Science.gov

Sample records for state security

  1. Bioethics and the national security state.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Jonathan D

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, I have described the history and ethics of human experiments for national security purposes during he cold war and developed the bioethical issues that will be apparent in the "war on terror". This paper is an attempt to bring these two previous lines of work together under the rubric of the "national security state," a concept familiar to Cold War historians and political scientists. The founding of the national security state was associated with the first articulations of informed consent requirements by national security agencies. My analysis indicates that strengthened consent standards, though conventionally thought to be antithetical crisis, can be seen as an attempt by the postwar national security state to protect itself from critics of expanded governmental power. During the coming years the renewed mission of the national security state in the war on terror should impel students of bioethics to consider its implications for the field.

  2. Secure quantum communication with orthogonal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Chitra; Banerjee, Anindita; Pathak, Anirban; Srikanth, R.

    2016-08-01

    In majority of protocols of secure quantum communication (such as, BB84, B92, etc.), the unconditional security of the protocols are obtained by using conjugate coding (two or more mutually unbiased bases (MUBs)). Initially, all the conjugate-coding-based protocols of secure quantum communication were restricted to quantum key distribution (QKD), but later on they were extended to other cryptographic tasks (such as, secure direct quantum communication and quantum key agreement). In contrast to the conjugate-coding-based protocols, a few completely orthogonal-state-based protocols of unconditionally secure QKD (such as, Goldenberg-Vaidman and N09) were also proposed. However, till the recent past, orthogonal-state-based protocols were only a theoretical concept and were limited to QKD. Only recently, orthogonal-state-based protocols of QKD are experimentally realized and extended to cryptographic tasks beyond QKD. This paper aims to briefly review the orthogonal-state-based protocols of secure quantum communication that are recently introduced by our group and other researchers.

  3. Water security - Nation state and international security implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, James A.; Andrew A. Campbell,

    2009-01-01

    A terrorist attack such as poisoning and sabotage of the national water supply and water-quality infrastructure of the continental United States or any country, could disrupt the delivery of vital human services, threaten both public health and the environment, potentially cause mass casualties and pose grave public concern for homeland security. Most significantly, an attack on water resources would weaken social cohesion and trust in government. A threat to continuity of services is a potential threat to continuity of government since both are necessary for continuity of operations. Water infrastructure is difficult to protect, as it extends over vast areas across the U.S. and for which ownership is overwhelmingly nonfederal (approximately 85 percent). Since the 9111 attacks, federal dam operators and water and wastewater utilities have established counter measures. Similar measures have been taken in countries around the world. These include enhanced physical security, improved coordination between corporate ownership, Department of Homeland Security, and local law enforcement, and research into risk assessment and vulnerability analysis to ensure greater system safety. A key issue is the proportionate additional resources directed at public and private sector specific priorities. Agencies that have the scientific and technological ability to leverage resources, exploit integrated science approaches, focus on interdisciplinary practices, utilize informatics expertise and employ a wide use of evolving technologies should play a key role in water security and related issues.

  4. Realities and Choices: Helping States Enhance Family Economic Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venner, Sandra

    This document, which is designed to help state administrators and legislators formulate policies enhancing family economic security, summarizes research findings regarding barriers to economic self-sufficiency and policies used by various states to improve poor family's available work opportunities and economic security. Discussed in the…

  5. State Security Breach Response Laws: State-by-State Summary Table. Using Data to Improve Education: A Legal Reference Guide to Protecting Student Privacy and Data Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Under security breach response laws, businesses--and sometimes state and governmental agencies--are required to inform individuals when the security, confidentiality or integrity of their personal information has been compromised. This resource provides a state-by-state analysis of security breach response laws. [The Data Quality Campaign has…

  6. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  7. Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Tennison, Michael N.; Moreno, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter-intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Department of Defense dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security. PMID:22448146

  8. A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.

  9. Social Security Number Protection Laws: State-by-State Summary Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As state policymakers implement statewide longitudinal data systems that collect, store, link and share student-level data, it is critical that they understand applicable privacy and data security standards and laws designed to ensure the privacy, security, and confidentiality of that data. To help state policymakers navigate this complex legal…

  10. Engage States on Energy Assurance and Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Kara Colton; John Ratliff; Sue Gander; Darren Springer; Greg Dierkers

    2008-09-30

    The NGA Center's 'Engaging States on Energy Security and Energy Assurance' has been successful in achieving the stated project purposes and objectives both in the initial proposal as well as in subsequent revisions to it. Our activities, which involve the NGA Center for Best Practices (The NGA Center) Homeland Security and Technology Division, included conducting tabletop exercises to help federal and state homeland security and energy officials determine roles and actions for various emergency scenarios. This included efforts to education state official on developing an energy assurance plan, harmonizing approaches to controlling price volatility, implementing reliability standards, understanding short and long-term energy outlooks and fuel diversification, and capitalizing on DOE's research and development activities. Regarding our work on energy efficiency and renewable energy, the NGA Center's Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Division hosted three workshops which engaged states on the clean energy and alternative transportation fuel and also produced several reports on related topics. In addition, we convened 18 meetings, via conference call, of the Energy Working Group. Finally, through the NGA Center's Front and Center newsletter articles, the NGA Center disseminated promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers. The NGA Center also hosted a number of workshops and web conferences designed to directly engage states on the deliverables under this Cooperative Agreement. Through the NGA Center's written products and newsletter articles, the NGA Center was able to disseminate promising practices to a wide audience of state policymakers.

  11. Oil market power and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2006-01-01

    It is widely believed that an oil weapon could impose scarcity upon the United States. Impending resource exhaustion is thought to exacerbate this threat. However, threat seems implausible when we consider strategic deficits of prospective weapon users and the improbability of impending resource exhaustion. Here, we explore a hypothesis relating oil to national security under a different assumption, abundance. We suggest that an oil cartel exerts market power to keep abundance at bay, commanding monopoly rents [or wealth transfers (wt)] that underwrite security threats. We then compare security threats attributed to the oil weapon to those that may arise from market power. We first reexamine whether oil is abundant or scarce by reviewing current development data, then we estimate a competitive price for oil. From this, we derive wt2004 collections by Persian Gulf states ≈ $132-178 × 109. We find that wt and the behavior of states collecting it interact to actuate security threats. Threats underwritten by wt are (i) the potential for emergence of a Persian Gulf superpower and (ii) terrorism. It is therefore oil market power, not oil per se, that actuates threats. We also describe a paradox in the relation of market power to the United States' defense doctrine of force projection to preempt a Gulf superpower. Because the superpower threat derives from wt, force alone cannot preempt it. A further paradox is that because foreign policy is premised on oil weapon fear, market power is appeased. Threats thereby grow unimpeded. PMID:16428291

  12. Reexamining the Security of Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication by Using Four Particle Cluster States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan

    2012-09-01

    A controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol (Zhang et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 48:2971-2976, 2009) by using four particle cluster states was proposed recently. Yang et al. presented an attack with fake entangled particles (FEP attack) and gave an improvement (Yang et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 50:395-400, 2010). In this paper, we reexamine the protocol's security and discover that, Bob can also take a different attack, disentanglement attack, to obtain Alice's secret message without controller's permission. Moreover, our attack strategy also works for Yang's improvement.

  13. United States security strategy for Europe and NATO

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The United States National Security Strategy, published in February 1995, is designed to meet this European challenge. Our global strategy seeks to enlarge the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation and our interests through engagement with our allies. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to promote democracy abroad; and to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth. This document explains how U.S. defense policy is furthering these goals in Europe. As will be seen, we are pursuing our security strategy not only through NATO, but also through other multilateral institutions, such as the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), supporting separate yet complementary efforts by our allies and friends in the European Union, and through the bilateral relationships that have played such a valuable role in U.S.-European cooperation for more than forty years.

  14. Deterministic secure communications using two-mode squeezed states

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Alberto M.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.

    2006-08-15

    We propose a scheme for quantum cryptography that uses the squeezing phase of a two-mode squeezed state to transmit information securely between two parties. The basic principle behind this scheme is the fact that each mode of the squeezed field by itself does not contain any information regarding the squeezing phase. The squeezing phase can only be obtained through a joint measurement of the two modes. This, combined with the fact that it is possible to perform remote squeezing measurements, makes it possible to implement a secure quantum communication scheme in which a deterministic signal can be transmitted directly between two parties while the encryption is done automatically by the quantum correlations present in the two-mode squeezed state.

  15. United States national security policy making and Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The United States failed to achieve its goals in waging a war in Vietnam. This thesis endeavors to show that this failure was due to errors in the formulation of American national security policy regarding Vietnam. The policy making process went astray, at least in part, due to a narrowing of the role of senior military officers as national security policy makers. The restricted role of senior officers as national security policy makers adversely affected American policy formulation regarding Vietnam. The United States response to the coup against Diem in 1963 and the deployment of conventional American forces to ground combat in Vietnam, in 1965 were undertaken without a clear recognition of the considerable costs of the commitments being assumed. Senior military officers had prompted such a recognition in similar previous crises but were not in a policy making position to do so concerning Vietnam. The policymaking input that was absent was ethical counsel of a fundamental nature. Clausewitz viewed the mortality of a war as being embodied in the national will to fight that war. The absence of an accurate appreciation of the costs of a military solution in Vietnam denied civilian officials a critical policy making factor and contributed significantly to the defeat of the American purpose there.

  16. 22 CFR 92.74 - Services in connection with United States securities or interests therein.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., Foreign Service of the United States of America (§ 22.1 of this chapter) applies in cases of this nature. ... securities or interests therein. 92.74 Section 92.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED... for payment of United States securities, or securities for which the Treasury Department acts...

  17. 76 FR 9034 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Citizenship and Immigration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ... authorization in the United States. I. To a third party commercial identity assurance provider (IdP) under... SECURITY Office of the Secretary Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States... Security (DHS) United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) proposes to establish a new...

  18. Steady state security assessment in deregulated power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjure, Durgesh Padmakar

    Power system operations are undergoing changes, brought about primarily due to deregulation and subsequent restructuring of the power industry. The primary intention of the introduction of deregulation in power systems was to bring about competition and improved customer focus. The underlying motive was increased economic benefit. Present day power system analysis is much different than what it was earlier, essentially due to the transformation of the power industry from being cost-based to one that is price-based and due to open access of transmission networks to the various market participants. Power is now treated as a commodity and is traded in an open market. The resultant interdependence of the technical criteria and the economic considerations has only accentuated the need for accurate analysis in power systems. The main impetus in security analysis studies is on efficient assessment of the post-contingency status of the system, accuracy being of secondary consideration. In most cases, given the time frame involved, it is not feasible to run a complete AC load flow for determining the post-contingency state of the system. Quite often, it is not warranted as well, as an indication of the state of the system is desired rather than the exact quantification of the various state variables. With the inception of deregulation, transmission networks are subjected to a host of multilateral transactions, which would influence physical system quantities like real power flows, security margins and voltage levels. For efficient asset utilization and maximization of the revenue, more often than not, transmission networks are operated under stressed conditions, close to security limits. Therefore, a quantitative assessment of the extent to which each transaction adversely affects the transmission network is required. This needs to be done accurately as the feasibility of the power transactions and subsequent decisions (execution, curtailment, pricing) would depend upon the

  19. Food security, poverty, and human development in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cook, John T; Frank, Deborah A

    2008-01-01

    Access to food is essential to optimal development and function in children and adults. Food security, food insecurity, and hunger have been defined and a U.S. Food Security Scale was developed and is administered annually by the Census Bureau in its Current Population Survey. The eight child-referenced items now make up a Children's Food Security Scale. This review summarizes the data on household and children's food insecurity and its relationship with children's health and development and with mothers' depressive symptoms. It is demonstrable that food insecurity is a prevalent risk to the growth, health, cognitive, and behavioral potential of America's poor and near-poor children. Infants and toddlers in particular are at risk from food insecurity even at the lowest levels of severity, and the data indicate an "invisible epidemic" of a serious condition. Food insecurity is readily measured and rapidly remediable through policy changes, which a country like the United States, unlike many others, is fully capable of implementing. The food and distribution resources exist; the only constraint is political will.

  20. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  1. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  2. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  3. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  4. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of paper; interest-bearing... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities...-bearing securities of the United States, and for any other printing where the use of distinctive paper...

  5. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  6. United States security strategy for the Middle East

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    One of the most controversial questions the United States faces in the aftermath of the Cold War is when to use military force in this complex world. But there is little dispute that we must be prepared to use force to defend our vital interests: when the survival of the United States or its key allies is in danger, when our critical economic interests are threatened, or when dealing with the emergence of a future nuclear threat. Nowhere are these criteria met more clearly than in the Middle East. This report is the second in a series of regional reports undertaken by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Affairs with the aim of defining U.S. interests and commitments in critical parts of the world. It outlines a strategy for promoting stability and peaceful change through a combination of diplomacy, peacetime engagement, forward presence, and rapid response capabilities. It also explains how we can carry out this strategy without formal alliances or permanent basing arrangements that are familiar elsewhere in the world. The prospects for stability in the Middle East in the coming decades are mixed. On the positive side, unprecedented progress has recently been made in the Middle East peace process, holding forth the hope that Israelis and Palestinians alike can finally be integrated fully into the political and economic life of the Middle East. Furthermore, U.S. capabilities to defend its vital interests in the Middle East are at an all-time high, in stark contrast to the situation less than two decades ago.

  7. 77 FR 33634 - U.S. Treasury Securities-State and Local Government Series

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Fiscal Service 31 CFR Part 344 U.S. Treasury Securities--State and Local Government Series AGENCY: Bureau... Treasury (Treasury) is issuing this final rule to revise the regulations governing State and Local... available for purchase by issuers of tax-exempt securities. Current financial market conditions...

  8. 59 FR- Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-11-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agreement on Social Security Between the United States and Greece; Entry Into Force The... social security systems is effective beginning September 1, 1994. The agreement with Greece, which was... United States to work in Greece for 5 years or less remains covered only by the U.S. system....

  9. 75 FR 39437 - Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ..., 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-16864 Filed 7-7-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Executive Order 13546--Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States... July 2, 2010 Optimizing the Security of Biological Select Agents and Toxins in the United States By...

  10. 12 CFR 9.14 - Deposit of securities with state authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deposit of securities with state authorities. 9.14 Section 9.14 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES OF NATIONAL BANKS Regulations § 9.14 Deposit of securities with state authorities. (a) In...

  11. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  12. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration, Information... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss...

  13. Security improvement by using a modified coherent state for quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.J.; Zhu, Luobei; Ou, Z.Y.

    2005-03-01

    Weak coherent states as a photon source for quantum cryptography have a limit in secure data rate and transmission distance because of the presence of multiphoton events and loss in transmission line. Two-photon events in a coherent state can be taken out by a two-photon interference scheme. We investigate the security issue of utilizing this modified coherent state in quantum cryptography. A 4-dB improvement in the secure data rate or a nearly twofold increase in transmission distance over the coherent state are found. With a recently proposed and improved encoding strategy, further improvement is possible.

  14. United States security strategy for the east Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    The United States National Security Strategy published in July 1994 is based on enlarging the community of market democracies while deterring and containing a range of threats to our nation, our allies and our interests. Focusing on new threats and new opportunities, its central goals are: to enhance security by maintaining a strong defense capability and promoting cooperative security measures; to open foreign markets and spur global economic growth; and to promote democracy abroad. In accordance with the National Security Strategy, this document explains United States defense policy toward furthering these goals in the Asia-Pacific region. It builds upon the Strategy`s emphasis on maintaining a strong defense capability to enhance U.S. security and to provide a foundation for regional stability through mutually beneficial security partnerships. As the Strategy states, East Asia is a region of growing importance to American goals: nowhere are the strands of our three-part strategy more intertwined; nowhere is the need for continued engagement more evident. In thinking about the Asia-Pacific region, security comes first, and a committed United States military presence will continue to serve as a bedrock for America`s security role in this dynamic area of the world. The regional security strategy for the Asia-Pacific region emphasizes strengthening the bilateral alliances that have been at the heart of United States strategy for more than forty years. The United States is also committed to contribute to regional security through active participation in new multi-lateral fora like the ASEAN Regional Forum. Through such multi-lateral mechanisms the countries of the region seek to develop new cooperative approaches to achieve greater stability and security. Additionally, the Pacific Command sponsors multi-national military activities.

  15. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.

  16. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610

  17. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices. PMID:27443610

  18. Security of six-state quantum key distribution protocol with threshold detectors.

    PubMed

    Kato, Go; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-22

    The security of quantum key distribution (QKD) is established by a security proof, and the security proof puts some assumptions on the devices consisting of a QKD system. Among such assumptions, security proofs of the six-state protocol assume the use of photon number resolving (PNR) detector, and as a result the bit error rate threshold for secure key generation for the six-state protocol is higher than that for the BB84 protocol. Unfortunately, however, this type of detector is demanding in terms of technological level compared to the standard threshold detector, and removing the necessity of such a detector enhances the feasibility of the implementation of the six-state protocol. Here, we develop the security proof for the six-state protocol and show that we can use the threshold detector for the six-state protocol. Importantly, the bit error rate threshold for the key generation for the six-state protocol (12.611%) remains almost the same as the one (12.619%) that is derived from the existing security proofs assuming the use of PNR detectors. This clearly demonstrates feasibility of the six-state protocol with practical devices.

  19. A Review of State Test Security Laws in 2013. ACT Research Report Series, 2014 (1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Test security has increased in importance in the last few years given high-profile cases of educator misconduct. This paper provides a review of state test security statutes and regulations related to statewide achievement testing using as a framework recent best practices reports by the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education…

  20. A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication with five-photon entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Li; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei

    2010-01-01

    A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol using five-photon entangled state is proposed. It amends the security loopholes pointed by Qin et al. in [S.J. Qin, Q.Y. Wen, L.M. Meng, F.C. Zhu, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2656] in the original protocol proposed by Xiu et al. in [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Gao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333]. The security loopholes are solved by using order rearrangement of transmission photons and two-step security test.

  1. 78 FR 27276 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Security Records, State-36

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... handle PII are required to take the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) distance learning course instructing... published as 72 FR 73057). The records maintained in State-36, Security Records, capture data related...

  2. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  3. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  4. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  5. 28 CFR 20.24 - State laws on privacy and security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Section 20.24 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.24 State laws on privacy and security. Where a State originating criminal history record information provides for sealing or purging thereof,...

  6. Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Anytime, anywhere, learning provides opportunities to create digital learning environments for new teaching styles and personalized learning. As part of making sure the program is effective, the safety and security of students and assets are essential--and mandated by law. The Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA) addresses Internet content…

  7. [Ecological security evaluation of Heilongjiang Province with pressure-state-response model].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei; Zhao, Qing-liang; Li, Song; Chang, Chein-chi

    2008-04-01

    The ecological security index (ESI) system including 27 indices for Heilongjiang Province was built up with the pressure-state-response (P-S-R) model. The weights of the indices were determined by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) and the ecological security status classification was evaluated by the ESI model for the years of 2000-2005. Then the development trend of ecological security from 2006 to 2010 was forecasted with the grey dynamic model. The results showed that the ecological security ranked the V grade in 2000 and the III grade in 2005, indicating the increase of ecological security. The forecasting results show that the ecological security will be the III grade for 2006, the II grade for 2007-2009, and the I grade for 2010 (ideal security). Thus it can be seen that the ecological security is ascending year by year, and the ecological environment quality is obviously improved with the implementation of eco-province construction since 2000. Through the effective facilitation of eco-province construction etc., the sustainable and healthy development of ecological security will be finally realized in Heilongjiang Province.

  8. Security proof of a three-state quantum-key-distribution protocol without rotational symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, C.-H.F.; Lo, H.-K.

    2006-10-15

    Standard security proofs of quantum-key-distribution (QKD) protocols often rely on symmetry arguments. In this paper, we prove the security of a three-state protocol that does not possess rotational symmetry. The three-state QKD protocol we consider involves three qubit states, where the first two states |0{sub z}> and |1{sub z}> can contribute to key generation, and the third state |+>=(|0{sub z}>+|1{sub z}>)/{radical}(2) is for channel estimation. This protocol has been proposed and implemented experimentally in some frequency-based QKD systems where the three states can be prepared easily. Thus, by founding on the security of this three-state protocol, we prove that these QKD schemes are, in fact, unconditionally secure against any attacks allowed by quantum mechanics. The main task in our proof is to upper bound the phase error rate of the qubits given the bit error rates observed. Unconditional security can then be proved not only for the ideal case of a single-photon source and perfect detectors, but also for the realistic case of a phase-randomized weak coherent light source and imperfect threshold detectors. Our result in the phase error rate upper bound is independent of the loss in the channel. Also, we compare the three-state protocol with the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. For the single-photon source case, our result proves that the BB84 protocol strictly tolerates a higher quantum bit error rate than the three-state protocol, while for the coherent-source case, the BB84 protocol achieves a higher key generation rate and secure distance than the three-state protocol when a decoy-state method is used.

  9. Maternal Mental State Language and Preschool Children's Attachment Security: Relation to Children's Mental State Language and Expressions of Emotional Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcquaid, Nancy; Bigelow, Ann E.; McLaughlin, Jessica; MacLean, Kim

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' mental state language in conversation with their preschool children, and children's preschool attachment security were examined for their effects on children's mental state language and expressions of emotional understanding in their conversation. Children discussed an emotionally salient event with their mothers and then relayed the…

  10. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Happenny, Sean F.

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  11. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-04-07

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues.

  12. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  13. Wireless Sensor Network Security Enhancement Using Directional Antennas: State of the Art and Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Being often deployed in remote or hostile environments, wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various types of security attacks. A possible solution to reduce the security risks is to use directional antennas instead of omnidirectional ones or in conjunction with them. Due to their increased complexity, higher costs and larger sizes, directional antennas are not traditionally used in wireless sensor networks, but recent technology trends may support this method. This paper surveys existing state of the art approaches in the field, offering a broad perspective of the future use of directional antennas in mitigating security risks, together with new challenges and open research issues. PMID:27070601

  14. Cryptanalysis of Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Scheme via Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2011-02-01

    The security of the quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and authentication protocol based on Bell states is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can invalidate the authentication function, and implement a successful man-in-the-middle attack, where he/she can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented.

  15. Supporting multi-state collaboration on privacy and security to foster health IT and health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Banger, Alison K; Alakoye, Amoke O; Rizk, Stephanie C

    2008-01-01

    As part of the HHS funded contract, Health Information Security and Privacy Collaboration, 41 states and territories have proposed collaborative projects to address cross-state privacy and security challenges related to health IT and health information exchange. Multi-state collaboration on privacy and security issues remains complicated, and resources to support collaboration around these topics are essential to the success of such collaboration. The resources outlined here offer an example of how to support multi-stakeholder, multi-state projects.

  16. A Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocol Based on Five-Particle Cluster State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li

    2013-09-01

    To transmit a message safely, five-particle cluster state particles are used to construct a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol. Five-particle cluster state particles are used for both detecting eavesdroppers and transmitting secret messages. All of the five-particle cluster states' photons for detection are mixed to the sending sequence to detect eavesdroppers. The detection rate approaches 88% per qubit. The five-particle cluster states needed are only one fifth of the photons in the sending sequence. In this protocol, there is no photon carrying secret information transmitting in quantum channel, and the classical XOR operation which serves as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. Compared with three photons of each five-particle cluster state as detection photons, the five photons in this study will decrease the five-particle cluster states needed for detection greatly.

  17. 'Known Secure Sensor Measurements' for Critical Infrastructure Systems: Detecting Falsification of System State

    SciTech Connect

    Miles McQueen; Annarita Giani

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a first investigation on a low cost and low false alarm, reliable mechanism for detecting manipulation of critical physical processes and falsification of system state. We call this novel mechanism Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM). The method moves beyond analysis of network traffic and host based state information, in fact it uses physical measurements of the process being controlled to detect falsification of state. KSSM is intended to be incorporated into the design of new, resilient, cost effective critical infrastructure control systems. It can also be included in incremental upgrades of already in- stalled systems for enhanced resilience. KSSM is based on known secure physical measurements for assessing the likelihood of an attack and will demonstrate a practical approach to creating, transmitting, and using the known secure measurements for detection.

  18. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults’ Parental Motivation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (Mage = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the “liking” of infants, the second and third components entail the “wanting” of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  19. The Effect of Secure Attachment State and Infant Facial Expressions on Childless Adults' Parental Motivation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fangyuan; Zhang, Dajun; Cheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between infant facial expressions and parental motivation as well as the interaction between attachment state and expressions. Two-hundred eighteen childless adults (M age = 19.22, 118 males, 100 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Chinese version of the State Adult Attachment Measure and the E-prime test, which comprised three components (a) liking, the specific hedonic experience in reaction to laughing, neutral, and crying infant faces; (b) representational responding, actively seeking infant faces with specific expressions; and (c) evoked responding, actively retaining images of three different infant facial expressions. While the first component refers to the "liking" of infants, the second and third components entail the "wanting" of an infant. Random intercepts multilevel models with emotion nested within participants revealed a significant interaction between secure attachment state and emotion on both liking and representational response. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to examine the unique contributions of secure attachment state. Findings demonstrated that, after controlling for sex, anxious, and avoidant, secure attachment state positively predicted parental motivations (liking and wanting) in the neutral and crying conditions, but not the laughing condition. These findings demonstrate the significant role of secure attachment state in parental motivation, specifically when infants display uncertain and negative emotions. PMID:27582724

  20. State of security at US colleges and universities: a national stakeholder assessment and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sheldon F

    2007-09-01

    In 2004 the US Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services, sponsored a National Summit on Campus Public Safety. The summit brought together various stakeholders including campus police and security officials, local police chiefs, college and university faculty and administrators, federal officials, students and parents, and community leaders to address the issues and complexities of campus safety. Delegates to the summit identified key issues in campus safety and security, which included establishing a national center on campus safety, balancing traditional open environments with the need to secure vulnerable sites, improving coordination with state and local police, reducing internal fragmentation, elevating professionalism, and increasing eligibility of campus police and security agencies to compete for federal law enforcement funds. Focus on "active shooters" on campus, resulting from the Virginia Tech incident, should not diminish attention placed on the broader, more prevalent safety and security issues facing the nation's educational campuses. Recommendations resulting from the summit called for establishing a national agenda on campus safety, formation of a national center on campus public safety, and increased opportunity for campus police and security agencies to compete for federal and state funds. PMID:18388616

  1. Novel Multiparty Controlled Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Continuous-variable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhen-Bo; Gong, Li-Hua; Wen, Ru-Hong

    2016-03-01

    A novel multiparty controlled bidirectional quantum secure direct communication protocol combining continuous-variable states with qubit block transmission is proposed. Two legitimate communication parties encode their own secret information into entangled optical modes with translation operations, and the secret information of each counterpart can only be recovered under the permission of all controllers. Due to continuous-variable states and block transmission strategy, the proposed protocol is easy to realize with perfect qubit efficiency. Security analyses show that the proposed protocol is free from common attacks, including the man-in-the-middle attack.

  2. Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-03-01

    We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.

