CoC test including both a surface figure test and a new method for characterizing the state of the primary mirror using high speed dynamics interferometry.

  8. Factorizable state-space model for active optical filter structures with two-port couplers.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Issa; Kannan, Govind

    2008-06-10

    A state-space model (SSM) is developed for an integrated photonic architecture. This particular architecture is composed of two-port couplers and current-controllable semiconductor optical amplifiers (gains) fabricated on the same substrate. This device architecture leads to a new type of lattice filter structure. The SSM is shown to be factorizable into two matrices, one containing structural parameters of the two-port couplers, which are set during manufacturing, and the other containing the tunable gains. The SSM provides a systematic and practical approach to the analysis of the underlying filter structure, which can be easily extended to multiple-input, multiple-output optical filter structures with or without adjustable gains using two- or four-port couplers. A novel method of using the gains as loss compensation elements in addition to their tunable roles is developed.

  9. The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.

    2015-08-28

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.

  10. The binary millisecond pulsar PSR J1023+0038 during its accretion state - I. Optical variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbaz, T.; Linares, M.; Nevado, S. P.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Casares, J.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.; Littlefair, S.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present time-resolved optical photometry of the binary millisecond `redback' pulsar PSR J1023+0038 (=AY Sex) during its low-mass X-ray binary phase. The light curves taken between 2014 January and April show an underlying sinusoidal modulation due to the irradiated secondary star and accretion disc. We also observe superimposed rapid flaring on time-scales as short as ˜20 s with amplitudes of ˜0.1-0.5 mag and additional large flare events on time-scales of ˜5-60 min with amplitudes of ˜0.5-1.0 mag. The power density spectrum of the optical flare light curves is dominated by a red-noise component, typical of aperiodic activity in X-ray binaries. Simultaneous X-ray and UV observations by the Swift satellite reveal strong correlations that are consistent with X-ray reprocessing of the UV light, most likely in the outer regions of the accretion disc. On some nights we also observe sharp-edged, rectangular, flat-bottomed dips randomly distributed in orbital phase, with a median duration of ˜250 s and a median ingress/egress time of ˜20 s. These rectangular dips are similar to the mode-switching behaviour between disc `active' and `passive' luminosity states, observed in the X-ray light curves of other redback millisecond pulsars. This is the first time that the optical analogue of the X-ray mode-switching has been observed. The properties of the passive- and active-state light curves can be explained in terms of clumpy accretion from a trapped inner accretion disc near the corotation radius, resulting in rectangular, flat-bottomed optical and X-ray light curves.

  11. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA–surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA–surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices. PMID:27157494

  12. Coherent Excitation of Lithium to Rydberg States and Application to Rydberg Atom Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Widmer, M.; Tudorica, F.; Iu, C.-H.; Metcalf, H.

    1996-05-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of several schemes for coherently exciting lithium atoms in a thermal beam to Rydberg states in a four level/three laser system, previously discussed by Oreg et al.(J. Oreg et al.), Phys. Rev. A 45, 4888 (1992). The time evolution of the dressed states and their populations are calculated numerically, solving the optical Bloch equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta integration. Our code closely models actual experimental conditions, including spontaneous decay, beam profiles, intensities and detunings. Large Rydberg populations (50%) around n=15 may be obtained by non-adiabatic excitation, with each laser power on the order of 1 mW. We discuss the effects of an externally controlled time dependent detuning in the Rydberg state, for example as produced by atoms traversing an inhomogeneous electric field. An understanding of this excitation mechanism is important for large angle reflection of coherently excited atoms using field gradients. Some primitive ideas of Stark-Rydberg atom optics are presented.

  13. Spin-patterned plasmonics: towards optical access to topological-insulator surface states.

    PubMed

    Spektor, Grisha; David, Asaf; Bartal, Guy; Orenstein, Meir; Hayat, Alex

    2015-12-14

    Topological insulators (TI) are new phases of matter with topologically protected surface states (SS) possessing novel physical properties such as spin-momentum locking. Coupling optical angular momentum to the SS is of interest for both fundamental understanding and applications in future spintronic devices. However, due to the nanoscale thickness of the surface states, the light matter interaction is dominated by the bulk. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic cavity enabling both nanoscale light confinement and control of surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) spin angular momentum (AM)--towards coupling to topological-insulator SS. The resulting SPP field components within the cavity are arranged in a chess-board-like pattern. Each chess-board square exhibits approximately a uniform circular polarization (spin AM) of the local in-plane field interleaved by out-of-plane field vortices (orbital AM). As the first step, we demonstrate the predicted pattern experimentally by near-field measurements on a gold-air interface, with excellent agreement to our theory. Our results pave the way towards efficient optical access to topological-insulator surface states using plasmonics.

  14. Stacked bilayer phosphorene: strain-induced quantum spin Hall state and optical measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tian; Lin, Jia-He; Yu, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Bilayer phosphorene attracted considerable interest, giving a potential application in nanoelectronics owing to its natural bandgap and high carrier mobility. However, very little is known regarding the possible usefulness in spintronics as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) state of material characterized by a bulk energy gap and gapless spin-filtered edge states. Here, we report a strain-induced topological phase transition from normal to QSH state in bilayer phosphorene, accompanied by band-inversion that changes number from 0 to 1, which is highly dependent on interlayer stacking. When the bottom layer is shifted by 1/2 unit-cell along zigzag/armchair direction with respect to the top layer, the maximum topological bandgap 92.5 meV is sufficiently large to realize QSH effect even at room-temperature. An optical measurement of QSH effect is therefore suggested in view of the wide optical absorption spectrum extending to far infra-red, making bilayer phosphorene a promising candidate for opto-spintronic devices. PMID:26370771

  15. Stacked bilayer phosphorene: strain-induced quantum spin Hall state and optical measurement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tian; Lin, Jia-He; Yu, Yan-Mei; Chen, Xiang-Rong; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-09-15

    Bilayer phosphorene attracted considerable interest, giving a potential application in nanoelectronics owing to its natural bandgap and high carrier mobility. However, very little is known regarding the possible usefulness in spintronics as a quantum spin Hall (QSH) state of material characterized by a bulk energy gap and gapless spin-filtered edge states. Here, we report a strain-induced topological phase transition from normal to QSH state in bilayer phosphorene, accompanied by band-inversion that changes number from 0 to 1, which is highly dependent on interlayer stacking. When the bottom layer is shifted by 1/2 unit-cell along zigzag/armchair direction with respect to the top layer, the maximum topological bandgap 92.5 meV is sufficiently large to realize QSH effect even at room-temperature. An optical measurement of QSH effect is therefore suggested in view of the wide optical absorption spectrum extending to far infra-red, making bilayer phosphorene a promising candidate for opto-spintronic devices.

  16. Temporal model of an optically pumped co-doped solid state laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangler, T. G.; Swetits, J. J.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1993-01-01

    Currently, research is being conducted on the optical properties of materials associated with the development of solid state lasers in the two micron region. In support of this effort, a mathematical model describing the energy transfer in a holmium laser sensitized with thulium is developed. In this paper, we establish some qualitative properties of the solution of the model, such as non-negativity, boundedness, and integrability. A local stability analysis is then performed from which conditions for asymptotic stability are attained. Finally, we report on our numerical analysis of the system and how it compares with experimental results.

  17. Efficient out-coupling and beaming of Tamm optical states via surface plasmon polariton excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Garcia, M.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Taverne, M. P. C.; Chen, L.-F.; Murshidy, M. M.; Edwards, A. P.; Serry, M. Y.; Adawi, A. M.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.

    2014-06-01

    We present evidence of optical Tamm states to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling. We experimentally demonstrate that for a Bragg stack with a thin metal layer on the surface, hybrid Tamm-SPP modes may be excited when a grating on the air-metal interface is introduced. Out-coupling via the grating to free space propagation is shown to enhance the transmission as well as the directionality and polarization selection for the transmitted beam. We suggest that this system will be useful on those devices, where a metallic electrical contact as well as beaming and polarization control is needed.

  18. Metasurface Polarization Optics: Independent Phase Control of Arbitrary Orthogonal States of Polarization.

    PubMed

    Balthasar Mueller, J P; Rubin, Noah A; Devlin, Robert C; Groever, Benedikt; Capasso, Federico

    2017-03-17

    We present a method allowing for the imposition of two independent and arbitrary phase profiles on any pair of orthogonal states of polarization-linear, circular, or elliptical-relying only on simple, linearly birefringent wave plate elements arranged into metasurfaces. This stands in contrast to previous designs which could only address orthogonal linear, and to a limited extent, circular polarizations. Using this approach, we demonstrate chiral holograms characterized by fully independent far fields for each circular polarization and elliptical polarization beam splitters, both in the visible. This approach significantly expands the scope of metasurface polarization optics.

  19. Long-distance decoy-state quantum key distribution in optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Danna; Harrington, Jim W; Rice, Patrick R; Hiskett, Philip A; Peterson, Charles G; Hughes, Richard J; Lita, Adriana E; Nam, Sae Woo; Nordholt, Jane E

    2007-01-05

    The theoretical existence of photon-number-splitting attacks creates a security loophole for most quantum key distribution (QKD) demonstrations that use a highly attenuated laser source. Using ultralow-noise, high-efficiency transition-edge sensor photodetectors, we have implemented the first version of a decoy-state protocol that incorporates finite statistics without the use of Gaussian approximations in a one-way QKD system, enabling the creation of secure keys immune to photon-number-splitting attacks and highly resistant to Trojan horse attacks over 107 km of optical fiber.

  20. Metasurface Polarization Optics: Independent Phase Control of Arbitrary Orthogonal States of Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar Mueller, J. P.; Rubin, Noah A.; Devlin, Robert C.; Groever, Benedikt; Capasso, Federico

    2017-03-01

    We present a method allowing for the imposition of two independent and arbitrary phase profiles on any pair of orthogonal states of polarization—linear, circular, or elliptical—relying only on simple, linearly birefringent wave plate elements arranged into metasurfaces. This stands in contrast to previous designs which could only address orthogonal linear, and to a limited extent, circular polarizations. Using this approach, we demonstrate chiral holograms characterized by fully independent far fields for each circular polarization and elliptical polarization beam splitters, both in the visible. This approach significantly expands the scope of metasurface polarization optics.

  1. Efficient out-coupling and beaming of Tamm optical states via surface plasmon polariton excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Garcia, M.; Ho, Y.-L. D.; Taverne, M. P. C.; Chen, L.-F.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Murshidy, M. M.; Edwards, A. P.; Adawi, A. M.; Serry, M. Y.

    2014-06-09

    We present evidence of optical Tamm states to surface plasmon polariton (SPP) coupling. We experimentally demonstrate that for a Bragg stack with a thin metal layer on the surface, hybrid Tamm-SPP modes may be excited when a grating on the air-metal interface is introduced. Out-coupling via the grating to free space propagation is shown to enhance the transmission as well as the directionality and polarization selection for the transmitted beam. We suggest that this system will be useful on those devices, where a metallic electrical contact as well as beaming and polarization control is needed.

  2. Study on photonic angular momentum states in coaxial magneto-optical waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Mu; Wu, Li-Ting; Guo, Tian-Jing; Guo, Rui-Peng; Cui, Hai-Xu; Cao, Xue-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2014-10-21

    By rigorously solving Maxwell's equations, we develop a full-wave electromagnetic theory for the study of photonic angular momentum states (PAMSs) in coaxial magneto-optical (MO) waveguides. Paying attention to a metal-MO-metal coaxial configuration, we show that the dispersion curves of the originally degenerated PAMSs experience a splitting, which are determined by the off-diagonal permittivity tensor element of the MO medium. We emphasize that this broken degeneracy in dispersion relation is accompanied by modified distributions of field component and transverse energy flux. A qualitative analysis about the connection between the split dispersion behavior and the field distribution is provided. Potential applications are discussed.

  3. Mapping local optical densities of states in silicon photonic structures with nanoscale electron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, Judy J.; Couillard, Martin; Muller, David A.; Yu Zongfu; Fan Shanhui; Smith, Eric

    2010-03-15

    Relativistic electrons in a structured medium generate radiative losses such as Cherenkov and transition radiation that act as a virtual light source, coupling to the photonic densities of states. The effect is most pronounced when the imaginary part of the dielectric function is zero, a regime where in a nonretarded treatment no loss or coupling can occur. Maps of the resultant energy losses as a sub-5 nm electron probe scans across finite waveguide structures reveal spatial distributions of optical modes in a spectral domain ranging from near infrared to far ultraviolet.

  4. Measurements of the nonradiative states of optically illuminated semiconductors by a superconducting tunnel junction

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, I.; Kasai, Y.

    1986-08-18

    A novel technique which utilizes a superconducting tunnel junction as a phonon detector is introduced to detect nonequilibrium phonons from the nonradiative states in optically illuminated semiconductors such as Si or GaAs. The method proved to have very high sensitivity for phonon detection with a large S-italic/N-italic ratio. The detected phonon signal as a function of wavelength of the light for GaAs exhibited modulated structures below the band-gap energy consistent with the presence of an EL2 level.

  5. Coherence properties and quantum state transportation in an optical conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Kuhr, S; Alt, W; Schrader, D; Dotsenko, I; Miroshnychenko, Y; Rosenfeld, W; Khudaverdyan, M; Gomer, V; Rauschenbeutel, A; Meschede, D

    2003-11-21

    We have prepared and detected quantum coherences of trapped cesium atoms with long dephasing times. Controlled transport by an "optical conveyor belt" over macroscopic distances preserves the atomic coherence with slight reduction of coherence time. The limiting dephasing effects are experimentally identified, and we present an analytical model of the reversible and irreversible dephasing mechanisms. Our experimental methods are applicable at the single-atom level. Coherent quantum bit operations along with quantum state transport open the route towards a "quantum shift register" of individual neutral atoms.

  6. Spatiotemporal chaotic localized state in liquid crystal light valve experiments with optical feedback.

    PubMed

    Verschueren, N; Bortolozzo, U; Clerc, M G; Residori, S

    2013-03-08

    The existence, stability properties, and dynamical evolution of localized spatiotemporal chaos are studied. We provide evidence of spatiotemporal chaotic localized structures in a liquid crystal light valve experiment with optical feedback. The observations are supported by numerical simulations of the Lifshitz model describing the system. This model exhibits coexistence between a uniform state and a spatiotemporal chaotic pattern, which emerge as the necessary ingredients to obtain localized spatiotemporal chaos. In addition, we have derived a simplified model that allows us to unveil the front interaction mechanism at the origin of the localized spatiotemporal chaotic structures.

  7. Refractive index sensing performance analysis of photonic crystal containing graphene based on optical Tamm state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Jing; Liu, Teng; Zhu, Qiguang; Chen, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    A photonic crystal’s refractive index sensor is proposed based on the photonic crystal (PC) optical properties and the surface wave resonance principle. The optical Tamm state existing at the interface between one-dimensional (1D) PCs and the metal layer can overcome the disadvantage of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor in which the incident light can only be TM polarized light. The resonant wavelength can be changed by adjusting the optical parameters of the PC. Through coating the metal surface with graphene, the resolution and sensitivity of the sensor can be improved obviously. The relationship model between the graphene parameters and the reflectivity is established by analyzing the reflective properties of the graphene. In the numerical simulation, the graphene layer is optimized to improve the refractive index sensing properties. The numerical simulation results show that the quality factor (Q value) can attain to 1418.2 and the sensitivity is about 1178.6 nm RIU-1, which can demonstrate the effectiveness of the senor structure and provide some theoretical references for the design of the refractive index sensors with high Q value and sensitivity.

