Science.gov

Sample records for state security

  1. Asean States Security: Resilience through Security Cooperation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    New Zealand , the United States, and the United Nations Development Program. ASEAN now repre- sents a market of well over $70 billion, providing a ready...Brunei, have close mili- tary links with the Commonwealth countries--namely Australia, New Zealand , and the United Kingdom. The Philippines and Thailand... New Zealand , Australia, and the United Kingdom. Furthermore, the RMAF is planning to purchase a new generation fighter aircraft as well as a surface-to

  2. Bioethics and the national security state.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  3. Homeland Security Lessons for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    37 B. PORT/BORDER/AIRLINE SECURITY ............................................ 38 C. DOMESTIC LEGISLATION...or emergency that overwhelms the capabilities of State and local governments. Federal assistance is available under the Robert T . Stafford Disaster...Initiative Forging Ahead (Washington: Customs, 2002) 1. 32 Bodenheimer , David. “Technology for Border Protection: Homeland Security Funding and Priorities

  4. Secure communication using mesoscopic coherent states.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Geraldo A; Corndorf, Eric; Kumar, Prem; Yuen, Horace P

    2003-06-06

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that secure communication using intermediate-energy (mesoscopic) coherent states is possible. Our scheme is different from previous quantum cryptographic schemes in that a short secret key is explicitly used and in which quantum noise hides both the bit and the key. This encryption scheme allows optical amplification. New avenues are open to secure communications at high speeds in fiber-optic or free-space channels.

  5. Water security - Nation state and international security implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Andrew A. Campbell,

    2009-01-01

    A terrorist attack such as poisoning and sabotage of the national water supply and water-quality infrastructure of the continental United States or any country, could disrupt the delivery of vital human services, threaten both public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties and pose grave public concern for homeland security. Most significantly, an attack on water resources would weaken social cohesion and trust in government. A threat to continuity of services is a potential threat to continuity of government since both are necessary for continuity of operations. Water infrastructure is difficult to protect, as it extends over vast areas across the U.S. and for which ownership is overwhelmingly nonfederal (approximately 85 percent). Since the 9111 attacks, federal dam operators and water and wastewater utilities have established counter measures. Similar measures have been taken in countries around the world. These include enhanced physical security, improved coordination between corporate ownership, Department of Homeland Security, and local law enforcement, and research into risk assessment and vulnerability analysis to ensure greater system safety. A key issue is the proportionate additional resources directed at public and private sector specific priorities. Agencies that have the scientific and technological ability to leverage resources, exploit integrated science approaches, focus on interdisciplinary practices, utilize informatics expertise and employ a wide use of evolving technologies should play a key role in water security and related issues.

  6. Weak States and Security Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and El Salvador hosts a regional peacekeeping institute attracting military personnel from countries throughout the Western Hemisphere. This approach...fy2010_SSJ.pdf>. 14 Bill Daly , “Building Global Partnerships,” U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings (April 2007), 44–47. 15 Department of State, “Foreign

  7. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  8. Realities and Choices: Helping States Enhance Family Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Sandra

    This document, which is designed to help state administrators and legislators formulate policies enhancing family economic security, summarizes research findings regarding barriers to economic self-sufficiency and policies used by various states to improve poor family's available work opportunities and economic security. Discussed in the…

  9. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    SciTech Connect

    Uenlue, Kenan; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale Reactor

  10. State Security Breach Response Laws: State-by-State Summary Table. Using Data to Improve Education: A Legal Reference Guide to Protecting Student Privacy and Data Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Under security breach response laws, businesses--and sometimes state and governmental agencies--are required to inform individuals when the security, confidentiality or integrity of their personal information has been compromised. This resource provides a state-by-state analysis of security breach response laws. [The Data Quality Campaign has…

  11. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  12. Neuroscience, ethics, and national security: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Tennison, Michael N; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2012-01-01

    National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter-intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Department of Defense dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security.

  13. Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Tennison, Michael N.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter-intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Department of Defense dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security. PMID:22448146

  14. Attachment and culture. Security in the United States and Japan.

    PubMed

    Rothbaum, F; Weisz, J; Pott, M; Miyake, K; Morelli, G

    2000-10-01

    Attachment theorists maintain that cultural differences are relatively minor, and they focus on universals. Here the authors highlight evidence of cultural variations and note ways in which attachment theory is laden with Western values and meaning. Comparisons of the United States and Japan highlight the cultural relativity of 3 core hypotheses of attachment theory: that caregiver sensitivity leads to secure attachment, that secure attachment leads to later social competence, and that children who are securely attached use the primary caregiver as a secure base for exploring the external world. Attachment theorists use measures of sensitivity, competence, and secure base that are biased toward Western ways of thinking: The measures emphasize the child's autonomy, individuation, and exploration. In Japan, sensitivity, competence, and secure base are viewed very differently, calling into question the universality of fundamental tenets of attachment theory. The authors call for an indigenous approach to the psychology of attachment.

  15. Efficient deterministic secure quantum communication protocols using multipartite entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joy, Dintomon; Surendran, Supin P.; Sabir, M.

    2017-06-01

    We propose two deterministic secure quantum communication protocols employing three-qubit GHZ-like states and five-qubit Brown states as quantum channels for secure transmission of information in units of two bits and three bits using multipartite teleportation schemes developed here. In these schemes, the sender's capability in selecting quantum channels and the measuring bases leads to improved qubit efficiency of the protocols.

  16. Security enhanced memory for quantum state.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tetsuya

    2017-07-27

    Security enhancement is important in terms of both classical and quantum information. The recent development of a quantum storage device is noteworthy, and a coherence time of one second or longer has been demonstrated. On the other hand, although the encryption of a quantum bit or quantum memory has been proposed theoretically, no experiment has yet been carried out. Here we report the demonstration of a quantum memory with an encryption function that is realized by scrambling and retrieving the recorded quantum phase. We developed two independent Ramsey interferometers on an atomic ensemble trapped below a persistent supercurrent atom chip. By operating the two interferometers with random phases, the quantum phase recorded by a pulse of the first interferometer was modulated by the second interferometer pulse. The scrambled quantum phase was restored by employing another pulse of the second interferometer with a specific time delay. This technique paves way for improving the security of quantum information technology.

  17. A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.

  18. Prevalence of Perceived Food and Housing Security - 15 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Njai, Rashid; Siegel, Paul; Yin, Shaoman; Liao, Youlian

    2017-01-13

    Recent global (1) and national (2,3) health equity initiatives conclude that the elimination of health disparities requires improved understanding of social context (4,5) and ability to measure social determinants of health, including food and housing security (3). Food and housing security reflect the availability of and access to essential resources needed to lead a healthy life. The 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) included two questions to assess perceived food and housing security in 15 states.* Among 95,665 respondents, the proportion who answered "never or rarely" to the question "how often in the past 12 months would you say you were worried or stressed about having enough money to buy nutritious meals?" ranged from 68.5% to 82.4% by state. Among 90,291 respondents living in housing they either owned or rented, the proportion who answered "never or rarely" to the question, "how often in the past 12 months would you say you were worried or stressed about having enough money to pay your rent/mortgage?" ranged from 59.9% to 72.8% by state. Food security was reported less often among non-Hispanic blacks (blacks) (68.5%) and Hispanics (64.6%) than non-Hispanic whites (whites) (81.8%). These racial/ethnic disparities were present across all levels of education; housing security followed a similar pattern. These results highlight racial/ethnic disparities in two important social determinants of health, food and housing security, as well as a substantial prevalence of worry or stress about food or housing among all subgroups in the United States. The concise nature of the BRFSS Social Context Module's single-question format for food and housing security makes it possible to incorporate these questions into large health surveys so that social determinants can be monitored at the state and national levels and populations at risk can be identified.

  19. 12 CFR 550.490 - When must I deposit securities with State authorities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When must I deposit securities with State... TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Depositing Securities With State Authorities § 550.490 When must I deposit securities with State authorities? You must deposit securities with a State's...

  20. 12 CFR 150.490 - When must I deposit securities with state authorities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When must I deposit securities with state... FIDUCIARY POWERS OF FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Depositing Securities With State Authorities § 150.490 When must I deposit securities with state authorities? You must deposit securities with a state's...

  1. 12 CFR 550.490 - When must I deposit securities with State authorities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true When must I deposit securities with State... TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Depositing Securities With State Authorities § 550.490 When must I deposit securities with State authorities? You must deposit securities with a State's...

  2. 12 CFR 550.490 - When must I deposit securities with State authorities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true When must I deposit securities with State... TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Depositing Securities With State Authorities § 550.490 When must I deposit securities with State authorities? You must deposit securities with a State's...

  3. 12 CFR 550.490 - When must I deposit securities with State authorities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When must I deposit securities with State... TREASURY FIDUCIARY POWERS OF SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS Depositing Securities With State Authorities § 550.490 When must I deposit securities with State authorities? You must deposit securities with a State's...

  4. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    preventing supply disruption, and 4) reducing demand. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Energy Sources, Evaluation Criteria, Electric Vehicles , Supply Disruption...Count: 40 Word Count: 7,541 Key Terms: Energy Sources, Evaluation Criteria, Electric Vehicles , Supply Disruption...toward electric vehicles as the primary means of transportation. This would greatly reduce the amount of oil consumed since the United States uses very

  5. Peru: Forum for a New United States Security Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-20

    United States security policy. With the economy in a desperate state, and social tensions dividing its people, Peru is plagued by rising insur- gency...desperate state, and social tensions dividing its people, Peru is plagued by rising insurgency. The country is heavily dependent on the income from the...traditions of Marx, Lenin and Mao, synthesised with the "native socialism " of Jose Carlos Mariategui, founder of the Peruvian Communist Party. Mariategui

  6. Social Security Number Protection Laws: State-by-State Summary Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As state policymakers implement statewide longitudinal data systems that collect, store, link and share student-level data, it is critical that they understand applicable privacy and data security standards and laws designed to ensure the privacy, security, and confidentiality of that data. To help state policymakers navigate this complex legal…

  7. Engage States on Energy Assurance and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kara Colton; John Ratliff; Sue Gander; Darren Springer; Greg Dierkers

    2008-09-30

    The NGA Center's 'Engaging States on Energy Security and Energy Assurance' has been successful in achieving the stated project purposes and objectives both in the initial proposal as well as in subsequent revisions to it. Our activities, which involve the NGA Center for Best Practices (The NGA Center) Homeland Security and Technology Division, included conducting tabletop exercises to help federal and state homeland security and energy officials determine roles and actions for various emergency scenarios. This included efforts to education state official on developing an energy assurance plan, harmonizing approaches to controlling price volatility, implementing reliability standards, understanding short and long-term energy outlooks and fuel diversification, and capitalizing on DOE's research and development activities. Regarding our work on energy efficiency and renewable energy, the NGA Center's Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Division hosted three workshops which engaged states on the clean energy and alternative transportation fuel and also produced several reports on related topics. In addition, we convened 18 meetings, via conference call, of the Energy Working Group. Finally, through the NGA Center's Front and Center newsletter articles, the NGA Center disseminated promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers. The NGA Center also hosted a number of workshops and web conferences designed to directly engage states on the deliverables under this Cooperative Agreement. Through the NGA Center's written products and newsletter articles, the NGA Center was able to disseminate promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers.

  8. Improved Protocols of Secure Quantum Communication Using W States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Banerjee, Anindita; Pathak, Anirban

    2013-06-01

    Recently, Hwang et al. (Eur. Phys. J. D 61:785, 2011) and Yuan et al. (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 50:2403, 2011) have proposed two efficient protocols of secure quantum communication using 3-qubit and 4-qubit symmetric W state respectively. These two dense coding based protocols are generalized and their efficiencies are considerably improved. Simple bounds on the qubit efficiency of deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) and quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols are obtained and it is shown that dense coding is not essential for designing of maximally efficient DSQC and QSDC protocols. This fact is used to design maximally efficient protocols of DSQC and QSDC using 3-qubit and 4-qubit W states.

  9. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    freedom to all the people in the region, including those suffering under the repressive regime in Burma. In ...National Security Strategy It is the policy of the United States to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and...culture, with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. In the world today, the fundamental character of regimes matters

  10. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    freedom to all the people in the region, including those suffering under the repressive regime in Burma. In promoting...Security Strategy It is the policy of the United States to seek and support democratic movements and institutions in every nation and culture...with the ultimate goal of ending tyranny in our world. In the world today, the fundamental character of regimes matters

  11. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  12. Attachment and Culture: Security in the United States and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Fred; Weisz, John; Pott, Martha; Morelli, Gilda; Miyake, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    Highlights evidence of cultural variations in child attachment, noting how western values and meanings permeate attachment theory. Comparisons of the United States and Japan emphasize the cultural relativity of three core hypotheses of attachment theory related to: caregiver sensitivity, child social competence, and a secure base for exploring the…

  13. Oil market power and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-31

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt(2004) collections by Persian Gulf states approximately USD $132-178 x 10(9). We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded.

  14. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  15. Experimental Extraction of Secure Correlations from a Noisy Private State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobek, K.; Karpiński, M.; Demkowicz-Dobrzański, R.; Banaszek, K.; Horodecki, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report experimental generation of a noisy entangled four-photon state that exhibits a separation between the secure key contents and distillable entanglement, a hallmark feature of the recently established quantum theory of private states. The privacy analysis, based on the full tomographic reconstruction of the prepared state, is utilized in a proof-of-principle key generation. The inferiority of distillation-based strategies to extract the key is exposed by an implementation of an entanglement distillation protocol for the produced state.

  16. Security of Small States, Problems of the States of the South Asian Region and Bangladesh’s Options for Security,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-10

    course of the nation. Talukder Maniruzzaman says, "By security we mean protection and preservation of minimum core values of any nation: political...found among others in Talukder Maniruzzaman, In determining a state’s war making capacity, one has to look at both its potential war power and its

  17. United States security strategy for Europe and NATO

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The United States National Security Strategy, published in February 1995, is designed to meet this European challenge. Our global strategy seeks to enlarge the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation and our interests through engagement with our allies. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to promote democracy abroad; and to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth. This document explains how U.S. defense policy is furthering these goals in Europe. As will be seen, we are pursuing our security strategy not only through NATO, but also through other multilateral institutions, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), supporting separate yet complementary efforts by our allies and friends in the European Union, and through the bilateral relationships that have played such a valuable role in U.S.-European cooperation for more than forty years.

  18. Deterministic secure communications using two-mode squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alberto M.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.

    2006-08-15

    We propose a scheme for quantum cryptography that uses the squeezing phase of a two-mode squeezed state to transmit information securely between two parties. The basic principle behind this scheme is the fact that each mode of the squeezed field by itself does not contain any information regarding the squeezing phase. The squeezing phase can only be obtained through a joint measurement of the two modes. This, combined with the fact that it is possible to perform remote squeezing measurements, makes it possible to implement a secure quantum communication scheme in which a deterministic signal can be transmitted directly between two parties while the encryption is done automatically by the quantum correlations present in the two-mode squeezed state.

  19. The Security Concerns of the Baltic States as NATO Allies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    national cyber attack on Estonia, apparently mounted from Russia, is another point of friction. In the Baltic States, there are large Russian...results when it is presented as an attrac- tive proposition to the local populations and govern- ments. Soft power backed up by lies, bullying , and...All the 35 Estonians noted that national cyber protection was an important security concern. This is understandable, because in April and May 2007

  20. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  1. 75 FR 55392 - State of the Municipal Securities Market Field Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... COMMISSION State of the Municipal Securities Market Field Hearings AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Notice of field hearings. SUMMARY: On May 7, 2010, the Chairman of the Securities and Exchange... facts, opinions and analyses about the municipal securities market by holding a series of field...

  2. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  3. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper is...

  4. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  5. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  6. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  7. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  8. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  9. 76 FR 66940 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-004 Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret... Department of Homeland Security's biennial review of system of record notices, DHS/United States Secret..., ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service--004 Protection Information System of...

  10. Architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Dvoskin, Joel A; Radomski, Steven J; Bennett, Charles; Olin, Jonathan A; Hawkins, Robert L; Dotson, Linda A; Drewnicky, Irene N

    2002-01-01

    This article describes the architectural design of a secure forensic state psychiatric hospital. The project combined input from staff at all levels of the client organization, outside consultants, and a team of experienced architects. The design team was able to create a design that maximized patient dignity and privacy on one hand, and the ability of staff to observe all patient activity on the other. The design centers around 24-bed units, broken into smaller living wings of eight beds each. Each eight-bed living wing has its own private bathrooms (two) and showers (two), as well as a small living area solely reserved for these eight patients and their guests. An indoor-outdoor dayroom allows patients to go outside whenever they choose, while allowing staff to continue observing them. The heart of the facility is a large treatment mall, designed to foster the acquisition of social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral skills that will help patients to safely return to their communities.

  11. Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    Corporation . Santa Monica, CA, 2013), p. xvii. (continued...) Security Assistance and Cooperation Shared Responsibility Congressional Research Service 16...Security Assistance and Cooperation: Shared Responsibility of the Departments of State and Defense Nina M. Serafino Specialist in... Responsibility Congressional Research Service Summary The Department of State and the Department of Defense (DOD) have long shared responsibility for U.S

  12. 12 CFR 9.14 - Deposit of securities with state authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... than assets (e.g., a requirement to deposit a fixed amount or an amount equal to a percentage of... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposit of securities with state authorities. 9... ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.14 Deposit of securities with state authorities. (a) In general...

  13. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Executive Order 13546--Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States... July 2, 2010 Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States By the... and productive scientific enterprise that utilizes biological select agents and toxins (BSAT)...

  14. 78 FR 14629 - 10th Anniversary of the United States Department of Homeland Security

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Homeland Security By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Ten years ago, when the... world, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) opened its doors with a single task... mission through a decade of shifting threats and new challenges. We take this opportunity to recognize its...

  15. State-of-the-art research on electromagnetic information security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Yu-ichi

    2016-07-01

    As information security is becoming increasingly significant, security at the hardware level is as important as in networks and applications. In recent years, instrumentation has become cheaper and more precise, computation has become faster, and capacities have increased. With these advancements, the threat of advanced attacks that were considerably difficult to carry out previously has increased not only in military and diplomatic fields but also in general-purpose manufactured devices. This paper focuses on the problem of the security limitations concerning electromagnetic waves (electromagnetic information security) that has rendered attack detection particularly difficult at the hardware level. In addition to reviewing the mechanisms of these information leaks and countermeasures, this paper also presents the latest research trends and standards.

  16. Software Security Assurance: A State-of-Art Report (SAR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-31

    8 1.3.1 Primary Audience... 8 1.3.2 Secondary Audiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.4 Scope...281 Section 8 Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 8.1 What “Secure Software

  17. Military Police: Assisting in Securing the United States Southern Border

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-12

    illegal immigrants being caught declining. In fact, the Department of Homeland Security currently reports that Customs and Border Patrol (CBP...illegal immigrants clearly indicates near freedom of access to the U.S. from Mexico. In today’s environment of transnational terrorism that is simply...primarily tries to accomplish this through the Customs and Border Patrol (CBP), Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the Transportation Security

  18. The United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-15

    Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history.” George Bernard Shaw 58 July 26th, 2007...nation more challenging.124 As Taylor and Snider explain, “With the global diffusion of power, national policy also becomes less fungible, less...124 William J. Taylor and Don M Snider, “U.S. National Security Agenda and U.S. National Security Policy: Realities and Dilemmas,” The

  19. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  20. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-22

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.

  1. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610

  2. Four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution with long secure distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Xu, Bingjie; Peng, Xiang; Guo, Hong

    2012-05-01

    The four-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocol has a long practical secure distance [A. Leverrier and P. Grangier, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.180504 102, 180504 (2009)], while it poses the difficulty of parameter estimation. We propose an improved four-state protocol where the covariance matrix can be estimated from experimental data without using the linear channel assumption, thus ensuring its unconditional security in the asymptotical limit. Our scheme maintains the advantage of high reconciliation efficiency of the four-state protocol, which ensures long practical secure distance its. Our scheme can be implemented with the current technology.

  3. National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the United States and Australia: A Comparative Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT National Security Mission, Members and Budgeting in the...blank) 2. REPORT DATE June 2011 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Security Mission...on whether another country could influence, perhaps take away, the ability for the United States to make its own decisions.6 In particular, the

  4. Security on Virginia's Campuses. Report of the State Council of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    This report is in response to a Virginia state legislature mandate of a study of security on the campuses of Virginia public institutions of higher education. The study scope included institutional characteristics, security department characteristics, personnel and training, information about relations on and off campus, needs and concerns of the…

  5. A Review of State Test Security Laws in 2013. ACT Research Report Series, 2014 (1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Test security has increased in importance in the last few years given high-profile cases of educator misconduct. This paper provides a review of state test security statutes and regulations related to statewide achievement testing using as a framework recent best practices reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  6. 75 FR 10633 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement-- 011 Immigration and Enforcement Operational Records... Security/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement system of records titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement--011 Removable Alien Records System of Records''...

  7. Security of two-state and four-state practical quantum bit-commitment protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loura, Ricardo; Arsenović, Dušan; Paunković, Nikola; Popović, Duška B.; Prvanović, Slobodan

    2016-12-01

    We study cheating strategies against a practical four-state quantum bit-commitment protocol [A. Danan and L. Vaidman, Quant. Info. Proc. 11, 769 (2012)], 10.1007/s11128-011-0284-4 and its two-state variant [R. Loura et al., Phys. Rev. A 89, 052336 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.052336 when the underlying quantum channels are noisy and the cheating party is constrained to using single-qubit measurements only. We show that simply inferring the transmitted photons' states by using the Breidbart basis, optimal for ambiguous (minimum-error) state discrimination, does not directly produce an optimal cheating strategy for this bit-commitment protocol. We introduce a strategy, based on certain postmeasurement processes and show it to have better chances at cheating than the direct approach. We also study to what extent sending forged geographical coordinates helps a dishonest party in breaking the binding security requirement. Finally, we investigate the impact of imperfect single-photon sources in the protocols. Our study shows that, in terms of the resources used, the four-state protocol is advantageous over the two-state version. The analysis performed can be straightforwardly generalized to any finite-qubit measurement, with the same qualitative results.

