Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Saito, Patrícia Keiko; Yamakawa, Roger Haruki; Watanabe, Maria Angélica Ehara; da Silva Junior, Waldir Veríssimo; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Borelli, Sueli Donizete
Objective To determine the prevalence of the Torque teno virus in healthy donors in the northern and northwestern regions of the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Methods The Torque teno virus was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction using a set of oligoprimers for the N22 region. Results The prevalence of the virus was 69% in 551 healthy blood donors in southern Brazil. There was no statistically significant difference between the presence of the virus and the variables gender, ethnicity and marital status. There was significant difference in the prevalence of the virus regarding the age of the donors (p-value = 0.024) with a higher incidence (74.7%) in 18- to 24-year-old donors. Conclusion A high prevalence of Torque teno virus was observed in the population studied. Further studies are needed to elucidate the routes of contamination and the clinical implications of the virus in the healthy population. PMID:26408369
Silveira, Alessandro C O; Cunha, Gabriela R; Caierão, Juliana; Cordova, Caio M de; d'Azevedo, Pedro A
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most frequently isolated agents in both nosocomial and community settings. It is a constant challenge for antibacterial therapy. Therefore, it becomes essential to understand the epidemiology of MRSA isolates in the institution and/or region to guide empirical therapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of MRSA isolates in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, and determine if there is a clonal spread. We evaluated 124 clinical isolates of MRSA obtained from various anatomical sites from patients in the state of Santa Catarina in Southern Brazil. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was evaluated by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by Etest and broth macrodilution. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR and the clonal relationship among isolates was assessed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobials that have demonstrated lower rates of resistance were tetracycline (20.2%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (20.2%) and chloramphenicol (12.9%). We did not detect any resistance to glycopeptides, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline. SCCmec type III was predominant (54%), followed by type II (21.8%), consistent with other Brazilian studies. Twenty-six clones were observed grouping 72 (58%) isolates and no clonal relationship was observed between our isolates and the major epidemic clones circulating in Brazil. An intriguing distinct MRSA epidemiology was observed in Santa Catarina, compared to other Brazilian regions.
Malaghini, Marcelo; Brockelt, Sonia Regina; Burger, Marion; Kritski, Afrânio; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete
Sequence IS6110 has been successfully used throughout the world for characterizing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages. The aim of this study was to obtain data about circulating strains of M. tuberculosis in patients from the State of Parana in southern Brazil. Sixty-two clinical specimens obtained from sputum, bronchial aspirate, biopsy and urine from 62 patients clinically diagnosed with tuberculosis and admitted to the SUS-Brazil - The Brazilian Centralized Health Service System - were genotyped by the mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting technique. The analysis demonstrated that the number of copies of the IS6110 sequence per isolates varied from four to 13 bands, with an average number of 8.5. From this, 93% of the isolates presented multiple copies. Isolates with no copies of the IS6110 element were not observed. The genetic analysis by UPGMA grouped the 62 isolates by similarity into three different groups: the first group contained two strains, the second was composed of 23, and the third, a more heterogeneous group, contained 37 isolates. Only two isolates (3.2%) formed a cluster; in other words, they presented a pattern of polymorphism with similarity above 95%. Such findings suggest that in the State of Parana, illness predominantly develops through reactivation of the latent infection as opposed to exogenous transmission. The methodology used (mixed-linker PCR DNA fingerprinting) allowed for 93.5% differentiation of the isolates tested, and proved to be a powerful tool for differentiation in the molecular genotyping of M. tuberculosis.
Figueiredo Voizzoni, Vinicius; Barbosa Silva, Arannadia; Medeiros Cardoso, Karen; Barbosa Dos Santos, Fernanda; Stenzel, Barbara; Amorim, Marinete; Vilges de Oliveira, Stefan; Salles Gazeta, Gilberto
Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest causes a less severe rickettsiosis, with two cases confirmed until now. The tick species Amblyomma ovale is appointed as the main vector of this bacterium. The southern region of Brazil has reported patients with spotted fever who have milder symptoms. In 2013, during an investigation of rickettsiosis cases, an A. ovale tick was found attached to a man in an area where there were two cases. The parasite was processed for molecular analysis and the rickettsial infection was confirmed based on phylogenetic analysis of genes ompA, ompB and geneD (sca4). In the present study the human pathogenic Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest was identified in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Since A. ovale, its main vector, is found frequently parasitizing dogs, animals that can cross international borders freely in southern Brazil, this bacteria can bring major concerns in terms of public health.
The soft tick Ornithodoros brasiliensis (Acari: Argasidae) is present in farms along the highlands of Rio Grande do Sul state in southern Brazil. Reports of human parasitism by O. brasiliensis drew the attention of local health authorities. A preliminary epidemiological survey was conducted to ident...
Costa, L M; Esbérard, C E L
Since the 1990s, attacks by hematophagous bats on humans and domestic animals have been reported both on the continent and on the islands on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The density of vampire bats was investigated based on percentage of captures during control of Desmodus rotundus samplings and during bat diversity research. In the present work, 203 individuals of D. rotundus were captured from 1993 to 2009, which corresponds to 11.88% of all bat captures carried out for species control in local villages and 1.58% of all captures in faunistic inventories. The density of D. rotundus is high even on the recently occupied islands where domestic animals have been introduced. It is probable that this species dispersed from the continent to the islands due to the introduction of domestic animals.
Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Schörner, Marcos André; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Figueiredo, Anna Carolina Cançado; Oliveira, Jaquelline Germano de; Rovaris, Darcita Bürger; Bazzo, Maria Luiza
Drug resistance is a global threat and one of the main contributing factors to tuberculosis (TB) outbreaks. The goal of this study was to analyse the molecular profile of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil. Fifty-three MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates were analysed by spoligotyping and a partial region of the rpoB gene, which is associated with rifampicin resistance (RMP-R), was sequenced. Some isolates were also distinguished by their mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units (MIRU). S531L was the most prevalent mutation found within rpoB in RMP-R isolates (58.5%), followed by S531W (20.8%). Only two MDR isolates showed no mutations within rpoB. Isolates of the Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) family were the most prevalent (45.3%) found by spoligotyping, followed by Haarlem (9.4%) and T (7.5%) families. SIT106 was found in 26.4% of isolates and all SIT106 isolates typed by MIRU-12 (5 out of 14) belong to MIT251. There was a high correlation between the S531W mutation and the LAM family mainly because all SIT2263 (LAM9) isolates carry this mutation. Among isolates with the S531W mutation in rpoB MIRU demonstrates a cluster formed by four isolates (SIT2263 and MIT163) and very similar profiles were observed between eight of the nine isolates. Better characterisation of TB isolates may lead to new ways in which to control and treat TB in this region of Brazil.
Lima, Gustavo Costalunga; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Casarin, Letícia Sopeña; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most frequent foodborne illnesses worldwide and it is caused by the ingestion of food contaminated with enterotoxins produced by some strains of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, S. aureus has been identified as the second most frequent agent of foodborne illnesses in the last two decades. The aim of the present study was to assess and analyse the epidemiological data of S. aureus food poisoning occurred in the State of RS during the years of 2000 to 2002. The official records of epidemiological investigations carried out by the Sanitary Surveillance Services of the State of RS were analysed. Among foodborne outbreaks for which aetiology was determined, S. aureus was identified as the responsible agent of 57 foodborne outbreaks, being 42 (74%) confirmed by microbiological analyses and 15 (26%) confirmed by clinical symptoms and/or epidemiological data. Staphylococcal outbreaks were responsible for the exposition of 5,991 persons, of which 1,940 (32%) were interviewed by the Sanitary Surveillance officers. The most affected age group corresponded to people with 20 to 49 years old (48%), where men (48%) and women (52%) were affected similarly. The main involved food vehicles were meats servings (35%), followed by pastries (25%), cheese (23%), pasta (11%) and potato salad with homemade mayonnaise (11%). The majority of the outbreaks occurred inside private homes (33%) followed by commercial food establishments (28%). Inadequate control of temperature and failures in general hygiene practices were identified as the main factors responsible for the outbreaks. In conclusion, S. aureus was an important food poisoning etiological agent in the State of RS during 2000 to 2002 and its prevention depends on control measures involving different parts of the food chain. PMID:24516420
The Federative Republic of Brazil has yesterday signed the formal accession agreement paving the way for it to become a Member State of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Following government ratification Brazil will become the fifteenth Member State and the first from outside Europe. On 29 December 2010, at a ceremony in Brasilia, the Brazilian Minister of Science and Technology, Sergio Machado Rezende and the ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw signed the formal accession agreement aiming to make Brazil a Member State of the European Southern Observatory. Brazil will become the fifteen Member State and the first from outside Europe. Since the agreement means accession to an international convention, the agreement must now be submitted to the Brazilian Parliament for ratification . The signing of the agreement followed the unanimous approval by the ESO Council during an extraordinary meeting on 21 December 2010. "Joining ESO will give new impetus to the development of science, technology and innovation in Brazil as part of the considerable efforts our government is making to keep the country advancing in these strategic areas," says Rezende. The European Southern Observatory has a long history of successful involvement with South America, ever since Chile was selected as the best site for its observatories in 1963. Until now, however, no non-European country has joined ESO as a Member State. "The membership of Brazil will give the vibrant Brazilian astronomical community full access to the most productive observatory in the world and open up opportunities for Brazilian high-tech industry to contribute to the European Extremely Large Telescope project. It will also bring new resources and skills to the organisation at the right time for them to make a major contribution to this exciting project," adds ESO Director General, Tim de Zeeuw. The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) telescope design phase was recently completed and a major review was
de Almeida, Marco Antônio Barreto; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Cruz Cardoso, Jader; da Fonseca, Daltro Fernandes; Noll, Carlos Alberto; Silveira, Vivian Regina; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; de Souza, Renato Pereira; Kanamura, Cristina; Brasil, Roosecelis Araújo
The natural transmission cycle of Yellow Fever (YF) involves tree hole breeding mosquitoes and a wide array of nonhuman primates (NHP), including monkeys and apes. Some Neotropical monkeys (howler monkeys, genus Alouatta) develop fatal YF virus (YFV) infections similar to those reported in humans, even with minimum exposure to the infection. Epizootics in wild primates may be indicating YFV circulation, and the surveillance of such outbreaks in wildlife is an important tool to help prevent human infection. In 2001, surveillance activities successfully identified YF-related death in a black-and-gold howler monkey (Alouatta caraya), Rio Grande do Sul State (RGS) in southern Brazil, and the YFV was isolated from a species of forest-dwelling mosquito (Haemagogus leucocelaenus). These findings led the State Secretariat of Health to initiate a monitoring program for YF and other 18 arboviral infections in Alouatta monkeys. The monitoring program included monkey captures, reporting of monkey casualties by municipalities, and subsequent investigations. If monkey carcasses were found in forests, samples were collected in a standardized manner and this practice resulted in increased reporting of outbreaks. In October 2008, a single howler monkey in a northwestern RGS municipality was confirmed to have died from YF. From October 2008 to June 2009, 2,013 monkey deaths were reported (830 A. caraya and 1,183 A. guariba clamitans). Viruses isolation in blood, viscera, and/or immunohistochemistry led to the detection of YF in 204 of 297 (69%) (154 A. g. clamitans and 50 A. caraya) dead Alouatta monkeys tested. The number of municipalities with confirmed YFV circulation in howlers increased from 2 to 67 and 21 confirmed human cases occurred. This surveillance system was successful in identifying the largest YF outbreak affecting wild NHP ever recorded.
NUNES, Juliana Barbosa; LAURENTI, Márcia Dalastra; KANAMURA, Herminia Yohko; PEREIRA, Alessandro Antônio Costa; COLOMBO, Fabio Antonio; MARQUES, Marcos José
SUMMARY Visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic and chronic disease and dogs are the main reservoir of the etiologic agent, Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi). A serological and molecular investigation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) was performed in the municipality of Alfenas, located in the southern region of Minas Gerais, where the disease is not endemic. Samples from 87 dogs were submitted to serological tests including the Dual Path Platform (DPP(r) ) CVL Bio-Manguinhos rapid test, an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and an immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), as well as molecular techniques such as a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the RV1/RV2 primers and a quantitative PCR (qPCR) with the LinJ31, Ldon and DNApol primers. Of the 87 serum samples, eight (9.2%) were positive for Leishmania using the DPP rapid test, but only four (4.6%) were confirmed by ELISA and two (2.3%) by IFAT. In these two serologically confirmed cases, spleen and liver samples were positive by all the employed molecular and parasitological procedures performed on spleen samples. When whole blood samples were used in the molecular assays, two samples (2.3%) were positive only by qPCR. DNA extracted and amplified from the spleens of seropositive dogs was sequenced, showing 100% of similarity with the Leishmania infantum (syn L. chagasi) sequence. Thus, the first cases of CVL have been confirmed in the Alfenas region, suggesting the importance of canine surveys in non-endemic municipalities for CVL to monitor disease progression and to prevent outbreaks. PMID:27828616
Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes
Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.
Silveira, T G; Arraes, S M; Bertolini, D A; Teodoro, U; Lonardoni, M V; Roberto, A C; Ramos, M; Nerilo Sobrinho, A; Ishikawa, E; Shaw, J
Between 1986 and 1997 a total of 1418 patients were examined at the Clinical Analysis Teaching and Research Laboratory of Maringá State University (LEPAC/UEM) for cutaneous leishmaniasis by direct examination of stained smears made from the lesions, the Montenegro skin test and the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Nine hundred and fifty five patients (67.3%) were positive for at least one of the three tests and of these 804 (84.2%) were considered to have contracted the disease in Paraná State; 665 (69.6%) were between 15 and 49 years old; 658 (68.9%) were males; 523 (54.8%) sought medical advice during the first three months of their infections and 74 (7.7%) had mucosal lesions. Of the 83 counties of Paraná State, where the patients had most probably acquired their infections, 44.7% were from the counties of São Jorge do Ivaí (10.2%), Doutor Camargo (9.8%), Terra Boa (7.3%), Maringá (7.3%), Jussara (6.0%) and Cianorte (4.5%). Seventy seven strains of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis were isolated and 63.6% of these strains belong to serodema 1.
Nagata, Renato Mitsuo; Júnior, Miodeli Nogueira; Haddad, Maria Angélica
This study is the first faunistic inventory of hydromedusae from the inner continental shelf of Paraná State. We describe the composition of hydromedusae species, collected with bottom-trawl and Hensen nets, in campaigns carried out from 1997 to 2006. We analyzed 17,797 specimens from 578 samples, and provide descriptions, photographs, and information about the biology of the 22 species found. All species had previous records from the Brazilian coast; however, this is the first record of Bougainvillia frondosa, Ectopleura dumortieri, Cirrholovenia tetranema, Eucheilota maculata, Gossea brachymera, Solmaris corona, and Amphogona apsteini for the coast of Paraná. Most species are typical of tropical and subtropical coastal waters from the South Brazilian Bight. However, Turritopsis nutricula, Niobia dendrotentaculata, Solmaris corona, and Aglaura hemistoma are abundant in oceanic waters, and Olindias sambaquiensis and Solmaris corona are associated with colder waters (<20°C). The current number of species known for the state is 26. Additional collection effort is needed in regions not sampled in this work, such as bays and offshore waters.
de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Cella, Wilsandrei; Massafera, Rubens; Silva, Natália Maria Maciel Guerra; Marqui, Reinaldo; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Teodoro, Ueslei
SUMMARY This study reports the fauna and frequency of sandflies in domestic animal shelters, residences and other ecotopes in rural areas of the municipality of Bandeirantes, Paraná State. Sandflies were collected twice in eight rural villages by using Falcon traps from 8pm to 6am in 2008. In these localities 4,790 sandflies were collected, which were represented by ten sandfly species, prevailing of Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani species. It was observed that animal shelters are the domestic ecotopes where there is the greatest frequency of these insects. The localities where the collections were made had the environmental characteristics that allow the persistence of transmission of parasites from the American tegumentary leishmaniasis. Although the fauna and the behavior of sandflies species are similar in different localities, the method of controlling these insects should be adjusted to the environmental characteristics of each one of the most diverse endemic areas of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipalities of Paraná State. PMID:24213193
Barth, Ortrud Monika; Pinto Da Luz, Cynthia Fernandes
Tropical Vochysiaceae includes mainly trees, and also shrubs and subshrubs. Three genera and seven species are present in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. The pollen morphology of six species of trees, belonging to three genera of the Vochysiaceae A. St-Hil. family, was studied. Herbaria samples were obtained, processed and treated by standard methods. The pollen grain morphology of Callisthene, Qualea and Vochysia is distinct. Medium sized pollen grains occur in Vochysia species, and small ones in Callisthene and Qualea. Specific characteristics were considered at species level [C. castellanosii H. F. Martins, C. kuhlmannii H. F. Martins, Qualea cordata Spreng var. cordata, Q. cryptantha (Spreng) Warm. var. cryptantha, Vochysia magnifica Warm. and V. tucanorum Mart.]. The presence ofa fastigium (vestibulum) and a thin space devoid of nexine fixing the boundary of the apertural area is characteristic of Qualea and Vochysia species only.
Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Kux, H. J. H.; Valeriano, D. D. M.
The coal mining district in southeastern Santa Catarina State is considered one of the most polluted areas of Brazil. The author has identified significant preliminary results on the application of MSS-LANDSAT digital data to monitor the coal refuse areas and its environmental consequences in this region.
Juffo, Gregory Duarte; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Gomes, Danilo Carloto; Wurster, Fabiana; Pissetti, Caroline; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti; Driemeier, David
The Salmonella sp. genus is identified in several species, and the zoonosis it causes is one of the most important types worldwide. The specifics of salmonellosis vary according to the function of the serovar involved, the species affected, age and predisposing factors. However, few cases of equine salmonellosis have been reported. This study presents ten confirmed salmonellosis cases in equines in southern Brazil. Six were adult animals with stress factors preceding the disease, while four were foals, three of which presented with hyperacute manifestations. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, anorexia, and hyperthermia. Lesions varied in distribution and severity, although fibrinonecrotic or necrohemorrhagic enteritis was observed in all animals, mainly in the large intestine (large colon and cecum-8/10) and small intestine (3/10). Substantial liquid content, mainly hemorrhagic, was observed in all animals. The most characteristic microscopic lesion was mucosa necrosis, which is often accompanied by fibrin deposition, followed by necrosis of follicular centers and vascular changes. Bacterial isolation revealed seven isolates. Five were serotyped, and the serovars Typhimurium and Anatum were associated with two cases each, while Muenster was associated with a case whose lesion pattern varied. Immunohistochemical staining was positive in all cases. All diagnoses were based on the clinical history, macroscopic and histological lesions, and the bacterial isolation and/or immunostaining associated with histological lesions.
Novaes, Marcos Carneiro; Bispo, Pitágoras Da Conceição
Specimens of Perlidae (Plecoptera) deposited in the Entomological Collection "Padre Jesus S. Moure" of the Universidade Federal do Paraná and additional material recently collected in Paraná and Santa Catarina states, Brazil were studied. Six previously described species were identified, Anacroneuria debilis (Pictet, 1841), A. cathia Froehlich, 2002, A. polita (Burmeister, 1839), A. trimacula Jewett, 1959, Kempnyia neotropica (Jacoson and Bianchi, 1905) and K. colossica (Navás, 1934). Additionally, a new species, Anacroneuria iguazu n. sp is described.
de la Rue, Mario L
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is very common in the southern part of Rio Grande do Sul State where sheep and cattle raising is the most important economical activity. Prevalence in intermediate hosts is well known due to reports in slaughterhouses while human reports are of discussed value. This is due to underreporting of cases and few epidemiological studies make it difficult to assess the situation of echinococcosis in the population. Whereas cattle infection rate is more or less stable around 12% of the slaughter animals, in sheep there has been an increasing number in the last five years. Some efforts have been done to control the zoonosis but no effective results were obtained so far. Probably educational efforts to change human practices (feeding dogs with raw viscera), periodic treatment of dogs with praziquantel and joined actions with slaughterhouses could bring more attention to improve some control measures.
Noguti, Erika Noda; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Malaspina, Ana Carolina; Santos, Adolfo Carlos Barreto; Hirata, Rosário Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Mamizuka, Elsa Massae; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti
The purpose of this study was to provide information about the genetic diversity and prevalent genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a low-endemic setting in northwestern state of Paraná in Southern Brazil. We employed spoligotyping and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) techniques to genotype M. tuberculos isisolates from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The 93 isolates analyzed by spoligotyping were divided into 36 different patterns, 30 of which were described in the SITVIT database. Latin American and Mediterranean, Haarlem and T families were responsible for 26.9%, 17.2% and 11.8% of TB cases, respectively. From the 84 isolates analyzed by MIRU-VNTR, 58 shared a unique pattern and the remaining 26 belonged to nine clusters. The MIRU loci 40, 23, 10 and 16 were the most discriminatory. A combination of MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping resulted in 85.7% discriminatory power (Hunter-Gaston index = 0.995). Thus, combining spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR typing proved to be most useful for epidemiological study in this low-endemic setting in Southern Brazil. The current study demonstrated that there is significant diversity in circulating strains in the city of Maringá and the surrounding regions, with no single genotype of M. tuberculosis predominating.
and W. L. Jakob3 ABSTRACT. Cdex (Mehnoconion) Zopesi, a new species from Municipio Iguape, Estado SBo Paulo, southern Brazil is recognized. The...CostZZo do Eugenho, Municipio Iguape, in SZo Paulo state, southern Brazil in February and March, 1976. This material was found to contain specimens of
Torres, Sandra Regina Rachadel; Uehara, Clineu Julien Seki; Sutter-Latorre, Ana Frederica; de Almeida, Bibiana Sgorla; Sauerbier, Tania Streck; Muniz, Yara Costa Netto; Marrero, Andrea Rita; de Souza, Ilíada Rainha
The application of DNA technology in forensic investigations has grown rapidly in the last 25 years and with an exponential increase of short tandem repeats (STRs) data, usually presented as allele frequencies, that may be later used as databases for forensic and population genetics purposes. Thereby, classes of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions (InDels) have been presented as another option of genetic marker sets. These markers can be used in paternity cases, when mutations in STR polymorphisms are present, as well as in highly degraded DNA analysis. In the present study, the allele frequencies and heterozygosity (H) of a 30 InDel markers set were determined and the forensic efficacy was evaluated through estimation of discrimination power (DP), match probability, typical paternity index and power of paternity exclusion in 108 unrelated volunteers from the State of Santa Catarina (South Brazil). The observed H per locus showed a range between 0.370 and 0.574 (mean = 0.479). HLD128 was the locus with the highest DP (DP = 0.656). DP for all markers combined was greater than 99.9999999999646 % which provides satisfactory levels of information for forensic demands. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed that the population of Santa Catarina State differs from Korea and USA Afro-American populations but is similar to the Portuguese, German, Polish, Spanish and Basque populations.