  3. Measuring Information Security Performance with 10 by 10 Model for Holistic State Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Organizations should measure their information security performance if they wish to take the right decisions and develop it in line with their security needs. Since the measurement of information security is generally underdeveloped in practice and many organizations find the existing recommendations too complex, the paper presents a solution in the form of a 10 by 10 information security performance measurement model. The model—ISP 10×10M is composed of ten critical success factors, 100 key performance indicators and 6 performance levels. Its content was devised on the basis of findings presented in the current research studies and standards, while its structure results from an empirical research conducted among information security professionals from Slovenia. Results of the study show that a high level of information security performance is mostly dependent on measures aimed at managing information risks, employees and information sources, while formal and environmental factors have a lesser impact. Experts believe that information security should evolve systematically, where it’s recommended that beginning steps include technical, logical and physical security controls, while advanced activities should relate predominantly strategic management activities. By applying the proposed model, organizations are able to determine the actual level of information security performance based on the weighted indexing technique. In this manner they identify the measures they ought to develop in order to improve the current situation. The ISP 10×10M is a useful tool for conducting internal system evaluations and decision-making. It may also be applied to a larger sample of organizations in order to determine the general state-of-play for research purposes. PMID:27655001

  4. 76 FR 49494 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard DHS/USCG-027...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... records titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard-027 Recruiting Files System of Records.'' This system of records allows the Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard to...: Marilyn Scott-Perez (202-475-3515), Privacy Officer, United States Coast Guard, 2100 2nd Street, SW.,...

  5. The Iranian petroleum crisis and United States national security

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. case against Iran is based on Iran's deceptions regarding nuclear weapons development. This case is buttressed by assertions that a state so petroleum-rich cannot need nuclear power to preserve exports, as Iran claims. The U.S. infers, therefore, that Iran's entire nuclear technology program must pertain to weapons development. However, some industry analysts project an Irani oil export decline [e.g., Clark JR (2005) Oil Gas J 103(18):34–39]. If such a decline is occurring, Iran's claim to need nuclear power could be genuine. Because Iran's government relies on monopoly proceeds from oil exports for most revenue, it could become politically vulnerable if exports decline. Here, we survey the political economy of Irani petroleum for evidence of this decline. We define Iran's export decline rate (edr) as its summed rates of depletion and domestic demand growth, which we find equals 10–12%. We estimate marginal cost per barrel for additions to Irani production capacity, from which we derive the “standstill” investment required to offset edr. We then compare the standstill investment to actual investment, which has been inadequate to offset edr. Even if a relatively optimistic schedule of future capacity addition is met, the ratio of 2011 to 2006 exports will be only 0.40–0.52. A more probable scenario is that, absent some change in Irani policy, this ratio will be 0.33–0.46 with exports declining to zero by 2014–2015. Energy subsidies, hostility to foreign investment, and inefficiencies of its state-planned economy underlie Iran's problem, which has no relation to “peak oil.” PMID:17190820

  6. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  7. Robust Anti-Collective Noise Quantum Secure Direct Dialogue Using Logical Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Lv, Hong-Jun; Xie, Guang-Jun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct dialogue (QSDD) schemes with logical Bell states which can resist collective noise. The two users Alice and Bob encode their secret messages with the help of unitary operations. Compared with many quantum secure direct communication (QSDC), there is no strict information sender and receiver in these schemes, one logical Bell state can be operated twice by Alice and Bob based on what messages they prefer to encode. As a result, the two users are able to share their messages mutually, so the efficiency of communication is improved. By rearranging the order of particles and inserting decoy photons, our protocols are able to avoid the information leakage and detect eavesdropping, and they can be proved to have unconditional security.

  8. Quantum security in homodyne reception using weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, E.; López, J. A.; Mendieta, F. J.; Arvizu, A.

    2011-09-01

    We present an experimental 8-port Balanced Homodyne Detector at 1550 nm wavelength, operating in free space, implemented with polarization devices to produce a circularly polarized local oscillator, splitting its In-Phase and Quadrature components to beat separately with the weak coherent incoming signal. This allows the simultaneous measurements of the 2 quadratures at the price of an additional noise due to the vacuum fields that leak via the unused ports, resulting in a modified Husimi function for joint probability distribution for the quadrature components. These schemes require the proper optical phase synchronization between the local oscillator and the incoming field, which constitutes a challenge for weak coherent state reception. To achieve this we designed and implemented an optical Costas loop; the feedback loop (especially the loop filter) which is a result of the optimal design has an impact on the mutual information between transmitter and receiver, being this parameter a condition to generate the cryptographic key. We present experimental and theoretical results on the performance of the mutual information between the transmitter and the receiver due the phase error for different photon numbers.

  9. Modernizing Selection and Promotion Procedures in the State Employment Security Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryck, Dennis A.; Leyes, Richard

    The purpose of this feasibility study was to discover the types ofselection and promotion models, strategies, and processes that must be employed if current State Employment Security Service Agency selection practices are to be made more directly relevant to the various populations currently being served. Specifically, the study sought to…

  10. Reforming a Breadwinner Welfare State: Gender, Race, Class, and Social Security Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herd, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A key challenge facing western welfare states is that they offset income risks faced by those in breadwinner families. Social Security is an excellent example. It best protects individuals with lengthy work histories or individuals who get married, stay married, and are never employed. Most women fit neither model. Thus, I analyze "women-friendly"…

  11. 77 FR 43151 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... adopted by the OCC regarding permissible investments for national banks.\\2\\ \\1\\ 77 FR 35253. (June 13... credit risk of a security through its maturity or projected maturity date. \\11\\ 77 FR 35253, 35257. II... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 362 RIN 3064-AD88 Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings...

  12. Can Social Security Explain Trends in Labor Force Participation of Older Men in the United States?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, David M.; Goodstein, Ryan M.

    2010-01-01

    After a long decline, the Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) of older men in the United States leveled off in the 1980s, and began to increase in the late 1990s. We examine how changes in Social Security rules affected these trends. We attribute only a small portion of the decline from the 1960s-80s to the increasing generosity of Social…

  13. State Sales Tax and Assistive Technology: Securing Exemptions for Sensory, Communication, and Mobility Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Steven

    This paper examines issues involved in identifying and securing sales tax exemptions to curtail the potential negative impact of state sales taxes on assistive technology. Chapter I discusses the nature of sales taxes, including their definition, their impact, their structure and administration, and the sources of exemptions. Chapter II considers…

  14. Social security reform in the twenty-first century: the United States.

    PubMed

    Gramlich, Edward M

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the history of the Social Security system in the United States in the twentieth century and discusses options for the twenty-first. Because of the steady aging of the U.S. population and the impending retirement of the large baby boom cohort, the Social Security program now is in long-term actuarial deficit. The standard twentieth century approach to this actuarial deficit would be to raise payroll taxes enough to pay for anticipated future benefit increases, but for several reasons that approach may not be so popular this time around. The author's preferred approach is a gradual trimming of long-term benefit growth, plus "add on" individual accounts to provide new saving, for the economy and for the retirement system. The paper also criticizes proposals for Social Security reform made by President Clinton and a committee appointed by President Bush, generally because these proposals do not provide enough new saving. PMID:12503330

  15. 78 FR 13931 - Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for International Security and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Delegation by the Secretary of State to the Assistant Secretary for International Security and Nonproliferation of Authority To Submit Certain Matters to Congress Regarding Implementation of the...

  16. Fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication using EPR states against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Shih-Hung; Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes two new fault-tolerant controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocols based only on Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states. The proposed protocols are designed to be robust against the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Compared to the existing fault-tolerant controlled quantum communication protocols, the proposed protocols not only can do without a quantum channel between the receiver and the controller as the state-of-the-art protocols do, but also have the advantage that the number of quantum particles required in the CDSQC protocols is reduced owing to the use of the simplest entangled states.

  17. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its security implications for the United Kingdom and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, L.

    1998-12-01

    The United Kingdom has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The United States signed the treaty in September 1996, and currently the decision on whether to ratify it is pending in the Senate. Key differences reside in the political and objective strategic situations of the United States and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom`s parliamentary system a single party (or a coalition) makes decisions. The United States, however, was designed to have a separation of powers, and this insures that the legislative and executive branches have opportunities for discord as well as cooperation. Currently the United Kingdom has operational weapons production facilities, whereas the United States does not. The United Kingdom has only one nuclear weapons program (the Trident missile) to maintain, whereas the United States has multiple delivery systems and warhead types to maintain. The United Kingdom`s nuclear deterrent provides for the country`s security needs, yet the United Kingdom is also covered by US nuclear commitments. Indeed, the United States provides extended deterrence protection for allies and security partners around the world. These responsibilities imply that the implications of the CTBT could be more momentous for the United States than for the United Kingdom.

  18. Supporting multi-state collaboration on privacy and security to foster health IT and health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Banger, Alison K; Alakoye, Amoke O; Rizk, Stephanie C

    2008-01-01

    As part of the HHS funded contract, Health Information Security and Privacy Collaboration, 41 states and territories have proposed collaborative projects to address cross-state privacy and security challenges related to health IT and health information exchange. Multi-state collaboration on privacy and security issues remains complicated, and resources to support collaboration around these topics are essential to the success of such collaboration. The resources outlined here offer an example of how to support multi-stakeholder, multi-state projects. PMID:18999216

  19. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  20. United States and environmental security: Deforestation and conflict in southeast Asia. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwald, P.T.

    1992-06-01

    In the post Cold War era, the East-West conflict may be succeeded by a new confrontation which pits an industrialized North against a developing South. In June 1992, world attention was fixed on the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This event marked a milestone in global environmental awareness; but just as the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for the US, the world is now faced with new sources of conflict which have advanced to the forefront of the national security debate. Among the new sources of conflict, environmental problems are rapidly becoming preeminent. Within national security debates, those environmental problems which respect no international boundary are of particular concern. Worldwide deforestation, and the related issues of global warming and the loss of biodiversity, represent a clear threat to national security. Two percent of the Earth's rainforests are lost each year; one 'football field' is lost each second. Deforestation has already led to conflict and instability within several regions of the world including Southeast Asia. The United States must recognize the character and dynamics of these new sources of conflict in order to successfully realize its policy aims in national security. The US should preempt conflict through cooperation and develop a shared concern for the environment throughout the world. The US military may play a key role in this effort. Rainforest, Deforestation, Tropical timber, Logging, Southeast Asia, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Burma, Laos, Japan Cambodia, Vietnam, Human rights, Plywood, Pulp, Paper, World Bank, U.S. Agency for International Development.

  1. Sun-Burned: Space Weather's Impact on United States National Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, B.

    2014-12-01

    The heightened media attention surrounding the 2013-14 solar maximum presented an excellent opportunity to examine the ever-increasing vulnerability of US national security and its Department of Defense to space weather. This vulnerability exists for three principal reasons: 1) a massive US space-based infrastructure; 2) an almost exclusive reliance on an aging and stressed continental US power grid; and 3) a direct dependence upon a US economy adapted to the conveniences of space and uninterrupted power. I tailored my research and work for the national security policy maker and military strategists in an endeavor to initiate and inform a substantive dialogue on America's preparation for, and response to, a major solar event that would severely degrade core national security capabilities, such as military operations. Significant risk to the Department of Defense exists from powerful events that could impact its space-based infrastructure and even the terrestrial power grid. Given this ever-present and increasing risk to the United States, my work advocates raising the issue of space weather and its impacts to the level of a national security threat. With the current solar cycle having already peaked and the next projected solar maximum just a decade away, the government has a relatively small window to make policy decisions that prepare the nation and its Defense Department to mitigate impacts from these potentially catastrophic phenomena.

  2. Dark states ultra-long fiber laser for practically secure key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlicki, Omer; Scheuer, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    We present and demonstrate a novel ultra-long fiber laser key distribution system (UFL-KDS). The scheme quenches the lasing process when in its secure states, thus forming "dark states" which provide simple detection on one hand and increased difficulty of eavesdropping on the other. We analyze the practical aspects of previously studied UFL-KDS schemes as well as those of the one presented here and demonstrate successful key distribution across a 200 km link with bit-rates that can exceed 0.5 kbps. Spectral and temporal passive attack strategies are analyzed and discussed in details.

  3. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  4. Science and the Energy Security Challenge: The Example of Solid-State Lighting

    ScienceCinema

    Philips, Julia [Sandia

    2016-07-12

    Securing a viable, carbon neutral energy future for humankind will require an effort of gargantuan proportions. As outlined clearly in a series of workshops sponsored by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (http://www.sc.doe.gov/bes/reports/list.html), fundamental advances in scientific understanding are needed to broadly implement many of the technologies that are held out as promising options to meet future energy needs, ranging from solar energy, to nuclear energy, to approaches to clean combustion. Using solid state lighting based on inorganic materials as an example, I will discuss some recent results and new directions, emphasizing the multidisciplinary, team nature of the endeavor. I will also offer some thoughts about how to encourage translation of the science into attractive, widely available products – a significant challenge that cannot be ignored. This case study offers insight into approaches that are likely to be beneficial for addressing other aspects of the energy security challenge.

  5. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States has a direct or indirect interest and which is designated by the Secretary of the Treasury... RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS....34 Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member...

  6. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States has a direct or indirect interest and which is designated by the Secretary of the Treasury... RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM MEMBERSHIP OF STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS....34 Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member...

  7. A Secure Key Distribution System of Quantum Cryptography Based on the Coherent State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Xiao-Yu

    1996-01-01

    The cryptographic communication has a lot of important applications, particularly in the magnificent prospects of private communication. As one knows, the security of cryptographic channel depends crucially on the secrecy of the key. The Vernam cipher is the only cipher system which has guaranteed security. In that system the key must be as long as the message and most be used only once. Quantum cryptography is a method whereby key secrecy can be guaranteed by a physical law. So it is impossible, even in principle, to eavesdrop on such channels. Quantum cryptography has been developed in recent years. Up to now, many schemes of quantum cryptography have been proposed. Now one of the main problems in this field is how to increase transmission distance. In order to use quantum nature of light, up to now proposed schemes all use very dim light pulses. The average photon number is about 0.1. Because of the loss of the optical fiber, it is difficult for the quantum cryptography based on one photon level or on dim light to realize quantum key-distribution over long distance. A quantum key distribution based on coherent state is introduced in this paper. Here we discuss the feasibility and security of this scheme.

  8. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption.

  9. Field test of a practical secure communication network with decoy-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Yun; Liang, Hao; Liu, Yang; Cai, Wen-Qi; Ju, Lei; Liu, Wei-Yue; Wang, Jian; Yin, Hao; Chen, Kai; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2009-04-13

    We present a secure network communication system that operated with decoy-state quantum cryptography in a real-world application scenario. The full key exchange and application protocols were performed in real time among three nodes, in which two adjacent nodes were connected by approximate 20 km of commercial telecom optical fiber. The generated quantum keys were immediately employed and demonstrated for communication applications, including unbreakable real-time voice telephone between any two of the three communication nodes, or a broadcast from one node to the other two nodes by using one-time pad encryption. PMID:19365479

  10. State Regulatory Authority (SRA) Coordination of Safety, Security, and Safeguards of Nuclear Facilities: A Framework for Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mladineo, Stephen V.; Frazar, Sarah L.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Martikka, Elina; Hack, Tapani; Wiander, Timo

    2013-05-30

    This paper will explore the development of a framework for conducting an assessment of safety-security-safeguards integration within a State. The goal is to examine State regulatory structures to identify conflicts and gaps that hinder management of the three disciplines at nuclear facilities. Such an analysis could be performed by a State Regulatory Authority (SRA) to provide a self-assessment or as part of technical cooperation with either a newcomer State, or to a State with a fully developed SRA.

  11. Fault tolerant deterministic secure quantum communication using logical Bell states against collective noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Bi, Ya-Gang; Shang, Tao

    2015-04-01

    This study proposes two novel fault tolerant deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) schemes resistant to collective noise using logical Bell states. Either DSQC scheme is constructed based on a new coding function, which is designed by exploiting the property of the corresponding logical Bell states immune to collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively. The secret message can be encoded by two simple unitary operations and decoded by merely performing Bell measurements, which can make the proposed scheme more convenient in practical applications. Moreover, the strategy of one-step quanta transmission, together with the technique of decoy logical qubits checking not only reduces the influence of other noise existing in a quantum channel, but also guarantees the security of the communication between two legitimate users. The final analysis shows that the proposed schemes are feasible and robust against various well-known attacks over the collective noise channel. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61272501, 61272514, 61170272, 61472048, 61402058, 61121061, and 61411146001), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0681), the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research (Grant No. MMJJ201401012), the Fok Ying Tong Education Foundation (Grant No. 131067), the Natural Science Foundation of Beijing (Grant Nos. 4132056 and 4152038), the Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 2014M561826), and the National Key Basic Research Program, China (Grant No. 2012CB315905)

  12. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  13. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-01-01

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation. PMID:26471947

  14. Finite-key security analyses on passive decoy-state QKD protocols with different unstable sources.

    PubMed

    Song, Ting-Ting; Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Wang, Yu-Kun; Jia, Heng-Yue

    2015-10-16

    In quantum communication, passive decoy-state QKD protocols can eliminate many side channels, but the protocols without any finite-key analyses are not suitable for in practice. The finite-key securities of passive decoy-state (PDS) QKD protocols with two different unstable sources, type-II parametric down-convention (PDC) and phase randomized weak coherent pulses (WCPs), are analyzed in our paper. According to the PDS QKD protocols, we establish an optimizing programming respectively and obtain the lower bounds of finite-key rates. Under some reasonable values of quantum setup parameters, the lower bounds of finite-key rates are simulated. The simulation results show that at different transmission distances, the affections of different fluctuations on key rates are different. Moreover, the PDS QKD protocol with an unstable PDC source can resist more intensity fluctuations and more statistical fluctuation.

  15. Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guang Ping

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.

  16. 75 FR 38595 - Guidance to States Regarding Driver History Record Information Security, Continuity of Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... comply with FISMA, NIST Special Publication (SP) 800-53, Recommended Security Controls for Federal... security standards. NIST SP 800-100, Information Security Handbook: A Guide for Managers, also provides overview information for developing a security plan. NIST currently makes available over 30...

  17. 76 FR 28795 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... titled, ``Department of Homeland Security/United States Coast Guard-024 Auxiliary Database (AUXDATA... Coast Guard to track and report contact, activity, performance, and achievement information about the members of its volunteer workforce element, the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary. As a result of...

  18. Security Analysis of an Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Bell States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guoliang; Zou, Xiangfu

    2016-09-01

    Recently, to resist attacks using the anticommutativity of nontrivial Pauli operators, an arbitrated quantum signature scheme with Bell states (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 53(5), 1569-1579 2014) was proposed. The scheme randomly adds Hadamard operations to strengthen the quantum one-time pad encryption. Based on this, it claimed that the scheme could resist the receiver's existential forgery and no party had chances to change the message without being discovered. This paper introduces two security issues of the scheme: It can't resist the signer's disavowal and the receiver's existential forgery. Furthermore, we show that the scheme is still vulnerable to the receiver's existential forgery even if the Hadamard operation in the encryption algorithm is replaced with any 2nd-order unitary operation.

  19. Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

    2009-10-01

    With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

  20. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  1. Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication and Authentication Protocol based on Extended GHZ-W State and Quantum One-time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao

    2016-08-01

    A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.

  2. Compact, diode-pumped, solid-state lasers for next generation defence and security sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, M.; Lee, S. T.; Borthwick, A.; McRae, I.; Jackson, D.; Alexander, W.

    2015-06-01

    Low-cost semiconductor laser diode pump sources have made a dramatic impact in sectors such as advanced manufacturing. They are now disrupting other sectors, such as defence and security (D&S), where Thales UK is a manufacturer of sensor systems for application on land, sea, air and man portable. In this talk, we will first give an overview of the market trends and challenges in the D&S sector. Then we will illustrate how low cost pump diodes are enabling new directions in D&S sensors, by describing two diode pumped, solid- state laser products currently under development at Thales UK. The first is a new generation of Laser Target Designators (LTD) that are used to identify targets for the secure guiding of munitions. Current systems are bulky, expensive and require large battery packs to operate. The advent of low cost diode technology, merged with our novel solid-state laser design, has created a designator that will be the smallest, lowest cost, STANAG compatible laser designator on the market. The LTD delivers greater that 50mJ per pulse up to 20Hz, and has compact dimensions of 125×70×55mm. Secondly, we describe an ultra-compact, eye-safe, solid-state laser rangefinder (LRF) with reduced size, weight and power consumption compared to existing products. The LRF measures 100×55×34mm, weighs 200g, and can range to greater than 10km with a single laser shot and at a reprate of 1Hz. This also leverages off advances in laser pump diodes, but also utilises low cost, high reliability, packaging technology commonly found in the telecoms sector. As is common in the D&S sector, the products are designed to work in extreme environments, such as wide temperature range (-40 to +71°C) and high levels of shock and vibration. These disruptive products enable next- generation laser sensors such as rangefinders, target designators and active illuminated imagers.

  3. Security of two quantum cryptography protocols using the same four qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas; Kraus, Barbara; Scarani, Valerio

    2005-09-15

    The first quantum cryptography protocol, proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984 (BB84), has been widely studied in recent years. This protocol uses four states (more precisely, two complementary bases) for the encoding of the classical bit. Recently, it has been noticed that by using the same four states, but a different encoding of information, one can define a protocol which is more robust in practical implementations, specifically when attenuated laser pulses are used instead of single-photon sources [V. Scarani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004), referred to as the SARG04 protocol]. We present a detailed study of SARG04 in two different regimes. In the first part, we consider an implementation with a single-photon source: we derive bounds on the error rate Q for security against all possible attacks by the eavesdropper. The lower and the upper bound obtained for SARG04 (Q < or approx. 10.95% and Q > or approx. 14.9%, respectively) are close to those obtained for BB84 (Q < or approx. 12.4% and Q > or approx. 14.6%, respectively). In the second part, we consider a realistic source consisting of an attenuated laser and improve on previous analysis by allowing Alice to optimize the mean number of photons as a function of the distance. The SARG04 protocol is found to perform better than BB84, both in secret-key rate and in maximal achievable distance, for a wide class of Eve's attacks.

  4. Technical cooperation on nuclear security between the United States and China : review of the past and opportunities for the future.

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    The United States and China are committed to cooperation to address the challenges of the next century. Technical cooperation, building on a long tradition of technical exchange between the two countries, can play an important role. This paper focuses on technical cooperation between the United States and China in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control and other nuclear security topics. It reviews cooperation during the 1990s on nonproliferation and arms control under the U.S.-China Arms Control Exchange, discusses examples of ongoing activities under the Peaceful Uses of Technology Agreement to enhance security of nuclear and radiological material, and suggests opportunities for expanding technical cooperation between the defense nuclear laboratories of both countries to address a broader range of nuclear security topics.

  5. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-05-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0‧⟩ state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0‧⟩. By using the |0‧⟩ state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping-pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61402058), the Science and Technology Support Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 2013GZX0137), the Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China (Grant No. 12ZB017), and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, China (Grant No. szjj2014-074).

  6. Development and Validation of Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument for Sustainable Job Security in Yobe State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamu, Gishua Garba; Dawha, Josphine Musa; Kamar, Tiamiyu Salihu

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical Engineering Trade Skills Assessment Instrument (METSAI) is aimed at determining the extent to which students have acquired practical skills before graduation that will enable them get employment for sustainable job security in Yobe state. The study employed instrumentation research design. The populations of the study were 23 mechanical…

  7. Manufacturing Accomplices: ICT Use in Securing the Safety State at Airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Østerlie, Thomas; Asak, Ole Martin; Pettersen, Ole Georg; Tronhus, Håvard

    Based on a study of ICT use at an airport security checkpoint, this paper explores a possible explanation to the paradox that travelers find existing airport security measures inadequate while at the same time believing air travel to be sufficiently secure. We pursue this explanation by showing that, for the security checkpoint to function properly in relation to the overall function of the airport, travelers have to be enrolled in a particular program of action. They are then locked into this program through sanctions. Travelers are forced into participating in a system many of them find ethically and morally objectionable. Yet, active participation makes it difficult for them to object to the moral and ethical issues of their actions without damning themselves. Our explanation of the security paradox is, therefore, that while travelers remain critical of airport security, they avoid damning themselves by criticizing the system in terms of its own logic. They have been made accomplices.

  8. Hydrometeorological Extremes and Food Security: Lessons from the 2011 and 2012 harvests in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobell, D. B.; Roberts, M.; Schlenker, W.

    2012-12-01

    The United States is both a major global producer of grain and a relatively variable production region. As such, it is an important driver of volatility in global food supply and food prices, which in turn affects food security in many regions. This fact was underscored by the 2012 season, in which a major drought caused production losses, which in turn led to international price increases. However, 2011 also was unusually hot and thus a good illustration of many of the issues surrounding climate change. This paper will discuss progress in modeling the impacts of extreme heat and drought on U.S. corn production, which comes from a combination of empirical and process-based approaches. One important lesson is that drought from the perspective of corn is different than traditional measures of drought, and in particular extreme heat plays a more direct role via effects on vapor pressure deficit. Implications for future impacts, interactions with carbon dioxide, and potential adaptation strategies will be discussed.

  9. Comment on “Controlled DSQC using five-qubit entangled states and two-step security test”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Su-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Meng, Luo-Ming; Zhu, Fu-Chen

    2009-07-01

    A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Cao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333] with five-qubit entangled states was proposed recently. The aim of Xiu et al. was that the successful realization of communication between Alice and Bob needed the cooperation of a controller, Charlie. However, we show that the controller Charlie's role could be excluded unknowingly. Moreover, an eavesdropper can entangle an ancilla without introducing any error in the first security test and then she can distill a quarter of the secret messages from her entangled ancilla.

  10. Household food security and hunger in rural and urban communities in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Corinna M; van Rooyen, Francois C

    2015-01-01

    Household food security impacts heavily on quality of life. We determined factors associated with food insecurity in 886 households in rural and urban Free State Province, South Africa. Significantly more urban than rural households reported current food shortage (81% and 47%, respectively). Predictors of food security included vegetable production in rural areas and keeping food for future use in urban households. Microwave oven ownership was negatively associated with food insecurity in urban households and using a primus or paraffin stove positively associated with food insecurity in rural households. Interventions to improve food availability and access should be emphasized.

  11. Secure Quantum Private Comparison Protocol Based on the Entanglement Swapping Between Three-Particle W-Class State and Bell State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Jia, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Ting-Ting

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new quantum private comparison protocol with the help of a semi-honest third party (TP), enabling two participants to compare the equality of their private inputs without exposing any information about their respective private inputs. Different from previous protocols, our protocol utilizes the properties of entanglement swapping between three-particle W-Class state and Bell state. The presented protocol can ensure correctness, fairness and security. Meanwhile, all the quantum particles undergo a one-way transmission, and all the participants including TP are just required having the ability to perform Bell-state measurement and exclusive-or operation which make our protocol more feasible and efficient. At last, the security of this protocol with respect to various kinds of attacks is analyzed in detail.