  8. Effect of wetting-layer density of states on the gain and phase recovery dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho; Yu, Bong-Ahn

    2015-03-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of the wetting-layer (WL) density of states on the gain and phase recovery dynamics of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers in both electrical and optical pumping schemes by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The temporal variations of the ultrafast gain and phase recovery responses at the ground state (GS) are calculated as a function of the WL density of states. The ultrafast gain recovery responses do not significantly depend on the WL density of states in the electrical pumping scheme and the three optical pumping schemes such as the optical pumping to the WL, the optical pumping to the excited state ensemble, and the optical pumping to the GS ensemble. The ultrafast phase recovery responses are also not significantly affected by the WL density of states except the optical pumping to the WL, where the phase recovery component caused by the WL becomes slowed down as the WL density of states increases.

  9. Optical Properties of the Defect State Luminescence of Zn2 SnO4 Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakami, Baichhabi; Paudyal, Uma; Nandyala, Shashank; Rimal, Gaurab; Cooper, Jason K.; Chen, Jiajun; Chien, Teyu; Wang, Wenyong; Pikal, Jon M.; Department of Electrical; Computer Engineering Team; Department of Physics; Astronomy Team

    Nanowires (NWs) are a promising option for sensitized solar cells, sensors & display technology. Most of the work thus far has focused on binary oxides for these NWs, but ternary oxides have advantages in additional control of optical and electronic properties. Here we report on the diffuse reflectance, Low Temperature (LT) and Room Temperature (RT) photoluminescence (PL), PL excitation and Time Resolved PL (TRPL) of Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO) NWs grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition. Our results show two broad peaks centered at 640 nm & 450 nm. The complex emission spectra was studied by Time Resolved Emission Spectroscopy (TRES) and Intensity dependent PL. The intensity dependent TRPL shows that 640 nm states decay much slower than the 450 nm states. We propose an energy band model for the NWs containing donor and acceptor states in the band gap with the associated transitions between these states that are consistent with our results. The effect of annealing in air and vacuum is carried out to study the origin of defect states in these NWs. . Department of Energy.

  10. Realizing artificial spin ice states for magnetic colloids on optical trap arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C. M.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    Colloids interacting with periodic substrates such as those created with optical traps are an ideal system in which to study various types of phase transitions such as commensurate to incommensurate states and melting behaviors, and they can also be used to create new types of ordering that can be mapped to spin systems. Here we numerically demonstrate how magnetic colloids interacting with an array of elongated two-state traps can be used to realize square artificial spin ice. By tuning the magnetic field, it is possible to precisely control the interaction strength between the colloids, making it possible to observe a transition from a disordered state to an ordered state that obeys the two-in/two-out ice rules. We also examine the dynamics of excitations of the ground state, including pairs of monopoles, and show that the monopoles have emergent attractive interactions. The strength of the interaction can be modified by the magnetic field, permitting the monopole velocity to be tuned.

  11. Optical cooling of AlH+ to the rotational ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lien, Chien-Yu; Seck, Christopher; Odom, Brian

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate cooling of the rotational degree of freedom of trapped diatomic molecular ions to the rotational ground state. The molecule of interested, AlH+, is co-trapped and sympathetically cooled with Ba+ to milliKelvin temperatures in its translational degree of freedom. The nearly diagonal Franck-Condon-Factors between the electronic X and A states of AlH+ create semi-closed cycling transitions between the vibrational ground states of X and A states. A spectrally filtered femtosecond laser is used to optically pump the population to the two lowest rotational levels, with opposite parities, in as fast as 100 μs via driving the A-X transition. In addition, a cooling scheme relying on vibrational relaxation brings the population to the N = 0 positive-parity level in as fast as 100 ms. The population distribution among the rotational levels is detected by resonance-enhanced multiphoton dissociation (REMPD) and time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (TOFMS). Although the current two-photon state readout scheme is destructive, a scheme of single-molecule fluorescence detection is also considered.

  12. pH-dependent transient conformational states control optical properties in cyan fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Laricheva, Elena N; Goh, Garrett B; Dickson, Alex; Brooks, Charles L

    2015-03-04

    A recently engineered mutant of cyan fluorescent protein (WasCFP) that exhibits pH-dependent absorption suggests that its tryptophan-based chromophore switches between neutral (protonated) and charged (deprotonated) states depending on external pH. At pH 8.1, the latter gives rise to green fluorescence as opposed to the cyan color of emission that is characteristic for the neutral form at low pH. Given the high energy cost of deprotonating the tryptophan at the indole nitrogen, this behavior is puzzling, even if the stabilizing effect of the V61K mutation in proximity to the protonation/deprotonation site is considered. Because of its potential to open new avenues for the development of optical sensors and photoconvertible fluorescent proteins, a mechanistic understanding of how the charged state in WasCFP can possibly be stabilized is thus important. Attributed to the dynamic nature of proteins, such understanding often requires knowledge of the various conformations adopted, including transiently populated conformational states. Transient conformational states triggered by pH are of emerging interest and have been shown to be important whenever ionizable groups interact with hydrophobic environments. Using a combination of the weighted-ensemble sampling method and explicit-solvent constant pH molecular dynamics (CPHMD(MSλD)) simulations, we have identified a solvated transient state, characterized by a partially open β-barrel where the chromophore pKa of 6.8 is shifted by over 20 units from that of the closed form (6.8 and 31.7, respectively). This state contributes a small population at low pH (12% at pH 6.1) but becomes dominant at mildly basic conditions, contributing as much as 53% at pH 8.1. This pH-dependent population shift between neutral (at pH 6.1) and charged (at pH 8.1) forms is thus responsible for the observed absorption behavior of WasCFP. Our findings demonstrate the conditions necessary to stabilize the charged state of the WasCFP chromophore

  13. Optical control and spectroscopic studies of collisional population transfer in molecular electronic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Ergin; Pan, Xinhua; Huennekens, John; Lyyra, Marjatta

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the basic physics of collision processes between atoms and molecules is of fundamental importance for large number of areas of research including chemical reactivity, ultra cold atoms and molecules, and astrophysics of the interstellar medium. We have experimentally demonstrated optical control of the singlet/triplet probability distribution in the outcome of collisions involving lithium dimer molecules and argon atoms. The control is achieved using the Autler-Townes (AT) effect to manipulate the spin character of a spin-orbit coupled pair of levels serving as a ``gateway'' between the singlet and triplet electronic state manifolds. As a result we show that the rate coefficient of a collisional process between excited molecules (7Li2) and atoms (Ar) leading to internal quantum state changes in the molecules can be effectively manipulated with a laser. In addition, as an extension of these results new gateway levels can be created from singlet and triplet levels that hardly interact to begin with.

  14. Multidimensional optical spectroscopy of a single molecule in a current-carrying state

    PubMed Central

    Rahav, S.; Mukamel, S.

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear optical signals from an open system consisting of a molecule connected to metallic leads, in response to a sequence of impulsive pulses, are calculated using a superoperator formalism. Two detection schemes are considered: coherent stimulated emission and incoherent fluorescence. The two provide similar but not identical information. The necessary superoperator correlation functions are evaluated either by converting them to ordinary (Hilbert space) operators which are then expanded in many-body states, or by using Wick's theorem for superoperators to factorize them into nonequilibrium two point Green's functions. As an example we discuss a stimulated Raman process that shows resonances involving two different charge states of the molecule in the same signal. PMID:21197975

  15. Resonant state expansion applied to two-dimensional open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.

    2013-04-01

    The resonant state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is applied to two-dimensional open optical systems. The analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric cylinder is used as an unperturbed system, and its Green's function is shown to contain a cut in the complex frequency plane, which is included in the RSE basis. The complex eigenfrequencies of modes are calculated using the RSE for a selection of perturbations which mix unperturbed modes of different orbital momentum, such as half-cylinder, thin-film, and thin-wire perturbation, demonstrating the accuracy and convergency of the method. The resonant states for the thin-wire perturbation are shown to reproduce an approximative analytical solution.

  16. Optical bound states in the continuum in a single slab with zero refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, LiangSheng; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Chong; Zheng, Ning; Yin, Hongcheng

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated theoretically the reflectivity, quality factor, and eigenfrequency for a single slab with zero refractive index. We demonstrate that optical bound states in the continuum can be achieved by the various zero-refractive-index slabs made of epsilon-near-zero, impedance-machted zero-index, or mu-near-zero materials. Moreover, by analytically investigating the frequency of the resonant reflection and resonant transmission, when the quality factor becomes infinity, these two frequencies are precisely equal. For the mu-near-zero slab, the bound states in the continuum are observed at arbitrary incident angles by analyzing the behaviors of complex eigenfrequencies. Our findings may lead to unprecedented high-quality resonators in metamaterials.

  17. Dicke superradiance as nondestructive probe for the state of atoms in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinke, Nicolai ten; Schützhold, Ralf

    2016-05-01

    We present a proposal for a probing scheme utilizing Dicke superradiance to obtain information about ultracold atoms in optical lattices. A probe photon is absorbed collectively by an ensemble of lattice atoms generating a Dicke state. The lattice dynamics (e.g., tunneling) affects the coherence properties of that Dicke state and thus alters the superradiant emission characteristics - which in turn provides insight into the lattice (dynamics). Comparing the Bose-Hubbard and the Fermi-Hubbard model, we find similar superradiance in the strongly interacting Mott insulator regime, but crucial differences in the weakly interacting (superfluid or metallic) phase. Furthermore, we study the possibility to detect whether a quantum phase transition between the two regimes can be considered adiabatic or a quantum quench.

  18. Optical imaging of resting-state functional connectivity in a novel arterial stiffness model.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Edgar; Sadekova, Nataliya; Girouard, Hélène; Lesage, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of unilateral increases in carotid stiffness on cortical functional connectivity measures in the resting state. Using a novel animal model of induced arterial stiffness combined with optical intrinsic signals and laser speckle imaging, resting state functional networks derived from hemodynamic signals are investigated for their modulation by isolated changes in stiffness of the right common carotid artery. By means of seed-based analysis, results showed a decreasing trend of homologous correlation in the motor and cingulate cortices. Furthermore, a graph analysis indicated a randomization of the cortex functional networks, suggesting a loss of connectivity, more specifically in the motor cortex lateral to the treated carotid, which however did not translate in differentiated metabolic activity.

  19. Shaken not stirred: creating exotic angular momentum states by shaking an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiely, Anthony; Benseny, Albert; Busch, Thomas; Ruschhaupt, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    We propose a method to create higher orbital states of ultracold atoms in the Mott regime of an optical lattice. This is done by periodically modulating the position of the trap minima (known as shaking) and controlling the interference term of the lasers creating the lattice. These methods are combined with techniques of shortcuts to adiabaticity. As an example of this, we show specifically how to create an anti-ferromagnetic type ordering of angular momentum states of atoms. The specific pulse sequences are designed using Lewis-Riesenfeld invariants and a four-level model for each well. The results are compared with numerical simulations of the full Schrödinger equation.

  20. Chaotic quantum ratchets and filters with cold atoms in optical lattices: Analysis using Floquet states

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, G.; Creffield, C.E.; Jones, P.H.; Monteiro, T.S.

    2005-07-15

    Recently, cesium atoms in optical lattices subjected to cycles of unequally spaced pulses have been found to show interesting behavior: they represent an experimental demonstration of a Hamiltonian ratchet mechanism, and they show strong variability of the dynamical localization lengths as a function of initial momentum. The behavior differs qualitatively from corresponding atomic systems pulsed with equal periods, which are a textbook implementation of a well-studied quantum chaos paradigm, the quantum {delta}-kicked rotor ({delta}-QKR). We investigate here the properties of the corresponding eigenstates (Floquet states) in the parameter regime of the recent experiments and compare them with those of the eigenstates of the {delta}-QKR at similar kicking strengths. We show that by studying the properties of the Floquet states we can shed light on the form of the observed ratchet current, as well as variations in the dynamical localization length.

  1. The optical Tamm states at the interface between a photonic crystal and nanoporous silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikbaev, R. G.; Vetrov, S. Ya; Timofeev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The optical Tamm states (OTSs) localized at the edges of a photonic crystal bounded by a nanoporous silver (NPS) film are investigated. NPS involves spherical vacuum nanopores dispersed in the metal matrix and is characterized by the effective resonance permittivity. The transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of the structures under study at the normal incidence of light are calculated. It is shown that each Tamm state has its own frequency range where the real part of effective permittivity is negative. The light field localization at the high- and low-frequency OTSs is investigated. The specific features of spectral manifestation of the OTSs are studied in dependence on the nanopore concentration in the metal matrix and on the NPS film thickness.

  2. Optical Sensing of Polarization States Changes in Meat due to the Ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tománek, Pavel; Mikláš, Jan; Abubaker, Hamed Mohamed; Grmela, Lubomír

    2010-11-01

    Food materials or biological materials display large compositional variations, inhomogeneities, and anisotropic structures. The biological tissues consist of cells which dimensions are bigger than a wavelength of visible light, therefore Mie scattering of transmitted and reflected light occurs and different polarization states arise. The meat industry needs reliable meat quality information throughout the production process in order to guarantee high-quality meat products for consumers. The minor importance is still given to the food quality control and inspection during processing operations or storing conditions. The paper presents a quite simple optical method allowing measure the freshness or ageing of products. The principle is to study temporal characteristics of polarization states of forward or backward scattered laser light in the samples in function of meat ageing.

  3. Ground-state and optical properties of Cu sub 2 O and CuO crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, W.Y.; Xu, Y. ); Wong, K.W.

    1989-10-15

    The band structures of cubic Cu{sub 2}O and monoclinic CuO crystals have been calculated by means of the first-principles orthogonalized linear combination of atomic orbitals method. Using the wave functions obtained, the frequency-dependent interband optical conductivities are also evaluated. The results show Cu{sub 2}O to be a direct-gap semiconductor, while CuO is semiconductorlike with an intrinsic hole population at the top of the valence band (VB). By comparing with a variety of existing data, we conclude that band theory works extremely well for Cu{sub 2}O, but is less satisfactory for CuO. This could be due to strong correlation effects for states near the top of the VB in CuO. A careful reanalysis of optical data and excitonic spectra in Cu{sub 2}O in conjunction with our calculations suggests a complete reinterpretation of these data. A clear distinction between the intrinsic gap and the optical gap is argued. We conclude that the intrinsic gap in Cu{sub 2}O is of the order of 0.8 eV, while the optical gap is of the order 2.0--2.3 eV. The excitonic series in Cu{sub 2}O is due to the Coulombic attraction of the hole at the top of the VB and the electron in the next-higher conduction band (CB), not the lowest CB, because of the forbidden symmetry associated with angular-momentum conservation. This reinterpretation of the excitonic data is also consistent with a calculated low value for the static dielectric constant {epsilon}{sub 0} of order of 4 for Cu{sub 2}O.

  4. Chemically robust platform for optical solid-state conducting polymer sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, A. L.; Bearinger, J. P.; Carter, S. A.