Monteiro, Cassandra M; Amato, José F R; Amato, Suzana B
Forty-seven specimens of Neotropical cormorants, Phalacrocorax brasilianus, from Lago Guaíba, Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (30° 00' S, 51°15' W), were examined for helminth parasites between 1999 and 2003. Twenty species of helminth parasites were found: ten digeneans: Austrodiplostomum mordax, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Clinostomum sp., Drepanocephalus olivaceus, Drepanocephalus spathans, Hysteromorpha triloba, Ignavia olivacei, Paryphostomum segregatum, Prosthogonimus ovatus, and Ribeiroia ondatrae; one cestode: Paradilepis caballeroi; eight nematodes: Contracaecum rudolphii, Eucoleus contortus, Eustrongylides sp., Ornithocapillaria appendiculata, Syngamus sp., Syncuaria squamata, Tetrameres (Gynaecophila) sp., and one undetermined capillariid (genus and species); and one acanthocephalan: Andracantha tandemtesticulata. The length and weight of male and female birds, as well as their sexual maturity (juvenile or adult), did not show significant difference regarding the helminth fauna; the standard length did not influence the helminth parasite indices. The prevalence of I. olivacei was higher in larger birds while the intensity of infection by this digenean species was higher in females. The abundance of P. caballeroi was higher in male birds. A. mordax and H. triloba showed higher prevalence and abundance in juvenile hosts, while O. appendiculata was more abundant in juveniles. The remaining species did not have their parasite indices influenced by the host parameters studied. The present work records the richest helminth fauna for any bird of the genus Phalacrocorax and is the first study to evaluate the influence of length, weight, sex, and maturity state on parasitism.
Reis, Bárbara Monique dos Santos; Silva, Aline; Alvarez, Martín Roberto; Oliveira, Tássio Brito de; Rodrigues, Andre
Leaf-cutting ants interact with several fungi in addition to the fungal symbiont they cultivate for food. Here, we assessed alien fungal communities in colonies of Atta cephalotes. Fungus garden fragments were sampled from colonies in the Atlantic Rainforest and in a cabruca agrosystem in the state of Bahia (Brazil) in two distinct periods to evaluate whether differences in nest habitat influence the diversity of fungi in the ant colonies. We recovered a total of 403 alien fungi isolates from 628 garden fragments. The prevalent taxa found in these samples were Escovopsis sp. (26 %), Escovopsioides nivea (24 %), and Trichoderma spirale (10.9 %). Fungal diversity was similar between the colonies sampled in both areas suggesting that ants focus on reducing loads of alien fungi in the fungus gardens instead of avoiding specific fungi. However, fungal taxa composition differed between colonies sampled in the two areas and between the sampling periods. These differences are likely explained by the availability of plant substrates available for foraging over habitats and periods. Ordination analysis further supported that sampling period was the main attribute for community structuring but also revealed that additional factors may explain the structuring of fungal communities in colonies of A. cephalotes.
Cussiol, Noil Amorim de Menezes; Rocha, Gustavo Henrique Tetzl; Lange, Liséte Celina
This study investigated potentially infectious waste (feces, urine, blood, body fluids) in the composition of total municipal solid waste. From August to September 2002, solid waste samples from southern Belo Horizonte, capital of the State of Minas Gerais, were collected and sent to the solid waste treatment and disposal site at BR-040 for segregation and quantification. Sharps (objects that can cause cuts or puncture wounds) made up 0.02+/-0.02% of the collected waste, while non-sharps accounted for 5.47+/-1.11%. In the sharps category, the majority were razor blades (0.01+/-0.01%), while among non-sharps the most frequent components were toilet paper (3.00+/-0.90%), diapers (2.21+/-1.08%), and sanitary napkins (0.22+/-0.12%). Household infectious waste was twice the total amount of waste (infectious + common) from healthcare units. The study was discussed in light of the health hazards and safety aspects for formal and informal waste collectors.
Socal, Mariana P.; Amon, Joseph J.
Abstract The impact of increasing numbers of lawsuits for access to medicines in Brazil is hotly debated. Government officials and scholars assert that the “judicialization of health” is driven by urban elites and private interests, and is used primarily to access high-cost drugs. Using a systematic sample of 1,262 lawsuits for access to medicines filed against the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, we assess these claims, offering empirical evidence that counters prevailing myths and affirms the heterogeneity of the judicialization phenomenon. Our findings show that the majority of patient-litigants are in fact poor and older individuals who do not live in major metropolitan areas and who depend on the state to provide their legal representation, and that the majority of medicines requested were already on governmental formularies. Our data challenge arguments that judicialization expands inequities and weakens the universal health care system. Our data also suggest that judicialization may serve as a grassroots instrument for the poor to hold the state accountable. Failing to acknowledge regional differences and attempting to fit all data into one singular narrative may be contributing to a biased interpretation of the nature of judicialization, and limiting the understanding of its drivers, consequences, and implications at local levels. PMID:27781011
The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.
Garcia, C F; Hochmüller, C J C; Valente, V L S; Schmitz, H J
The present study analyzed the drosophilid assemblages in different levels of urbanization in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Collections were carried out in 2008 in three different environments: a highly urbanized area-"Jardim Botânico," a forested area with intermediary urbanization-"Parque Gabriel Knijnik," and in a relatively well-preserved forested area, although threatened by the urban growth-"Morro Santana." In Jardim Botânico, 36 species belonging to four genera were found, with high abundance of exotic species as Drosophila simulans Sturtevant and Zaprionus indianus (Gupta). In Parque Gabriel Knijnik, 33 species that belonged to four genera were found, with higher abundances of native species belonging to the Drosophila tripunctata species group and Drosophila willistoni species subgroup, and lower abundance of exotic species. As for Morro Santana, 32 species and three genera were found, with higher abundances of native groups, low representativeness of exotic species, and absence of Zaprionus indianus. The analysis of the Jaccard index showed higher similarity in the species composition between samples collected in summer and autumn, and between samples collected in winter and spring. On the other hand, the Morisita index differentiated Jardim Botânico from the other two studied sites. Our results show that Morro Santana is an important area of native biodiversity, reinforcing, therefore, the inclusion of this area in the project for the creation of an ecological corridor as proposed by the Ministry of the Environment of Brazil.
Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Bravo, Freddy; Falqueto, Aloísio
Two new species of Sycorax from the Atlantic Rain Forest of Espírito Santo, Sycorax canaanensis Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. and Sycorax tuberculata Santos, Bravo & Falqueto sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Male speci-mens were collected with CDC light traps in the Biological Reserve of Augusto Ruschi, municipality of Santa Teresa, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. This finding raises the number of described Western Hemisphere Sycorax species to 15.
Lopes, Renato P; Dillenburg, Sergio R; Schultz, Cesar L
Loess consists of silt-dominated sediments that cover ~10% of the Earth's surface. In southern South America it occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its presence in southern Brazil was never studied in detail. Here is proposed a new lithostratigraphic unit, Cordão Formation, consisting of loess deposits in the southern Brazilian coastal plain. It consists of fine-very fine silt with subordinate sand and clay, found mostly in lowland areas between Pleistocene coastal barriers. These sediments are pale-colored (10YR hue) and forms ~1,5-2,0 meter-thick stable vertical walls. The clay minerals include illite, smectite, interstratified illite/smectite and kaolinite, the coarser fraction is mostly quartz and plagioclase. Caliche and iron-manganese nodules are also present. The only fossils found so far are rodent teeth and a tooth of a camelid (Hemiauchenia paradoxa). Luminescence ages indicate that this loess was deposited in the latest Pleistocene, between ~30 and 10 kyrs ago, and its upper portion was modified by erosion and accumulation of clay and organic matter in the Holocene. The estimated accumulation rate was ~630 g/m2/year. The probable source of this loess is the Pampean Aeolian System of Argentina and it would have been deposited by the increased aeolian processes of the last glacial.
Konradt, Guilherme; Bassuino, Daniele Mariath; Bianchi, Matheus Viezzer; Bandinelli, Marcele Bettim; Driemeier, David; Pavarini, Saulo Petinatti
Tuberculosis in cattle is a chronic infectious-contagious disease characterized by the development of nodular lesions (granulomas) in mainly the lungs and regional lymph nodes. It is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, an acid-fast bacillus (AFB). Tuberculosis in the central nervous system is a rare condition in cattle. Herein, we describe the clinical and pathological findings of six neurotuberculosis cases in cattle diagnosed in Southern Brazil. The average age of the cattle affected was 12 months, and they varied in breed and sex. The clinical history ranged from 5 to 30 days and was characterized by motor incoordination, opisthotonus, blindness, and progression to recumbency. The cattle were euthanized, and grossly, the leptomeninges at the basilar brain showed marked and diffuse expansion, with nodular yellowish lesions ranging in size. On microscopic examination, there were multifocal granulomas located mainly in the meninges, though sometimes extending to adjacent neuropil or existing as isolated granulomas in neuropil. AFBs were observed in the cytoplasm of epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells through Ziehl-Neelsen histochemical staining and identified as Mycobacterium sp. through immunohistochemistry.
Lima, João Henrique Dobler; Netto, Renata Guimarães; Corrêa, Camila Graziele; Lavina, Ernesto Luiz Corrêa
Trace fossil assemblages dominated by arthropod trackways are common in sediments deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age. Ichnofaunas preserved in glacially-influenced sedimentary successions were previously reported from Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. The ichnofauna of the Rio do Sul Formation preserved in the rhythmites exposed in Trombudo Central quarries (Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil) is revised in this paper. Cruziana problematica, Diplichnites gouldi, Diplopodichnus biformis, Glaciichnium liebegastensis, Gluckstadtella elongata isp. nov., Helminthoidichnites tenuis, Mermia carickensis, Protovirgularia dichotoma, Treptichnus pollardi and Umfolozia sinuosa were recorded. Two trace fossil suites were recognized. The undermat miners suite is dominated by H. tenuis, indicating the presence of surface grazers (insect larvae, isopods and amphipods). C. problematica, D. gouldi and U. sinuosa dominate the overmat grazers suite, as result of displacement of terrestrial and aquatic arthropods. The integrated sedimentological and ichnological data from Trombudo Central region suggests colonization of ephemeral, shallow water bodies filled by freshwater from glacier melting. The deposition of the rhythmites took place in a glaciolacustrine context represented by shallow ponds in marginal marine settings.
Nogueira, Marcia Pompeo
This paper analyses a community theatre project initiated in 1991 in Ratones, a community in Southern Brazil. It began as an extension project of the State University of Santa Catarina and became an independent project coordinated by former participants, still in collaboration with the university. Aiming to evaluate the benefits of this theatre…
Zacarias, Joana Maira Valentini; Langer, Ieda Bernadete Volkweis; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria
The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of alleles and genotypes of the blood group systems Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego in 251 regular blood donors registered in the hemotherapy unit of the Southwestern region of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The frequencies were obtained by direct counting on a spreadsheet program and statistical analyses were conducted in order to compare them with other Brazilian populations using chi-squared with Yates correction on OpenEpi software. The frequencies of RHD* negative, RHCE*c/c and RHCE*e/e were higher than expected for the Caucasian population. A difference was also observed for FY alleles, FY*01/FY*01 genotype and FY*02N.01 -67T/C (GATA Box mutation). Two homozygous individuals were defined as a low frequency phenotype K + k- (KEL*01.01/KEL*01.01) and, for Diego blood group system the rare DI*01 allele was found in ten blood donors, of which one was DI*01/DI* 01 (0.4%). The allele and genotype frequencies of Kidd blood group system were similar to expected to Caucasians. The results showed the direction in which to choose donors, the importance of extended genotyping in adequate blood screening and the existence of rare genotypes in Brazilian regular blood donors.
Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence
de Paula Corrêa, Marcelo; Morégula, Andréa; Fausto, Agnes; Okuno, Emico; Mol, Anderson; Santos, João C.
This work presents results of the Joint Project for Solar UV Index Measurements in Southern Bahia State (PIU Project), and represents the first effort to measure UV radiation in this tourist region. The project goal is twofold: it has a scientific component in which the distribution of UV Index will be mapped out, and it also intends to disseminate the data as a mean of divulgation of the UV Index levels to the population. This constitutes a meaningful effort to reduce health risks from excessive solar radiation exposure in a country that reports more than 120,000 new skin cancer cases each year. This project is within the framework of a larger initiative to studying UV index distribution in Brazilian regions. PIU project has had two phases: 1) seasonal measurements were performed during the summer and winter seasons of 2006 and 2007 on a sandy beach in Ilhéus (15,0° S; 39,0° W; sea level), as well as on an asphalt surface in the urban perimeter of Itabuna (14,8° S; 39,3° W; 54 m ASL); and 2) since October 2007, measurements have been continuously conducted on a concrete surface, about 20 km from the beach, in a urban area of Ilhéus. During the summer season, UV Index reaches extreme values (>11), and in winter, results range between high (6
Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R.; Morato, Sergio A.A.
Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil. PMID:26056613
Ribeiro, Luiz F; Bornschein, Marcos R; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Firkowski, Carina R; Morato, Sergio A A; Pie, Marcio R
Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is a remarkable genus of miniaturized frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Many of its species are highly endemic to cloud forests, being found only on one or a few mountaintops. Such level of microendemism might be caused by their climatic tolerance to a narrow set of environmental conditions found only in montane regions. This restriction severely limits the chance of discovery of new species, given the difficulty of exploring these inaccessible habitats. Following extensive fieldwork in montane areas of the southern portion of the Atlantic Rainforest, in this study we describe seven new species of Brachycephalus from the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. These species can be distinguished from one another based on coloration and the level of rugosity of the skin in different parts of their body. These discoveries increase considerably the number of described species of Brachycephalus in southern Brazil.
Scussel, Vildes M; Savi, Geovana D; Costas, Lea Luzia Freitas; Xavier, José Junior Mendonça; Manfio, Daniel; Bittencourt, Karoline O; Aguiar, Kin; Stein, Stephanie M
A total of 232 samples of corn commercialised in Santa Catarina state, Southern Brazil (temperate zone climate), were evaluated from 2007 to 2012 for fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2). Before performing this study, a FBs method with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (ex. 335; em. 440 nm) was validated first. FBs were detected in 46.6% (108 samples), with values ranging from 66 to 7832 µg kg(-1) for FB1 and 110 to 1201 µg kg(-1) for FB2. The number of contaminated corn samples for FB1 and FB2 varied and often presented contamination of FB1 only. Per year of analysis, the numbers were: n = 22/8(FB1/FB2), 44/5(FB1/FB2), 25/12(FB1/FB2), 4(FB1), 6(FB1) and 7(FB1) in 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. The contamination percentage was 42.3/15.4, 59.5/6.8, 43.8/21.1, 36.4, 35.3 and 33.3%, respectively, during these years. Consumers can be exposed to these mycotoxins and their health can be at risk through the consumption of contaminated corn.
Rassier, Gabriela Lopes; Borsuk, Sibele; Pappen, Felipe; Scaini, Carlos Jaime; Gallina, Tiago; Villela, Marcos Marreiro; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia; Benavides, Magda Vieira; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires
Visceral toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic zoonosis that occurs through the ingestion of embryonated Toxocara spp. eggs. A wide range of animal species can act as paratenic hosts for this ascarid. The main risk factor for humans is the ingestion of the eggs from contaminated soil; however, infection can also occur through the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked infected meat from paratenic hosts. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Toxocara spp.-specific antibodies in sheep and to determine the risk factors associated with the infection of sheep in Rio Grande do Sul (a major sheep-producing and sheep-consuming state) in southern Brazil. Serum samples collected from 1,642 sheep were tested using an IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the excretory-secretory Toxocara canis antigen. Seroprevalence was 29.0% (477/1,642), and every farm included in the study contained at least one seropositive animal. These results indicate that T. canis infection is widely distributed among sheep herds in Rio Grande do Sul and that it represents a potential risk to human health.
Albrecht, Evonir; Voelzke, Marcos Rincon
Astronomy is a science that has attracted attention and fascination of different people. Because it is a subject that arouses curiosity, Astronomy has been the subject of several studies related to the area of education. In this respect, this article presents partial results of an ongoing Doctoral research. The objective is to analyze and compare the contents related to Astronomy present in curricular proposals that guide the Basic Education in Southern Brazil. The methodological approach followed the assumptions of qualitative research. We used content analysis to make the comparison between the astronomical content present in the curriculum proposals from the states of Parana, Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. The reading of the proposals has possible to reorganize the content into categories. As a result the category is displayed Earth and its analysis, which shows the lack of clarity and specificity in the presentation of the contents of the curriculum proposals. This finding may be an indicator that affect the integration of astronomical content in the curriculum of schools.
Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Di Santis, Giovana Wingeter; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Costa, Thais Correa; da Silva, Elisangela Olegário; Pretto-Giordano, Lucienne Garcia; Gomes, Lucas Alécio; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico R L
Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals worldwide, with rare descriptions of this infection in domestic animals from Brazil. This study presents the findings associated with C. gattii in dogs from Londrina, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Two dogs, a 3-year-old, female German shepherd and a 6-year-old, male Boxer, were evaluated by a combination of pathological, mycological, and molecular diagnostic techniques. Significant pathological alterations included cryptococcal lymphadenitis, meningoencephalitis, tonsillitis, and rhinitis with nasal cryptococcomas in the German shepherd dog, while cryptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia were observed in the Boxer; both dogs had pseudocystic cryptococcosis. The mucicarmine histochemical stain readily identified the intralesional cryptococcal budding organisms in all affected tissues. Mycological culture and isolation confirmed the yeasts as C. gattii due to positive reaction with the L-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue agar. A PCR assay using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS)1 and ITS2 primers, which target the ITS1 and 2 regions including the 5.8S rRNA gene, amplified the desired amplicons; direct sequencing confirmed the isolate as C. gattii. ITS nucleotide differentiation demonstrated that the isolate forms part of the ITS type 4 Cryptococcus organisms which corresponds to the C. gattii VGII molecular subtype or the RAPD type 2 Cryptococcus organisms. Collectively, these findings confirmed the participation of C. gattii in the etiopathogenesis of the lesions observed in these dogs and expanded the epidemiological niche of this important mycotic agent to include Southern Brazil. It is noteworthy to mention that previous epidemiological studies have suggested that C. gattii-induced cryptococcosis is more frequently diagnosed in Northern relative to Southern Brazil, so these findings might suggest an expansion of the distribution of this agent within continental
Silva, Éverton F; Seyffert, Núbia; Cerqueira, Gustavo M.; Leihs, Karl P.; Athanazio, Daniel A.; Valente, Ana L. S.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Brod, Claudiomar S.
In this study, we observed the presence of antileptospiral agglutinins in freshwater turtles of two urban lakes of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Forty animals (29 Trachemys dorbigny and 11 Phrynops hilarii) were captured and studied. Attempts to isolate leptospires from blood and urine samples were unsuccessful. Serum samples (titer > 100) reactive to pathogenic strains were observed in 11 animals. These data encourage surveys of pet turtles to evaluate the risk of transmission of pathogenic leptospires to humans. PMID:24031348
Cardoso, Jáder da C.; de Almeida, Marco A.B.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Sallum, Maria A.M.; Noll, Carlos A.; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Pinto, Eliana V.; Castro, Francisco C.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Segura, Maria N.O.
Yellow fever virus (YFV) was isolated from Haemagogus leucocelaenus mosquitoes during an epizootic in 2001 in the Rio Grande do Sul State in southern Brazil. In October 2008, a yellow fever outbreak was reported there, with nonhuman primate deaths and human cases. This latter outbreak led to intensification of surveillance measures for early detection of YFV and support for vaccination programs. We report entomologic surveillance in 2 municipalities that recorded nonhuman primate deaths. Mosquitoes were collected at ground level, identified, and processed for virus isolation and molecular analyses. Eight YFV strains were isolated (7 from pools of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes and another from Aedes serratus mosquitoes); 6 were sequenced, and they grouped in the YFV South American genotype I. The results confirmed the role of Hg. leucocelaenus mosquitoes as the main YFV vector in southern Brazil and suggest that Ae. serratus mosquitoes may have a potential role as a secondary vector. PMID:21122222
Pereira, Juliana Tracz; Costa, Adriana Oliveira; de Oliveira Silva, Márcia Benedita; Schuchard, Wagner; Osaki, Silvia Cristina; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Paulino, Rosangela Clara; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz
In the present work, assays were performed to compare the efficacy of hypochlorous acid, chlorine dioxide, and ozone in the inactivation of Cryptosporidium oocyst in public water supply from Brazilian South conditions. Experiments were carried out in samples containing 2 x 10(4) oocysts/ml of C. parvum purified from feces of experimentally contaminated calves. An in vitro excystation method was used to evaluate oocysts' viability and to determine the inactivation rates of hypochlorous acid at 2 ppm, chlorine dioxide at 1, 2, and 5 ppm, and ozone at the doses of 0.18, 0.24, 0.36, 0.48, and 1.44 mg/l. By using hypochlorous acid, the maximum inactivation rate obtained was 49.04% after 120 min. Chlorine dioxide at 5 ppm inactivated 90.56% of oocysts after 90 min of contact. Ozone was the most effective product, rendering an inactivation of 100% with the concentration of 24 mg/l. Resistance of Cryptosporidium to the usual disinfectants and the need for more effective water treatments to prevent waterborne diseases in Brazil are discussed in this manuscript.
Bueno, L S; Bertoncini, A A; Koenig, C C; Coleman, F C; Freitas, M O; Leite, J R; De Souza, T F; Hostim-Silva, M
In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle. All females sampled during the summer were spawning capable, while all those sampled during other seasons were either regressing or regenerating. What these data strongly infer is that the E. itajara spawning aggregation sites have been located in the southern state of Paraná and the northern state of Santa Catarina and summer is the most likely spawning season. Size frequency distributions, abundance and reproductive state were estimated and correlated with environmental variables.
Roberti, D. R.; Diaz, M.; Webler, G.; Fiorin, J.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Teichrieb, C.; Amado, T.
Southern Brazil contribute to 38% of Brazilian grain production. In contrast with the rest of the country, the south has a wet, subtropical climate that permits two annual harvests (double cropping system). The soybean and/or maize (summer) and black oat and/or wheat (winter) succession is widely used by farmers in plateau areas. In river natural lowlands, the cultivation of flooded irrigated rice is common. Changes in the land use affect the carbon, water and energy balance, and crop management practices, such as fertilization, water management, harvest and crop residues have influence in carbon exchange between the crop field and the atmosphere. This study quantifies the net exchange ecosystem (NEE) between the atmosphere and the crop cultivations in this wide region of Brazil from 2010 to 2014. We use data from two micrometeorological sites: Cruz Alta, with crop rotation and Cachoeira do Sul, with rice paddy. The carbon flux was analyzed using the eddy covariance method and gap filling procedures. The annual integration of data carbon demonstrates that the agroecosystems in southern Brazil is a acting as an light atmospheric CO2 sink. However, the NEE emissions that occurred in the fallow periods contributed negatively for such annual accumulation. To reduce this loss of CO2, farmers could cultivate plants in fallow periods, because there are favorable weather conditions for growing plants year round. Additionally, other management practices can increase the influx of C, including the production of more dry matter with cover crops by improving management and the immediate harvesting of crop after physiological maturity to reduce the period between maturation and harvest.
Wang, X.; Rao, Z.; Auler, A.; Cheng, H.; Cruz, F. W.; Edwards, R.