  8. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  9. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  10. Concept of Security for Gulf States After Gulf War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    112 27 Ibid page 113 28 Ibid pages 114-115 29 Abdul Munam Al Mashad Towards The ArabicFormula for The National Security Theory Dar Al Mustaqbil...Search For Strategic Stability. England: Mansell Publishing, 1985 Noyes, James H. The Persian Gulf After The Cold War. Westport, CT, 1984 Al Mashad

  11. United States Homeland Security and National Biometric Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-09

    IMPORTANCE OF AMERICA’S FREEDOMS AND HOMELAND SECURITY: ................... 1 W HAT IS A BIO M ETRIC...2 W AYS/M EANS O F BIO M ETRICS...9 THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE’S ROLE IN NATIONAL IDENTIFICATION AND BIO M ETRICS

  12. Homeland Security: Developing National Doctrine to Guide State Strategy Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    reminders to stop procrastinating and newfound cooking skills, I not only would never have finished, I also may have starved. xvi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...doctrine in developing a homeland security doctrine. There are limitations, however, in that the military model is a narrow view. To overcome this

  13. The Role of Higher Education in a Security State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    What is the role of higher education when a nation moves toward a political climate in which the government has a free hand to do whatever it wants in the name of national security? If society faces a real threat that could destroy life as we know it, then we should all--including higher education--rise to its defense. However, if national…

  14. The Role of Higher Education in a Security State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perelman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    What is the role of higher education when a nation moves toward a political climate in which the government has a free hand to do whatever it wants in the name of national security? If society faces a real threat that could destroy life as we know it, then we should all--including higher education--rise to its defense. However, if national…

  15. State Defense Forces: Forces for NORTHCOM and Homeland Security?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-26

    Listing of State Defense Forces: 1. Alabama State Defense Force (ALSDF). http://www.alsdf.org 2. Alaska State Defense Force ( ASDF ) http://www.ak...prepared.com/ asdf 3. California State Military Reserve (CASMR) http://www.militarymuseum.org/CASMR.html 4. Connecticut State Militia http://ctarng

  16. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration, Information.... ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Jefferson...

  17. 75 FR 38595 - Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation Planning, and Disaster Recovery Planning AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  18. State Defense Force Monograph Series. Winter 2005, Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Fish and Game Commission by flying reconnaissance missions over the Shenandoah Valley searching for poachers as bear poaching is on the rise in the...terror on a daily basis. Every day we see terrorist groups killing and destroying to demonstrate that what we believe, what we stand for, is of no value...in New York City with ferry services across the Hudson River ; provided the waterborne security that allowed for the opening of the George Washington

  19. India-United States Security Cooperation: Past, Present, and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    IOR Indian Ocean Region ISI Inter-Services Intelligence JeM Jaish-e-Mohammad ix JTG Joint Technical Group LCA Light Combat Aircraft LeT...for developing nations, and provides an opportunity for increased economic, scientific, environmental and security partnership. Working together...aspect of defense cooperation between the two countries remained US collaboration on the Light Combat Aircraft ( LCA ). Other than the slow progress on

  20. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  1. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  2. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  3. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  4. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  5. 22 CFR 92.74 - Services in connection with United States securities or interests therein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Foreign Service of the United States of America (§ 22.1 of this chapter) applies in cases of this nature. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Services in connection with United States... United States securities or interests therein. (a) Authority and responsibility. Assignments or requests...

  6. Securitization, alterity, and the state Human (in)security on an Amazonian frontier.

    PubMed

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2014-12-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple "borders" and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the "human security" of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being.

  7. [Ecological security evaluation of Heilongjiang Province with pressure-state-response model].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-liang; Li, Song; Chang, Chein-chi

    2008-04-01

    The ecological security index (ESI) system including 27 indices for Heilongjiang Province was built up with the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model. The weights of the indices were determined by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and the ecological security status classification was evaluated by the ESI model for the years of 2000-2005. Then the development trend of ecological security from 2006 to 2010 was forecasted with the grey dynamic model. The results showed that the ecological security ranked the V grade in 2000 and the III grade in 2005, indicating the increase of ecological security. The forecasting results show that the ecological security will be the III grade for 2006, the II grade for 2007-2009, and the I grade for 2010 (ideal security). Thus it can be seen that the ecological security is ascending year by year, and the ecological environment quality is obviously improved with the implementation of eco-province construction since 2000. Through the effective facilitation of eco-province construction etc., the sustainable and healthy development of ecological security will be finally realized in Heilongjiang Province.

  8. United States Foreign Assistance Programs: The Requirement of Metrics for Security Assistance and Security Cooperation Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited UNITED STATES ...REPORT DATE June 2012 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Foreign Assistance Programs: The...DISTRIBUTION CODE A 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) Foreign aid has been a signal component of United States foreign policy since the creation of the

  9. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  10. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  11. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  12. State and Local Homeland Security Officials: Who Are They and What Do They Do?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Homeland Security Strategy of 2002. The definition does, however, make the point that ―homeland security is evolving‖ ( Hutton , 2003). The Barron‘s guide...at best and are housed with the state‘s SEMO or governor‘s offices. ( Hutton , 2003, p. 99) It also includes a statement explains that: Like police...SEMO‘s utilize existing state employees in various agencies for staffing. ( Hutton , 2003, p. 99) 12 These passages seem to indicate that, from the

  13. Supporting multi-state collaboration on privacy and security to foster health IT and health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Banger, Alison K; Alakoye, Amoke O; Rizk, Stephanie C

    2008-11-06

    As part of the HHS funded contract, Health Information Security and Privacy Collaboration, 41 states and territories have proposed collaborative projects to address cross-state privacy and security challenges related to health IT and health information exchange. Multi-state collaboration on privacy and security issues remains complicated, and resources to support collaboration around these topics are essential to the success of such collaboration. The resources outlined here offer an example of how to support multi-stakeholder, multi-state projects.

  14. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  15. Security of decoy-state protocols for general photon-number-splitting attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somma, Rolando D.; Hughes, Richard J.

    2013-06-01

    Decoy-state protocols provide a way to defeat photon-number-splitting attacks in quantum cryptography implemented with weak coherent pulses. We point out that previous security analyses of such protocols relied on assumptions about eavesdropping attacks that considered treating each pulse equally and independently. We give an example to demonstrate that, without such assumptions, the security parameters of previous decoy-state implementations could be worse than the ones claimed. Next we consider more general photon-number-splitting attacks, which correlate different pulses, and give an estimation procedure for the number of single-photon signals with rigorous security statements. The impact of our result is that previous analyses of the number of times a decoy-state quantum cryptographic system can be reused before it makes a weak key must be revised.

  16. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Weyand, Jonathan S.; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S.; Heiner, Jason D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. Methods A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Results Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from < 20,000 to 100,000 patients and represented the entire spectrum of practice environments, including critical access hospitals and a regional quaternary referral medical center. Thirty-four of 75 (45%) reported the current level of security was inadequate, based on the general consensus of their ED staff. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of EDs had 24-hour security personnel coverage, while 28% reported no assigned security personnel. Security personnel training was provided by 45% of hospitals or healthcare systems. Sixty-nine of 78 (88%) respondents witnessed or heard about violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient’s family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35

  17. Security, Violent Events, and Anticipated Surge Capabilities of Emergency Departments in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Jonathan S; Junck, Emily; Kang, Christopher S; Heiner, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 15 years, violent threats and acts against hospital patients, staff, and providers have increased and escalated. The leading area for violence is the emergency department (ED) given its 24/7 operations, role in patient care, admissions gateway, and center for influxes during acute surge events. This investigation had three objectives: to assess the current security of Washington State EDs; to estimate the prevalence of and response to threats and violence in Washington State EDs; and to appraise the Washington State ED security capability to respond to acute influxes of patients, bystanders, and media during acute surge events. A voluntary, blinded, 28-question Web-based survey developed by emergency physicians was electronically delivered to all 87 Washington State ED directors in January 2013. We evaluated responses by descriptive statistical analyses. Analyses occurred after 90% (78/87) of ED directors responded. Annual censuses of the EDs ranged from < 20,000 to 100,000 patients and represented the entire spectrum of practice environments, including critical access hospitals and a regional quaternary referral medical center. Thirty-four of 75 (45%) reported the current level of security was inadequate, based on the general consensus of their ED staff. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of EDs had 24-hour security personnel coverage, while 28% reported no assigned security personnel. Security personnel training was provided by 45% of hospitals or healthcare systems. Sixty-nine of 78 (88%) respondents witnessed or heard about violent threats or acts occurring in their ED. Of these, 93% were directed towards nursing staff, 90% towards physicians, 74% towards security personnel, and 51% towards administrative personnel. Nearly half (48%) noted incidents directed towards another patient, and 50% towards a patient's family or friend. These events were variably reported to the hospital administration. After an acute surge event, 35% believed the initial additional

  18. Securitization, alterity, and the state Human (in)security on an Amazonian frontier

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Marc; Grotti, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the region surrounding the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guiana, we examine how relations between different state and non-state social groups are articulated in terms of security. The region is characterised by multiple “borders” and frontiers of various kinds, the state boundary having the features of an interface or contact zone. Several key collectivities meet in this border zone: native Amazonians, tribal Maroon peoples, migrant Brazilian gold prospectors, and metropolitan French state functionaries. We explore the relationships between these different sets of actors and describe how their mutual encounters center on discourses of human and state security, thus challenging the commonly held view of the region as a stateless zone and showing that the “human security” of citizens from the perspective of the state may compete with locally salient ideas or experiences of well-being. PMID:27996063

  19. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    of Honor: Woodrow Wilson and the Occupation of Vera Cruz, (New York: W.W. Norton, 1967). 21 Karl M. Schmitt, Mexico and the United States, 1821...Policy," U.S.-Mexico Project Series No. 8, The Overseas Development Council, p. 3. 99 New York Times, March 19, 1981, p. AlO . 100 101 New York Times

  20. Deployment of State Traffic Law Enforcement Officers for Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    terrorist and may actually enhance deterrence to terrorist acts . This thesis will examine deployment of state traffic law enforcement officers and...most efficient and effective use of resources. Charles Townshend in his introductory book on terrorism writes, On a dispassionate assessment of the...4 Charles Townshend , Terrorism: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, New York, 2002), 115-116. 6 the

  1. The Muslim Problematic: Muslims, State Schools and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miah, Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Muslims are folk-devils that mark the ubiquitous moral panic. For some, the idea of the "Muslim problematic" signifies a long and worrying trend of creeping "Islamification" of state schools. For others, the discourse of the "Muslim problematic" reflects the ongoing racial patholigisation of Britain's minoritised…

  2. State of security at US colleges and universities: a national stakeholder assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sheldon F

    2007-09-01

    In 2004 the US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, sponsored a National Summit on Campus Public Safety. The summit brought together various stakeholders including campus police and security officials, local police chiefs, college and university faculty and administrators, federal officials, students and parents, and community leaders to address the issues and complexities of campus safety. Delegates to the summit identified key issues in campus safety and security, which included establishing a national center on campus safety, balancing traditional open environments with the need to secure vulnerable sites, improving coordination with state and local police, reducing internal fragmentation, elevating professionalism, and increasing eligibility of campus police and security agencies to compete for federal law enforcement funds. Focus on "active shooters" on campus, resulting from the Virginia Tech incident, should not diminish attention placed on the broader, more prevalent safety and security issues facing the nation's educational campuses. Recommendations resulting from the summit called for establishing a national agenda on campus safety, formation of a national center on campus public safety, and increased opportunity for campus police and security agencies to compete for federal and state funds.

  3. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults’ Parental Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the “liking” of infants, the second and third components entail the “wanting” of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  4. An IPSO-SVM algorithm for security state prediction of mine production logistics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Lei, Junhui; Ma, Qiuli; Chen, Xin; Bi, Runfang

    2017-06-01

    A theoretical basis for the regulation of corporate security warning and resources was provided in order to reveal the laws behind the security state in mine production logistics. Considering complex mine production logistics system and the variable is difficult to acquire, a superior security status predicting model of mine production logistics system based on the improved particle swarm optimization and support vector machine (IPSO-SVM) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, through the linear adjustments of inertia weight and learning weights, the convergence speed and search accuracy are enhanced with the aim to deal with situations associated with the changeable complexity and the data acquisition difficulty. The improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) is then introduced to resolve the problem of parameter settings in traditional support vector machines (SVM). At the same time, security status index system is built to determine the classification standards of safety status. The feasibility and effectiveness of this method is finally verified using the experimental results.

  5. Multi-State Initiatives---Agriculture Security Preparedness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Service, Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 742, July 1998. 6 farming, including seed , feed, fertilizer, machinery, food processing...pathological organism. • This lack of diversity is compounded by the fact that 80 percent of the nation’s seed derives from one locale, the Idaho valley...due to the exceptionally dry climate in the region. • A notable percentage of imported hybrid seed used for crop production in the United States

  6. How Nation-States Craft National Security Strategy Documents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    These were derived by utilizing the Balanced Score- card Performance Measurement System developed by Drs. Robert Kaplan and David Norton for the...accomplished with the em- ployment of a system developed in the United States ( Balanced Scorecard Performance Measurement Sys- tem) and applied to...effectiveness for a na- tional strategy. The Balanced Scorecard Performance 122 Measurement System was applied to supporting ob- jectives contained in

  7. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    media , and religious freedom ; • Tailoring assistance and training of military forces to support civilian control of the military and military...struggle, similar to what our country faced in the early years of the Cold War. The 20th century witnessed the triumph of freedom over the threats of... in democracies. The United States Government will work to advance human dignity in word and deed, speaking out for freedom

  8. A Stable and Secure Africa: Leveraging the State Partnership Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    not often found in other organizations. The resulting partnerships foster long-term relationships between individuals from their respective...professionalism and fostering military-civilian relations were not emphasized and African militaries were characterized by corruption and human rights abuses...Crawford Young, The Heritage of Colonialism,” in Africa in World Politics: The African State System in Flux, 3rd ed., ed. John W. Harbeson and Donald

  9. United States in Outer Space: Security Assurance and Preservation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not...interdependent globalize society has been the long-standing policy of the United States dating back to the Eisenhower Administration. This point...humanity. The world has become an internationally globalized and interdependent society such that the U.S. has no real option other than choosing to work

  10. The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within the Post-Cold War Security Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    ANALYSIS WITHIN THE POST-COLD WAR SECURITY ENVIRONMENT by Matthew K. Moeller December 1992 Thesis Advisor: R. Mitchell Brown III Second Reader: Rodney...WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. I ITLE (Include Security Classification) The United States Air Force in Europe: An Analysis within... Analysis Within the Post-Cold War Security Environment by Matthew K. Moeller Lieutenant, United States Air Force B.S., San Jose State University, 1989

  11. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... three calendar year period, exclusive of transactions in government securities; (ii) Government... effecting fewer than 500 government securities brokerage transactions per year; provided that this exception shall not apply to government securities transactions by a State member bank that has filed a written...

  12. Measuring Information Security Performance with 10 by 10 Model for Holistic State Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bernik, Igor; Prislan, Kaja

    Organizations should measure their information security performance if they wish to take the right decisions and develop it in line with their security needs. Since the measurement of information security is generally underdeveloped in practice and many organizations find the existing recommendations too complex, the paper presents a solution in the form of a 10 by 10 information security performance measurement model. The model-ISP 10×10M is composed of ten critical success factors, 100 key performance indicators and 6 performance levels. Its content was devised on the basis of findings presented in the current research studies and standards, while its structure results from an empirical research conducted among information security professionals from Slovenia. Results of the study show that a high level of information security performance is mostly dependent on measures aimed at managing information risks, employees and information sources, while formal and environmental factors have a lesser impact. Experts believe that information security should evolve systematically, where it's recommended that beginning steps include technical, logical and physical security controls, while advanced activities should relate predominantly strategic management activities. By applying the proposed model, organizations are able to determine the actual level of information security performance based on the weighted indexing technique. In this manner they identify the measures they ought to develop in order to improve the current situation. The ISP 10×10M is a useful tool for conducting internal system evaluations and decision-making. It may also be applied to a larger sample of organizations in order to determine the general state-of-play for research purposes.

  13. Measuring Information Security Performance with 10 by 10 Model for Holistic State Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Organizations should measure their information security performance if they wish to take the right decisions and develop it in line with their security needs. Since the measurement of information security is generally underdeveloped in practice and many organizations find the existing recommendations too complex, the paper presents a solution in the form of a 10 by 10 information security performance measurement model. The model—ISP 10×10M is composed of ten critical success factors, 100 key performance indicators and 6 performance levels. Its content was devised on the basis of findings presented in the current research studies and standards, while its structure results from an empirical research conducted among information security professionals from Slovenia. Results of the study show that a high level of information security performance is mostly dependent on measures aimed at managing information risks, employees and information sources, while formal and environmental factors have a lesser impact. Experts believe that information security should evolve systematically, where it’s recommended that beginning steps include technical, logical and physical security controls, while advanced activities should relate predominantly strategic management activities. By applying the proposed model, organizations are able to determine the actual level of information security performance based on the weighted indexing technique. In this manner they identify the measures they ought to develop in order to improve the current situation. The ISP 10×10M is a useful tool for conducting internal system evaluations and decision-making. It may also be applied to a larger sample of organizations in order to determine the general state-of-play for research purposes. PMID:27655001

  14. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  15. Composable Security Proof for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    We give the first composable security proof for continuous-variable quantum key distribution with coherent states against collective attacks. Crucially, in the limit of large blocks the secret key rate converges to the usual value computed from the Holevo bound. Combining our proof with either the de Finetti theorem or the postselection technique then shows the security of the protocol against general attacks, thereby confirming the long-standing conjecture that Gaussian attacks are optimal asymptotically in the composable security framework. We expect that our parameter estimation procedure, which does not rely on any assumption about the quantum state being measured, will find applications elsewhere, for instance, for the reliable quantification of continuous-variable entanglement in finite-size settings.

  16. Security aspects of electronic data interchange between a state health department and a hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Magnuson, J A; Klockner, Rocke; Ladd-Wilson, Stephen; Zechnich, Andrew; Bangs, Christopher; Kohn, Melvin A

    2004-01-01

    Electronic emergency department reporting provides the potential for enhancing local and state surveillance capabilities for a wide variety of syndromes and reportable conditions. The task of protecting data confidentiality and integrity while developing electronic data interchange between a hospital emergency department and a state public health department proved more complex than expected. This case study reports on the significant challenges that had to be resolved to accomplish this goal; these included application restrictions and incompatibilities, technical malfunctions, changing standards, and insufficient dedicated resources. One of the key administrative challenges was that of coordinating project security with enterprise security. The original project has evolved into an ongoing pilot, with the health department currently receiving secure data from the emergency department at four-hour intervals. Currently, planning is underway to add more emergency departments to the project.

  17. An efficient controlled quantum secure direct communication and authentication by using four particle cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanvakenari, Milad; Houshmand, Monireh

    In this paper, a three-party controlled quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol is proposed by using four particle cluster states via a quantum one-time pad and local unitary operations. In the present scheme, only under the permission of the controller, the sender and the receiver can implement secure direct communication successfully. But under any circumstances, Charlie cannot obtain the secret message. Eavesdropping detection and identity authentication are achieved with the help of the previously shared reusable base identity strings of users. This protocol is unconditionally secure in both ideal and practical noisy cases. In one transmission, a qubit of each four particle cluster state is used as controller’s permission and the same qubit with another qubit are used to recover two classical bits of information. In the proposed scheme, the efficiency is improved compared with the previous works.

  18. Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.

  19. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34–39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10–12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the “standstill” investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40–0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33–0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014–2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to “peak oil.” PMID:17190820

  20. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security.

    PubMed

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-02

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34-39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10-12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the "standstill" investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40-0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33-0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014-2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to "peak oil."

  1. Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze…

  2. State Sales Tax and Assistive Technology: Securing Exemptions for Sensory, Communication, and Mobility Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Steven

    This paper examines issues involved in identifying and securing sales tax exemptions to curtail the potential negative impact of state sales taxes on assistive technology. Chapter I discusses the nature of sales taxes, including their definition, their impact, their structure and administration, and the sources of exemptions. Chapter II considers…

  3. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  4. Modernizing Selection and Promotion Procedures in the State Employment Security Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Dennis A.; Leyes, Richard

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to discover the types ofselection and promotion models, strategies, and processes that must be employed if current State Employment Security Service Agency selection practices are to be made more directly relevant to the various populations currently being served. Specifically, the study sought to…

  5. State of Hispanic America: Working toward a More Secure Future. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas Poppe, Samanatha

    2016-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of key themes, as they relate to the U.S. Latino population, included in the President's 2016 State of the Union Address. Addressing these issues is critical to extend opportunity to more people to help ensure national prosperity and security for generations to come.

  6. State of Hispanic America: Working toward a More Secure Future. White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas Poppe, Samanatha

    2016-01-01

    This document provides an analysis of key themes, as they relate to the U.S. Latino population, included in the President's 2016 State of the Union Address. Addressing these issues is critical to extend opportunity to more people to help ensure national prosperity and security for generations to come.

  7. Modernizing Selection and Promotion Procedures in the State Employment Security Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Dennis A.; Leyes, Richard

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to discover the types ofselection and promotion models, strategies, and processes that must be employed if current State Employment Security Service Agency selection practices are to be made more directly relevant to the various populations currently being served. Specifically, the study sought to…

  8. State Sales Tax and Assistive Technology: Securing Exemptions for Sensory, Communication, and Mobility Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Steven

    This paper examines issues involved in identifying and securing sales tax exemptions to curtail the potential negative impact of state sales taxes on assistive technology. Chapter I discusses the nature of sales taxes, including their definition, their impact, their structure and administration, and the sources of exemptions. Chapter II considers…

  9. Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze…

  10. Practical security analysis of two-way quantum-key-distribution protocols based on nonorthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henao, C. Ivan; Serra, Roberto M.

    2015-11-01

    Within the broad research scenario of quantum secure communication, two-way quantum key distribution (TWQKD) is a relatively new proposal for sharing secret keys that is not yet fully explored. We analyze the security of TWQKD schemes that use qubits prepared in nonorthogonal states to transmit the key. Investigating protocols that employ an arbitrary number of bases for the channel preparation, we show, in particular, that the security of the LM05 protocol cannot be improved by the use of more than two preparation bases. We also provide an alternative proof of unconditional security for a deterministic TWQKD protocol recently proposed in Beaudry et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 062302 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.062302. In addition, we introduce a deterministic protocol named "TWQKD six-state" and compute an analytical lower bound (which can be tightened) for the maximum amount of information that an eavesdropper could extract in this case. An interesting advantage of our approach to the security analysis of TWQKD is the great simplicity and transparency of the derivations.