    2006-10-01

    Conjugated polymers are unique materials for use in the development of chemical and biological sensors because of their widely tunable optical and electrical properties that allow them dual functionality as both the sensing element and the signal transducer. Furthermore, as optical photoluminescence based sensors, electroactive polymers are found to exhibit high sensitivity due to the ability of the analyte of interest to quench the photoluminescence of the entire polymer chain. In order to produce a more chemically robust thin film for use as a "solid-state" optical sensor, we succeeded in grafting various poly (3-alkyl-thiophene)s to optically transparent substrates such as glass, quartz, and ITO coated glass. This was accomplished by first grafting a thiophene monomer to the surface then chemically growing the films via oxidative polymerization. XPS studies indicated that each chemical step was accurately understood. The polythiophene growth, unaltered by sonication and tape peeling tests, was uniform across the substrate and could be directed by selective silanization of the substrate. Film thicknesses range from 20 to 200 nm and exhibit varying degrees of surface roughness, depending on the polymerization process. The reaction times and solvents were varied in order to optimize the desired film properties. The absorption and photoluminescence properties of the thin films compared well with literature on spun-cast polythiophene films, as did the electrical conductivities of the doped and undoped material. The photoluminescence intensities of the films are found to be unaffected by paraquat in water but are sensitive to trace amounts of ferric chloride in acetonitrile with measurable Stern Volmer constants.

  5. Model analysis of influences of aerosol mixing state upon its optical properties in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Xu, Liren

    2013-07-01

    The air quality model system RAMS (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)-CMAQ (Models-3 Community Multi-scale Air Quality) coupled with an aerosol optical/radiative module was applied to investigate the impact of different aerosol mixing states (i.e., externally mixed, half externally and half internally mixed, and internally mixed) on radiative forcing in East Asia. The simulation results show that the aerosol optical depth (AOD) generally increased when the aerosol mixing state changed from externally mixed to internally mixed, while the single scattering albedo (SSA) decreased. Therefore, the scattering and absorption properties of aerosols can be significantly affected by the change of aerosol mixing states. Comparison of simulated and observed SSAs at five AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network) sites suggests that SSA could be better estimated by considering aerosol particles to be internally mixed. Model analysis indicates that the impact of aerosol mixing state upon aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF) is complex. Generally, the cooling effect of aerosols over East Asia are enhanced in the northern part of East Asia (Northern China, Korean peninsula, and the surrounding area of Japan) and are reduced in the southern part of East Asia (Sichuan Basin and Southeast China) by internal mixing process, and the variation range can reach ±5 W m-2. The analysis shows that the internal mixing between inorganic salt and dust is likely the main reason that the cooling effect strengthens. Conversely, the internal mixture of anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, and organic carbon, could obviously weaken the cooling effect.

  6. Optical techniques for determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michie, W. C.; Thursby, G.; Johnstone, W.; Culshaw, B.

    1993-03-01

    Determination of the state of cure of epoxy resin based systems is of considerable interest to manufacturers of large carbon fiber reinforced plastic and glass reinforced plastic structures. Optical methods designed to indicate the cure state have been developed using a loss mechanism which is a function of the refractive index of the curing system. Such techniques are however subject to corruption from losses arising from other influences and consequently are limited in their measurement resolution. In this paper, two techniques which are able to provide a high degree of accuracy of measurement of refractive index are investigated as a means of performing cure measurements. The methods investigated involve the interaction of the evanescent field of a side polished optical fiber with an overlay waveguide or a surface plasmon. Coupling between the fiber and the overlay waveguide (or plasmon) is strongly influenced by the refractive index of the bulk superstrate above the overlay (in this case the curing resin system). Both sensing schemes are self referencing and are not influenced by loss.

  7. Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.H.; Rainer, F.; Kozlowski, M.; Wolfe, C.R.; Thomas, I.; Milanovich, F.

    1990-12-17

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence, LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd{sup +3}-phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1.5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically, the damage threshold of Nd{sup +3}-doped phosphate laser glass, multilayer dielectric coatings, and non-linear optical crystals (e.g., KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1.5--2 MJ Nd{sup 3+}-glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed; threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented. 20 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Damage resistant optics for a mega-joule solid-state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. H.; Rainer, F.; Kozlowski, M. R.; Wolfe, C. R.; Thomas, I.; Milanovich, F.

    1990-12-01

    Research on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has progressed rapidly in the past several years. As a consequence, LLNL is developing plans to upgrade the current 120 kJ solid state (Nd3+ phosphate glass) Nova laser to a 1.5 to 2 megajoule system with the goal of achieving fusion ignition. The design of the planned Nova Upgrade is briefly discussed. Because of recent improvements in the damage resistance of optical materials it is now technically and economically feasible to build a megajoule-class solid state laser. Specifically, the damage threshold of Nd(+3)-doped phosphate laser glass, multilayer dielectric coatings, and non-linear optical crystals (e.g., KDP) have been dramatically improved. These materials now meet the fluence requirements for a 1.5 to 2 MJ Nd(+3)-glass laser operating at 1054 and 351 nm and at a pulse length of 3 ns. The recent improvements in damage thresholds are reviewed; threshold data at both 1064 and 355 nm and the measured pulse length scaling are presented.

  9. Evaluation of optical and chromatic properties under electrical and thermal coupling in solid state lighting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Han-Kuei; Peng, Yi-Ping; Wang, Chien-Ping; Chiang, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Tzung-Te; Chen, Chiu-Ling; Chou, Pei-Ting

    2013-09-01

    For energy-saving, high efficiency and low pollution, the lighting of LED systems is important for the future of green energy technology industry. The solid state lighting becomes the replacement of traditional lighting, such as, light bulbs and compact fluorescent lamps. Because of the semiconductor characteristics, the luminous efficiency of LEDs is sensitive to the operating temperature. Besides increasing the luminous efficiency, effective controlling electricity and thermal characteristics in the design of LED lighting products is the key point to achieve the best results. LED modules can be combined with multi-grain process or through a combination of multiple LED chips. Accurate analysis of this LED module for the electrical, thermal characteristics and high reliability is the critical knowledge of modular design. In this report, we studied the electrical and thermal coupling phenomenon in solid state lighting systems to analyze their reliability. By experiments and simulations, we obtained the apparent variation of temperature distribution of LED system due to differences of their forward voltages and thermal resistances. These events may reduce their reliability. Besides, the evaluation of optical and chromatic properties was based on the variation of temperature distribution and current of LED system. This is the key technology to predict the optical and chromatic properties of LED system in use.

  10. Spin-state-correlated optical properties of copper(ii)-nitroxide based molecular magnets.

    PubMed

    Barskaya, Irina Yu; Veber, Sergey L; Suturina, Elizaveta A; Sherin, Peter S; Maryunina, Kseniya Yu; Artiukhova, Natalia A; Tretyakov, Evgeny V; Sagdeev, Renad Z; Ovcharenko, Victor I; Gritsan, Nina P; Fedin, Matvey V

    2017-10-03

    Molecular magnets based on copper(ii) ions and stable nitroxide radicals exhibit promising switchable behavior triggered by a number of external stimuli; however, their spin-state-correlated optical properties vital for photoinduced switching have not been profoundly investigated to date. Herein, the electronic absorption spectra of single crystals of three representatives of this unique family are studied experimentally and theoretically in the visible and near-IR regions. We established that the color of the complexes is mainly determined by optical properties of the nitroxide radicals, whereas the Cu(hfac)2 fragment contributes to the near-IR range with the intensity smaller by an order of magnitude. The thermochromism of these complexes evident upon thermal spin state switching is mainly caused by a spectral shift of the absorption bands of the nitroxides. The vibrational progression observed in the visible range for single crystals as well as for solutions of pure nitroxides is well reproduced by DFT calculations, where the C-C stretching mode governs the observed progression. The analysis of the spectra of single crystals in the near-IR region reveals changes in the energy and in the intensity of the copper(ii) d-d transitions, which are well reproduced by SOC-NEVPT2 calculations and owe to the flip of the Jahn-Teller axis in the coordination environment of copper. Further strategies for designing bidirectional magnetic photoswitches using these appealing compounds are discussed.

  11. A Single Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab Provides No Neuroprotection in a Nonhuman Primate Model of Moderate-to-Severe Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Neil R.; Johnson, Mary A.; Nolan, Theresa; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor-antagonist, is said to be neuroprotective when injected intravitreally in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravitreal (IVT) injection of ranibizumab in a nonhuman primate model of NAION (pNAION). Methods We induced pNAION in one eye of four adult male rhesus monkeys using a laser-activated rose Bengal induction method. We then immediately injected the eye with either ranibizumab or normal saline (NS) intravitreally. We performed a clinical assessment, optical coherence tomography, electrophysiological testing, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography in three of the animals (one animal developed significant retinal hemorrhages and, therefore, could not be analyzed completely) prior to induction, 1 day and 1, 2, and 4 weeks thereafter. Following the 4-week analysis of the first eye, we induced pNAION in the contralateral eye and then injected either ranibizumab or NS, whichever substance had not been injected in the first eye. We euthanized all animals 5 to 12 weeks after the final assessment of the second eye and performed both immunohistochemical and light and electron microscopic analyses of the retina and optic nerves of both eyes. Results A single IVT dose of ranibizumab administered immediately after induction of pNAION resulted in no significant reduction of clinical, electrophysiological, or histologic damage compared with vehicle-injected eyes. Conclusions A single IVT dose of ranibizumab is not neuroprotective when administered immediately after induction of pNAION. PMID:26624498

  12. Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucar, Dundar

    This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD

  13. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. II - Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, J. H.; Yuen, H. P.; Machado Mata, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a previous paper (1978), the authors developed a method of analyzing the performance of two-photon coherent state (TCS) systems for free-space optical communications. General theorems permitting application of classical point process results to detection and estimation of signals in arbitrary quantum states were derived. The present paper examines the general problem of photoemissive detection statistics. On the basis of the photocounting theory of Kelley and Kleiner (1964) it is shown that for arbitrary pure state illumination, the resulting photocurrent is in general a self-exciting point process. The photocount statistics for first-order coherent fields reduce to those of a special class of Markov birth processes, which the authors term single-mode birth processes. These general results are applied to the structure of TCS radiation, and it is shown that the use of TCS radiation with direct or heterodyne detection results in minimal performance increments over comparable coherent-state systems. However, significant performance advantages are offered by use of TCS radiation with homodyne detection. The abstract quantum descriptions of homodyne and heterodyne detection are derived and a synthesis procedure for obtaining quantum measurements described by arbitrary TCS is given.

  14. Neutron scattering from elemental indium, the optical model, and the bound-state potential

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, S. ); Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.; Smith, A.B. )

    1990-06-01

    Neutron differential elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium are measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV at incident-energy intervals of {approx}500 keV. Seventy or more differential values are obtained at each incident energy, distributed between {approx}18{degree} and 160{degree}. These experimental results are combined with lower-energy values previously obtained at this laboratory, and with 11 and 14 MeV results in the literature, to form a comprehensive elastic-scattering database extending from {approx}1.5 to 14 MeV. These data are interpreted in terms of a conventional spherical optical model. The resulting potential is extrapolated to the bound-state regime. It is shown that in the middle of the 50--82 neutron shell, the potential derived from the scattering results adequately describes the binding energies of article states, but does not do well for hole states. The latter shortcoming is attributed to the holes states having occupational probabilities sufficiently different from unity, so that the exclusion principle become a factor, and to the rearrangement of the neutron core. 68 refs.

  15. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [

    F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)
    ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  16. Symmetry of electron states and optical transitions in GaN/AlN hexagonal quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronc, P.; Smirnov, V. P.; Zhuravlev, K. S.

    2004-11-01

    The exact symmetry of hexagonal quantum dots (QDs) made of materials with the wurtzite structure such as GaN/AlN QDs for example, is described by the C3v point group and does not depend on the existence of a wetting layer. We have determined the possible exact symmetries of electron states and vibration modes in the dots and derived the optical selection rules. The vibration modes involved in the Frölich interaction are totally symmetric with respect to the C3v group and can induce transitions only between states with the same symmetry. The not totally symmetric modes provide other channels for lowering the energy of excited carriers and excitons by connecting states with symmetries different one from another. The rapid decay of created polarons, due to the short lifetime of vibration modes, releases the carriers and excitons into ground levels. In the envelope function approximation (EFA), the symmetry of the dots is represented by the C6v point group. Interband transitions are allowed only between states whose envelope functions have the same symmetry. EFA artificially increases the number of dark exciton symmetries.

  17. Optical communication with two-photon coherent states. II - Photoemissive detection and structured receiver performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, J. H.; Yuen, H. P.; Machado Mata, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    In a previous paper (1978), the authors developed a method of analyzing the performance of two-photon coherent state (TCS) systems for free-space optical communications. General theorems permitting application of classical point process results to detection and estimation of signals in arbitrary quantum states were derived. The present paper examines the general problem of photoemissive detection statistics. On the basis of the photocounting theory of Kelley and Kleiner (1964) it is shown that for arbitrary pure state illumination, the resulting photocurrent is in general a self-exciting point process. The photocount statistics for first-order coherent fields reduce to those of a special class of Markov birth processes, which the authors term single-mode birth processes. These general results are applied to the structure of TCS radiation, and it is shown that the use of TCS radiation with direct or heterodyne detection results in minimal performance increments over comparable coherent-state systems. However, significant performance advantages are offered by use of TCS radiation with homodyne detection. The abstract quantum descriptions of homodyne and heterodyne detection are derived and a synthesis procedure for obtaining quantum measurements described by arbitrary TCS is given.

  18. Optical cryo-imaging of kidney mitochondrial redox state in diabetic mice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, S.; Sepehr, R.; Staniszewski, K.; Sheibani, N.; Sorenson, C. M.; Ranji, M.

    2012-03-01

    Oxidative stress (OS), which increases during diabetes, exacerbates the development and progression of diabetes complications including renal vascular and proximal tubule cell dysfunction. The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the metabolic state of the tissue in diabetic mice kidneys using fluorescence imaging. Mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide), and FADH-2 (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels by optical techniques. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores, (NADH/FAD), called the NADH redox ratio (RR), is a marker of metabolic state of a tissue. We examined mitochondrial redox states of kidneys from diabetic mice, Akita/+ and its control wild type (WT) for a group of 8- and 12-week-old mice. Average intensity and histogram of maximum projected images of FAD, NADH, and NADH RR were calculated for each kidney. Our results indicated a 17% decrease in the mean NADH RR of the kidney from 8-week-old mice compared with WT mice and, a 30% decrease in the mean NADH RR of kidney from12-week-old mice compared with WT mice. These results indicated an increase in OS in diabetic animals and its progression over time. Thus, NADH RR can be used as a hallmark of OS in diabetic kidney allowing temporal identification of oxidative state.