  12. Epidemiological and Biological Determinants of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Infection in New York State Maximum Security Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Miko, Benjamin A.; Befus, Montina; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Apa, Zoltan L.; Bai, Ruo Yu; Tanner, Joshua P.; Gage, Dana; Genovese, Maryann; Koenigsmann, Carl J.; Larson, Elaine L.; Lowy, Franklin D.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Large outbreaks of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infections have occurred in correctional facilities across the country. We aimed to define the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of SA infection in prisons to facilitate development of prevention strategies for this underserved population. Methods. We conducted a case-control study of SA infection at 2 New York State maximum security prisons. SA-infected inmates were matched with 3 uninfected controls. Subjects had cultures taken from sites of infection and colonization (nose and throat) and were interviewed via structured questionnaire. SA isolates were characterized by spa typing. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted using conditional logistic regression. Results. Between March 2011 and January 2013, 82 cases were enrolled and matched with 246 controls. On bivariate analysis, the use of oral and topical antibiotics over the preceding 6 months was strongly associated with clinical infection (OR, 2.52; P < .001 and 4.38, P < .001, respectively). Inmates with clinical infection had 3.16 times the odds of being diabetic compared with inmates who did not have clinical infection (P < .001). Concurrent nasal and/or oropharyngeal colonization was also associated with an increased odds of infection (OR, 1.46; P = .002). Among colonized inmates, cases were significantly more likely to carry the SA clone spa t008 (usually representing the epidemic strain USA300) compared to controls (OR, 2.52; P = .01). Conclusions. Several inmate characteristics were strongly associated with SA infection in the prison setting. Although many of these factors were likely present prior to incarceration, they may help medical staff identify prisoners for targeted prevention strategies. PMID:25810281

  13. Geothermal heating retrofit at the Utah State Prison Minimum Security Facility. Final report, March 1979-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This report is a summary of progress and results of the Utah State Prison Geothermal Space Heating Project. Initiated in 1978 by the Utah State Energy Office and developed with assistance from DOE's Division of Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies PON program, final construction was completed in 1984. The completed system provides space and water heating for the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. It consists of an artesian flowing geothermal well, plate heat exchangers, and underground distribution pipeline that connects to the existing hydronic heating system in the State Prison's Minimum Security Facility. Geothermal water disposal consists of a gravity drain line carrying spent geothermal water to a cooling pond which discharges into the Jordan River, approximately one mile from the well site. The system has been in operation for two years with mixed results. Continuing operation and maintenance problems have reduced the expected seasonal operation from 9 months per year to 3 months. Problems with the Minimum Security heating system have reduced the expected energy contribution by approximately 60%. To date the system has saved the prison approximately $18,060. The total expenditure including resource assessment and development, design, construction, performance verification, and reporting is approximately $827,558.

  14. 75 FR 55392 - State of the Municipal Securities Market Field Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Commission Mary L. Schapiro, announced that Commissioner Elisse B. Walter would lead an effort to gather facts, opinions and analyses about the municipal securities market by holding a series of field...

  15. Person-environment interaction in a new secure forensic state psychiatric hospital.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Jon E; Kelly, Sean P; Margiotta, David T; Hegvik, Donna K; Vaher, Kairi A; Kaya, Rachel Tamiko

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the person-environment interaction effects of environmental design on ward climate, safety, job satisfaction, and treatment outcomes within a new high security forensic psychiatric facility. Participants included male and female adult psychiatric inpatients and staff members at different security stages. Data were collected once before and twice after the experimental group moved into the new building. The control group remained in the same facilities. Contrary to expectations, the new building had limited effects on the measured variables.

  16. Security for grids

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, Marty; Thompson, Mary R.; Jackson, Keith R.

    2005-08-14

    Securing a Grid environment presents a distinctive set of challenges. This paper groups the activities that need to be secured into four categories: naming and authentication; secure communication; trust, policy, and authorization; and enforcement of access control. It examines the current state of the art in securing these processes and introduces new technologies that promise to meet the security requirements of Grids more completely.

  17. Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-28

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors.

  18. Secure and Robust Transmission and Verification of Unknown Quantum States in Minkowski Space

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors. PMID:24469425

  19. Secure and robust transmission and verification of unknown quantum states in Minkowski space.

    PubMed

    Kent, Adrian; Massar, Serge; Silman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    An important class of cryptographic applications of relativistic quantum information work as follows. B generates a random qudit and supplies it to A at point P. A is supposed to transmit it at near light speed c to to one of a number of possible pairwise spacelike separated points Q1, …, Qn. A's transmission is supposed to be secure, in the sense that B cannot tell in advance which Qj will be chosen. This poses significant practical challenges, since secure reliable long-range transmission of quantum data at speeds near to c is presently not easy. Here we propose different techniques to overcome these diffculties. We introduce protocols that allow secure long-range implementations even when both parties control only widely separated laboratories of small size. In particular we introduce a protocol in which A needs send the qudit only over a short distance, and securely transmits classical information (for instance using a one time pad) over the remaining distance. We further show that by using parallel implementations of the protocols security can be maintained in the presence of moderate amounts of losses and errors. PMID:24469425

  20. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  1. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats.

  2. Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Protocol Based on Three-Particle GHZ States in X-Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Yan, Li-Li; Han, Gui-Hua

    2015-03-01

    A controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC) protocol is proposed based on three-particle GHZ state in X-basis. Only X-basis and Z1Z2X3-basis (composed of Z-basis and X-basis) measurement are required, which makes the scheme more convenient than others in practical applications. By distributing a random key between both sides of the communication and performing classical XOR operation, we realize a one-time-pad scheme, therefore our protocol achieves unconditional secure. Because only user with legitimate identity string can decrypt the secret, our protocol can resist man-in-the middle attack. The three-particle GHZ state in X-basis is used as decoy photons to detect eavesdropping. The detection rate reaches 75% per qubit. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 61402058, Science and Technology, Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 2013GZX0137, Fund for Young Persons Project of Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 12ZB017, and the Foundation of Cyberspace Security Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions under Grant No. szjj2014-074

  3. An evaluation of security measures implemented to address physical threats to water infrastructure in the state of Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Jason R; French, P Edward

    2013-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, increased and intensified domestic preparedness efforts in the United States against terrorism and other threats. The heightened focus on protecting this nation's critical infrastructure included legislation requiring implementation of extensive new security measures to better defend water supply systems against physical, chemical/biological, and cyber attacks. In response, municipal officials have implemented numerous safeguards to reduce the vulnerability of these systems to purposeful intrusions including ongoing vulnerability assessments, extensive personnel training, and highly detailed emergency response and communication plans. This study evaluates fiscal year 2010 annual compliance assessments of public water systems with security measures that were implemented by Mississippi's Department of Health as a response to federal requirements to address these potential terrorist threats to water distribution systems. The results show that 20 percent of the water systems in this state had at least one security violation on their 2010 Capacity Development Assessment, and continued perseverance from local governments is needed to enhance the resiliency and robustness of these systems against physical threats. PMID:24187744

  4. 75 FR 10633 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Security (DHS) published a notice of proposed rulemaking in the Federal Register, 74 FR 30240, June 25... concurrently in the Federal Register, 74 FR 5665, January 30, 2009, and later updated in the Federal Register to add two new routine uses, 74 FR 20719, May 5, 2009. The system is being renamed...

  5. The Treatment of Peace and Security Issues in Social Studies Textbooks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.

    This examination of the treatment given to peace and security issues in American social studies textbooks begins by summarizing the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) Curriculum Guidelines and a 1983 study of high school social studies topic priorities. Following a review of past textbook studies and a brief discussion of textbook…

  6. Strategies for Improving Polio Surveillance Performance in the Security-Challenged Nigerian States of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe During 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hamisu, Abdullahi Walla; Johnson, Ticha Muluh; Craig, Kehinde; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Oyetunji, Ajiboye; Ningi, Nuhu; Mohammed, Said M.; Adamu, Mohammed Isa; Abdulrahim, Khalid; Nsubuga, Peter; Vaz, Rui G.; Muhammed, Ado J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The security-challenged states of Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe bear most of the brunt of the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The security challenge has led to the killing of health workers, destruction of health facilities, and displacement of huge populations. To identify areas of polio transmission and promptly detect possible cases of importation in these states, polio surveillance must be very sensitive. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance in the security-compromised states between 2009 and 2014, using the acute flaccid paralysis database at the World Health Organization Nigeria Country Office. We also reviewed the reports of surveillance activities conducted in these security-challenged states, to identify strategies that were implemented to improve polio surveillance. Results. Environmental surveillance was implemented in Borno in 2013 and in Yobe in 2014. All disease surveillance and notification officers in the 3 security-challenged states now receive annual training, and the number of community informants in these states has dramatically increased. Media-based messaging (via radio and television) is now used to sensitize the public to the importance of surveillance, and contact samples have been regularly collected in both states since 2014. Conclusions. The strategies implemented in the security-challenged states improved the quality of polio surveillance during the review period. PMID:26655842

  7. United States Responses to Japanese Wartime Inhuman Experimentation after World War II: National Security and Wartime Exigency

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Howard; Leonard, Sarah E.; Nie, Jing-Bao; Weindling, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In 1945-46, representatives of the United States government made similar discoveries in both Germany and Japan, unearthing evidence of unethical experiments on human beings that could be viewed as war crimes. The outcomes in the two defeated nations, however, were strikingly different. In Germany, the U.S., influenced by the Canadian physician John Thompson, played a key role in bringing Nazi physicians to trial and publicizing their misdeeds. In Japan, the U.S. played an equally key role in concealing information about the biological warfare experiments and securing immunity from prosecution for the perpetrators. The greater force of appeals to national security and wartime exigency help to explain these different outcomes. PMID:24534743

  8. Establishing public health security in a postwar Iraq: constitutional obstacles and lessons for other federalizing states.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kumanan; Fidler, David P; McDougall, Christopher W; Lazar, Harvey

    2009-06-01

    The public health consequences of the conflict in Iraq will likely continue after the violence has subsided. Reestablishing public health security will require large investments in infrastructure and the creation of effective systems of governance. On the question of governance, the allocation of powers in the new constitution of Iraq is critical. Given the ease with which public health threats cross borders, the constitution needs to grant to the federal government the legal authority to manage such threats and simultaneously meet international requirements. Unfortunately, the draft constitution does not accomplish this objective. If politically possible, the constitution should be amended to provide the federal government with this authority. If not possible, the Iraqi federal government would have two options. It could attempt to use alternative constitutional powers, such as national security powers. This option would be contentious and the results uncertain. Alternatively, the federal government could attempt to establish collaborative relationships with regional governments. Residual sectarian tensions create potential problems for this option, however. Reflecting on the Iraqi situation, we conclude that other federalizing countries emerging from conflict should ensure that their constitutions provide the federal government with the necessary authority to manage threats to public health security effectively.

  9. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces.

  10. The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2013-11-13

    As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

  11. Security of coherent-state quantum cryptography in the presence of Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, Matthias; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the security against collective attacks of a continuous variable quantum key distribution scheme in the asymptotic key limit for a realistic setting. The quantum channel connecting the two honest parties is assumed to be lossy and imposes Gaussian noise on the observed quadrature distributions. Secret key rates are given for direct and reverse reconciliation schemes including post-selection in the collective attack scenario. The effect of a nonideal error correction and two-way communication in the classical post-processing step is also taken into account.

  12. Do biofuel blending mandates reduce gasoline consumption? Implications of state-level renewable fuel standards for energy security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Shinling

    In an effort to keep America's addiction to oil under control, federal and state governments have implemented a variety of policy measures including those that determine the composition of motor gasoline sold at the pump. Biofuel blending mandates known as Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) are designed to reduce the amount of foreign crude oil needed to be imported as well as to boost the local ethanol and corn industry. Yet beyond looking at changes in gasoline prices associated with increased ethanol production, there have been no empirical studies that examine effects of state-level RFS implementation on gasoline consumption. I estimate a Generalized Least Squares model for the gasoline demand for the 1993 to 2010 period with state and time fixed effects controlling for RFS. States with active RFS are Minnesota, Hawaii, Missouri, Florida, Washington, and Oregon. I find that, despite the onset of federal biofuel mandates across states in 2007 and the lower energy content of blended gasoline, being in a state that has implemented RFS is associated with 1.5% decrease in gasoline consumption (including blended gasoline). This is encouraging evidence for efforts to lessen dependence on gasoline and has positive implications for energy security.

  13. State of the Art of Network Security Perspectives in Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Tae Hwan; Lim, Shinyoung; Choi, Young B.; Park, Kwang-Roh; Lee, Heejo; Choi, Hyunsang

    Cloud computing is now regarded as one of social phenomenon that satisfy customers' needs. It is possible that the customers' needs and the primary principle of economy - gain maximum benefits from minimum investment - reflects realization of cloud computing. We are living in the connected society with flood of information and without connected computers to the Internet, our activities and work of daily living will be impossible. Cloud computing is able to provide customers with custom-tailored features of application software and user's environment based on the customer's needs by adopting on-demand outsourcing of computing resources through the Internet. It also provides cloud computing users with high-end computing power and expensive application software package, and accordingly the users will access their data and the application software where they are located at the remote system. As the cloud computing system is connected to the Internet, network security issues of cloud computing are considered as mandatory prior to real world service. In this paper, survey and issues on the network security in cloud computing are discussed from the perspective of real world service environments.

  14. Security of quantum key distribution with a laser reference coherent state, resistant to loss in the communication channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molotkov, S. N.; Potapova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    The problem of quantum key distribution security in channels with large losses is still open. Quasi-single-photon sources of quantum states with losses in the quantum communication channel open up the possibility of attacking with unambiguous state discrimination (USD) measurements, resulting in a loss of privacy. In this letter, the problem is solved by counting the classic reference pulses. Conservation of the number of counts of intense coherent pulses makes it impossible to conduct USD measurements. Moreover, the losses in the communication channel are considered to be unknown in advance and are subject to change throughout the series parcels. Unlike other protocols, differential phase shift (Inoue et al 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 037902, Inoue et al 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 022317, Takesue et al 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 343, Wen et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 170503) and coherent one way (Stucki et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2005 Appl. Phys. Lett. 87 194108, Branciard et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013031, Stucki et al 2008 Opt. Express 17 13326), the simplicity of the protocol makes it possible to carry out a complete analysis of its security.

  15. Friends without Benefits: How States Systematically Shortchange Teachers' Retirement and Threaten Their Retirement Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    To shore up the $46 billion pension debt the state has accrued over the past several decades, Illinois has been using its teachers as a piggy bank. New legislation adopted in December 2013 will raise the retirement age for mid-career workers and limit the amount retiree pensions can increase with inflation over time. State and national union…

  16. Multi-state Markov model for disability: A case of Malaysia Social Security (SOCSO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsuddin, Shamshimah; Ismail, Noriszura

    2016-06-01

    Studies of SOCSO's contributor outcomes like disability are usually restricted to a single outcome. In this respect, the study has focused on the approach of multi-state Markov model for estimating the transition probabilities among SOCSO's contributor in Malaysia between states: work, temporary disability, permanent disability and death at yearly intervals on age, gender, year and disability category; ignoring duration and past disability experience which is not consider of how or when someone arrived in that category. These outcomes represent different states which depend on health status among the workers.

  17. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  18. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  19. Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherinezhad, Saber; Karimipour, Vahid

    2003-04-01

    We introduce a protocol for quantum secret sharing based on reusable entangled states. The entangled state between the sender and the receiver acts only as a carrier to which data bits are entangled by the sender and disentangled from it by the receivers, all by local actions of simple gates. We also show that the interception by Eve or the cheating of one of the receivers introduces a quantum bit error rate larger than 25% which can be detected by comparing a subsequence of the bits.

  20. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication.

  1. The Role of State Courts in Securing School Facility Adequacy and Equity. Policy Report 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary L.; Arsen, David

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the problem of school facility disparities in Michigan and the prospects of litigation to address this problem. First, the authors briefly review evidence of the important impact of school facilities on students, teachers, and communities. They then provide an overview of litigation aimed at state school finance systems across…

  2. Characterization of collective Gaussian attacks and security of coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    PubMed

    Pirandola, Stefano; Braunstein, Samuel L; Lloyd, Seth

    2008-11-14

    We provide a simple description of the most general collective Gaussian attack in continuous-variable quantum cryptography. In the scenario of such general attacks, we analyze the asymptotic secret-key rates which are achievable with coherent states, joint measurements of the quadratures and one-way classical communication. PMID:19113324

  3. 76 FR 78085 - Permissible Investments for Federal and State Savings Associations: Corporate Debt Securities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... has the highest capacity to meet its financial obligations.\\11\\ \\10\\ 76 FR 12896 (March 9, 2011). \\11... amend the FDIC's regulations in accordance with the requirements of Federal Deposit Insurance Act (FDI.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Under Section 28(d)(1) of the FDI Act, Federal and state...

  4. Five States' Innovative Approaches to Welfare: Promoting Economic Security among America's Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufts Univ., Medford, MA. Center on Hunger, Poverty and Nutrition Policy.

    The Family Support Act of 1988 and the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 provided the basis for a comprehensive reform of welfare programs. This document provides examples of how five states have chosen to implement new provisions in their welfare programs to aid families in achieving greater economic…

  5. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  6. 12 CFR 390.340 - Offers and sales of securities at an office of a State savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stock form of organization in a conversion approved pursuant to 12 CFR part 192 may be offered and sold... conspicuously on the security and in all offering documents and advertisements for the securities; the legend... the conversion stock offering. (b) Securities sales practices, advertisements, and other...

  7. 12 CFR 390.340 - Offers and sales of securities at an office of a State savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... stock form of organization in a conversion approved pursuant to 12 CFR part 192 may be offered and sold... conspicuously on the security and in all offering documents and advertisements for the securities; the legend... the conversion stock offering. (b) Securities sales practices, advertisements, and other...

  8. 12 CFR 390.340 - Offers and sales of securities at an office of a State savings association.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stock form of organization in a conversion approved pursuant to 12 CFR part 192 may be offered and sold... conspicuously on the security and in all offering documents and advertisements for the securities; the legend... the conversion stock offering. (b) Securities sales practices, advertisements, and other...

  9. Secure portal.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Cynthia Lee

    2007-09-01

    There is a need in security systems to rapidly and accurately grant access of authorized personnel to a secure facility while denying access to unauthorized personnel. In many cases this role is filled by security personnel, which can be very costly. Systems that can perform this role autonomously without sacrificing accuracy or speed of throughput are very appealing. To address the issue of autonomous facility access through the use of technology, the idea of a ''secure portal'' is introduced. A secure portal is a defined zone where state-of-the-art technology can be implemented to grant secure area access or to allow special privileges for an individual. Biometric technologies are of interest because they are generally more difficult to defeat than technologies such as badge swipe and keypad entry. The biometric technologies selected for this concept were facial and gait recognition. They were chosen since they require less user cooperation than other biometrics such as fingerprint, iris, and hand geometry and because they have the most potential for flexibility in deployment. The secure portal concept could be implemented within the boundaries of an entry area to a facility. As a person is approaching a badge and/or PIN portal, face and gait information can be gathered and processed. The biometric information could be fused for verification against the information that is gathered from the badge. This paper discusses a facial recognition technology that was developed for the purposes of providing high verification probabilities with low false alarm rates, which would be required of an autonomous entry control system. In particular, a 3-D facial recognition approach using Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis is described. Gait recognition technology, based on Hidden Markov Models has been explored, but those results are not included in this paper. Fusion approaches for combining the results of the biometrics would be the next step in realizing the secure portal

  10. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CATASTROPHIC (CAT) LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM: DEMOGRAPHICS, ECONOMIC SECURITY, AND SOCIAL EQUITY.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office reached an agreement with all CSU collective bargaining units and Employee Relations on a uniform Catastrophic (CAT) Leave Donation Program in 1992. The CAT Leave Donation Program allows employees to donate sick and/or vacation leave credits to employees who are incapacitated due to a catastrophic illness or injury and have exhausted all of their own leave credits. This also extends to employees with whom family illnesses are deemed catastrophic, thus requiring the employee to care for an immediate family member. Stakeholders include union represented employees who accrue leave credits as well as any employee who receives or donates hours of leave credits in the program. Other stakeholders include the family members and program administrators.

  11. Conceptualizing Biopolitics: Citizen-State Interactions in the Securing of Water Services in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform on which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-Apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of 'water citizenship'-citizen, agent, and subject-influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents.

  12. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CATASTROPHIC (CAT) LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM: DEMOGRAPHICS, ECONOMIC SECURITY, AND SOCIAL EQUITY.

    PubMed

    Muller, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office reached an agreement with all CSU collective bargaining units and Employee Relations on a uniform Catastrophic (CAT) Leave Donation Program in 1992. The CAT Leave Donation Program allows employees to donate sick and/or vacation leave credits to employees who are incapacitated due to a catastrophic illness or injury and have exhausted all of their own leave credits. This also extends to employees with whom family illnesses are deemed catastrophic, thus requiring the employee to care for an immediate family member. Stakeholders include union represented employees who accrue leave credits as well as any employee who receives or donates hours of leave credits in the program. Other stakeholders include the family members and program administrators. PMID:26369237

  13. CONCEPTUALIZING BIOPOLITICS: CITIZEN-STATE INTERACTIONS IN THE SECURING OF WATER SERVICES IN SOUTH AFRICA

    PubMed Central

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform upon which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of ‘water citizenship’ – citizen, agent, and subject – influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents. PMID:26087245

  14. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  15. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  16. Securing Fatherhood through Kin Work: A Comparison of Black Low-Income Fathers and Families in South Africa and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Roy, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine how low-income Black men in South Africa and the United States work with their kin to secure fathering and ensure the well-being of children. They use ethnographic and life history data on men who fathered children from 1992 to 2005 to demonstrate how fathers' roles as kin workers enable them to meet culturally…

  17. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  18. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of the Diffusion of Mandated and Subsidized Technology: United States Energy Security and Independence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noah, Philip D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to explore what the core factors are that play a role in the development of the smart-grid. This research study examined The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 as it pertains to the smart-grid, the economic and security effects of the smart grid, and key factors for its success. The…

  19. Security analysis and improvement of the dining cryptographer problem-based anonymous quantum communication via non-maximally entanglement state analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-le; Zhang, Ke-jia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, two novel anonymous quantum communication (AQC) protocols (Shi et al. in Int. J. Theor. Phys. 52, 376-384, 2013) are presented, respectively. One is in a public-receiver model, the other is in broadcasting channels. In their paper, the dining cryptographer problem (DCP) and the non-maximally entanglement state analysis (NESA) are applied. And they analyze some attack strategies, including the honest-but-curious and malicious participant attacking ones. Unfortunately, we find that there exist some potential loopholes in security. The identity of anonymous sender in the AQC protocol with a public receiver for three participants can be revealed. And the AQC protocol in broadcasting channels for n participants, which is sensitive to some special attacks, such as participant attacks, is still not so secure as expected. Here we detailedly analyze the security of their proposed protocols and make some improvements.

  20. [Food security, income, and the Bolsa Família program: a cohort study of municipalities in Paraíba State, Brazil, 2005-2011].

    PubMed

    Cabral, Caroline Sousa; Lopes, Amanda Gonçalves; Lopes, Johnnatas Mikael; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the conditional cash transfer program known as Bolsa Família in overcoming food insecurity. A cohort study was conducted in 2005 and 2011 in a sample of families in São José dos Ramos and Nova Floresta, Paraíba State, Brazil. In 2005, 609 households were interviewed, and in 2011 we located and re-interviewed 406 families. There had been an increase in food security and mild food insecurity and an improvement in socioeconomic indicators. A significant association was observed between higher income and improved food security. The program showed a positive impact by increasing income and providing improved levels of food security and mild food insecurity. Other socioeconomic variables may be contributing to this improvement. The fight against food insecurity and malnutrition thus requires additional policies and programs that act on other determinants.

  1. Obesity as a Determinant of Staphylococcus aureus Colonization Among Inmates in Maximum-Security Prisons in New York State

    PubMed Central

    Befus, Montina; Lowy, Franklin D.; Miko, Benjamin A.; Mukherjee, Dhritiman V.; Herzig, Carolyn T. A.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity increases a person's susceptibility to a variety of infections, including Staphylococcus aureus infections, which is an important cause of morbidity in correctional settings. Using a cross-sectional design, we assessed the association between obesity and S. aureus colonization, a risk factor for subsequent infection, in New York State maximum-security prisons (2011–2013). Anterior nares and oropharyngeal cultures were collected. Structured interviews and medical records were used to collect demographic, behavioral, and medical data. Body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m2)) was categorized as 18.5–24.9, 25–29.9, 30–34.9, or ≥35. The association between BMI and S. aureus colonization was assessed using log-binomial regression. Thirty-eight percent of 638 female inmates and 26% of 794 male inmates had a BMI of 30 or higher. More than 40% of inmates were colonized. Female inmates with a BMI of 25–29.9 (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.76), 30–34.9 (PR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.17, 1.98), or ≥35 (PR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.13, 1.96) had a higher likelihood of colonization than did those with a BMI of 18.5–24.9 after we controlled for age, educational level, smoking status, diabetes status, and presence of human immunodeficiency virus. Colonization was higher among male inmates with a BMI of 30–34.9 (PR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.61). Our findings demonstrate an association between BMI and S. aureus colonization among female prisoners. Potential contributory biologic and behavioral factors should be explored. PMID:26292691

  2. Security Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  3. Collection Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard W.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to the problem of security of library collections and facilities from theft and vandalism. Highlights include responses to losses, defining security needs, typical weaknesses of facilities, policies and procedures that weaken a library's security, conducting a security audit, cost of security, cost-effectiveness, and…

  4. A comparative study of protocols for secure quantum communication under noisy environment: single-qubit-based protocols versus entangled-state-based protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vishal; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2016-07-01

    The effect of noise on various protocols of secure quantum communication has been studied. Specifically, we have investigated the effect of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping, Pauli type as well as various collective noise models on the protocols of quantum key distribution, quantum key agreement, quantum secure direct quantum communication and quantum dialogue. From each type of protocol of secure quantum communication, we have chosen two protocols for our comparative study: one based on single-qubit states and the other one on entangled states. The comparative study reported here has revealed that single-qubit-based schemes are generally found to perform better in the presence of amplitude damping, phase damping, squeezed generalized amplitude damping noises, while entanglement-based protocols turn out to be preferable in the presence of collective noises. It is also observed that the effect of noise depends upon the number of rounds of quantum communication involved in a scheme of quantum communication. Further, it is observed that squeezing, a completely quantum mechanical resource present in the squeezed generalized amplitude channel, can be used in a beneficial way as it may yield higher fidelity compared to the corresponding zero squeezing case.

  5. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  6. Securing the State through the Production of "Global" Citizens: Analyzing Neo-Liberal Educational Reforms in Jordan and the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hantzopoulos, Maria; Shirazi, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    From a human capital perspective, schooling has long represented an engine of economic growth, individual advancement, and competitiveness in the global market. In recent years, this theorization of schooling has become linked with articulations of national security in both the Global North and South, as policymakers, private sector actors, and…

  7. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (4) Crossing of buy and sell orders shall mean a security transaction in which the same bank acts as... indebtedness incurred in the ordinary course of business, currency, any note, draft, bill of exchange, or... the crossing of buy and sell orders on a fair and equitable basis to the parties to the...

  8. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (4) Crossing of buy and sell orders shall mean a security transaction in which the same bank acts as... indebtedness incurred in the ordinary course of business, currency, any note, draft, bill of exchange, or... the crossing of buy and sell orders on a fair and equitable basis to the parties to the...