  11. Failing States as Epidemiologic Risk Zones: Implications for Global Health Security.

    PubMed

    Hirschfeld, Katherine

    Failed states commonly experience health and mortality crises that include outbreaks of infectious disease, violent conflict, reductions in life expectancy, and increased infant and maternal mortality. This article draws from recent research in political science, security studies, and international relations to explore how the process of state failure generates health declines and outbreaks of infectious disease. The key innovation of this model is a revised definition of "the state" as a geographically dynamic rather than static political space. This makes it easier to understand how phases of territorial contraction, collapse, and regeneration interrupt public health programs, destabilize the natural environment, reduce human security, and increase risks of epidemic infectious disease and other humanitarian crises. Better understanding of these dynamics will help international health agencies predict and prepare for future health and mortality crises created by failing states.

  12. TUBERCULOSIS CONTROL IN SECURITY CHALLENGED STATES OF NORTH-EAST NIGERIA. ARE THERE SIGNIFICANT IMPACT?.

    PubMed

    Gidado, M; Obasanya, J O; Onazi, J; Eneogu, R; Chukwueme, N; Joseph, K; Useni, S; Adejumo, A O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria in the past few years is faced with various security challenges in different parts of the country. The most severe in the last three years has been the crisis in northern Nigeria and specifically the north-eastern States, where three of the States have been under emergency rule for a year. Health care delivery system is usually one of the major casualties in a security challenged environment leading to unavailability or low utilization of services.The aim of this paper is to share the experience of TB services in states under emergency rule. A retrospective review of program data (reportable indicators for TB case finding,TB/HIV and treatment outcome for periods of eight years (2006-2013) comparing national data with north-east and the three states most affected by security challenges (Borno, Adamawa & Yobe). A national positive trend on case notification for all forms of TB and smear positive, with a declined in 2011 but generally the case notification has remain low (59/100,000 in 2013 compared to estimated prevalence of 338/100,000). North east data is a negative trend for case notification and this is worse for 2 states (Borno and Yobe) while Adamawa shows and increase CNR from 2012 because of TB Reach active case, finding. Treatment success rate has a positive trend both national, north east states and in the 3 challenged states (TSR above 84%). TB/HIV indicators for north east are 81%, 75%, and 58% for HCT CPT and ART respectively, these figures has serious fluctuations within and among the three security challenged states with Borno most affected. Insecurity can pose a challenge for TB control activities especially case finding, therefore the need for innovative approaches for case finding in areas of insecurity. Chronic infectious diseases like TB and HIV should be incorporated into emergency responses offered by organisations and agencies for internally displaced persons.

  13. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1546.213 Section 1546.213 Transportation Other Regulations...

  14. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. This section applies in the United... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States. 1546.213 Section 1546.213 Transportation Other Regulations...

  15. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving.

  16. 78 FR 13931 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for International Security and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for International Security and Nonproliferation of Authority To Submit Certain Matters to Congress Regarding Implementation of the...

  17. Fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication using EPR states against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.

  18. Security Culture in Times of War: How Did the Balkan War Affect the Security Cultures in Germany and United States?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    like to thank Professor Rafael Biermann and Professor Donald Abenheim for their ongoing support and guidance as thesis advisors and for sharing their...relevant to the increasingly shared security culture among actors in the transitional process. The basic insight is this: culture matters in world...security cultures and changed policy choices. The thesis focuses on two components of security cultures, the shared perception of the use of force and

  19. Bidirectional controlled quantum teleportation and secure direct communication using five-qubit entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuan-hua; Li, Xiao-lan; Sang, Ming-huang; Nie, Yi-you; Wang, Zi-sheng

    2013-12-01

    A scheme is presented to implement bidirectional controlled quantum teleportation (QT) by using a five-qubit entangled state as a quantum channel, where Alice may transmit an arbitrary single qubit state called qubit A to Bob and at the same time, Bob may also transmit an arbitrary single qubit state called qubit B to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. Based on our channel, we explicitly show how the bidirectional controlled QT protocol works. By using this bidirectional controlled teleportation, espcially, a bidirectional controlled quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol, i.e., the so-called controlled quantum dialogue, is further investigated. Under the situation of insuring the security of the quantum channel, Alice (Bob) encodes a secret message directly on a sequence of qubit states and transmits them to Bob (Alice) supervised by Charlie. Especially, the qubits carrying the secret message do not need to be transmitted in quantum channel. At last, we show this QSDC scheme may be determinate and secure.

  20. What Practices in Airport Security Should the United States Implement at Commercial Airports in Light of the Events of September 11, 2001?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS WHAT PRACTICES IN AIRPORT SECURITY SHOULD THE UNITED STATES IMPLEMENT AT...COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE What Practices in Airport Security Should the United States Implement at Commercial...complacency and conflicts of interest. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Airport Security , Aviation Security Systems, Terrorism, Hijacking

  1. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  2. Security of a kind of quantum secret sharing with entangled states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Yin; Liu, Ying-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Yan; Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-05-30

    We present a new collusion attack to a kind of quantum secret sharing schemes with entangled states. Using this attack, an unauthorized set of agents can gain access to the shared secret without the others' cooperation. Furthermore, we establish a general model for this kind of quantum secret sharing schemes and then give some necessary conditions to design a secure quantum secret sharing scheme under this model.

  3. Diplomatic Security: State Department Should Better Manage Risks to Residences and Other Soft Targets Overseas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    for security upgrades at schools attended by children of U.S. government personnel and off-compound employee association facilities; classified...age American children overseas, of which approximately 8,000 are U.S. government dependents. State provides assistance to almost 200 “American...sponsored” schools worldwide to help provide quality education for children of U.S. government employees.10 U.S. government dependents may also attend

  4. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    efforts directed at the border have been superficial in nature, caused by political demand to “take action” without creating an economic disturbance...33 Buzan et al., Security, 25. 14 expand to the Pacific Ocean. Tensions between Mexico and the United States eventually evolved into...docview /508809004?accountid=12702 Woodbury, Richard and Agua Prieta. “Danger And Alarm On A New Alien Gateway.” Time, September 27, 1999. http

  5. Security of continuous-variable quantum cryptography using coherent states: Decline of postselection advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Namiki, Ryo; Hirano, Takuya

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the security of continuous-variable (CV) quantum key distribution (QKD) using coherent states in the presence of quadrature excess noise. We consider an eavesdropping attack that uses a linear amplifier and a beam splitter. This attack makes a link between the beam-splitting attack and the intercept-resend attack (classical teleportation attack). We also show how postselection loses its efficiency in a realistic channel.

  6. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  7. Sun-Burned: Space Weather's Impact on United States National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, B.

    2014-12-01

    The heightened media attention surrounding the 2013-14 solar maximum presented an excellent opportunity to examine the ever-increasing vulnerability of US national security and its Department of Defense to space weather. This vulnerability exists for three principal reasons: 1) a massive US space-based infrastructure; 2) an almost exclusive reliance on an aging and stressed continental US power grid; and 3) a direct dependence upon a US economy adapted to the conveniences of space and uninterrupted power. I tailored my research and work for the national security policy maker and military strategists in an endeavor to initiate and inform a substantive dialogue on America's preparation for, and response to, a major solar event that would severely degrade core national security capabilities, such as military operations. Significant risk to the Department of Defense exists from powerful events that could impact its space-based infrastructure and even the terrestrial power grid. Given this ever-present and increasing risk to the United States, my work advocates raising the issue of space weather and its impacts to the level of a national security threat. With the current solar cycle having already peaked and the next projected solar maximum just a decade away, the government has a relatively small window to make policy decisions that prepare the nation and its Defense Department to mitigate impacts from these potentially catastrophic phenomena.

  8. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  9. Synchronized states in a ring of four mutually coupled oscillators and experimental application to secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nana, B.; Woafo, P.

    2011-04-01

    Data encryption has become increasingly important for many applications including phone, internet and satellite communications. Considering the desirable properties of ergodicity and high sensitivity to initial conditions and control parameters, chaotic signals are suitable for encryption systems. Chaotic encryption systems generally have high speed with low cost, which makes them better candidates than many traditional ciphers for multimedia data encryption. In this paper, analytical and numerical methods as well as experimental implementation are used to prove partial and complete synchronized states in a ring of four autonomous oscillators in their chaotic states. Application to secure communication is discussed.

  10. Chaotic synchronization based on nonlinear state-observer and its application in secure communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming-Jie; Li, Dian-Pu; Zhang, Ai-Jun

    2004-06-01

    Chaotic synchronization is a branch of chaotic control. Nowadays, the research and application of chaotic synchronization have become a hot topic and one of the development directions is for the research on chaos. In this paper, a universal nonlinear state-observer is presented for a class of universal chaotic systems to realize the chaotic synchronization, according to the theory of state-observer in the modern control theory. And theoretic analysis and simulation results have illustrated the validity of the approach. Moreover, the approach of synchronization proposed in this paper is very easy, flexible and universal with high synchronization precision. When the approach is applied to secure communication, the results are satisfying.

  11. Technical Training Skills Needs of Youth for Sustainable Job Security in Rice Production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edu, Chukwuma Nwofe; Ogba, Ernest Ituma

    2016-01-01

    The study identifies technical training skills needs of youth for sustainable job security in rice production in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. This study was carried out in secondary schools in three educational zones in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Ebonyi state is one of the states in the southeast geopolitical zone in Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was…

  12. The Policy Trade-off Between Energy Security and Climate Change in the GCC States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahbek, Shaikha Ali

    Developing policies for energy security and climate change simultaneously can be very challenging as there is a trade-off. This research project strives to analyze the policies regarding the same that should be developed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) States which are; Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain and Oman. Energy security is important in these countries because it is the prominent sector of their economies. Yet, the environment is being negatively impacted because of the energy production. There has been lot of international pressure on the GCC to divert its production and move towards clean energy production. It needs more research and development, as well as better economic diversification to maintain and improve the economic growth. Along with the literature review that has been used to study the cases and impacts of the GCC states, six in-depth interviews were conducted with professors, scholars and specialists in the environment and natural science fields to discuss about the GCC's situation. It has been alluded that the GCC states cannot be held solely responsible about the climate change because they are not the only energy producing nations in the world. Based on OPEC, there are 14 countries including the United States and China that also have prominent energy sectors. They should also be held accountable for the causes of environmental and climate change. This research provides recommendations for the GCC states to follow and apply in order to move forward with clean energy production, economic diversification and develop better policies.

  13. State Education Department: Security over Pupil Evaluation Program and Program Evaluation Test Materials Needs Improvement. Report 91-S-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    Findings of an audit of the New York State Education Department's procedures to maintain security over Pupil Evaluation Program (PEP) and Program Evaluation Test (PET) examination materials are presented in this report. The audit sought to determine whether the department's security procedures adequately prevented unauthorized access to exam…

  14. 76 FR 24905 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-DHS/USCG-007...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard--DHS/USCG-007 Special Needs Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Privacy Act system of records. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Privacy Act of 1974, the...

  15. Improving the security of protocols of quantum key agreement solely using Bell states and Bell measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen-Chao; Hu, Ai-Qun; Fu, An-Min

    2015-11-01

    In a recent study, Shukla et al. (Quantum Inf Process 13:2391-2405, 2014) proposed two quantum key agreement protocols based on Bell state and Bell measurement, and they claimed that their two protocols were secure. However, in this study, we will show that the three-party protocol they proposed is not secure. Any participant in the protocol can directly obtain other two participants' secret keys. More seriously, two dishonest participants in the protocol can conclude to determine the shared key alone. Furthermore, we will show that there is another minor flaw in their two protocols; that is, eavesdroppers can flip any bit of the final key without introducing any error. In the end, some possible improvements are proposed to avoid these flaws.

  16. Science and the Energy Security Challenge: The Example of Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Philips, Julia [Sandia

    2016-07-12

    Securing a viable, carbon neutral energy future for humankind will require an effort of gargantuan proportions. As outlined clearly in a series of workshops sponsored by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html), fundamental advances in scientific understanding are needed to broadly implement many of the technologies that are held out as promising options to meet future energy needs, ranging from solar energy, to nuclear energy, to approaches to clean combustion. Using solid state lighting based on inorganic materials as an example, I will discuss some recent results and new directions, emphasizing the multidisciplinary, team nature of the endeavor. I will also offer some thoughts about how to encourage translation of the science into attractive, widely available products – a significant challenge that cannot be ignored. This case study offers insight into approaches that are likely to be beneficial for addressing other aspects of the energy security challenge.

  17. Social security and mortality: the role of income support policies and population health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Arno, Peter S; House, James S; Viola, Deborah; Schechter, Clyde

    2011-05-01

    Social Security is the most important and effective income support program ever introduced in the United States, alleviating the burden of poverty for millions of elderly Americans. We explored the possible role of Social Security in reducing mortality among the elderly. In support of this hypothesis, we found that declines in mortality among the elderly exceeded those among younger age groups following the initial implementation of Social Security in 1940, and also in the periods following marked improvements in Social Security benefits via legislation and indexing of benefits that occurred between the mid-1960s and the early 1970s. A better understanding of the link between Social Security and health status among the elderly would add a significant and missing dimension to the public discourse over the future of Social Security, and the potential role of income support programs in reducing health-related socioeconomic disparities and improving population health.

  18. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  19. Integrating statewide research and education resources for homeland security: the State University System of Florida Consortium on Homeland Security (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, James E.; Olson, Peter J.

    2005-05-01

    The eleven universities of the State University System of Florida (SUS-FL) have established a consortium to address the full range of homeland security and domestic preparedness requirements for both Florida and the U.S. The Consortium has established the Florida Homeland Security Institute to provide an effective and efficient mechanism to coordinate, mobilize, combine, and form into teams the diverse, cross-disciplinary expertise, facilities, and established large base of technology development activities within the SUS-FL institutions and their established associates at industrial companies, governmental labs, and other universities. The Florida Consortium and Institute may provide a model for other state university systems for how to combine established resources effectively to address specific homeland security and domestic preparedness needs. This paper describes the Consortium and Institute goals, structure, and operations, with examples of how it has functioned in its brief existence as an effective mechanism for integrating the wide range of university, industry, and government capabilities within the state for addressing homeland security requirements.

  20. The Drug war: Diplomatic and Security Implications for Mexico and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    interfered with. The old Mexican cliché of “Plata o Plomo ”; which translates to money or lead (bullets), The previous choice given to Mexican government...culture of “plata o plomo .”4 The DTOs of today are directly challenging the existence of the Mexican State to provide effective security to the...organizations that broke the “plata o plomo ” paradigm. Prior to 2007 DTOs made deals with the government whereas the modern DTOs challenge the

  1. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

  2. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Martikka, Elina; Hack, Tapani; Wiander, Timo

    2013-05-30

    This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation with either a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  3. Report on Progress Toward Security and Stability in Afghanistan: United States Plan for Sustaining the Afghanistan National Security Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    human resources. Sub-National Governance ( SNG ) policy has left many critical issues unresolved or blurred, particularly in relation to the...and increase support for and the credibility of the Afghan Government. SNG programs continue to face challenges, however, including funding...Cooperation Organization SFA Security Force Assistance SIU Sensitive Investigative Unit SMW Special Mission Wing SNG Sub-National Governance

  4. Building Partner Capacity: Inventory of Department of Defense Security Cooperation and Department of State Security Assistance Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-24

    Cooperation Program Handbook is provided as an educational document for programs of interest to [Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management...e.g., engaging in multilateral military planning and discussion of capabilities development); training; education (e.g., admitting foreign military...expense. This program is designed to conduct multinational conferences, provide education , and share information. 10 U.S.C. § 1051, Multilateral

  5. Perspectives on Security, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation: Views from the United States and South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Global  and  Regional  Security  –  Views  from  South  Africa  and  the     United  States...of   the   narrative   “United   States-­‐South   Africa   Relationship:   Going   Global ”1  the  question  is  how  the...two  countries  can  improve  their  cooperation  and  decrease   tension  in  this  area  for  greater   global

  6. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-16

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  7. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  8. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  9. An Novel Protocol for the Quantum Secure Multi-Party Summation Based on Two-Particle Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen; Wang, Yong-Bin; Fan, Wen-Qin

    2017-09-01

    A protocol for the quantum secure multi-party summation based on two-particle Bell states is proposed. In this protocol, two-particle Bell states are used as private information carriers. Without using the entangled character of Bell states, we also use Pauli matrices operations to encode information and Hadamard matrix to extract information. The proposed protocol can also resist various attacks and overcomes the problem of information leakage with acceptable efficiency. In theory, our protocol can be used to build complex secure protocols for other multiparty computations and also lots of other important applications in distributed networks.

  10. 12 CFR 362.8 - Restrictions on activities of insured state nonmember banks affiliated with certain securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on activities of insured state nonmember banks affiliated with certain securities companies. 362.8 Section 362.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL... a federal banking agency or the state nonmember bank submits an application in compliance with § 303...

  11. Security Analysis of an Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoliang; Zou, Xiangfu

    2016-09-01

    Recently, to resist attacks using the anticommutativity of nontrivial Pauli operators, an arbitrated quantum signature scheme with Bell states (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53(5), 1569-1579 2014) was proposed. The scheme randomly adds Hadamard operations to strengthen the quantum one-time pad encryption. Based on this, it claimed that the scheme could resist the receiver's existential forgery and no party had chances to change the message without being discovered. This paper introduces two security issues of the scheme: It can't resist the signer's disavowal and the receiver's existential forgery. Furthermore, we show that the scheme is still vulnerable to the receiver's existential forgery even if the Hadamard operation in the encryption algorithm is replaced with any 2nd-order unitary operation.

  12. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  13. Mixed coherent states in coupled chaotic systems: Design of secure wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigneshwaran, M.; Dana, S. K.; Padmanaban, E.

    2016-12-01

    A general coupling design is proposed to realize a mixed coherent (MC) state: coexistence of complete synchronization, antisynchronization, and amplitude death in different pairs of similar state variables of the coupled chaotic system. The stability of coupled system is ensured by the Lyapunov function and a scaling of each variable is also separately taken care of. When heterogeneity as a parameter mismatch is introduced in the coupled system, the coupling function facilitates to retain its coherence and displays the global stability with renewed scaling factor. Robust synchronization features facilitated by a MC state enable to design a dual modulation scheme: binary phase shift key (BPSK) and parameter mismatch shift key (PMSK), for secure data transmission. Two classes of decoders (coherent and noncoherent) are discussed, the noncoherent decoder shows better performance over the coherent decoder, mostly a noncoherent demodulator is preferred in biological implant applications. Both the modulation schemes are demonstrated numerically by using the Lorenz oscillator and the BPSK scheme is demonstrated experimentally using radio signals.

  14. The United States, Japan, and Australia: Security Linkages to Southeast Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    American Security Relations: Managing an Alliance in the War of the Third Kind,” Asian Security, (2,2) 2006. pp.102-103. 22 Ibid., p.108. 23 Ibid., pp...Fighting Power!’ For Japan?” (MIT: Center for International Studies, September 2007). p. 1. 39 Ibid. pp.1-2. 40 Ralf Emmers , “Comprehensive Security

  15. Suspicious Indicators and Security Countermeasures for Foreign Collection Activities Directed Against the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-19

    DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of Security Suspicious Indicators and Security Countermeasures for Foreign Collection...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Robert H. Department of Commerce ,Office of Security,Norfolk,VA,23669 8. PERFORMING...faxing, mailing, e -mailing, or telephoning to individual U.S. persons rather than corporate marketing departments. The requests may involve surveys or

  16. State-society relations and electricity infrastructure: Negotiating national energy security in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Cynthia Marie

    In this dissertation, I use electricity production and distribution and grid expansion as a lens to view and understand state-society relations. After discussing how electricity has resource-like characteristics and institutional characteristics as a field of organization, I examine how groups in society interact with state officials and their corresponding institutions over electricity production and distribution and the pursuit of national energy security. Taking Sri Lanka as the focus of my inquiry, I conducted a qualitative research project to: (1) identify how class, ethnicity, and locality (urban or rural location) are constitutive of and constituted by electricity-infrastructure development and grid expansion initiatives; (2) identify how grid expansion contributes to processes of social inclusion and exclusion by reconstituting on-grid and off-grid populations, and; (3) determine the effects of privatization and environmental regulation on relationships between the state and groups in society. The methodological approaches include analyses of open-ended interviews, participant observation, surveys of government documents, and speeches and sermons delivered at protests against power-plant sitings to examine how groups in society engage the state as a social force. The study finds that privatization occurring in Sri Lanka's energy sector may have the effect of maintaining exclusion from electricity access rather than increasing access to electricity as the neoliberal paradigm asserts. Environmental regulations enable groups in society to include their concerns into the development process and to challenge state decision making that have been made on their behalf by the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). The research suggests that class, ethnic, and rural-urban relations are constitutive factors in electricity production and distribution that complement foci on the technical and economic dimensions of electricity-infrastructure planning.

  17. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2015-06-01

    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  18. HIV and colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in two maximum-security prisons in New York State.

    PubMed

    Befus, Montina B; Miko, Benjamin A; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Keleekai, Nowai; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V; Larson, Elaine; Lowy, Franklin D

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the association between HIV and Staphylococcus aureus colonization after confounding by incarceration is removed. A cross sectional stratified study of all HIV infected and a random sample of HIV-uninfected inmates from two maximum-security prisons in New York State. Structured interviews were conducted. Anterior nares and oropharyngeal samples were cultured and S. aureus isolates were characterized. Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between HIV and S. aureus colonization of the anterior nares and/or oropharynx and exclusive oropharynx colonization. Differences in S. aureus strain diversity between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals were assessed using Simpson's Index of Diversity. Among 117 HIV infected and 351 HIV uninfected individuals assessed, 47% were colonized with S. aureus and 6% were colonized with methicillin resistant S. aureus. The prevalence of S. aureus colonization did not differ by HIV status (PR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.76-1.24). HIV infected inmates were less likely to be exclusively colonized in the oropharynx (PR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.30-0.99). Spa types t571 and t064 were both more prevalent among HIV infected individuals, however, strain diversity was similar in HIV infected and uninfected inmates. HIV infection was not associated with S. aureus colonization in these maximum-security prison populations, but was associated with decreased likelihood of oropharyngeal colonization. Factors that influence colonization site require further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  20. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-05-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  1. Development and Validation of Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument for Sustainable Job Security in Yobe State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamu, Gishua Garba; Dawha, Josphine Musa; Kamar, Tiamiyu Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument (METSAI) is aimed at determining the extent to which students have acquired practical skills before graduation that will enable them get employment for sustainable job security in Yobe state. The study employed instrumentation research design. The populations of the study were 23 mechanical…

  2. United States-Japanese National Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    National Security," in International Security, Vol. II, No. 2, Fall 1986, for a critique and rebuttal of the Maritime Strategy. 3 ’Julian S . Corbett...DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE Distribution is unlimited 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) 6a. NAME OF...Interests in Asia: Security in the 1990s 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Staples, Mark T. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (year, month, day

  3. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  4. Examining the Relationship of Business Operations and the Information Security Culture in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Cynthia L.