  19. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Anno, Fabio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  20. Morphology and mixing state of atmospheric particles: Links to optical properties and cloud processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    China, Swarup

    Atmospheric particles are ubiquitous in Earth's atmosphere and impact the environment and the climate while affecting human health and Earth's radiation balance, and degrading visibility. Atmospheric particles directly affect our planet's radiation budget by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by interacting with clouds. Single particle morphology (shape, size and internal structure) and mixing state (coating by organic and inorganic material) can significantly influence the particle optical properties as well as various microphysical processes, involving cloud-particle interactions and including heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake. Conversely, aerosol cloud processing can affect the morphology and mixing of the particles. For example, fresh soot has typically an open fractal-like structure, but aging and cloud processing can restructure soot into more compacted shapes, with different optical and ice nucleation properties. During my graduate research, I used an array of electron microscopy and image analysis tools to study morphology and mixing state of a large number of individual particles collected during several field and laboratory studies. To this end, I investigated various types of particles such as tar balls (spherical carbonaceous particles emitted during biomass burning) and dust particles, but with a special emphasis on soot particles. In addition, I used the Stony Brook ice nucleation cell facility to investigate heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by long-range transported particles collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory, in the Archipelago of the Azores. Finally, I used ice nucleation data from the SAAS (Soot Aerosol Aging Study) chamber study at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to understand the effects that ice nucleation and supercooled water processing has on the morphology of residual soot particles. Some highlights of our findings and implications are discussed next. We found that the

  1. Optical Control and Spectroscopic Studies of Collisional Population Transfer in Molecular Electronic States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xinhua

    The quantum interference effects, such as the Autler-Townes (AT) effect and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) applied to molecular systems are the focus of this Dissertation in the context of high resolution molecular spectroscopy. We demonstrate that the AT effect can be used to manipulate the spin character of a spin-orbit coupled pair of molecular energy levels serving as a gateway between the singlet and triplet electronic states. We demonstrate that the singlet-triplet mixing characters of the gateway levels can be controlled by manipulating the coupling laser E field amplitude. We observe experimentally the collisional population transfer between electronic states G1pig (v = 12, J = 21, f) and 13Sigmag-( v = 1, N = 21, f) of 7Li 2. We obtain the Stern-Vollmer plot according to the vapor pressure dependence of collisional transfer rate. The triplet fluorescence from the mixed gateway levels to the triplet b 3piu(v' = 1, J' = 20, 21, 22) levels as a function of the probe laser detuning as well as the control laser detuning are observed and compared. The control laser power dependence of the triplet fluorescence signal intensity is recorded to demonstrate that the collisional transfer rate can be enhanced by increasing the control laser power level (Rabi frequency). The conservation of the molecular population transfer is confirmed by comparing the singlet and triplet fluorescence with the control laser detuning over the resonance. A large number of ro-vibrational levels of the 61Sigma g+ and 31pig electronic states of 85Rb2 are observed experimentally by optical-optical double resonance (OODR) spectroscopy technique. The rotational and vibrational Dunham coefficients are extracted from the experimental ro-vibrational energies, and the preliminary Rydberg-Klein-Rees (RKR) potential energy curves are constructed for both states. The ro-vibrational eigenvalues are calculated from the preliminary RKR potential energy curves by using the LEVEL program

  2. Constellation-X to Generation-X: evolution of large collecting area moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area high-resolution adjustable optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Cameron, Robert A.; Cohen, Lester; Elvis, Martin; Gorenstein, Paul; Jerius, Diab; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William A.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Zhang, William W.

    2004-10-01

    Large collecting area x-ray telescopes are designed to study the early Universe, trace the evolution of black holes, stars and galaxies, study the chemical evolution of the Universe, and study matter in extreme environments. The Constellation-X mission (Con-X), planned for launch in 2016, will provide ~ 10^4 cm^2 collecting area with 15 arc-sec resolution, with a goal of 5 arc-sec. Future missions require larger collecting area and finer resolution. Generation-X (Gen-X), a NASA Visions Mission, will achieve 100 m^2 effective area at 1 keV and angular resolution of 0.1 arc-sec, half power diameter. We briefly describe the Con-X flowdown of imaging requirements to reflector figure error. To meet requirements beyond Con-X, Gen-X optics will be thinner and more accurately shaped than has ever been accomplished. To meet these challenging goals, we incorporate for the first time active figure control with grazing incidence optics. Piezoelectric material will be deposited in discrete cells directly on the back surface of the optical segments, with the strain directions oriented parallel to the surface. Differential strain between the two layers of the mirror causes localized bending in two directions, enabling local figure control. Adjusting figure on-orbit eases fabrication and metrology. The ability to make changes to mirror figure adds margin by mitigating risk due to launch-induced deformations and/or on-orbit degradation. We flowdown the Gen-X requirements to mirror figure and four telescope designs, and discuss various trades between the designs.

  3. Optical communication with two-photon coherent stages. I - Quantum-state propagation and quantum-noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.

  4. Optical communication with two-photon coherent stages. I - Quantum-state propagation and quantum-noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.

  5. Continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Jing

    2007-02-15

    We propose a scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning of coherent states with phase-conjugate input modes using linear optics. The quantum cloning machine yields M identical optimal clones from N replicas of a coherent state and N replicas of its phase conjugate. This scheme can be straightforwardly implemented with the setups accessible at present since its optical implementation only employs simple linear optical elements and homodyne detection. Compared with the original scheme for continuous-variable quantum cloning with phase-conjugate input modes proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)], which utilized a nondegenerate optical parametric amplifier, our scheme loses the output of phase-conjugate clones and is regarded as irreversible quantum cloning.

  6. Proton-detected solid-state NMR spectroscopy of fully protonated proteins at slow to moderate magic-angle spinning frequencies.

    PubMed

    Mote, Kaustubh R; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K

    2015-12-01

    (1)H-detection offers a substitute to the sensitivity-starved experiments often used to characterize biomolecular samples using magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy (MAS-ssNMR). To mitigate the effects of the strong (1)H-(1)H dipolar coupled network that would otherwise severely broaden resonances, high MAS frequencies (>40kHz) are often employed. Here, we have explored the alternative of stroboscopic (1)H-detection at moderate MAS frequencies of 5-30kHz using windowed version of supercycled-phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg homonuclear decoupling. We show that improved resolution in the (1)H dimension, comparable to that obtainable at high spinning frequencies of 40-60kHz without homonuclear decoupling, can be obtained in these experiments for fully protonated proteins. Along with detailed analysis of the performance of the method on the standard tri-peptide f-MLF, experiments on micro-crystalline GB1 and amyloid-β aggregates are used to demonstrate the applicability of these pulse-sequences to challenging biomolecular systems. With only two parameters to optimize, broadbanded performance of the homonuclear decoupling sequence, linear dependence of the chemical-shift scaling factor on resonance offset and a straightforward implementation under experimental conditions currently used for many biomolecular studies (viz. spinning frequencies and radio-frequency amplitudes), we expect these experiments to complement the current (13)C-detection based methods in assignments and characterization through chemical-shift mapping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Weight reduction, but not a moderate intake of fish oil, lowers concentrations of inflammatory markers and PAI-1 antigen in obese men during the fasting and postprandial state.

    PubMed

    Jellema, A; Plat, J; Mensink, R P

    2004-11-01

    In obese subjects, chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities, which are reversed by weight loss. Sustained weight loss, however, is difficult to achieve and more insight into dietary approaches on anti-inflammatory responses in obese subjects is needed. In this respect, fish oil deserves attention. Eleven obese men (BMI: 30-35 kg m(-2)) received daily fish oil (1.35 g n-3 fatty acids) or placebo capsules in random order for 6 weeks. Eight subjects continued with a weight reduction study that lasted 8 weeks. Mean weight loss was 9.4 kg. At the end of each experimental period a postprandial study was performed. Relative to fasting concentrations, interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increased by 75% 2 h and by 118% 4 h after the meal (P < 0.001), when subjects consumed the control capsules. In contrast, C-reactive protein (C-RP) concentrations decreased slightly by 0.7% and 6.6% (P = 0.046), and those of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen by, respectively, 26% and 53% (P < 0.001). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; P = 0.330) and soluble TNF-receptor concentrations (sTNF-R55 and sTNF-R75; P = 0.451 and P = 0.108, respectively) did not change. Changes relative to fasting concentrations were not significantly affected by either fish oil or weight reduction. Absolute IL-6, C-RP, sTNF-R55, sTNF-R75, and PAI-1 antigen concentrations, however, were consistently lower after weight reduction, but not after fish oil consumption. For slightly obese subjects a moderate intake of fish oil does not have the same favourable effects on markers for a low-grade inflammatory state as weight reduction.

  8. The users, uses, and value of Landsat and other moderate-resolution satellite imagery in the United States-Executive report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Holly M.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Koontz, Lynne; Loomis, John; Koontz, Stephen R.; Hermans, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Moderate-resolution imagery (MRI), such as that provided by the Landsat satellites, provides unique spatial information for use by many people both within and outside of the United States (U.S.). However, exactly who these users are, how they use the imagery, and the value and benefits derived from the information are, to a large extent, unknown. To explore these issues, social scientists at the USGS Fort Collins Science Center conducted a study of U.S.-based MRI users from 2008 through 2010 in two parts: 1) a user identification and 2) a user survey. The objectives for this study were to: 1) identify and classify U.S.-based users of this imagery; 2) better understand how and why MRI, and specifically Landsat, is being used; and 3) qualitatively and quantitatively measure the value and societal benefits of MRI (focusing on Landsat specifically). The results of the survey revealed that respondents from multiple sectors use Landsat imagery in many different ways, as demonstrated by the breadth of project locations and scales, as well as application areas. The value of Landsat imagery to these users was demonstrated by the high importance placed on the imagery, the numerous benefits received from projects using Landsat imagery, the negative impacts if Landsat imagery was no longer available, and the substantial willingness to pay for replacement imagery in the event of a data gap. The survey collected information from users who are both part of and apart from the known user community. The diversity of the sample delivered results that provide a baseline of knowledge about the users, uses, and value of Landsat imagery. While the results supply a wealth of information on their own, they can also be built upon through further research to generate a more complete picture of the population of Landsat users as a whole.

  9. Optical processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafson, S. C.

    1985-12-01

    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  10. Optical imaging of mitochondrial redox state in rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Sepideh; Gopalakrishnan, Sandeep; Ghanian, Zahra; Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Schmitt, Heather; Eells, Janis; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and mitochondrial dysfunction contribute to photoreceptor cell loss in retinal degenerative disorders. The metabolic state of the retina in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) was investigated using a cryo-fluorescence imaging technique. The mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are autofluorescent and can be monitored without exogenous labels using optical techniques. The cryo-fluorescence redox imaging technique provides a quantitative assessment of the metabolism. More specifically, the ratio of the fluorescence intensity of these fluorophores (NADH/FAD), the NADH redox ratio (RR), is a marker of the metabolic state of the tissue. The NADH RR and retinal function were examined in an established rodent model of RP, the P23H rat compared to that of nondystrophic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The NADH RR mean values were 1.11±0.03 in the SD normal and 0.841±0.01 in the P23H retina, indicating increased OS in the P23H retina. Electroretinographic data revealed a significant reduction in photoreceptor function in P23H animals compared to SD nozrmal rats. Thus, cryo-fluorescence redox imaging was used as a quantitative marker of OS in eyes from transgenic rats and demonstrated that alterations in the oxidative state of eyes occur during the early stages of RP.

  11. Optical Flow and Driver's Kinematics Analysis for State of Alert Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Pinto, Javier; Torres-Torriti, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators. PMID:23539029

  12. Determining the equation of state of amorphous solids at high pressure using optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amin, Samrat A; Rissi, Erin N; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L

    2012-03-01

    A method to determine the volumetric equation of state of amorphous solids using optical microscopy in a diamond anvil cell is described. The method relies on two- dimensional image acquisition and analysis to quantify changes in the projected image area with compression. The area analysis methods prove to be robust against improper focusing and lighting conditions while providing the accuracy necessary to deduce small area changes, which correspond to small volume changes in an isotropic material. The image capture, area analysis method is used to determine the compression of cubic crystals, yielding results in good agreement with diffraction and volumetric measurements. As a proof of concept, the equation of state of amorphous red phosphorus is measured up to 12 GPa under hydrostatic conditions where the quantified volume change between the red and black phases is approximately ΔV/V(0) ≈ 0.05 after a reduction of volume nearing 35% at 8 GPa. A large hysteresis is present during decompression and eventually results in a 15% permanent densification relative to the starting volume, which is attributed to a pressure induced crystallization from red to black phosphorus. The robustness of the technique is also demonstrated by measuring the equation of state of GeSe(2) glasses for semi transparent samples and As(2)O(3) in which gold coating is used as a contrasting aid.

  13. Optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis for state of alert sensing.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pinto, Javier; Torres-Torriti, Miguel

    2013-03-28

    Road accident statistics from different countries show that a significant number of accidents occur due to driver's fatigue and lack of awareness to traffic conditions. In particular, about 60% of the accidents in which long haul truck and bus drivers are involved are attributed to drowsiness and fatigue. It is thus fundamental to improve non-invasive systems for sensing a driver's state of alert. One of the main challenges to correctly resolve the state of alert is measuring the percentage of eyelid closure over time (PERCLOS), despite the driver's head and body movements. In this paper, we propose a technique that involves optical flow and driver's kinematics analysis to improve the robustness of the driver's alert state measurement under pose changes using a single camera with near-infrared illumination. The proposed approach infers and keeps track of the driver's pose in 3D space in order to ensure that eyes can be located correctly, even after periods of partial occlusion, for example, when the driver stares away from the camera. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the approach with a correct eyes detection rate of 99.41%, on average. The results obtained with the proposed approach in an experiment involving fifteen persons under different levels of sleep deprivation also confirm the discriminability of the fatigue levels. In addition to the measurement of fatigue and drowsiness, the pose tracking capability of the proposed approach has potential applications in distraction assessment and alerting of machine operators.

  14. Density of states, optical and thermoelectric properties of perovskite vanadium fluorides Na3VF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Azam, Sikander

    2014-05-01

    The electronic structure, charge density and Fermi surface of Na3VF6 compound have been examined with the support of density functional theory (DFT). Using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method, we employed the local density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and Engel-Vosko GGA (EVGGA) to treat the exchange correlation potential to solve Kohn-Sham equations. The calculation show that Na3VF6 compound has metallic nature and the Fermi energy (EF) is assessed by overlapping of V-d state. The calculated density of states at the EF are about 18.655, 51.932 and 13.235 states/eV, and the bare linear low-temperature electronic specific heat coefficient (γ) is found to be 3.236 mJ/mol-K2, 9.008 mJ/mol-K2 and 2.295 mJ/mol-K2 for LDA, GGA and EVGGA, respectively. The Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The chemical bonding of Na3VF6 compound is analyzed through the electronic charge density in the (1 1 0) crystallographic plane. The optical constants and thermal properties were also calculated and discussed.

  15. Dynamic translocation of ligand-complexed DNA through solid-state nanopores with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sischka, Andy; Spiering, Andre; Khaksar, Maryam; Laxa, Miriam; König, Janine; Dietz, Karl-Josef; Anselmetti, Dario

    2010-11-01

    We investigated the threading and controlled translocation of individual lambda-DNA (λ-DNA) molecules through solid-state nanopores with piconewton force sensitivity, millisecond time resolution and picoampere ionic current sensitivity with a set-up combining quantitative 3D optical tweezers (OT) with electrophysiology. With our virtually interference-free OT set-up the binding of RecA and single peroxiredoxin protein molecules to λ-DNA was quantitatively investigated during dynamic translocation experiments where effective forces and respective ionic currents of the threaded DNA molecule through the nanopore were measured during inward and outward sliding. Membrane voltage-dependent experiments of reversible single protein/DNA translocation scans yield hysteresis-free, asymmetric single-molecule fingerprints in the measured force and conductance signals that can be attributed to the interplay of optical trap and electrostatic nanopore potentials. These experiments allow an exact localization of the bound protein along the DNA strand and open fascinating applications for label-free detection of DNA-binding ligands, where structural and positional binding phenomena can be investigated at a single-molecule level.