  9. 12 CFR 208.34 - Recordkeeping and confirmation of certain securities transactions effected by State member banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... (4) Crossing of buy and sell orders shall mean a security transaction in which the same bank acts as... indebtedness incurred in the ordinary course of business, currency, any note, draft, bill of exchange, or... the crossing of buy and sell orders on a fair and equitable basis to the parties to the...

  10. Addressing Software Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Historically security within organizations was thought of as an IT function (web sites/servers, email, workstation patching, etc.) Threat landscape has evolved (Script Kiddies, Hackers, Advanced Persistent Threat (APT), Nation States, etc.) Attack surface has expanded -Networks interconnected!! Some security posture factors Network Layer (Routers, Firewalls, etc.) Computer Network Defense (IPS/IDS, Sensors, Continuous Monitoring, etc.) Industrial Control Systems (ICS) Software Security (COTS, FOSS, Custom, etc.)

  11. The Child Care and Development Block Grant and Child Care Grants to States under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act: A Description of Major Provisions and Issues To Consider in Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Helen

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) and Grants to States under Title IV-A of the Social Security Act for At-Risk Child Care are two recently passed federal child care bills. These bills offer states a unique opportunity to review the ways state and federal child care and early childhood programs work together to support children and…

  12. Cryptanalysis of Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on Five-Particle Cluster State and Quantum One-Time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihao; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Wenjie

    2016-10-01

    A new attack strategy, the so-called intercept-selectively-measure-resend attack is put forward. It shows that there are some security issues in the controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) and authentication protocol based on five-particle cluster states and quantum one-time pad. Firstly, an eavesdropper (Eve) can use this attack to eavesdrop on 0.656 bit of every bit of the identity string of the receiver and 1.406 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without being detected. Also, she can eavesdrop on 0.311 bit of every bit of the identity string of the controller. Secondly, the receiver can also take this attack to obtain 1.311 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without the permission of the controller, which is not allowed in the CQSDC protocols. In fact, there is another security issue in this protocol, that is, one half of the information about the secret is leaked out unconsciously. In addition, an alternative attack strategy which is called as the selective-CNOT-operation attack strategy to attack this protocol is discussed.

  13. Cryptanalysis of Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Protocol Based on Five-Particle Cluster State and Quantum One-Time Pad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihao; Chen, Hanwu; Liu, Wenjie

    2016-06-01

    A new attack strategy, the so-called intercept-selectively-measure-resend attack is put forward. It shows that there are some security issues in the controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) and authentication protocol based on five-particle cluster states and quantum one-time pad. Firstly, an eavesdropper (Eve) can use this attack to eavesdrop on 0.656 bit of every bit of the identity string of the receiver and 1.406 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without being detected. Also, she can eavesdrop on 0.311 bit of every bit of the identity string of the controller. Secondly, the receiver can also take this attack to obtain 1.311 bits of every couple of the corresponding bits of the secret message without the permission of the controller, which is not allowed in the CQSDC protocols. In fact, there is another security issue in this protocol, that is, one half of the information about the secret is leaked out unconsciously. In addition, an alternative attack strategy which is called as the selective-CNOT-operation attack strategy to attack this protocol is discussed.

  14. The grant is what I eat: the politics of social security and disability in the post-apartheid South African state.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    In South Africa, disability grant allocation has been under review and tensions are evident in government rhetoric stressing welfare provision on the one hand, and encouraging 'rationalization' on the other. This ambiguity is traced down to the level of grant negotiations between doctors and 'clients' in a psychiatry clinic in Khayelitsha. Here 'having nerves' embodies the distress associated with harsh circumstances and is deemed by supplicants as sufficient to secure a grant. The paper illustrates how national discourses influence the presentation and experience of suffering and the way in which doctors mediate diagnoses. The implications of local understandings of 'health citizenship' for expectations of the post-apartheid state are explored.

  15. King's theory of goal attainment applied in group therapy for inpatient juvenile sexual offenders, maximum security state offenders, and community parolees, using visual aids.

    PubMed

    Laben, J K; Dodd, D; Sneed, L

    1991-01-01

    Group psychotherapy has been considered the treatment of choice by many therapists working with offenders within the criminal justice system. However, there has been little written by nurses regarding this special population. This article's purpose is to illustrate how King's theory of goal attainment may be used in conducting group psychotherapy with offender populations. The application of King's model is demonstrated in three milieus: an inpatient setting for juvenile sexual offenders, a state maximum security prison, and a halfway house for offenders involved in a work-release program. The methodology and use of visual aids in actualizing King's theory of mutual goal setting and goal attainment are discussed.

  16. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    evelo, stacie; Miller, Mark L.

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  17. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  18. Supporting Data Use While Protecting the Privacy, Security and Confidentiality of Student Information: A Primer for State Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The education sector is beginning to embrace a culture that values, demands and uses data to support improved decisionmaking at every level--in classrooms, at kitchen tables and in state capitols. This shift is due in large part to state policymakers' leadership over the last six years in building statewide longitudinal data systems that collect…

  19. The information security needs in radiological information systems-an insight on state hospitals of Iran, 2012.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Akram; Ahmadi, Maryam

    2013-12-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) was originally developed for radiology services over 20 years ago to capture medical images electronically. Medical diagnosis methods are based on images such as clinical radiographs, ultrasounds, CT scans, MRIs, or other imaging modalities. Information obtained from these images is correlated with patient information. So with regards to the important role of PACS in hospitals, we aimed to evaluate the PACS and survey the information security needed in the Radiological Information system. First, we surveyed the different aspects of PACS that should be in any health organizations based on Department of Health standards and prepared checklists for assessing the PACS in different hospitals. Second, we surveyed the security controls that should be implemented in PACS. Checklists reliability is affirmed by professors of Tehran Science University. Then, the final data are inputted in SPSS software and analyzed. The results indicate that PACS in hospitals can transfer patient demographic information but they do not show route of information. These systems are not open source. They don't use XML-based standard and HL7 standard for exchanging the data. They do not use DS digital signature. They use passwords and the user can correct or change the medical information. PACS can detect alternation rendered. The survey of results demonstrates that PACS in all hospitals has the same features. These systems have the patient demographic data but they do not have suitable flexibility to interface network or taking reports. For the privacy of PACS in all hospitals, there were passwords for users and the system could show the changes that have been made; but there was no water making or digital signature for the users.

  20. Security Locks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    According to a 2008 "Year in Review" report by Educational Security Incidents, an online repository that collects data on higher education security issues, the total number of security incidents reported at universities and colleges worldwide rose to 173 in 2008, a 24.5 percent increase over 2007. The number of institutions affected--perhaps the…

  1. 12 CFR 362.8 - Restrictions on activities of insured state nonmember banks affiliated with certain securities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY ACTIVITIES OF INSURED STATE... of the bank; (2) The affiliate conducts business pursuant to independent policies and procedures... guarantee the obligations of the affiliate; (3) The bank adopts policies and procedures,...

  2. 76 FR 49497 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-001 Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... principles in a statutory framework governing the means by which the United States Government collects... questioned documents; reports or opinions from the examination of computer evidence; reports or opinions from...; forensic examination information; search warrants and search warrant returns; indictments;...

  3. Climate change in the federated states of Micronesia: Food and water security, climate risk management, and adaptive strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a report of findings following research and a three-week field assessment (April 2009) of the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) in response to nation-wide marine inundation by extreme tides (December 2007, September 2008, December 2008).3 The study was conducted at the request of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service and the state and federal governments of FSM.

  4. Policy based network management : state of the industry and desired functionality for the enterprise network: security policy / testing technology evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christine A.; Ernest, Martha J.; Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Klaus, Edward J.; MacAlpine, Timothy L.; Rios, Michael A.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.

    2005-02-01

    Policy-based network management (PBNM) uses policy-driven automation to manage complex enterprise and service provider networks. Such management is strongly supported by industry standards, state of the art technologies and vendor product offerings. We present a case for the use of PBNM and related technologies for end-to-end service delivery. We provide a definition of PBNM terms, a discussion of how such management should function and the current state of the industry. We include recommendations for continued work that would allow for PBNM to be put in place over the next five years in the unclassified environment.

  5. Air Quality Impacts of Increased Use of Ethanol under the United States' Energy Independence and Security Act

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of ethanol in the United States fuel supply will impact emissions and ambient concentrations of greenhouse gases, “criteria” pollutants for which the U. S. EPA sets ambient air quality standards, and a variety of air toxic compounds. This paper focuses on impacts of...

  6. 75 FR 81371 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; Department of Homeland Security/United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... rulemaking in the Federal Register, 75 FR 54528, September 8, 2010, proposing to exempt portions of the... concurrently in the Federal Register, 75 FR 54642, September 8, 2010. Comments were invited on both the Notice.../United States Citizenship and Immigration Services- 012 Citizenship and Immigration Data...

  7. 76 FR 49500 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security United States Coast Guard-020 Substance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... authorities to report, under State law, incidents of suspected child abuse or neglect to the extent described... Guard--020 Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program System of Records AGENCY: Privacy Office...--020 Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Program System of Records.'' This system of...

  8. 76 FR 66937 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Homeland Security/United States Secret Service-003 Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... interest in, or have engaged in prior activity regarding child pornography, the touching of a child for sexual gratification, or child abuse. N. To the news media and the public, with the approval of the Chief.... To state and local school boards, private and public schools, daycare facilities, children's...

  9. United States Security and the Soviet Challenge. Report of a Wingspread Briefing (Racine, Wisconsin, June 29, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Douglas, Jr.

    Six presentations, an introduction, and a summary discussion are included in this publication, which focuses on the various complex factors involved in the negotiation of arms control agreements with the Soviet Union. Titles of the six presentations are: (1) Critical Issues in the United States-Soviet Relationship; (2) Basic Elements of Strategic…

  10. Secure quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Curty, Marcos; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-01

    Secure communication is crucial in the Internet Age, and quantum mechanics stands poised to revolutionize cryptography as we know it today. In this Review, we introduce the motivation and the current state of the art of research in quantum cryptography. In particular, we discuss the present security model together with its assumptions, strengths and weaknesses. After briefly introducing recent experimental progress and challenges, we survey the latest developments in quantum hacking and countermeasures against it.

  11. A Security Checklist for ERP Implementations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Joy R.; Beer, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force consulted with IT security professionals on campus about concerns with the current state of security in enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems. From these conversations, it was clear that security issues generally fell into one of two areas: (1) It has become extremely difficult…

  12. 6 CFR 37.41 - Security plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Information (SSI) and must be handled and protected in accordance with 49 CFR part 1520. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Security plan. 37.41 Section 37.41 Domestic... Security plan. (a) In General. States must have a security plan that addresses the provisions in...

  13. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  14. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... mortgaged as security for a loan in accordance with 25 CFR 152.34 and the Act of March 29, 1956 (70 Stat. 62... AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LOANS TO INDIANS FROM THE REVOLVING LOAN FUND § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the...

  15. 22 CFR 8.7 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 8.7 Section 8.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT § 8.7 Security. (a) All officers and members of a committee must have a security clearance for the subject matter level of security at which the...

  16. The cost of IT security.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Mac

    2015-04-01

    Breaches in data security have become commonplace in health care, making IT security a necessary cost for healthcare organizations. Organizations that do not invest proactively in IT security face a significant risk of incurring much greater costs from incidents involving compromised data security. Direct costs of security breaches include the costs of discovery, response, investigation, and notification and also can include state or federal penalties and costs of compliance with corrective action plans and resolution agreements. Hidden costs can include damage to brand, loss of consumer confidence, reduced HCAHPS scores, and--by extension--reduced value-based purchasing payments.

  17. Assessing the Need for an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    4-H livestock projects present disease transmission risks that can be reduced by the use of bio-security practices. The responsibility of teaching bio-security to youth belongs primarily to volunteer leaders, who may not be aware of the importance of these practices. A needs assessment for an online educational module about bio-security revealed…

  18. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  19. Physical Security

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-01

    The future of physical security at government facilities and national laboratories is rapidly progressing beyond the cliché of gates, guns and guards, and is quickly being replaced by radars, sensors and cameras. Learn more about INL's security research at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... mortgaged as security for a loan in accordance with 25 CFR 152.34 and the Act of March 29, 1956 (70 Stat. 62... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the...

  1. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgaged as security for a loan in accordance with 25 CFR 152.34 and the Act of March 29, 1956 (70 Stat. 62... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the...

  2. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... mortgaged as security for a loan in accordance with 25 CFR 152.34 and the Act of March 29, 1956 (70 Stat. 62... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the...

  3. 25 CFR 101.13 - Security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... mortgaged as security for a loan in accordance with 25 CFR 152.34 and the Act of March 29, 1956 (70 Stat. 62... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security. 101.13 Section 101.13 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... § 101.13 Security. (a) United States direct loans shall be secured by such security as the...

  4. Secure Objectives for School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton-Noblitt, April

    2012-01-01

    In a study conducted among more than 980 American four-year and two-year colleges and universities, including institutions such as the University of Michigan, MIT, UCLA and Columbia, security staff and other administrators identified the five leading goals for their security systems: (1) Preventing unauthorized people from entering their…

  5. The Agricultural Job Opportunity Benefits and Security Act of 1999. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Immigration of the Committee on the Judiciary. United States Senate, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Second Session (May 4, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on the Judiciary.

    This publication documents a congressional hearing on the Agricultural Job Opportunity Benefits and Security Act of 1999, which focuses on these three major concerns: the United States (US) is the home of a large and growing number of undocumented agricultural workers; the current H-2A Program is administratively burdensome, does not work well for…

  6. Secure PVM

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, T.H.; Venugopal, N.

    1996-09-01

    This research investigates techniques for providing privacy, authentication, and data integrity to PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine). PVM is extended to provide secure message passing with no changes to the user`s PVM application, or, optionally, security can be provided on a message-by message basis. Diffe-Hellman is used for key distribution of a single session key for n-party communication. Keyed MD5 is used for message authentication, and the user may select from various secret-key encryption algorithms for message privacy. The modifications to PVM are described, and the performance of secure PVM is evaluated.

  7. 31 CFR 344.4 - What are Time Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.4 What are Time Deposit securities? Time...

  8. 31 CFR 344.4 - What are Time Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.4 What are Time Deposit securities? Time...

  9. The Shaping of Managers' Security Objectives through Information Security Awareness Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Information security research states that corporate security policy and information security training should be socio-technical in nature and that corporations should consider training as a primary method of protecting their information systems. However, information security policies and training are predominately technical in nature. In addition,…

  10. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance. PMID:25649459

  11. [Food security in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Urquía-Fernández, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.

  12. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  13. Security in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jesse

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of school library security, software security, and computer security systems. Describes specific products for each type of security system. A sidebar lists names and addresses of security manufacturers and distributors. (AEF)

  14. 78 FR 4393 - Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Applications for New Awards; Minorities and Retirement Security Program... Policy, Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice. Overview Information: Minorities and Retirement... Education (ED or the Department) and the United States Social Security Administration (SSA). The MRS...

  15. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement.

  16. Data security.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    A government-commissioned review of data security across health and care has led to the proposal of new standards for security and options for a consent/opt-out model. Standards include that all staff complete appropriate annual data security training and pass a mandatory test provided through the revised Information Governance Toolkit, that personal confidential data is only accessible to staff who need it for their current role, and that access is removed as soon as it is no longer required. The consent/opt-out model is outlined under 8 statements, and includes certain circumstances where it will not apply, for example, where there is an overriding public interest, or mandatory legal requirement. PMID:27581899

  17. School Security Assessment Programme in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrapodi, John

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a successful security risk management programme in Australia. The state-wide programme follows a structured risk management approach focusing on the safety and security of people, information, provision, and assets in the school environment. To assist school principals, a Security Risk Assessment Programme was developed on a…

  18. Making the Grade with School Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Shows how technology is helping school security directors prevent violence and protect students. One school's use of a state-of-the-art security system involving closed-circuit television, access control for doors, vehicles equipped with global positioning technology, and hand-held computers for security officers is discussed. (GR)

  19. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  20. 15 CFR 742.4 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National security. 742.4 Section 742.4... INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.4 National security. (a) License requirements. It is the policy of the United States...

  1. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  2. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  3. 22 CFR 16.6 - Security clearances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security clearances. 16.6 Section 16.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.6 Security clearances. The agencies shall use their best endeavors to expedite security clearances whenever necessary to ensure a...

  4. Status of the National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of the national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. This report includes an assessment of the current workforce situation. The national security workforce is an important component of national security for our country. With the increase of global threats of terrorism, this workforce is being called upon more frequently. This has resulted in the need for an increasing number of national security personnel. It is imperative to attract and retain a skilled and competitive national security workforce.

  5. Health data security: a new priority.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, B

    1997-09-01

    As more health care information is computerized, concerns about the security of on-line data are growing. Some well-publicized health data security breaches illustrate the potentially devastating impact of confidentiality violations. This package of stories offers and in-depth look at the state of health data security. It includes a "roundtable discussion" by five prominent chief security officers, as well as articles on data encryption, biometrics, legislation and other topics. PMID:10169997

  6. Security system

    DOEpatents

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  7. Security seal

    DOEpatents

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  8. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings. PMID:24781874

  9. Breaking the cyber-security dilemma: aligning security needs and removing vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-09-01

    Current approaches to cyber-security are not working. Rather than producing more security, we seem to be facing less and less. The reason for this is a multi-dimensional and multi-faceted security dilemma that extends beyond the state and its interaction with other states. It will be shown how the focus on the state and "its" security crowds out consideration for the security of the individual citizen, with detrimental effects on the security of the whole system. The threat arising from cyberspace to (national) security is presented as possible disruption to a specific way of life, one building on information technologies and critical functions of infrastructures, with relatively little consideration for humans directly. This non-focus on people makes it easier for state actors to militarize cyber-security and (re-)assert their power in cyberspace, thereby overriding the different security needs of human beings in that space. Paradoxically, the use of cyberspace as a tool for national security, both in the dimension of war fighting and the dimension of mass-surveillance, has detrimental effects on the level of cyber-security globally. A solution out of this dilemma is a cyber-security policy that is decidedly anti-vulnerability and at the same time based on strong considerations for privacy and data protection. Such a security would have to be informed by an ethics of the infosphere that is based on the dignity of information related to human beings.

  10. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  11. Extreme hydrological events and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-06-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.

  12. Statistical security for Social Security.

    PubMed

    Soneji, Samir; King, Gary

    2012-08-01

    The financial viability of Social Security, the single largest U.S. government program, depends on accurate forecasts of the solvency of its intergenerational trust fund. We begin by detailing information necessary for replicating the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) forecasting procedures, which until now has been unavailable in the public domain. We then offer a way to improve the quality of these procedures via age- and sex-specific mortality forecasts. The most recent SSA mortality forecasts were based on the best available technology at the time, which was a combination of linear extrapolation and qualitative judgments. Unfortunately, linear extrapolation excludes known risk factors and is inconsistent with long-standing demographic patterns, such as the smoothness of age profiles. Modern statistical methods typically outperform even the best qualitative judgments in these contexts. We show how to use such methods, enabling researchers to forecast using far more information, such as the known risk factors of smoking and obesity and known demographic patterns. Including this extra information makes a substantial difference. For example, by improving only mortality forecasting methods, we predict three fewer years of net surplus, $730 billion less in Social Security Trust Funds, and program costs that are 0.66% greater for projected taxable payroll by 2031 compared with SSA projections. More important than specific numerical estimates are the advantages of transparency, replicability, reduction of uncertainty, and what may be the resulting lower vulnerability to the politicization of program forecasts. In addition, by offering with this article software and detailed replication information, we hope to marshal the efforts of the research community to include ever more informative inputs and to continue to reduce uncertainties in Social Security forecasts. PMID:22592944

  13. Prepublication Review of Government Employee Speech: A Case Study of the Department of Defense and United States Air Force Security/Policy Review Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warden, Michael L.

    Since 1957 the Department of Defense has subjected all forms of speech of U.S. military personnel meant for publication to prepublication review based on security and policy criteria. The historical development of the Defense Department's prepublication review program and its specific implementation by the U.S. Air Force lead to questions of First…

  14. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 1 - Chicago, Illinois).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the first of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Following the opening statements of Senators John Heinz and Charles H. Percy, testimonies are presented from three…

  15. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    A module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  16. Development and Evaluation of an On-Line Educational Module for Volunteer Leaders on Bio-Security in Washington State 4-H Livestock Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jill L.; Moore, Dale A.; Newman, Jerry; Schmidt, Janet L.; Smith, Sarah M.; Smith, Jean; Kerr, Susan; Wallace, Michael; BoyEs, Pat

    2011-01-01

    An on-line module on disease prevention was created for 4-H volunteer leaders who work with livestock projects in Washington to better prepare them to teach youth about bio-security and its importance in 4-H livestock projects. Evaluation of the module and usage statistics since the module's debut were collected and evaluated. The module increases…

  17. Security on Campus. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, United State Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session. Special Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Appropriations.

    This document presents the transcript of a congressional hearing held before a Senate subcommittee concerning reporting requirements of the Student Right to Know and Campus Security Act of 1990. Among issues addressed is whether the definition of "campus" includes buildings used partially or completely for commercial purposes, sidewalks, and…

  18. Security classification of information

    SciTech Connect

    Quist, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    Certain governmental information must be classified for national security reasons. However, the national security benefits from classifying information are usually accompanied by significant costs -- those due to a citizenry not fully informed on governmental activities, the extra costs of operating classified programs and procuring classified materials (e.g., weapons), the losses to our nation when advances made in classified programs cannot be utilized in unclassified programs. The goal of a classification system should be to clearly identify that information which must be protected for national security reasons and to ensure that information not needing such protection is not classified. This document was prepared to help attain that goal. This document is the first of a planned four-volume work that comprehensively discusses the security classification of information. Volume 1 broadly describes the need for classification, the basis for classification, and the history of classification in the United States from colonial times until World War 2. Classification of information since World War 2, under Executive Orders and the Atomic Energy Acts of 1946 and 1954, is discussed in more detail, with particular emphasis on the classification of atomic energy information. Adverse impacts of classification are also described. Subsequent volumes will discuss classification principles, classification management, and the control of certain unclassified scientific and technical information. 340 refs., 6 tabs.

  19. Securing smart grid technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya Krishna, E.; Kosaleswara Reddy, T.; Reddy, M. YogaTeja; Reddy G. M., Sreerama; Madhusudhan, E.; AlMuhteb, Sulaiman

    2013-03-01

    In the developing countries electrical energy is very important for its all-round improvement by saving thousands of dollars and investing them in other sector for development. For Growing needs of power existing hierarchical, centrally controlled grid of the 20th Century is not sufficient. To produce and utilize effective power supply for industries or people we should have Smarter Electrical grids that address the challenges of the existing power grid. The Smart grid can be considered as a modern electric power grid infrastructure for enhanced efficiency and reliability through automated control, high-power converters, modern communications infrastructure along with modern IT services, sensing and metering technologies, and modern energy management techniques based on the optimization of demand, energy and network availability and so on. The main objective of this paper is to provide a contemporary look at the current state of the art in smart grid communications as well as critical issues on smart grid technologies primarily in terms of information and communication technology (ICT) issues like security, efficiency to communications layer field. In this paper we propose new model for security in Smart Grid Technology that contains Security Module(SM) along with DEM which will enhance security in Grid. It is expected that this paper will provide a better understanding of the technologies, potential advantages and research challenges of the smart grid and provoke interest among the research community to further explore this promising research area.

  20. Nuclear security

    SciTech Connect

    Dingell, J.D.

    1991-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, located in Livermore, California, generates and controls large numbers of classified documents associated with the research and testing of nuclear weapons. Concern has been raised about the potential for espionage at the laboratory and the national security implications of classified documents being stolen. This paper determines the extent of missing classified documents at the laboratory and assesses the adequacy of accountability over classified documents in the laboratory's custody. Audit coverage was limited to the approximately 600,000 secret documents in the laboratory's custody. The adequacy of DOE's oversight of the laboratory's secret document control program was also assessed.

  1. Household Food Security Study Summaries. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seavey, Dorie; Sullivan, Ashley F.

    This report provides the most recent data on the food security of United States households. Based on studies using the Food Security Core Module (FSCM), a tool facilitating direct documentation of the extent of food insecurity and hunger caused by income limitations, this report summarizes 35 studies representing 20 states and Canada. The report…

  2. 75 FR 73947 - Securities of Nonmember Insured Banks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 335 RIN 3064-AD67 Securities of Nonmember Insured Banks AGENCY: Federal Deposit... securities disclosure regulations applicable to state nonmember banks with securities required to be registered under section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). The final rule...

  3. 76 FR 70350 - West Oahu Offshore Security Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 West Oahu Offshore Security Zone AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary security zone... of the United States and his official party. Entry into the temporary security zone established...

  4. 31 CFR 344.7 - What are Demand Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Demand Deposit Securities § 344.7 What are Demand Deposit securities? Demand... in the Federal Register. (b) What happens to Demand Deposit securities during a Debt...

  5. 31 CFR 344.7 - What are Demand Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Demand Deposit Securities § 344.7 What are Demand Deposit securities? Demand... in the Federal Register. (b) What happens to Demand Deposit securities during a Debt...

  6. The Cyber Security Crisis

    ScienceCinema

    Spafford, Eugene [Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States

    2016-07-12

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  7. The Cyber Security Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Spafford, Eugene

    2006-05-10

    Despite considerable activity and attention, the overall state of information security continues to get worse. Attacks are increasing, fraud and theft are rising, and losses may exceed $100 billion per year worldwide. Many factors contribute to this, including misplaced incentives for industry, a lack of attention by government, ineffective law enforcement, and an uninformed image of who the perpetrators really are. As a result, many of the intended attempts at solutions are of limited (if any) overall effectiveness. This presentation will illustrate some key aspects of the cyber security problem and its magnitude, as well as provide some insight into causes and enabling factors. The talk will conclude with some observations on how the computing community can help improve the situation, as well as some suggestions for 'cyber self-defense.'

  8. Perimeter security for Minnesota correctional facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, D.; Spencer, D.D.

    1996-12-31

    For the past few years, the Minnesota Department of Corrections, assisted by Sandia National Laboratories, has developed a set of standards for perimeter security at medium, close, and maximum custody correctional facilities in the state. During this process, the threat to perimeter security was examined and concepts about correctional perimeter security were developed. This presentation and paper will review the outcomes of this effort, some of the lessons learned, and the concepts developed during this process and in the course of working with architects, engineers and construction firms as the state upgraded perimeter security at some facilities and planned new construction at other facilities.

  9. 75 FR 65550 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on November 16, 17, and 18 at the U... security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and...

  10. 76 FR 4987 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on February 23 and 24. Pursuant to... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve...

  11. 78 FR 64260 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on November 19, 20, and 21, 2013... meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will...

  12. 78 FR 25521 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (Osac) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Security Advisory Council (Osac) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on June 4 and 5, 2013. Pursuant to... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve...