    2017-01-01

    An increase in information technology has caused and increased in threats towards information security. Threats are malware, viruses, sabotage from employees, and hacking into computer systems. Organizations have to find new ways to combat vulnerabilities and threats of internal and external threats to protect their information security and…

  5. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  6. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-26 - Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Mission relating to weapons, equipment, force protection, security, health, safety, or relations and interaction with locals; and (iv) Rules on the use of force issued by the applicable commander of a combatant...

  8. 78 FR 27276 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Security Records, State-36

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ...; citizenship; ID type and ID number; temporary badge number; host's name; office symbol; room number, and... employees on privacy and security requirements, including the rules of behavior for handling PII and the...

  9. Epidemiological and biological determinants of Staphylococcus aureus clinical infection in New York State maximum security prisons.

    PubMed

    Miko, Benjamin A; Befus, Montina; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V; Apa, Zoltan L; Bai, Ruo Yu; Tanner, Joshua P; Gage, Dana; Genovese, Maryann; Koenigsmann, Carl J; Larson, Elaine L; Lowy, Franklin D

    2015-07-15

    Large outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections have occurred in correctional facilities across the country. We aimed to define the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of SA infection in prisons to facilitate development of prevention strategies for this underserved population. We conducted a case-control study of SA infection at 2 New York State maximum security prisons. SA-infected inmates were matched with 3 uninfected controls. Subjects had cultures taken from sites of infection and colonization (nose and throat) and were interviewed via structured questionnaire. SA isolates were characterized by spa typing. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. Between March 2011 and January 2013, 82 cases were enrolled and matched with 246 controls. On bivariate analysis, the use of oral and topical antibiotics over the preceding 6 months was strongly associated with clinical infection (OR, 2.52; P < .001 and 4.38, P < .001, respectively). Inmates with clinical infection had 3.16 times the odds of being diabetic compared with inmates who did not have clinical infection (P < .001). Concurrent nasal and/or oropharyngeal colonization was also associated with an increased odds of infection (OR, 1.46; P = .002). Among colonized inmates, cases were significantly more likely to carry the SA clone spa t008 (usually representing the epidemic strain USA300) compared to controls (OR, 2.52; P = .01). Several inmate characteristics were strongly associated with SA infection in the prison setting. Although many of these factors were likely present prior to incarceration, they may help medical staff identify prisoners for targeted prevention strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Epidemiological and Biological Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Infection in New York State Maximum Security Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Miko, Benjamin A.; Befus, Montina; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Apa, Zoltan L.; Bai, Ruo Yu; Tanner, Joshua P.; Gage, Dana; Genovese, Maryann; Koenigsmann, Carl J.; Larson, Elaine L.; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Large outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections have occurred in correctional facilities across the country. We aimed to define the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of SA infection in prisons to facilitate development of prevention strategies for this underserved population. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of SA infection at 2 New York State maximum security prisons. SA-infected inmates were matched with 3 uninfected controls. Subjects had cultures taken from sites of infection and colonization (nose and throat) and were interviewed via structured questionnaire. SA isolates were characterized by spa typing. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. Results. Between March 2011 and January 2013, 82 cases were enrolled and matched with 246 controls. On bivariate analysis, the use of oral and topical antibiotics over the preceding 6 months was strongly associated with clinical infection (OR, 2.52; P < .001 and 4.38, P < .001, respectively). Inmates with clinical infection had 3.16 times the odds of being diabetic compared with inmates who did not have clinical infection (P < .001). Concurrent nasal and/or oropharyngeal colonization was also associated with an increased odds of infection (OR, 1.46; P = .002). Among colonized inmates, cases were significantly more likely to carry the SA clone spa t008 (usually representing the epidemic strain USA300) compared to controls (OR, 2.52; P = .01). Conclusions. Several inmate characteristics were strongly associated with SA infection in the prison setting. Although many of these factors were likely present prior to incarceration, they may help medical staff identify prisoners for targeted prevention strategies. PMID:25810281

  11. Sowing the Seeds of Strategic Success across West Africa: Propagating the state partnership program to shape the security environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-09

    within statutory limits. The overcoming of obstacles and resultant success of the RAF was first documented during 30 the First Infantry Division’s...SOWING THE SEEDS OF STRATEGIC SUCCESS ACROSS WEST AFRICA: PROPAGATING THE STATE PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM TO SHAPE THE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT...TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sowing the Seeds of Strategic Success Across West

  12. Joint statement on strategic stability and nuclear security by the presidents of the United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin underscored that, with the end of the Cold War, major progress has been achieved with regard to strengthening global strategic stability and nuclear security. Both the United States and Russia are significantly reducing their nuclear forces. Important steps have been taken to detarget strategic missiles. Multilateral negotiations on a comprehensive nuclear test ban have begun. The Presidents noted the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in ensuring global stability.

  13. Emerging Trends in the Security Architecture in Asia: Bilateral and Multilateral Ties Among the United States, Japan, Australia, and India

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-07

    alliance as one of the central partnerships of U.S. foreign policy in Asia. Led by former Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi and Shinzo Abe , Japan has moved...parliamentary elections in November 2007. His replacement, Kevin Rudd of the Labor Party, while recognizing the constructive role that the United States...Ministers Howard and Abe released a statement affirming a “strategic partnership” based on shared democratic values and common security interests in the

  14. Secure and Robust Transmission and Verification of Unknown Quantum States in Minkowski Space

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors. PMID:24469425

  15. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  16. Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors.

  17. There's no place like (a) home: ontological security among persons with serious mental illness in the United States.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Deborah K

    2007-05-01

    As the homelessness 'crisis' in the United States enters a third decade, few are as adversely affected as persons with serious mental illness. Despite recent evidence favoring a 'housing first' approach, the dominant 'treatment first' approach persists in which individuals must climb a ladder of program requirements before becoming eligible for an apartment of their own. Drawing upon the concept of 'ontological security', this qualitative study examines the subjective meaning of 'home' among 39 persons who were part of a unique urban experiment that provided New York City's homeless mentally ill adults with immediate access to independent housing in the late 1990s. The study design involved purposively sampling from the experimental (housing first) group (N=21) and the control (treatment first) group (N=18) and conducting two life history interviews with each participant. Markers of ontological security-constancy, daily routines, privacy, and having a secure base for identity construction-provided sensitizing concepts for grounded theory analyses designed to also yield emergent, or new, themes. Findings revealed clear evidence of the markers of ontological security among participants living in their own apartments. This study expands upon previous research showing that homeless mentally ill persons are capable of independent living in the community. The emergent theme of 'what's next' questions and uncertainty about the future points to the need to address problems of stigma and social exclusion that extend beyond the minimal achievement of having a 'home'.

  18. Strategies for Improving Polio Surveillance Performance in the Security-Challenged Nigerian States of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe During 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Johnson, Ticha Muluh; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Ningi, Nuhu; Mohammed, Said M; Adamu, Mohammed Isa; Abdulrahim, Khalid; Nsubuga, Peter; Vaz, Rui G; Muhammed, Ado J G

    2016-05-01

    The security-challenged states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe bear most of the brunt of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The security challenge has led to the killing of health workers, destruction of health facilities, and displacement of huge populations. To identify areas of polio transmission and promptly detect possible cases of importation in these states, polio surveillance must be very sensitive. We conducted a retrospective review of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the security-compromised states between 2009 and 2014, using the acute flaccid paralysis database at the World Health Organization Nigeria Country Office. We also reviewed the reports of surveillance activities conducted in these security-challenged states, to identify strategies that were implemented to improve polio surveillance. Environmental surveillance was implemented in Borno in 2013 and in Yobe in 2014. All disease surveillance and notification officers in the 3 security-challenged states now receive annual training, and the number of community informants in these states has dramatically increased. Media-based messaging (via radio and television) is now used to sensitize the public to the importance of surveillance, and contact samples have been regularly collected in both states since 2014. The strategies implemented in the security-challenged states improved the quality of polio surveillance during the review period. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  19. Strategies for Improving Polio Surveillance Performance in the Security-Challenged Nigerian States of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe During 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Johnson, Ticha Muluh; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Ningi, Nuhu; Mohammed, Said M.; Adamu, Mohammed Isa; Abdulrahim, Khalid; Nsubuga, Peter; Vaz, Rui G.; Muhammed, Ado J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The security-challenged states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe bear most of the brunt of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The security challenge has led to the killing of health workers, destruction of health facilities, and displacement of huge populations. To identify areas of polio transmission and promptly detect possible cases of importation in these states, polio surveillance must be very sensitive. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the security-compromised states between 2009 and 2014, using the acute flaccid paralysis database at the World Health Organization Nigeria Country Office. We also reviewed the reports of surveillance activities conducted in these security-challenged states, to identify strategies that were implemented to improve polio surveillance. Results. Environmental surveillance was implemented in Borno in 2013 and in Yobe in 2014. All disease surveillance and notification officers in the 3 security-challenged states now receive annual training, and the number of community informants in these states has dramatically increased. Media-based messaging (via radio and television) is now used to sensitize the public to the importance of surveillance, and contact samples have been regularly collected in both states since 2014. Conclusions. The strategies implemented in the security-challenged states improved the quality of polio surveillance during the review period. PMID:26655842

  20. Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Protocol Based on Three-Particle GHZ States in X-Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol is proposed based on three-particle GHZ state in X-basis. Only X-basis and Z1Z2X3-basis (composed of Z-basis and X-basis) measurement are required, which makes the scheme more convenient than others in practical applications. By distributing a random key between both sides of the communication and performing classical XOR operation, we realize a one-time-pad scheme, therefore our protocol achieves unconditional secure. Because only user with legitimate identity string can decrypt the secret, our protocol can resist man-in-the middle attack. The three-particle GHZ state in X-basis is used as decoy photons to detect eavesdropping. The detection rate reaches 75% per qubit. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402058, Science and Technology, Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 2013GZX0137, Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 12ZB017, and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. szjj2014-074

  1. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  2. 77 FR 33634 - U.S. Treasury Securities-State and Local Government Series

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... available for purchase by issuers of tax-exempt securities. Current financial market conditions have... Commissioner for Public Debt Accounting, Bureau of the Public Debt, at (304) 480-5101 or opda-sib@bpd.treas.gov... administrative costs. As Treasury's costs of administering the SLGS program have decreased so has the amount...

  3. A Model for Effective Organization and Communication of Homeland Security Activity at the State Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Ocean Strategy : How to Create Uncontested Market Space and Make the Competition Irrelevant.” Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2005. Kudyba...for Homeland Security.” American Review of Public Administration 33, no. 3 (September 2003):253-277. 76 Kim, W. Chan and Renee Mauborgne. “ Blue

  4. United States Security and Salt Two. Report of a Wingspread Conference (Racine, Wisconsin, February 9, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Douglas, Jr.

    Eugene Rostow (Yale University) and David Tarr (University of Wisconsin) present their views concerning the wisdom and validity of U.S. security policies, including SALT, and the adequacy of the country's political/military planning. Rostow, representing the views of the Committee on the Present Danger, believes that America is losing the…

  5. 76 FR 9034 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... compromise there is a risk of harm to economic or property interests, identity theft or fraud, or harm to the... implemented by the USCIS Verification Division and operated in collaboration with the Social Security... his identity, and subsequently providing work authorization information based in part on information...

  6. United States National Space Security Policy and the Strategic Issues for DOD Space Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-18

    dissemination. “U.S. space systems are national property afforded the right of passage through and operations in space without interference. Purposeful...applicable today, had a good analogy. It relates to the use of the seas. Does the Navy want to command the seas or just secure right of passage ? Corbett

  7. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  8. What Are the Security Requirements for a Two-State Solution between Israel and Palestine?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    REFUGEES, RIGHT OF RETURN..................... 45 G. DISCUSSION...police force guaranteeing the rule-of-law or a military to protect the borders. It involves every aspect of life . To understand what a peaceful two...government that keeps the rights of its citizens as its primary purpose. For there to be security for Israel and development for Palestine, both must

  9. United States-Nigeria Relations: Impact on Nigeria’s Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    of the prominent diseases include malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis, cholera , typhoid, HIV/AIDS, and most recently Ebola virus disease (EVD...11 3. Incapacity of Nigeria’s Security Agencies .......................................13 4. Addressing Symptoms and Root Causes...14 a. Symptoms .................................................................................14 b. Root Causes

  10. The Great Lakes of the United States, National Security and the Budget

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    suppliers and manufacturers; specialty materials; and limited supply of feedstock and raw materials. For most of the 20th Century the USA has had a...religious, military, financial, political, technology) when developing a national security policy. “The overarching goal of such a globalization- infused

  11. 76 FR 78085 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... current supervisory practice with respect to nonconforming corporate debt securities investments. That is... include banking organizations with total assets of less than or equal to $175 million).\\13\\ However, a... easier to understand? List of Subjects in 12 CFR Part 362 Administrative practice and procedure...

  12. Persian Gulf Security: The United States and Oman, The Gulf Cooperation Council, and Western Allied Participation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    ADA2 690 PERSANGU SECUR HEUNEDSAESANDOMANHE / GUL COOPERATION CO..U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL NC MONTEREY CA J A GAWLIK DEC 82CASSIFIED F/G 5/4 NL... deficit (argueable in some circles), the long term cost is too great. Our excessive military sales to Iran became a major target of religious and

  13. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  14. Security Notice To Federal, State and Local Officials Receiving Access to the Risk Management Program’s Off-site Consequence Analysis Information

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Based on the Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act (CSISSFRRA), this notice states that while you may share with the public data from OCA sections, it is illegal to disclose/distribute the sections themselves.

  15. [Fitness for work after vocational rehabilitation organized by the State Social Security Institute of Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Thorlacius, Sigurður; Guðmundsson, Gunnar Kr; Jónsson, Friðrik H

    2002-05-01

    The evaluation of a vocational rehabilitation programme initiated by the State Social Security Institute in Iceland (SSSI) in 1999 with the aim of reducing disability. New disability claimants who had been unable to work because of illness for a few months at least were referred by SSSI physicians to a multidisciplinary team for assessment of rehabilitation potentials and an advice on the appropriate type of rehabilitation. The study group included all the 109 individuals who were referred to the team in the year 2000. Data on marital status, number of children and level of education was compared with information about the Icelandic population obtained in a national survey. The outcome of the rehabilitation was assessed in a telephone survey, carried out by the Social Science Research Institute, University of Iceland, 1-2 years after the assessment and by information obtained from the disability register at SSSI. The effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme was evaluated by comparing the study group with a comparable group that had started to receive rehabilitation pension before the SSSI could offer vocational rehabilitation. Their progress was assessed a year and half after they had contacted the SSSI, the same length of time as the study group had been in the in the rehabilitation programme. In the study group there were about twice as many women as men. The mean age was 35 years (range 18-57 years). The main medical reasons for referral to the team were musculosceletal and psychiatric disorders. Those evaluated were more likely to be unmarried or divorced, had more children and a lower educational level than the general Icelandic population. After evaluation 40 individuals were referred to vocational rehabilitation for approximately 2 months in a rehabilitation clinic; 19 were referred to a 6 week personal computer training at a vocational rehabilitation centre and 15 to a longer (usually 18 months) rehabilitation program in the same centre. In all, 46

  16. The United States Department of Homeland Security Concept of Regionalization - Will It Survive the Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    by the nation’s big cities. 98 Richard Clarke and Rand Beers , The Forgotten Homeland (New York...99 Clarke and Beers , Forgotten Homeland, 60. 100 “Mayor Testifies for Homeland Security Funds in Washington,” NY1 News...insight into the dangers associated with regionalization, there may be no reason to suspect there is a problem brewing . The potential failure of

  17. Environmental Security in the Danube River Basin: Policy Implications for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    lead to instability, consti- tute what has been termed the “environmental security pillar ” of preventive defense (Goodman, 1996). The Department and...Wetlands (b) Metals cadmium, mercury, copper , nickel, lead, zinc, chromium, arsenic (c) Danube related (d) Data too scarce to allow for proper...chlorine producing industry; zinc from electroplating and the pulp industries; chromium from waste treatment discharges fiom tanning, electroplating

  18. United States Seaport Security: Protection Against a Nuclear Device Attack Delivered in a Shipping Cargo Container

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    help my wife and kids in their times of need cannot be conveyed in words. Lastly, I would like to express appreciation to my beloved wife of eleven...and Gulf of Mexico. Inner coastal ports, river terminals, and Great Lakes shipping ports will not be considered. The research on this subject is...2007, PLB’s security division placed in full-time service two video - equipped submersible robots (worth $30,000 each) outfitted with video , sonar

  19. One Step Back? Reassessing an Ideal Security State for Northeast Asia 2025

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    ASCO) supports this mission by providing long-term rolling horizon perspectives to help DTRA leadership identify, plan , and persuasively communicate...disputes over—and the lack of progress on—longstanding plans to relocate the Futenma U.S. Marine base on Okinawa. During a time of political...health and the uncertainties surrounding a rushed succession plan , China scaled back its implementation of UN Security Council Sanctions resolutions

  20. Northeast Asia Regional Security and the United States Military: Context, Presence, and Roles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-11-01

    North Korea is estimated to have 5,000 metric tons of nerve agent stored along the DMZ, in addition to its stockpiles of blood, blister and...June 1997. 15. Nonlethal Weapons: Terms and References. Robert J. Bunker, July 1997. 16. Threat Perceptions in the Philippines, Malaysia , and... Makros and Jeremy C. Saunders, June 2001. 41. The Common European Security and Defense Policy (ESDP), Edward G. Gunning, Jr., July 2001. 42

  1. Deterring Cybertrespass and Securing Cyberspace: Lessons from United States Border Control Strategies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    literature about border controls. Drawing on a rich literature, including case studies of successful and un- successful attempts at securing the Southern...fluence—and so few cases of nuclear launches—there are a much wider variety of cases of both successful and failed deterrence efforts for analysts...numerous studies of illegal immi- gration based on survey data and interviews collected from both failed and successful illegal immigrants. This data

  2. Security Assistance and the Relationship between Turkey and the United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    maintenance program" and committed itself "to use its best efforts to provide defence to Turkey." Although the U.S. government acknowledged that...period of five years, the U.S. committed itself to make its " best efforts" for providing yearly adequate defense support in order to meet the...Considerations and Policy Implcations , pp. 13-20. " 6. Donald E. Nuechterlein, America Overcommitted, p. 118. 7. Congressional Presentation for Security

  3. United States Security Policy Implications of a Post-Fidel Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-10

    trigger a security crisis.62 U.S. Ambassador Vicki Huddleston frames the exodus problem in 2010’s Learning to Salsa : The scale of future migration...Sweig, U.S. Ambassador and co-author of Learning to Salsa , Vicki Huddleston, and Congressional Research Service (CRS) Cuba expert, Mark Sullivan to...name a notable few. 27 Huddleston, Vicki and Carlos Pascual, Learning to Salsa : New Steps in U.S.-Cuba Relations (Washington, DC: Brookings

  4. The Origin of the United States Security Commitment to the Republic of Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    to end or even significantly change them. In much the same manner as the administration, the bureaucracy can acquire a stake in the commitment as a...of the struggle between the US and the USSR and between democracy and Cornunism. As this view has changed over the years, as the Cold War has ebbed and...flowed, the perceived utility of the security commitment to the ROK has changed also. By contrast, the ROK has been constantly confronted with a

  5. Establishing public health security in a postwar Iraq: constitutional obstacles and lessons for other federalizing states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Fidler, David P; McDougall, Christopher W; Lazar, Harvey

    2009-06-01

    The public health consequences of the conflict in Iraq will likely continue after the violence has subsided. Reestablishing public health security will require large investments in infrastructure and the creation of effective systems of governance. On the question of governance, the allocation of powers in the new constitution of Iraq is critical. Given the ease with which public health threats cross borders, the constitution needs to grant to the federal government the legal authority to manage such threats and simultaneously meet international requirements. Unfortunately, the draft constitution does not accomplish this objective. If politically possible, the constitution should be amended to provide the federal government with this authority. If not possible, the Iraqi federal government would have two options. It could attempt to use alternative constitutional powers, such as national security powers. This option would be contentious and the results uncertain. Alternatively, the federal government could attempt to establish collaborative relationships with regional governments. Residual sectarian tensions create potential problems for this option, however. Reflecting on the Iraqi situation, we conclude that other federalizing countries emerging from conflict should ensure that their constitutions provide the federal government with the necessary authority to manage threats to public health security effectively.

  6. [Discrepancy in attitudes toward diabetes between physicians and diabetic patients attending the private, social security or state medical services].

    PubMed

    Salinas-Martínez, Ana María; Mathiew-Quiros, Alvaro; Núñez-Rocha, Georgina Mayela; Garza-Elizondo, María Eugenia

    2004-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges of the Mexican Health System is to get results of the treatment goals in diabetic patients, which can be frustrated by physician and patient's attitudes. The present study evaluates divergence of attitude of health providers and diabetic patients according to health sectors: private, social security or State medical services. They contributed 255 physicians and 255 diabetic patients in ambulatory care from three health sectors: private, social security and welfare (employees and patients were exclusive providers and patients of corresponding institutions). The Diabetes Attitude Scale 3 (DAS-3) was applied, a self-administered instrument used to compare attitudes between health care professionals and patients. Discrepancies were analyzed with t-tests, chi2, one-way ANOVA and post hoc multiple comparisons for observed means based on the Tukey test. Physician and patient's attitudes differed in all scales except for psychosocial impact of diabetes, which was independent of the health sector. Attitudes were not alike with respect to severity of the disease, value of tight control of glucose levels and patient autonomy, with no distinction of health sector. Discrepancy of need for special training was the only attitude that varied by health sector (F = 4.1; p = 0.02); it was similar for the private and social security sector but different for the welfare sector. All health sectors should recognize attitude discrepancies between doctors and patients to favor collaborative strategies that benefit a better control of the disease.