We are making continuous efforts to improve both the data resolution and chronology of the speleothem d18O record from Botuvera Cave, southern Brazil, one of the very few high-precision and high-resolution records from southern tropical continents covering the last ~ 100 kyr. In this study, we particularly focus on precipitation change in southern Brazil during the extreme cold time intervals in the North Atlantic, the so-called Heinrich (H) Stadials. With precise U/Th dating, high-resolution d18O profiles from multiple Botuvera stalagmites show that the H2, H3 and H4 stadials are about 1,000 years long and centered approximately 24.6 kyr BP, 30.0 kyr BP and 39.0 kyr BP, respectively. Following the earlier studies on Brazilian speleothem d18O records, as well as trace element analysis and modeling simulations, we interpret the calcite d18O as a proxy of monsoonal rainfall in the region. Broadly speaking, the lower calcite d18O, the higher rainfall, and vice versa. The abrupt drops on calcite d18O during these intervals, with an amplitude of ~ 2% VPDB, suggest that climate change in this region is manifested as a dramatic increasing of rainfall. This confirms our previous finding that on millennial timescales, precipitation change in southern Brazil is anti-phased with that in the north, such as eastern Asia, which is probably controlled by the meridional migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). The fast growth rates of the samples enable us to characterize detail precipitation changes in southern Brazil during these three Heinrich Stadials. Precipitation increases abruptly in the earlier stage, evidenced by a d18O drop rate of ~ 5%/kyr, whereas during the later stage, precipitation decreases more gradually, with a d18O rising rate of ~ 2.5%/kyr. This asymmetric pattern of change is different from the temperature behavior in the North Atlantic, which warms much more dramatically in the final stage of a Heinrich Stadial than it cools in the initial
Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M
The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.
Background This study characterized the botanical knowledge of artisanal fishers of the Lami community, Porto Alegre, southern Brazil based on answers to the following question: Is the local botanical knowledge of the artisanal fishers of the rural-urban district of Lami still active, even since the district’s insertion into the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre? Methods This region, which contains a mosaic of urban and rural areas, hosts the Lami Biological Reserve (LBR) and a community of 13 artisanal fisher families. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 fishers, complemented by participatory observation techniques and free-lists; in these interviews, the species of plants used by the community and their indicated uses were identified. Results A total of 111 species belonging to 50 families were identified. No significant differences between the diversities of native and exotic species were found. Seven use categories were reported: medicinal (49%), human food (23.2%), fishing (12.3%), condiments (8%), firewood (5%), mystical purposes (1.45%), and animal food (0.72%). The medicinal species with the highest level of agreement regarding their main uses (AMUs) were Aloe arborescens Mill., Plectranthus barbatus Andrews, Dodonaea viscosa Jacq., Plectranthus ornatus Codd, Eugenia uniflora L., and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. For illness and diseases, most plants were used for problems with the digestive system (20 species), followed by the respiratory system (16 species). This community possesses a wide botanical knowledge, especially of medicinal plants, comparable to observations made in other studies with fishing communities in coastal areas of the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Conclusions Ethnobotanical studies in rural-urban areas contribute to preserving local knowledge and provide information that aids in conserving the remaining ecosystems in the region. PMID:23898973
Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia
The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and
Klisiowicz, Débora do Rocio; Reifur, Larissa; Shimada, Márcia Kiyoe; Haidamak, Juciliane; Cognialli, Regielly Caroline Raimundo; Ferreira, Tatiane
Calodium hepaticum (syn. Capillaria hepatica) is a nematode of the Capillariidae family that infects rodents and other mammals. In Brazil, human spurious infections of C. hepaticum have been detected in indigenous or rural communities from the Amazon Basin, but not in the southern states of the country. Here, we report the highest occurrence (13.5% of 37 residents) of C. hepaticum human spurious infection detected in Brazil and the first record in a southern region, Guaraqueçaba. The finding is explained by the area being located in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Paraná, surrounded by preserved forests and because the inhabitants consume the meat of wild mammals. PMID:24676661
Meucci, Rodrigo D; Fassa, Anaclaudia G; Faria, Neice M X; Fiori, Nadia S
Background: Despite tobacco farming involving intensive manual labor, chronic low back pain (CLBP) prevalence and associated factors are unknown among this occupational group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in southern Brazil. A random sample of tobacco farmers was interviewed. Socioeconomic and individual characteristics, occupational tasks, workloads, and comorbidities were investigated. Chronic low back pain prevalence was described in relation to independent variables, and associations were examined with Poisson regression. Results: Chronic low back pain prevalence was 8·4%. Increasing age, rearing two or more species of livestock (PR 1·65), exposure to tasks that require heavy physical exertion (PR 2·00), working in awkward postures (PR 1·36), green tobacco sickness (GTS) (PR 1·63), pesticide poisoning (PR 2·37), and minor psychiatric disorders (PR 2·55) were associated with CLBP. Conclusions: This study found that CLBP is a relevant health problem among tobacco farmers and highlights understudied risk factors such as pesticide poisoning and GTS. Policies to minimize exposure to physiological and chemical workloads in tobacco planting to prevent CLBP are needed. Health professionals should be trained to diagnose and prevent acute low back pain episodes and thus prevent/minimize limitations and disabilities due to CLBP. PMID:25633930
Scalon, Madalena C. S.; Rechenmacher, Ciliana; Siebel, Anna Maria; Kayser, Michele L.; Rodrigues, Manoela T.; Maluf, Sharbel W.; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio S.
The present study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical parameters and the genotoxic potential of water samples collected in the upper, middle, and lower courses of the Sinos River, southern Brazil. The comet assay was performed in the peripheral blood of fish Hyphessobrycon luetkenii exposed under laboratory conditions to water samples collected in summer and winter in three sampling sites of Sinos River. Water quality analysis demonstrated values above those described in Brazilian legislation in Parobé and Sapucaia do Sul sites, located in the middle and in the lower courses of the Sinos River, respectively. The Caraá site, located in the upper river reach, presented all the physicochemical parameters in accordance with the allowed limits in both sampling periods. Comet assay in fish revealed genotoxicity in water samples collected in the middle course site in summer and in the three sites in winter when compared to control group. Thus, the physicochemical parameters indicated that the water quality of the upper course complies with the limits set by the national guidelines, and the ecotoxicological assessment, however, indicated the presence of genotoxic agents. The present study highlights the importance of combining water physicochemical analysis and bioassays to river monitoring. PMID:24285934
de Gasper, André Luís; Vibrans, Alexander Christian; Funez, Luís Adriano; Rigon-Jr, Morilo José; Bittencourt, Felipe; Vieira, Carina
Abstract The premise of this study is to present the collection of the FURB herbarium, its collection area and type specimens, as well as its projects and contributions to the flora of the Subtropical Atlantic Forest. The FURB herbarium currently has nearly 41,000 records of vascular plants and has the largest collection of lycophytes and ferns in Southern Brazil, with more than 8,000 records. More than 4,500 scanned images of 4,436 species are available online, and it is expected that the whole collection will be scanned in less than one year. There are 198 families of angiosperms, 33 of ferns, three of lycophytes and six of gymnosperms. All collections of the Floristic and Forest Inventory of Santa Catarina project are recorded in FURB, which represents almost 35,000 herbarium specimens. The families with the largest number of species are: Cyperaceae (109 species), Rubiaceae (129), Solanaceae (131), Poaceae (155), Melastomataceae (157), Myrtaceae (257), Orchidaceae (288), Fabaceae (323), and Asteraceae (426), between angiosperms. Among the ferns and lycophytes are: Hymenophyllaceae (30), Thelypteridaceae (31), Aspleniaceae (32), Dryopteridaceae (43), Pteridaceae (54) and Polypodiaceae (60). There are five type specimens among them: one holotype, one isotype and three paratypes. To date, the FURB herbarium has donated 19,521 herbarium duplicates for identification or expansion of other herbaria. PMID:25383009
Moreno, Marcelo; Schmitt, Ricardo Ludwig; Lang, Maria Gabriela; Gheno, Vanessa
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania. PMID:22548178
Gonçalves, Dinarte; Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Ferla, Noeli Juarez
Yerba mate is a plant of great socioeconomic importance in southern South America. Little has been published about the phytoseiid mite fauna of yerba mate. This paper presents information about the morphology and distribution of phytoseiid mites collected in yerba mate in the Ilópolis and Putinga counties of Brazil between 2002 and 2004. Four areas with of different forms of cultivation in every county were sampled. A list of the species recorded from that state, and a key for their identification are provided. Sixteen phytoseiid mites species were identified, belonging to 11 genera in the subfamilies Amblyseiinae (13 species) and Typhlodrominae (three species). The most abundant genus was Amblyseius with three species. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961 and Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres, 2011 are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Sul state. This study also includes the description of a new species, Typhlodromips pallinii n. sp.
Rigozo, N.; Nordemann, D.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.
The effects of solar activity and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on tree growth in Southern Brazil were studied by correlation analysis. Trees for this study were native Araucaria (Araucaria Angustifolia)from four locations in Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil: Canela (29o18`S, 50o51`W, 790 m asl), Nova Petropolis (29o2`S, 51o10`W, 579 m asl), Sao Francisco de Paula (29o25`S, 50o24`W, 930 m asl) and Sao Martinho da Serra (29o30`S, 53o53`W, 484 m asl). From these four sites, an average tree ring Index for this region was derived, for the period 1955-1991. Linear correlations were made on annual and 10 year running averages of this tree ring Index, of sunspot number Rz and SOI. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the multiple regression between tree ring and SOI and Rz indicates that 20% of the variance in tree rings was explained by solar activity and ENSO variability. However, when the 10 year running averages correlations were made, the coefficient correlations were much higher. A clear anticorrelation is observed between SOI and Index (r=-0.81) whereas Rz and Index show a positive correlation (r=0.67). The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 76% of the variance in tree ring INdex was explained by solar activity and ENSO. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity and ENSO on tree rings are better seen on long timescales.
Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa
Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where ‘islands’ of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920. PMID:26275046
Gusatti, Carolina Souza; Costi, Cintia; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Gomes, Selma Andrade; Silva, Marcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa
Hepatitis B virus genotype A1 (HBV/A1), of African origin, is the most prevalent genotype in Brazil, while HBV/F predominates in the other South American countries. However, HBV/D is the most common in the three states of southern Brazil, where 'islands' of elevated prevalence, as Chapecó and other cities, have been described. In this study, 202 HBV chronic carriers attending in 2013 the viral hepatitis ambulatory of Chapecó, were investigated. In comparison with previous studies performed in the same ambulatory, a rapid aging of the HBV infected population was observed (mean age of the newly diagnosed patients increasing from 29.9 ± 10.3 years in 1996 to 44.4 ± 13.3 years in 2013), probably due to a singular vaccination schedule at Chapecó that included not only children but also adolescents. Phylogenetic and BLAST analyses (S region) classified 91 HBV isolates into genotypes A (n = 3) and D (n = 88). The majority of HBV/D isolates were closely related to D3 sequences. To understand the reasons for the absence or near absence of genotypes A and F, and how HBV/D was introduced in the south of Brazil, HBV/D infected patients were inquired about their genealogical and geographical origins. Forty-three (52%) patients have their four grandparents of Italian origin, vs. seven (8%) who have their four grandparents of Brazilian origin. At all, 65 out of 83 (78%) patients had at least one grandparent originating from Italy. Taking into consideration the fact that Italy is one of the few countries where subgenotype D3 is predominant, the results strongly suggested that HBV/D was introduced in Brazil through Italian immigration which culminated between 1870 and 1920.
Paggi, Gecele M; Palma-Silva, Clarisse; Silveira, Lucas C T; Kaltchuk-Santos, Eliane; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Bered, Fernanda
Plant fertility is a central subject of many questions in plant evolutionary and conservation biology. Pollen availability, abiotic resources, and flowering pattern can limit fruit and seed production. Open pollination and pollen supplementation studies are used to estimate any pollen limitation in natural populations. To study the impact of these factors on the reproductive success of Vriesea gigantea, an epiphytic bromeliad in the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil, its fertility in four natural populations in Itapuã State Park was assessed by considering plant and inflorescence size, flower production, fruit and seed set, flower and fruit set pattern, and seed viability and germination rate. Supplemental pollination in adult plants was used to determine whether fruit production in V. gigantea is limited by reception of pollen. The results showed that V. gigantea has a high production of flowers, fruits, and seeds. Seeds are highly viable in all populations, presenting an average germination rate of 94% (SE ± 3.5). Plants of V. gigantea from Itapuã State Park are highly fertile. The high proportion of fruit and seed set after manual hand pollination indicates that the species is self-compatible. Pollination treatments showed evidence of pollinator limitation in the Itapuã State Park population.
Firpo, M. A.; Sansigolo, C. A.
One of the most important modes of interannual variability from ocean-atmosphere system is the El Niño/Southern Oscillation - ENSO. The Brazil southern region belongs to the Southeast of South America, where there is a strong signal of ENSO, especially over the precipitation. This phenomenon can be modulated by low frequency climate patterns, especially the dominant pattern of North Pacific, called Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Attempting to better understand these interactions, the objective of this study was to investigate the seasonal impact of ENSO events over the Southern Brazil precipitation, taking into account the PDO phases. The dataset used in this study, consist of monthly precipitation records of six well distributed stations from southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul state). From these series it was calculated a unique index, which was categorized in three classes, in order to obtain the extremes: very below normal precipitation (below the percentile 10), normal precipitation (between percentile 10 and 90) and very above normal precipitation (above the percentile 90). To characterize the ENSO events, it was applied the Trenberth (1997) criteria in the index proposed by Bunge and Clarke (2009), which corrects the inconsistencies between the conventional SST index for Niño 3.4 region and the Southern Oscillation Index before 1950, going beyond the incoherence for decadal scale. For PDO, it was used the index proposed by Mantua et al. (1997). Contingency tables were constructed to analyze the seasonal, simultaneous, and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months lagged relationships between ENSO events (El Niño, neutral, La Niña), and extreme precipitation anomalies (categories), also considering the PDO phases during the 1913-1999 period. Moreover, a wavelet analysis was used to check the coherency and phase among these 3 times series during the 1913-2006 period. The Contingency Tables analysis showed that, generally, there were more positive (negative) precipitation
Monteiro, Danieli Urach; Botton, Sônia de Avila; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Haag, Karen Luisa; Musskopf, Germano; Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Ribeiro, Tatiana Correa; de la Rue, Mário Luiz
This study aimed to identify the parasitical etiologic agents of visceral cysts in pigs from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Fifty-eight cysts were found in livers during veterinary inspection of swine slaughtered from January 2008 to 2012. Collected samples were submitted to macroscopic and molecular analyzes. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA sequencing and BLAST alignment of sequences was used to molecular characterization of the samples. By PCR 10.3% (6/58) of tested samples were positive for Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and 56.9% (33/58) for Cysticercus tenuicollis. In this study, it was verified the occurrence of larval forms of E. granulosus sensu lato and Taenia hydatigena in pig herds from the central/northern region of Rio Grande do Sul State. The presence of both parasites is relevant due to the economic losses for the meat industry. Additionally, E. granulosus sensu lato has zoonotic importance and may be infecting pig herds in southern Brazil.
Dias, Iuri Ribeiro; Medeiros, Tadeu Teixeira; Vila Nova, Marcos Ferreira; Solé, Mirco
We studied the amphibian community of the Private Reserve of Natural Heritage (RPPN) Serra Bonita, an area of 20 km(2) with steep altitudinal gradients (200-950 m a.s.l.) located in the municipalities of Camacan and Pau-Brasil, southern Bahia State, Brazil. Data were obtained at 38 sampling sites (including ponds and transects within the forest and in streams), through active and visual and acoustic searches, pitfall traps, and opportunistic encounters. We recorded 80 amphibian species distributed in 15 families: Aromobatidae (1), Brachycephalidae (3), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (2), Ceratophryidae (1), Craugastoridae (7), Eleutherodactylidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (42), Hylodidae (1), Leptodactylidae (7), Microhylidae (3), Siphonopidae (1), Odontophrynidae (3) and Pipidae (1). Species richness was positively correlated with monthly rainfall. Near 36% of the species were found in strictly forest environments, 15% are endemic to Bahia State and 77.2% are endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The large species diversity of this small area, the high degree of endemism and the taxonomic and biogeographic significance turn the Serra Bonita mountain into a hotpoint for amphibians within Brazil's Atlantic Forest hotspot.
Sevegnani, Lucia; Uhlmann, Alexandre; Gasper, André Luís de; Meyer, Leila; Vibrans, Alexander Christian
This study aimed to analyze the influence of environmental factors in determining the variation in forest structure. We obtained the data through sampling units placed regularly in a grid of 10 km × 10 km in the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. The axes of Detendred Correspondence Analysis summarized the vegetation structure and we used these as response variables in ordinary least square models, and environmental variables as predictors. Moran Eigenvector Maps were used as spatial predictors, enabling the variance partitioning. The results revealed influence of climatic factors, especially thermal and rainfall in determining the vegetation structure. The physical geography (high plateaus) and positioning below the Tropic of Capricorn line are the main static elements influencing the climate and therefore the vegetation.
Benya, E; Leal-Zanchet, A M; Santos, W H; Hauser, J; Erdtmann, B
The karyotypes of four species of freshwater triclads of the genus Girardia (Platyhelminthes), i.e. G. schubarti, G. tigrina, G. anderlani, and G. biapertura, from populations of different localities of the Rio Grande do Sul State, in southern Brazil, were analyzed. The karyotype of G. biapertura is presented for the first time. Three basic complements of 4, 8, and 9 chromosomes were found. Diploids, triploids, or mixoploids (2n/3n) specimens were frequently detected in these populations. The basic chromosomal complement of n=9 was verified in two different species (G. biapertura and G. anderlani), presenting a large acrocentric chromosome which is rare in the family Dugesiidae. An intra and interspecific chromosomal variability was also detected and its evolutionary implications are discussed.
Mazzei, E F; Bertoncini, A A; Pinheiro, H T; Machado, L F; Vilar, C C; Guabiroba, H C; Costa, T J F; Bueno, L S; Santos, L N; Francini-Filho, R B; Hostim-Silva, M; Joyeux, J-C
The Abrolhos Bank is an area of high ecological, socio-economic importance and harbour the richest and most-extensive coral reefs in the South Atlantic. Here we report the discovery of shallow (12-25m depth) reef complex with ten large biogenic structures, intermediate between the typical mushroom-shaped pinnacles of the northern Abrolhos Bank (17°-18° S) and the small patch reefs found on the central/southern coast of the Espírito Santo State (19°-20° S). The newly discovered reefs harbour a relatively rich and abundant reef community, with 73 fish and 14 benthic cnidarian species, including endangered and commercially important ones. We discuss on urgent needs of properly mapping and understanding the ecological functioning of this reef system. Information provided here is a baseline for future impact evaluations, particularly considering the recent worst environmental disaster of Brazil from a dam collapse in Doce river that affected the region.
Ferreira, José D; Zamorano, Martín; Ribeiro, Ana Maria
The genus Panochthus represents the last lineage of "Panochthini" recorded in the Pleistocene. This genus has a wide latitudinal distribution in South America, and in Brazil it occurs in the southern and northeastern regions. In this paper we describe new material (isolated osteoderms and caudal tube fragments) assigned to Panochthus from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (southern Brazil) and discuss some taxonomic issues related to Panochthus tuberculatus and Panochthus greslebini based on this material . The occurrence of P. greslebini is the first for outside the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In addition, we describe new diagnostic features to differentiate the osteoderms of P. greslebini and P. tuberculatus. Unfortunately, it was not possible to identify some osteoderms at the species level. Interestingly, they showed four distinct morphotypes characterized by their external morphology, and thus were attributed to Panochthus sp. Lastly, we conclude that in addition to P.tuberculatus registered to southern Brazil, there is another species of the genus, assignable to P. cf. P. greslebini. Our analysis reinforce the reliability of caudal tube characters for the classification of species of Panochthus.
Pierson, Charles T.; Haynes, Donald D.; Filho, Evaristo Ribeiro
During 1954-1956 a reconnaissance for radioactive minerals was made with carborne, airborne and handborne scintillation equipment in the southern Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul. During the traverse covering more than 5,000 kilometers the authors checked the radioactivity of Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks, Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, and Mesozoic alkalic intrusive and basaltic extrusive rocks. The 22 samples collected contained from 0.003 to 0.029 percent equivalent uranium oxide and from 0.10 to 0.91 percent equivalent thorimn; two samples were taken from radioactive pegmati tes for mineralogic studies. None of the localities is at present a commercial source of uranium or thorium; however, additional work should be done near the alkalic stock at Lages in the State of Santa Catarina and at the Passo das Tropas fossil plant locality near Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. Near Lages highly altered alkalic rock from a dike contained 0.026 percent uranium oxide. At Passo das Tropas highly altered, limonite-impregnated sandstone from the Rio do Rasto group of sedimentary rocks contained 0.029 percent uranium oxide.
Ruberti, E.; Gomes, C. D. B.; Comin-Chiaramonti, P.
Early to Late Cretaceous lasting to Paleocene alkaline magmatism from southern Brazil is found associated with major extensional structural features in and around the Paraná Basin and grouped into various provinces on the basis of several data. Magmatism is variable in size, mode of occurrence and composition. The alkaline rocks are dominantly potassic, a few occurrences showing sodic affinity. The more abundant silicate rocks are evolved undersaturated to saturated in silica syenites, displaying large variation in igneous forms. Less evolved types are restricted to subvolcanic environments and outcrops of effusive suites occur rarely. Cumulatic mafic and ultramafic rock types are very common, particularly in the alkali-carbonatitic complexes. Carbonatite bodies are represented by Ca-carbonatites and Mg-carbonatites and more scarcely by Fe-carbonatites. Available radiometric ages for the alkaline rocks fit on three main chronological groups: around 130 Ma, subcoveal with the Early Cretaceous flood tholeiites of the Paraná Basin, 100-110 Ma and 80-90 Ma (Late Cretaceous). The alkaline magmatism also extends into Paleocene times, as indicated by ages from some volcanic lavas. Geochemically, alkaline potassic and sodic rock types are distinguished by their negative and positive Nb-Ta anomalies, respectively. Negative spikes in Nb-Ta are also a feature common to the associated tholeiitic rocks. Sr-Nd-Pb systematics confirm the contribution of both HIMU and EMI mantle components in the formation of the alkaline rocks. Notably, Early and Late Cretaceous carbonatites have the same isotopic Sr-Nd initial ratios of the associated alkaline rocks. C-O isotopic Sr-Nd isotopic ratios indicate typical mantle signature for some carbonatites and the influence of post-magmatic processes in others. Immiscibility of liquids of phonolitic composition, derived from mafic alkaline parental magmas, has been responsible for the origin of the carbonatites. Close association of alkaline
Cucurbita flowers are monoecious, the male and female requiring a pollinator to transfer pollen. Bees were systematically collected as they visited flowers of three cultivated Cucurbita species grown at seven separate localities of Santa Catarina state in southern Brazil. Additionally, pantraps we...
Azevedo, Marina Sousa; Goettems, Marília Leão; Torriani, Dione Dias; Demarco, Flávio Fernando
This cross-sectional study assessed risk factors for dental fluorosis (DF) among 8- to 12-year-old children in southern Brazil. Children attending 20 schools were randomly selected (n=1,196). They were interviewed and their parents answered a questionnaire that was sent home. Prevalence of DF was 8.53% (modified Dean's criteria), and the prevalence of severe DF was 0.17%. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that DF was associated with a higher frequency of tooth brushing and with initial use of fluoride toothpaste at the emergence of the first tooth. DF does not constitute a public health problem in southern Brazil.
Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane
This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil.