  13. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements

  14. Secure Quantum Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Mehul

    Over the past three decades, quantum mechanics has allowed the development of technologies that provide unconditionally secure communication. In parallel, the quantum nature of the transverse electromagnetic field has spawned the field of quantum imaging that encompasses technologies such as quantum lithography, quantum ghost imaging, and high-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD). The emergence of such quantum technologies also highlights the need for the development of accurate and efficient methods of measuring and characterizing the elusive quantum state itself. In this thesis, I present new technologies that use the quantum properties of light for security. The first of these is a technique that extends the principles behind QKD to the field of imaging and optical ranging. By applying the polarization-based BB84 protocol to individual photons in an active imaging system, we obtained images that were secure against any intercept-resend jamming attacks. The second technology presented in this thesis is based on an extension of quantum ghost imaging, a technique that uses position-momentum entangled photons to create an image of an object without directly gaining any spatial information from it. We used a holographic filtering technique to build a quantum ghost image identification system that uses a few pairs of photons to identify an object from a set of known objects. The third technology addressed in this thesis is a high-dimensional QKD system that uses orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) modes of light for encoding. Moving to a high-dimensional state space in QKD allows one to impress more information on each photon, as well as introduce higher levels of security. I discuss the development of two OAM-QKD protocols based on the BB84 and Ekert protocols of QKD. In addition, I present a study characterizing the effects of turbulence on a communication system using OAM modes for encoding. The fourth and final technology presented in this thesis is a relatively

  15. Computer security engineering management

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    For best results, computer security should be engineered into a system during its development rather than being appended later on. This paper addresses the implementation of computer security in eight stages through the life cycle of the system; starting with the definition of security policies and ending with continuing support for the security aspects of the system throughout its operational life cycle. Security policy is addressed relative to successive decomposition of security objectives (through policy, standard, and control stages) into system security requirements. This is followed by a discussion of computer security organization and responsibilities. Next the paper directs itself to analysis and management of security-related risks, followed by discussion of design and development of the system itself. Discussion of security test and evaluation preparations, and approval to operate (certification and accreditation), is followed by discussion of computer security training for users is followed by coverage of life cycle support for the security of the system.

  16. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index What Can I Bring? Search form Apples Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  17. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    PubMed

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight.

  18. Homeland security planning: what victory gardens and Fidel Castro can teach us in preparing for food crises in the United States.

    PubMed

    Endres, A Bryan; Endres, Jody M

    2009-01-01

    Two historical examples provide important insight into how federal government policies can integrate regional and local food systems to achieve food security during a time of acute crisis. During World War II, American home gardeners, through the federal government's Victory Garden program, supplied 40 percent of the nation's fresh produce, while simultaneously maintaining pre-war commodity production policies favoring large agricultural interests. The recent food crisis in Cuba, precipitated by the collapse of Soviet-bloc trade in the early 1990s, is another historical example that could inform U.S. policymakers on how to achieve food self-sufficiency through reemphasis on small farmers using sustainable practices supplemented with urban gardening. This article aims to ignite government action to strengthen and integrate regional and local food systems into federal food security planning so that citizens can be best prepared for a food emergency. The article first examines laws, regulations and policies put in place during World War II that employed regional and local food networks to satisfy a significant amount of civilian food supply needs. The article also looks at more recent Cuban efforts to achieve forced food self-reliance when, after the end of the Cold War, Soviet subsidies and preferential trading of energy and food supplies ceased almost overnight. PMID:19999291

  19. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This security guide of the Department of Energy covers contractor and subcontractor access to DOE and Mound facilities. The topics of the security guide include responsibilities, physical barriers, personnel identification system, personnel and vehicular access controls, classified document control, protecting classified matter in use, storing classified matter repository combinations, violations, security education clearance terminations, security infractions, classified information nondisclosure agreement, personnel security clearances, visitor control, travel to communist-controlled or sensitive countries, shipment security, and surreptitious listening devices.

  20. 76 FR 69798 - Survey of U.S. Ownership of Foreign Securities as of December 31, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... government (including a foreign government, the United States Government, a State or local government, and... securities, including equities, long-term debt securities, and short-term debt securities (including...

  1. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services.

  2. Redefining security.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J T

    1989-01-01

    The concept of US national security was redefined in the 1970s to include international economics, and lately environmental degradation has also become a factor, as pollution transcends boundaries. By 2100 another 5-6 billion people may be added to the world's population requiring dramatic production and technology transformation with the resultant expanded energy use, emissions, and waste impacting the ecosystem. Climate change through global warming is in the offing. The exponential growth of the population in the developing world poses a crucial challenge for food production, housing, and employment. At a 1% growth rate population doubles in 72 years, while at 3% it doubles in 24 years. Africa's growth rate is almost 3%, it is close to 2% in Latin America, and it is somewhat less in Asia. Renewable resources such as overfished fishing grounds can become nonrenewable, and vanished species can never be resurrected. Deforestation leads to soil erosion, damage to water resources through floods and silting of irrigation networks, and accelerated loss of species. 20% of species could disappear by 2000 thereby losing genetic resources for chemicals, drugs, and food sources. Overcultivation has caused major erosion and decline of agricultural productivity in Haiti, Guatemala, Turkey, and India. Lopsided land ownership in Latin America requires land reform for sustainable agricultural production in the face of the majority of people cultivating plots for bare subsistence. Human practices that have caused environmental damage include concessions granted to logging companies in the Philippines, mismanagement of natural resources in sub-Saharan Africa, the ozone hole, and the greenhouse effect with potential climate changes. Solutions include family planning, efficient energy use, sustainable agroforestry techniques, and environmental accounting of goods and services. PMID:12343986

  3. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.C.

    1993-06-01

    This guide is provided to aid in the achievement of security objectives in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program. The objectives of security are to protect information that, if released, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation and to safeguard plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors to prevent the interruption of research and production programs. The security objective and means of achieving the objective are described. Specific security measures discussed in this guide include physical barriers, personnel identification systems, personnel and vehicular access control, classified document control, protection of classified matter in use, storing classified matter, and repository combinations. Means of dealing with security violations and security infractions are described. Maintenance of a security education program is discussed. Also discussed are methods of handling clearance terminations, visitor control, travel to sensitive countries, and shipment security. The Technical Surveillance Countermeasures Program (TSCM), the Computer Security Program, and the Operations Security Plan (OPSEC) are examined.

  4. New initiatives in materials security

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia, G.; Jones, Ph.D.

    2008-07-01

    Security Measures (61 Orders issued 1/04, Inspections done); Transportation of Radioactive Material Quantities of Concern (167 Orders Issued 07/05, Inspections done); Orders for Increased Control Measures for other types of sources by categories of licenses (1,098 NRC Orders and 1782 binding State requirements issued by 12/05, Implemented 06/06, Inspections done by NRC and States). Security Inspection Results: All first year Increased Control inspections completed; NRC Information Notice (IN) 2007-16 issued May 2007; Since IN 2007-16 was issued, {approx}50% of the NRC inspections performed resulted in violations; Licensees misinterpreted or incompletely implemented requirements; Common theme: failure to properly document actions or programs when implementing the Increased Controls. Energy Policy Act of 2005: Established Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force: cooperative effort with 14 Federal agencies, 2 State organizations; Comprehensive analysis of the security of radiation sources in the U.S.; Directed NRC to contract with National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study on radiation source use and replacement; Report to the President and Congress issued 8/06 and every 4 years thereafter. Radiation Source Protection and Security Task Force: Need higher priority on international transport security; Evaluate feasibility of using new and existing technologies to detect and discourage theft during transport; Conduct a feasibility study on the possible phase out of CsCl in highly dispersible forms; Further evaluate potential alternative technologies; Expedite completion of fingerprint requirements in Act. National Source Tracking System: Joint NRC/DOE 2003 report on Radiological Dispersal Devices recommended development of a national source tracking system; IAEA Code of Conduct recommended establishment of a national registry; U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 placed requirements for NRC to issue regulations establishing a mandatory tracking system. New

  5. From Secure Memories to Smart Card Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handschuh, Helena; Trichina, Elena

    Non-volatile memory is essential in most embedded security applications. It will store the key and other sensitive materials for cryptographic and security applications. In this chapter, first an overview is given of current flash memory architectures. Next the standard security features which form the basis of so-called secure memories are described in more detail. Smart cards are a typical embedded application that is very vulnerable to attacks and that at the same time has a high need for secure non-volatile memory. In the next part of this chapter, the secure memories of so-called flash-based high-density smart cards are described. It is followed by a detailed analysis of what the new security challenges for such objects are.

  6. Cyber Security--Are You Prepared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Scott

    2007-01-01

    During the summer 2002 term, Oklahoma State University-Okmulgee's Information Technologies Division offered a one credit-hour network security course--which barely had adequate student interest to meet the institution's enrollment requirements. Today, OSU-Okmulgee boasts one of the nation's premier cyber security programs. Many prospective…

  7. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT Hazardous... ``Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Program'' on October 29, 2008. See 73 FR 64280. The ANPRM solicited... interacting with state and local governments regarding ammonium nitrate security. ] See 73 FR 64280,...

  8. Building Security into Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosar, John E.; Ahmed, Faruq

    2000-01-01

    Offers tips for redesigning safer school sites; installing and implementing security technologies (closed-circuit television cameras, door security hardware, electronic security panels, identification cards, metal detectors, and panic buttons); educating students and staff about security functions; and minimizing costs via a comprehensive campus…

  9. Unix Security Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehan, S. C.

    This document has been written to help Site Managers secure their Unix hosts from being compromised by hackers. I have given brief introductions to the security tools along with downloading, configuring and running information. I have also included a section on my recommendations for installing these security tools starting from an absolute minimum security requirement.

  10. School Security Roundtable, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    A roundtable discussion is presented revealing what experts say about school security problems and how they are being addressed. Also included are trend data from the School Security 2000 survey revealing top security concerns, strategies, and security equipment preferences; how site surveys can be used to keep schools safe; and how creating a…

  11. Chapter 3: Energy Security

    SciTech Connect

    Foust, Thomas D.; Arent, Doug; de Carvalho Macedo, Isaias; Goldemberg, Jose; Hoysala, Chanakya; Filho, Rubens Maciel; Nigro, Francisco E. B.; Richard, Tom L.; Saddler, Jack; Samseth, Jon; Somerville, Chris R.

    2015-04-01

    This chapter considers the energy security implications and impacts of bioenergy. We provide an assessment to answer the following questions: What are the implications for bioenergy and energy security within the broader policy environment that includes food and water security, development, economic productivity, and multiple foreign policy aspects? What are the conditions under which bioenergy contributes positively to energy security?

  12. Security guide for subcontractors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of security in the Department of Energy (DOE) contractor/subcontractor program are: (1) to ensure the protection of information which, if related, would endanger the common defense and security of the nation; and (2) to safeguard the plants and installations of the DOE and its contractors in order that research and production programs will not be interrupted. To achieve these objectives, security responsibilities have been divided into three interdependent categories: personnel security, physical security, and security education and quality audits. This guide presents instructions for implementing a security program at a contractor/subcontractor site.

  13. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  14. Comparison of computing capability and information system abilities of state hospitals owned by Ministry of Labor and Social Security and Ministry of Health.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoğlu, Dilaver; Celik, Yusuf; Ulgü, Mahir

    2006-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to give an idea to the readers about how big and important the computing and information problems that hospital managers as well as policy makers will face with after collecting the Ministry of Labor and Social Security (MoLSS) and Ministry of Health (MoH) hospitals under single structure in Turkey by comparing the current level of computing capability of hospitals owned by two ministries. The data used in this study were obtained from 729 hospitals that belong to both ministries by using a data collection tool. The results indicate that there have been considerable differences among the hospitals owned by the two ministries in terms of human resources and information systems. The hospital managers and decision makers making their decisions based on the data produced by current hospital information system (HIS) would more likely face very important difficulties after merging MoH and MoLSS hospitals in Turkey. It is also possible to claim that the level and adequacy of computing abilities and devices do not allow the managers of public hospitals to use computer technology effectively in their information management practices. Lack of technical information, undeveloped information culture, inappropriate management styles, and being inexperienced are the main reasons of why HIS does not run properly and effectively in Turkish hospitals. PMID:16978006

  15. Life Expectancy Among U.S.-born and Foreign-born Older Adults in the United States: Estimates From Linked Social Security and Medicare Data.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil K; Elo, Irma T; Engelman, Michal; Lauderdale, Diane S; Kestenbaum, Bert M

    2016-08-01

    In recent decades, the geographic origins of America's foreign-born population have become increasingly diverse. The sending countries of the U.S. foreign-born vary substantially in levels of health and economic development, and immigrants have arrived with distinct distributions of socioeconomic status, visa type, year of immigration, and age at immigration. We use high-quality linked Social Security and Medicare records to estimate life tables for the older U.S. population over the full range of birth regions. In 2000-2009, the foreign-born had a 2.4-year advantage in life expectancy at age 65 relative to the U.S.-born, with Asian-born subgroups displaying exceptionally high longevity. Foreign-born individuals who migrated more recently had lower mortality compared with those who migrated earlier. Nonetheless, we also find remarkable similarities in life expectancy among many foreign-born subgroups that were born in very different geographic and socioeconomic contexts (e.g., Central America, western/eastern Europe, and Africa). PMID:27383845

  16. Predictive Dynamic Security Assessment through Advanced Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu

    2014-11-30

    Abstract— Traditional dynamic security assessment is limited by several factors and thus falls short in providing real-time information to be predictive for power system operation. These factors include the steady-state assumption of current operating points, static transfer limits, and low computational speed. This addresses these factors and frames predictive dynamic security assessment. The primary objective of predictive dynamic security assessment is to enhance the functionality and computational process of dynamic security assessment through the use of high-speed phasor measurements and the application of advanced computing technologies for faster-than-real-time simulation. This paper presents algorithms, computing platforms, and simulation frameworks that constitute the predictive dynamic security assessment capability. Examples of phasor application and fast computation for dynamic security assessment are included to demonstrate the feasibility and speed enhancement for real-time applications.

  17. 50 CFR 600.240 - Security assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.240 Security... purposes, the agency or individual (e.g., Department of State, U.S. Coast Guard) providing such...

  18. Climate-derived tensions in Arctic security.

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, George A.; Strickland, James Hassler

    2008-09-01

    Globally, there is no lack of security threats. Many of them demand priority engagement and there can never be adequate resources to address all threats. In this context, climate is just another aspect of global security and the Arctic just another region. In light of physical and budgetary constraints, new security needs must be integrated and prioritized with existing ones. This discussion approaches the security impacts of climate from that perspective, starting with the broad security picture and establishing how climate may affect it. This method provides a different view from one that starts with climate and projects it, in isolation, as the source of a hypothetical security burden. That said, the Arctic does appear to present high-priority security challenges. Uncertainty in the timing of an ice-free Arctic affects how quickly it will become a security priority. Uncertainty in the emergent extreme and variable weather conditions will determine the difficulty (cost) of maintaining adequate security (order) in the area. The resolution of sovereignty boundaries affects the ability to enforce security measures, and the U.S. will most probably need a military presence to back-up negotiated sovereignty agreements. Without additional global warming, technology already allows the Arctic to become a strategic link in the global supply chain, possibly with northern Russia as its main hub. Additionally, the multinational corporations reaping the economic bounty may affect security tensions more than nation-states themselves. Countries will depend ever more heavily on the global supply chains. China has particular needs to protect its trade flows. In matters of security, nation-state and multinational-corporate interests will become heavily intertwined.

  19. S. 2166: A bill to reduce the Nation's dependence on imported oil, to provide for the energy security of the Nation, and for other purposes, introduced in the United States Senate, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session, January 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This bill, also referred to as the National Energy Security Act of 1992, contains the following: Title I - Findings and purposes: Goals, least-cost energy strategy, and Director of climate protection: Title II - Definitions; Title III (none); Title IV - Fleets and alternative fuels: Alternative fuel fleets, Electric and electric-hybrid vehicle demonstration, infrastructure development, and conforming amendments, Alternative fuels, Mass transit and training; Title V - Renewable energy: CORECT and COEECT, Renewable energy initiatives, Hydropower; Title VI - Energy efficiency: Industrial, commercial, and residential, Federal energy management, Utilities, State, local, insular, and tribal energy assistance, LIHEAP options pilot program; Title VII (none); Title VIII - Advanced nuclear reactor commercialization; Title IX - Nuclear reactor licensing; Title X - Uranium: Uranium enrichment, Uranium; Title XI - Natural gas; Title XII - Outer continental shelf; Title XIII - Research, development, demonstration and commercialization activities; Title XIV - Coal, coal technology, and electricity; Title XV - Public Utility Holding Company Act reform; Title XVI - Strategic Petroleum Reserve.

  20. ASSESSING THE SECURITY OF ECOLOGICAL POPULATIONS WITH REGARDS T0 TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND HABITATE THREATS ACROSS THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Southeastern United States is one of the most biologically diverse regions of the country and is home to significant numbers of threatened and endangered species. It is also one of the fastest growing regions in terms of human population, urban development, and the associated...

  1. 22 CFR 41.2 - Exemption or waiver by Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security of passport and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid FAST card at a land or sea port-of-entry prior to entering the... CFR 212.1. A passport is required for Canadian citizens applying for admission to the United States... visa as provided in paragraphs (k) and (m) of this section and 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid...

  2. 22 CFR 41.2 - Exemption or waiver by Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security of passport and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid FAST card at a land or sea port-of-entry prior to entering the... CFR 212.1. A passport is required for Canadian citizens applying for admission to the United States... visa as provided in paragraphs (k) and (m) of this section and 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid...

  3. 22 CFR 41.2 - Exemption or waiver by Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security of passport and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid FAST card at a land or sea port-of-entry prior to entering the... CFR 212.1. A passport is required for Canadian citizens applying for admission to the United States... visa as provided in paragraphs (k) and (m) of this section and 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid...

  4. 22 CFR 41.2 - Exemption or waiver by Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security of passport and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid FAST card at a land or sea port-of-entry prior to entering the... CFR 212.1. A passport is required for Canadian citizens applying for admission to the United States... visa as provided in paragraphs (k) and (m) of this section and 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid...

  5. 22 CFR 41.2 - Exemption or waiver by Secretary of State and Secretary of Homeland Security of passport and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid FAST card at a land or sea port-of-entry prior to entering the... CFR 212.1. A passport is required for Canadian citizens applying for admission to the United States... visa as provided in paragraphs (k) and (m) of this section and 8 CFR 212.1, may present a valid...

  6. Contributions of Dr. George Washington Carver to global food security: historical reflections of Dr. Carver’s fungal plant disease survey in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. George Washington Carver was a world renowned scientist whose research in the agricultural sciences in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s was critical for improving the living standards of American farmers especially in the southern United States. Although best known for developing the many uses o...

  7. Role of environmental geology in US Department of Energy's advanced research and development programs to promote energy security in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. E.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the research programs and program activities of the US Department of Energy (DOE) that most directly relate to topics in the field of environmental geology. In this light, the mission of the DOE and the definition of environmental geology will be discussed. In a broad sense, environmental geology is that branch of earth science that emphasizes the entire spectrum of human interactions with the physical environment that include environmental health, mineral exploration and exploitation, waste management, energy use and conservation, global change, environmental law, natural and man-made hazard assessment, and land-use planning. A large number of research, development, and demonstration programs are under DOE's administration and guidance that directly or indirectly relate to topics in environmental geology. The primary mission of the DOE is to contribute to the welfare of the nation by providing the scientific foundation, technology, policy, and institutional leadership necessary to achieve efficiency in energy use, diversity in energy sources, a more productive and competitive economy, improved environmental quality, and a secure national defense. The research and development funding effort has most recently been redirected toward greater utilization of clean fossil fuels, especially natural gas, weatherization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, fusion energy, and high-energy physics. This paper will summarize the role that environmental geology has played and will continue to play in the execution of DOE's mission and the energy options that DOE has investigated closely. The specific options are those that center around energy choices, such as alternative-fueled transportation, building technologies, energy-efficient lighting, and clean energy.

  8. An evaluation index system of water security in China based on macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X. S.; Peng, Z. Y.; Li, T. T.

    2016-08-01

    This paper establishes an evaluation index system of water security. The index system employs 5 subsystems (water circulation security, water environment security, water ecology security, water society security and water economy security) and has 39 indicators. Using the AHP method, each indicator is given a relative weight to integrate within the whole system. With macroeconomic data from 2000 to 2012, a model of water security evaluation is applied to assess the state of water security in China. The results show an improving trend in the overall state of China's water security. In particular, the cycle of water security is at a high and low fluctuation. Water environment security presents an upward trend on the whole; however, this trend is unsteady and has shown a descending tendency in some years. Yet, water ecology security, water society security, and water economy security are basically on the rise. However, the degree of coordination of China's water security system remains in need of consolidation.

  9. Climate Change and National Security

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2013-02-01

    Climate change is increasingly recognized as having national security implications, which has prompted dialogue between the climate change and national security communities – with resultant advantages and differences. Climate change research has proven useful to the national security community sponsors in several ways. It has opened security discussions to consider climate as well as political factors in studies of the future. It has encouraged factoring in the stresses placed on societies by climate changes (of any kind) to help assess the potential for state stability. And it has shown that, changes such as increased heat, more intense storms, longer periods without rain, and earlier spring onset call for building climate resilience as part of building stability. For the climate change research community, studies from a national security point of view have revealed research lacunae, for example, such as the lack of usable migration studies. This has also pushed the research community to consider second- and third-order impacts of climate change, such as migration and state stability, which broadens discussion of future impacts beyond temperature increases, severe storms, and sea level rise; and affirms the importance of governance in responding to these changes. The increasing emphasis in climate change science toward research in vulnerability, resilience, and adaptation also frames what the intelligence and defense communities need to know, including where there are dependencies and weaknesses that may allow climate change impacts to result in security threats and where social and economic interventions can prevent climate change impacts and other stressors from resulting in social and political instability or collapse.

  10. Security-by-design handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Scharmer, Carol; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Tanuma, Koji; Ochiai, Kazuya; Iida, Toru

    2013-01-01

    This document is a draft SecuritybyDesign (SeBD) handbook produced to support the Work Plan of the Nuclear Security Summit to share best practices for nuclear security in new facility design. The Work Plan calls on States to %E2%80%9Cencourage nuclear operators and architect/engineering firms to take into account and incorporate, where appropriate, effective measures of physical protection and security culture into the planning, construction, and operation of civilian nuclear facilities and provide technical assistance, upon request, to other States in doing so.%E2%80%9D The materials for this document were generated primarily as part of a bilateral project to produce a SeBD handbook as a collaboration between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), which represented the US Department Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under a Project Action Sheet PASPP04. Input was also derived based on tours of the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) Rokkasho Mixed Oxide Fuel fabrication facilities and associated project lessonslearned. For the purposes of the handbook, SeBD will be described as the systemlevel incorporation of the physical protection system (PPS) into a new nuclear power plant or nuclear facility resulting in a PPS design that minimizes the risk of malicious acts leading to nuclear material theft; nuclear material sabotage; and facility sabotage as much as possible through features inherent in (or intrinsic to) the design of the facility. A fourelement strategy is presented to achieve a robust, durable, and responsive security system.

  11. 76 FR 26334 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive... committee reports, a global threat overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  12. 75 FR 70814 - Securities Held in Treasury Direct

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Fiscal Service 31 CFR Part 363 Securities Held in Treasury Direct AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt...: Elisha Whipkey, Director, Division of Program Administration, Office of Retail Securities, Bureau of the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: United States Savings Bonds are non- marketable Treasury securities which have...

  13. 78 FR 19277 - National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2008 issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: Any background information or presentations... SECURITY Coast Guard National Maritime Security Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: United States Coast... published a notice of meeting for the National Maritime Security Advisory Committee (NMSAC) in the...

  14. 49 CFR 659.23 - System security plan: contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false System security plan: contents. 659.23 Section 659.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT... State Oversight Agency § 659.23 System security plan: contents. The system security plan must, at...

  15. Digital security technology simplified.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Bernard J

    2007-01-01

    Digital security technology is making great strides in replacing analog and other traditional security systems including CCTV card access, personal identification and alarm monitoring applications. Like any new technology, the author says, it is important to understand its benefits and limitations before purchasing and installing, to ensure its proper operation and effectiveness. This article is a primer for security directors on how digital technology works. It provides an understanding of the key components which make up the foundation for digital security systems, focusing on three key aspects of the digital security world: the security network, IP cameras and IP recorders.

  16. Fifty Years of Social Security: Past Achievements and Future Challenges. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document contains six essays examining the history and impact of the social security program on America's economic and social development. "Social Security: The Cornerstone of American Social Welfare Policy," by Malcolm H. Morrison, presents brief background information on the system and discusses the basic principles of social security. The…

  17. To deny admission to the United States to any representative to the United Nations who has engaged in espionage activities against the United States, poses a threat to United States national security interests, or has engaged in a terrorist activity against the United States.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Lamborn, Doug [R-CO-5

    2014-04-01

    04/16/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration and Border Security. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.2195, which became Public Law 113-100 on 4/18/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Restricted access processor - An application of computer security technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a security guard device that is currently being developed by Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The methods used to provide assurance that the system meets its security requirements include the system architecture, a system security evaluation, and the application of formal and informal verification techniques. The combination of state-of-the-art technology and the incorporation of new verification procedures results in a demonstration of the feasibility of computer security technology for operational applications.

  19. 12 CFR 987.4 - Creation of Participant's Security Entitlement; security interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; security interests. 987.4 Section 987.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE... Bank is a party, governing the security interest. (c)(1) The Banks, the Finance Board, the Office of Finance, the United States and the Federal Reserve Banks have no obligation to agree to act on behalf...

  20. Security system signal supervision

    SciTech Connect

    Chritton, M.R. ); Matter, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    This purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees for understanding and applying line supervision techniques to security communication links. A review of security communication links is followed by detailed discussions of link physical protection and DC/AC static supervision and dynamic supervision techniques. Material is also presented on security for atmospheric transmission and video line supervision. A glossary of security communication line supervision terms is appended. 16 figs.

  1. Security: Progress and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luker, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    The Homepage column in the March/April 2003 issue of "EDUCAUSE Review" explained the national implication of security vulnerabilities in higher education and the role of the EDUCAUSE/Internet2 Computer and Network Security Task Force in representing the higher education sector in the development of the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace. Among…

  2. School Violence: Physical Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    This booklet provides an overview of security technology product areas that might be appropriate and affordable for school applications. Topics cover security concepts and operational issues; security issues when designing for new schools; the role of maintenance; video camera use; walk-through metal detectors; duress alarm devices; and a partial…

  3. Selecting Security Technology Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2009-01-01

    The world of security technology holds great promise, but it is fraught with opportunities for expensive missteps and misapplications. The quality of the security technology consultants and system integrators one uses will have a direct bearing on how well his school masters this complex subject. Security technology consultants help determine…

  4. Homeland Security and Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the development of two similar policy concepts, national security and internal security, before exploring the new phrase homeland security that has become popular since the September 11 terrorist attacks. Discusses the significance of each for information policy and practice. (Author/LRW)

  5. Filling a Security Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks and Recreation, 1978

    1978-01-01

    A new type of public facility security system, utilizing a radio system and voice logging recorder, has effectively improved security at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. The system monitors security operations, provides a reliable record in the case of conflicting claims, and accurately pinpoints the time of events. (DS)

  6. Addressing Global Warming, Air Pollution, Energy Security, and Jobs with Roadmaps for Changing the All-Purpose Energy Infrastructure of the 50 United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of the 50 United States to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, industry, and heating/cooling, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. The plans call for all new energy to be WWS by 2020, ~80% conversion of existing energy by 2030, and 100% by 2050 through aggressive policy measures and natural transition. Resource availability, footprint and spacing areas required, jobs created versus lost, energy costs, avoided costs from air pollution mortality and morbidity and climate damage, and methods of ensuring reliability of the grid are discussed. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html

  7. Challenges and Responses to Asian Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, Paul P. S.; Oliveros, Jurise A. P.