  7. Advances and current state of the security and privacy in electronic health records: survey from a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Tejero, Antonio; de la Torre, Isabel

    2012-10-01

    E-Health systems are experiencing an impulse in these last years, when many medical agencies began to include digital solutions into their platforms. Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are one of the most important improvements, being in its most part a patient-oriented tool. To achieve a completely operational EHR platform, security and privacy problems have to be resolved, due to the importance of the data included within these records. But given all the different methods to address security and privacy, they still remain in most cases as an open issue. This paper studies existing and proposed solutions included in different scenarios, in order to offer an overview of the current state in EHR systems. Bibliographic material has been obtained mainly from MEDLINE and SCOPUS sources, and over 30 publications have been analyzed. Many EHR platforms are being developed, but most of them present weaknesses when they are opened to the public. These architectures gain significance when they cover all the requisites related to security and privacy.

  8. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  9. Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, Matthias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the security against collective attacks of a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme in the asymptotic key limit for a realistic setting. The quantum channel connecting the two honest parties is assumed to be lossy and imposes Gaussian noise on the observed quadrature distributions. Secret key rates are given for direct and reverse reconciliation schemes including post-selection in the collective attack scenario. The effect of a nonideal error correction and two-way communication in the classical post-processing step is also taken into account.

  10. A Military Campaign Against Gangs: Internal Security Operations in the United States by Active Duty Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-14

    gangs sprouted as a direct result of the threat from the CRIPs . One of the more well known of these new gangs is the Bloods . Figure 2 - Spread Of The... CRIPs , red for BLOODs , etc. In addition gang members often associate themselves with designer athletic clothing. The gang’s colors are their uniform, much...associated violence and drugs are a real and growing threat to the security of the nation.’ One of the largest street gangs in the country is the CRIPs

  11. United States - Republic of Korea Security Relations: Policy/Strategy for the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    bok , "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage," The Korea Times, 24 April 1990, p. 2. 7Edward A. Olsen, Prospects For An Increased Naval Role...2, No. 4, 1989. Kim, Sung- Bok . "Seoul-Moscow Normalization Only at Floating Stage." The Korea Herald, 24 April 1990, p. 2. Kinnard, Douglas. "The...Public and National Security Policy." Naval War College Review, Autumn 1989, pp. 66-82. Kwang, Soo Choi . "Korea’s Foreign Policy in the 1990’s." Korea

  12. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  13. State of the Art of Network Security Perspectives in Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae Hwan; Lim, Shinyoung; Choi, Young B.; Park, Kwang-Roh; Lee, Heejo; Choi, Hyunsang

    Cloud computing is now regarded as one of social phenomenon that satisfy customers' needs. It is possible that the customers' needs and the primary principle of economy - gain maximum benefits from minimum investment - reflects realization of cloud computing. We are living in the connected society with flood of information and without connected computers to the Internet, our activities and work of daily living will be impossible. Cloud computing is able to provide customers with custom-tailored features of application software and user's environment based on the customer's needs by adopting on-demand outsourcing of computing resources through the Internet. It also provides cloud computing users with high-end computing power and expensive application software package, and accordingly the users will access their data and the application software where they are located at the remote system. As the cloud computing system is connected to the Internet, network security issues of cloud computing are considered as mandatory prior to real world service. In this paper, survey and issues on the network security in cloud computing are discussed from the perspective of real world service environments.

  14. How to Fund Homeland Security without Federal Dollars: State and Local Funding of Homeland Security Initiatives in Light of Decreased Support by the Federal Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188...that homeland security professionals and emergency management directors take the initiative and determine in their jurisdiction which programs are the...discussed in this thesis should provide legislators and homeland security and emergency management professionals with innovative ideas and methods to

  15. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law Review 72 (Fall 2005). 4...Weak States and Global Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas ...government institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental

  16. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law Review 72 (Fall 2005...Weak States and Global Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas ...government institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental

  17. A cross-case comparative analysis of international security forces' impacts on health systems in conflict-affected and fragile states.

    PubMed

    Bourdeaux, Margaret; Kerry, Vanessa; Haggenmiller, Christian; Nickel, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    Destruction of health systems in fragile and conflict-affected states increases civilian mortality. Despite the size, scope, scale and political influence of international security forces intervening in fragile states, little attention has been paid to array of ways they may impact health systems beyond their effects on short-term humanitarian health aid delivery. Using case studies we published on international security forces' impacts on health systems in Haiti, Kosovo, Afghanistan and Libya, we conducted a comparative analysis that examined three questions: What aspects, or building blocks, of health systems did security forces impact across the cases and what was the nature of these impacts? What forums or mechanisms did international security forces use to interact with health system actors? What policies facilitated or hindered security forces from supporting health systems? We found international security forces impacted health system governance, information systems and indigenous health delivery organizations. Positive impacts included bolstering the authority, transparency and capability of health system leadership. Negative impacts included undermining the impartial nature of indigenous health institutions by using health projects to achieve security objectives. Interactions between security and health actors were primarily ad hoc, often to the detriment of health system support efforts. When international security forces were engaged in health system support activities, the most helpful communication and consultative mechanisms to manage their involvement were ones that could address a wide array of problems, were nimble enough to accommodate rapidly changing circumstances, leveraged the power of personal relationships, and were able to address the tensions that arose between security and health system supporting strategies. Policy barriers to international security organizations participating in health system support included lack of mandate, conflicts

  18. The National Guard’s State Partnerships: Security Cooperation and Force Multiplier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Publishing, 1997), 220. 14 “10 Things about the National Guard State Partnership Program,” July 30, 2012, linked from AFRICOM Home page at “ Wordpress ,” http...July 30, 2012, linked from AFRICOM Home page at “ Wordpress ,” http://africom.wordpress.com/2012/07/30/10- things-about-the-national-guard-state

  19. Friends without Benefits: How States Systematically Shortchange Teachers' Retirement and Threaten Their Retirement Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    To shore up the $46 billion pension debt the state has accrued over the past several decades, Illinois has been using its teachers as a piggy bank. New legislation adopted in December 2013 will raise the retirement age for mid-career workers and limit the amount retiree pensions can increase with inflation over time. State and national union…

  20. Two-step orthogonal-state-based protocol of quantum secure direct communication with the help of order-rearrangement technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Preeti; Srikanth, R.; Pathak, Anirban

    2014-12-01

    The Goldenberg-Vaidman (GV) protocol for quantum key distribution uses orthogonal encoding states of a particle. Its security arises because operations accessible to Eve are insufficient to distinguish the two states encoding the secret bit. We propose a two-particle cryptographic protocol for quantum secure direct communication, wherein orthogonal states encode the secret, and security arises from restricting Eve from accessing any two-particle operations. However, there is a non-trivial difference between the two cases. While the encoding states are perfectly indistinguishable in GV, they are partially distinguishable in the bipartite case, leading to a qualitatively different kind of information-versus-disturbance trade-off and also options for Eve in the two cases.

  1. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  2. Multi-state Markov model for disability: A case of Malaysia Social Security (SOCSO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-06-01

    Studies of SOCSO's contributor outcomes like disability are usually restricted to a single outcome. In this respect, the study has focused on the approach of multi-state Markov model for estimating the transition probabilities among SOCSO's contributor in Malaysia between states: work, temporary disability, permanent disability and death at yearly intervals on age, gender, year and disability category; ignoring duration and past disability experience which is not consider of how or when someone arrived in that category. These outcomes represent different states which depend on health status among the workers.

  3. 77 FR 43151 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... 1044 insured state and federal savings associations. Of these 1044 insured savings associations, 356... represents only 0.97 percent of the aggregate total assets of the 1044 savings associations. \\16\\ This...

  4. An Evaluation of Maritime Policy in Meeting the Commercial and Security Needs of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-07

    and development of its foreign and domestic commerce that the United States shall have a merchant marine (a) sufficient to carry its domestic water...the policy of the United States to foster the development and encourage the maintenance of such a merchant marine . The legislative authority...world’s most critically endangered large whale species and one of the world’s most endangered mammals. In this regard, the primary cause of the

  5. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-18

    developing mechanisms and procedures for interagency CRS-2 3 Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law...27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas Gvosdev, “Do Terrorist Networks Need a Home?” The Washington Quarterly 25 (2002). See also...institutions may sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental effectiveness.14

  6. Weak and Failing States: Evolving Security Threats and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-28

    for International Studies, Working Paper No. 2005/20 (2005); Rose E. Brooks, “Failed States, or the State as Failure?” The University of Chicago Law...Threats: Fact of Fiction?” The Washington Quarterly 29 (2006), pp. 27-53; Rumsfeld (2002), op. cit.; and Ray Takeyh and Nikolas Gvosdev, “Do Terrorist...sometimes be less conducive to a terrorist presence than countries that are still weak, but retain some governmental effectiveness.15 International Crime

  7. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  8. Agreed Framework and KEDO: The role of the United States in Korean security

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, A.J.

    1999-06-01

    The US is moving from a leading security guarantor of the ROK to a mediator of the Korean dispute. The US should understand this fundamental change and adjust its relationship with the ROK and the DPRK to maintain the possibility of Korean reunification. The Agreed Framework is a deal between the US and the DPRK to stop the DPRK`s nuclear program in exchange for energy resources. The Agreed Framework forces the US to go beyond its traditional ROK supportive policy to deal with the DPRK`s nuclear ambition. The US should assess the goals of the PRC, ROK, DPRK, and Japan on the Korean peninsula to determine if a change in policy will enhance the probability of a soft landing by the DPRK. To conduct this assessment, the goals of all nations and the DPRK`s nuclear ambition have been developed. A graphical summary of the subjective analysis was used to pick the US policy option that shows the best credible and clear logic, and mitigates most effectively any international criticism that may dilute the sound reasoning of future policy. The US should change its current policy to mediate the Korean dispute and increase the probability that all concerned actors meet their goals on the Korean peninsula.

  9. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  10. Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherinezhad, Saber; Karimipour, Vahid

    2003-04-01

    We introduce a protocol for quantum secret sharing based on reusable entangled states. The entangled state between the sender and the receiver acts only as a carrier to which data bits are entangled by the sender and disentangled from it by the receivers, all by local actions of simple gates. We also show that the interception by Eve or the cheating of one of the receivers introduces a quantum bit error rate larger than 25% which can be detected by comparing a subsequence of the bits.

  11. Five States' Innovative Approaches to Welfare: Promoting Economic Security among America's Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    The Family Support Act of 1988 and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 provided the basis for a comprehensive reform of welfare programs. This document provides examples of how five states have chosen to implement new provisions in their welfare programs to aid families in achieving greater economic…

  12. Funding Homeland Security Programs at the State Level: A Multiple Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    trafficking of marijuana to supplement state level HS programs. In 2014, Iowa Governor Terry Brandstad legalized the medical use of cannabis oil extract...LEGALIZATION AND TAXATION OF RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA USE ........................................................................................58 D...EMS emergency medical services ER emergency room FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FY fiscal year HAZMAT hazardous material HE

  13. 48 CFR 52.225-26 - Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... means activities engaged in by a Contractor, as follows: (1) Guarding of personnel, facilities... Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of State. (2) For non-DoD contracts, designated areas are areas of... functions believe a weapon was so discharged; or (E) Active, non-lethal countermeasures (other than...

  14. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.

  15. The United States Strategic Stockpile of Critical Minerals and Our National Security.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    on the side of environmentalists and conservationists. These recommendations included closing vast public lands to mining companies (in 1968, 17% of...closed public lands . The United States still knows little about the total mineral resource potential of its land. New discoveries of scarce minerals

  16. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-09-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  17. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  18. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...

  19. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...

  20. 49 CFR 1546.213 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on...

  1. Secure coherent-state quantum key distribution protocols with efficient reconciliation

    SciTech Connect

    Assche, G. van; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-05-15

    We study the equivalence of a realistic quantum key distribution protocol using coherent states and homodyne detection with a formal entanglement purification protocol. Maximally entangled qubit pairs that one can extract in the formal protocol correspond to secret key bits in the realistic protocol. More specifically, we define a qubit encoding scheme that allows the formal protocol to produce more than one entangled qubit pair per entangled oscillator pair or, equivalently for the realistic protocol, more than one secret key bit per coherent state. The entanglement parameters are estimated using quantum tomography. We analyze the properties of the encoding scheme and investigate the resulting secret key rate in the important case of the attenuation channel.

  2. Human Trafficking and the Impact on National Security for the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    Transportacion Ferroviaria Mexicana. These elements could provide any needed support to potential terrorists traveling via rail); and 2) The Mara Salvatrucha...to use the trains as a way of entering the United States must do business with the Mara Salvatrucha.23 5 Factors Promoting Sex Tourism Governments and...promote sex tourism : • Men’s demand for the sex of prostitution • Increasing poverty, driving women and children into situations of sexual

  3. Illegal Immigration in the United States: Implications for Rule of Law and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-15

    living in the United States.”26 Samuel Huntington’s The Clash of Civilizations, deems migration to be the “central issue of our time.” With...Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press, 2007. 26 Romero, Fernando. Hyperborder. New York NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 2008. p 11, 169 27 Samuel ...2005. http://www.cis.org/node/393 (accessed August 20, 2011). Carter, April, Marie Lawrence, and Ann Morse . 2011 Immigration-Related Laws, Bills

  4. Bigger Is Not Always Better - The United States Support to Security Force Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-13

    F ARC members into mainstream society and politics.12 During the conflict, the United States provided SF A to Colombia to assist in the nation’s...billion dollars each aiding both the armed forces of El Salvador and Colombia . In El Salvador, a ten-year United Statea military training mission...concluded with a negotiated settlement between government and insurgent forces. In Colombia , an ongoing military training mission continues its success

  5. National Security Implications of Virtual Currency: Examining the Potential for Non-state Actor Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    technologies VCs do and do not enable. It is unclear whether the economic incen- tives that enable Bitcoin would work for more general cyber services...political and/or economic power by deploying a virtual cur- rency (VC) for use in regular economic transactions. Bitcoin is a digi- tal representation of...of payment. We addressed the fol- lowing research questions from both the technological and political- economic perspectives: • Why would a non-state

  6. The Future Role of the United States in European Security: Determining Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    Reconsideration (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 15. 7. Matloff, Strategic Planning, p. 287. 8. Matloff, Strategic Planning, p. 342. 9. John Ehrman... Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), pp. 213- 31. 21. David W. Tarr, American Strategy in the Nuclear Age (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1966...pp. 4-5. 23. John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941-1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), pp. 252-53

  7. United States Security Assistance Training of Latin American Militaries: Intentions and Results.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Guatemalan efforts were in opposition to subversion of the Partido Guatemalteco de Trabajo (PGT), or the communist party. The PGT had received some...Training School Noncommissioned Officer Organization of American States Partido Guatemalteco de Trabajo (Guatemalan Communist Party) Peace Keeping...los Derechos Humanos en Colombia y el Papel del Gobierno y las Fuerzas Armadas para su Defensa," Military Review. (Hispanic Edition) 60-82. (April

  8. (Mutual Security Mutual Affluence) Negative Factors = Sustained Stability: A Framework for Establishing Stability Between Like States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-31

    dramatic degree of income inequality .28 The lack of a large immigrant population is driven by the restrictive immigration laws.29 Japanese society is...less than 5% of the remuneration ofJPMorgan’s Jamie Dimon.”3’ The income inequality that does exist is between those who have fill time employment and...are experiencing a resurgence in nationalism as the U individual states attempt to mitigate the popular resentment over income inequity . The excessive

  9. Nation Assistance: Does an Exercise in Guatemala by Reserve Components Support United States National Security Strategy?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    exercises called Fuertes Caminos in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The author was the aviation commander of Fuertes Caminos 95-North. This paper follows a...sequence describing the background of Guatemala and Fuertes Caminos exercises, defining nation assistance policy, then flowing through the United...called Fuertes Caminos. Two key guestions result from this analysis. Is it in the United States’ best interest to perform another Fuertes Caminos

  10. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    of a computer revolution, this study examines the extremes in current rhetoric. Finally, this study pro - poses reasonable policy steps necessary to...H. G. Post (Boston: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1994), 123. 5. Ibid., 127. 6. Ibid.; see also Jonathan Kirshner, Currency and Coercion: The...support US policy, the Navy established an exercise-of-rights pro - gram to contest what the United States considered illicit claims.11 The Navy would

  11. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: Security Strategy for the Obama Administration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    shared areas of concern. Sustain Military Engagement and Forward Presence The United States must maintain a forward- deployed military presence in the...the U.S.-ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Enhanced Partnership and the proposed Free Trade Area of the Asia- Pacific should be...correctional skills), and equipping and training counterterrorism forces. In order to cooperate effectively in this sensitive area , administration

  12. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  13. Beyond the Water’s Edge: United States National Security & the Ocean Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    labeling the decision “a license to kill,” Jean- Michel Cousteau of the Ocean Futures Society alleged that, “Despite the public and scientific outcry, the...Futures Society as well as its founder Jean- Michel Cousteau as an individual plaintiff, against the United States Navy over the use of medium...The Modular Ocean Data Assimilation System (MODAS) is the 139 G.A. Jacobs, C.N. Barron , D.N. Fox, K.R. Whitmer, S. Klingenberger, D. May, and J.P

  14. Mexican Drug Trafficking Organizations: A Threat to the United States National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-03

    southern and northern borders of the U.S., to prevent DTOs from entering the U.S . . Background Mexican DTOs first entered the U.S. market in the mid...seek alternate routes into the U.S. The proximity of the U.S., one of the largest markets for illicit drugs, and the poor economic state of Mexico...Nuevo Laredo, the Zetas operate a parallel network in Reynosa and Miguel Aleman. 9 The Juare~ Cartel operates in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico

  15. [The state of the art on nutrition, food safety and food security].

    PubMed

    Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo; Lorini, Chiara; Porchia, Barbara Rita; Capecchi, Leonardo; Malavolti, Marcella; Aggazzotti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    In Italy, public health is experiencing a phase of crisis. A contraction of services and a staff reallocation have affected in particular Food Hygiene services. We explored Pubmed and Google Ngram Viewer© to define the state of the art of research in food and nutritional field from a quantitative point of view and we focused on some areas of interest in terms of improvement of professional practice. The Italian contribution to food and nutritional research is still limited. Our findings seem to demonstrate the need of an alliance between the world of research and Public Health services, so as to develop a sustainable and effective health system.

  16. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) to transfer unclaimed money recovered at airport security checkpoints to United Service Organizations, Incorporated, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Jeff [R-FL-1

    2009-04-30

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) to transfer unclaimed money recovered at airport security checkpoints to United Service Organizations, Incorporated, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Jeff [R-FL-1

    2009-04-30

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration) to transfer unclaimed money recovered at airport security checkpoints to United Service Organizations, Incorporated, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Miller, Jeff [R-FL-1

    2009-04-30

    House - 05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Homeland Security

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides an overview of EPA's homeland security roles and responsibilities, and links to specific homeland security issues: water security, research, emergency response, recovery, and waste management.

  20. Security: Vandalism, Campus Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Police use a middle school at Lauderdale Lakes, Florida, as a nighttime headquarters. At several colleges and universities students are supplementing professional campus security departments. (Author/MLF)

  1. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CATASTROPHIC (CAT) LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM: DEMOGRAPHICS, ECONOMIC SECURITY, AND SOCIAL EQUITY.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office reached an agreement with all CSU collective bargaining units and Employee Relations on a uniform Catastrophic (CAT) Leave Donation Program in 1992. The CAT Leave Donation Program allows employees to donate sick and/or vacation leave credits to employees who are incapacitated due to a catastrophic illness or injury and have exhausted all of their own leave credits. This also extends to employees with whom family illnesses are deemed catastrophic, thus requiring the employee to care for an immediate family member. Stakeholders include union represented employees who accrue leave credits as well as any employee who receives or donates hours of leave credits in the program. Other stakeholders include the family members and program administrators.

  2. Solid-State Gas Sensors: Sensor System Challenges in the Civil Security Domain

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Gerhard; Hackner, Angelika; Beer, Sebastian; Göbel, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The detection of military high explosives and illicit drugs presents problems of paramount importance in the fields of counter terrorism and criminal investigation. Effectively dealing with such threats requires hand-portable, mobile and affordable instruments. The paper shows that solid-state gas sensors can contribute to the development of such instruments provided the sensors are incorporated into integrated sensor systems, which acquire the target substances in the form of particle residue from suspect objects and which process the collected residue through a sequence of particle sampling, solid-vapor conversion, vapor detection and signal treatment steps. Considering sensor systems with metal oxide gas sensors at the backend, it is demonstrated that significant gains in sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response can be attained when the threat substances are sampled in particle as opposed to vapor form. PMID:28787865

  3. Solid-State Gas Sensors: Sensor System Challenges in the Civil Security Domain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerhard; Hackner, Angelika; Beer, Sebastian; Göbel, Johann

    2016-01-20

    The detection of military high explosives and illicit drugs presents problems of paramount importance in the fields of counter terrorism and criminal investigation. Effectively dealing with such threats requires hand-portable, mobile and affordable instruments. The paper shows that solid-state gas sensors can contribute to the development of such instruments provided the sensors are incorporated into integrated sensor systems, which acquire the target substances in the form of particle residue from suspect objects and which process the collected residue through a sequence of particle sampling, solid-vapor conversion, vapor detection and signal treatment steps. Considering sensor systems with metal oxide gas sensors at the backend, it is demonstrated that significant gains in sensitivity, selectivity and speed of response can be attained when the threat substances are sampled in particle as opposed to vapor form.

  4. Conceptualizing Biopolitics: Citizen-State Interactions in the Securing of Water Services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform on which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-Apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of 'water citizenship'-citizen, agent, and subject-influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents.