  16. Multiscale dispersion-state characterization of nanocomposites using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Simon; Eppler, Florian; Weber, Marco; Olowojoba, Ganiu; Weiss, Patrick; Hübner, Christof; Mikonsaari, Irma; Freude, Wolfgang; Koos, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Nanocomposite materials represent a success story of nanotechnology. However, development of nanomaterial fabrication still suffers from the lack of adequate analysis tools. In particular, achieving and maintaining well-dispersed particle distributions is a key challenge, both in material development and industrial production. Conventional methods like optical or electron microscopy need laborious, costly sample preparation and do not permit fast extraction of nanoscale structural information from statistically relevant sample volumes. Here we show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a versatile tool for nanomaterial characterization, both in a laboratory and in a production environment. The technique does not require sample preparation and is applicable to a wide range of solid and liquid material systems. Large particle agglomerates can be directly found by OCT imaging, whereas dispersed nanoparticles are detected by model-based analysis of depth-dependent backscattering. Using a model system of polystyrene nanoparticles, we demonstrate nanoparticle sizing with high accuracy. We further prove the viability of the approach by characterizing highly relevant material systems based on nanoclays or carbon nanotubes. The technique is perfectly suited for in-line metrology in a production environment, which is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art compounding extruder. These experiments represent the first demonstration of multiscale nanomaterial characterization using OCT.

  17. Multiscale dispersion-state characterization of nanocomposites using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Simon; Eppler, Florian; Weber, Marco; Olowojoba, Ganiu; Weiss, Patrick; Hübner, Christof; Mikonsaari, Irma; Freude, Wolfgang; Koos, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials represent a success story of nanotechnology. However, development of nanomaterial fabrication still suffers from the lack of adequate analysis tools. In particular, achieving and maintaining well-dispersed particle distributions is a key challenge, both in material development and industrial production. Conventional methods like optical or electron microscopy need laborious, costly sample preparation and do not permit fast extraction of nanoscale structural information from statistically relevant sample volumes. Here we show that optical coherence tomography (OCT) represents a versatile tool for nanomaterial characterization, both in a laboratory and in a production environment. The technique does not require sample preparation and is applicable to a wide range of solid and liquid material systems. Large particle agglomerates can be directly found by OCT imaging, whereas dispersed nanoparticles are detected by model-based analysis of depth-dependent backscattering. Using a model system of polystyrene nanoparticles, we demonstrate nanoparticle sizing with high accuracy. We further prove the viability of the approach by characterizing highly relevant material systems based on nanoclays or carbon nanotubes. The technique is perfectly suited for in-line metrology in a production environment, which is demonstrated using a state-of-the-art compounding extruder. These experiments represent the first demonstration of multiscale nanomaterial characterization using OCT. PMID:27557544

  18. Resting-state functional connectivity in the human brain revealed with diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    White, Brian R.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raich-le, Marcus E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Culver, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Mapping resting-state networks allows insight into the brain's functional architecture and physiology and has rapidly become important in contemporary neuroscience research. Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is an emerging functional neuroimaging technique with the advantages, relative to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), of portability and the ability to simultaneously measure both oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin. Previous optical studies have evaluated the temporal features of spontaneous resting brain signals. Herein, we develop techniques for spatially mapping functional connectivity with DOT (fc-DOT). Simultaneous imaging over the motor and visual cortices yielded robust correlation maps reproducing the expected functional neural architecture. The localization of the maps was confirmed with task-response studies and with subject-matched fc-MRI. These fc-DOT methods provide a task-less approach to mapping brain function in populations that were previously difficult to research. Our advances may permit new studies of early childhood development and of unconscious patients. In addition, the comprehensive hemoglobin contrasts of fc-DOT enable innovative studies of the biophysical origin of the functional connectivity signal. PMID:19344773

  19. Solid-state luminescence for the optical examination of archaeological glass beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, N.; Beltsios, K.; Oikonomou, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Bassiakos, Y.; Michael, C. T.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2008-03-01

    The work pertains to the application of solid-state luminescence as a characterization tool for glassy ceramic cultural artefacts. An archaeological glass bead collection excavated at the city of Thebes, Greece and considered as unique in terms of typological variety and time span was examined with the application of luminescence techniques (thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence). Additionally, X-rays fluorescence (XRF) was used to provide non-destructively the elemental concentration profile of the samples. The thermoluminescence signals following laboratory irradiation provided distinct groups of spectra types according to the color classification of the samples. For each sample, the signal sensitivity and growth were examined using both thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence recording. The study provides evidence for the usefulness of the combined application of luminescence and non-destructive, XRF-based, elemental analysis for the characterization of glass assemblages. Finally, due to the satisfactory level of radiation-induced signal intensity, the work suggests the possibility of chronological estimation of ancient glass beads using luminescence dating protocols.

  20. Detection of fluorescence lifetime based on solid state technology and its application to optical oxygen sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang R.; O'Leary, Paul; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper presents the development of an instrument using solid state components for luminescence lifetime based sensing. For a number of applications luminescence lifetime based sensing is the preferred method because of its inherent referencing possibility. Further, lifetime based instrumentation promises a simplified optical construction, since the measurement is, within certain limits, independent of the signal intensity. Various measurement schemes have been reported, especially for optical oxygen sensors, using dynamic fluorescence quenching as the information carrier. However, most of them require bulky and expensive instrumentation because of the need for high-frequency modulated excitation sources and detection systems. In general photo-multipliers have been required. We report on the development of a measurement scheme using low-cost semiconductor devices (light emitting diodes, photo-diodes). The detection system is based on heterodyne demodulation techniques for reduction of the signal frequency range. The basic principles of the system is described and a comparison with existing measurement schemes is presented. The capabilities of the system are demonstrated with measurements on two sensor types having luminescence lifetimes in the range of 1 microsecond(s) and 50 microsecond(s) . Finally, a custom CMOS integrated circuit is presented which implements the front-end of the detection system.

  1. Fluorescence reabsorption calculation and influence on solid-state optical cooling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Chang, Shengli; Yang, Jiankun; Zhou, Mu; Cao, Dingxiang; Tan, Jichun

    2007-12-10

    The calculation model of fluorescence reabsorption and reemission with consideration of reflection on the boundary and material size using Monte Carlo method is proposed. To validate this stochastic model, experiments were conducted, and the calculated steady state spectra showed a good agreement with measurements. Using the absorption and fluorescence spectra of Yb-doped phosphate glass by careful measurements and corrections, we calculated the redshift in the observed fluorescence spectra and external quantum efficiency caused by fluorescence reabsorption and re-emission for the samples with the geometries of cylinder and cuboid. The calculation results show that the fluorescence reabsorption and re-emission have significant influence on the cooling efficiency. The calculation results also show that the cylinder with small waist beam incident (the incident light beam diameter is much less than the size of the sample, and goes through the center of the sample) is suitable for optical cooling.

  2. Analysis of excited-state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter at 1529 nm.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Junyu; Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-06-27

    In this work, a detailed theoretical analysis of 1529 nm ES-FADOF (excited state Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter) based on rubidium atoms pumped by 780 nm laser is introduced, where Zeeman splitting, Doppler broadening, and relaxation processes are considered. Experimental results are carefully compared with the derivation. The results prove that the optimal pumping frequency is affected by the working magnetic field. The population distribution among all hyperfine Zeeman sublevels under the optimal pumping frequency has also been obtained, which shows that 85Rb atoms are the main contribution to the population. The peak transmittance above 90% is obtained, which is in accordance with the experiment. The calculation also shows that the asymmetric spectra observed in the experiment are caused by the unbalanced population distribution among Zeeman sublevels. This theoretical model can be used for all kinds of calculations for FADOF.

  3. Entanglement and the ground state of fermions trapped in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.

    2009-10-01

    Using White's density matrix renormalization group technique we calculate entanglement of fermions confined in a one-dimensional trap with an underlying lattice. The system is modeled using a repulsive Hubbard model plus a quadratic potential. Due to the confining potential, metallic and Mott-insulating domains coexist in the system. The entanglement is measured by the on-site entropy and the block entropy, and these quantities are calculated as a function of the local repulsion and the curvature of the trap. We found that local entropy decreases with the curvature for a fixed on-site repulsion. As a function of the on-site repulsion the local entropy first increases and then diminishes. Our most important goal is to show that local and block entropy are useful tools for characterization of the ground states of fermions trapped in optical lattices.

  4. Solid-state semiconductor optical cryocooler based on CdS nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Li, Dehui; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xinjiang; Huang, Baoling; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-08-13

    We demonstrate the laser cooling of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate using CdS nanobelts. The local temperature change of the SOI substrate exactly beneath the CdS nanobelts is deduced from the ratio of the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman intensities from the Si layer on the top of the SOI substrate. We have achieved a 30 and 20 K net cooling starting from 290 K under a 3.8 mW 514 nm and a 4.4 mW 532 nm pumping, respectively. In contrast, a laser heating effect has been observed pumped by 502 and 488 nm lasers. Theoretical analysis based on the general static heat conduction module in the Ansys program package is conducted, which agrees well with the experimental results. Our investigations demonstrate the laser cooling capability of an external thermal load, suggesting the applications of II-VI semiconductors in all-solid-state optical cryocoolers.

  5. Excited-state dynamics and nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzari, Luca; Gnoli, Andrea; Righini, Marcofabio; Dâna, Aykutlu; Aydinli, Atilla

    2006-05-01

    We use a dedicated Z-scan setup, arranged to account for cumulative effects, to study the nonlinear optical response of Ge nanocrystals embedded in silica matrix. Samples are prepared with plasma-enchanced chemical-vapor deposition and post-thermal annealing. We measure a third-order nonlinear refraction coefficient of γ =1×10-16m2/W. The nonlinear absorption shows an intensity-independent coefficient of β =4×10-10m/W related to fast processes. In addition, we measure a second β component around 10-9m /W with a relaxation time of 300μs that rises linearly with the laser intensity. We associate its origin to the absorption of excited carriers from a surface-defect state with a long depopulation time.

  6. Probing iron spin state by optical absorption in laser-heated diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, S.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Lin, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Pressure-induced spin-pairing transitions in iron-bearing minerals have been in the focus of geophysical studies1. Modern consensus is that iron spin state in the lower mantle is a complex function of crystal structure, composition, pressure, and temperature. Discontinuities in physical properties of lower mantle minerals have been revealed over the spin transition pressure range, but at room temperature. In this work, we have used a supercontinuum laser source and an intensified CCD camera to probe optical properties of siderite, FeCO3, and post-perovskite, Mg0.9Fe0.1SiO3, across the spin transition in laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Synchronously gating the CCD with the supercontinuum pulses (Fig. 1A) allowed diminishing thermal background to ~8.3*10-4. Utilizing the experimental setup we infer the spin state of ferrous iron in siderite at high pressure and temperature conditions (Fig. 1B). Similar behavior is observed for low spin ferric iron in post-perovskite at 130 GPa indicating that all iron in post-perovskite is high spin at lower mantle conditions. Also, our experimental setup holds promise for measuring radiative thermal conductivity of mantle minerals at relevant mantle conditions. Figure 1. (A) Timing of the optical absorption measurements at high temperature. (B) High temperature siderite absorption spectra at 45 GPa. Before heating and quenched after 1300 K spectra are shown in light and dark blue, respectively. Green and red curves are absorption spectra at 1200 K and 1300 K, respectively. Spectra shown in black represent room temperature absorption data on HS (43 GPa) and LS (45.5 GPa) siderite after Lobanov et al., 2015, shown for comparison.

  7. Optical density of states in ultradilute GaAsN alloy: Coexistence of free excitons and impurity band of localized and delocalized states

    SciTech Connect

    Bhuyan, Sumi; Pal, Bipul; Bansal, Bhavtosh; Das, Sanat K.; Dhar, Sunanda

    2014-07-14

    Optically active states in liquid phase epitaxy-grown ultra-dilute GaAsN are studied. The feature-rich low temperature photoluminescence spectrum has contributions from excitonic band states of the GaAsN alloy, and two types of defect states—localized and extended. The degree of delocalization for extended states both within the conduction and defect bands, characterized by the electron temperature, is found to be similar. The degree of localization in the defect band is analyzed by the strength of the phonon replicas. Stronger emission from these localized states is attributed to their giant oscillator strength.

  8. Chaotic quantum ratchets and filters with cold atoms in optical lattices: Properties of Floquet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Gwang-Ok

    The -kicked rotor is a paradigm of quantum chaos. Its realisation with clouds of cold atoms in pulsed optical lattices demonstrated the well-known quantum chaos phenomenon of 'dynamical localisation'. In those experi ments by several groups world-wide, the £-kicks were applied at equal time intervals. However, recent theoretical and experimental work by the cold atom group at UCL Monteiro et al 2002, Jonckheere et al 2003, Jones et al 2004 showed that novel quantum and classical dynamics arises if the atomic cloud is pulsed with repeating sequences of unequally spaced kicks. In Mon teiro et al 2002 it was found that the energy absorption rates depend on the momentum of the atoms relative to the optical lattice hence a type of chaotic ratchet was proposed. In Jonckheere et al and Jones et al, a possible mechanism for selecting atoms according to their momenta (velocity filter) was investigated. The aim of this thesis was to study the properties of the underlying eigen values and eigenstates. Despite the unequally-spaced kicks, these systems are still time-periodic, so we in fact investigated the Floquet states, which are eigenstates of U(T), the one-period time evolution operator. The Floquet states and corresponding eigenvalues were obtained by diagonalising a ma trix representation of the operator U(T). It was found that the form of the eigenstates enables us to analyse qual itatively the atomic momentum probability distributions, N(p) measured experimentally. In particular, the momentum width of the individual eigen states varies strongly with < p > as expected from the theoretical and ex- perimental results obtained previously. In addition, at specific < p > close to values which in the experiment yield directed motion (ratchet transport), the probability distribution of the individual Floquet states is asymmetric, mirroring the asymmetric N(p) measured in clouds of cesium atoms. In the penultimate chapter, the spectral fluctuations (eigenvalue statis tics) are

  9. Fully stabilized optical frequency comb with sub-radian CEO phase noise from a SESAM-modelocked 1.5-µm solid-state laser.

    PubMed

    Schilt, Stephane; Bucalovic, Nikola; Dolgovskiy, Vladimir; Schori, Christian; Stumpf, Max C; Di Domenico, Gianni; Pekarek, Selina; Oehler, Andreas E H; Südmeyer, Thomas; Keller, Ursula; Thomann, Pierre

    2011-11-21

    We report the first full stabilization of an optical frequency comb generated from a femtosecond diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) operating in the 1.5-μm spectral region. The stability of the comb is characterized in free-running and in phase-locked operation by measuring the noise properties of the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) beat, of the repetition rate, and of a comb line at 1558 nm. The high Q-factor of the semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM)-modelocked 1.5-µm DPSSL results in a low-noise CEO-beat, for which a tight phase lock can be much more easily realized than for a fiber comb. Using a moderate feedback bandwidth of only 5.5 kHz, we achieved a residual integrated phase noise of 0.72 rad rms for the locked CEO, which is one of the smallest values reported for a frequency comb system operating in this spectral region. The fractional frequency stability of the CEO-beat is 20‑fold better than measured in a standard self-referenced commercial fiber comb system and contributes only 10(-15) to the optical carrier frequency instability at 1 s averaging time.