    2015-10-01

    Food security is a complex phenomenon made up of multiple dimensions — food availability, physical access to food, economic access to food, food utilization — each of which has a stability dimension which underpins it. This review provides details on these dimensions and links them to two published indices which provide assessments of the state of food security in a country. The paper further provides analyses of the main supply and demand factors in the food security equation. Food security faces natural and anthropogenic threats such as loss of productive land and water, climate change and declining crop productivity, all of which are potentially amenable to solutions provided by science and technology. Demographic and accompanying diet changes further exacerbate the demands made on the natural resource base for food production. Finally, possible responses to the challenges confronting a secured food future are discussed from technological, policy and system level perspectives.

  8. Secure Transportation Management

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-10-15

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  9. Information Security Management (ISM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šalgovičová, Jarmila; Prajová, Vanessa

    2012-12-01

    Currently, all organizations have to tackle the issue of information security. The paper deals with various aspects of Information Security Management (ISM), including procedures, processes, organizational structures, policies and control processes. Introduction of Information Security Management should be a strategic decision. The concept and implementation of Information Security Management in an organization are determined by the corporate needs and objectives, security requirements, the processes deployed as well as the size and structure of the organization. The implementation of ISM should be carried out to the extent consistent with the needs of the organization.

  10. Secure communications using quantum cryptography

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.J.; Buttler, W.T.; Kwiat, P.G.

    1997-08-01

    The secure distribution of the secret random bit sequences known as {open_quotes}key{close_quotes} material, is an essential precursor to their use for the encryption and decryption of confidential communications. Quantum cryptography is an emerging technology for secure key distribution with single-photon transmissions, nor evade detection (eavesdropping raises the key error rate above a threshold value). We have developed experimental quantum cryptography systems based on the transmission of non-orthogonal single-photon states to generate shared key material over multi-kilometer optical fiber paths and over line-of-sight links. In both cases, key material is built up using the transmission of a single-photon per bit of an initial secret random sequence. A quantum-mechanically random subset of this sequence is identified, becoming the key material after a data reconciliation stage with the sender. In our optical fiber experiment we have performed quantum key distribution over 24-km of underground optical fiber using single-photon interference states, demonstrating that secure, real-time key generation over {open_quotes}open{close_quotes} multi-km node-to-node optical fiber communications links is possible. We have also constructed a quantum key distribution system for free-space, line-of-sight transmission using single-photon polarization states, which is currently undergoing laboratory testing. 7 figs.

  11. Computer Security Systems Enable Access.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggen, Gary

    1989-01-01

    A good security system enables access and protects information from damage or tampering, but the most important aspects of a security system aren't technical. A security procedures manual addresses the human element of computer security. (MLW)

  12. Balancing Security and Learning. School Security Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses ways to provide vital safety to schools without inhibiting the learning environment for students. Describes security efforts at Orange County, Florida schools, such as using video cameras, school police officers, and access-control systems. (EV)

  13. Securing collaborative environments

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Deborah; Jackson, Keith; Thompson, Mary

    2002-05-16

    The diverse set of organizations and software components involved in a typical collaboratory make providing a seamless security solution difficult. In addition, the users need support for a broad range of frequency and locations for access to the collaboratory. A collaboratory security solution needs to be robust enough to ensure that valid participants are not denied access because of its failure. There are many tools that can be applied to the task of securing collaborative environments and these include public key infrastructure, secure sockets layer, Kerberos, virtual and real private networks, grid security infrastructure, and username/password. A combination of these mechanisms can provide effective secure collaboration capabilities. In this paper, we discuss the requirements of typical collaboratories and some proposals for applying various security mechanisms to collaborative environments.

  14. Efficient Controlled Quantum Secure Direct Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Siddharth; Moulick, Subhayan Roy; Panigrahi, Prasanta K.

    2016-07-01

    We study controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC), a cryptographic scheme where a sender can send a secret bit-string to an intended recipient, without any secure classical channel, who can obtain the complete bit-string only with the permission of a controller. We report an efficient protocol to realize CQSDC using Cluster state and then go on to construct a (2-3)-CQSDC using Brown state, where a coalition of any two of the three controllers is required to retrieve the complete message. We argue both protocols to be unconditionally secure and analyze the efficiency of the protocols to show it to outperform the existing schemes while maintaining the same security specifications.

  15. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  16. Secure quantum communication using classical correlated channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D.; de Almeida, N. G.; Villas-Boas, C. J.

    2016-10-01

    We propose a secure protocol to send quantum information from one part to another without a quantum channel. In our protocol, which resembles quantum teleportation, a sender (Alice) and a receiver (Bob) share classical correlated states instead of EPR ones, with Alice performing measurements in two different bases and then communicating her results to Bob through a classical channel. Our secure quantum communication protocol requires the same amount of classical bits as the standard quantum teleportation protocol. In our scheme, as in the usual quantum teleportation protocol, once the classical channel is established in a secure way, a spy (Eve) will never be able to recover the information of the unknown quantum state, even if she is aware of Alice's measurement results. Security, advantages, and limitations of our protocol are discussed and compared with the standard quantum teleportation protocol.

  17. It's a national security policy, stupid

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1993-09-01

    This article discusses the first few national security decisions of the Clinton administration. The first decision was to have the United States continue to honor the nuclear testing moratorium through September, 1994 (or until another nation tested first). The second decision of the Clinton administration was the independence of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) from the State Department. The third decision was to formally denounce the Reagan Administration's interpretation of the US/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty. The issue of the financing of United States involvement in Somalia was also addressed. The implications of these policy decisions as related to national security are evaluated in this article.

  18. Security improvements for rail movements of SNM

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.R.; Gronager, J.E.; Shemigon, N.N.

    1998-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Russian Special Scientific and Production State Enterprise Eleron have teamed to lead a project to enhance the overall security of Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (MINATOM) transportation of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) shipments. The effort is called the Railcar Transportation Security Project and is part of the overall DOE Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A) program addressing the enhancement of nuclear material control, accounting, and physical protection for Russian SNM. The goal of this MPC and A project is to significantly increase the security of Russian MINATOM highly enriched SNM rail shipments. To accomplish this, the MPC and A Railcar Transportation Security program will provide an enhanced, yet cost effective, railcar transportation security system. The system incorporates a balance between the traditional detection, communications, delay, and response security elements to significantly improve the security of MINATOM SNM shipments. The strategy of this program is to use rapid upgrades to implement mature security technologies as quickly as possible. The rapid upgrades emphasize rapidly deployable delay elements, enhanced radio communications, and intrusion detection and surveillance. Upgraded railcars have begun operation during FY98. Subsequent upgrades will build upon the rapid upgrades and eventually be integrated into a final deployed system configuration. This paper provides an overview of the program, with a summary of performance of the deployed railcars.

  19. Formal policies for flexible EHR security.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd; Pharow, Peter

    2006-01-01

    State of the Art methodologies for establishing requirements and solutions to securing applications are based on narrative descriptions about the use of available system, sometimes also dedicated to system components. Even nowadays new developments to ruling application security services by the use of predicate logic suffer from being administered manually. Therefore, security and privacy requirements cannot be properly met resulting in restrictions and fears for allowing the use of sensitive data and functions. Because of the sensitivity of personal health information and especially of genetic data with its wider implications beyond the original subject of care, weaknesses in guaranteeing fine-grained security and privacy rules lead to less acceptance or even the avoidance of essential information transfer and use. To overcome the problem, security and privacy have to become properties of the architectural components of the respective health information system. Embedding security into the systems architecture allows for negotiating and enforcing any security and privacy services related to principals, their roles, their relationships, further contextual information as well as other regulations summarized in formally modeled policies. The paper introduces the evolving paradigm of the model-driven architecture, first time also comprehensively deployed for security and privacy services in bio-genetic and health information systems.

  20. What is Security? A perspective on achieving security

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-05

    This presentation provides a perspective on achieving security in an organization. It touches upon security as a mindset, ability to adhere to rules, cultivating awareness of the reason for a security mindset, the quality of a security program, willingness to admit fault or acknowledge failure, peer review in security, science as a model that can be applied to the security profession, the security vision, security partnering, staleness in the security program, security responsibilities, and achievement of success over time despite the impossibility of perfection.

  1. PACS image security server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Fei; Huang, H. K.

    2004-04-01

    Medical image security in a PACS environment has become a pressing issue as communications of images increasingly extends over open networks, and hospitals are currently hard-pushed by Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) to be HIPPA complaint for ensuring health data security. Other security-related guidelines and technical standards continue bringing to the public attention in healthcare. However, there is not an infrastructure or systematic method to implement and deploy these standards in a PACS. In this paper, we first review DICOM Part15 standard for secure communications of medical images and the HIPAA impacts on PACS security, as well as our previous works on image security. Then we outline a security infrastructure in a HIPAA mandated PACS environment using a dedicated PACS image security server. The server manages its own database of all image security information. It acts as an image Authority for checking and certificating the image origin and integrity upon request by a user, as a secure DICOM gateway to the outside connections and meanwhile also as a PACS operation monitor for HIPAA supporting information.

  2. Securing iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbally, Javier; Gomez-Barrero, Marta; Ross, Arun; Fierrez, Julian; Ortega-Garcia, Javier

    2013-05-01

    A novel two-stage protection scheme for automatic iris recognition systems against masquerade attacks carried out with synthetically reconstructed iris images is presented. The method uses different characteristics of real iris images to differentiate them from the synthetic ones, thereby addressing important security flaws detected in state-of-the-art commercial systems. Experiments are carried out on the publicly available Biosecure Database and demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed security enhancing approach.

  3. 31 CFR 321.12 - Redemption value of securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS AND UNITED STATES SAVINGS NOTES (FREEDOM SHARES... each savings security is determined by the terms of its offering and the length of time it has been... EE and I bonds, and savings notes, that should be used in redeeming savings securities....

  4. 75 FR 43528 - Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy Biennial Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Seeking Public Comment on Draft National Health Security Strategy... achieve national health security and to implement the first quadrennial National Health Security Strategy... the National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America (2009) the U.S. Government...

  5. Extender for securing a closure

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, II, Patrick A.

    2012-10-02

    An apparatus for securing a closure such as door or a window that opens and closes by movement relative to a fixed structure such as a wall or a floor. Many embodiments provide a device for relocating a padlock from its normal location where it secures a fastener (such as a hasp) to a location for the padlock that is more accessible for locking and unlocking the padlock. Typically an extender is provided, where the extender has a hook at a first end that is disposed through the eye of the staple of the hasp, and at an opposing second end the extender has an annulus, such as a hole in the extender or a loop or ring affixed to the extender. The shackle of the padlock may be disposed through the annulus and may be disposed through the eye of a second staple to secure the door or window in a closed or open position. Some embodiments employ a rigid sheath to enclose at least a portion of the extender. Typically the rigid sheath has an open state where the hook is exposed outside the sheath and a closed state where the hook is disposed within the sheath.

  6. Beyond grid security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeft, B.; Epting, U.; Koenig, T.

    2008-07-01

    While many fields relevant to Grid security are already covered by existing working groups, their remit rarely goes beyond the scope of the Grid infrastructure itself. However, security issues pertaining to the internal set-up of compute centres have at least as much impact on Grid security. Thus, this talk will present briefly the EU ISSeG project (Integrated Site Security for Grids). In contrast to groups such as OSCT (Operational Security Coordination Team) and JSPG (Joint Security Policy Group), the purpose of ISSeG is to provide a holistic approach to security for Grid computer centres, from strategic considerations to an implementation plan and its deployment. The generalised methodology of Integrated Site Security (ISS) is based on the knowledge gained during its implementation at several sites as well as through security audits, and this will be briefly discussed. Several examples of ISS implementation tasks at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe will be presented, including segregation of the network for administration and maintenance and the implementation of Application Gateways. Furthermore, the web-based ISSeG training material will be introduced. This aims to offer ISS implementation guidance to other Grid installations in order to help avoid common pitfalls.

  7. Building a strategic security organisation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size.

  8. Building a strategic security organisation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In everyone's day-to-day jobs there is constant need to deal with current and newly detected matters. This is now a world of immediacy, driven by the cadence of the business and its needs. These concerns should not be ignored, as failing to deal with these issues would not bode well for the future. It is essential that the gears are kept spinning. The challenge for any security organisation is to identify its short-term tactical requirements, while developing longer-term strategic needs. Once done, the differences can be accounted for and strides can be made toward a desired future state. This paper highlights several steps that the author and his team have taken in their own journey. There is no magic answer, each organisation will have its own unique challenges. Nevertheless, some of the approaches to building a strategic security organisation described in this paper are applicable to all organisations, irrespective of their size. PMID:27318284

  9. Center for computer security: Computer Security Group conference. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Topics covered include: computer security management; detection and prevention of computer misuse; certification and accreditation; protection of computer security, perspective from a program office; risk analysis; secure accreditation systems; data base security; implementing R and D; key notarization system; DOD computer security center; the Sandia experience; inspector general's report; and backup and contingency planning. (GHT)

  10. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  11. NSI security task: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tencati, Ron

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) security task. The task includes the following: policies and security documentation; risk analysis and management; computer emergency response team; incident handling; toolkit development; user consulting; and working groups, conferences, and committees.

  12. Network Security Is Manageable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    An effective systems librarian must understand security vulnerabilities and be proactive in preventing problems. Specifics of future attacks or security challenges cannot possibly be anticipated, but this paper suggests some simple measures that can be taken to make attacks less likely to occur: program the operating system to get automatic…

  13. Technology's Role in Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    1999-01-01

    Examines the use of technology to bolster the school security system, tips on selecting a security consultant, and several basic strategies to make buildings and grounds safer. Technological ideas discussed include the use of telephones in classrooms to expedite care in emergency situations, surveillance cameras to reduce crime, and metal…

  14. Developing a Security Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Examines the questions schools should address when re-evaluating how to protect people, property, and assets. Questions addressed include where and how to begin to improve security in a school, getting the most protection economically, establishing where electronic security should be used, using surveillance cameras and systems, and what the role…

  15. School Security, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe, Ed.; Anderson, Larry, Ed.

    This supplement, a collaboration of "American School & University" and "Access Control & Security Systems Integration" magazines, presents four articles examining equipment and management strategies to ensure school safety. "School Security by the Numbers" (Joe Agron; Larry Anderson) defines the parameters and quantifies the trend in the school…

  16. Secure video communications system

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Robert L.

    1991-01-01

    A secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  17. School Safety and Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This document offers additional guidelines for school facilities in California in the areas of safety and security, lighting, and cleanliness. It also offers a description of technology resources available on the World Wide Web. On the topic of safety and security, the document offers guidelines in the areas of entrances, doors, and controlled…

  18. Incidents of Security Concern

    SciTech Connect

    Atencio, Julian J.

    2014-05-01

    This presentation addresses incidents of security concern and an incident program for addressing them. It addresses the phases of an inquiry, and it divides incidents into categories based on severity and interest types based on whether security, management, or procedural interests are involved. A few scenarios are then analyzed according to these breakdowns.

  19. School Security Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Tod

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade electronic security technology has evolved from an exotic possibility into an essential safety consideration. Before resorting to high-tech security solutions, school officials should think carefully about the potential for unintended consequences. Technological fixes may be mismatched to the problems being addressed. They can…

  20. Security in the cloud.

    PubMed

    Degaspari, John

    2011-08-01

    As more provider organizations look to the cloud computing model, they face a host of security-related questions. What are the appropriate applications for the cloud, what is the best cloud model, and what do they need to know to choose the best vendor? Hospital CIOs and security experts weigh in.

  1. Water Security Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    The Water Security Toolkit (WST) provides software for modeling and analyzing water distribution systems to minimize the potential impact of contamination incidents. WST wraps capabilities for contaminant transport, impact assessment, and sensor network design with response action plans, including source identification, rerouting, and decontamination, to provide a range of water security planning and real-time applications.

  2. Addressing Information Security Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.; Woody, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Good information security does not just happen--and often does not happen at all. Resources are always in short supply, and there are always other needs that seem more pressing. Why? Because information security is hard to define, the required tasks are unclear, and the work never seems to be finished. However, the loss to the organization can be…

  3. Information security implementations for remote monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, C.A.

    1997-10-01

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the United States would ensure that its fissile material meet the {open_quotes}highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability.{close_quotes} Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. A successful implementation of a comprehensive remote monitoring system, however, requires significant attention to a variety of information security issues. In pursuing Project Straight-Line and the follow-on Storage Monitoring System, Sandia National Laboratories developed remote monitoring implementations that can satisfy a variety of information security requirements. Special emphasis was given to developing methods for using the Internet to disseminate the data securely. This paper describes the various information security implementations applied to the Project Straight-Line and the Storage Monitoring System. Also included is a discussion of the security provided by the Windows NT operating system.

  4. National security in the third world

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mashat, A.M.M.

    1985-01-01

    For nations of the Third World, national security poses serious dilemmas. Unlike Western nations, less-developed countries must balance the complex and often contradictory requirements of socio-economic and political development with problems of internal stability and the requirements of national defense. For these countries, a concept of national security that focuses primarily on the international threat system and its overt manifestations of wars and violence, ignoring domestic well-being, is inadequate on theoretical and pragmatic grounds. This book addresses the security problems of Third World states, arguing for new ways to define and measure national security so that the concept may be appropriately applied to the needs of developing countries. In addition, the author argues that the tranquility of a state, a concept traditionally linked with national security, cannot necessarily be associated with quality of life as measured by conventional means. Dr. Al-Mashat constructs a tranquility index for 95 developing nations and tests its relationship with the physical quality-of-life index to demonstrate this point. Attempts to improve quality of life, he suggests, may in many countries lead to a reduction in security unless simultaneous attempts are made to democratize the regime.

  5. Privacy and Security: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association, Washington, DC.

    Compiled at random from many sources, this bibliography attempts to cite as many publications concerning privacy and security as are available. The entries are organized under seven headings: (1) systems security, technical security, clearance of personnel, (2) corporate physical security, (3) administrative security, (4) miscellaneous--privacy…

  6. Network systems security analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Ä.°smail

    2015-05-01

    Network Systems Security Analysis has utmost importance in today's world. Many companies, like banks which give priority to data management, test their own data security systems with "Penetration Tests" by time to time. In this context, companies must also test their own network/server systems and take precautions, as the data security draws attention. Based on this idea, the study cyber-attacks are researched throughoutly and Penetration Test technics are examined. With these information on, classification is made for the cyber-attacks and later network systems' security is tested systematically. After the testing period, all data is reported and filed for future reference. Consequently, it is found out that human beings are the weakest circle of the chain and simple mistakes may unintentionally cause huge problems. Thus, it is clear that some precautions must be taken to avoid such threats like updating the security software.

  7. Indirection and computer security.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael J.

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of computer science is built on indirection. David Wheeler famously said, 'All problems in computer science can be solved by another layer of indirection. But that usually will create another problem'. We propose that every computer security vulnerability is yet another problem created by the indirections in system designs and that focusing on the indirections involved is a better way to design, evaluate, and compare security solutions. We are not proposing that indirection be avoided when solving problems, but that understanding the relationships between indirections and vulnerabilities is key to securing computer systems. Using this perspective, we analyze common vulnerabilities that plague our computer systems, consider the effectiveness of currently available security solutions, and propose several new security solutions.

  8. International Nuclear Security

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, James E.

    2012-08-14

    This presentation discusses: (1) Definitions of international nuclear security; (2) What degree of security do we have now; (3) Limitations of a nuclear security strategy focused on national lock-downs of fissile materials and weapons; (4) What do current trends say about the future; and (5) How can nuclear security be strengthened? Nuclear security can be strengthened by: (1) More accurate baseline inventories; (2) Better physical protection, control and accounting; (3) Effective personnel reliability programs; (4) Minimize weapons-usable materials and consolidate to fewer locations; (5) Consider local threat environment when siting facilities; (6) Implement pledges made in the NSS process; and (7) More robust interdiction, emergency response and special operations capabilities. International cooperation is desirable, but not always possible.

  9. Implementing the global health security agenda: lessons from global health and security programs.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Suman M; Franz, David R

    2015-01-01

    The Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA) describes a vision for a world that is safe and secure from infectious disease threats; it underscores the importance of developing the international capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to pandemic agents. In February 2014, the United States committed to support the GHSA by expanding and intensifying ongoing efforts across the US government. Implementing these goals will require interagency coordination and harmonization of diverse health security elements. Lessons learned from the Global Health Initiative (GHI), the President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), and the Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) program underscore that centralized political, technical, and fiscal authority will be key to developing robust, sustainable, and integrated global health security efforts across the US government. In this article, we review the strengths and challenges of GHI, PEPFAR, and CTR and develop recommendations for implementing a unified US global health security program.

  10. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  11. 76 FR 65318 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on November 15, 16, and 17....

  12. 78 FR 45286 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on August 27--28, 2013. Pursuant...

  13. 78 FR 6399 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... meeting will focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will ] involve... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a meeting of the U.S. State Department--Overseas Security Advisory Council on February 19 and 20,...

  14. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Bureau of Standard's booklet “Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974” (May... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security, confidentiality and protection of... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.5 Security, confidentiality...

  15. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Bureau of Standard's booklet “Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974” (May... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Security, confidentiality and protection of... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.5 Security, confidentiality...

  16. 22 CFR 1101.5 - Security, confidentiality and protection of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Standard's booklet “Computer Security Guidelines for Implementing the Privacy Act of 1974” (May... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Security, confidentiality and protection of... STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.5 Security, confidentiality...

  17. 77 FR 68206 - Survey of U.S. Ownership of Foreign Securities as of December 31, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... (including a foreign government, the United States Government, a State or local government, and any agency... debt securities, and short-term debt securities (including selected money market instruments). How...

  18. It Security and EO Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, M.

    2010-12-01

    One topic that is beginning to influence the systems that support these goals is that of Information Technology (IT) Security. Unsecure systems are vulnerable to increasing attacks and other negative consequences; sponsoring agencies are correspondingly responding with more refined policies and more stringent security requirements. These affect how EO systems can meet the goals of data and service interoperability and harmonization through open access, transformation and visualization services. Contemporary systems, including the vision of a system-of-systems (such as GEOSS, the Global Earth Observation System of Systems), utilize technologies that support a distributed, global, net-centric environment. These types of systems have a high reliance on the open systems, web services, shared infrastructure and data standards. The broader IT industry has developed and used these technologies in their business and mission critical systems for many years. Unfortunately, the IT industry, and their customers have learned the importance of protecting their assets and resources (computing and information) as they have been forced to respond to an ever increasing number and more complex illegitimate “attackers”. This presentation will offer an overview of work done by the CEOS WGISS organization in summarizing security threats, the challenges to responding to them and capturing the current state of the practice within the EO community.

  19. Security of medical multimedia.

    PubMed

    Tzelepi, S; Pangalos, G; Nikolacopoulou, G

    2002-09-01

    The application of information technology to health care has generated growing concern about the privacy and security of medical information. Furthermore, data and communication security requirements in the field of multimedia are higher. In this paper we describe firstly the most important security requirements that must be fulfilled by multimedia medical data, and the security measures used to satisfy these requirements. These security measures are based mainly on modern cryptographic and watermarking mechanisms as well as on security infrastructures. The objective of our work is to complete this picture, exploiting the capabilities of multimedia medical data to define and implement an authorization model for regulating access to the data. In this paper we describe an extended role-based access control model by considering, within the specification of the role-permission relationship phase, the constraints that must be satisfied in order for the holders of the permission to use those permissions. The use of constraints allows role-based access control to be tailored to specifiy very fine-grained and flexible content-, context- and time-based access control policies. Other restrictions, such as role entry restriction also can be captured. Finally, the description of system architecture for a secure DBMS is presented.

  20. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... port in case of security threats or breaches of security; (j) Procedures for periodic plan review... of Federal, State, Indian Tribal, and local government agencies and law enforcement entities...

  1. 33 CFR 103.505 - Elements of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... port in case of security threats or breaches of security; (j) Procedures for periodic plan review... of Federal, State, Indian Tribal, and local government agencies and law enforcement entities...

  2. 31 CFR 344.6 - How do I redeem a Time Deposit security before maturity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.6 How do I redeem a Time...

  3. 31 CFR 344.9 - How do I redeem a Demand Deposit security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Demand Deposit Securities § 344.9 How do I redeem a Demand...

  4. 31 CFR 344.9 - How do I redeem a Demand Deposit security?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Demand Deposit Securities § 344.9 How do I redeem a Demand...

  5. 31 CFR 344.6 - How do I redeem a Time Deposit security before maturity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.6 How do I redeem a Time...

  6. 31 CFR 344.10 - What are Special Zero Interest securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Special Zero Interest Securities § 344.10 What are Special...

  7. 31 CFR 344.5 - What other provisions apply to subscriptions for Time Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.5...

  8. 31 CFR 344.11 - How do I redeem a Special Zero Interest Security before maturity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Special Zero Interest Securities §...

  9. 31 CFR 344.10 - What are Special Zero Interest securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Special Zero Interest Securities § 344.10 What are Special...

  10. 31 CFR 344.5 - What other provisions apply to subscriptions for Time Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Time Deposit Securities § 344.5...

  11. 31 CFR 344.11 - How do I redeem a Special Zero Interest Security before maturity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Special Zero Interest Securities §...

  12. Component-Based Security Policy Design with Colored Petri Nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hejiao; Kirchner, Hélène

    Security policies are one of the most fundamental elements of computer security. This paper uses colored Petri net process (CPNP) to specify and verify security policies in a modular way. It defines fundamental policy properties, i.e., completeness, termination, consistency and confluence, in Petri net terminology and gets some theoretical results. According to XACML combiners and property-preserving Petri net process algebra (PPPA), several policy composition operators are specified and property-preserving results are stated for the policy correctness verification.

  13. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cucoranu, Ioan C.; Parwani, Anil V.; West, Andrew J.; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B.; Balis, Ulysses J.; Tuthill, Mark J.; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  14. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States.

  15. Privacy and security of patient data in the pathology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; West, Andrew J; Romero-Lauro, Gonzalo; Nauman, Kevin; Carter, Alexis B; Balis, Ulysses J; Tuthill, Mark J; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2013-01-01

    Data protection and security are critical components of routine pathology practice because laboratories are legally required to securely store and transmit electronic patient data. With increasing connectivity of information systems, laboratory work-stations, and instruments themselves to the Internet, the demand to continuously protect and secure laboratory information can become a daunting task. This review addresses informatics security issues in the pathology laboratory related to passwords, biometric devices, data encryption, internet security, virtual private networks, firewalls, anti-viral software, and emergency security situations, as well as the potential impact that newer technologies such as mobile devices have on the privacy and security of electronic protected health information (ePHI). In the United States, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) govern the privacy and protection of medical information and health records. The HIPAA security standards final rule mandate administrative, physical, and technical safeguards to ensure the confidentiality, integrity, and security of ePHI. Importantly, security failures often lead to privacy breaches, invoking the HIPAA privacy rule as well. Therefore, this review also highlights key aspects of HIPAA and its impact on the pathology laboratory in the United States. PMID:23599904

  16. Development of security engineering curricula at US universities

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.L.