  5. CONCEPTUALIZING BIOPOLITICS: CITIZEN-STATE INTERACTIONS IN THE SECURING OF WATER SERVICES IN SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform upon which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of ‘water citizenship’ – citizen, agent, and subject – influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents. PMID:26087245

  6. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low-Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how low-income Black men in South Africa and the United States work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. They use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992 to 2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally…

  7. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  8. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low-Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how low-income Black men in South Africa and the United States work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. They use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992 to 2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally…

  9. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  10. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  11. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  12. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  13. Correspondence analysis to evaluate the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus strains in two New York State maximum-security prisons.

    PubMed

    Befus, M; Mukherjee, D V; Herzig, C T A; Lowy, F D; Larson, E

    2017-07-01

    Prisons/jails are thought to amplify the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) particularly methicillin-resistant SA infection and colonisation. Two independently pooled cross-sectional samples of detainees being admitted or discharged from two New York State maximum-security prisons were used to explore this concept. Private interviews of participants were conducted, during which the anterior nares and oropharynx were sampled and assessed for SA colonisation. Log-binomial regression and correspondence analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the prevalence of colonisation at entry as compared with discharge. Approximately 51% of admitted (N = 404) and 41% of discharged (N = 439) female detainees were colonised with SA. Among males, 59% of those admitted (N = 427) and 49% of those discharged (N = 393) were colonised. Females had a statistically significant higher prevalence (1·26: P = 0·003) whereas males showed no significant difference (1·06; P = 0·003) in SA prevalence between entry and discharge. CA demonstrated that some strains, such as spa types t571 and t002, might have an affinity for certain mucosal sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prison setting did not amplify SA transmission, and CA proved to be a useful tool in describing the population structure of strains according to time and/or mucosal site.

  14. 76 FR 49497 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-001 Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... updates to this system of records do not impact the nature of the exemptions claimed. This updated system..., including, but not limited to, name, date of birth, Social Security number, telephone number, home address... destruction of U.S. Savings Bonds or checks; photographic reproductions of obligations and other securities of...

  15. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Diffusion of Mandated and Subsidized Technology: United States Energy Security and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Philip D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to explore what the core factors are that play a role in the development of the smart-grid. This research study examined The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 as it pertains to the smart-grid, the economic and security effects of the smart grid, and key factors for its success. The…

  16. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reasonable time upon written request of such customer specifying the identity, price and number of shares or... banks having an average of less than 200 securities transactions per year for customers over the prior... securities transactions for customers shall, to ensure safe and sound operations, maintain effective...

  17. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Diffusion of Mandated and Subsidized Technology: United States Energy Security and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Philip D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to explore what the core factors are that play a role in the development of the smart-grid. This research study examined The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 as it pertains to the smart-grid, the economic and security effects of the smart grid, and key factors for its success. The…

  18. National Security Restraints of the Federal Government on Academic Freedom and Scientific Communication in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwab, Jessica D.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the historic and continuing conflict between academic freedom and national security. Topics discussed include regulation and enforcement, restricted technologies, international committees, statutes, Executive Orders, and the Corson Report on scientific communication and national security. A list of recent events in which academic…

  19. Security analysis and improvement of the dining cryptographer problem-based anonymous quantum communication via non-maximally entanglement state analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-le; Zhang, Ke-jia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two novel anonymous quantum communication (AQC) protocols (Shi et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 376-384, 2013) are presented, respectively. One is in a public-receiver model, the other is in broadcasting channels. In their paper, the dining cryptographer problem (DCP) and the non-maximally entanglement state analysis (NESA) are applied. And they analyze some attack strategies, including the honest-but-curious and malicious participant attacking ones. Unfortunately, we find that there exist some potential loopholes in security. The identity of anonymous sender in the AQC protocol with a public receiver for three participants can be revealed. And the AQC protocol in broadcasting channels for n participants, which is sensitive to some special attacks, such as participant attacks, is still not so secure as expected. Here we detailedly analyze the security of their proposed protocols and make some improvements.

  20. [Food security, income, and the Bolsa Família program: a cohort study of municipalities in Paraíba State, Brazil, 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Caroline Sousa; Lopes, Amanda Gonçalves; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the conditional cash transfer program known as Bolsa Família in overcoming food insecurity. A cohort study was conducted in 2005 and 2011 in a sample of families in São José dos Ramos and Nova Floresta, Paraíba State, Brazil. In 2005, 609 households were interviewed, and in 2011 we located and re-interviewed 406 families. There had been an increase in food security and mild food insecurity and an improvement in socioeconomic indicators. A significant association was observed between higher income and improved food security. The program showed a positive impact by increasing income and providing improved levels of food security and mild food insecurity. Other socioeconomic variables may be contributing to this improvement. The fight against food insecurity and malnutrition thus requires additional policies and programs that act on other determinants.

  1. Food security vs. nutrition security.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, K R

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the status of food security versus nutrition security in India. Food security is defined as the availability and the access of food to all people; whereas nutrition security demands the intake of a wide range of foods which provides the essential needed nutrients. It is estimated that the average dietary intake in India is 2280 calories. In 9 major states, the average was less than 2400 calories, suggesting poverty. In a 1988-90 survey, only 10% of the children, and about 50% of the adults, were considered to have a normal nutritional status. The rest suffered from different levels of Chronic Energy Deficiency. In addition, contradictions have also developed within policies in India that seek to address these issues. Recognizing that agriculture is the key to poverty eradication, India recently drafted the Agriculture Policy. The Policy focuses on rain-fed farming, unemployment, and malnutrition in rural areas, revitalizing the cooperatives, and increasing the involvement of nongovernmental organizations. However, there are certain issues of concern in the Policy with the most damaging aspect seen in the promotion of existing inequalities in the rural sector.

  2. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  3. 75 FR 81371 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Intelligence and Analysis (I&A) and/or the federal intelligence and law enforcement community members that are... proceedings thereunder; national security and intelligence activities; and protection of the President of the...

  4. Obesity as a Determinant of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among Inmates in Maximum-Security Prisons in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Befus, Montina; Lowy, Franklin D.; Miko, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity increases a person's susceptibility to a variety of infections, including Staphylococcus aureus infections, which is an important cause of morbidity in correctional settings. Using a cross-sectional design, we assessed the association between obesity and S. aureus colonization, a risk factor for subsequent infection, in New York State maximum-security prisons (2011–2013). Anterior nares and oropharyngeal cultures were collected. Structured interviews and medical records were used to collect demographic, behavioral, and medical data. Body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m2)) was categorized as 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, or ≥35. The association between BMI and S. aureus colonization was assessed using log-binomial regression. Thirty-eight percent of 638 female inmates and 26% of 794 male inmates had a BMI of 30 or higher. More than 40% of inmates were colonized. Female inmates with a BMI of 25–29.9 (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.76), 30–34.9 (PR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.98), or ≥35 (PR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.96) had a higher likelihood of colonization than did those with a BMI of 18.5–24.9 after we controlled for age, educational level, smoking status, diabetes status, and presence of human immunodeficiency virus. Colonization was higher among male inmates with a BMI of 30–34.9 (PR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61). Our findings demonstrate an association between BMI and S. aureus colonization among female prisoners. Potential contributory biologic and behavioral factors should be explored. PMID:26292691

  5. Obesity as a Determinant of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among Inmates in Maximum-Security Prisons in New York State.

    PubMed

    Befus, Montina; Lowy, Franklin D; Miko, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Larson, Elaine L

    2015-09-15

    Obesity increases a person's susceptibility to a variety of infections, including Staphylococcus aureus infections, which is an important cause of morbidity in correctional settings. Using a cross-sectional design, we assessed the association between obesity and S. aureus colonization, a risk factor for subsequent infection, in New York State maximum-security prisons (2011-2013). Anterior nares and oropharyngeal cultures were collected. Structured interviews and medical records were used to collect demographic, behavioral, and medical data. Body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m(2))) was categorized as 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, 30-34.9, or ≥35. The association between BMI and S. aureus colonization was assessed using log-binomial regression. Thirty-eight percent of 638 female inmates and 26% of 794 male inmates had a BMI of 30 or higher. More than 40% of inmates were colonized. Female inmates with a BMI of 25-29.9 (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.76), 30-34.9 (PR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.98), or ≥35 (PR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.96) had a higher likelihood of colonization than did those with a BMI of 18.5-24.9 after we controlled for age, educational level, smoking status, diabetes status, and presence of human immunodeficiency virus. Colonization was higher among male inmates with a BMI of 30-34.9 (PR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61). Our findings demonstrate an association between BMI and S. aureus colonization among female prisoners. Potential contributory biologic and behavioral factors should be explored.

  6. The United States, Russia, Europe, and Security: How to Address the Unfinished Business of the Post-Cold War Era

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Security hostage to domestic politics in Russia—usually to a greater extent than in allied countries, where it is simply a matter of different political...have to be a broad framework to discuss European security issues, including conventional force nuclear matters , NATO enlargement, and zero-sum...from Afghanistan, and a trust fund established in support of helicopter maintenance. This has been punctual and limited to specific areas of

  7. Projected Successes and Shortfalls of a Semi-Permanent Inspection Location in Western Lake Erie for Vessels Entering the United States and Its Effect on National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-13

    PROJECTED SUCCESSES AND SHORTFALLS OF A SEMI-PERMANENT INSPECTION LOCATION IN WESTERN LAKE ERIE FOR VESSELS ENTERING THE UNITED STATES...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Projected Successes and Shortfalls of a Semi-Permanent Inspection Location in Western Lake Erie for Vessels Entering the...surrounding border security enforcement operations in Western Lake Erie, there is a need to determine if improvement is possible. In a maritime

  8. Strategic Minerals: Is China’s Consumption a Threat to United States Security? (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 7-11, July 2011)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    largest producer of crude oil , the second largest producer of chromium, the third-largest producer of cobalt, the number one producer of manganese...Strategic Minerals Is China’s Consumption a Threat to United States Security? Dr. Kent HugHes Butts, Mr. Brent BanKus, 2nD Lieutenant aDaM norris No...become alarmed when resource imports are concentrated in a limited number of unstable countries, scarcity drives up commodity prices , external actors

  9. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  10. On the relation between maternal state of mind and sensitivity in the prediction of infant attachment security.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Leslie; Goldberg, Susan; Raval, Vaishali; Pederson, David; Benoit, Diane; Moran, Greg; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Zwiers, Michael; Gleason, Karin; Leung, Eman

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theorists assume that maternal mental representations influence responsivity, which influences infant attachment security. However, primary studies do not support this mediation model. The authors tested mediation using 2 mother-infant samples and found no evidence of mediation. Therefore, the authors explored sensitivity as a moderator, studying the (a) interaction of mental representation and sensitivity as it predicts infant attachment security and (b) level of sensitivity in mothers whose infants' attachment security is either concordant or discordant with their own. The interactional analyses were not significant. But the match-mismatch data showed that when mother-infant attachment strategies were discordant, maternal sensitivity was more consistent with infant than maternal attachment strategy. These findings are congruent with an interpretation of sensitivity as a moderator that can block transmission of attachment strategy. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. 6 CFR 37.41 - Security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security plan. 37.41 Section 37.41 Domestic... Security plan. (a) In General. States must have a security plan that addresses the provisions in paragraph (b) of this section and must submit the security plan as part of its REAL ID certification under § 37...

  12. 6 CFR 37.41 - Security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Security plan. 37.41 Section 37.41 Domestic... Security plan. (a) In General. States must have a security plan that addresses the provisions in paragraph (b) of this section and must submit the security plan as part of its REAL ID certification under §...

  13. 6 CFR 37.41 - Security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security plan. 37.41 Section 37.41 Domestic... Security plan. (a) In General. States must have a security plan that addresses the provisions in paragraph (b) of this section and must submit the security plan as part of its REAL ID certification under §...

  14. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the Commissioner may require. A lack of security will not preclude the making of a loan if the proposed use of the...

  15. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the Commissioner may require. A lack of security will not preclude the making of a loan if the proposed use of...

  16. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the Commissioner may require. A lack of security will not preclude the making of a loan if the proposed use of...

  17. Enhancing the secure key rate in a quantum-key-distribution system using discrete-variable, high-dimensional, time-frequency states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Nurul T.; Cahall, Clinton; Aragoneses, Andrés.; Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Allman, Michael S.; Verma, Varun; Nam, Sae Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    High-dimensional (dimension d > 2) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that encode information in the temporal degree of freedom promise to overcome some of the challenges of qubit-based (d = 2) QKD systems. In particular, the long recovery time of single-photon detectors and large channel noise at long distance both limit the rate at which a final secure key can be generated in a low-dimension QKD system. We propose and demonstrate a practical discrete-variable time-frequency protocol with d = 4 at a wavelength of 1550 nm, where the temporal states are secured by transmitting and detecting their dual states under Fourier transformation, known as the frequency-basis states, augmented by a decoy-state protocol. We show that the discrete temporal and frequency states can be generated and detected using commercially-available equipment with high timing and spectral efficiency. In our initial experiments, we only have access to detectors that have low efficiency (1%) at 1550 nm. Together with other component losses, our system is equivalent to a QKD system with ideal components and a 50-km-long optical-fiber quantum channel. We find that our system maintains a spectral visibility of over 99.0% with a quantum bit error rate of 2.3%, which is largely due to the finite extinction ratio of the intensity modulators used in the transmitter. The estimated secure key rate of this system is 7.7×104 KHz, which should improve drastically when we use detectors optimized for 1550 nm.

  18. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-11-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  19. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  20. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... exempt from Federal income taxation under the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (3) Completion of the... a security with the funds being transferred into a deposit account (including cash management sweep..., in which instance the bank: (i) Shall (except for a cash management sweep service) give or send to...

  1. Reply to 'Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne- Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2005-11-15

    We show that the criticism of a recent Comment by Gao et al. on the insecurity of the quantum secret sharing protocol [proposed in S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)] is based on a misconception about the meaning of security and hence is invalid.

  2. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... when the customer pays the bank any part of the purchase price (or the time when the bank makes the book-entry for any part of the purchase price if applicable); however, if the customer pays for the... description of the securities, the unit and aggregate purchase or sale price (if any), the trade date and the...

  3. On the Relation between Maternal State of Mind and Sensitivity in the Prediction of Infant Attachment Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie; Goldberg, Susan; Raval, Vaishali; Pederson, David; Benoit, Diane; Moran, Greg; Poulton, Lori; Myhal, Natalie; Zwiers, Michael; Leung, Eman

    2005-01-01

    Attachment theorists assume that maternal mental representations influence responsivity, which influences infant attachment security. However, primary studies do not support this mediation model. The authors tested mediation using 2 mother-infant samples and found no evidence of mediation. Therefore, the authors explored sensitivity as a…

  4. Securing the State through the Production of "Global" Citizens: Analyzing Neo-Liberal Educational Reforms in Jordan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantzopoulos, Maria; Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    From a human capital perspective, schooling has long represented an engine of economic growth, individual advancement, and competitiveness in the global market. In recent years, this theorization of schooling has become linked with articulations of national security in both the Global North and South, as policymakers, private sector actors, and…

  5. Securing the State through the Production of "Global" Citizens: Analyzing Neo-Liberal Educational Reforms in Jordan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantzopoulos, Maria; Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    From a human capital perspective, schooling has long represented an engine of economic growth, individual advancement, and competitiveness in the global market. In recent years, this theorization of schooling has become linked with articulations of national security in both the Global North and South, as policymakers, private sector actors, and…

  6. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  7. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exempt from Federal income taxation under the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C.). (3) Completion of the... 1940, 15 U.S.C. 80a-1 et seq., shall not be included in this definition. (7) Government security shall... industrial development bond (as defined in 26 U.S.C. 103(c)(2) the interest on which is excludable from...

  8. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  9. Why Security Force Assistance Fails

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-26

    on Terror, the United States implemented security cooperation towards strengthening internal state security. Countries that could not or would not...partnered nation. It also requires a balance of capabilities to face both internal and external threats. After World War II, the United States established a...change based on internal and regional dynamics. Effective security force assistance requires military practitioners and policy makers to adjust their

  10. Security of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member-States in 1995: Is a US Military Presence Necessary?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Sumitro, the security chief, and Gen. Ali Murtopo, the president’s assistant. There were indications that Gen. Sumitro was making use of the students to...1300 UT, 31 January 1990. 5. C. M. Arshad , "Southeast Asia in Soviet Perspective," Asian Defense-Journal, May 1985, 5. 6. Ibid, 7. 7. J. E. Metelko, The...M. "The Cautious Consolidation of ASEAN." Contem- Rorarv Southeast Asia, December 1982. Arshad , C M. "Southeast Asia in Soviet Perspective." Asian

  11. Countering Overseas Threats: DOD and State Need to Address Gaps in Monitoring of Security Equipment Transferred to Lebanon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    2013 5 Figure 3: Photographs of Lebanese Armed Forces Equipment Prepared for End-Use Monitoring 14 Figure 4: U.S. Officials Conducting an Inventory...of U.S.-Provided Equipment at a Lebanese Armed Forces Facility 15 Figure 5: Photographs of U.S. Equipment Provided to Lebanon’s Internal Security...Assistance to Lebanon Figure 3: Photographs of Lebanese Armed Forces Equipment Prepared for End-Use Monitoring During our visit to Beirut in July

  12. The Child Care and Development Block Grant and Child Care Grants to States under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act: A Description of Major Provisions and Issues To Consider in Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and Grants to States under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act for At-Risk Child Care are two recently passed federal child care bills. These bills offer states a unique opportunity to review the ways state and federal child care and early childhood programs work together to support children and…

  13. Cryptanalysis of Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on Five-Particle Cluster State and Quantum One-Time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihao; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Wenjie

    2016-10-01

    A new attack strategy, the so-called intercept-selectively-measure-resend attack is put forward. It shows that there are some security issues in the controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) and authentication protocol based on five-particle cluster states and quantum one-time pad. Firstly, an eavesdropper (Eve) can use this attack to eavesdrop on 0.656 bit of every bit of the identity string of the receiver and 1.406 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without being detected. Also, she can eavesdrop on 0.311 bit of every bit of the identity string of the controller. Secondly, the receiver can also take this attack to obtain 1.311 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without the permission of the controller, which is not allowed in the CQSDC protocols. In fact, there is another security issue in this protocol, that is, one half of the information about the secret is leaked out unconsciously. In addition, an alternative attack strategy which is called as the selective-CNOT-operation attack strategy to attack this protocol is discussed.

  14. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    evelo, stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  15. The grant is what I eat: the politics of social security and disability in the post-apartheid South African state.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    In South Africa, disability grant allocation has been under review and tensions are evident in government rhetoric stressing welfare provision on the one hand, and encouraging 'rationalization' on the other. This ambiguity is traced down to the level of grant negotiations between doctors and 'clients' in a psychiatry clinic in Khayelitsha. Here 'having nerves' embodies the distress associated with harsh circumstances and is deemed by supplicants as sufficient to secure a grant. The paper illustrates how national discourses influence the presentation and experience of suffering and the way in which doctors mediate diagnoses. The implications of local understandings of 'health citizenship' for expectations of the post-apartheid state are explored.

  16. Climate Change and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. a. REPORT Climate Change and National...Security 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Does climate change constitute a national security threat to the United States? What is climate ...resources for an in-depth discussion on national security and climate change . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

  17. The National Military Strategy of the United States of America 2015: The United States Military’s Contribution to National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    our security relationship with India and build upon our partnerships with New Zealand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia , Vietnam, and Bangladesh. Such...Mass Destruction. Nuclear, chemical , and biological agents pose uniquely destructive threats. They can empower a small group of actors with terrible...most innovative companies in the world, to learn their best practices. Further, we are aligning our programmatic efforts to take advantage of

  18. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  19. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions…

  20. Shared Challenges -- Joint Solutions? The United States and Europe Face New Global Security Risks -- High Times for Grand Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    revision or at least a gradual shift of the center of gravity in any number of policy areas. George W. Bush’s role as a war pres­ ident would be...global war on terror would be the defining element of both his terms in office. Accordingly, it seems reasonable to take a skeptical attitude with re­...and Christoph Schwarz as well as possible new causes of conflict and war .12 A broadened interpre­ tation of the concept of security takes this

  1. Food security among young adults with disabilities in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Brucker, Debra L

    2016-04-01

    Prior research has suggested that young adults with disabilities face economic, health and social disadvantage. Food security, an area of disadvantage that can influence overall health, has not been fully explored for this population. To examine levels of food security between young adults with and without disabilities, controlling for individual characteristics. Logistic regression analysis of a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-25) (n = 32,795) with and without disabilities, using pooled data form the 2011-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Young adults with disabilities have significantly higher odds (OR: 2.58, p < 0.001) of living in a household that is food insecure than young adults without disabilities, even when controlling for individual characteristics. Odds of living in a household that is food insecure are particularly high (OR: 5.35, p < 0.001) among young adults with high levels of psychological distress, controlling for other factors. Young adults with disabilities have increased odds of living in a household that is food insecure. This study has important policy and community program implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Current and Projected National Security Threats to the United States. Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-02

    and opportuni- ties. Other areas demand our continued attention and focus. They include security in Iraq, on the Korean Peninsula, weapons of mass ...were inspired to attack us because of that incarceration ? You know that’s true. Is there any intelligence that suggests al-Qa’ida would not use a...bringing them here. Director BLAIR. Yes, I’m sure there will be stories about wher- ever they’re incarcerated , but I’m thinking of books that have been

  3. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-21

    however, the directives do not address state and local use of grant funding.59 In early 2009, GPD began an evaluation called Cost-to-Capability ( C2C ...This evaluation is intended to measure a grant recipient’s ability to prevent and respond to various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s National...states and localities use their grant allocations.61 Prior to GPD beginning the C2C , state and local capability assessments have been self

  4. United States - Republic of Korea security relations: Policy/strategy for the future. Executive summary report, March-June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kristick, D.M.

    1990-06-01

    US domestic budget difficulties, and growing East Asian economics might now require the US to change its relationship with South Korea. The ROK's growing global stature, its economic vitality, and military strength indicate it is ready to take a more pronounced role in its own self-defense. US-ROK relations must become more reciprocal, giving the ROK more decision-sharing opportunities. The Nunn-Warner report does not go far enough in prescribing a US strategy toward East Asia in the next century. US must take a more active role in diplomatic initiatives aimed at reducing tensions in East Asia, specifically the Korean peninsula. The US and the ROK should be developing combined strategies to deal with an eventual Korean unification. These two allies should also begin developing arms control strategies for the Korean peninsula. US should facilitate better ROK-Japan security relations. US should maintain diligence in Korea until North Korea opens.