  10. Continuous-variable entanglement and quantum-state teleportation between optical and macroscopic vibrational modes through radiation pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Pirandola, Stefano; Mancini, Stefano; Vitali, David; Tombesi, Paolo

    2003-12-01

    We study an isolated, perfectly reflecting, mirror illuminated by an intense laser pulse. We show that the resulting radiation pressure efficiently entangles a mirror vibrational mode with the two reflected optical sideband modes of the incident carrier beam. The entanglement of the resulting three-mode state is studied in detail and it is shown to be robust against the mirror mode temperature. We then show how this continuous-variable entanglement can be profitably used to teleport an unknown quantum state of an optical mode onto the vibrational mode of the mirror.

  11. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset provides all data used to generate the figures and tables in the article entitled Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States published in the Journal of Geophysical Research: AtmospheresThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Holder , A., G. Hagler , J. Aurell, M. Hays , and B. Gullett. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, USA, 121(7): 3465-3483, (2016).

  12. ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Alternative Scheme for Generation of Atomic Schrödinger Cat States and Entangled Coherent States in an Optical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiu

    2010-05-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for generation of atomic Schrödinger cat states in an optical cavity. In the scheme the atoms are always populated in the two ground states and the cavity remains in the vacuum state. Therefore, the scheme is insensitive to the atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay. The scheme may be generalized to the deterministic generation of entangled coherent states for two atomic samples. In contrast with the previously proposed schemes of [Commun. Theor. Phys. 40 (2003) 103 and Chin. Phys. B 18 (2009) 1045], the required interaction time in our scheme is greatly shortened and thus the decoherence can be effectively suppressed.

  13. Comparisons of N-state Models for the Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Inorganic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferris, K. F.; Exarhos, G. J.; Risser, S. M.; Wolfgang, J.

    1997-03-01

    While the nonlinear optical properties of materials are frequently interpreted using a two or three state model for the electronic spectrum, systems with a more complex electronic structure require an approach which can denote state importance. In this paper, we examine and compare the electronic origin of the NLO properties for an inorganic polymer (polyphosphazenes) and an organic system (5-CB). In previous work we have shown that the electronic absorption spectrum of these compounds is complicated by localized excitations caused by geometric, charge distribution and symmetry constraints. These effects invoke both multistate and multiconfiguration contributions to the electronic transitions. In particular, the phosphazene system possessing in-plane and out-of-plane pi bonding networks requires a more flexible approach. Electronic structure calculations (NDDO/AM1) will be presented to illustrate the sensitivity of NLO properties to these effects and to suggest methods to control their nonlinearities. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences Division under contract DE-AC06-76RLO 1830.

  14. Optical control of exciton states and enhanced valley Zeeman splitting in WS2(Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kioseoglou, George; Currie, Marc; Hanbicki, Aubrey T.; Paradisanos, Ioannis; Stratakis, Emmanuel; Fotakis, Costas; Jonker, Berrend T.

    2016-10-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M = Mo, W and X = S, Se), are direct-gap semiconductors with many interesting properties capable of producing an all-surface material applicable to sensing, single-atom storage and other quantum-based technologies. Here we report on the optical control of single layers of MX2 such that the photoluminescence (PL) is solely from the trion state. After trion isolation, changes in the Raman spectra were observed: there is a decrease in the intensity of the out of plane mode and an enhancement of the 2LA mode. The effect is reversible, and our results suggest that the changes of the strength of a particular excitonic state are due to surface interactions with ambient environment. In addition, spatial non-uniformity is probed by studying variations of strain and the PL emission as a function of position on our sample. The boundaries of mechanically exfoliated MX2 as well as boundaries intentionally created via fs laser ablation were investigated. The edges exhibit significant Raman shifts as well as remarkably enhanced PL emission compared to their respective central area. Finally, we probe the degree of circular polarization of the emitted PL as a function of the photo-excitation energy and temperature to elucidate spin-dependent inter- and intra-valley relaxation mechanisms. This work was supported by the FP7-REGPOT-2012-2013-1, under grant agreement 316165.

  15. Resonant-state expansion applied to three-dimensional open optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doost, M. Â. B.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. Â. A.

    2014-07-01

    The resonant-state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is developed for three-dimensional open optical systems. Results are presented using the analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric sphere as unperturbed system. Since any perturbation which breaks the spherical symmetry mixes transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes, the RSE is extended here to include TM modes and a zero-frequency pole of the Green's function. We demonstrate the validity of the RSE for TM modes by verifying its convergence towards the exact result for a homogeneous perturbation of the sphere. We then apply the RSE to calculate the modes for a selection of perturbations sequentially reducing the remaining symmetry, given by a change of the dielectric constant of half-sphere and quarter-sphere shape. Since no exact solutions are known for these perturbations, we verify the RSE results by comparing them with the results of state of the art finite element method (FEM) and finite difference in time domain (FDTD) solvers. We find that for the selected perturbations, the RSE provides a significantly higher accuracy than the FEM and FDTD for a given computational effort, demonstrating its potential to supersede presently used methods. We furthermore show that in contrast to presently used methods, the RSE is able to determine the perturbation of a selected group of modes by using a limited basis local to these modes, which can further reduce the computational effort by orders of magnitude.

  16. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; West, Matthew; Wang, Jon M.; Jeong, Cheol -Heon; Wenger, John C.; Evans, Greg J.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.; Lee, Alex K. Y.

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.

  17. Quantification of black carbon mixing state from traffic: Implications for aerosol optical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Willis, Megan D.; Healy, Robert M.; Riemer, Nicole; ...

    2016-04-14

    The climatic impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosol, an important absorber of solar radiation in the atmosphere, remain poorly constrained and are intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modelling informed by quantitative measurements from a soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer, we confirm that the mixing state (the distribution of co-emitted aerosol amongst fresh BC-containing particles) at the time of emission significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble aerosol mass spectrometry observations indicate that BC near the point of emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) inmore » two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon in HOA-rich and BC-rich particle classes was < 0.1 and 0.8, respectively. Notably, approximately 90 % of BC mass resides in BC-rich particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Lastly, significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection into the atmosphere.« less

  18. Influence of wetting state on optical reflectance spectra of Si nanopillar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Minji; Kim, Sujung; Li, Jiaqi; Xu, Xiumei; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Lee, Eunsongyi; Kim, Dong-Wook; Chen, Chang

    2015-12-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations showed that the reflectance spectra of crystalline Si nanopillar (NP) arrays with diameters of 40, 70, 100, and 130 nm differed depending on wetting state. The observed reflectance dips of the 40-nm-diameter NP array were in good agreement with those estimated from destructive interference conditions at the top and bottom of the NPs: the NP arrays were treated as a homogeneous medium with an effective permittivity according to the effective medium approximation model. In contrast, the dip positions of the FDTD-simulated spectra for 70-, 100-, and 130-nm-diameter NP arrays deviated from the results of interference calculations, particularly for short wavelengths. This suggested that Mie resonances in individual NPs significantly increased the absorption cross-section at the resonant wavelengths, which was sensitive to the refractive index of the surrounding medium (i.e., the wetting state). Optical reflectance measurements provide an easy and efficient means of inspecting the wetting behavior of non-flat surfaces.

  19. Gender-related effects of prefrontal cortex connectivity: a resting-state functional optical tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to play an important role in “higher” brain functions such as personality and emotion that may associated with several gender-related mental disorders. In this study, the gender effects of functional connectivity, cortical lateralization and significantly differences in the PFC were investigated by using resting-state functional optical tomography (fOT) measurement. A total of forty subjects including twenty healthy male and twenty healthy female adults were recruited for this study. In the results, the hemoglobin responses are higher in the male group. Additionally, male group exhibited the stronger connectivity in the PFC regions. In the result of lateralization, leftward dominant was observed in the male group but bilateral dominance in the female group. Finally, the 11 channels of the inferior PFC regions (corresponding to the region of Brodmann area 45) are significant different with spectrum analysis. Our findings suggest that the resting-state fOT method can provide high potential to apply to clinical neuroscience for several gender-related mental disorders diagnosis. PMID:25136481

  20. Topological semimetal: a probable new state of quantum optical lattice gases protected by D4 symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai; Liu, W. Vincent; Das Sarma, S.

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate that a novel topological semimetal emerges as a parity-protected critical theory for fermionic atoms loaded in the p and d orbital bands of a two-dimensional optical lattice. The new quantum state is characterized by a parabolic band-degeneracy point with Berry flux 2 π , in sharp contrast to the π flux of Dirac points as in graphene. We prove that this topological liquid is a universal property for all lattices of D4 point group symmetry and the band degeneracy is protected by odd parity. Turning on interparticle repulsive interaction, the system undergoes a phase transition to a topological insulator, whose experimental signature includes chiral gapless domain-wall modes, reminiscent of quantum Hall edge states. KS and SDS acknowledge the support of JQI-NSF-PFC, AFOSR-MURI, ARO-DARPA-OLE and ARO-MURI. W.V.L. is supported by ARO and ARO-DARPA-OLE. We thank the KITP at UCSB for its hospitality where this research is supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY05-51164.

  1. Band gap states in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films studied by soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, M. B.; Kristiansen, P. T.; Duda, L.; Niklasson, G. A.; Österlund, L.

    2016-11-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten trioxide (WO3) thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering have been studied using soft x-ray spectroscopy and optical spectrophotometry. Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements reveal band gap states in sub-stoichiometric γ-WO3-x with x  =  0.001-0.005. The energy positions of these states are in good agreement with recently reported density functional calculations. The results were compared with optical absorption measurements in the near infrared spectral region. An optical absorption peak at 0.74 eV is assigned to intervalence transfer of polarons between W sites. A less prominent peak at energies between 0.96 and 1.16 eV is assigned to electron excitation of oxygen vacancies. The latter results are supported by RIXS measurements, where an energy loss in this energy range was observed, and this suggests that electron transfer processes involving transitions from oxygen vacancy states can be observed in RIXS. Our results have implications for the interpretation of optical properties of WO3, and the optical transitions close to the band gap, which are important in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical applications.

  2. Entanglement purification and concentration of electron-spin entangled states using quantum-dot spins in optical microcavities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Chuan; Zhang Yong; Jin Guangsheng

    2011-09-15

    We present an entanglement purification protocol and an entanglement concentration protocol for electron-spin entangled states, resorting to quantum-dot spin and optical-microcavity-coupled systems. The parity-check gates (PCGs) constructed by the cavity-spin-coupling system provide a different method for the entanglement purification of electron-spin entangled states. This protocol can efficiently purify an electron ensemble in a mixed entangled state. The PCGs can also concentrate electron-spin pairs in less-entangled pure states efficiently. The proposed methods are more flexible as only single-photon detection and single-electron detection are needed.

  3. Complete Deterministic Analyzer for Multi-Electron Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States Assisted by Double-Side Optical Microcavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai-Rui; Ren, Bao-Cang; Zhang, Mei; Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2013-11-01

    We present a complete deterministic scheme for the multi-electron Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state analyzer, resorting to an interface between the polarization of a probe photon and the spin of an electron in a quantum dot embedded in a double-sided optical microcavity. All the multi-spin GHZ states can be completely discriminated by using single-photon detectors and linear optical elements. Our scheme has some features. First, it is a complete GHZ-state analyzer for multi-electron spin systems. Second, the initial entangled states remain after being identified and they can be used for a successive task. Third, the electron qubits are static and the photons play a role of a medium for information transfer, which has a good application in quantum repeater in which the electron qubits are used to store the information and the photon qubits are used to transfer the information between others.

  4. Chiral optical Tamm states at the boundary of the medium with helical symmetry of the dielectric tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Vetrov, S. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    A new optical state at the boundary of a chiral medium whose dielectric tensor has a helical symmetry is described analytically and numerically. The case of zero tangential wavenumber is considered. The state localized near the boundary does not transfer energy along this boundary and decreases exponentially with the distance from the boundary. The penetration of the field into the chiral medium is blocked at wavelengths corresponding to the photonic band gap and close to the pitch of the helix. The polarization of light near the boundary has the same sign of chirality as the helical symmetry. It is shown that the homogeneous environment or a substrate should exhibit anisotropic metallic reflection. The spectral manifestation of the state is determined by the angle between the optical axes of the media at the interface. A state at the interface between a cholesteric liquid crystal and an anisotropic metal-dielectric nanocomposite was considered as an example.

  5. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Gotoh, Hideki Sanada, Haruki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2014-10-15

    Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL) method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD). PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE) are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  6. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Zi-Ming E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan E-mail: lizy@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-07-28

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

  7. Numerical investigation of optical Tamm states in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zi-Ming; Hu, Yi-Hua; Ju, Gui-Fang; Zhong, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Wei; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Optical Tamm states (OTSs) in analogy with its electronic counterpart confined at the surface of crystals are optical surface modes at the interfaces between uniform metallic films and distributed Bragg reflectors. In this paper, OTSs are numerically investigated in two-dimensional hybrid plasmonic-photonic crystal nanobeams (HPPCN), which are constructed by inserting a metallic nanoparticle into a photonic crystal nanobeam formed by periodically etching square air holes into dielectric waveguides. The evidences of OTSs can be verified by transmission spectra and the field distribution at resonant frequency. Similar to OTSs in one-dimensional multilayer structures OTSs in HPPCN can be excited by both TE and TM polarization. The physical origin of OTSs in HPPCN is due to the combined contribution of strong reflection imposed by the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal (PC) nanobeam and strong backward scattering exerted by the nanoparticle. For TE, incidence OTSs can be obtained at the frequency near the center of the photonic band gap. The transmissivity and the resonant frequency can be finely tuned by the dimension of nanoparticles. While for TM incidence OTSs are observed for relatively larger metallic nanoparticles compared with TE polarization. The differences between TE and TM polarization can be explained by two reasons. For one reason stronger backward scattering of nanoparticles for TE polarization can be achieved by the excitation of localized surface plasmon polariton of nanoparticles. This assumption has been proved by examining the scattering, absorption, and extinction cross section of the metallic nanoparticle. The other can be attributed to the deep and wide PBG available for TE polarization with less number of air holes compared with TM polarization. Our results show great promise in extending the application scope of OTSs from one-dimensional structures to practical integrated photonic devices and circuits.

  8. Gradual Fermi-surface modification in orbitally ordered state of FeSe revealed by optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, M.; Yanase, K.; Nabeshima, F.; Imai, Y.; Maeda, A.; Tajima, S.

    2017-05-01

    We performed optical spectroscopy on a thin film of FeSe, in which orbital ordering shows up in the orthorhombic phase below Ts. The optical conductivity spectrum for FeSe exhibits no gap feature in the orbitally ordered state, in contrast to those for iron pnictides showing the gap opening in the magnetostructurally ordered phase. Instead, we observed a gradual suppression of the coherent carrier density with temperature. This highlights a peculiar metallic state in FeSe that the Fermi surfaces are gradually modified below Ts. We also found an anomalous behavior of the optical phonon mode, indicating the intimate connection between the orbital and lattice degrees of freedom. The result implies the orbital origin of the structural transition.