Strugale, Michael; Rostirolla, Sidnei Pires; Mancini, Fernando; Portela Filho, Carlos Vieira; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; de Freitas, Rafael Corrêa
The integration of structural analyses of outcrops, aerial photographs, satellite images, aeromagnetometric data, and digital terrain models can establish the structural framework and paleostress trends related to the evolution of Ponta Grossa Arch, one of the most important structures of the Paraná Basin in southern Brazil. In the study area, the central-northern region of Paraná State, Brazil, the arch crosses outcropping areas of the Pirambóia, Botucatu, and Serra Geral Formations (São Bento Group, Mesozoic). The Pirambóia and Botucatu Formations are composed of quartz sandstones and subordinated siltstones. The Serra Geral Formation comprises tholeiitic basalt lava flows and associated intrusive rocks. Descriptive and kinematic structural analyses reveal the imprint of two brittle deformation phases: D1, controlled by the activation of an extensional system of regional faults that represent a progressive deformation that generated discontinuous brittle structures and dike swarm emplacement along a NW-SE trend, and D2, which was controlled by a strike-slip (transtensional) deformation system, probably of Late Cretaceous-Tertiary age, responsible for important fault reactivation along dykes and deformation bands in sandstones.
Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Furman, Keiko Endo; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custódio de Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Sequetin; Finger, Mariane Angélica; Busch, Ana Paula Brenner; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Deconto, Ivan; Dornbusch, Peterson Triches; Biondo, Alexander Welker
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite which affects dogs as definitive hosts and several mammalian species as intermediate hosts mainly causing abortions and central nervous system disorders. The reemerging population of cart horses for carrying recycling material in urban areas of major cities in Brazil may have an impact on disease spreading, and these animals may be used as sentinels for environmental surveillance. Thus, the present study investigated the frequency of Neospora sp. antibodies in cart horses from Curitiba and surrounding areas, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. IgG antibodies against Neospora sp. were detected using indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT), and titers equal to or higher than 1:50 were considered reactive. Of all samples, 14/97 (14.4%) were positive: 2/29 (6.9%) were younger than 5; 5/26 (19.2%) between 6 and 9; and 6/31 (19.4%) older than 10 years of age. One of the 11 animals with unknown age was positive (9.1%). Cart horses are likely to be more exposed to dog feces and to Neospora sp. oocyst contamination in urban settings and a lower frequency of disease in dogs may have a negative impact on horse infection risk in these areas.
Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane
This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664
Vieira, Thállitha S; Vieira, Rafael F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Soares, Herbert S; Guimarães, Ana M; Barros-Filho, Ivan R; Marcondes, Mary; Labruna, Marcelo B; Biondo, Alexander W; Vidotto, Odilon
Although well established in dogs, Ehrlichia sp. infection has been scarcely reported in horses. The aim was to perform a comprehensive serological and molecular survey for the detection of Ehrlichia spp. in carthorses from Southern Brazil. Blood samples from 190 carthorses from Paraná State were sampled. Horses were also tested for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies were detected by a commercial rapid ELISA, and immunofluorescence antibody assays (IFA) with E. chaffeensis and E. canis as crude antigens. The molecular and phylogenetic analysis of Ehrlichia sp. was based on 16S rRNA and dsb genes. A total of 52 (27.4%), 4 (2.1%), and 3 (1.6%) horses were positive for Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi, respectively, by the commercial rapid ELISA. Thirty-eight (20.0%) and 37 (19.5%) horses showed anti-E. chaffeensis and anti-E. canis antibodies by IFA, respectively. One blood sample that also showed anti-E. chaffeensis antibodies was PCR positive for the 16S rRNA and dsb genes of Ehrlichia spp., showing an identity of>98.0% to the uncultured Ehrlichia sp. previously detected in Brazilian jaguars (Panthera onca). Anti-Ehrlichia sp. antibodies and Ehrlichia DNA were detected in carthorses from Southern Brazil, which may post public health concerns due to intimate contact with low-income owners. This is the first report of a natural infection of this bacteria in horses from South America. Clinical signs and the tick vector remain unknown.
Paraná is a state at South of Brazil with a population of 11 million people. There are two planetarium and two fixed observatories devoted to Astronomy outreach. The great majority of population have no access to information and knowledge of astronomy discoveries. Another problem is the teaching formation of astronomy studies. In this work we relate an initiative that started at the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 that involved Universities and amateur groups that is still in place. After several grants from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and Araucária Foundation we were able to reach more than 100.000 people with a mobile planetarium and night astronomic observations. We also providde one-week classes to more than 1.000 teachers in several cities of the state.
de Lima, Adma Silva; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Bona, Míryan Priscilla Santos; de Mattos, Suelen Mayara Lopes; Hoffmann, Marina Portiolli; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade; Ottoboni, Vanessa Cristhine Dallolmo
BACKGROUND Leprosy is an infectious disease that may lead to irreversible nerve damage, compromising patient's quality of life and leading to loss of working years. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients followed at a University Hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a retrospective observational study, based on a review of medical records. We studied the clinical and epidemiological features of patients with leprosy monitored at the Hospital de Clínicas of the Federal University of Paraná between January 2005 and January 2010. RESULTS The mean age was 47.51, while 35.94% of patients were aged 41-60. The male:female rate was 1.8:1. The most prevalent occupations were: retired, students or rural workers. Patients came mainly from Curitiba or nearby areas, but there were also patients from the countryside. The mean diagnostic delay was 24.57 months. Multibacillary forms prevailed, with the lepromatous variety being the most common, closely followed by the borderline type. Neural enlargement was found in more than 50% of the patients and 48.44% of them developed reactional states. Hemolysis was the most commonly detected drug side effect. Initial functional evaluation was possible in 70% of patients, 55% of whom had disabilities upon diagnosis. The most prevalent associated disease was hypertension. CONCLUSIONS This study showed an important diagnostic delay and a high rate of sequelae in this specific population. Brazil is one of the few remaining countries that has not yet eradicated leprosy and it is important to improve health policies in order to prevent sequelae and achieve eradication. PMID:26560210
Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H
In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.
Fecso, R.; Gardner, W.; Hale, B.; Johnson, V.; Pavlasek, S. (Principal Investigator)
A remotely sensed area sampling frame was constructed for selected areas in Southern Brazil. The sampling unit information was stored in digital form in a latitudinal/longitudinal characterized population. Computerized sampling procedures were developed which allow for flexibility in sample unit specifications and sampling designs.
The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...
Riboldi, Gustavo Pelicioli; Frazzon, Jeverson; d’Azevedo, Pedro Alves; Frazzon, Ana Paula Guedes
Fifty-six Enterococcus spp. strains were isolated from foods in Southern Brazil, confirmed by PCR and classified as Enterococcus faecalis (27), Enterococcus faecium (23) and Enterococcus spp (6). Antimicrobial susceptibility tests showed resistance phenotypes to a range of antibiotics widely administrated in humans such as gentamycin, streptomycin, ampicillin and vancomycin. PMID:24031330
Rhagoletotrypeta chapecensis Norrbom & Savaris, new species, and R. gelabertae Norrbom & Savaris, new species, are described and illustrated from specimens from southern Brazil (Paraná, Santa Catarina) and Paraguay, and from the Dominican Republic, respectively. The larvae of R. chapecensis develop ...
To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from Southern Brazil, the Kauffman-White-LeMinor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked Intergenic Sequ...
Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732
Milach, Elisa Machado; Martins, Luciano De P; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; De Oliveira, Gabriel Lobregat; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Neutzling, Alexandre Schneid; Dornelles, José Eduardo Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Lucas Azevedo; Zefa, Edison
We provide herein a description of a new species of Oecanthus collected from the tobacco plantation in southern Brazil, municipality of São Lourenço do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Description focused metanotal gland features, phallic sclerites, and calling song. A large sampling of individuals was distributed into four groups according to body and appendages color and dotted. We also rank all kind of marks present in the scape and pedicel. We compare linear morphometric variables of the metanotal glands and tegmina, as well as calling song parameters between groups in order do define all of them as the same species. Photographs and measurements are provided.
Assumpção, Cindy M; Quintela, Fernando M; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel
The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits.
Assumpção, Cindy M.; Quintela, Fernando M.; Corrêa, Fabiano; Loebmann, Daniel
Abstract The Quaternary in the state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), southern Brazil, is geologically represented by the coastal plain and was originated by successive events of Pleistocene-Holocene marine transgressions and the occurrence of alluvial deposits. This paper aimed to characterize the fish assemblage occurring in a swampy Quaternary area adjacent to Lagoa Pequena, a lacustrine system connected to the west margin of the Laguna dos Patos estuary. A checklist is also provided of the ichthyofauna so far recorded in limnic systems of Quaternary deposits in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 42 species was recorded, distributed in nine orders, 18 families and 31 genera. Characidae and Cichlidae were the most representative families, comprising 15 and 4 species respectively. A bibliographic revision associated to our sample data revealed the occurrence of 156 species in limnic systems inserted in RS Quaternary deposits (114 limnic, 15 marine/estuarine/limnic, ten marine/estuarine, nine estuarine/limnic and eight marine). Characiformes and Siluriformes are the most diverse orders, corroborating the Neotropical pattern. Seven species can be considered endemic to RS Quaternary deposits. PMID:28174498
Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Prim, Rodrigo Ivan; Senna, Simone Gonçalves; Rovaris, Darcita Büerger; Maurici, Rosemeri; Rossetti, Maria Lúcia; Couvin, David; Rastogi, Nalin; Bazzo, Maria Luiza
Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is useful for understanding disease transmission dynamics, and to establish strategic measures for TB control and prevention. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical, epidemiological and molecular characteristics of MTBC clinical isolates from Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. During one-year period, 406 clinical isolates of MTBC were collected from Central Laboratory of Public Health and typed by spoligotyping. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the Brazilian National Mandatory Disease Reporting System. The majority of cases occurred in highest population densities regions and about 50% had some condition associated with TB. Among all isolates, 5.7% were MDR, which showed association with drug addiction. LAM was the most predominant lineage with 47.5%, followed by the T superfamily with 25.9% and Haarlem with 12.3%. The MST showed two major groups: the first was formed mainly by the LAM lineage and the second was mainly formed by the T and Haarlem lineages. Others lineages were distributed in peripheral positions. This study provides the first insight into the population structure of M. tuberculosis in SC State. Spoligotyping and other genotyping analyses are important to establish strategic measures for TB control and prevention.
Cardozo, Nilceu P.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.; Panosso, Alan R.; Palhares, Antonio L.; Ide, Bernardo Y.
The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t-1). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision ( R 2 adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy ( D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.
de Paula¹, Cheila Minéia Daniel; Mercedes, Passos Geimba²; do Amaral¹, Patrícia Heidrich; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
Little information about Shigella responsible for foodborne shigellosis is available in Brazil. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial resistance and PCR-ribotyping patterns of Shigella isolates responsible for foodborne outbreaks occurred in Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), Southern Brazil in the period between 2003 and 2007. Shigella strains (n=152) were isolated from foods and fecal samples of victims of shigellosis outbreaks investigated by the Surveillance Service. Identification of the strains at specie level indicated that 71.1% of them were S. flexneri, 21.5% S. sonnei, and 0.7% S. dysenteriae. Ten strains (6.7%) were identified only as Shigella spp. An increasing occurrence of S. sonnei was observed after 2004. Most of the strains were resistant to streptomycin (88.6%), followed by ampicillin (84.6%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (80.5 %). Resistant strains belonged to 73 patterns, and pattern A (resistance to ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, tetracycline, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and intermediate resistance to kanamycin) grouped the largest number of isolates (n=36). PCR-ribotyping identified three banding patterns (SH1, SH2, and SH3). SH1 grouped all S. flexneri and SH2 grouped all S. sonnei. The S. dysenteriae strain belonged to group SH3. According to the results, several Shigella isolates shared the same PCR-rybotyping banding pattern and the same resistance profile, suggesting that closely related strains were responsible for the outbreaks. However, other molecular typing methods need to be applied to confirm the clonal relationship of these isolates. PMID:24031576
Cardozo, Nilceu P; Sentelhas, Paulo C; Panosso, Alan R; Palhares, Antonio L; Ide, Bernardo Y
The effect of weather variables on sugarcane ripening is a process still not completely understood, despite its huge impact on the quality of raw material for the sugar energy industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of weather variables on sugarcane ripening in southern Brazil, propose empirical models for estimating total recoverable sugar (TRS) content, and evaluate the performance of these models with experimental and commercial independent data from different regions. A field experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, considering eight sugarcane cultivars planted monthly, from March to October 2002. In 2003, at the harvest, 12 months later, samples were collected to evaluate TRS (kg t(-1)). TRS and weather variables (air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, and rainfall) were analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistical analysis to understand their interactions. From these correlations, variables were selected to generate empirical models for estimating TRS, according to the cultivar groups and their ripening characteristics (early, mid, and late). These models were evaluated by residual analysis and regression analysis with independent experimental data from two other locations in the same years and with independent commercial data from six different locations from 2005 to 2010. The best performances were found with exponential models which considered cumulative rainfall during the 120 days before harvest as an independent variable (R (2) adj ranging from 0.92 to 0.95). Independent evaluations revealed that our models were capable of estimating TRS with reasonable to high precision (R (2) adj ranging from 0.66 to 0.99) and accuracy (D index ranging from 0.90 to 0.99), and with low mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE ≤ 5 %), even in regions with different climatic conditions.
Oliveira, Diego Skieresz de; Sommer, Carlos Augusto; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Lima, Evandro Fernandes de; Basei, Miguel Ângelo Stipp
Neoproterozoic volcanic and subvolcanic rhyolitic systems in southernmost Brazil are correlated with acid magmatism linked to different petrotectonic associations of the Sul-Rio-Grandense Shield. A portion of this volcanism in the Dom Feliciano Belt is associated with the Pelotas Batholith, which resulted from magmatic episodes associated with the Ediacaran post-collisional evolution of southern Brazil. Ana Dias Rhyolite is the main subvolcanic occurrence of this volcanism that took place in the Quitéria region, in the central part of Rio Grande do Sul State. The acid magmatism has been commonly associated with the most differentiated granite suite phases during the final stages of emplacement of the Pelotas Batholith. The Ana Dias Rhyolite is characterized as an intrusive body with rocks that present a porphyritic to seriated texture and a gradational variation to fine-grained equigranular rocks. New zircon U-Pb dating indicates crystallization age of 581.9 ± 1.9 Ma for the Ana Dias Rhyolite. Geochemistry data characterize the rhyolites as belonging to the alkaline series; they present a metaluminous to peraluminous character; elevated SiO2 and alkali concentrations, high FeOt/FeOt + MgO ratios and agpaitic index; and low Al2O3, CaO, and MgO contents. The Zr, Rb, Y, Nb, and Ga concentrations are moderate when compared with the relatively low Ba and Sr contents. These geochemistry characteristics are common in acid magmas with alkaline affinity. The behavior of certain trace elements and REE demonstrate enrichment in more incompatible elements, in addition to the negative anomaly of Ba, the slight enrichment in Ce relative to adjacent elements, as well as the enrichment in K2O and Rb relative to Nb, suggesting magmas derived from mantle sources enriched in incompatible elements with some crustal contamination. The chemical characteristics are similar to those of A-type granites associated with Neoproterozoic post-collision magmatism in the Sul
Borges, Tássia Silvana; Schwanke, Natalí Lippert; Reuter, Cézane Priscila; Neto, Léo Kraether; Burgos, Miria Suzana
Abstract Objective: To describe the factors associated with dental caries among students from Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a random sample of 623 students of both genders, aged 10-17 years old. Tooth decay was performed using the index of the World Health Organization (1997), DMFT (permanent dentition) that expresses the sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth per person. The maternal educational level was rated using criteria of the Brazilian Association of Market Research Companies. The remaining variables were obtained by a structured questionnaire. Poisson regression analysis was used to test the association between variables using robust models and a subsequently adjusted model. Data were expressed as prevalence ratio (PR). Results: Multivariate analysis identified the following factors related to the experience of dental caries: residence in rural municipalities (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 1.0-1.3), attending a city school (PR: 3.30; 95%CI: 1.1-9.4) or a state school (PR: 3.40; 95%CI: 1.1-9.6); and having an illiterate mother or a mother that only attended up to the 4th year of school (PR: 1.67; 95%CI: 1.1-2.4) or high school (PR: 1.54; 95%CI: 1.1-2.2). Conclusions: The presence of caries in students in southern Brazil was associated with residence in rural areas, mother with little education and attendance to a public school. PMID:27477791
Soares-Colletti, Ana R.; Alvares, Clayton A.; Sentelhas, Paulo C.
Postbloom fruit drop (PFD) causes lesions on the petals of citrus flowers and induces fruit abscission causing severe damage to production when the flowering period coincides with intense rainfall. The aims of this study were to develop a phenological-climatological model for citrus PFD occurrence and, together with weather data series from several locations, to determine and map the agro-climatic favorability of PFD occurrence in the state of São Paulo, Southern Brazil. A phenological flowering model was developed to identify when citrus flowering occurs. The flowering starts after when a temperature below 10 °C in the months of June or July is reached followed by cumulative rainfall within 5 days of at least 20 mm, and then 96 °C days. Between the beginning of flowering and its peak, 147 °C days are required, and between the peak and its end, approximately 229 °C days, being 206 °C days from the peak to the moment when flowers remaining are about 50 % of total. The relationship between PFD incidence and accumulated rainfall during the critical period (between flowering peak and 50 % of flowers remaining) was adjusted by the Gompertz model ( R 2 = 0.99, p < 0.05). After its validation, this model was used to estimate PFD incidence for 29 locations in the state, from 1993 to 2013, which allowed to map the PFD climatic favorability for the state through a Geographical Information System using linear models based on latitude, longitude, and altitude. The obtained map showed a trend of PFD incidence increasing from the northwest of the state of São Paulo towards the south and the coastal region, with medium to very high favorability in the center of the state. The results of this study can be used by growers as a guide for disease control planning as well as for defining the regions where the climatic conditions are likely to escape this disease.
de Mello, Flávia Cristina
The Guarani Indians in South Brazil have a sophisticated system of thought about the cosmos. Presented here are some elements of their cosmology and cosmogony and the influences of the heavenly bodies in this people's everyday life, which have been collected in ethnographic research in the first decade of the 21st century. The main themes of cosmology and the origin of the Sun, Moon, and Earth are described, approximating this anthropological research to ethnoastronomy and cultural anthropology discussions. This research seeks to analyze comparatively this cosmological concept with other indigenous cosmological systems and to compare them with the Western cosmological system, thus including it in studies of cultural astronomy.
Kasper, C B; Schneider, A; Oliveira, T G
Home range and minimal population densities of Southern tiger cat (Leopardus guttulus), margay (Lepardus wiedii) and jaguarundi (Puma yagouaroundi) were estimated between 2005 and 2006 in Taquari Valley, near the southern edge of the Atlantic Rainforest in Brazil. Home range data were collected by conventional radio telemetry (VHF) locations in a highly fragmented landscape. The average home range size, calculated using 95% kernel density estimates, was 16.01 km2 for Southern tiger cat, 21.85 km2 for margay and 51.45 km2 for jaguarundi. Telemetry data were used to obtain minimal density estimates of 0.08 Southern tiger cats / km2, and 0.04 jaguarundi / km2. The density estimates arise from areas where ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and other larger-bodied carnivores were locally extinct, and they suggest a specific type of mesopredator release known as the ocelot effect, which is likely enabling the increase in smaller felid populations in this area.
dos Santos, Raíssa Nunes; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Medeiros de Albuquerque, Nathalia Rammé; Finoketti, Fernando; Côrrea, Rayra Almeida; Cano-Ortiz, Lucia; Assis, Felipe Lopes; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia
Members of the family Marseilleviridae are giant viruses that have the ability to infect amoebas. Such viruses were initially described in 2009. Since then, this family has grown, and diverse members have been found in different environments and geographic locations. Previous phylogenetic analyses suggested the existence of four marseillevirus lineages. A fourth lineage was described with the discovery of the Brazilian marseillevirus (BrMr), isolated from Pampulha Lake, Brazil. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of the Golden marseillevirus (GMar), a new marseillevirus isolated from golden mussels (Limnoperna fortunei) in South of Brazil. This new representative of Marseilleviridae has circular, double-stranded (dsDNA) that contains 360, 610 base pairs and encodes 483 open read frames (ORFs). The complete virus genome was sequenced and phylogenic analyses indicated clear differences between this virus and other marseilleviruses. In addition, this is the only marseillevirus so far that has been isolated from mussels, and this report expands the diversity of environments from which giant viruses could be recovered. PMID:27739526
Dos Santos, Raíssa Nunes; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Medeiros de Albuquerque, Nathalia Rammé; Finoketti, Fernando; Côrrea, Rayra Almeida; Cano-Ortiz, Lucia; Assis, Felipe Lopes; Arantes, Thalita Souza; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia
Members of the family Marseilleviridae are giant viruses that have the ability to infect amoebas. Such viruses were initially described in 2009. Since then, this family has grown, and diverse members have been found in different environments and geographic locations. Previous phylogenetic analyses suggested the existence of four marseillevirus lineages. A fourth lineage was described with the discovery of the Brazilian marseillevirus (BrMr), isolated from Pampulha Lake, Brazil. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of the Golden marseillevirus (GMar), a new marseillevirus isolated from golden mussels (Limnoperna fortunei) in South of Brazil. This new representative of Marseilleviridae has circular, double-stranded (dsDNA) that contains 360, 610 base pairs and encodes 483 open read frames (ORFs). The complete virus genome was sequenced and phylogenic analyses indicated clear differences between this virus and other marseilleviruses. In addition, this is the only marseillevirus so far that has been isolated from mussels, and this report expands the diversity of environments from which giant viruses could be recovered.
Ávila, Alvaro; Justino, Flavio; Wilson, Aaron; Bromwich, David; Amorim, Marcelo
In order to understand the rising number of flash floods and landslides in the densely populated region of southeastern Brazil, this study analyzes the spatial and temporal changes in precipitation from 1978 to 2014. We focus on the sensitivity of mountainous regions, specifically the Rio de Janeiro (RJMR) and Santa Catarina (SCMR) regions. Daily rainfall observations are aggregated into annual and seasonal indexes, and RClimdex is used to evaluate a suite of precipitation and extreme event indexes. Results show positive annual and seasonal precipitation trends during all seasons except for the winter season in the RJMR. Diverse change points in their time series, spatial differences in the trends at individual stations, and trends associated with elevation suggest that despite the close proximity of these two regions, climate impacts are not uniform across all of southeastern Brazil. The majority of precipitation-related indexes present positive trends, especially in the extreme precipitation indexes (PRCPTOT, RX1day, Rx5day and R30 mm). Statistically significant positive correlations are discovered between landslides/flash floods events and annual maximum 1-day and 5-day consecutive precipitation, and these indexes may be useful indicators of natural hazard events for this region.
Behling, Hermann; Bauermann, Soraia Girardi; Pereira Neves, Paulo César
Holocene paleoenvironments have been interpreted from a radiocarbon dated pollen and charcoal record of the São Francisco de Paula region on the southern Brazilian highland. Today the region is characterized by pastureland and small patches of disturbed Araucaria forest. The region receives 2450 mm per annum. This is the highest precipitation rate in southern Brazil. Studied surface samples represent the modern pollen analog of the anthropogenic influenced vegetation. Pollen analytical studies of the 84 cm long core, collected from a small basin with clay, organic matter and peat deposits, show that pollen and spores of the lower core section (84 and 46 cm depth) have been almost destroyed. This period between ca. 7500 and 4000 14C yr BP was too dry for conservation of pollen and spores in the basin. Climate must have been markedly drier than today during early and mid Holocene times. After 4000 14C yr BP, preserved pollen grains reflect wetter conditions than before and indicate the predominance of campos (grassland) vegetation with small areas of Araucaria forest in the study region. Forest expansion is documented since 1060 14C yr BP and expansion of Araucaria angustifolia trees itself since 850 14C yr BP. During the last 1000 yr, rainfall must have been much more intensive with no or only short dry periods such as the modern climate. The results confirm the vegetational and climatic changes documented from the Araucaria forest region of Santa Catarina and Paraná State. Concentration and accumulation rates of carbonized particles are somewhat higher during the last 850 14C yr BP than before, indicating an increased fire frequency.