  5. The information security needs in radiological information systems-an insight on state hospitals of Iran, 2012.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Akram; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) was originally developed for radiology services over 20 years ago to capture medical images electronically. Medical diagnosis methods are based on images such as clinical radiographs, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs, or other imaging modalities. Information obtained from these images is correlated with patient information. So with regards to the important role of PACS in hospitals, we aimed to evaluate the PACS and survey the information security needed in the Radiological Information system. First, we surveyed the different aspects of PACS that should be in any health organizations based on Department of Health standards and prepared checklists for assessing the PACS in different hospitals. Second, we surveyed the security controls that should be implemented in PACS. Checklists reliability is affirmed by professors of Tehran Science University. Then, the final data are inputted in SPSS software and analyzed. The results indicate that PACS in hospitals can transfer patient demographic information but they do not show route of information. These systems are not open source. They don't use XML-based standard and HL7 standard for exchanging the data. They do not use DS digital signature. They use passwords and the user can correct or change the medical information. PACS can detect alternation rendered. The survey of results demonstrates that PACS in all hospitals has the same features. These systems have the patient demographic data but they do not have suitable flexibility to interface network or taking reports. For the privacy of PACS in all hospitals, there were passwords for users and the system could show the changes that have been made; but there was no water making or digital signature for the users.

  6. Supporting Data Use While Protecting the Privacy, Security and Confidentiality of Student Information: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The education sector is beginning to embrace a culture that values, demands and uses data to support improved decisionmaking at every level--in classrooms, at kitchen tables and in state capitols. This shift is due in large part to state policymakers' leadership over the last six years in building statewide longitudinal data systems that collect…

  7. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  8. Ingenuity and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Harvey F. Newton Lieutenant Colonel, United States Air Force Se. TASK NUMBER Sf ...model for the National Security Council. 24 Samuel Huntington summed up civilian military relationship this way: “American civil-military relations...on all aspects of national 25 Samuel P. Huntington , The Solider and the State (Massachusetts

  9. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the Commissioner may require. A lack of security will not preclude the making of a loan if the proposed use of the...

  10. A Security Checklist for ERP Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joy R.; Beer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force consulted with IT security professionals on campus about concerns with the current state of security in enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. From these conversations, it was clear that security issues generally fell into one of two areas: (1) It has become extremely difficult…

  11. UNIFIL Peacekeeping and Lebanese National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    UNIFIL Peacekeeping and Lebanese National Security by Colonel Fawaz Arab Lebanese Army United States Army War... UNIFIL Peacekeeping and Lebanese National Security UNIFIL PEACEKEEPING AND LEBANESE NATIONAL SECURITY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...regional strategic effect of the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon ( UNIFIL ), with a particular focus on the national security of Lebanon. The

  12. A Security Checklist for ERP Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joy R.; Beer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force consulted with IT security professionals on campus about concerns with the current state of security in enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. From these conversations, it was clear that security issues generally fell into one of two areas: (1) It has become extremely difficult…

  13. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the committee...

  14. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  15. There’s No Place Like(a)Home: Ontological Security Among Persons with Serious Mental Illness in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Deborah K.

    2007-01-01

    As the homelessness ‘crisis’ in the United States enters a third decade, few are as adversely affected as persons with serious mental illness. Despite recent evidence favoring a ‘housing first’ approach, the dominant ‘treatment first’ approach persists in which individuals must climb a ladder of program requirements before becoming eligible for an apartment of their own. Drawing upon the concept of ‘ontological security’, this qualitative study examines the subjective meaning of ‘home’ among 39 persons who were part of a unique urban experiment that provided New York City’s homeless mentally ill adults with immediate access to independent housing in the late 1990s. The study design involved purposively sampling from the experimental (housing first) group (N=21) and the control (treatment first) group (N=18) and conducting two life history interviews with each participant. Markers of ontological security--constancy, daily routines, privacy, and having a secure base for identity construction—provided sensitizing concepts for grounded theory analyses designed to also yield emergent, or new, themes. Findings revealed clear evidence of the markers of ontological security among participants living in their own apartments. This study expands upon previous research showing that homeless mentally ill persons are capable of independent living in the community. The emergent theme of ‘what’s next’ questions and uncertainty about the future points to the need to address problems of stigma and social exclusion that extend beyond the minimal achievement of having a ‘home’. PMID:17355900

  16. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-26

    Capability ( C2C ). This evaluation is intended to measure a grant recipient’s ability to prevent and respond to various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s...and help states and localities use their grant allocations.61 Prior to GPD beginning the C2C , state and local capability assessments have been self...assessments. GAO, in a congressionally mandated report,62 stated that the input data for C2C is to be based on capability self-assessments from

  17. The cost of IT security.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Mac

    2015-04-01

    Breaches in data security have become commonplace in health care, making IT security a necessary cost for healthcare organizations. Organizations that do not invest proactively in IT security face a significant risk of incurring much greater costs from incidents involving compromised data security. Direct costs of security breaches include the costs of discovery, response, investigation, and notification and also can include state or federal penalties and costs of compliance with corrective action plans and resolution agreements. Hidden costs can include damage to brand, loss of consumer confidence, reduced HCAHPS scores, and--by extension--reduced value-based purchasing payments.

  18. Climate change in the federated states of Micronesia: Food and water security, climate risk management, and adaptive strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of findings following research and a three-week field assessment (April 2009) of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in response to nation-wide marine inundation by extreme tides (December 2007, September 2008, December 2008).3 The study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the state and federal governments of FSM.

  19. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  20. A Guide to Directors of Homeland Security, Emergency Management, and Military Departments in the States and Territories of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    electors of this State at the same time and in the same manner and for the same term of office as other State officials. His rank shall be that of major...http://www.fortaleza.gobierno.pr/admin_fortaleza/ sistema /ordens/0028.pdf. Adjutant General Director: Colonel David Carrion Baralt Functions

  1. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    funding.59 In early 2009, GPD began an evaluation called Cost-to-Capability ( C2C ). This evaluation is intended to measure a grant recipient’s ability to...prevent and respond to various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s National Planning Scenarios60 to organize the evaluation. The intent of this...beginning the C2C , state and local capability assessments have been self-assessments. GAO, in a congressionally mandated report,62 stated that the input

  2. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-05

    state and local use of grant funding.59 In early 2009, GPD began an evaluation called Cost-to-Capability ( C2C ). This evaluation is intended to measure...a grant recipient’s ability to prevent and respond to various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s National Planning Scenarios60 to organize the...allocations.61 Prior to GPD beginning the C2C , state and local capability assessments have been self-assessments. GAO, in a congressionally mandated

  3. Policy based network management : state of the industry and desired functionality for the enterprise network: security policy / testing technology evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christine A.; Ernest, Martha J.; Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Klaus, Edward J.; MacAlpine, Timothy L.; Rios, Michael A.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    Policy-based network management (PBNM) uses policy-driven automation to manage complex enterprise and service provider networks. Such management is strongly supported by industry standards, state of the art technologies and vendor product offerings. We present a case for the use of PBNM and related technologies for end-to-end service delivery. We provide a definition of PBNM terms, a discussion of how such management should function and the current state of the industry. We include recommendations for continued work that would allow for PBNM to be put in place over the next five years in the unclassified environment.

  4. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bete, Tim, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the opinions of four security experts on the issue of guns in schools. The experts respond to the following questions: will schools ever be free of weapons; will card access systems become common in public schools; will metal detectors solve school security problems; and will students ever be issued bullet-proof vests along with…

  6. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  7. Information Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    NOTES 2002 Command & Control Research & Technology Symposium 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...information security including this list of definitions. Definitions: * Confidentiality . Unintended recipients can’t read our traffic. Confidentiality ...attacks. * Traffic analysis. Ability to derive intelligence from the addresses of messages, even if the contents are confidentiality -protected

  8. 76 FR 66937 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-003 Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... interest in, or have engaged in prior activity regarding child pornography, the touching of a child for sexual gratification, or child abuse. N. To the news media and the public, with the approval of the Chief.... To state and local school boards, private and public schools, daycare facilities, children's...

  9. 76 FR 49500 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-020 Substance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... authorities to report, under State law, incidents of suspected child abuse or neglect to the extent described... Guard--020 Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office...--020 Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program System of Records.'' This system of...

  10. Building Partner Capacity: State and DOD Need to Define Time Frames to Guide and Track Global Security Contingency Fund Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Reviews monitoring and evaluation reports for non-performing programs and proposals for significant program modifications, such as activities or...responsibilities including supporting project oversight and monitoring and evaluation . Includes a small number of personnel from State and DOD. Geographic...including implementation planning, plan endorsement, and execution. Participate in program assessment, to include monitoring and evaluation . Include

  11. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  12. United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Douglas, Jr.

    Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

  13. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  14. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  15. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  16. OSI-Security and Relations with other Security Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    voordeel van het gebruik van standaard, commercicel verkrijgbare informatie technologie- producten voor militaire toepassingen wordt door de NAVO...onderkend. Gebruik van deze producten is alleen mogelijk als aan specifieke militaire eisen wordt voldaan, met name op beveiligingsgebied. De OSI Security...TNO mpolt Page 4 CONTENTS ABSTRACT 2 SAMENVATING 3 CONTENTS 4 1 INTRODUCTION 5 2 OSI AND SECURITY: STATE OF THE ART 6 3 PLACEMENT OF OSI SECURITY

  17. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    conducted an evaluation called Cost-to-Capability ( C2C ). This evaluation was intended to measure a grant recipient’s ability to prevent and respond to...various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s National Planning Scenarios61 to organize the evaluation. The intent of this evaluation was to enable GPD to...Assistance to States and Localities Congressional Research Service 17 and localities use their grant allocations.62 Prior to GPD beginning the C2C

  18. Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-30

    GPD conducted an evaluation called Cost-to-Capability ( C2C ). This evaluation was intended to measure a grant recipient’s ability to prevent and...respond to various types of disasters. C2C uses DHS’s National Planning Scenarios59 to organize the evaluation. The intent of this evaluation was to...enable GPD to effectively administer DHS grant programs and help states and localities use their grant allocations.60 Prior to GPD beginning the C2C

  19. Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Du Jianzhong; Qin Sujuan; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2006-07-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable GHZ states was proposed. However, in this comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure because a cheater can gain all the secret bits before sharing, while introducing one data bit error at most in the whole communication, which makes the cheater avoid the detection by the communication parities.

  20. Food security and cardiovascular disease risk among adults in the United States: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2008.

    PubMed

    Ford, Earl S

    2013-12-05

    Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P < .001). No significant associations between food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31-4.31). Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk.

  1. Food Security and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the relationship between food security status and predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between food security status and cardiovascular disease risk factors and predicted 10-year risk in a national sample of US adults. Methods A cross-sectional analysis using data from 10,455 adults aged 20 years or older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 was conducted. Four levels of food security status were defined by using 10 questions. Results Among all participants, 83.9% had full food security, 6.7% had marginal food security, 5.8% had low food security, and 3.6% had very low food security. After adjustment, mean hemoglobin A1c was 0.15% greater and mean concentration of C-reactive protein was 0.8 mg/L greater among participants with very low food security than among those with full food security. The adjusted mean concentration of cotinine among participants with very low food security was almost double that of participants with full food security (112.8 vs 62.0 ng/mL, P < .001). No significant associations between food security status and systolic blood pressure or concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Participants aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security were more likely to have a predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20% than fully food secure participants (adjusted prevalence ratio, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.31–4.31). Conclusion Adults aged 30 to 59 years with very low food security showed evidence of increased predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:24309090

  2. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  3. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  4. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  5. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out a program to ensure fair treatment in the security screening of individuals with metal implants traveling in air transportation.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Oberstar, James L. [D-MN-8

    2009-05-07

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. To amend title 49, United States Code, to establish a 10-year term of office for any individual appointed as the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wolf, Frank R. [R-VA-10

    2010-01-13

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. To amend title 49, United States Code, to establish a 10-year term of office for any individual appointed as the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wolf, Frank R. [R-VA-10

    2010-01-13

    01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out a program to ensure fair treatment in the security screening of individuals with metal implants traveling in air transportation.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Oberstar, James L. [D-MN-8

    2009-05-07

    05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. To amend title 49, United States Code, to establish a 10-year term of office for any individual appointed as the Assistant Secretary of Homeland Security (Transportation Security Administration), and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wolf, Frank R. [R-VA-10

    2010-01-13

    House - 01/28/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. To amend title 49, United States Code, to direct the Secretary of Homeland Security to carry out a program to ensure fair treatment in the security screening of individuals with metal implants traveling in air transportation.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Oberstar, James L. [D-MN-8

    2009-05-07

    House - 05/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  12. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  13. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  14. Security Detail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Marc A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes problems of maintaining discipline and security at Jamaica High School in Queens, New York. Argues that court decisions and school regulations have allowed minority of aggressive and disruptive students to destabilize the learning environment. (PKP)

  15. Diagnosis security.

    PubMed

    Crumbley, James R

    2005-01-01

    How one hospital (designed with multiple entrances intended to ease traffic flow, rather than prevent unauthorized entry) assessed and improved its physical security and loss prevention programs while it upgraded its supply chain controls.

  16. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  17. Cyber Security Applications: Freeware & Shareware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Ashford, Tina

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss some assignments using freeware/shareware instructors can find on the Web to use to provide students with hands-on experience in this arena. Also, the college, Palm Beach State College, via a grant with the U.S. Department of Labor, has recently purchased a unique cyber security device that simulates cyber security attacks…

  18. Security and Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalk, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Issues related to reports and proposed regulations seeking to limit openness in scientific work because of national security interests are discussed. Although administration officials argue that free flow of scientific information allows United States' adversaries to grow stronger at our expense, imposition of controls may undermine U.S. vitality…

  19. The Agricultural Job Opportunity Benefits and Security Act of 1999. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Immigration of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This publication documents a congressional hearing on the Agricultural Job Opportunity Benefits and Security Act of 1999, which focuses on these three major concerns: the United States (US) is the home of a large and growing number of undocumented agricultural workers; the current H-2A Program is administratively burdensome, does not work well for…

  20. Boolean Logic Tree of Label-Free Dual-Signal Electrochemical Aptasensor System for Biosensing, Three-State Logic Computation, and Keypad Lock Security Operation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiao Yang; Zhang, Xin Xing; Huang, Wei Tao; Zhu, Qiu Yan; Ding, Xue Zhi; Xia, Li Qiu; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2017-09-19

    The most serious and yet unsolved problems of molecular logic computing consist in how to connect molecular events in complex systems into a usable device with specific functions and how to selectively control branchy logic processes from the cascading logic systems. This report demonstrates that a Boolean logic tree is utilized to organize and connect "plug and play" chemical events DNA, nanomaterials, organic dye, biomolecule, and denaturant for developing the dual-signal electrochemical evolution aptasensor system with good resettability for amplification detection of thrombin, controllable and selectable three-state logic computation, and keypad lock security operation. The aptasensor system combines the merits of DNA-functionalized nanoamplification architecture and simple dual-signal electroactive dye brilliant cresyl blue for sensitive and selective detection of thrombin with a wide linear response range of 0.02-100 nM and a detection limit of 1.92 pM. By using these aforementioned chemical events as inputs and the differential pulse voltammetry current changes at different voltages as dual outputs, a resettable three-input biomolecular keypad lock based on sequential logic is established. Moreover, the first example of controllable and selectable three-state molecular logic computation with active-high and active-low logic functions can be implemented and allows the output ports to assume a high impediment or nothing (Z) state in addition to the 0 and 1 logic levels, effectively controlling subsequent branchy logic computation processes. Our approach is helpful in developing the advanced controllable and selectable logic computing and sensing system in large-scale integration circuits for application in biomedical engineering, intelligent sensing, and control.

  1. Optimization of airport security process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jianan

    2017-05-01

    In order to facilitate passenger travel, on the basis of ensuring public safety, the airport security process and scheduling to optimize. The stochastic Petri net is used to simulate the single channel security process, draw the reachable graph, construct the homogeneous Markov chain to realize the performance analysis of the security process network, and find the bottleneck to limit the passenger throughput. Curve changes in the flow of passengers to open a security channel for the initial state. When the passenger arrives at a rate that exceeds the processing capacity of the security channel, it is queued. The passenger reaches the acceptable threshold of the queuing time as the time to open or close the next channel, simulate the number of dynamic security channel scheduling to reduce the passenger queuing time.

  2. Quantum-secured imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul; Magaña-Loaiza, Omar S.; Boyd, Robert W.

    2012-12-01

    We have built an imaging system that uses a photon's position or time-of-flight information to image an object, while using the photon's polarization for security. This ability allows us to obtain an image which is secure against an attack in which the object being imaged intercepts and resends the imaging photons with modified information. Popularly known as "jamming," this type of attack is commonly directed at active imaging systems such as radar. In order to jam our imaging system, the object must disturb the delicate quantum state of the imaging photons, thus introducing statistical errors that reveal its activity.

  3. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  4. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  5. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  6. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  7. Making the Grade with School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Shows how technology is helping school security directors prevent violence and protect students. One school's use of a state-of-the-art security system involving closed-circuit television, access control for doors, vehicles equipped with global positioning technology, and hand-held computers for security officers is discussed. (GR)

  8. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a fair...

  9. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  10. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  11. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  12. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  13. Maritime Cyber Security University Research: Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    i Classification | CG-926 RDC | author | audience | month year Maritime Cyber Security University Research Phase I - Final Report... Cyber Security University Research: Phase I - Final Report Appendices ii UNCLAS | CG-926 RDC | J. Connelly, et al. Public | May 2016 N O T...Macesker Executive Director United States Coast Guard Research & Development Center 1 Chelsea Street New London, CT 06320 Maritime Cyber Security

  14. Securing Europe's future

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, S.J.; Hampson, F.O.

    1986-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive review of the major political, social and economic issues that will shape the course of European security in the coming decade. It offers a thorough assessment of such critical questions as European views of the U.S. Strategic Defense Initiative, the likely contribution of new technologies and tactics to NATO's conventional defense capabilities, and domestic factors that influence security policy. It also provides original analysis of a number of issues, such as economic dimensions of security, the quest for a European defense identity, protection of Western interests outside the NATO area, and the role of the European neutral states in the security sphere, that have not received the attention they deserve. It provides a fresh review of the nuclear question and of the German security debate in the aftermath of the initial U.S. INF missile deployments. The final chapter is a careful synthesis of the various contributions that advances a framework for assessing NATO's policy alternatives.

  15. Status of the National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of the national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. This report includes an assessment of the current workforce situation. The national security workforce is an important component of national security for our country. With the increase of global threats of terrorism, this workforce is being called upon more frequently. This has resulted in the need for an increasing number of national security personnel. It is imperative to attract and retain a skilled and competitive national security workforce.

  16. Security Systems Consideration: A Total Security Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margariti, S. V.; Meletiou, G.; Stergiou, E.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "safety" problem for protection systems is to determine in a given situation whether a subject can acquire a particular right to an object. Security and audit operation face the process of securing the application on computing and network environment; however, storage security has been somewhat overlooked due to other security solutions. This paper identifies issues for data security, threats and attacks, summarizes security concepts and relationships, and also describes storage security strategies. It concludes with recommended storage security plan for a total security solution.

  17. Airline Security and a Strategy for Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-15

    profit. As a result, today’s airport security systems are not as technologically advanced as needed. In short, terrorists managed to defeat the...efficient method of securing the skies. The desired end state is known. Americans want an airport security system that allows the safe conduct of air...issue 34 p 3. 35 Ibid., 4. 36 Sara Goo, “Registered Traveler Test Ends Inconclusively; Airport Security Scheme Lacks Broad Support,” The Washington

  18. Military veterans and Social Security.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anya

    There are 9.4 million military veterans receiving Social Security benefits, which means that almost one out of every four adult Social Security beneficiaries has served in the United States military. In addition, veterans and their families make up almost 40 percent of the adult Social Security beneficiary population. Policymakers are particularly interested in military veterans and their families and have provided them with benefits through several government programs, including Social Security credits, home loan guarantees, and compensation and pension payments through the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is therefore important to understand the economic and demographic characteristics of this population. Information in this article is based on data from the March 2004 Current Population Survey, a large, nationally representative survey of U.S. households. Veterans are overwhelmingly male compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries who are more evenly split between males and females. Military veterans receiving Social Security are more likely to be married and to have finished high school compared with all adult Social Security beneficiaries, and they are less likely to be poor or near poor than the overall beneficiary population. Fourteen percent of veterans receiving Social Security benefits have income below 150 percent of poverty, while 25 percent of all adult Social Security beneficiaries are below this level. The higher economic status among veterans is also reflected in the relatively high Social Security benefits they receive. The number of military veterans receiving Social Security benefits will remain high over the next few decades, while their make-up and characteristics will change. In particular, the number of Vietnam War veterans who receive Social Security will increase in the coming decades, while the number of veterans from World War II and the Korean War will decline.

  19. To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services field office in Kodiak, Alaska.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2010-03-19

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. To require the Secretary of Homeland Security to establish a United States Citizenship and Immigration Services field office in Kodiak, Alaska.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Young, Don [R-AK-At Large

    2010-03-19

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. 17 CFR 270.8b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Title of securities. 270.8b-3 Section 270.8b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-3 Title of securities. Wherever the title of securities is required to be stated,...

  2. 17 CFR 270.8b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Title of securities. 270.8b-3 Section 270.8b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-3 Title of securities. Wherever the title of securities is required to be stated,...

  3. 17 CFR 270.8b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Title of securities. 270.8b-3 Section 270.8b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-3 Title of securities. Wherever the title of securities is required to be stated,...

  4. 17 CFR 270.8b-3 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Title of securities. 270.8b-3 Section 270.8b-3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.8b-3 Title of securities. Wherever the title of securities is required to be stated,...

  5. Food security is related to adult type 2 diabetes control over time in a United States safety net primary care clinic population.