  9. Bifocal Optical-Vortex Lens with Sorting of the Generated Nonseparable Spin-Orbital Angular-Momentum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Alwin M. W.; Fan, Fan; Du, Tao; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Wanlong; Zhao, Chenxiang; Wang, Xiaoqian; Ching, Kwong-Lung; Li, Guijun; Luo, Hailu; Chigrinov, Vladimir G.; Wen, Shuangchun; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we devise and demonstrate experimentally a polarization-dependent diffractive bifocal vortex lens operating via the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. The interaction between the incident beam and the bifocal vortex lens establishes nonseparable spin and orbital angular-momentum photon states. The components of the nonseparable state associated with different couplings of spin and orbital angular momentum can be sorted by the bifocality of the lens. A theoretical model of the device is developed using Fresnel's diffraction. The device is simply, efficiently, and economically realized from the optical setup using the underlying physics of Pancharatnam-Berry-phase polarization holography. The measured transmittance and diffraction efficiency of the fabricated device is high—up to 90% and 91%, respectively. Various applications of the polarization bifocal vortex lens in the field of orbital angular-momentum lasing and optical manipulation are discussed. Thus, the bifocal vortex lens can have significant impact on classical and quantum optics, as well as theoretical physics.

  10. Calculation of aerosol optical properties under different assumptions on mixing state, refractive index, density and hygroscopicity: uncertainties and importance of representation of aerosol mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The calculation of aerosol optical properties from aerosol mass is a process subject to uncertainty related to necessary assumptions on the treatment of the chemical species mixing state, density, refractive index, and hygroscopic growth. We used the FlexAOD post-processing tool to calculate the optical properties (aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g)) from chemistry-transport model aerosol profiles, using a wide range of assumptions on aerosol chemical and physical properties. We calculated that the most important factor of uncertainty is the assumption about the mixing state, for which we estimate an uncertainty of 30-35% on the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA). The choice of the core composition in the core-shell representation is of minor importance for calculation of AOD, while it is critical for the SSA. Other factors of uncertainty tested here have a maximum average impact of 10% each on calculated AOD, and an impact of a few percent on SSA and g. We then tested simple parameterizations of the aerosol mixing state, expressed as a function of the aerosol aging, and verified that they may be helpful in reducing the uncertainty when comparing simulations with AERONET retrievals.

  11. Mercury in fish tissue of Idaho lakes vs. those of the Northeastern United States as it relates to the moderating effects of selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure mode to wildlife and humans is through the consumption of aquatic organisms, particulary fish. Selenium has been demonstrated to moderate the toxicity of MeHg in every test animal type examined to date. A molar ratio of Se:Hg >1 appear...

  12. Mercury in fish tissue of Idaho lakes vs. those of the Northeastern United States as it relates to the moderating effects of selenium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary methyl-mercury (MeHg) exposure mode to wildlife and humans is through the consumption of aquatic organisms, particulary fish. Selenium has been demonstrated to moderate the toxicity of MeHg in every test animal type examined to date. A molar ratio of Se:Hg >1 appear...

  13. Proposal for a probabilistic 'dial-up' generator of Fock states in a traveling-wave optical field

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Benmoussa, Adil

    2006-06-15

    We discuss a method for generating Fock (number) states in a single-mode traveling-wave optical field, based on a method we recently proposed for performing a quantum nondemolition measurement of parity and for the generation of parity eigenstates [C. C. Gerry, A. Benmoussa, and R. A. Campos, Phys. Rev. A 72, 053818 (2005)]. The approach is a kind of 'dial-up' scheme that is probabilistic but also depends partially on directed state reductive measurements.

  14. Optical characterization of nitride-based light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, Hisashi

    This dissertation describes research dedicated to the solid-state lighting technology based on III-nitride light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Nitride semiconductors are rather an immature material system compared to conventional III-V semiconductors. As the solid-state lighting technology based on nitride optoelectronic devices becomes widely accepted in the market, solid-state technology is required to compete with the conventional vacuum lighting technology, especially in energy efficiency. In addition to such energy-efficiency requirements, solid-state optoelectronic devices have the potential to explore new applications based on their unique properties. The research was conducted as a way of optical characterization of LEDs with a strong emphasis on electroluminescence. Device-packaging techniques were introduced in the early stage of the research to evaluate performances of discrete LEDs including phosphor-combined white-light emitting devices. Light extraction and white-LED fabrication were of direct interest in terms of solid-state lighting, which occupies a large part of the present dissertation. The suspended-LED technique was introduced to improve light extraction and the sphere package was invented as a result of the technique. A phosphor-combined sphere LED achieved as high as 117 lm/W of luminous efficacy. Low-temperature characterization is important to evaluate light-emission efficiency of LEDs, especially the internal quantum efficiency. It was a generally known problem that electroluminescence efficiency deteriorates drastically at low temperature where photoluminescence efficiency remains high. High-quality LEDs prepared on GaN bulk substrates that became available during the present project contributed to the low-temperature study, largely to address the problem. Electroluminescence is related to carrier generation processes via low-temperature measurements on such high-quality LEDs. This study produced a model to explain electroluminescence

  15. Exact symmetries of electron states and optical selection rules in wurtzite-based nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaev, Yu. E.; Tronc, P.

    2001-11-01

    The crystal structure of wurtzite-based (hexagonal) quantum wells (QW's), such as (GaN)m/AlN ones for example, is found to be described by the layer group P3m1 (DG69) and does not depend on the number of atomic monolayers constituting the QW whereas the symmetry of wurtzite-based superlattices (SL's), such as (GaN)m(AlN)n ones for example, has been previously shown to be described by the space groups C13v or C46v depending on m+n is even or odd. The P3m1 (DG69) group is a factor group of the C13v group, the latter being the product of the P3m1 group and the subgroup containing the translations along the z axis. Basing on these symmetries, we have determined the exact symmetries of Bloch states at the Γ and other symmetry points of the Brillouin zones of QW's and SL's and derived optical selection rules for carriers and excitons. The latters present large Rydberg values. We have shown that the built-in electric field, directed along the z axis due to the symmetry, breaks the translational invariance of the SL's along this direction reducing their symmetry to that of a single QW. We have established that when one (several) phonon(s) is (are) involved in a radiative process, it is always possible to connect any initial state to any final one. The energy of the emitted photon depends on the nature of the phonon(s) if several channels are allowed for the transition. The symmetry of electron states in very thin QW's and short-period SL's is shown to be determined by their exact symmetry rather than that implied in envelope function approximation (EFA). Within the domain of validity of the EFA, i.e., for not too thin layers, a detailed analysis of the Bloch-state symmetry is performed on imposing the invariance of the structure under the change of z to -z (the σz symmetry operation). The correspondence is established between the symmetry of a Bloch state and the parity with respect to σz of its associated envelope function. It is shown that EFA artificially induces a

  16. Polarization spectra of excited-state-Mg(3[ital p])--rare-gas-atom optical collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lasell, R.A.; Olsgaard, D.A.; Havey, M.D. ); Kuprianov, D.V. )

    1994-07-01

    Experimental, polarization-dependent excitation spectra for excited-state-Mg--rare-gas-atom optical collisions are reported. In these first studies of the process, polarized Mg atoms in the 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] level are produced by absorption of linearly polarized light tuned to the 3[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0][r arrow]3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] resonance transition at 285.2 nm. Detuning-dependent, collision-induced polarization spectra are measured in a [plus minus]200-cm[sup [minus]1] range around the Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0] transition at 571.2 nm. The spectra correspond to probing transient Mg-Ne and Mg-Ar molecules on 3[ital p] [sup 1][Pi][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +] and 3[ital p] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][Sigma][sub 0][sup +] electronic transitions. Measurements of these excited-state polarization spectra for Mg-Ne optical collisions reveal that for detunings to the red of the atomic Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1][r arrow]5[ital s] [sup 1][ital S][sub 0] transition, electronic linear polarization greater than 50% survives far into the molecular regime. This represents a direct measure of the polarization important to alignment-dependent inelastic processes in alkaline-earth-metal--rare-gas-atom collisions. The polarization spectra are discussed in terms of existing information on the interatomic potentials and through an axial recoil limit for the polarization degree for parallel and perpendicular molecular transitions. Rate coefficients [ital k] for disalignment of Mg 3[ital p] [sup 1][ital P][sub 1] atoms by collisions with Ar [[ital k]=9.4(5)[times]10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 3]/s] and with Ne [[ital k]=6.5(7)[times]10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 3]/s] are also extracted from the data.

  17. Moderators of youth exercise intention and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Rebecca; Kosma, Maria; Symons Downs, Danielle

    2013-06-01

    This study tested moderators of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) based on geographical region, gender, race, and income among adolescents in an exercise context using multigroup path analyses. Participants were eighth- and ninth-grade students from Louisiana (LA; N = 448, M age = 14.37 years) and Pennsylvania (PA; N = 681, M age = 14.28 years). They completed measures of intention, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and exercise behavior. Based on two path analyses, geographical region was a significant moderator (p < .001); therefore, the moderating effects of gender, race, and income were analyzed separately for each state. Gender was a significant moderator for LA (p < .001) but not for PA (p = .90). Race and income did not moderate the TPB relationships within each state. Findings support the moderating effect of geographical region on the TPB construct relationships and indicate that gender moderates the TPB construct relationships in LA youth.

  18. Black carbon aerosol optical properties are influenced by initial mixing state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Healy, R. M.; Riemer, N.; West, M.; Wang, J. M.; Jeong, C. H.; Wenger, J.; Abbatt, J.; Lee, A.

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete combustion emits teragram quantities of black carbon (BC) aerosol to the troposphere each year, resulting in a significant warming effect on climate that may be second only to carbon dioxide. The magnitude of BC impacts on a global scale remains poorly constrained and is intimately related to its particle-scale physical and chemical properties. Using particle-resolved modeling informed by novel quantitative measurements from an Aerodyne soot-particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), we show that initial mixing state (or the distribution of co-emitted components amongst fresh BC-containing particles) significantly affects BC-aerosol optical properties even after a day of atmospheric processing. Both single particle and ensemble observations indicate that BC near emission co-exists with hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) in two distinct particle types: HOA-rich and BC-rich particles. The average mass fraction of black carbon (mfBC) in HOA- and BC-rich particle types was 0.02-0.08 and 0.72-0.93, respectively. Notably, positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of ensemble SP-AMS measurements indicates that BC-rich particles contribute the majority of BC mass (> 90%) in freshly emitted particles. This new measurement capability provides quantitative insight into the physical and chemical nature of BC-containing particles and is used to drive a particle-resolved aerosol box model. Significant differences in calculated single scattering albedo (an increase of 0.1) arise from accurate treatment of initial particle mixing state as compared to the assumption of uniform aerosol composition at the point of BC injection to the atmosphere.

  19. Fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of spin state of an electron in a semiconductor quantum dot using light-hole-trion states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Parvendra; Nakajima, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We theoretically show that under the Faraday geometry fast and high-fidelity optical initialization of electron spin (ES) state in a semiconductor quantum dot (SQD) can be realized by utilizing the light-hole (LH)-trion states. Initialization is completed within the time scale of ten nanoseconds with high fidelity, and the initialization laser pulse can be linearly, right-circularly, or left-circularly polarized. Moreover, we demonstrate that the time required for initialization can be further shortened down to a few hundreds of picoseconds if we introduce a pillar-microcavity to promote the relaxation of a LH-trion state towards the desired ES state through the Purcell effect. We also clarify the role of heavy-hole and light-hole mixing induced transitions on the fidelity of ES state initialization.

  20. Studying the Equation of State of Isochorically Heated Al Using Streaked Optical Pyrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberberger, D.; Nilson, P. M.; Gregor, M. C.; Boehly, T. R.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-10-01

    The thermal equilibration rates of warm (few eV) dense (~1023 g/cm3) matter is important in high-energy-density physics. The OMEGA EP laser was used to isochorically heat a 20- μm-thick Al target using a short-pulse beam with 250 J in a 10-ps pulse. Twenty OMEGA beams were used to drive a Ti backlighter to radiograph the expansion of the foil using an x-ray framing camera (XRFC). The short duration of the heating laser pulse and the subsequent hot-electron energy deposition inside the target ensure minimal hydrodynamic expansion during the target heating phase. Streaked optical pyrometry (SOP) was used to measure the surface temperature of the foil. Together, these two measurements can be used to determine the equation of state along the release isentrope of the isochorically heated Al foil. Initial analysis of the SOP and XRFC data indicate the Al foil was heated to temperatures of tens of eV. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  1. Optical Tamm states above the bulk plasma frequency at a Bragg stack/metal interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, S.; Kaliteevski, M. A.; Abram, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that surface-plasmon polaritons, a form of optical Tamm state, can occur at the interface between a metal and a Bragg reflector at frequencies above the bulk plasma frequency of the metal. The frequencies of the excitations are within the photonic band gap of the Bragg reflector which provides the required evanescent decay on that side of the interface. At finite in-plane wave vector, the low value of the permittivity of the metal above its plasma frequency can lead to an imaginary normal wave vector component in the metal, which provides the localization on the other side of the interface. It is proposed that the necessary conditions can be realized using a GaAs/AlAs Bragg stack coated with a suitable conducting metal oxide having a bulk plasma frequency of 1 eV, but the concept is valid for other systems given an appropriate plasma frequency and photonic band-gap structure. The dispersion relations of the plasmon polaritons in the structures considered are calculated for both possible polarizations, and it is shown how the excitations result in distinct features in the predicted reflectivity spectra.

  2. Risk factors for optic nerve disease in communities mesoendemic for savannah onchocerciasis, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Cousens, S N; Yahaya, H; Murdoch, I; Samaila, E; Evans, J; Babalola, O E; Zakari, M; Abiose, A; Jones, B R

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmic examinations on 6831 individuals aged 5 years or more, living in 34 guinea savannah communities mesoendemic for onchocerciasis, in Kaduna State, Nigeria, revealed a relatively high prevalence (9%) of optic nerve disease (OND). Further investigations were performed to determine what proportion of this burden of OND might be due to onchocercal infection. Information on history of cerebro-spinal meningitis (CSM), past use of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and chloroquine, consumption of cassava and locally produced alcohol was collected for all individuals by questioning. In addition, a nested case-control study of 81 cases of OND and 136 age and sex-matched controls was performed to investigate whether syphilis or a variety of other neurological disorders were responsible for a substantial proportion of cases of OND. Our data suggest that in this population, onchocercal infection is the single most important cause of OND and may account for 50% of all cases. Some 13% of cases were associated with signs suggestive of glaucoma. DEC use might be responsible for up to 30% of all OND. We found no evidence to suggest that any of the following are important causes of OND in the communities studied: CSM, syphilis, neurological syndromes such as polyneuropathy or other generalized neurological disease, consumption of raw cassava, consumption of locally prepared alcohol.

  3. Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Á. J.; Stojanovic, A. D.; Paunković, N.; Loura, R.; Muga, N. J.; Silva, N. A.; Mateus, P.; André, P. S.; Pinto, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure.

  4. [INVITED] State of the art of Brillouin fiber-optic distributed sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motil, Avi; Bergman, Arik; Tur, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    Fiber-optic distributed sensing, employing the Brillouin effect, is already a commercially available measurement technique for the accurate estimation of the static strain/temperature fields along tens of kilometers with a spatial resolution of the order of a meter. Furthermore, relentless research efforts are paving the way to even much wider usability of the technique through recently achieved enhanced performance in each of its critical dimensions: measurement range has been extended to hundreds of kilometers; spatial resolution is of the order of a centimeter or less, signal to noise ratio has been significantly improved; fast dynamic events can be captured at kHz's sampling rates; and a much better understanding of the underlying physics has been obtained, along with the formulation of figures of merit, and the preparation and early adoption of appropriate standards and guidelines. This paper describes the basics, as well as the state of the art, of the leading Brillouin interrogation methods, with emphasis on the significant progress made in the last 3 years. It also includes a short introduction to coding, which has proven instrumental in many of the recently obtained performance records.