This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C
Vieira, Danielle Cristina; Noldin, José Alberto; Deschamps, Francisco C; Resgalla, Charrid
Based on studies conducted in the past decade in the southern region of Brazil to determine residue levels of the pesticides normally used on irrigated rice crops, changes can be observed in relation to the presence of pesticides in the waters of the main river basins in Santa Catarina State. In previous harvests, the presence of residues of 7 pesticides was determined, with the herbicide bentazon and the insecticide carbofuran being the products showing highest frequency. Following toxicological tests conducted with 8 different test organisms, deterministic and probabilistic risk analysis was performed to assess the situation of the river basins in areas used for the production of irrigated rice. Of the species tested, the herbicide bentazon showed greatest toxicity toward plants, but did not present an ecological risk because in the worst-case scenario the highest concentration of this pesticide in the environment is 37 times lower than the lowest EC50/LC50 value obtained in the tests. The insecticide carbofuran, which had the highest toxicity toward the organisms used in the tests, presented an ecological risk in the deterministic analysis, but without any associated probability. The results highlight the need for increased efforts in training farmers in crop management practices and for the continual monitor of water bodies for the presence of pesticide residues.
Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Blackburn, David C; Stanley, Edward L; Pie, Marcio R
A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790-835 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The new species is a member of the pernix group by its bufoniform shape and the absence of dermal co-ossification and is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of its general coloration (dorsal region of head, dorsum, legs, arms, and flanks light, brownish green to dark, olive green, with darker region in the middle of the dorsum and a white line along the vertebral column in most specimens) and by its smooth dorsum. The geographical distribution of the new species is highly reduced (extent of occurrence estimated as 25.04 ha, or possibly 34.37 ha). In addition, its habitat has experienced some level of degradation, raising concerns about the future conservation of the species. Preliminary density estimates suggest one calling individual every 3-4 m(2) at 815-835 m a.s.l. and every 100 m(2) at 790 m a.s.l. Together with the recently described B. boticario and B. fuscolineatus, the new species is among the southernmost species of Brachycephalus known to date.
Roverato, M.; Giordano, D.; Echeverri-Misas, C. M.; Juliani, C.
Amazonian rocks record one amongst the most complete and best-preserved Paleoproterozoic magmatic episodes on Earth. The present contribution documents the extremely well preserved paleoproterozoic architecture of a series of felsic rocks found in the Tapajós Mineral Province (TMP), located in the western part of Pará State, southern Amazon Craton, north of Brazil. These rocks are the first to be investigated to comprehend, based on their textural evidences, their emplacement mechanisms. Textural characterization allowed to identify three main facies with, as following reported, 1) chaotic ("Breccia") group, 2) eutaxitic ("Eutax") group and 3) parataxitic ("Paratax") group vitrophyric textures. Given the superb preservation of our samples, the investigated rocks are grouped, according to their grade of welding, into a wide variety of lithofacies from very low-grade to high-grade and rheomorphic ignimbrites. In the "Paratax group" strong similarities with banding in lava flows are observed. Based on the presented data we discuss the effusive or explosive origin of the observed flow mechanisms.
Bornschein, Marcos R.; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Blackburn, David C.; Stanley, Edward L.
A new species of Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from the Atlantic Forest of northeastern state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Nine specimens (eight adults and a juvenile) were collected from the leaf litter of montane forests 790–835 m above sea level (a.s.l.). The new species is a member of the pernix group by its bufoniform shape and the absence of dermal co-ossification and is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of its general coloration (dorsal region of head, dorsum, legs, arms, and flanks light, brownish green to dark, olive green, with darker region in the middle of the dorsum and a white line along the vertebral column in most specimens) and by its smooth dorsum. The geographical distribution of the new species is highly reduced (extent of occurrence estimated as 25.04 ha, or possibly 34.37 ha). In addition, its habitat has experienced some level of degradation, raising concerns about the future conservation of the species. Preliminary density estimates suggest one calling individual every 3–4 m2 at 815–835 m a.s.l. and every 100 m2 at 790 m a.s.l. Together with the recently described B. boticario and B. fuscolineatus, the new species is among the southernmost species of Brachycephalus known to date. PMID:27812425
Adamo, S. B.; Fitch, C. A.; Kugler, T.; Doxsey-Whitfield, E.
Climate variability is an inherent characteristic of the Earth's climate, including but not limited to climate change. It affects and impacts human society in different ways, depending on the underlying socioeconomic vulnerability of specific places, social groups, households and individuals. This differential vulnerability presents spatial and temporal variations, and is rooted in historical patterns of development and relations between human and ecological systems. This study aims to assess the impact of climate variability on livelihoods and well-being, as well as their changes over time and across space, and for rural and urban populations. The geographic focus is Southern Brazil-the states of Parana, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul-- and the objectives include (a) to identify and map critical areas or hotspots of exposure to climate variability (temperature and precipitation), and (b) to identify internal variation or differential vulnerability within these areas and its evolution over time (1980-2010), using newly available integrated data from the Terra Populus project. These data include geo-referenced climate and agricultural data, and data describing demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of individuals, households and places.
Zoffoli, Hugo José Oliveira; do Amaral-Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; Zonta, Everaldo; Luisi, Marcus Vinícius; Marcon, Gracioso; Tolón-Becerra, Alfredo
Only a few studies have assessed the joint incorporation of heavy metals into agricultural systems based on the range of agrochemicals used on a specific agricultural crop. This study was conducted to assess the heavy metals input through application of the main agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields. A total of 56 samples of different batches of 5 fertilizers, 3 substrates, 8 insecticides, 3 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 1 growth regulator commonly used in the cultivation of tobacco in Brazil's Southern Region were collected from 3 warehouses located in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and Paraná. The total As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn content of the samples was then determined and compared with the regulations of different countries and information found in the available literature. The fertilizers were identified as the primary source of heavy metals among the agrochemicals used. Application of pesticides directly to the shoots of tobacco plants contributed very little to the supply of heavy metals. The agrochemicals used in Brazilian tobacco fields provide lower inputs of the main heavy metals that are nonessential for plants than those registered in the international literature for the majority of crop fields in different regions of the world.
Canever, Mariana Feltrin; Vieira, Luisa Lemos; Reck, Carolina; Richter, Luisa
Outbreaks of tick-borne disease cases in Santa Catarina, Brazil are known, but the presence of the pathogen DNA has never been determined. In this study, the first survey of Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, and Babesia bovis DNA on blood samples of 33 cattle from an outbreak in Ponte Alta Municipality, Santa Catarina, Brazil, has been carried out. A multiplex PCR detected 54.5% of animals were co-infected with 2 or 3 parasites, while 24.2% were infected with only 1 species. The most prevalent agent was B. bigemina (63.6%) followed by A. marginale (60.6%). This is the first report of tick-borne disease pathogens obtained by DNA analysis in Southern Brazil. PMID:25352699
Commodaro, Alessandra G; Chiasson, Melissa; Sundar, Natarajan; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Belfort, Rubens; Grigg, Michael E
We found significantly higher incidence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in eye bank specimens from Joinville in southern Brazil (13/15, 87%) than in São Paulo (3/42, 7%; p = 2.1 × 10E-8). PCR DNA sequence analysis was more sensitive at locus NTS2 than at locus B1; a high frequency of mixed co-infections was detected.
Mirlean, Nicolai; Roisenberg, Ari; Chies, Jaqueline O
The vine-growing areas in Brazil are the dampest in the world. Copper maximum value registered in this study was as much as 3200 mg kg(-1), which is several times higher than reported for vineyard soils in temperate climates. Other pesticide-derived metals accumulate in the topsoil layer, surpassing in the old vineyards the background value several times for Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd. Copper is transported to deeper soils' horizons and can potentially contaminate groundwater. The soils from basaltic volcanic rocks reveal the highest values of Cu extracted with CaCl(2), demonstrating a high capacity of copper transference into plants. When evaluating the risks of copper's toxic effects in subtropics, the soils from rhyolitic volcanic rocks are more worrisome, as the Cu extracted with ammonium acetate 1M surpasses the toxic threshold as much as 4-6 times.
Lasta, Camila Serina; dos Santos, Andrea Pires; Messick, Joanne Belle; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Dalmolin, Magnus Larruscaim; González, Félix Hilario Diaz
The aims of this study were to determine the occurrence of Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil; and to investigate their association with hematological abnormalities. Serum samples from 196 dogs were first tested using dot-ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia canis. Peripheral blood samples from 199 dogs were subjected to 16S rRNA nested PCR (nPCR) for A. platys and E. canis, followed by DNA sequencing to ensure pathogen identity. A total of 19/196 samples (9.69%) were positive for Anaplasma spp. using ELISA and 28/199 (14.07%) samples were positive for A. platys by nested PCR. All the dog samples were negative for E. canis, both in anti-E. canis antibody tests and in nested PCR. There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between A. platys-PCR positive and negative dogs and Anaplasma spp. serologically positive dogs, except for basophil counts, which were higher in nPCR-positive dogs. This is the first report showing A. platys presence in dogs in Southern Brazil. In conclusion, hematological parameters may not be sufficient to diagnose A. platys infection in dogs in Southern Brazil, probably due either to low pathogenicity or to chronic infection. On the other hand, E. canis may either have very low occurrence or be absent in dogs in Porto Alegre.
Antunes, Graziani de Freitas; do Amaral, Ana Paula Nunes; Ribarcki, Fabiana Pinto; Wiilland, Elenir de Fátima; Zancan, Denise Maria; Vinagre, Anapaula Sommer
The ghost crab, Ocypode quadrata, is found on sandy beaches from the United States to Southern Brazil. Because there is still little information about the metabolism and reproduction of O. quadrata on the southern coast of Brazil, the objectives of this study were to (i) evaluate the effect of seasonal variations on the carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism of O. quadrata at Rondinha Beach, a beach with high anthropogenic activity, and to compare it with data from Siriú Beach, which has less human activity; and (ii) describe the effect of seasonal variations on the histological characteristics of male and female gonads, in order to assess the reproductive capacity of the crabs. The gonads of male crabs showed no significant variations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and glycogen levels; however, histological analysis of the testes revealed that they are mature in the summer. In females, the GSI and glycogen values are higher in summer, concomitantly with the presence of mature oocytes. These results suggest that the reproductive peak of O. quadrata occurs in summer. The seasonal analysis of the biochemical parameters, as well as comparison with Siriú Beach, demonstrated that the ghost crabs of Rondinha Beach have a different pattern of metabolism than those of Siriú. This difference may be a consequence of differences in the environmental conditions as well as in the anthropogenic pressures, such as vehicle traffic and the increase in human population at the beach in summer.
Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso
Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.
Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736
dos Santos, T. V.; Twine, T. E.
Globally, agricultural water use accounts for most of the water that is withdrawn from surface water and groundwater. Rice, one of the world's leading food crops, requires that fields be continuously flooded to obtain optimal yields. High air temperature and consecutive rainless days in rice-growing areas can significantly reduce rice yields, leading to food scarcity. Climate change is expected to affect water demand for rice via changes in rainfall regime, soil water balance, and evapotranspiration. Higher temperatures and increased variability of precipitation are predicted to increase water demand and could potentially require more irrigation in lowland rice-growing areas. In this study we present the first results from model simulations in which we integrated a rice model into the Agro-IBIS dynamic ecosystem model. We predict the impact of climate change on the water use requirement of rice production in southern Brazil and evaluate changes in irrigation needed to meet minimum water demand to sustain current yields. Brazil is the 9th top rice producer in the world, and southern Brazil accounts for about 80% of the national production. The Agro-IBIS model was driven with historic weather data provided by CRU (1961-90) and with two future climate scenarios from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) for 2015-2100 - Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 (RCP45) and 8.5 (RCP85). On an hourly time step, Agro-IBIS accounts for gains (precipitation) and losses (evaporation, transpiration, infiltration and runoff) of water in each grid cell, and uses rules to irrigate in order to maintain a specific height of standing water on the field. Simulated historic and future amounts of irrigated water needed to maintain this water height will be evaluated to predict future water demand for rice production in southern Brazil.
da Silva Ramos, Tatiana; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima; Dos Santos Junior, Alceu Gonçalves; de Faria Santos, Laura Maria Jorge; Cademartori, Beatris Gonzales; Oliveira, Solange; Gennari, Solange Maria; da Silva Ramos Rocha, Andréa; da Rosa Farias, Nara Amélia
Recent studies have demonstrated that, in Brazil and South America, strains of Toxoplasma gondii are often genotypically and biologically different from those found in countries on other continents. The objective of this study was to genotypically characterize T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in herds in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by means of the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Five T. gondii isolates obtained from sheep in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were used. Application of multilocus PCR-RFLP multilocus using 12 genetic markers (SAG1, 5'3' SAG2, alt. SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, c22-8, c29-2, GRA6, L358, PK1, APICO and CS3) revealed four different genotypes in the five isolates studied: clonal type II (TgOvBrRS4), type BrIV (TgOvBrRS2 and TgOvBrRS3) and two new non-archetypal genotypes, ToxoDB-RFLP#270 and #271 (TgOvBrRS1 and TgOvBrRS5, respectively). The genotype structure found in the T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in the southern region of Brazil was revealed to have high diversity. This study confirms the presence of rare circulation of the clonal type II genotype in Brazil.
Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous presence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases and the association of these risk factors with demographic and economic factors among adolescents from southern Brazil. Methods The study included 916 students (14–19 years old) enrolled in the 2014 school year at state schools in São José, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Risk factors related to lifestyle (i.e., physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet), demographic variables (sex, age and skin colour) and economic variables (school shift and economic level) were assessed through a questionnaire. Simultaneous behaviours were assessed by the ratio between observed and expected prevalences of risk factors for non-communicable diseases. The clustering of risk factors was analysed by multinomial logistic regression. The clusters of risk factors that showed a higher prevalence were analysed by binary logistic regression. Results The clustering of two, three, four, and five risk factors were found in 22.2%, 49.3%, 21.7% and 3.1% of adolescents, respectively. Subgroups that were more likely to have both behaviours of physical inactivity and unhealthy diet simultaneously were mostly composed of girls (OR = 3.03, 95% CI = 1.57–5.85) and those with lower socioeconomic status (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.05–3.21); simultaneous physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older adolescents (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.05–2.12). Subgroups less likely to have both behaviours of sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mostly composed of girls (OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.38–0.89); simultaneous physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour and unhealthy diet were mainly observed among older individuals (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49–0.87) and those of the night shift (OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.43–0.82). Conclusion Adolescents had a high prevalence
Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B
Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil.
Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.
We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717
... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum, pursuant to the Terms...
... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This....-Brazil CEO Forum (Forum), pursuant to the Terms of Reference signed in March 2007 by the U.S....
Cardoso, Cristina P; Silva, Bruna F; Trinca, Luzia A; Amarante, Alessandro F T
Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection is a major cause of production losses in cattle. This study was carried out to evaluate the natural resistance against nematode infection in Crioulo Lageano and crossbred Angus male calves. Crioulo Lageano is a local cattle breed in the state of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil. Ten weaned calves of each breed were grazed together on pasture and naturally infected with nematodes between July 2009 and December 2010. Once every 28 days, we collected fecal and blood samples for parasitological and immunological tests, as well as recording body weights. After 19 samplings, all animals were slaughtered for quantification and identification of GINs. We found that the animals had been infected with the following nematode species, in decreasing order by the mean number of specimens: Trichostrongylus axei, Cooperia punctata, Ostertagia ostertagi, Haemonchus placei, Oesophagostomum radiatum, and Trichuris spp. There were no significant differences between the Crioulo Lageano and crossbred Angus groups in terms of worm burden or nematode fecal egg count, nor in terms of the mean levels of immunoglobulin (G and A) against C. punctata and H. placei antigens, except in IgA mean level in abomasal mucus against H. placei adult worms that was significantly higher in crossbred Angus cattle (p<0.05). At the end of the study, the crossbred Angus cattle were heavier than were the Crioulo Lageano cattle (mean live weight, 507.35 and 390.3 kg, respectively). Comparative parasitological and immunological evaluation revealed no difference between two breeds in terms of their natural resistance against GINs.
Braga, Danielle L; Louzada, Júlio N C; Zanetti, Ronald; Delabie, Jacques
We aimed to compare the soil ant diversity in different land use systems from Atlantic Forest area, in Southern Bahia state, Brazil. The ants were sampled in 16 sites: two primary forest sites (un-logged forest); three young secondary forests (<8 years old); three intermediate secondary forests (8-20 years old); three old secondary forests (>20 years old); three Eucalyptus grandis plantations (3-7 years old), and two introduced pastures. Each site was sampled in three sampling points 15 m apart, and distant over 50 m from the site edge. In each sampling point we gathered the litter from a 1 m² and extracted the ants with Winkler extractors during 48h. We found 103 ant species from 29 genera and eight subfamilies. The five richest genera were Pheidole (19 species), Solenopsis (8), Apterostigma (10), Hypoponera (7) e Paratrechina (5). The highest ant richness density was found in the primary forest (7.4 species/sample; S = 37; n = 5); followed by the old secondary forest (5.33 species/sample; S = 48; n = 9); young secondary forest (5.25 species/sample; S = 42, n = 8); eucalyptus plantation (4.22 species/sample; S = 38, n = 9), intermediate secondary forest (3.5 species/sample; S = 35, n = 10, and introduced pasture (2.67 species/sample; S = 16, n = 6). The ecosystems with higher structural complexity showed the highest ant richness density by sample. Therefore, in the Atlantic Forest region, the eucalyptus plantation is a better alternative of land use to conserve the ant biodiversity than pastures, and quite similar to native secondary forests in ant community characteristics.
Roberto-da-Silva, Lúcio; Desojo, Julia B; Cabreira, Sérgio F; Aires, Alex S S; Müller, Rodrigo T; Pacheco, Cristian P; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio
Aetosaurs are armored pseudosuchian archosaurs widespread in Upper Triassic units. In South America, four taxa were previously recorded: Aetosauroides scagliai, Neoaetosauroides engaeus, Aetobarbakinoides brasiliensis, and Chilenosuchus forttae. Herein we describe a new Late Triassic juvenile aetosaur from the Santa Maria Formation of southern Brazil, Polesinesuchus aurelioi gen. et sp. nov., increasing the paleobiodiversity of this interesting group to five taxa in Western Gondwana. The holotype is composed of cranial (parietal and braincase) and postcranial elements (cervical, dorsal, sacral, caudal vertebrae, both scapulae, a humerus, ilium, pubis, ischium, tibia, a partial right pes, and anterior and mid-dorsal paramedian osteoderms). It belongs to a juvenile individual, as its neurocentral sutures are open in all vertebrae, and also due to its small size. However, future paleohistological investigation is necessary to fully corroborate this assumption. This new taxon is distinguished from all other aetosaurs by the presence of an unique combination of character states (not controlled by ontogeny) such as: cervical vertebrae with prezygapophyses widely extending laterally through most of the anterior edge of the diapophyses; absence of hyposphene articulations in both cervical and mid-dorsal vertebrae; presence of a ventral keel in cervical vertebrae; anterior and mid-dorsal vertebrae without a lateral fossa in their centra; expanded proximal end of scapula; anteroposteriorly expanded medial portion of scapular blade; a short humerus with a robust shaft; and a dorsoventral and very low iliac blade with a long anterior process which slightly exceeds the pubic peduncle. Regarding its phylogenetic relationships, the present analysis placed Polesinesuchus as the sister taxon of Aetobarbakinoides and both as sister taxa of the unnamed monophyletic clade Desmatosuchinae plus Typothoracisinae.
França, Vivian Francielle; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; D’Orsi, Eleonora
Objective To assess the association between unhealthy dietary habits and cognition in older adults from Southern Brazil. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the second wave of a population- and household-based epidemiological survey (2013–2014) conducted in the city of Florianópolis. A total of 1,197 older adults (778 women) over 60 years old participated in the study. Cognition, the dependent variable, was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The independent variables were the following indicators of unhealthy dietary habits: low intake of fruits and vegetables (≤ 4 servings/day); fish (< 1 serving/week); and habitual fatty meat intake (yes/no). Adjustments were made for age, education level, income, smoking status, alcohol intake, leisure-time physical activity, depression symptoms, chronic diseases, and body mass index. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed, considering sampling weights and stratification by gender. Results The mean MMSE scores for men and women were 25.15 ± 5.56 and 24.26 ± 5.68, respectively (p = 0.009). After adjustments, in women low fruit and vegetable intake (≤ 4 servings/day) was independently associated with the lowest MMSE scores. No associations were found in men. Additionally, women’s mean MMSE scores increased as their daily frequency of fruit and vegetable intake increased (p = 0.001). Conclusion Women with low fruit and vegetable intake according to the World Health Organization (WHO) have lower cognition scores. Regular intake of fruits, vegetables, and fish in exchange of fatty meats may be a viable public policy strategy to preserve cognition in aging. PMID:26894259
Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar
In the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Southern Brazil, a good manufacturing practices regulation was published recommending two disinfection methods for cleaning cloths used in food services. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of those methods. Cleaning cloths were sampled without prior notice at food services, on common working days. For the analyses, the cloths were divided in two sub-samples, being one of them microbiologically analyzed. The second sub-sample was further divided in two pieces and submitted to hand washing for two minutes. After that, one piece was boiled in water for 15 min and the other one was soaked in a 200 ppm sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 min. Both pieces of cloth were submitted to microbiological analyses. Cleaning cloths presented total aerobic mean counts of 6.9 ± 6.7 log/cm(2). All cleaning cloths presented coliform contamination, and 40% demonstrated mean counts of 6.2 ± 5.6 log/cm(2). Presumptive S. aureus mean counts of 5.5 ± 4.9 log/cm(2) were found. No statistic correlation was observed among the number of meals served daily in the food services and the microbiological contamination levels. After washing and disinfection, microbiological counts were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by both methods, achieving an approximately 5 log reduction. The reductions achieved by the sodium hypochlorite soaking method and the boiling method were not significantly different. Thus, it was possible to conclude that both recommended methods were suitable to disinfect cleaning cloths used in food services.
This paper bridges two lines of research. One line shows that social relations in the southern United States are more "collectivist" than social relations in non-southern regions. The second line of work argues that collectivist social relations generate lower levels of general trust than individualist social relations. At the…
Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; da Silva, Marcos Kipper; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez
The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastrointestinal parasitism in Cavia aperea aperea (cavy), captured in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State. Fecal samples from five free-living cavies were collected for research of parasites. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate and parasites were identified microscopically based on (oo)cyst and egg size and morphology. Cysts of Giardia sp. and (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. were observed in one or more cavies. Eggs of Paraspidodera uncinata were observed in three of the five rodents. All infected animals showed mild infection by parasite. This is the first report of Giardia sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Cystoisospora sp. in Cavia a. aperea.