    PubMed

    Shalowitz, M U; Eng, J S; McKinney, C O; Krohn, J; Lapin, B; Wang, C-H; Nodine, E

    2017-05-15

    Successful Type 2 diabetes management requires adopting a high nutrient-density diet made up of food items that both meet dietary needs and preferences and can be feasibly obtained on a regular basis. However, access to affordable, nutrient-dense foods often is lacking in poorer neighbourhoods. Therefore, low food security should directly impair glucose control, even when patients have full access to and utilize comprehensive medical management. The present study sought to determine whether food security is related longitudinally to glucose control, over-and-above ongoing medication management, among Type 2 diabetes patients receiving comprehensive care at a Midwestern multi-site federally qualified health centre (FQHC). In this longitudinal observational study, we completed a baseline assessment of patients' food security (using the US Household Food Security Module), demographics (via Census items), and diabetes history/management (using a structured clinical encounter form) when patients began receiving diabetes care at the health centre. We then recorded those patients' A1C levels several times during a 24-month follow-up period. Three hundred and ninety-nine patients (56% with low food security) had a baseline A1c measurement; a subsample of 336 (median age=52 years; 56% female; 60% Hispanic, 27% African American, and 9% White) also had at least one follow-up A1c measurement. Patients with lower (vs higher) food security were more likely to be on insulin and have higher A1c levels at baseline. Moreover, the disparity in glucose control by food security status persisted throughout the next 2 years. Although results were based on one multi-site FQHC, potentially limiting their generalizability, they seem to suggest that among Type 2 diabetes patients, low food security directly impairs glucose control-even when patients receive full access to comprehensive medical management-thereby increasing their long-term risks of high morbidity, early mortality, and high

  6. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  7. Image Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    popularity, contemplates the cru- cial needs for protecting intellectual property rights on multimedia content like images, video, audio , and oth- ers...protection for still images, audio , video, and multimedia products.’ The networking environment of the future will require tools that provide m secure and fast...technique known as steganography ? Steganography , or “covered writing,” George Voyatzis and Ioannis Pitas University of Thessaloniki has a long

  8. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  9. Less reality, more security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekert, Artur; Kay, Alastair; Pope, James

    2012-09-01

    The concept of nonlocality, whereby a local operation on one state can instantaneously affect the properties of another spatially-separated state, has been investigated through the violation of Bell inequalities. Realisations of such violations in the laboratory paved the way for not only experimental justification of quantum theory, but also one of the subject's first significant applications in cryptography. The violation of Bell inequalities can be used as an indicator for security in the task of key distribution. Furthermore, it has more recently been shown that such security is guaranteed by the violations alone, regardless of assumptions about the workings and trustworthiness of the devices provided for the task. We provide a brief history of Bell inequalities and their use in the development of device-independent key distribution, which is less reliant on the validity of quantum theory than previously thought.

  10. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings.

  11. Extreme hydrological events and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-06-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  12. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  13. Security: Individuals and Leviathans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-20

    Sir Thomas Hobbes coined this idea in his 1651 philosophical treatise on the commonwealth, The Leviathan, which proposed the state as a visible and...is behaving as the de facto leviathan, along the lines of those originally conceived by Sir Thomas Hobbes. As today’s main superpower, the United...losing our sense of hierarchy, which assigns first place to what is simplest.”10 Security as we discuss it today emerged in the 17th century with Sir

  14. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts.

  15. Update: Science and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Although ‘a substantial and serious technology transfer [to the Soviet Union] exists,’ open communication of federally funded research does not damage our national security, according to Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University and chairman of the National Academy of Sciences' Panel on Scientific Communication and National Security. Corson characterized those technology transfers at a recent press conference on the panel's findings, which are summarized in their report, ‘Science Communications and National Security’ (Eos, October 5, p. 801).‘A net flow of products, processes, and ideas is continually moving from the United States and its allies to the Soviet Union, through both overt and covert means,’ Corson said. While some of this technology transfer has not compromised national security (‘in part because a technology in question had little or no military significance’), a ‘substantial portion of the transfer has been damaging to national security,’ Corson explained. The ‘damaging transfers’ occur through the ‘legal as well as illegal sale of products, through transfers via third countries, and through a highly organized espionage operation.’

  16. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  17. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  18. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    William Vine, Benjamin Vowell Team Advisor: Capt Nick Mastronardi UNITED STATES AIR FORCE ACADEMY Introduction Secure Enclaves-Enabled...Technologies’ software goes a layer deeper, activating a hardware solution to put a stop to the death spiral. Utilizing the silicon of the computer chip...veritable impenetrable fortress to be placed inside modern day computer systems. Few digital security solutions on today’s market are hardware based, and

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Security Entry Control Programs: Security Forces versus Automated Entry Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    flD-A±85 7S5 A COMPRATIVE ANALYSIS OF SECURITY ENTRY CONTROL 1/𔃻 PROGRAMS: SECURITY FORCE.. (U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH IGNT-PRTTERSON AFB OH N S...Bunce CAPTAIN UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 1987 70 pages MASTER OF SCIENCE Accesio, For CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY DIC TAB SACRAMENTO CALIFORN IA U a...PROGRAMS: SECURITY FORCES VERSUS AUTOMATED ENTRY CONTROL Neal Steven Bunce CAPTAIN UNITED STATES AIR FORCE 1987 70 pages MASTER OF SCIENCE CALIFORNIA

  20. 17 CFR 230.480 - Title of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Title of securities. 230.480 Section 230.480 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND... shares, the par or stated value, if any; the rate of dividends, if fixed, and whether cumulative or...

  1. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at a... system security plan; and (e) Document the rail transit agency's process for making its system...

  2. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at a... system security plan; and (e) Document the rail transit agency's process for making its system...

  3. 7 CFR 764.103 - General security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General security requirements. 764.103 Section 764.103... security requirements. (a) Security requirements specific to each loan program are outlined in subparts D... included in the Agency's additional security requirement stated in paragraph (c) of this section....

  4. 28 CFR 0.111B - Witness Security Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Witness Security Program. 0.111B Section... United States Marshals Service § 0.111B Witness Security Program. (a) In connection with the protection... required to maintain the security of protective witnesses and the integrity of the Witness Security Program...

  5. 28 CFR 0.111B - Witness Security Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Witness Security Program. 0.111B Section... United States Marshals Service § 0.111B Witness Security Program. (a) In connection with the protection... required to maintain the security of protective witnesses and the integrity of the Witness Security Program...

  6. 28 CFR 0.111B - Witness Security Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Witness Security Program. 0.111B Section... United States Marshals Service § 0.111B Witness Security Program. (a) In connection with the protection... required to maintain the security of protective witnesses and the integrity of the Witness Security Program...

  7. 28 CFR 0.111B - Witness Security Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Witness Security Program. 0.111B Section... United States Marshals Service § 0.111B Witness Security Program. (a) In connection with the protection... required to maintain the security of protective witnesses and the integrity of the Witness Security Program...

  8. Transboundary natural area protection: Broadening the definition of national security

    Treesearch

    Haven B. Cook

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the definition and concept of national security, and examines how the environment is linked with national security. The traditional, state view of national security that guides most foreign policy includes the concepts of military power, sovereignty and geopolitical stability. This paper advocates broadening the definition of security to include...

  9. 31 CFR 344.4 - What are Time Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are Time Deposit securities? 344...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.4 What are Time Deposit securities?...

  10. Soil Security Assessment of Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Damien; Kidd, Darren; McBratney, Alex

    2017-04-01

    The concept of soil security aligns well with the aspirational and marketing policies of the Tasmanian Government, where increased agricultural expansion through new irrigation schemes and multiple-use State managed production forests co-exists beside pristine World Heritage conservation land, a major drawcard of the economically important tourism industry . Regarding the Sustainable Development Gaols (SDG's) this could be seen as a exemplar of the emerging tool for quantification of spatial soil security to effectively protect our soil resource in terms of food (SDG 2.4, 3.9) and water security (SDG 6.4, 6.6), biodiversity maintenance and safeguarding fragile ecosystems (SDG 15.3, 15.9). The recent development and application of Digital Soil Mapping and Assessment capacities in Tasmania to stimulate agricultural production and better target appropriate soil resources has formed the foundational systems that can enable the first efforts in quantifying and mapping Tasmanian Soil Security, in particular the five Soil Security dimensions (Capability, Condition, Capital, Codification and Connectivity). However, to provide a measure of overall soil security, it was necessary to separately assess the State's three major soil uses; Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry. These products will provide an indication of where different activities are sustainable or at risk, where more soil data is needed, and provide a tool to better plan for a State requiring optimal food and fibre production, without depleting its natural soil resources and impacting on the fragile ecosystems supporting environmental benefits and the tourism industry.

  11. National security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This paper summarizes the views presented on October 31, 1991, at a GAO-sponsored conference on worldwide threats to U.S. national security. The conference was designed to provide insight into potential military threats to U.S. security interests and necessary modifications to current and planned U.S. forces to meet those threats. Conference participants, including defense analysts and retired military officers, discussed and analyzed the possibility of U.S. and allied involvement in various regional contingencies in Europe and the Soviet Union, Eat Asia and the Pacific, and the Near East and South Asia. Topics ranged from the possibility of nuclear war to a general discussion of low-intensity conflict. To serve as a starting point for discussion, we asked several of the participants to provide papers representing a wide range of views. The participants agreed that for many years the Soviet/Warsaw Pact threat to Europe shaped U.S. force planning but that the Soviet union no longer posed a conventional threat. Nuclear weapons held by the former Soviet republics and other nations, however, remain a concern. There was no agreement of the methodology for sizing U.S. forces. Some argued for sizing based on specific threats; other argued for flexibility to meet any and all contingencies and cited the Gulf War as a example.

  12. 33 CFR 165.30 - Security zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... United States or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States. (b) The... subversive acts, accidents, or other causes of a similar nature: (1) Vessels, (2) Harbors, (3) Ports, and (4...

  13. Human security in the Asia Pacific: perspective of food and health security.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fu-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    As combined new factors could further complicate the food supply and health security for regional countries, new perspective on human security should be prioritized on securing health security in the region. In recent years, food production and supply has been affected by unpredictable climate change and unaccountable manmade factors in the region. With increased pressure from food security issues, personal health and human security is badly affected. It poses a threat to human security and becomes a concern of all states. In the new era, the pressing reality for all countries is that there is no exception for anyone before a pandemic. Threats to human security become not only a national security issue but also a transnational challenge.

  14. Food and nutrition security.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the deficits in food security in India. It is recommended that India commit to nutrition security by direct actions. Programs should provide essential staples and a nutrient distribution system with affordable prices. India should adopt an Employment Guarantee Program. Creches should provide maternal-child health care, nutrition, literacy, and employment. Government must resolve the internal conflicts of interest between overlapping sectors. India should resolve the "dysfunction" between macroeconomic policies and anti-poverty strategies. Interventions should be people oriented, rely on social mobilization, and provide information and financial resources in a nonconflict context. Efforts will require the cooperation between the private sector, voluntary organizations, state agencies, and local self-governing decentralized agencies. There is a need to build capacity and viable institutions. Poverty agencies do not have access to the minimum required cereals for the poor. The Public Distribution System (PDS) does not guarantee a minimum quantity of foodstuffs per household regardless of income level. More high quality varieties of rice are produced due to higher prices in the marketplace. Most state governments do not provide staple cereals to the PDS at affordable prices. The government sets fair prices for sugar, but not cereal. The government sells more cereal in the open market than to PDS. PDS should target poor households; that is, the 29.9% who live below the poverty line. Lack of nutrition security is due to poverty that is enhanced by ignorance and the lack of health and nutrition education.

  15. AVIATION SECURITY: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for...local law enforcement support relating to air carrier and airport security measures. The funding of the security operations is divided among FAA, the...generally agreed with the current division of airport security responsibilities. These officials stated that the continuity of screening would be

  16. Security and Prosperity: Reexamining the Connection Between Economic, Homeland and National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    based view of the security relationship. Figure 1. Analytical Process Used to Explore the Relationship Between Economic, Homeland and National...security and economic security are connected, based on claims in the National Security Strategy (NSS). The NSS states that America’s economic growth and...policy development. The analysis began by looking for common definitions for each element based on existing research (Figure 1, areas 1–3). The analysis

  17. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  18. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    A module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  19. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  20. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    A module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  1. Security on Campus. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United State Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session. Special Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    This document presents the transcript of a congressional hearing held before a Senate subcommittee concerning reporting requirements of the Student Right to Know and Campus Security Act of 1990. Among issues addressed is whether the definition of "campus" includes buildings used partially or completely for commercial purposes, sidewalks,…

  2. The Cyber Security Crisis

    ScienceCinema

    Spafford, Eugene [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  3. The Cyber Security Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Eugene

    2006-05-10

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  4. Taiwan-China: Recent Economic, Political, and Military Developments Across the Strait, and Implications for the United States. Hearing Before The U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-18

    resist  intimidation and coercion in  order to engage fully with the mainland.   The provision by the United States of carefully  selected  defense  articles...their  impact  on U.S. security.   Per statutory mandate, the Commission will examine in greater depth these and  other issues in its Annual Report that...signed  dozens  o f  acco rds  on  var ious  issues  ranging  from  financial  secur it y  cooperat ion  to   food  safety .     And  we  saw

  5. The Diplomatic Security Service - Partner in National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-18

    U.S . Department of State , November 1991. Hereafter, known as "Looking Back". 4...Bureau of Diplomatic Training Center, U.S . Department of State , Washington, D.C. Hereafter, known as "Bannerman Interview". 5. Barbara W. Tuchman, The...Years." Bureau of Diplomatic Security Training Center. U.S . Department of State , Washington, D.C., p. 1. 7. "Bannerman Interview." 8. Department

  6. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.; Spencer, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  7. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  8. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  9. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  10. 49 CFR 1542.201 - Security of the secured area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY.... (4) Subject each individual to employment history verification as described in § 1542.209 before...

  11. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at...

  12. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAIL FIXED GUIDEWAY SYSTEMS; STATE SAFETY OVERSIGHT Role of the State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at...

  13. 78 FR 25521 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (Osac) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Security Advisory Council (Osac) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on June 4 and 5, 2013. Pursuant to... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive...

  14. 78 FR 64260 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on November 19, 20, and 21, 2013... meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve...

  15. 75 FR 65550 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on November 16, 17, and 18 at the U... security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and proprietary...

  16. Social Security income measurement in two surveys.

    PubMed

    Iams, Howard M; Purcell, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    As a major source of income for retired persons in the United States, Social Security benefits directly influence economic well-being. That fact underscores the importance of measuring Social Security income accurately in household surveys. Using Social Security Administration (SSA) records, we examine Social Security income as reported in two Census Bureau surveys, the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) and the Current Population Survey (CPS). Although SSA usually deducts Medicare premiums from benefit payments, both the CPS and the SIPP aim to collect and record gross Social Security benefit amounts (before Medicare premium deductions). We find that the Social Security benefit recorded in the CPS closely approximates the gross benefit recorded for CPS respondents in SSA's records, but the Social Security benefit recorded in the SIPP more closely approximates SSA's record of net benefit payments (after deducting Medicare premiums).

  17. South Korea and Its Security Environment (Korea’s Position in the Power Relationship between the United States, the Soviet Union, Japan & China)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    control, (b) employ- ment, (c) housing, (d) health and medical s’:c,.;,, ( ) social security, (f) environemental protection and pollution L-o< i (g...are anti 25. d. Health and Medical Services: Promotion of a high health stan- dard is a goal and anoans o’ social development. This goal is being...basic rights mentioned by Ms. Derian in her address, such as food, shelter, health care --nd freedoms of movement, religion and education. The Korean

  18. Who’s on First: Unraveling the Complexity of the United States’ Food and Agricultural Regulatory System in the Realm of Homeland Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    We have continued 129 down the same path for more than 100 years. It is time for a paradigm shift to recreate the mold of food and agricultural...UNRAVELING THE COMPLEXITY OF THE UNITED STATES’ FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL REGULATORY SYSTEM IN THE REALM OF HOMELAND SECURITY by Gary Wayne Elliott...December 2009 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Who’s on First: Unraveling the Complexity of the United States’ Food

  19. Dietary Intake, Behaviors and Psychosocial Factors Among Women from Food-Secure and Food-Insecure Households in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Whitaker, Kara; Alia, Kassandra A; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent

    2016-04-21

    Determine whether macro- and micro-nutrient intake, energy intake, diet quality, adherence to recommended dietary intake, and psychosocial and behavioral factors are associated with household food security. Baseline data from in-person interviews and telephone-based, 24-hour dietary recall from women recruited to a diet and physical activity controlled trial. Neighborhoods encompassing 18 urban census tracts in South Carolina. Participants (n=202) were predominantly African American (87%), overweight or obese women aged 25 to 51 years with mean body mass index of 40.6±8.7. Macro- and micro-nutrient intake, energy intake, diet quality, adherence to recommended dietary intake (via multi-pass, 24-h recall); diet-related self-efficacy and social support, healthy/lowfat and emotional eating behaviors, and depressive symptoms. Women in food-secure (FS) and food insecure (FI) households were not different on health and sociodemographic characteristics. Women in FI households had lower self-efficacy and healthy/low-fat eating behaviors, and higher emotional eating and depressive symptoms compared with women in FS households. The groups did not differ on social support. Significant dietary differences were few (FS>FI on protein and lean meat; FSsecurity status was associated with diet-related psychosocial and behavioral factors, it was associated with few aspects of dietary intake. Dietary intake overall was poor. Participants were not meeting guidelines for a diet supportive of general health or weight loss and management, regardless of food security status.

  20. Security in the Transport of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Ron; Rawl, Richard R

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration's (DOE/NNSA)Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and active IAEA Donor States are working together to strengthen the security of nuclear and radioactive materials during transport to mitigate the risks of theft, diversion, or sabotage. International activities have included preparing and publishing the new IAEA guidance document Security in the Transport of Radioactive Material while ensuring that security recommendations do not conflict with requirements for safety during transport, and developing and providing training programs to assist other countries in implementing radioactive material transport security programs. This paper provides a brief update on the status of these transportation security efforts.

  1. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  2. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  3. Secure Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this thesis, I present new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that were secure against any intercept-resend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this thesis is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly gaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this thesis is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. I discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. In addition, I present a study characterizing the effects of turbulence on a communication system using OAM modes for encoding. The fourth and final technology presented in this thesis is a relatively

  4. Effectiveness of the Civil Aviation Security Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-15

    on item were processed through the screening system daily. The airline and airport security measures developed continue to provide increased safety...United States or Puerto Rico. None of these 16 hijackings resulted from insufficient airport security measures or a breakdown in the FAA-approved airport ... airport security programs is conducted at the Transportation Safety Institute in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The course provides in-depth coverage of civil

  5. Fiscal Year 2000 Security Assistance Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Fiscal Year 2000 Security Assistance Legislation By Kenneth W. Martin and Craig M. Brandt Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management...Introduction This report is the sixteenth in a series of annual legislative studies published in The DISAM Journal. This year’s report presents a summary...and analysis of the legislation impacting on United States security assistance programs in FY2000 and beyond. As in prior years, the report is presented

  6. No Failure of Imagination: Examining Foundational Flaws in America’s Homeland Security Enterprise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Rural Electrification Administration SEC Securities and Exchange Commission SHSP State Homeland Security Program SSA Social Security...youth 1935 Rural Electrification Administration (REA) Before the New Deal, only 10 percent of the country outside cities and towns had electricity

  7. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services.

  8. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  9. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  10. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    Security Measures (61 Orders issued 1/04, Inspections done); Transportation of Radioactive Material Quantities of Concern (167 Orders Issued 07/05, Inspections done); Orders for Increased Control Measures for other types of sources by categories of licenses (1,098 NRC Orders and 1782 binding State requirements issued by 12/05, Implemented 06/06, Inspections done by NRC and States). Security Inspection Results: All first year Increased Control inspections completed; NRC Information Notice (IN) 2007-16 issued May 2007; Since IN 2007-16 was issued, {approx}50% of the NRC inspections performed resulted in violations; Licensees misinterpreted or incompletely implemented requirements; Common theme: failure to properly document actions or programs when implementing the Increased Controls. Energy Policy Act of 2005: Established Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force: cooperative effort with 14 Federal agencies, 2 State organizations; Comprehensive analysis of the security of radiation sources in the U.S.; Directed NRC to contract with National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on radiation source use and replacement; Report to the President and Congress issued 8/06 and every 4 years thereafter. Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force: Need higher priority on international transport security; Evaluate feasibility of using new and existing technologies to detect and discourage theft during transport; Conduct a feasibility study on the possible phase out of CsCl in highly dispersible forms; Further evaluate potential alternative technologies; Expedite completion of fingerprint requirements in Act. National Source Tracking System: Joint NRC/DOE 2003 report on Radiological Dispersal Devices recommended development of a national source tracking system; IAEA Code of Conduct recommended establishment of a national registry; U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 placed requirements for NRC to issue regulations establishing a mandatory tracking system. New

  11. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  12. 77 FR 26774 - Homeland Security Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... Transportation Security Administration's (TSA) airport security program that will include lessons learned, and... regarding the latest viable threats against the United States, and how DHS and other Federal agencies plan... terrorists with a road map regarding the Department's plan to counter their actions, and thus, allow them to...

  13. Desktop Security ... Now More than Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Joe

    2005-01-01

    Desktop security is the foundation of your overall security plan in K-12 education. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) mainly states that students at all grade levels should know to make changes in the default settings for the operating system and its applications.

  14. Test Security Procedures for Nevada Proficiency Examinations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    Nevada statutes and administrative regulations specifically prohibit the disclosure of the content of examinations used in the Nevada Proficiency Examination Program. This document focuses on procedures to insure examination security. The state's test security requirements are outlined. Other sections deal with access to and copying of examination…

  15. Desktop Security ... Now More than Ever

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Joe

    2005-01-01

    Desktop security is the foundation of your overall security plan in K-12 education. National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) mainly states that students at all grade levels should know to make changes in the default settings for the operating system and its applications.

  16. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  17. Surface Transportation Security Priority Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Protection Plan (NIPP) framework priorities with the Sector- Specific Agencies (SSA); surface transportation owners/operators; and State, local, tribal...and recommendations. Issue Identification To identify national interagency priorities and guide Federal efforts to secure the surface...the Nation’s critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR). These activities encompass national and sector planning and policy, program

  18. Security Deposits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    Tenant requirements: Provide a forwarding address. Failure by tenant to pay delinquent rent within twenty days after delivery of written demand makes...dispute boards, track down delinquent soldiers, and to actually collect the money back from the soldier. Finance cannot simply withhold pay - it can do...United States, and rents and deposits are notoriously high. Third, Fort Ord happened to be the site of a much publicized suicide by a teenage boy in

  19. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  20. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    PubMed

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.