    1998-08-01

    The Southwest Surety Institute was formed in June, 1996 by Arizona State University (ASU), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech), New Mexico State University (NMSU), and Sandia National laboratories (SNL) to provide new educational programs in Security engineering. This is the first science-based program of its kind in the US, directed at educating Security Engineers to help government and industry address their security needs. Current courses include security system design, evaluation, principles, and technology, the criminal justice system, and explosives surety. Each member brings a unique educational capability to the Institute. NMSU provides a Security Technology minor, merging programs in Criminal Justice and Electronics Technology. NM Tech has a formidable explosives testing and evaluation facility. ASU is developing a Masters program in Security Engineering at their School of Technology located on a new campus in Mesa, Arizona. The Sandia National laboratories security system design and evaluation process forms the basis for the Security Engineering curricula. In an effort to leverage the special capabilities of each university, distance education will be used to share courses among Institute members and eventually with other sites across the country. The Institute will also pursue research and development funding in the areas of physical security, information security, computer modeling and analysis, and counter-terrorist technology. Individual Institute members are currently working with sponsors from government and industry in areas such as counter-terrorism, microelectronics, banking, aviation, and sensor development.

  17. 12 CFR 563.81 - Inclusion of subordinated debt securities and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... United States or any agency or fund of the United States;” (B) State that the security is subordinated on... defined in 12 CFR 583.2; (D) State that the security is not eligible collateral for a loan by the savings... mandatorily redeemable preferred stock as supplementary capital. 563.81 Section 563.81 Banks and...

  18. Teaching Secure Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, Matt; Frincke, Deb A.

    2005-09-01

    This article discusses issues in teaching secure coding in the context of both academic institutions and training organizations. The emphasis is on the importance of assurance. There is also some discussion of the role of checklists.

  19. Secure Chemical Facilities Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2013-01-23

    01/23/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Secure Chemical Facilities Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2011-03-31

    03/31/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Intelligent Sensors Security

    PubMed Central

    Bialas, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on the security issues of sensors provided with processors and software and used for high-risk applications. Common IT related threats may cause serious consequences for sensor system users. To improve their robustness, sensor systems should be developed in a restricted way that would provide them with assurance. One assurance creation methodology is Common Criteria (ISO/IEC 15408) used for IT products and systems. The paper begins with a primer on the Common Criteria, and then a general security model of the intelligent sensor as an IT product is discussed. The paper presents how the security problem of the intelligent sensor is defined and solved. The contribution of the paper is to provide Common Criteria (CC) related security design patterns and to improve the effectiveness of the sensor development process. PMID:22315571

  2. Secure Visas Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Lamar [R-TX-21

    2010-03-04

    04/26/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Securing Cabin Baggage Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lipinski, Daniel [D-IL-3

    2009-06-15

    06/17/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Transportation Security and Infrastructure Protection. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Cognitive Computing for Security.

    SciTech Connect

    Debenedictis, Erik; Rothganger, Fredrick; Aimone, James Bradley; Marinella, Matthew; Evans, Brian Robert; Warrender, Christina E.; Mickel, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Final report for Cognitive Computing for Security LDRD 165613. It reports on the development of hybrid of general purpose/ne uromorphic computer architecture, with an emphasis on potential implementation with memristors.

  5. Department of Homeland Security

    MedlinePlus

    ... TSA Pre✓® Active Shooter Preparedness Hometown Security Countering Violent Extremism Forms Combating Human Trafficking Taking Action on ... Oct 31 Blog DHS Releases Strategy for Countering Violent Extremism Violent extremism is an evolving threat and ...

  6. Secure Chemical Facilities Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Lautenberg, Frank R. [D-NJ

    2010-07-15

    07/15/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Security vs. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Provides administrative advice on how some safety experts have made college campuses safer and friendlier without breaking the budget. Tips on security and advice on safety management that encompasses the whole environment are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Keep America Secure Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Slaughter, Louise McIntosh [D-NY-28

    2012-08-02

    09/05/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection, and Security Technologies. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Disarmament and security

    SciTech Connect

    Alley, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains the following five selections: Opening address; Global disarmament negotiations; Global security and the nuclear balance; Nuclear politics and the environment; and New Zealand's approach: another perspective.

  10. Security Bounds for Continuous Variables Quantum Key Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Security bounds for key distribution protocols using coherent and squeezed states and homodyne measurements are presented. These bounds refer to (i)general attacks and (ii)collective attacks where Eve applies the optimal individual interaction to the sent states, but delays her measurement until the end of the reconciliation process. For the case of a lossy line and coherent states, it is first proven that a secure key distribution is possible up to 1.9dB of losses. For the second scenario, the security bounds are the same as for the completely incoherent attack.

  11. Lemnos Interoperable Security Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, John; Halbgewachs, Ron; Chavez, Adrian; Smith, Rhett; Teumim, David

    2012-01-31

    The manner in which the control systems are being designed and operated in the energy sector is undergoing some of the most significant changes in history due to the evolution of technology and the increasing number of interconnections to other system. With these changes however come two significant challenges that the energy sector must face; 1) Cyber security is more important than ever before, and 2) Cyber security is more complicated than ever before. A key requirement in helping utilities and vendors alike in meeting these challenges is interoperability. While interoperability has been present in much of the discussions relating to technology utilized within the energy sector and especially the Smart Grid, it has been absent in the context of cyber security. The Lemnos project addresses these challenges by focusing on the interoperability of devices utilized within utility control systems which support critical cyber security functions. In theory, interoperability is possible with many of the cyber security solutions available to utilities today. The reality is that the effort required to achieve cyber security interoperability is often a barrier for utilities. For example, consider IPSec, a widely-used Internet Protocol to define Virtual Private Networks, or tunnels , to communicate securely through untrusted public and private networks. The IPSec protocol suite has a significant number of configuration options and encryption parameters to choose from, which must be agreed upon and adopted by both parties establishing the tunnel. The exercise in getting software or devices from different vendors to interoperate is labor intensive and requires a significant amount of security expertise by the end user. Scale this effort to a significant number of devices operating over a large geographical area and the challenge becomes so overwhelming that it often leads utilities to pursue solutions from a single vendor. These single vendor solutions may inadvertently lock

  12. Secure video communications systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.

    1991-10-08

    This patent describes a secure video communications system having at least one command network formed by a combination of subsystems. The combination of subsystems to include a video subsystem, an audio subsystem, a communications subsystem, and a control subsystem. The video communications system to be window driven and mouse operated, and having the ability to allow for secure point-to-point real-time teleconferencing.

  13. Data port security lock

    DOEpatents

    Quinby, Joseph D.; Hall, Clarence S.

    2008-06-24

    In a security apparatus for securing an electrical connector, a plug may be fitted for insertion into a connector receptacle compliant with a connector standard. The plug has at least one aperture adapted to engage at least one latch in the connector receptacle. An engagement member is adapted to partially extend through at least one aperture and lock to at least one structure within the connector receptacle.

  14. Variable contour securing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zebus, P. P.; Packer, P. N.; Haynie, C. C. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A variable contour securing system has a retaining structure for a member whose surface contains a variable contour. The retaining mechanism includes a spaced array of adjustable spindles mounted on a housing. Each spindle has a base member support cup at one end. A vacuum source is applied to the cups for seating the member adjacent to the cups. A locking mechanism sets the spindles in a predetermined position once the member has been secured to the spindle support cups.

  15. Secure Sensor Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Ross, Barry Schoeneman

    2010-08-25

    The Secure Sensor Platform (SSP) software provides a framework of functionality to support the development of low-power autonomous sensors for nuclear safeguards. This framework provides four primary functional blocks of capabilities required to implement autonomous sensors. The capabilities are: communications, security, power management, and cryptography. Utilizing this framework establishes a common set of functional capabilities for seamless interoperability of any sensor based upon the SSP concept.

  16. Best Practices for the Security of Radioactive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, D.T.; Musolino, S.

    2009-05-01

    This work is funded under a grant provided by the US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control. The Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) awarded a contract to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop best practices guidance for Office of Radiological Health (ORH) licensees to increase on-site security to deter and prevent theft of radioactive materials (RAM). The purpose of this document is to describe best practices available to manage the security of radioactive materials in medical centers, hospitals, and research facilities. There are thousands of such facilities in the United States, and recent studies suggest that these materials may be vulnerable to theft or sabotage. Their malevolent use in a radiological-dispersion device (RDD), viz., a dirty bomb, can have severe environmental- and economic- impacts, the associated area denial, and potentially large cleanup costs, as well as other effects on the licensees and the public. These issues are important to all Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Agreement State licensees, and to the general public. This document outlines approaches for the licensees possessing these materials to undertake security audits to identify vulnerabilities in how these materials are stored or used, and to describe best practices to upgrade or enhance their security. Best practices can be described as the most efficient (least amount of effort/cost) and effective (best results) way of accomplishing a task and meeting an objective, based on repeatable procedures that have proven themselves over time for many people and circumstances. Best practices within the security industry include information security, personnel security, administrative security, and physical security. Each discipline within the security industry has its own 'best practices' that have evolved over time into common ones. With respect to radiological devices and radioactive-materials security, industry best practices encompass

  17. Security systems engineering overview

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, B.J.

    1996-12-31

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at $70 billion in direct costs and up to $300 billion in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses $100 billion. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled $3 billion in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies (counterfeit currency, cellular phone billing, credit card fraud, health care fraud, passport, green cards, and questionable documents); industrial espionage detection and prevention (intellectual property, computer chips, etc.); and security barrier technology (creation of delay such as gates, vaults, etc.).

  18. Security systems engineering overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Basil J.

    1997-01-01

    Crime prevention is on the minds of most people today. The concern for public safety and the theft of valuable assets are being discussed at all levels of government and throughout the public sector. There is a growing demand for security systems that can adequately safeguard people and valuable assets against the sophistication of those criminals or adversaries who pose a threat. The crime in this country has been estimated at 70 billion dollars in direct costs and up to 300 billion dollars in indirect costs. Health insurance fraud alone is estimated to cost American businesses 100 billion dollars. Theft, warranty fraud, and counterfeiting of computer hardware totaled 3 billion dollars in 1994. A threat analysis is a prerequisite to any security system design to assess the vulnerabilities with respect to the anticipated threat. Having established a comprehensive definition of the threat, crime prevention, detection, and threat assessment technologies can be used to address these criminal activities. This talk will outline the process used to design a security system regardless of the level of security. This methodology has been applied to many applications including: government high security facilities; residential and commercial intrusion detection and assessment; anti-counterfeiting/fraud detection technologies; industrial espionage detection and prevention; security barrier technology.

  19. Securities Analysts as Information-Seekers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Nancy Sadler; Rice, Ronald E.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 100 securities analysts at investment banking firms in the United States and United Kingdom showed that individual characteristics have little influence on the information sources and communication channels used by analysts, but institutional resources significantly influence the information and communication channels used, and also…

  20. School Security Gap (with Related Video)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnac, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Data security breaches in the educational sector can be devastating to institutions and the students and employees they serve. They carry the potential for identity theft, violations of federal and state laws, and loss of trust of students, alumni and employees. The Identity Theft Resource Center says that as of October 2011, education…

  1. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-30

    An Act passed in 2007 to move the United States toward greater energy independence and security, to increase the production of clean renewable fuels, to protect consumers, to increase the efficiency of products, buildings, and vehicles, to promote research on and deploy greenhouse gas capture and storage options, and to improve the energy performance of the Federal Government, and for other purposes.

  2. Research progress in dynamic security assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Areas discussed are power system modeling, state estimation, structure decomposition, state forecasting, clustering and security measure development. A detailed dynamic model of a multi-machine power system has been developed. A process state estimator was developed to estimate the long-term dynamic behavior of the power system. The algorithm is identical to the extended Kalman filter but has a modified process noise driving term. A two-stage structure estimation technique was proposed for identifying the power system network configuration. Two approaches to structure decomposition were investigated. A time-scale decomposition of the system equations, based on a singular perturbation approach, was evaluated using a detailed model of a generating system. Spatial decomposition was examined by applying an optimal network decomposition technique to a 39-bus test system. Stochastic approximation based approaches to estimator simplification were examined. Explicit expressions were obtained for the evolution of the first and second moments of the system state. Research into security measures proceeded in three directions. The first area involves viewing the security assessment problem as a hyperplane crossing problem for a stochastic process. The second approach examined the stability of an unforced linear system where the system coefficients are subject to future jumps. The third area of research has led to the formulation of a security measure suitable for on-line assessment of transient stability.

  3. Quantum cryptography in real-life applications: Assumptions and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi

    Quantum cryptography, or quantum key distribution (QKD), provides a means of unconditionally secure communication. The security is in principle based on the fundamental laws of physics. Security proofs show that if quantum cryptography is appropriately implemented, even the most powerful eavesdropper cannot decrypt the message from a cipher. The implementations of quantum crypto-systems in real life may not fully comply with the assumptions made in the security proofs. Such discrepancy between the experiment and the theory can be fatal to the security of a QKD system. In this thesis we address a number of these discrepancies. A perfect single-photon source is often assumed in many security proofs. However, a weak coherent source is widely used in a real-life QKD implementation. Decoy state protocols have been proposed as a novel approach to dramatically improve the performance of a weak coherent source based QKD implementation without jeopardizing its security. Here, we present the first experimental demonstrations of decoy state protocols. Our experimental scheme was later adopted by most decoy state QKD implementations. In the security proof of decoy state protocols as well as many other QKD protocols, it is widely assumed that a sender generates a phase-randomized coherent state. This assumption has been enforced in few implementations. We close this gap in two steps: First, we implement and verify the phase randomization experimentally; second, we prove the security of a QKD implementation without the coherent state assumption. In many security proofs of QKD, it is assumed that all the detectors on the receiver's side have identical detection efficiencies. We show experimentally that this assumption may be violated in a commercial QKD implementation due to an eavesdropper's malicious manipulation. Moreover, we show that the eavesdropper can learn part of the final key shared by the legitimate users as a consequence of this violation of the assumptions.

  4. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as...

  5. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  6. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  7. 7 CFR 274.5 - Record retention and forms security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Record retention and forms security. 274.5 Section 274....5 Record retention and forms security. (a) Availability of records. (1) The State agency shall.... (2) In lieu of the records themselves, easily retrievable microfilm, microfiche, or computer...

  8. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Computer and Communications Security Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    In his paper, "European Needs and Attitudes towards Information Security," Richard I. Polis notes that the needs for security in computer systems, telecommunications, and media are rather uniform throughout Western Europe, and are seen as being significantly different from the needs in the United States. Recognition of these needs is, however,…

  9. Jimmy Carter's National Security Policy: A World Order Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Robert C.

    This essay evaluates the Carter administration's behavior on national security questions and appraises the extent to which it meets Carter's initial professed national security goals. These goals include the intention to reduce military expenditures, to halt the nuclear arms buildup of the United States and U.S.S.R., to prevent the spread of…

  10. 77 FR 1971 - Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... ADMINISTRATION Supplemental Security Income and Homeless Individuals AGENCY: Social Security Administration..., including those individuals who are homeless. According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban... transitional housing program; the vast majority of these individuals (nearly 80 percent) spent time only in...

  11. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as...

  12. Design of the national health security preparedness index.

    PubMed

    Uzun Jacobson, Evin; Inglesby, Tom; Khan, Ali S; Rajotte, James C; Burhans, Robert L; Slemp, Catherine C; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health security in the United States has been highlighted by recent emergencies such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, Superstorm Sandy, and the Boston Marathon bombing. The nation's health security remains a high priority today, with federal, state, territorial, tribal, and local governments, as well as nongovernment organizations and the private sector, engaging in activities that prevent, protect, mitigate, respond to, and recover from health threats. The Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), through a cooperative agreement with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR), led an effort to create an annual measure of health security preparedness at the national level. The collaborative released the National Health Security Preparedness Index (NHSPI(™)) in December 2013 and provided composite results for the 50 states and for the nation as a whole. The Index results represent current levels of health security preparedness in a consistent format and provide actionable information to drive decision making for continuous improvement of the nation's health security. The overall 2013 National Index result was 7.2 on the reported base-10 scale, with areas of greater strength in the domains of health surveillance, incident and information management, and countermeasure management. The strength of the Index relies on the interdependencies of the many elements in health security preparedness, making the sum greater than its parts. Moving forward, additional health security-related disciplines and measures will be included alongside continued validation efforts.

  13. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 2800 - Security Termination Statement

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Termination Statement 2 Attachment 2 to Part 2800 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF THE VICE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES SECURITY PROCEDURES Pt. 2800, Att. 2 Attachment 2 to Part...

  14. A National Partnership for Careers in Public Safety and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffee, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A partnership of state, local and federal public safety agencies, secondary and postsecondary educational institutions, and professional and educational associations, the National Partnership for Careers in Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security also serves as the lead organization for the Law, Public Safety, Corrections and Security Career…

  15. 48 CFR 752.204-2 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Security requirements. 752.204-2 Section 752.204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Security requirements. Pursuant to the Uniform State/USAID/USIA Regulations (Volume 12, Foreign...

  16. Required Security Screenings for Researchers: A Policy Analysis and Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    After the attacks of 9/11/2001 the federal government implemented new policies intended to protect people and institutions in the United States. A surprising policy requires education researchers conducting research under contract to the U.S. Department of Education (ED) to obtain security clearances, sometimes known as security screenings.…

  17. 48 CFR 752.204-2 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security requirements. 752.204-2 Section 752.204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Security requirements. Pursuant to the Uniform State/USAID/USIA Regulations (Volume 12, Foreign...

  18. 20 CFR 638.805 - Security and law enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security and law enforcement. 638.805 Section... and law enforcement. (a) The Job Corps Director shall provide guidelines to protect the security of... jurisdiction with the appropriate State and locality with respect to criminal law enforcement as long as...

  19. 48 CFR 752.204-2 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security requirements. 752.204-2 Section 752.204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Security requirements. Pursuant to the Uniform State/USAID/USIA Regulations (Volume 12, Foreign...

  20. 48 CFR 752.204-2 - Security requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Security requirements. 752.204-2 Section 752.204-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Security requirements. Pursuant to the Uniform State/USAID/USIA Regulations (Volume 12, Foreign...

  1. Cyber Assessment Methods For SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    May Robin Permann; Kenneth Rohde

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  2. Cyber Assessment Methods for SCADA Security

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-06-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 brought to light threats and vulnerabilities that face the United States. In response, the U.S. Government is directing the effort to secure the nation's critical infrastructure by creating programs to implement the National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace (1). One part of this effort involves assessing Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. These systems are essential to the control of critical elements of our national infrastructure, such as electric power, oil, and gas production and distribution. Since their incapacitation or destruction would have a debilitating impact on the defense or economic security of the United States, one of the main objectives of this program is to identify vulnerabilities and encourage the public and private sectors to work together to design secure control systems that resolve these weaknesses. This paper describes vulnerability assessment methodologies used in ongoing research and assessment activities designed to identify and resolve vulnerabilities so as to improve the security of the nation's critical infrastructure.

  3. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E.

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  4. Roadmap on optical security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  5. National Security Technology Incubation Strategic Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-01

    This strategic plan contains information on the vision, mission, business and technology environment, goals, objectives, and incubation process of the National Security Technology Incubation Program (NSTI) at Arrowhead Center. The development of the NSTI is a key goal of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP). Objectives to achieve this goal include developing incubator plans (strategic, business, action, and operations), creating an incubator environment, creating a support and mentor network for companies in the incubator program, attracting security technology businesses to the region, encouraging existing business to expand, initiating business start-ups, evaluating products and processes of the incubator program, and achieving sustainability of the incubator program. With the events of 9/11, the global community faces ever increasing and emerging threats from hostile groups determined to rule by terror. According to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Strategic Plan, the United States must be able to quickly respond and adapt to unanticipated situations as they relate to protection of our homeland and national security. Technology plays a key role in a strong national security position, and the private business community, along with the national laboratories, academia, defense and homeland security organizations, provide this technology. Fostering innovative ideas, translated into relevant technologies answering the needs of NNSA, is the purpose of the NSTI. Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To develop the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet the planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability activities for the program and identify and incubate new technologies to assist the NNSA in meeting its mission and goals. Technology alone does not give a competitive advantage to the country, but the creativity and speed with which it is employed does. For a company to

  6. Information Systems, Security, and Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Willis H.

    1984-01-01

    Computer security and computer privacy issues are discussed. Among the areas addressed are technical and human security threats, security and privacy issues for information in electronic mail systems, the need for a national commission to examine these issues, and security/privacy issues relevant to colleges and universities. (JN)

  7. Building a Secure Library System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Allen C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents tips for building a secure library system to guard against threats like hackers, viruses, and theft. Topics include: determining what is at risk; recovering from disasters; developing security policies; developing front-end security; securing menu systems; accessing control programs; protecting against damage from viruses; developing…

  8. A Portable Computer Security Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul J.; Phillips, Andrew T.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a computer security workshop designed to instruct post-secondary instructors who want to start a course or laboratory exercise sequence in computer security. This workshop has also been used to provide computer security education to IT professionals and students. It is effective in communicating basic computer security principles…

  9. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  10. Computer security: a necessary element of integrated information systems.

    PubMed Central

    Butzen, F; Furler, F

    1986-01-01

    The Matheson Report sees the medical library as playing a key role in a network of interlocking information bases that will extend from central repositories of medical information to each physician's personal records. It appears, however, that the role of security in this vision has not been fully delineated. This paper discusses problems in maintaining the security of confidential medical information, the state of the applicable law, and techniques for security (with special emphasis on the UNIX operating system). It is argued that the absence of security threatens any plan to build an information network, as there will be resistance to any system that may give intruders access to confidential data. PMID:3742113

  11. Gross anatomy of network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  12. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. (a) Scope. This... in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code. Security background check means reviewing the..., or guidance issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security related to security background...

  13. 49 CFR 1570.13 - False statements regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... regarding security background checks by public transportation agency or railroad carrier. (a) Scope. This... in section 20102 of title 49, United States Code. Security background check means reviewing the..., or guidance issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security related to security background...

  14. Social Security Disability Reviews: The Human Costs. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives and the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session (Part 3 - Hot Springs, Arkansas).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document provides transcripts of witness testimony and prepared statements from the third of three Congressional hearings called to examine at the local level the administration of the social security disability review program. Opening statements are presented from Representatives J. J. Pickle and Beryl Anthony, Jr., and Senator Daniel Pryor.…

  15. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee...-governmental organizations (NGOs) and stakeholder representatives concerning potential risks to...

  16. Secure Information Sharing

    2005-09-09

    We are develoing a peer-to-peer system to support secure, location independent information sharing in the scientific community. Once complete, this system will allow seamless and secure sharing of information between multiple collaborators. The owners of information will be able to control how the information is stored, managed. ano shared. In addition, users will have faster access to information updates within a collaboration. Groups collaborating on scientific experiments have a need to share information and data.more » This information and data is often represented in the form of files and database entries. In a typical scientific collaboration, there are many different locations where data would naturally be stored. This makes It difficult for collaborators to find and access the information they need. Our goal is to create a lightweight file-sharing system that makes it’easy for collaborators to find and use the data they need. This system must be easy-to-use, easy-to-administer, and secure. Our information-sharing tool uses group communication, in particular the InterGroup protocols, to reliably deliver each query to all of the current participants in a scalable manner, without having to discover all of their identities. We will use the Secure Group Layer (SGL) and Akenti to provide security to the participants of our environment, SGL will provide confldentiality, integrity, authenticity, and authorization enforcement for the InterGroup protocols and Akenti will provide access control to other resources.« less

  17. Biological and Chemical Security

    SciTech Connect

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  18. Energy and national security.

    SciTech Connect

    Karas, Thomas H.

    2003-09-01

    On May 19 and 20, 2003, thirty-some members of Sandia staff and management met to discuss the long-term connections between energy and national security. Three broad security topics were explored: I. Global and U.S. economic dependence on oil (and gas); II. Potential security implications of global climate change; and III. Vulnerabilities of the U.S. domestic energy infrastructure. This report, rather than being a transcript of the workshop, represents a synthesis of background information used in the workshop, ideas that emerged in the discussions, and ex post facto analysis of the discussions. Each of the three subjects discussed at this workshop has significant U.S. national security implications. Each has substantial technology components. Each appears a legitimate area of concern for a national security laboratory with relevant technology capabilities. For the laboratory to play a meaningful role in contributing to solutions to national problems such as these, it needs to understand the political, economic, and social environments in which it expects its work to be accepted and used. In addition, it should be noted that the problems of oil dependency and climate change are not amenable to solution by the policies of any one nation--even the one that is currently the largest single energy consumer. Therefore, views, concerns, policies, and plans of other countries will do much to determine which solutions might work and which might not.

  19. Computer Security Risk Assessment

    1992-02-11

    LAVA/CS (LAVA for Computer Security) is an application of the Los Alamos Vulnerability Assessment (LAVA) methodology specific to computer and information security. The software serves as a generic tool for identifying vulnerabilities in computer and information security safeguards systems. Although it does not perform a full risk assessment, the results from its analysis may provide valuable insights into security problems. LAVA/CS assumes that the system is exposed to both natural and environmental hazards and tomore » deliberate malevolent actions by either insiders or outsiders. The user in the process of answering the LAVA/CS questionnaire identifies missing safeguards in 34 areas ranging from password management to personnel security and internal audit practices. Specific safeguards protecting a generic set of assets (or targets) from a generic set of threats (or adversaries) are considered. There are four generic assets: the facility, the organization''s environment; the hardware, all computer-related hardware; the software, the information in machine-readable form stored both on-line or on transportable media; and the documents and displays, the information in human-readable form stored as hard-copy materials (manuals, reports, listings in full-size or microform), film, and screen displays. Two generic threats are considered: natural and environmental hazards, storms, fires, power abnormalities, water and accidental maintenance damage; and on-site human threats, both intentional and accidental acts attributable to a perpetrator on the facility''s premises.« less

  20. Practical secure quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Eleni

    2015-05-01

    We review recent advances in the field of quantum cryptography, focusing in particular on practical implementations of two central protocols for quantum network applications, namely key distribution and coin flipping. The former allows two parties to share secret messages with information-theoretic security, even in the presence of a malicious eavesdropper in the communication channel, which is impossible with classical resources alone. The latter enables two distrustful parties to agree on a random bit, again with information-theoretic security, and with a cheating probability lower than the one that can be reached in a classical scenario. Our implementations rely on continuous-variable technology for quantum key distribution and on a plug and play discrete-variable system for coin flipping, and necessitate a rigorous security analysis adapted to the experimental schemes and their imperfections. In both cases, we demonstrate the protocols with provable security over record long distances in optical fibers and assess the performance of our systems as well as their limitations. The reported advances offer a powerful toolbox for practical applications of secure communications within future quantum networks.