Ramalho, Laís V; Calliari, Lauro
The continental shelf of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) is predominantly composed of unconsolidated sediments with a few hard substrates represented principally by beachrock. In this area there are elongate deposits of shell gravel material which are interpreted as indicators of the palaeo-shorelines. These Pleistocene deposits are overlapped by Holocene sediments (Recent), but are exposed during erosive events caused by extra-tropical cyclones, which provide the mixture of both sediments mainly during autumn and winter. The few studies on bryozoans made in this area previously recorded seven species, one fossil and the other six from Recent fluvial and marine environments. The aim of the present study was to describe the eight most abundant bryozoan species that occur in the inner RS shelf. Of these, four are new records for RS State (Arachnopusia aff. pusae, Hippomonavella brasiliensis, Turbicellepora pourtalesi, and Lifuella gorgonensis), and the other four are new to science (Chaperia taylori, Micropora nodimagna, Cellaria riograndensis, and Exochella moyani).
Bornschein, Marcos R; Firkowski, Carina R; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A A; Pie, Marcio R
Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances.
Bornschein, Marcos R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Baldo, Diego; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Belmonte-Lopes, Ricardo; Corrêa, Leandro; Morato, Sérgio A. A.; Pie, Marcio R.
Three new species of Melanophryniscus are described from the Serra do Mar mountain range of the state of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. All species are found at intermediate to high altitudes and share phytotelm-breeding as their reproductive strategy. The new species are distinguished from other phytotelm-breeding Melanophryniscus based on different combinations of the following traits: snout-vent length, presence of white and/or yellow spots on forearms, mouth, belly and cloaca, pattern and arrangement of warts, and presence and number of corneous spines. The discovery of these species in a rather restricted geographical area suggests that the diversity of phytotelm-breeding species of Melanophryniscus might be severely underestimated. The conservation status of these species is of particular concern, given that one of them is at risk of extinction not only due to its restricted habitat, but also because of anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:26630281
Sallis, Eliza Simone Viégas; de Barros, Vera Lúcia Reis Souza; Garmatz, Shana Letícia; Fighera, Rafael Almeida; Graça, Dominguita Lühers
Many brown howlers (Alouatta fusca) have died in a 3-month period in a subtropical forest in Southern Brazil. One was examined after a systemic illness. According to clinical signs, and necropsy and histopathology findings, yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was suspected. Tissue sections from liver, kidney, and lymphoid organs were screened by immunohistochemistry for YFV antigens. Cells within those tissues stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against YFV antigens (1:1,600 dilution), and yellow fever was diagnosed for the first time in the brown howler in the area.
da Silva, Aleksandro S; Zanette, Régis A; Lara, Valéria M; Gressler, Luciane T; Carregaro, Adriano B; Santurio, Janio M; Monteiro, Silvia G
The aim of this research was to study the gastrointestinal parasitism in 12 adult owls kept in captivity in the Southern region of Brazil. Cloacal contents of the species Rhinoptynx clamator, Tyto alba, Athene cunicularia, Megascops spp., and Bubo virginianus were evaluated. Feces and urine were collected and analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal-flotation method and stained by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Eggs of Capillaria spp. and Strongylida, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., Eimeria spp., and Isospora spp. were observed. The birds showed no clinical signs, probably due to the mild nature of the infection.
Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Noll, Jéssica Caroline Gomes; Freitas, Ítallo Barros de; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez
Parasitic diseases reflect the health and balance of ecosystems, affecting not only individuals but also entire populations or communities. The aim of this study was to report on the diversity of parasitic helminths detected in the feces of a wild feline in southern Brazil. Parasites were obtained from fecal samples, and four techniques were used for parasitological examination: direct examination, centrifugal flotation with zinc sulfate (Faust technique), simple sedimentation (Hoffman technique) and Baermann-Moraes. The parasites were identified through micrometry and morphology, as follows: Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara sp., Trichuridae, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Alaria sp., and Spirometra sp. We recorded the genus Ancylostoma parasitizing L. colocolo for the first time.
Vasconcelos, Pedro F; Sperb, Alethéa F; Monteiro, Hamilton A; Torres, Maria A; Sousa, Maria R; Vasconcelos, Helena B; Mardini, Lúcia B; Rodrigues, Sueli G
Following howling monkey (Alouatta caraya) deaths and yellow fever (YF) antigen detection by immunohistochemistry in the liver sample of a dead monkey in April and May 2001 in the municipalities of Garruchos and Santo Antônio das Missões, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, epidemiological field investigations were initiated. Two strains of YF virus were isolated in suckling mice from 23 Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus Dyar & Shannon mosquitoes collected from the study sites. The YF virus was isolated from this species in the 1930s in Brazil and in the 1940s in Colombia. No human cases were reported during the current epizootic outbreak. The YF virus isolation and the absence of Hg. (Haemagogus) janthinomys Dyar from the area suggest that Hg. leucocelaenus may be a secondary YF vector and play an important role in the epidemiology of this disease in the Southern Cone.
Godwin, Winfred L.
Southern state governments bear a heavy responsibility in view of the historic dualism at all levels of education in insuring equal higher educational opportunities and eliminating discrimination. (Author/SD)
Müller, Rodrigo Temp; da Rosa, Átila Augusto Stock; Roberto da Silva, Lúcio; Aires, Alex Sandro Schiller; Pacheco, Cristian Pereira; Pavanatto, Ane Elise Branco; Dias-da-Silva, Sérgio
The present contribution reports a new fossiliferous site from the Caturrita Formation (Upper Triassic of Paraná Basin, Southern Brazil), which yields articulate, complete, associated, and exceptionally well-preserved dinosaur specimens, together with the sole occurrence of an isolated tooth ascribed to a carnivore indetermined archosauriform. These specimens increase the sauropodomorph record from this geological unit. A preliminary evaluation of such specimens suggests that sauropodomorph dinosaurs could have been more abundant in Norian Faunas from southern Brazil, considering the increased sampling here reported. So far, about six specimens are previously recognized (disregarding Guaibasaurus) from the Caturrita Formation, and here we add four specimens, or even five if consider an additional autopodium. Also, the morphology of the isolated carnivorous-type tooth differs from other described carnivorous archosauriform teeth from the Caturrita Formation. Hence, it might represent a still undescribed taxon. Further studies of these specimens will certainly provide new data regarding biostratigraphy, phylogeny, paleoecology, and taphonomy, as this new fossiliferous locality preserves one of the most representative dinosaur records from the Norian worldwide.
Guimaraes, Ana M S; Brandão, Paulo E; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir S; Santos, Leonilda C; Villarreal, Laura Y B; Robes, Rogério R; Coelho, Fabiana M; Resende, Mauricio; Santos, Renata C F; Oliveira, Rosangela C; Yamaguti, Mauricio; Marques, Lucas M; Neto, Renata L; Buzinhani, Melissa; Marques, Regina; Messick, Joanne B; Biondo, Alexander W; Timenetsky, Jorge
A total of 57 captive neotropical felids (one Leopardus geoffroyi, 14 Leopardus pardalis, 17 Leopardus wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, and three Puma yagouaroundi) from the Itaipu Binacional Wildlife Research Center (Refúgio Bela Vista, Southern Brazil) were anesthetized for blood collection. Feces samples were available for 44 animals, including one L. geoffroyi, eight L. pardalis, 14 L. wiedii, 20 L. tigrinus, and one P. yagouaroundi. Total DNA and RNA were extracted from blood and feces, respectively, using commercial kits. Blood DNA samples were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) proviral DNA, whereas reverse transcriptase-PCR was run on fecal samples for detection of coronavirus RNA. None of the samples were positive for coronaviruses. A male L. pardalis and a female L. tigrinus were positive for FeLV proviral DNA, and identities of PCR products were confirmed by sequencing. This is the first evidence of FeLV proviral DNA in these species in Southern Brazil.
Picoli, Simone Ulrich; Mazzoleni, Luiz Edmundo; Fernández, Heriberto; De Bona, Laura Renata; Neuhauss, Erli; Longo, Larisse; Prolla, João Carlos
Introduction: Helicobacter pylori is a bacteria which infects half the world population and is an important cause of gastric cancer. The eradication therapy is not always effective because resistance to antimicrobials may occur. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility profile of H. pylori to amoxicillin, clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin in the population of Southern Brazil. Material and methods: Fifty four samples of H. pylori were evaluated. The antibiotics susceptibility was determined according to the guidelines of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy and the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie. Results: Six (11.1%) H. pylori isolates were resistant to clarithromycin, one (1.9%) to amoxicillin and three (5.5%) to ciprofloxacin. These indices of resistance are considered satisfactory and show that all of these antibiotics can be used in the empirical therapy. Conclusion: The antibiotics amoxicillin and clarithromycin are still a good option for first line anti-H. pylori treatment in the population of Southern Brazil. PMID:24878996
Soares, Marina B; Martinelli, Agustín G; De Oliveira, Téo V
We report here on a new prozostrodontian cynodont, Botucaraitherium belarminoi gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Triassic Riograndia Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Candelária Sequence (Santa Maria Supersequence), collected in the Botucaraí Hill Site, Candelária Municipality, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The new taxon is based on a single specimen (holotype MMACR-PV-003-T) which includes the left lower jaw, without postdentary bones, bearing the root of the last incisor, canine and four postcanines plus one partial crown inside the dentary, not erupted, and two maxillary fragments, one with a broken canine and another with one postcanine. The features of the lower jaw and lower/upper postcanines resemble those of the prozostrodontians Prozostrodon brasiliensis from the older Hyperodapedon AZ and Brasilodon quadrangularis and Brasilitherium riograndensis from the same Riograndia AZ. The inclusion of Botucaraitherium within a broad phylogenetic analysis, positioned it as a more derived taxon than tritylodontids, being the sister-taxon of Brasilodon, Brasilitherium plus Mammaliaformes. Although the new taxon is based on few cranial elements, it represents a additional faunal component of the Triassic Riograndia AZ of southern Brazil, in which small-sized derived non-mammaliaform cynodonts, closely related to the origin of mammaliaforms, were ecologically well succeed and taxonomically diverse.
Maziero, Nelí; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Steindel, Mário; Link, Juliana Seger; Rossini, Diego; Alban, Silvana M; Nascimento, Aguinaldo J
The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in the far western region of Santa Catarina State, bordering Argentina and Parana State, southern Brazil, where in recent years, VL has been recorded in both dogs and humans. Clinical signs, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for Leishmania investigation. Among the 252 dogs surveyed, 41 were positive by ELISA assay, 43 in IFAT (titer>40), and 55 by PCR. From the 48 positive for VL by both serological and molecular methods, 19 (39.6%) presented clinical symptoms of leishmaniosis, 35 (72.9%) were from rural areas, and 13 (27.1%) were from urban areas. This pilot study confirms the occurrence of VL among dogs in the far western region of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, with high risk of CVL outbreaks and presenting a threat to humans.
Krusche, Nisia; Stoevesandt, Bernhard; Chang, Chi-Yao; Peralta, Carlos
In recent years, several wind farms were build in the coast of Rio Grande do Sul state. This region of Brazil was identified, in wind energy studies, as most favorable to the development of wind power energy, along with the Northeast part of the country. Site assessments of wind power, over long periods to estimate the power production and forecasts over short periods can be used for planning of power distribution and enhancements on Brazil's present capacity to use this resource. The computational power available today allows the simulation of the atmospheric flow in great detail. For instance, one of the authors participated in a research that demonstrated the interaction between the lake and maritime breeze in this region through the use of a atmospheric model. Therefore, we aim to evaluate simulations of wind conditions and its potential to generate energy in this region. The model applied is the Weather Research and Forecasting , which is the mesoscale weather forecast software. The calculation domain is centered in 32oS and 52oW, in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul state. The initial conditions of the simulation are taken from the global weather forecast in the time period from October 1st to October 31st, 2006. The wind power potential was calculated for a generic turbine, with a blade length of 52 m, using the expression: P=1/2*d*A*Cp*v^3, where P is the wind power energy (in Watts), d is the density (equal to 1.23 kg/m^3), A is the area section, which is equal to 8500 m2 , and v is the intensity of the velocity. The evaluation was done for a turbine placed at 50 m and 150 m of height. A threshold was chosen for a turbine production of 1.5 MW to estimate the potential of the site. In contrast to northern Brazilian region, which has a rather constant wind condition, this region shows a great variation of power output due to the weather variability. During the period of the study, at least three frontal systems went over the region, and thre was a
The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.
Tannous, Leila; Gigante, Luciana P; Fuchs, Sandra C; Busnello, Ellis DA
Background Studies investigating the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) show rates ranging from 5% to 36.7%. The investigation of age, race, educational levels, religion and income as risk factors for PND has yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of PND in women residing in Southern Brazil and the associated risk factors. Methods This is population-based cross-sectional study of women residing in Porto Alegre who delivered in June 2001. A sample of 271 participants were selected from the Record of Living Newborn Infants of the State Health Department (the official Brazilian database and stores the name and address of all women who give birth to living newborn infants) using a process based on pseudo-random numbers which choose a random sample from 2.000 records. Once the addresses were identified, the women were visited at their place of residence (home, hotel, boarding house and prison), with the interviews taking place between the 6th and the 8th week after delivery. The association between the risk factors and PND was investigated through bivariate analysis using Pearson's chi-square test. Student's t-test was used to analyze the continuous variables. To identify independent risk factors, multivariate analysis was performed using hierarchical levels with a predefined model that took into account the time relationship between PND and the risk factors. Cox's regression was used to calculate the prevalence ratios. Results The PND prevalence rate found was 20.7% (CI 95% 15.7 – 25.7). After adjusting for confounding variables, per capita income was found to have a significant association with PND. Conclusion The prevalence of PND is higher than the figures found in most developed countries and similar to the figures found in developing countries. Differences in PND by regions or countries can be partially explained by the effect of income on the mediation of risk factors. In low income populations, women should be
Weihermann, Jessica Derkacz; Ferreira, Francisco José Fonseca; Cury, Leonardo Fadel; da Silveira, Claudinei Taborda
The Paranaguá Terrane, located in the coastal portion of the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo in Southern Brazil is a crustal segment constituted mainly by an igneous complex, with a variety of granitic rocks inserted into the Serra do Mar ridge. The average altitude is approximately 1200 m above sea level, with peaks of up to 1800 m. Due to the difficulty of accessing the area, a shortage of outcrops and the thick weathering mantle, this terrane is understudied. This research aims to evaluate the gamma-ray spectrometry data of the granitic suites of the Paranaguá Terrane, in correspondence with the geological, petrographical, lithogeochemical, relief and mass movement information available in the literature. Aerogeophysical data were acquired along north-south lines spaced at 500 m, with a mean terrain clearance of 100 m. These data cover potassium (K, %), equivalent in thorium (eTh, ppm) and equivalent in uranium (eU, ppm). After performing a critical analysis of the data, basic (K, eU, eTh) and ternary (R-K/G-eTh/B-eU) maps were generated and then superimposed on the digital elevation model (DEM). The investigation of the radionuclide mobility across the relief and weathering mantle consisted of an analysis of the schematic profiles of elevation related with each radionuclide; a comparison of the K, eU and eTh maps with their 3D correspondents; and the study of mass movements registered in the region. A statistical comparison of lithogeochemical (K, U, Th) and geophysical (K, eU, eTh) data showed consistency in all the granitic suites studied (Morro Inglês, Rio do Poço and Canavieiras-Estrela). Through gamma-ray spectrometry, it was possible to establish relationships between scars (from mass movements) and the gamma-ray responses as well as the radionuclide mobility and the relief and to map the granitic bodies.
Jelinek, A. R.; Chemale, F., Jr.
In this work we deal with the Phanerozoic history of the Southern Mantiqueira Province and adjacent areas after the orogen-collapse of the Brasiliano orogenic mountains in southern Brazil and Uruguay, based on thermocronological data (fission track and U-Th/He on apatite) and thermal history modelling. During the Paleozoic intraplate sedimentary basins formed mainly bordering the orogenic systems, and thus, these regions have not been overprinted by younger orogenic processes. In the Mesocenozoic this region was affected by later fragmentation and dispersal due to the separation of South America and Africa. Denudation history of both margins quantified on the basis of thermal history modeling of apatite fission track thermocronology indicates that the margin of southeastern Brazil and Uruguay presented a minimum 3.5 to 4.5 Km of denudation, which included the main exposure area of the Brasiliano orogenic belts and adjacent areas. The Phanerozoic evolution of the West Gondawana is thus recorded first by the orogenetic collapses of the Brasiliano and Pan-African belts, at that time formed a single mountain system in the Cambrian-Ordovician period. Subsequentlly, formed the intraplate basins as Paraná, in southeastern Brazil, and Congo and some records of the Table Mountains Group and upper section of Karoo units, in Southwestern Africa. In Permotriassic period, the collision of the Cape Fold Belt and Sierra de la Ventana Belt at the margins of the West Gondwana supercontinent resulted an elastic deformation in the cratonic areas, where the intraplate depositional basin occurred, and also subsidence and uplift of the already established Pan-African-Brasiliano Belts. Younger denudation events, due to continental margin uplift and basin subsidence, occurred during the rifting and dispersal of the South America and Africa plates, which can be very well defined by the integration of the passive-margin sedimentation of the Pelotas and Santos basins and apatite fission
5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014
This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from July 2012 through December 2013. The nation's first regional interstate compact for education, SREB is today the most comprehensive, bringing together states to enable them to achieve…
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014
This report provides an overview of Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services and how each member state participated in them from December 2013 through November 2014. SREB serves a wide range of education policy leaders, including governors, state legislators, executive and legislative staff, and K-12 and postsecondary agency…
This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) associated with cereals grown in southern Brazil between 2009 and 2012. The total collection comprised 1,127 isolates, which were divided into four collections obtained from: 1) disea...
Areas under intensive tobacco crop cultivation have impacted the water balance and have become sources of environmental contamination in Southern Brazil. Correct determination of the area’s hydrology is essential since it is the driving force of sediment and nutrient loading dynamics. The Soil and W...
Bisol, Claudia Alquati; Sperb, Tania Mara; Brewer, Toye H.; Kato, Sergio Kakuta; Shor-Posner, Gail
HIV/AIDS knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil are described. Forty-two deaf students attending a special nonresidential public school for the deaf and 50 hearing students attending a regular public school, ages 15-21 years, answered a computer-assisted questionnaire. (There was…
Amaral, Silvana Vargas Do; Leal-Zanchet, Ana Maria
Two new species of Geoplaninae from southern Brazil are described herein. The new species, belonging to the genus Pasipha Ogren & Kawakatsu, 1990, can be distinguished from each other and from their congeners by colour pattern and characteristics of the copulatory apparatus, especially regarding the female organs and prostatic vesicle. Both new species seem to be endemic to areas covered by deciduous forest.
Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F
This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient
Evapotranspiration (ET), including water loss from plant transpiration and land evaporation, is of vital importance for understanding hydrological processes and climate dynamics and remote sensing is considered as the most important tool for estimate ET over large areas. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) offers an interesting opportunity to evaluate ET with spatial resolution of 1 km. The MODIS global evapotranspiration algorithm (MOD16) considers both surface energy fluxes and climatic constraints on ET (water or temperature stress) to predict plant transpiration and soil evaporation based on Penman-Monteith equation. The algorithm is driven by remotely sensed and reanalysis meteorological data. In this study, MOD16 algorithm was applied to Southern Brazil to evaluate drought occurrences and its impacts over the agricultural production. Drought is a chronic potential natural disaster characterized by an extended period of time in which less water is available than expected, typically classified as meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socioeconomic. With human-induced climate change, increases in the frequency, duration and severity of droughts are expected, leading to negative impacts in several sectors, such as agriculture, energy, transportation, urban water supply, among others. The current drought indicators are primarily based on precipitation, however only a few indicators incorporate ET and soil moisture components. ET and soil moisture play an important role in the assessment of drought severity as sensitive indicators of land drought status. To evaluate the drought occurrences in Southern Brazil from 2000 to 2012, we used the Evaporative Stress Index (ESI). The ESI, defined as 1 (one) minus the ratio of actual ET to potential ET, is one of the most important indices denoting ET and soil moisture responses to surface dryness with effects over natural ecosystems and agricultural areas. Results showed that ESI captured major
Gallas, Moisés; da Silveira, Eliane Fraga; da Silvera, Eliane Fraga
In Brazil, Oligacanthorhynchus pardalis (Westrumb, 1821) Schmidt, 1972 has been observed in five species of wild felines. In the present study, five roadkilled oncillas (Leopardus tigrinus Schreber, 1775) were collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Chronic lesions caused by O. pardalis were observed in the small intestine of one of the specimens. Histological examination identified a well-defined leukocyte infiltration and an area of collagenous fibrosis. Only males parasites (n = 5) were found, with a prevalence of 20%. The life cycle of Oligacanthorhynchus species is poorly known, although arthropods may be their intermediate hosts. The low prevalence encountered may be related to the small number of hosts examined, and the reduced ingestion of arthropods infected by larvae of O. pardalis. This is the first report of O. pardalis parasitizing L. tigrinus in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.
Cury, L. F.; Siga Junior, O., Sr.; Harara, O.; Bahniuk, A.
The Paranaguá terrane is mainly constituted by an arc-related granitic complex, spread in a large NE-SW elongated stripe, located in Southern Ribeira Belt, Southeastern Brazil. The country rocks of these granites occur as a disrupted folded belt composed of metassedimentary rocks and gneissic-migmatitic rocks in split basement nuclei. The southern part of the Paranaguá Terrane is characterized by high angle tectonics; on the other hand, the northern portion by low angle tectonics. The transcurrent shear zones of Southern Paranaguá Terrane, comprising a sinistral kinematic with oblique component, are marked by the coexistence of strike-slip and down-dip lineations. The thrust shear zones represent a large front collision, located in the Northern Paranaguá Terrane, with north-northwest convergence and oblique components. The transition between these two distinct tectonic styles is given by N-S faults associated with a transpressive regime, with lateral ramp characteristics. Different generations of granite intrusions took place during the magmatic arc development, with petrographic, lithogeochemical and isotopic similarities suggesting emplacement stages during a late collisional event. Older U-Pb zircon ages between 620-610 Ma indicate the presence of a relatively early magmatism associated to the first stages of subduction in southern Paranaguá Terrane. The main magmatic period is characterized by Neoproterozoic records obtained by U-Pb zircon, which give ages between 600-580 Ma. Furthermore, the metamorphic peak of the metassedimentary sequence, with U-Pb monazite age of 599 ± 5 Ma, is quite close to the main magmatic events. In addition, the U-Pb zircon records obtained in crystals rims of deformed granitoids and late leucogranitic veins show ages between 530-480 Ma. This geological context suggests a complex history for Gondwana agglutination, with late stages at Cambro-Ordovician's Buzios Orogeny.
Schmitt, J L; Goetz, M N B
In the northeastern region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul in Southern Brazil, specifically in the Rio dos Sinos basin, urban parks are an important alternative for the conservation of the remaining natural habitats, as well as for the maintenance and perpetuation of biodiversity. A floristic survey of fern and lycophyte species in the Parque Municipal Henrique Luís Roessler (PMHLR) (29º 41' S and 51º 06' W; alt. 16.4 m) in Novo Hamburgo, (State of Rio Grande do Sul, RS) described their life-forms, as well as substrates and preferential environments. Forty-three species, 30 genera and 15 families were found, 39 of which were ferns. The hemicryptophytes had the highest species richness (26), 17 of which were repent, and nine, rosulate. Most species were found in terrestrial substrates (32) and inside the forest (29). Species richness in the PMHLR corresponded to about 13% of the total fern and lycophyte species listed for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, which demonstrates the importance of conservation areas in the Rio dos Sinos basin as an alternative to the preservation of local biodiversity.