  5. Aerosol optical properties in the southeastern United States in summer - Part 1: Hygroscopic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Attwood, Alexis R.; Beyersdorf, Andreas; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Day, Douglas A.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gordon, Timothy D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Lack, Daniel A.; Liao, Jin; Markovic, Milos Z.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Ng, Nga L.; Perring, Anne E.; Richardson, Matthews S.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Welti, Andre; Xu, Lu; Ziemba, Luke D.; Murphy, Daniel M.

    2016-04-01

    Aircraft observations of meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol properties were made during May-September 2013 in the southeastern United States (US) under fair-weather, afternoon conditions with well-defined planetary boundary layer structure. Optical extinction at 532 nm was directly measured at relative humidities (RHs) of ˜ 15, ˜ 70, and ˜ 90 % and compared with extinction calculated from measurements of aerosol composition and size distribution using the κ-Köhler approximation for hygroscopic growth. The calculated enhancement in hydrated aerosol extinction with relative humidity, f(RH), calculated by this method agreed well with the observed f(RH) at ˜ 90 % RH. The dominance of organic aerosol, which comprised 65 ± 10 % of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 1 µm in the planetary boundary layer, resulted in relatively low f(RH) values of 1.43 ± 0.67 at 70 % RH and 2.28 ± 1.05 at 90 % RH. The subsaturated κ-Köhler hygroscopicity parameter κ for the organic fraction of the aerosol must have been < 0.10 to be consistent with 75 % of the observations within uncertainties, with a best estimate of κ = 0.05. This subsaturated κ value for the organic aerosol in the southeastern US is broadly consistent with field studies in rural environments. A new, physically based, single-parameter representation was developed that better described f(RH) than did the widely used gamma power-law approximation.

  6. Ultrafast Optical Excitation of a Persistent Surface-State Population in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3

    SciTech Connect

    Sobota, Jonathan

    2012-03-14

    Using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we investigated the nonequilibrium dynamics of the topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}. We studied p-type Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}, in which the metallic Dirac surface state and bulk conduction bands are unoccupied. Optical excitation leads to a meta-stable population at the bulk conduction band edge, which feeds a nonequilibrium population of the surface state persisting for >10 ps. This unusually long-lived population of a metallic Dirac surface state with spin texture may present a channel in which to drive transient spin-polarized currents.

  7. Reduction of the time-to-full-brightness in solid-state lasers using intra-cavity adaptive optics.

    PubMed

    Lubeigt, Walter; Griffith, Mike; Laycock, Leslie; Burns, David

    2009-07-06

    Several adaptive-optics techniques, based on the active modification of the optical properties of the laser cavity, were used to significantly reduce the time-to-full-brightness of solid-state lasers. Resonator re-configuration was achieved using a mechanical translation stage and both multi- and single-element deformable bimorph mirrors. Using these techniques the effects of thermally induced distortion in Nd:YLF and Nd:YAG lasers can be minimized and the warm-up time reduced by a factor of 3-6.

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW A review of the coherent optical control of the exciton and spin states of semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    The spin of a carrier trapped in a self-assembled quantum dot has the potential to be a robust optically active qubit that is compatible with existing III-V semiconductor device technology. A key requirement for building a quantum processor is the ability to dynamically prepare, control and detect single quantum states. Here, experimental progress in the coherent optical control of single semiconductor quantum dots over the past decade is reviewed, alongside an introductory discussion of the basic principles of coherent control.

  9. Doppler-Free Two-Photon Absorption Spectroscopy of Vibronic Excited States of Naphthalene Assisted by AN Optical Frequency Comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Akiko; Nakashima, Kazuki; Misono, Masatoshi; Baba, Masaaki

    2017-06-01

    We observe Doppler-free two-photon absorption spectra of three bands of S_1 ← S_0 transition of naphthalene. We use an optical frequency comb stabilized to a GPS clock as a frequency reference of a scanning cw laser. The use of the optical frequency comb enables us to decide transition frequencies of rovibronic lines and their linewidths with uncertainties of several tens of kHz. We discuss the interactions in vibronic excited states of naphthalene based on the dependences of frequency shifts and linewidths on vibrational and on rotational quantum numbers. A. Nishiyama, K. Nakashima, A. Matsuba, M. Misono, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 318, 40 (2015).

  10. Optics teaching of mathematical students at M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University in courses of theoretical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, Vladimir A.; Drabovich, Konstantin N.

    2002-05-01

    The concept of teaching in optics and methodical problems of mathematical student's education are discussed. The fundamental knowledge on modern mathematics and of computer- based methods of investigations acquired by students at the first years allows our professors to represent the different branches of optics and photonics at the high scientific level. The methods of teaching have resulted from the more than thirty year's experience of work of the Chair of General Physics and Wave Processes staff of M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University on training the mathematical students.

  11. Characterizing long-term optical, ultraviolet and X-ray variability in different activity states of OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siejkowski, H.; Wierzcholska, A.

    2017-06-01

    We have studied long-term optical, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray observations of OJ 287 collected with the UVOT and XRT instruments mounted on board the Swift satellite to quantify spectral and temporal variability patterns observed during different activity states. We characterized the flux variations using the data collected during almost 11 yr of the monitoring of the blazar. Significant variability of the blazar has been detected both in the flux and spectral index from the optical to X-ray regimes. We noted that the variability patterns observed in the optical range are more pronounced than the ones in the X-ray band. There is no clear relation between the optical/UV and X-ray emission, neither during the quiescence state nor during outbursts. The most significant flares in the optical/UV regime were detected in 2015 December-2016 January. The shortest variability time-scale is one day and it is limited by the observation pointing. A low activity state of OJ 287 was observed at the end of 2014, while the beginning of 2015 revealed a flat X-ray spectrum, which has been observed for the first time. On one hand, this can be a spectral upturn where the synchrotron and inverse Compton components meet, but on the other hand, it can be generated by an additional emission component. The spectral studies have not revealed any bluer-when-brighter or redder-when-brighter chromatism in the colour-magnitude diagram for OJ 287 in any state of the source's activity. A harder-when-brighter behaviour was noticed for OJ 287 only in the case of the X-ray observations.

  12. Forest structure and aboveground biomass in the southwestern United States from MODIS and MISR

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Red band bidirectional reflectance factor data from the NASA MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) acquired over the southwestern United States were interpreted through a simple geometric–optical (GO) canopy reflectance model to provide maps of fractional crown cover (dimensionless),...

  13. Characterization of water molecular state in in-vivo thick tissues using diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, So Hyun

    Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water; however, detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the NIR, a water absorption peak is observed around 975 nm. The precise NIR peak's shape and position are highly sensitive to water molecular disposition. A bound water index (BWI) was developed that quantifies the spectral shift and shape changes observed in tissue water absorption spectra measured by broadband diffuse optical spectroscopic imaging (DOSI). DOSI quantitatively measures light absorption and scattering spectra in cm-deep tissues and therefore reveals bound water spectral shifts. BWI as a water state index was validated by comparing broadband DOSI to MRI and a conductivity cell using bound water phantoms. Non-invasive BWI measurements of malignant and normal tissues in 18 subjects showed a significantly higher fraction of free water in malignant tissues (p<0.0001) compared to normal tissues. BWI showed potential as a prognostic index based on high correlations with tumor grade and size. An algorithm for absolute temperature measurements in deep tissues was developed based on resolving opposing effects of water vibrational frequency shifts due to macromolecular binding. DOSI measures absolute temperature with a difference of 1.1+/-0.91°C from a thermistor. Deep tissue temperature measured in forearms during cold-stress was consistent with previously reported invasively-measured deep tissue temperature. Finally, the BWI was compared to Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) of diffusion weighted MRI in 9 breast cancer patients. The BWI and ADC correlated (R=0.8, p=<0.01) and both parameters decreased with increasing bulk water content in cancer tissues. Although BWI and ADC are positively correlated in

  14. State bistability between pure- and mixed-mode states in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser subject to parallel optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Chen, Jianjun; Xia, Guangqiong; Wu, Zhengmao

    2017-07-01

    Polarization dynamics in a 1550 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (1550 nm VCSEL) under parallel optical injection (POI) is investigated experimentally, and we experimentally observe the state bistability (SB) between pure- and mixed-mode states by scanning the injection power along different routes. Such a SB occurs only when the frequency of injection light is lower than that of the excited mode of a free-running 1550 nm VCSEL. Moreover, the effect of frequency detuning on the hysteresis loop width is analyzed.

  15. Molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using ground state recovery pump-probe optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Applegate, Brian E; Izatt, Joseph A

    2006-10-02

    We present a novel molecular imaging technique which combines the 3-D tomographic imaging capability of optical coherence tomography with the molecular sensitivity of pump-probe spectroscopy. This technique, based on transient absorption, is sensitive to any molecular chromophore. It is particularly promising for the many important biomarkers, such as hemoglobin, which are poor fluorophores and therefore difficult to image with current optical techniques without chemical labeling. Previous implementations of pump-probe optical coherence tomography have suffered from inefficient pump-probe schemes which hurt the sensitivity and applicability of the technique. Here we optimize the efficiency of the pump-probe approach by avoiding the steady-state kinetics and spontaneous processes exploited in the past in favor of measuring the transient absorption of fully allowed electronic transitions on very short time scales before a steady-state is achieved. In this article, we detail the optimization and characterization of the prototype system, comparing experimental results for the system sensitivity to theoretical predictions. We demonstrate in situ imaging of tissue samples with two different chromophores; the transfectable protein dsRed and the protein hemoglobin. We also demonstrate, with a simple sample vessel and a mixture of human whole blood and rhodamine 6G, the potential to use ground state recovery time to separate the contributions of multiple chromophores to the ground state recovery signal.

  16. Molecular imaging of endogenous and exogenous chromophores using ground state recovery pump-probe optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, Brian E.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2006-10-01

    We present a novel molecular imaging technique which combines the 3-D tomographic imaging capability of optical coherence tomography with the molecular sensitivity of pump-probe spectroscopy. This technique, based on transient absorption, is sensitive to any molecular chromophore. It is particularly promising for the many important biomarkers, such as hemoglobin, which are poor fluorophores and therefore difficult to image with current optical techniques without chemical labeling. Previous implementations of pump-probe optical coherence tomography have suffered from inefficient pump-probe schemes which hurt the sensitivity and applicability of the technique. Here we optimize the efficiency of the pump-probe approach by avoiding the steady-state kinetics and spontaneous processes exploited in the past in favor of measuring the transient absorption of fully allowed electronic transitions on very short time scales before a steady-state is achieved. In this article, we detail the optimization and characterization of the prototype system, comparing experimental results for the system sensitivity to theoretical predictions. We demonstrate in situ imaging of tissue samples with two different chromophores; the transfectable protein dsRed and the protein hemoglobin. We also demonstrate, with a simple sample vessel and a mixture of human whole blood and rhodamine 6G, the potential to use ground state recovery time to separate the contributions of multiple chromophores to the ground state recovery signal.

  17. Anomalous optical conductivity in the normal state of high Tc oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Toru; Takahashi, Yoshinori

    1991-03-01

    The optical resistivity due to antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in two-dimensional metals, as a possible model for high Tc oxides, is calculated within the Born approximation and the self-consistent renormalization (SCR) theory for the spin fluctuations. The result is shown to explain the observed anomalous behavior of optical conductivity in YBa2Cu3O7 above Tc quantitatively.

  18. Three-dimensional Doppler, polarization-gradient, and magneto-optical forces for atoms and molecules with dark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devlin, J. A.; Tarbutt, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically investigate the damping and trapping forces in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (MOT), by numerically solving the optical Bloch equations. We focus on the case where there are dark states because the atom is driven on a ‘type-II’ system where the angular momentum of the excited state, F\\prime , is less than or equal to that of the ground state, F. For these systems we find that the force in a three-dimensional light field has very different behaviour to its one dimensional counterpart. This differs from the more commonly used ‘type-I’ systems (F\\prime =F+1) where the 1D and 3D behaviours are similar. Unlike type-I systems where, for red-detuned light, both Doppler and sub-Doppler forces damp the atomic motion towards zero velocity, in type-II systems in 3D, the Doppler force and polarization gradient force have opposite signs. As a result, the atom is driven towards a non-zero equilibrium velocity, v 0, where the two forces cancel. We find that {v}02 scales linearly with the intensity of the light and is fairly insensitive to the detuning from resonance. We also discover a new magneto-optical force that alters the normal MOT force at low magnetic fields and whose influence is greatest in the type-II systems. We discuss the implications of these findings for the laser cooling and magneto-optical trapping of molecules where type-II transitions are unavoidable in realising closed optical cycling transitions.

  19. A simple and robust fiber optics system for measuring the lead-acid battery state-of-charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortázar, O. D.; Feliu, V.

    A simple, robust and low-cost fiber optics system for monitoring the state-of-charge (SOC) in a lead-acid battery is presented. The device is based on measuring light ray trajectory variations produced by the electrolyte media when its density changes. The changes in the electrolyte refraction index are produced due to changes in density, and the system measures such changes by means of an optical sensor coupled with a fiber optics bundle. SOC is indirectly measured on the base of such optical specific gravity measuring. A set of equations based on a paraxial ray model perform the optical sensor design, describing its behavior for different design parameters thereby allowing for the optimization of signal response. The system is applied to an SLI battery discharge-charge cycle obtaining excellent agreement with direct measuring of electrolyte density and estimation of SOC by integration of current. Simplicity, low cost, robustness and the unnecessary use of any signal processing are the main improvements with respect to previous works.

  20. Direct experimental evidence for dissociative photoionization of oxygen molecule via 2Σ(u)(-) ionic "optical dark" state.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Xiaoguo; Wu, Manman; Cai, Yu; Liu, Shilin; Sheng, Liusi

    2012-09-27

    Direct experimental evidence for dissociative photoionization of oxygen molecule via the (2)Σ(u)(-) ionic optical dark state is presented by an investigation using the method of threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) velocity imaging. Besides vibrational progress of the B(2)Σ(g)(-) state, several weak vibrational bands of the (2)Σ(u)(-) ionic optical dark state are observed concomitantly in an excitation energy range of 20.2-21.1 eV. Only O(+) fragments are detected in the whole excitation energy range; therefore, all vibrational bands are completely predissociative. TPEPICO three-dimensional time-sliced velocity images of O(+) fragments dissociated from vibrational state-selected O(2)(+)((2)Σ(u)(-),v(+)) ions are recorded. For the (2)Σ(u)(-)(v(+)=0-3) vibrational states, only the lowest dissociation channel of O(+)((4)S) + O((3)P) is observed. Once the photon energy is slightly increased to the (2)Σ(u)(-)(v(+)=4) level, a new concentric doughnut appears in the image, indicating that the second dissociation channel of O(+)((4)S) + O((1)D) is identified indeed. With the aid of potential energy curves, the dissociative mechanism of O(2)(+) in the (2)Σ(u)(-)(v(+)) state is proposed.