  1. Security core to the edge: securing critical information through enhanced Cross Domain Systems (CDS) to the tactical edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farroha, Bassam S.; Farroha, Deborah L.; Whitfield, Melinda M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper analyzes secure data sharing outside its security domain with services, agencies, coalition partners and state/local authorities. There is a high demand for multiple levels of secure data at the tactical edge; however the threat level at that point is elevated compared to the enterprise environment. This paper investigates the requirements, technologies and risk mitigation techniques for securely sharing information with the tactical warfighter while protecting the data and the information systems from intruders and malware. The new CD Systems need to eliminate the stovepipe architectures and open the doors to share information across traditional and non-traditional domain boundaries.

  2. Security Research and Safety Aspects in Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinay, Juraj

    In 2004 the Slovak Republic joined the European Community. This accession called for changes in the new member state's internal and external processes, as well as the acceptance of the European Community regulatory framework and its implementation in Slovakian national legislation. Even though Slovakia had started with step-by-step integration of specific regulations during accession negotiations, final implementation was only concluded upon admission into the European Community. The process spanned the fields of occupational health and safety (Safety) and civil security (Security), notwithstanding that professionals in these areas had already been working in line with the European legislation.

  3. Statutes for enforcement by security inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    The following security violations and enforcement by security personnel are briefly discussed: selected enforcement provisions of the Atomic Energy Act covering communication, receipt of and tampering with restricted data, trespass upon Commission installations, photographing, etc., of Commission installations, sabotage, misrepresentation of impersonation, theft and embezzlement, malicious mischief, conspiracy, searches and seizures, civil disorders, definitions (explosives), penalties (use of explosives or fire), concealment, removal, or mutilation, generally, arson, special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States defined, and arson within special maritime and territorial jurisdiction.

  4. Maritime security laboratory for maritime security research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunin, Barry J.; Sutin, Alexander; Bruno, Michael S.

    2007-04-01

    Stevens Institute of Technology has established a new Maritime Security Laboratory (MSL) to facilitate advances in methods and technologies relevant to maritime security. MSL is designed to enable system-level experiments and data-driven modeling in the complex environment of an urban tidal estuary. The initial focus of the laboratory is on the threats posed by divers and small craft with hostile intent. The laboratory is, however, evolvable to future threats as yet unidentified. Initially, the laboratory utilizes acoustic, environmental, and video sensors deployed in and around the Hudson River estuary. Experimental data associated with boats and SCUBA divers are collected on a computer deployed on board a boat specifically designed and equipped for these experiments and are remotely transferred to a Visualization Center on campus. Early experiments utilizing this laboratory have gathered data to characterize the relevant parameters of the estuary, acoustic signals produced by divers, and water and air traffic. Hydrophones were deployed to collect data to enable the development of passive acoustic methodologies for maximizing SCUBA diver detection distance. Initial results involving characteristics of the estuary, acoustic signatures of divers, ambient acoustic noise in an urban estuary, and transmission loss of acoustic signals in a wide frequency band are presented. These results can also be used for the characterization of abnormal traffic and improvement of underwater communication in a shallow water estuary.

  5. Help for the Developers of Control System Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2008-05-01

    A Catalog of Control Systems Security: Recommendations for Standards Developers (Catalog), aimed at assisting organizations to facilitate the development and implementation of control system cyber security standards, has been developed. This catalog contains requirements that can help protect control systems from cyber attacks and can be applied to the Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources of the United States and other nations. The requirements contained in the catalog are a compilation of practices or various industry bodies used to increase the security of control systems from both physical and cyber attacks. They should be viewed as a collection of recommendations to be considered and judiciously employed, as appropriate, when reviewing and developing cyber security standards for control systems. The recommendations in the Catalog are intended to be broad enough to provide any industry using control systems the flexibility needed to develop sound cyber security standards specific to their individual security requirements.

  6. 7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  7. 6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO WEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  8. Sensor Data Security Level Estimation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Alex; Filho, Raimir Holanda

    2015-01-01

    Due to their increasing dissemination, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become the target of more and more sophisticated attacks, even capable of circumventing both attack detection and prevention mechanisms. This may cause WSN users, who totally trust these security mechanisms, to think that a sensor reading is secure, even when an adversary has corrupted it. For that reason, a scheme capable of estimating the security level (SL) that these mechanisms provide to sensor data is needed, so that users can be aware of the actual security state of this data and can make better decisions on its use. However, existing security estimation schemes proposed for WSNs fully ignore detection mechanisms and analyze solely the security provided by prevention mechanisms. In this context, this work presents the sensor data security estimator (SDSE), a new comprehensive security estimation scheme for WSNs. SDSE is designed for estimating the sensor data security level based on security metrics that analyze both attack prevention and detection mechanisms. In order to validate our proposed scheme, we have carried out extensive simulations that show the high accuracy of SDSE estimates. PMID:25608215

  9. Sensor data security level estimation scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Alex; Filho, Raimir Holanda

    2015-01-19

    Due to their increasing dissemination, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become the target of more and more sophisticated attacks, even capable of circumventing both attack detection and prevention mechanisms. This may cause WSN users, who totally trust these security mechanisms, to think that a sensor reading is secure, even when an adversary has corrupted it. For that reason, a scheme capable of estimating the security level (SL) that these mechanisms provide to sensor data is needed, so that users can be aware of the actual security state of this data and can make better decisions on its use. However, existing security estimation schemes proposed for WSNs fully ignore detection mechanisms and analyze solely the security provided by prevention mechanisms. In this context, this work presents the sensor data security estimator (SDSE), a new comprehensive security estimation scheme for WSNs. SDSE is designed for estimating the sensor data security level based on security metrics that analyze both attack prevention and detection mechanisms. In order to validate our proposed scheme, we have carried out extensive simulations that show the high accuracy of SDSE estimates.

  10. Unconditionally secure key distillation from multiphotons

    SciTech Connect

    Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2006-01-15

    In this paper, we prove that the unconditionally secure key can be surprisingly extracted from multiphoton emission part in the photon polarization-based quantum key distribution. One example is shown by explicitly proving that one can indeed generate an unconditionally secure key from Alice's two-photon emission part proposed by Scarani [et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 057901 (2004)]. Which is called the Scarani-Acin-Ribordy-Gisin (SARG04) protocol. This protocol uses the same four states as in Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) and differs only in the classical postprocessing protocol. It is, thus, interesting to see how the classical postprocessing of quantum key distribution might qualitatively change its security. We also show that one can generate an unconditionally secure key from the single to the four-photon part in a generalized SARG04 protocol that uses six states. Finally, we also compare the bit error rate threshold of these protocols with the one in the BB84 protocol and the original six-state protocol assuming a depolarizing channel.

  11. Migrant Farmworkers in the United States. Implementation of the Helsinki Accords. Briefings of the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (July 20, 1992; October 9, 1992; February 19, 1993; March 1, 1993; April 8, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, Washington, DC.

    The Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) monitors and encourages human rights compliance by signatories of the Helsinki Final Act of 1975. Language pertaining to migrant workers is found in all major CSCE documents, and the examination of migrant farmworker issues represents part of the Commission's ongoing review of U.S.…

  12. S.2058: This act may be cited as the Department of Energy National Security Act for Fiscal Year 1999, introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, May 11, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This bill is to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 1999 for defense activities of the Department of Energy, and for other purposes. Topics addressed in the bill include DOE national security programs including recurring general provisions and program authorizations, restrictions,and limitations; defense nuclear facilities safety board; national defense stockpile; naval petroleum reserves; and Panama Canal commission.

  13. Welfare: Reform or Replacement? (Child Support Enforcement---II). Hearing before the Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy of the Committee on Finance. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Finance.

    This transcript is from the third in a series of hearings before the Senate Subcommittee on Social Security and Family Policy focusing on whether the present welfare system should be reformed or replaced. A series of public officials, child and family advocates, and other interested parties testified on the issue of enforcement of child support…

  14. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  15. Double layer secure sketch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cai

    2012-09-01

    Secure sketch has been applied successfully in a wide variety of applications like cryptography, biometric authentication systems and so on. All of these secure sketches have properties in common namely error-tolerance and small entropy loss. The former ensures an input set w' can unlock the system if w' is substantially overlapped with a template set w while the latter means it is hard for an adversary to get the information of w even with the knowledge of s, which is produced by w and stored in the system publicly. In their constructions, they all consider w as a set of atomic elements. However, in the real word, it is very likely the elements in the template set are sets as well. In this paper, we propose a double layer secure sketch to address this issue.

  16. Secure medical digital libraries.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, I; Chrissikopoulos, V; Polemi, D

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a secure medical digital library is presented. It is based on the CORBA specifications for distributed systems. The described approach relies on a three-tier architecture. Interaction between the medical digital library and its users is achieved through a Web server. The choice of employing Web technology for the dissemination of medical data has many advantages compared to older approaches, but also poses extra requirements that need to be fulfilled. Thus, special attention is paid to the distinguished nature of such medical data, whose integrity and confidentiality should be preserved at all costs. This is achieved through the employment of Trusted Third Parties (TTP) technology for the support of the required security services. Additionally, the proposed digital library employs smartcards for the management of the various security tokens that are used from the above services.

  17. Unfalsifiability of security claims.

    PubMed

    Herley, Cormac

    2016-06-01

    There is an inherent asymmetry in computer security: Things can be declared insecure by observation, but not the reverse. There is no observation that allows us to declare an arbitrary system or technique secure. We show that this implies that claims of necessary conditions for security (and sufficient conditions for insecurity) are unfalsifiable. This in turn implies an asymmetry in self-correction: Whereas the claim that countermeasures are sufficient is always subject to correction, the claim that they are necessary is not. Thus, the response to new information can only be to ratchet upward: Newly observed or speculated attack capabilities can argue a countermeasure in, but no possible observation argues one out. Further, when justifications are unfalsifiable, deciding the relative importance of defensive measures reduces to a subjective comparison of assumptions. Relying on such claims is the source of two problems: once we go wrong we stay wrong and errors accumulate, and we have no systematic way to rank or prioritize measures.

  18. Port and Harbor Security

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  19. Food Security: A Climatological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) is leading the WeatCliFS consortium of international scientific unions to examine weather, climate and food security as well as to look at the interaction of food security and geophysical phenomena. The following fundamental question underpins WeatCliFS: What technologies and methodologies are required to assess the vulnerability of people and places to hazards [such as famine] - and how might these be used at a variety of spatial scales? This talk will review the historical link between climate, drought and food supplies; examine the Australian and international situation; summarise the response of the scientific community and point out the direction for future research.

  20. Cyber Security Evaluation Tool

    2009-08-03

    CSET is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to assess their control system network security practices against recognized industry standards. The output from CSET is a prioritized list of recommendations for improving the cyber security posture of your organization’s ICS or enterprise network. CSET derives the recommendations from a database of cybersecurity standards, guidelines, and practices. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied tomore » enhance cybersecurity controls.« less

  1. Strategy for IT Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, S. Scott; Moyles, Thomas J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the importance of information technology (IT) security (ITS) to NASA's mission. Several points are made concerning the subject. In order for ITS to be successful, it must be supported by management. NASA, while required by law to keep the public informed of its pursuits, must take precautions due to possible IT-based incursions by computer hackers and other malignant persons. Fear is an excellent motivation for establishing and maintaining a robust ITS policy. The ways in which NASA ITS personnel continually increase security are manifold, however a great deal relies upon the active involvement of the entire NASA community.

  2. Cyber Security Evaluation Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2009-08-03

    CSET is a desktop software tool that guides users through a step-by-step process to assess their control system network security practices against recognized industry standards. The output from CSET is a prioritized list of recommendations for improving the cyber security posture of your organization’s ICS or enterprise network. CSET derives the recommendations from a database of cybersecurity standards, guidelines, and practices. Each recommendation is linked to a set of actions that can be applied to enhance cybersecurity controls.

  3. Profiles of Food Security for US Farmworker Households and Factors Related to Dynamic of Change

    PubMed Central

    Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We recruited 248 farmworker families with preschool-aged children in North Carolina and examined food security indicators over 24 months to identify food security patterns and examine the dynamic of change over time. Methods. Participants in the Niños Sanos study, conducted 2011 to 2014, completed quarterly food security assessments. Based on responses to items in the US Household Food Security Survey Module, we identified different states of food security by using hidden Markov model analysis, and examined factors associated with different states. We delineated factors associated with changes in state by using mixed-effect ordinal logistic regression. Results. About half of the households (51%) consistently stayed in the most food-secure state. The least food-secure state was transient, with only 29% probability of this state for 2 consecutive quarters. Seasonal (vs migrant) work status, having immigration documents (vs not documented), and season predicted higher levels of food security. Conclusions. Heterogeneity in food security among farmworker households calls for tailoring intervention strategies. The transiency and unpredictability of low food security suggest that access to safety-net programs could reduce low food security risk in this population. PMID:26270304

  4. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists. PMID:26399948

  5. Secure quantum signatures using insecure quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Ryan; Wallden, Petros; Kent, Adrian; Andersson, Erika

    2016-03-01

    Digital signatures are widely used in modern communication to guarantee authenticity and transferability of messages. The security of currently used classical schemes relies on computational assumptions. We present a quantum signature scheme that does not require trusted quantum channels. We prove that it is unconditionally secure against the most general coherent attacks, and show that it requires the transmission of significantly fewer quantum states than previous schemes. We also show that the quantum channel noise threshold for our scheme is less strict than for distilling a secure key using quantum key distribution. This shows that "direct" quantum signature schemes can be preferable to signature schemes relying on secret shared keys generated using quantum key distribution.

  6. Photonic sensor applications in transportation security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David A.

    2007-09-01

    There is a broad range of security sensing applications in transportation that can be facilitated by using fiber optic sensors and photonic sensor integrated wireless systems. Many of these vital assets are under constant threat of being attacked. It is important to realize that the threats are not just from terrorism but an aging and often neglected infrastructure. To specifically address transportation security, photonic sensors fall into two categories: fixed point monitoring and mobile tracking. In fixed point monitoring, the sensors monitor bridge and tunnel structural health and environment problems such as toxic gases in a tunnel. Mobile tracking sensors are being designed to track cargo such as shipboard cargo containers and trucks. Mobile tracking sensor systems have multifunctional sensor requirements including intrusion (tampering), biochemical, radiation and explosives detection. This paper will review the state of the art of photonic sensor technologies and their ability to meet the challenges of transportation security.

  7. Security implications and governance of cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kosal, Margaret E; Huang, Jonathan Y

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, significant efforts have been made toward elucidating the potential of the human brain. Spanning fields as disparate as psychology, biomedicine, computer science, mathematics, electrical engineering, and chemistry, research venturing into the growing domains of cognitive neuroscience and brain research has become fundamentally interdisciplinary. Among the most interesting and consequential applications to international security are the military and defense community's interests in the potential of cognitive neuroscience findings and technologies. In the United States, multiple governmental agencies are actively pursuing such endeavors, including the Department of Defense, which has invested over $3 billion in the last decade to conduct research on defense-related innovations. This study explores governance and security issues surrounding cognitive neuroscience research with regard to potential security-related applications and reports scientists' views on the role of researchers in these areas through a survey of over 200 active cognitive neuroscientists.

  8. Analysis of Vehicle-Based Security Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jason M; Paul, Nate R

    2015-01-01

    Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications promises to increase roadway safety by providing each vehicle with 360 degree situational awareness of other vehicles in proximity, and by complementing onboard sensors such as radar or camera in detecting imminent crash scenarios. In the United States, approximately three hundred million automobiles could participate in a fully deployed V2V system if Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) device use becomes mandatory. The system s reliance on continuous communication, however, provides a potential means for unscrupulous persons to transmit false data in an attempt to cause crashes, create traffic congestion, or simply render the system useless. V2V communications must be highly scalable while retaining robust security and privacy preserving features to meet the intra-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication requirements for a growing vehicle population. Oakridge National Research Laboratory is investigating a Vehicle-Based Security System (VBSS) to provide security and privacy for a fully deployed V2V and V2I system. In the VBSS an On-board Unit (OBU) generates short-term certificates and signs Basic Safety Messages (BSM) to preserve privacy and enhance security. This work outlines a potential VBSS structure and its operational concepts; it examines how a vehicle-based system might feasibly provide security and privacy, highlights remaining challenges, and explores potential mitigations to address those challenges. Certificate management alternatives that attempt to meet V2V security and privacy requirements have been examined previously by the research community including privacy-preserving group certificates, shared certificates, and functional encryption. Due to real-world operational constraints, adopting one of these approaches for VBSS V2V communication is difficult. Timely misbehavior detection and revocation are still open problems for any V2V system. We explore the alternative approaches that may be

  9. Decoy state quantum key distribution with modified coherent state

    SciTech Connect

    Yin Zhenqiang; Han Zhengfu; Sun Fangwen; Guo Guangcan

    2007-07-15

    To beat photon-number splitting attack, decoy state quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the coherent state has been studied widely. We present a decoy state QKD protocol with a modified coherent state (MCS). By destructive quantum interference, a MCS with fewer multiphoton events can be obtained, which may improve the key bit rate and security distance of QKD. Through numerical simulation, we show about a 2-dB increment on the security distance for Bennett-Brassard (1984) protocol.

  10. Threats to financial system security

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.

    1997-06-01

    The financial system in the United States is slowly migrating from the bricks and mortar of banks on the city square to branch banks, ATM`s, and now direct linkage through computers to the home. Much work has been devoted to the security problems inherent in protecting property and people. The impact of attacks on the information aspects of the financial system has, however, received less attention. Awareness is raised through publicized events such as the junk bond fraud perpetrated by Milken or gross mismanagement in the failure of the Barings Bank through unsupervised trading activities by Leeson in Singapore. These events, although seemingly large (financial losses may be on the order of several billion dollars), are but small contributors to the estimated $114 billion loss to all types of financial fraud in 1993. Most of the losses can be traced to the contribution of many small attacks perpetrated against a variety of vulnerable components and systems. This paper explores the magnitude of these financial system losses and identifies new areas for security to be applied to high consequence events.

  11. 75 FR 28673 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and... overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  12. 77 FR 27110 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... focus on an examination of corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive... committee reports, a global threat overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  13. 75 FR 6250 - Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... corporate security policies and procedures and will involve extensive discussion of trade secrets and... overview, and other matters relating to private sector security policies and protective programs and the... Security Advisory Council (OSAC) Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting The Department of State announces a...

  14. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the strength of our national economy and the capacity of the United States to meet national security... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  15. 15 CFR 705.4 - Criteria for determining effect of imports on the national security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the strength of our national economy and the capacity of the United States to meet national security... imports on the national security. 705.4 Section 705.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  16. 6 CFR 37.43 - Physical security of DMV production facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ID DRIVER'S LICENSES AND IDENTIFICATION CARDS Security at DMVs and Driver's License and Identification Card Production Facilities § 37.43 Physical security of DMV production facilities. (a) States must ensure the physical security of facilities where driver's licenses and identification cards are...

  17. The Impact of Migration Processes on the National Security of Kazakhstan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korganova, Saipzhamal S.; Taubayeva, Mirash Y.; Sultanov, Serik A.; Rysbayeva, Saule Zh.; Sultanova, Valida I.; Zhumabekov, Madiyr U.; Raximshikova, Mavluda K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of migration processes on the national security of Kazakhstan. However, it should be noted that national security is an expression of national interests and it is provided by means of resources and efforts of a particular state. Consequently, social security is an expression of the public…

  18. 31 CFR 403.1 - Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and coins authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and other securities and coins authorized. 403.1 Section 403.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT COUNTERFEIT OBLIGATIONS AND OTHER SECURITIES AND COINS OF THE UNITED STATES OR OF ANY FOREIGN GOVERNMENT § 403.1 Delivery of counterfeit obligations and other securities and...

  19. 76 FR 72495 - Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for Determination of Preemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Alabama Metal Coil Securement Act; Petition for... determination that the State of Alabama's Metal Coil Securement Act is preempted by Federal law. FMCSA requests comments on what effect, if any, Alabama's metal coil load securement certification requirements may...

  20. Security and Vulnerability Assessment of Social Media Sites: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen; Zhao, Sherry Y.

    2015-01-01

    While the growing popularity of social media has brought many benefits to society, it has also resulted in privacy and security threats. The authors assessed the security and vulnerability of 50 social media sites. The findings indicate that most sites (a) posted privacy and security policies but only a minority stated clearly their execution of…

  1. Information Technology Security Professionals' Knowledge and Use Intention Based on UTAUT Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassa, Woldeloul

    2016-01-01

    Information technology (IT) security threats and vulnerabilities have become a major concern for organizations in the United States. However, there has been little research on assessing the effect of IT security professionals' knowledge on the use of IT security controls. This study examined the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology…

  2. 31 CFR 344.8 - What other provisions apply to subscriptions for Demand Deposit securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEBT U.S. TREASURY SECURITIES-STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERIES Demand Deposit Securities § 344.8 What...? The subscriber must fix the issue date of each security in the subscription. You cannot change the issue date to require issuance earlier or later than the issue date originally specified;...

  3. Selecting RMF Controls for National Security Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Witzke, Edward L.

    2015-08-01

    In 2014, the United States Department of Defense started tra nsitioning the way it performs risk management and accreditation of informatio n systems to a process entitled Risk Management Framework for DoD Information Technology or RMF for DoD IT. There are many more security and privacy contro ls (and control enhancements) from which to select in RMF, than there w ere in the previous Information Assurance process. This report is an attempt t o clarify the way security controls and enhancements are selected. After a brief overview and comparison of RMF for DoD I T with the previously used process, this report looks at the determination of systems as National Security Systems (NSS). Once deemed to be an NSS, this report addr esses the categorization of the information system with respect to impact level s of the various security objectives and the selection of an initial baseline o f controls. Next, the report describes tailoring the controls through the use of overl ays and scoping considerations. Finally, the report discusses organizatio n-defined values for tuning the security controls to the needs of the information system.

  4. The Security Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the creation of a comprehensive security strategy for schools, including the importance of tailoring it to a specific school's mission and culture. Describes three classes of tactics (natural, organized, and technical) which can be chosen to implement the strategy. Discusses access control as an example of how strategies and tactics…

  5. Designs on Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubler, Gary L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses design options that can help create a more secure education environment and help staff to supervise students and reduce outside interruptions that can disrupt the learning experience. Suggestions include eliminating stairwells, placing teacher planning rooms strategically along main corridors where they can keep an eye on students, and…

  6. Energy and National Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelson, Philip H.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed in this editorial is the need for a broad and detailed government policy on energy use. Oil companies can not be given complete responsibility to demonstrate usage of different energy sources. The government should construct plants because energy is connected with national security. (PS)

  7. Security: Step by Step

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svetcov, Eric

    2005-01-01

    This article provides a list of the essential steps to keeping a school's or district's network safe and sound. It describes how to establish a security architecture and approach that will continually evolve as the threat environment changes over time. The article discusses the methodology for implementing this approach and then discusses the…

  8. Metaphors for cyber security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Parrott, Lori K.; Karas, Thomas H.

    2008-08-01

    This report is based upon a workshop, called 'CyberFest', held at Sandia National Laboratories on May 27-30, 2008. Participants in the workshop came from organizations both outside and inside Sandia. The premise of the workshop was that thinking about cyber security from a metaphorical perspective could lead to a deeper understanding of current approaches to cyber defense and perhaps to some creative new approaches. A wide range of metaphors was considered, including those relating to: military and other types of conflict, biological, health care, markets, three-dimensional space, and physical asset protection. These in turn led to consideration of a variety of possible approaches for improving cyber security in the future. From the proposed approaches, three were formulated for further discussion. These approaches were labeled 'Heterogeneity' (drawing primarily on the metaphor of biological diversity), 'Motivating Secure Behavior' (taking a market perspective on the adoption of cyber security measures) and 'Cyber Wellness' (exploring analogies with efforts to improve individual and public health).

  9. Reporters, Curators, Security Chiefs...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Opportunities for employment other than faculty positions in colleges and universities are explored, and the stories of a number of nonfaculty personnel in such areas as computer technology, security, public relations, admissions, sports information, museums, and glee club are recounted. These employees offer insights into how they obtained their…

  10. Today's School Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of violence at education institutions typically do not rise to the horrific levels of Virginia Tech, Columbine High School, or Oikos University. But incidents that threaten school security--bullying, hazing, online harassment--take place in every month of the year and may occur in any classroom or campus from coast to coast. Schools and…

  11. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. What Price Security?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Dale

    1983-01-01

    A National Academy panel evaluates trade-offs between dangers to national security that arise from technology transfers and threats to the openness of scientific communication that are caused by too much secrecy. Major conclusions/suggestions are discussed. A list of acquisitions from the West affecting Soviet military technology is included.…

  13. Designing Secure Library Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on designing a library network to maximize security. Discusses UNIX and file servers; connectivity to campus, corporate networks and the Internet; separation of staff from public servers; controlling traffic; the threat of network sniffers; hubs that eliminate eavesdropping; dividing the network into subnets; Switched Ethernet;…

  14. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  15. Mastering Mobile Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panettieri, Joseph C.

    2007-01-01

    Without proper security, mobile devices are easy targets for worms, viruses, and so-called robot ("bot") networks. Hackers increasingly use bot networks to launch massive attacks against eCommerce websites--potentially targeting one's online tuition payment or fundraising/financial development systems. How can one defend his mobile systems against…

  16. Inequities in Income Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenman, Linda

    1976-01-01

    Whether women choose to work in the home or in business, they receive the worst of both worlds in terms of protection against poverty. The author describes how the income security program discriminates against women and presents ways of eliminating the injustice. (Author)

  17. Campus [in] Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collett, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    Community colleges, while safe, are not immune to violence. In the wake of the Virginia Tech shootings, community colleges are committed to making campuses safer. From training first responders to understanding and identifying potential threats, the author describes what schools are doing to eradicate their so-called [in] securities and improve…

  18. Safe and Secure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    Since the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, student interest in school programs dealing with careers in law, public safety, and national security is on the rise. This article describes students' experiences at the Academy for Law and Public Safety at Butler High School in Butler, New Jersey. This vocational academy is one of a number of career…

  19. Safe and Secure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The education headlines have been filled with grim news about facility closings, teacher layoffs and program cutbacks. When the economic climate is gloomy, few areas of schools and universities are spared. In areas outside the classroom, such as safety and security, the cuts may be larger and come more quickly. When money is scarce, education…

  20. A network security monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Heberlein, L.T.; Dias, G.V.; Levitt, K.N.; Mukherjee, B.; Wood, J.; Wolber, D. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1989-11-01

    The study of security in computer networks is a rapidly growing area of interest because of the proliferation of networks and the paucity of security measures in most current networks. Since most networks consist of a collection of inter-connected local area networks (LANs), this paper concentrates on the security-related issues in a single broadcast LAN such as Ethernet. Specifically, we formalize various possible network attacks and outline methods of detecting them. Our basic strategy is to develop profiles of usage of network resources and then compare current usage patterns with the historical profile to determine possible security violations. Thus, our work is similar to the host-based intrusion-detection systems such as SRI's IDES. Different from such systems, however, is our use of a hierarchical model to refine the focus of the intrusion-detection mechanism. We also report on the development of our experimental LAN monitor currently under implementation. Several network attacks have been simulated and results on how the monitor has been able to detect these attacks are also analyzed. Initial results demonstrate that many network attacks are detectable with our monitor, although it can surely be defeated. Current work is focusing on the integration of network monitoring with host-based techniques. 20 refs., 2 figs.