Oda, F H; Petsch, D K; Ragonha, F H; Batista, V G; Takeda, A M; Takemoto, R M
Amphibians are hosts for a wide variety of ecto- and endoparasites, such as protozoans and parasitic worms. Naididae is a family of Oligochaeta whose species live on a wide range of substrates, including mollusks, aquatic macrophytes, sponges, mosses, liverworts, and filamentous algae. However, some species are known as endoparasitic from vertebrates, such as Dero (Allodero) lutzi, which is parasitic of the urinary tracts of frogs, but also have a free-living stage. Specimens in the parasitic stage lack dorsal setae, branchial fossa, and gills. Here we report the occurrence of D. (A.) lutzi associated with anuran Scinax fuscovarius from Semi-deciduous Atlantic Rain Forest in southern Brazil. The study took place at the Caiuá Ecological Station, Diamante do Norte, Paraná, southern Brazil. Seven specimens of S. fuscovarius were examined for parasites but only one was infected. Parasites occurred in ureters and urinary bladder. Previous records of this D. (A.) lutzi include the Brazilian States of Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Minas Gerais, as well as Cuba and North America. This is a new locality record for this species in Brazil. Reports of Dero (Allodero) lutzi are rare, due to difficulty of observation, and such events are restricted only the fortuitous cases. It is important to emphasize the necessity of future studies, which are fundamental to the understanding of biological and ecological aspects of this species.
Bruhn, Fábio Raphael Pascoti; Silva Júnior, Fidelis Antônio; Carvalho, André Henrique de Oliveira; Orlando, Débora Ribeiro; Rocha, Christiane Maria Barcellos Magalhães da; Guimarães, Antônio Marcos
The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with infection by Eimeria spp. and gastrointestinal nematodes in 356 calves on 20 dairy farms located in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ten species of Eimeria spp. were identified, of which E. bovis (37.6%) and E. zuernii (17.9%) were the most frequent. From fecal cultures, four genera of gastrointestinal nematodes were recovered, of which Cooperia spp. (74.6%) and Haemonchus (19.4%) were the most frequent. Variables relating to higher levels of technology used on dairy farms showed a significant association (p < 0.05) with higher OPG and EPG counts, and are discussed in this study.
Ribeiro, Luiz F.
A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout–vent length 9.9–13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation. PMID:26339556
da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; dos Santos, Iná Silva; Béria, Jorge Umberto; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Tomasi, Elaine; Victora, Cesar Gomes
This study investigated the prevalence of factors associated with condom use during last sexual intercourse in 15-49-year-old women in a probabilistic sample from the urban area of Pelotas, southern Brazil. A questionnaire administered by an interviewer, investigating socioeconomic characteristics and habits, and another (self-administered) questionnaire on sexual behavior-related variables were used. Poisson regression, following a hierarchical model, was used for data analysis. 1,543 women were included, and losses and refusals amounted to 3.5%. Prevalence of condom use in last sexual intercourse was 28.0%. Condom use was positively associated with younger age, greater schooling, non-white color, single marital status, and greater number of sex partners in the previous three months. This suggests that the group most vulnerable to STDs/AIDS due to lack of condom use is white, adult women, in stable unions, with fewer sexual partners.
Jorge, Sérgio; Monte, Leonardo G; De Oliveira, Natasha R; Collares, Thais F; Roloff, Bárbara C; Gomes, Charles K; Hartwig, Daiane D; Dellagostin, Odir A; Hartleben, Cláudia P
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes from the genus Leptospira, which includes 20 species and more than 300 serovars. Canines are important hosts of pathogenic leptospires and can transmit the pathogen to humans via infected urine. Here, we report the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Leptospira interrogans isolated from Canis familiaris in Southern Brazil. The isolated strain was characterized by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis as L. interrogans, serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae. In addition, the isolate was recognized by antibodies from human and canine serum samples previously tested by microscopic agglutination test. Ultimately, the expression of membrane-associated antigens (LipL32 and leptospiral immunoglobulin-like proteins) from pathogenic leptospires using monoclonal antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, identification of new strains of Leptospira can help in the diagnosis and control of leptospirosis.
Santana, Leni de Lima; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Brey, Christiane; Miranda, Fernanda Moura D'Almeida; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres
Objective To describe the health profile of mental and behavioral disorders in health professionals at a teaching hospital in southern Brazil. Methods This was a quantitative, retrospective cross-sectional epidemiological study whose data were collected through institutional documents used to feed the Health Monitoring System for Nursing Professionals and involved all absenteeism occurred in 2011. Results We found 55 records of absenteeism due to mental and behavioral disorders, a total of 317 days absent. Nursing technicians were the most absentee, with 29.09% of the records. The intensive care unit represented the sector with the highest number of days absent, 81%, and depressive episodes were the most frequent, representing 52.72% of mental disorders. Conclusion The results showed that mental disorders in health professionals are a cause for concern and urgently need intervention.
Riquinho, Deise Lisboa; Hennington, Élida Azevedo
This study aimed to analyze the tobacco farming and marketing process in an integrated system and tobacco farmers' living and working conditions in Southern Brazil. A qualitative study was conducted from December 2010 to August 2011, with 31 semi-structured interviews with tobacco farmers and key informants, besides participant observation. The principal analytical reference was the ergological perspective. The integrated system allows the tobacco industry to control the amounts paid and the tobacco's quality. Tobacco growing features high cost of inputs, farmers' indebtedness, insufficient crop insurance, and intensive use of family labor. Accident and disease risks were associated with work in tobacco farming. According to the dynamic three-pole model proposed by ergology, dealing with these problems requires confronting the workers' knowledge with technical and scientific knowledge, linked with ethical and social responsibility.
Bianchini, E; Emmerick, J M; Messetti, A V L; Pimenta, J A
We analyzed the phenology of Ficus adhatodifolia Schott ex Spreng. (23 fig tree) and F. eximia Schott (12 fig tree) for 74 months in a remnant of seasonal semi-deciduous forest (23° 27'S and 51° 15'W), Southern Brazil and discussed their importance to frugivorous. Leaf drop, leaf flush, syconia production and dispersal were recorded. These phenophases occurred year-round, but seasonal peaks were recorded in both leaf phenophases for F. eximia and leaf flushing for F. adhatodifolia. Climatic variables analyzed were positively correlated with reproductive phenophases of F. adhatodifolia and negatively correlated with the vegetative phenophases of F. eximia. In despite of environmental seasonality, little seasonality in the phenology of two species was observed, especially in the reproductive phenology. Both species were important to frugivorous, but F. adhatodifolia can play a relevant role in the remnant.
Bornatowski, H; Braga, R R; Abilhoa, V; Corrêa, M F M
The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of the shark species off the Paraná coast were ichthyophagous, with the exception of S. zygaena, which was teutophagous. With the exception of G. cuvier, which had a generalist diet, the other five species displayed specialization in their feeding. Ontogenetic shifts were observed in C. obscurus and S. lewini with large individuals consuming elasmobranchs. Owing to the diet overlap between C. obscurus and S. lewini, C. obscurus and C. limbatus and R. lalandii and C. limbatus, future studies on the spatial and temporal distributions of these species are needed to understand the extent of competitive interactions.
Haddad, Maria Angélica; Bettim, Ariane Lima; Miglietta, Maria Pia
Podocoryna loyola, a new hydractiniid species, has been found on artificial substrates in Baía de Paranaguá, southern coast of Brazil, since April 2007. Its main morphological characteristics are: (1) polymorphic colonies with reticular stolons or encrusting hydrorhiza not covered by periderm and smooth chitinous spines; (2) newly-released medusae with eight tentacles and small interradial gonads; (3) mature medusae with eight tentacles and unbranched oral lips; gastric peduncle absent. Molecular data show that P. loyola is distinct from all other examined species of Podocoryna, and from P. hayamaensis Hirohito (1988), its sister species from Japan. As the polyps having been noted only quite recently, and in having been found only on man-made objects in port areas and estuaries, the species is most likely exotic to the region.
Lima, Lílian Moura de; Harter, Jenifer; Tomberg, Jéssica Oliveira; Vieira, Dagoberta Alves; Antunes, Muriel Lucero; Cardozo-Gonzales, Roxana Isabel
Objectives To monitor and assess the outcome of treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in the tuberculosis control program in a prioritized municipality in Southern Brazil. Methods a quantitative study, descriptive, documentary, using records of people with tuberculosis in treatment between 2009-2013, the collection took place between June and July 2014 in the Tuberculosis Control Program. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The average number of consultations among the 629 patients was 7.2 per patient, with a mean interval of 1.03 months between visits. The average of smears was 2.7 tests per patient during the study period. The outcome of treatment was a cure rate of 87.8%, an abandonment rate of 8.3% and 6.5% of deaths. Conclusions despite the cure rate, abandonment is still high, thus, it is necessary to explore strategies for better adherence to treatment, and the commitment of the municipal administration in articulating monitoring in primary health care.
Fianco, Ana C B; Roisenberg, Ari; Bonotto, Daniel M
The equivalent uranium (eU) activity concentration was analysed in selected granite samples at several sites in Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, to obtain information on the radon ((222)Rn) generation by the aquifer rock matrices. Radon analyses of ground water and soil samples were also performed. Several samples exhibited a dissolved (222)Rn activity concentration exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq l(-1). The dissolved radon content in ground waters from the Fractured Precambrian Aquifer System exhibited a direct significant correlation with the eU in the rock matrices, which is a typical result of water-rock interactions. Variation in the soil's porosity was confirmed as an important factor for (222)Rn release, as expected, due to its gaseous nature. Thus, although the calcic-alkaline to alkaline Precambrian granitoid rocks of the study area are important reservoirs for underground resources, they can release high amounts of radon gas into the liquid phase.
Pie, Marcio R; Ribeiro, Luiz F
A new miniaturized toadled of the genus Brachycephalus (Anura: Brachycephalidae) is described from Serra do Quiriri in the municipality of Campo Alegre, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Specimens were collected from the leaf litter between from 1,263 and 1,318 m above sea level. The new species is distinguished from all its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout-vent length 9.9-13.1 mm; skin on head and dorsum without dermal co-ossification; snout mucronate in dorsal view; dorsum rugose; general color brown, with a narrow orange vertebral stripe. The region where the new species is located is also shared with other endemic anuran species and has experienced strong anthropogenic impacts,suggesting that immediate actions should be taken to ensure their long-term preservation.
Freire, Patrícia Larrosa; Trentin, Jessica Puchalski; de Avila Quevedo, Luciana
Burnout syndrome (BOS) is the result of chronic stress at work, and is characterized by emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and low professional accomplishment. Anesthesiologyis a stressful profession. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of burnout as well as the sociodemographic and working characteristics associated with this syndrome's emotional factors, in anesthesiologists from Southern Brazil. We assessed burnout severity, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem using the Maslach burnout inventory, the Beck depression inventory, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale, respectively. Of the 198 anesthesiologists included in this study, 48.7% were positive for burnout, 26.9% for EE, 41.3% for DP and 32.7% for low personal accomplishment. Trends in BOS was associated with a younger age, difficulty to conciliate family and work demands, low self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.
Trigo, Tatiane C.; Tirelli, Flávia P.; de Freitas, Thales R. O.; Eizirik, Eduardo
Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species. PMID:25250657
de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S
An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses.
Trigo, Tatiane C; Tirelli, Flávia P; de Freitas, Thales R O; Eizirik, Eduardo
Increased attention towards the Neotropical cats Leopardus guttulus and L. geoffroyi was prompted after genetic studies identified the occurrence of extensive hybridization between them at their geographic contact zone in southern Brazil. This is a region where two biomes intersect, each of which is associated with one of the hybridizing species (Atlantic Forest with L. guttulus and Pampas with L. geoffroyi). In this study, we conducted in-depth analyses of multiple molecular markers aiming to characterize the magnitude and spatial structure of this hybrid zone. We also performed a morphological assessment of these species, aiming to test their phenotypic differentiation at the contact zone, as well as the correlation between morphological features and the admixture status of the individuals. We found strong evidence for extensive and complex hybridization, with at least 40% of the individuals sampled in Rio Grande do Sul state (southernmost Brazil) identified as hybrids resulting from post-F1 generations. Despite such a high level of hybridization, samples collected in this state still comprised two recognizable clusters (genetically and morphologically). Genetically pure individuals were sampled mainly in regions farther from the contact zone, while hybrids concentrated in a central region (exactly at the interface between the two biomes). The morphological data set also revealed a strong spatial structure, which was correlated with the molecular results but displayed an even more marked separation between the clusters. Hybrids often did not present intermediate body sizes and could not be clearly distinguished morphologically from the parental forms. This observation suggests that some selective pressure may be acting on the hybrids, limiting their dispersal away from the hybrid zone and perhaps favoring genomic combinations that maintain adaptive phenotypic features of one or the other parental species.
Gusatti, Carolina de Souza; Costi, Cintia; de Medeiros, Rúbia Marília; Halon, Maria Laura; Grandi, Tarciana; Medeiros, Arlete Ferrari Rech; da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Silva, Márcia Susana Nunes; Niel, Christian; Rossetti, Maria Lucia Rosa
A number of studies have demonstrated associations between cytokine gene polymorphisms and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, no general consensus has been reached, possibly due to differences between ethnic groups. In this study, 345 individuals living in southern Brazil, including 196 chronic HBV carriers and 149 subjects who had spontaneously recovered from acute infection, were enrolled to evaluate the influence of cytokine gene polymorphisms on the outcome of HBV infection. Most participants were of European descent. Genotyping of IL2-330 G/T, IL4-589C/T, IL6-174 G/C, IL10-592C/A, IL10-1082 A/G, IL17A-197 G/A, IL17A-692 T/C, TNF-α-238 G/A, and TNF-α-308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphisms was performed by using the minisequencing (single base extension) method. By multivariable analysis, a statistically significant association was found between genotypic profile AA + GA in TNF-α-308 and chronic HBV infection (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.01-3.27; P = 0.046). In southern Brazil, the carriers of the -308A allele in the TNF-α gene promoter have a moderately higher risk of becoming chronic carriers in case of HBV infection. In addition, patients with chronic active hepatitis B (n = 60) exhibited a decreased frequency (3.3%) of the TNF-238A allele when compared to that (14.8%) found among asymptomatic HBV carriers (n = 136), suggesting that this could be a protective factor against liver injury (OR, 0.17; 95%CI, 0.04-0.076; P = 0.023). J. Med. Virol. 88:1759-1766, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pulido-Landínez, M; Sánchez-Ingunza, R; Guard, J; do Nascimento, V Pinheiro
To assess diversity of Salmonella enterica serotypes present in poultry and their environment from southern Brazil, the Kauffmann–White–Le Minor (KWL) scheme was used to serotype a total of 155 isolates. Isolates were then re-examined with nested PCR and sequencing of the dkgB-linked intergenic sequence ribotyping (ISR) region that assesses single nucleotide polymorphisms occurring around a 5S ribosomal gene. Serotypes identified were Heidelberg (40·6%), Enteritidis (34·2%), Hadar (8·4%), Typhimurium (3·9%), Gallinarum (3·2%), Agona (1·3%), Cerro (1·3%), Livingstone (1·3%), Infantis (0·6%), Isangi (0·6%), Mbandaka (0·6%), Montevideo (0·6%) and Senftenberg (0·6%). Three unique ISRs were detected from four strains. Day old chicks yielded only S. Enteritidis, whereas S. Heidelberg was most often associated with poultry carcasses. Overall agreement between KWL and ISR was 85·2%, with disagreement possibly due to the ability of ISR to detect mixtures of serotypes in culture. Overall, ISR provided more information than did KWL about the ecology of Salm. enterica on-farm. The O-antigen group D Salm. enterica serovars such as Pullorum, Gallinarum and Enteritidis appear susceptible to overgrowth by other serotypes. Significance and Impact of the Study Single nucleotide polymorphisms found in a group of poultry-associated Salmonella isolates from southern Brazil provided evidence of mixtures of serovar group D serotypes on-farm and in single samples from birds. This finding suggests that co-infection and interserotype competition of Salmonella enterica in poultry could impact the incidence of disease in animals or humans. In addition, unique serotypes were identified on-farm that escaped characterization by antibody typing. Application of cost-efficient and highly discriminatory genomic methods for assigning serotype may alter concepts about the epidemiology of Salm. enterica on-farm and in foods. PMID:23734786
Dumith, Samuel C; Gigante, Denise P; Domingues, Marlos R
Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) interventions tailored to individual's stages of change (SoC) are more effective in promote behavior change than "one-size-fits-all" interventions. However, only a few researches have investigated these stages towards PA behavior in representative samples of the population. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the SoC for PA in a probabilistic sample of adults aged 20 years or over. Methods A population-based survey was undertaken in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 2005. An algorithm was applied to evaluate the SoC for PA, and PA was defined as being engaged in moderate-to-vigorous PA for at least 20 minutes on three times per week. The covariates collected in the questionnaire were: sex, age, skin color, marital status, education level, economic status, family income, smoking, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported health status. Data analyses were performed through Poisson and multinomial regression, taking the sampling design into account. Results Face-to-face interviews were applied to 3136 individuals, corresponding to a response rate of 93.5%. The prevalence across the stages was as follows: 38.3% in precontemplation, 13.0% in contemplation, 19.5% in preparation, 5.2% in action and 24.0% in maintenance. The elderly, married, smokers, and those with lower socioeconomic status were less likely to adopt, initiate and maintain regular PA. Conclusion Despite the all benefits of PA, a high proportion of adults from Southern Brazil are physically inactive and do not present intention to engage in regular PA. The profile of those who are inactive but intend to do PA resembles those who are physically active. The findings of the present study can contribute to improve health behaviors and to plan health promotion strategies aimed at increasing the level of PA in the community. PMID:17555603
da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Bond-Buckup, Georgina
This study aimed at characterizing pairing and reproductive success in relation to male and female sizes of the sympatric freshwater gammarideans Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi from southern Brazil. These amphipods exhibit precopulatory mate guarding, in which a male will carry a potential mate beneath its ventral surface, guarding the female for several days until it molts and lays its eggs. The specimens were collected monthly with nets, from November 2003 to July 2004 in two trout aquaculture ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. The precopulatory pairs and ovigerous females were identified and separated in the field. In the laboratory, they were measured (cephalothorax length in mm), using a micrometer eyepiece in a stereoscopic microscope. Pairing success was estimated from the proportion of mating males and females related to their respective non-pairing individuals by size classes. Reproductive success was estimated from egg production. The mean cephalothorax length of paired males was larger than that of the unpaired males. For females, however, body size not affect pairing success for either species, because mean cephalothorax length of paired females did not differ significantly from unpaired females. Paired and unpaired males of both species of Hyalella were larger than the females. Positive assortative mating by size was observed in both species; i.e., larger males tended to pair with larger females. Male pairing success increased sharply with size. In both species, reproductive success in males increased with body size; however, the females of intermediate size classes showed greater reproductive success. This result supports the hypothesis that loading constraints play a part in structuring size-assortative pairing in these species.
Moras, Ligiane Martins; Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira de Oliveira; Graciolli, Gustavo; Gregorin, Renato
A total of 71 bat flies belonging to families Nycteribiidae and Streblidae, and 37 mites were collected on 12 species of bats (Phyllostomidae and Vespertilionidae) from the Chapada do Abanador (Minas Gerais, Brazil), between July 2009 and April 2010. Two new occurrences of ectoparasites were recorded on Histiotus velatus (bat fly Basilia producta) and on Carollia perspicillata (mite Parichoronyssus bakeri). Five new occurrences were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais, increasing the range for bat flies Anatrichobius passosi, Paraeuctenodes similis, Basilia juquiensis, Basilia producta and for mite Periglischrus vargasi. Moreover, two new species of mites were recorded for Brazil (P. bakeri and Macronyssus aff. leislerianus). With regard to infracommunities, the most frequent association was between Anastrebla modestini and Exastinion clovisi on bat Anoura geoffroyi. This study contributed to characterize the fauna of bat ectoparasites in representative but poorly-sampled environments of the Atlantic Forest, the campos de altitude (high altitude grasslands) and cloud forests of southern Minas Gerais.
Vieira, Magnun M; Schirmer, Waldir N; de Melo Lisboa, Henrique; Belli Filho, Paulo; Guillot, Jean-Michel
In the food industry and linked activities, environmental impacts relate mainly to the generation of liquid and gaseous effluents. Rendering plants, which process animal by-products, are strongly associated with malodorous emissions. Thus, effective odour-control technologies are required to minimise odour annoyance in nearby communities and thereby public complaints. In this paper, the effectiveness of a biofilter for the treatment of odours from a meat-rendering plant located in southern Brazil was evaluated based on German guideline VDI 3477:2004-11. Samples were collected upstream and downstream of the gas treatment system using a pragmatic approach in order to minimise the cost of such a study. Odour concentration was determined according to European standard EN 13725:2003. The results showed an OER of 8.82 × 10(8) ouE h(-1) and odour removal efficiency lower than the established benchmark set by SEMA Resolution 054/2006, taken as reference for being the only Brazilian regulation to establish quantitative odour emission criteria. Enhancement of the biofiltration system and/or association with other odour abatement technologies are required to increase odour removal, limit impacts and comply with regulatory requirements. The paper also includes a discussion on the current odour regulation in Brazil.
Overbeck, G E; Müller, S C; Pillar, V D; Pfadenhauer, J
In regularly burned grassland on Morro Santana, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, we investigated differences in the floristic composition and their relation to soil properties, aspect and distance from the forest border. In 48 plots of 0.75 m2, we identified a total of 201 species from a local species pool of approximately 450 to 500 species. Most species occurred in low frequencies, showing clumpy distribution patterns in the studied area. Multivariate analysis showed that plots close to the forest edge clearly differed from plots in the open grassland concerning composition and structure. Plots exposed to the north differed from plots on the top of the hill both in the composition of species as well as in soil variables, mainly due to shallower soil in the former. No strong relation between soil properties and variation in vegetation composition could be detected at a finer scale. The studied grassland, as all grassland vegetation in southern Brazil, is very rich in species compared to other grassland formations worldwide. However, this high biodiversity and conservational value of Campos vegetation in general has so far not been recognized properly. Disturbance is essential to maintain this open vegetation type and its species richness. Fire should be considered as a management option in the absence of grazing.
Volotão, A C C; Júnior, J C Souza; Grassini, C; Peralta, J M; Fernandes, O
Giardia duodenalis is a widespread intestinal protozoan that can infect humans and animals, both domestic and wild. Independent of host, infections present with the same symptoms. However, based on host specificity, Giardia isolates have been grouped into genotypes A to G. Parasites of assemblage A and B are known to infect humans, in addition to primates and a wide variety of mammals. In Brazil, hitherto Giardia genotypes were defined only for humans and domestic animals. To evaluate the genotypes of different Giardia present among other animals, fecal samples from 28 Southern Brown Howler Monkeys (Alouatta clamitans) kept in captivity from South Brazil were screened for G. duodenalis using parasitological methods. All of them were asymptomatic, but positive for Giardia. The genotype of the G. duodenalis circulating among these animals was ascertained by molecular typing, performed using amplification and sequencing of the beta-giardin gene. Sixteen of 28 samples were successfully amplified by PCR and sequencing of this gene s revealed that all of them were of the genotype A1. These findings suggest that A. clamitans represent a potential risk of environmental contamination of a G. duodenalis genotype that also infect humans, and therefore can be considered a potential reservoir for G. duodenalis of a genotype that can also infects humans. Therefore, these results highlight a potential public health problem due to the epidemiological and molecular evidence for anthropozoonotic transmission.
Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.
In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust
and the Banco do BrasH. These banks thus transfer the funds from the Treasury to pay the deficits.20 Brazil’s former Planning Minister, Roberto Campos ...regulation referred to by Roberto Campos is called dirigismo (practice of economic di- rection by the state) by those Brazilians in the field of econom...Dutra Social Democratic 1946-1951 Get~lio Vargas Brazilian Labor 1951-1954* Juscelino Kubtschek Social Democratic 1958-1961 J91nio Quadros Nati. Demo
Franke, Carlos Roberto; Ziller, Mario; Staubach, Christoph; Latif, Mojib
We used time-series analysis and linear regression to investigate the relationship between the annual Niño-3 index from 1980 to 1998 and the annual incidence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the State of Bahia, Brazil, during 1985-1999. An increase in VL incidence was observed in the post-El Niño years 1989 (+38.7%) and 1995 (+33.5%). The regression model demonstrates that the previous year's mean Niño-3 index and the temporal trend account for approximately 50% of the variance in the annual incidence of VL in Bahia. The model shows a robust agreement with the real data, as only the influence of El Niño on the cycle of VL was analyzed. The results suggest that this relationship could be used to predict high-risk years for VL and thus help reduce health impact in susceptible regions in Brazil.
Da-Rosa, Átila A. S.
The Triassic of the western Gondwana (southern Brazil and northwestern Argentina) records the oldest dinosaurs. The Southern Brazilian Triassic fauna is subdivided into four assemblage zones (AZ's), recorded in alluvial (channel and floodplain) deposits, split into three third-order sequences that comprise the Santa Maria Supersequence. These deposits record dinosauriforms in three of these AZ's, mostly in near-channel environments (channel deposits, crevasse splays, distal floodplains) with different types of preservation (mostly partly articulated, with little carbonate deposition). There is faciological homogeneity within the Dinodontosaurus, Santacruzodon and Hyperodapedon AZ's, whereas change in fluvial style is recorded at the Riograndia AZ. So, further stratigraphic studies must include the recognition of post-depositional tectonism, in order to better understand the autogenic and allogenic mechanisms of deposition. It is suggested here that there is a lateral change on main channel deposition, with the areal restriction of the Santacruzodon AZ probably linked to reactivation on the Passo do Sobrado lineament and modification of the basin floor.
Manvailer, L F S; Wowk, P F; Mattar, S B; da Siva, J S; da Graça Bicalho, M; Roxo, V M M S
HLA-F is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene. It codes class Ib MHC molecules with restricted distribution and less nucleotide variations than MHC class Ia genes. Of the 22 alleles registered on the IMGT database only four alleles encode for proteins that differ in their primary structure. To estimate genotype and allele frequencies, this study targeted on known protein coding regions of the HLA-F gene. Genotyping was performed by Sequence Base Typing (SBT). The sample was composed by 199-unrelated bone marrow donors from the Brazilian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (REDOME), Euro-Brazilians, from Southern Brazil. About 1673 bp were analyzed. The most frequent allele was HLA-F*01:01 (87.19%), followed by HLA-F*01:03 (12.31%), HLA-F*01:02 (0.25%) and HLA-F*01:04 (0.25%). Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was verified between HLA-F and HLA classes I and II alleles. This is the first study regarding HLA-F polymorphisms in a Euro-Brazilian population contributing to the Southern Brazilian genetic characterization.
Trinca, C S; Waldemarin, H F; Eizirik, E
The Neotropical otter is one of the least known otter species, and it is considered to be threatened to various degrees throughout its geographic range. Little information exists on the ecological characteristics of this species, and no genetic study has been published about it until now, hampering the design of adequate conservation strategies for its populations. To contribute with genetic information to comprehensive conservation efforts on behalf of L. longicaudis, we characterized the molecular diversity of the 5 portion of the mtDNA control region in samples from this species collected in Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The sequence analysis revealed a high level of haplotype diversity (h=0.819; SE=0.0052) and nucleotide variability ranging from 0.0039 to 0.0067. One of the sampled haplotypes was the most common in both regions and, from this sequence, several other (locally occurring) haplotypes could be derived by single point mutations. No significant genetic differentiation was observed between the Southern and Southeastern regions.
Bosco, Leosane Cristina; Bergamaschi, Homero; Cardoso, Loana Silveira; de Paula, Viviane Aires; Marodin, Gilmar Arduino Bettio; Nachtigall, Gilmar Ribeiro
Anti-hail nets may change the microclimate of orchards and hence modify the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fruits. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of anti-hail nets on the physical, chemical, and sensory attributes of apples grown in southern Brazil. The study was conducted in commercial orchards, with apples grown under a black anti-hail net under an open sky during the 2008/2009, 2009/2010, and 2010/2011 cycles. Measurements of photosynthetically active radiation were collected at both sites. Physical, chemical, and sensory analyses of fruits were performed in the laboratory. The anti-hail net reduced incident photosynthetically active radiation by 32 %. The light spectrum in the canopy changed the corresponding R/FR (red/far-red) ratio in the lower and upper canopy layers from 0.27 to 1.55, respectively. In contrast to the majority of microclimate studies carried out in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere, this study in the southern hemisphere showed that although it reduced the incident solar radiation, the cover did not change the color or organoleptic characteristics of "Royal Gala" and "Fuji Suprema" apples. The net cover prolonged the subperiod between fruit setting and harvesting, thus slowing fruit ripening. Therefore, the use of anti-hail nets on apple orchards is a suitable alternative for the protection of apple trees against hail because it causes only small changes in the microclimate and in the maturation period, ensuring fruit production without affecting its quality.
Madrid, Isabel Martins; Mattei, Antonella Souza; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Nobre, Márcia de Oliveira; Meireles, Mário Carlos Araújo
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis, which affects mainly small animals, and is considered an important public health disease. This paper describes the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of 103 clinical cases of sporotrichosis diagnosed over a 10-year period in southern Brazil. The 92 cats and 11 dogs from eight municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State developed especially the disseminated cutaneous and fixed cutaneous forms of the disease. Respiratory signs such as sneezing, serous nasal discharge and dyspnea were found in about 57% of the animals. The detection of Sporothrix schenckii in different clinical samples showed highest isolation in testicles (46.6%), oral cavity (45.2%) and conjunctival mucosa (38.1%). A differentiated histological pattern was found between the fixed cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous (DC) manifestations of the disease; well-organized granulomas of nodular distribution and various fungal structures prevailed in the DC form in cats. Melanin detection in S. schenckii cells by the Fontana-Masson technique was positive in 45.4% of the samples. The study revealed that the State of Rio Grande do Sul is an endemic sporotrichosis area and demonstrated the possibility of involvement of other pathways in the infection and spread of the disease. In addition, it emphasized the importance of laboratory tests for mycosis confirmation, especially in dogs that develop clinical manifestations without the presence of cutaneous lesions.
Southern Inst. on Children and Families, Columbia, SC.
The Southern Regional Initiative on Child Care (established by the Southern Institute on Children and Families) is guided by the Southern Regional Task Force on Child Care including representatives from 16 southern states and the District of Columbia. The initial charge from the Task Force was to develop a southern regional action plan to improve…
Although most universities emphasize study abroad as the primary vehicle to internationalize the campus, in reality only a small percentage of students actually participate in this endeavor. The internationally themed semesters at Missouri Southern State University (MSSU) reach virtually every student, and provide a global perspective and cultural…
de Souza Gusatti, Carolina; Bertholdo, Lauren Martins; Otton, Letícia Muner; Marchetti, Desirée Padilha; Ferreira, Alessandra Einsfeld; Corção, Gertrudes
This is the first report of an Acinetobacter baumannii from clinical origin carrying the blaOXA-58 gene in Brazil. The isolate included in this study was from a patient during an outbreak in Porto Alegre, RS, Southern Brazil, in 2007. It was resistant to most of the beta-lactams tested, it has also the blaOXA-65 gene and the ISAbal sequence located upstream to both blaOXA genes detected and it has a MIC of imipenem of 64 μg/mL. PMID:24031824
Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Tassi, Rutineia
Evapotranspiration is a key process of hydrological cycle and a sole term that links land surface water balance and land surface energy balance. Due to the higher information requirements of the Penman-Monteith method and the existing data uncertainty, simplified empirical methods for calculating potential and actual evapotranspiration are widely used in hydrological models. This is especially important in Brazil, where the monitoring of meteorological data is precarious. In this study were compared different methods for estimating evapotranspiration for Rio Grande do Sul, the Southernmost State of Brazil, aiming to suggest alternatives to the recommended method (Penman-Monteith-FAO 56) for estimate daily reference evapotranspiration (ETo) when meteorological data is missing or not available. The input dataset included daily and hourly-observed data from conventional and automatic weather stations respectively maintained by the National Weather Institute of Brazil (INMET) from the period of 1 January 2007 to 31 January 2010. Dataset included maximum temperature (Tmax, °C), minimum temperature (Tmin, °C), mean relative humidity (%), wind speed at 2 m height (u2, m s-1), daily solar radiation (Rs, MJ m- 2) and atmospheric pressure (kPa) that were grouped at daily time-step. Was tested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Penman-Monteith method (PM) at its full form, against PM assuming missing several variables not normally available in Brazil in order to calculate daily reference ETo. Missing variables were estimated as suggested in FAO56 publication or from climatological means. Furthermore, PM was also compared against the following simplified empirical methods: Hargreaves-Samani, Priestley-Taylor, Mccloud, McGuiness-Bordne, Romanenko, Radiation-Temperature, Tanner-Pelton. The statistical analysis indicates that even if just Tmin and Tmax are available, it is better to use PM estimating missing variables from syntetic data than
The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.
Lacerda, Mariana B; Masunari, Setuko
A new species of the genus Paracaprella is described based on the specimens associated with the algae Sargassum cymosum and Laurencia obtusa that were collected from infralittoral depths (0.5 to 3.0 m) at Sepultura Beach, Bombinhas and Paciência Beach, Penha, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. This new species differs from the others of the genus by the unique morphology of the males' gnathopod 2: its propodus has a grasping margin provided with a deep groove. An identification key for Paracaprella species is also presented.
Amado, Telmo Jorge Carneiro; Bayer, Cimélio; Conceição, Paulo Cesar; Spagnollo, Evandro; de Campos, Ben-Hur Costa; da Veiga, Milton
The area under no-till (NT) in Brazil reached 22 million ha in 2004-2005, of which approximately 45% was located in the southern states. From the 1970s to the mid-1980s, this region was a source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere due to decrease of soil carbon (C) stocks and high consumption of fuel by intensive tillage. Since then, NT has partially restored the soil C lost and reduced the consumption of fossil fuels. To assess the potential of C accumulation in NT soils, four long-term experiments (7-19 yr) in subtropical soils (Paleudult, Paleudalf, and Hapludox) varying in soil texture (87-760 g kg(-1) of clay) in agroecologic southern Brazil zones (central region, northwest basaltic plateau in Rio Grande Sul, and west basaltic plateau in Santa Catarina) and with different cropping systems (soybean and maize) were investigated. The lability of soil organic matter (SOM) was calculated as the ratio of total organic carbon (TOC) to particulate organic carbon (POC), and the role of physical protection on stability of SOM was evaluated. In general, TOC and POC stocks in native grass correlated closely with clay content. Conversely, there was no clear effect of soil texture on C accumulation rates in NT soils, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). The C accumulation was higher in NT than in conventional-till (CT) soils. The legume cover crops pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp] and velvet beans (Stizolobium cinereum Piper & Tracy) in NT maize cropping systems had the highest C accumulation rates (0.38-0.59 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)). The intensive cropping systems also were effective in increasing the C accumulation rates in NT soils (0.25-0.34 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1)) when compared to the double-crop system used by farmers. These results stress the role of N fixation in improving the tropical and subtropical cropping systems. The physical protection of SOM within soil aggregates was an important mechanism of C accumulation in the sandy clay loam Paleudult under NT
Fabris Goerl, Roberto; Borges Chaffe, Pedro Luiz; Marcel Pellerin, Joel Robert; Altamirano Flores, Juan Antonio; Josina Abreu, Janete; Speckhann, Gustavo Andrei; Mattos Sanchez, Gerly
Floods disaster damages several people around the world. There is a worldwide increasing trend of natural disasters frequency and their negative impacts related to the population growth and high urbanization in natural hazards zones. In Santa Catarina state, such as almost all southern Brazilian territory, floods are a frequent hydrological disaster. In this context, flood prone areas map is a important tool to avoid the construction of new settlements in non-urbanizations areas. The present work aimed to map flood prone areas in Palhoça City, Southern Brazil combining high resolution digital elevations data, remote sensing information, frequency analysis and High Above Nearest Drainage (HAND) algorithm. We used 17 years of daily discharge and stage data to calculate flood probability and return period. Remote Sensing (RS) with CBERS HRC image with 2,7m resolution was used. This image was taken one day after one flood occurrence and a band difference was used to extract the flood extent. HAND using DEM to calculate the altimetric difference between channel pixel and adjacent terrain values. All morphometric attributes used in HAND were extracted directly from the high resolution DEM (1m). Through CBERS image areas where flood level was higher than 0.5m were mapped. There is some kind of uncertain in establish HAND classes, since only distance to the channel was take in account. Thus, using other hydrological or spatial information can reduce this uncertain. To elaborate the final flood prone map, all this methods were combined. This map was classified in three main classes based on return period. It was notices that there is a strong spatial correlation between high susceptibility flood areas and geomorphological features like floodplains and Holocene beach ridges, places where water table emerges frequently. The final map was classified using three different colors (red, yellow and green) related to high, medium an law susceptibility flood areas. This mapping
Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D
Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted.
Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.
Collaboration among state legislators, Central Connecticut State University (CCSU) and Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU) faculty, community leaders, teachers and school administrators is currently taking place in Connecticut to make it a physically active state through PASS (Physically Active Schools Systems). PASS is a comprehensive,…
Hoinaski, Leonardo; Franco, Davide; Haas, Reinaldo; Martins, Renata Fátma; Lisboa, Henrique de Melo
Rainwater quality is influenced by air pollutants and can affect sensitive ecosystems. This study was conducted to identify the sources of rainwater contamination in a receptor investigated in the southern part of Brazil. A total of 22 rainwater samples were collected at Florianópolis, Brazil. The sampling station is influenced by continental emissions (soil resuspension, traffic emissions and combustion) and marine aerosols. Over the sampling period, the average pH and electrical conductivity (EC) of the precipitation was found to be 4.97 +/- 0.41 and 14.68 microS cm(-1) +/- 13.47, respectively. In addition topH and EC, ions and trace metals in the collected rainwater were quantified. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including principal component analysis (PCA), a back trajectory model and other statistical and graphical interpretation methodologies. A PCA showed that Cl(-), Na+, Mg2+ and part of the K+ and SO4(2-) content were mainly contributed by marine aerosols, whereas the contribution from continental sources (combustion, traffic emissions and other urban activities) was dominant in the content of NO3(-) and part of the SO4(2-) and Mn content. Soil resuspension was responsible for the concentrations of most of the trace metals (apart from Mn) and Ca2+ in the rainwater. An inverse correlation among the elemental concentrations, amount of rainfall and wind speed was observed. The northern transport pathway was identified as being associated with high concentrations of NO3(-) and slightly decreased pH values. However, the low standard deviation observed for the pH values during the sampling campaign also showed a small variation in the data, suggesting that the acidity is most probably being constantly sourced from a natural origin, such as organic acids.
Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L
Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.
Amorim, Pedro F
Abstract Background The Cynopoecilus melanotaenia complex is a morphologically homogeneous killifish group, endemic from an area encompassing southern Brazil and northeastern Uruguay. It presently comprises four valid species: C. melanotaenia, the type species of the genus, and C. fulgens, C. intimus, and C. nigrovittatus. New information Cynopoecilus feltrini, n. sp., from the lower Tubarão river basin, southern Brazil, is distinguished from all congeners of the C. melanotaenia complex by having frontal E-scales medially overlapped, branchiostegal region orangish red in males and dorsum with few dark brown spots above opercular region. A phylogenetic tree derived from the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (681 bp) indicates that C. feltrini is a member of the clade that includes all species of the C. melanotaenia complex except C. melanotaenia, as well as that C. feltrini is the sister group of a clade comprising C. fulgens and C. nigrovittatus. PMID:27099548
de la Rue, Mario L; Takano, Keishi; Brochado, Joaquim F; Costa, Carmem V; Soares, Antonio G; Yamano, Kimiaki; Yagi, Kinpei; Katoh, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Kenichi
The Rio Grande do Sul state, in Southern Brazil, is one of the foci of human cystic echinococcosis (CE). The sheep strain (G1) of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus ortleppi (also known as cattle strain G5) have been reported before to infect livestock. However, up to the present, no molecular data are available on isolates of the E. granulosus complex from humans and dogs. The present study analyzed hydatid cysts from 6 CE patients and adult worms from 12 dogs. Sequencing of the mitochondrial cox1 and 12S rRNA genes detected the E. granulosus G1 genotype from four human cases, the G3 genotype (or buffalo strain) from one human case and E. ortleppi from another human case, respectively. Ten of the twelve dogs were found infected with the G1 genotype, and one dog each harbored worms of the G3 genotype and E. ortleppi. Obvious morphological differences were recognized between the G1 and E. ortleppi adult worms from dogs in this region. The buffalo strain (G3) is for the first time reported from South America.
Arzua, Márcia; Navarro Da Silva, Mário Antonio; Famadas, Kátia Maria; Beati, Lorenza; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes
Between January 1999 and December 2000, 876 bird specimens were captured in three different ecological environments from the Reinhard Maack Park, Curitiba, State of Paraná, southern Brazil. A total of 142 birds (16.2%) were infested with Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas 1772) (N=699) and/or Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (N=18) ticks. Questing A. aureolatum nymphs (N=2) and adults (N=5) were also collected from the soil and the vegetation. None of the I. auritulus were collected off-host. We collected only immatures of A. aureolatum on birds, but all life stages of I. auritulus. The latter species was collected on Turdus rufiventris and on Synallaxis ruficapilla, which is herein recognized as a host of I. auritulus for the first time. Moreover, this is also the first report of A. aureolatum infesting birds, and 16 different bird species were found infested. It was observed that larval infestation was positively correlated with the dry and cold season, while nymphal infestation was positively correlated with the warm and rainy season. Although only 2-years worth of data is provided, our results suggest the infestation of birds by ticks was significantly higher at the biotopes formed by forest at its first stage of regeneration 'capoeira' and the original Araucaria forest habitat 'mata' than the ecotone between forest and urban areas 'peripheral area'.
Rocha, C F D; Ariani, C V; Menezes, V A; Vrcibradic, D
The area of the Dunas da Joaquina, in Santa Catarina island, contains one of the most important remnants of restinga habitat in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. In December 2003, a fire occurred in a portion of this area, affecting most of the vegetation, including the bromeliad community. In this study, the density of individuals and the diet composition of the bromelicolous treefrog Scinax cf. alter were compared between the area affected by the fire and an adjacent unburned area. One-hundred-and-fifty-eight ground bromeliads (Vriesea friburguensis) were dissected and searched for the presence of treefrogs among their leaves. We found 30 frogs in 29.5% (23/78) of the bromeliads from the unburned site, with a mean of 1.3 frogs per rosette, and 15 frogs in 12.5% (10/80) of the bromeliads from the burned site, with a mean of 1.6 frogs per rosette. Eight (27%) of the frogs from the unburned site and eleven (73%) of those from the burned site had empty stomachs. Frogs from the burned site also contained less prey per stomach than those from the unburned site. The data suggest that the fire has negatively affected the local population of Scinax cf. alter, though it is possible that the population can recover.
Pestana, M. H. D.; Lechler, P.; Formoso, M. L. L.; Miller, J.
Mercury concentrations were determined in stream sediments from the Camaquã River Basin, located in the shield region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. The resulting geochemical data show that overbank floodplain deposits exhibit higher concentrations than sediments collected from the active channel bed. In addition, higher Hg concentrations were measured in the fine(<63 μm) sediment fraction of the samples. Total Hg concentrations in the fine fraction of active stream sediments from Lavras do Sul County, which have been influenced by past gold mining activities, have decreased during the last five years to values ≤142 ng g -1. However, in a settling pond containing abandoned mine wastes, the Hg concentration of a bulk sample remained exceptionally high (5220 ng g -1). Preliminary speciation results show that Hg 0 is the predominant species in most of the samples. This was the form of Hg released by the gold amalgamation activities in the area, and appears to be relatively stable under the existing Eh and pH conditions.
da Cunha Amaral, Hugo Leonardo; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Graciolli, Gustavo
This study was aimed at describing the community of arthropod ectoparasites associated with sympatric populations of Turdus amaurochalinus and Turdus rufiventris and analyzing the aggregation patterns of the chewing lice species, during reproductive and nonreproductive periods, of both Turdus species in three areas of the Atlantic forest in southern Rio Grande do Sul state (RS), Brazil. Altogether, we captured 36 specimens of T. amaurochalinus and 53 specimens of T. rufiventris. We identified two families of chewing lice, Menoponidae and Philopteridae, with Myrsidea and Brueelia as the most prevalent and abundant on both host birds. The lowest aggregation levels of chewing lice Myrsidea and Brueelia occurred during the reproductive period of both host species, suggesting a reproductive synchronization and a dispersion period. The most prevalent feather mite on T. amaurochalinus was Proctophyllodes weigoldi, and on T. rufiventris, Trouessartia serrana. Analges sp. and Pteronyssoides sp. were not observed on T. rufiventris. We identified three species of ticks; Ixodes auritulus was the most prevalent and abundant on the birds. Ornithoica vicina was the only hippoboscid fly collected, and only on T. amaurochalinus. The richness of ectoparasites was greater on T. amaurochalinus than on T. rufiventris. For T. amaurochalinus, the mean richness was lesser in winter compared to spring and autumn; however, we observed no variation in the mean richness of ectoparasites for T. rufiventris during the same seasons.
Nascimento, Denise Amaral Gomes; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Vieira, Thállitha Samih Wischral Jayme; Toledo, Roberta Dos Santos; Tamekuni, Katia; Santos, Nelson Jessé Rodrigues Dos; Gonçalves, Daniela Dibb; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Vidotto, Odilon
The aims of the present study were to serosurvey dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. antibodies, identify tick species present, and determine risk factors associated with seropositivity in a rural settlement of Paraná State, southern Brazil. Eighty-seven residents were sampled, along with their 83 dogs and 18 horses, and individual questionnaires were administered. Immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was performed on serum samples and positive samples were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. Anti-B. burgdorferi antibodies were found in 4/87 (4.6%) humans, 26/83 (31.3%) dogs, and 7/18 (38.9%) horses by IFAT, with 4/4 humans also positive by WB. Ticks identified were mostly from dogs and included 45/67 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 21/67 Amblyomma ovale, and 1/67 A. cajennense sensu lato. All (34/34) horse ticks were identified as A. cajennense s.l.. No significant association was found when age, gender, or presence of ticks was correlated to seropositivity to Borrelia sp. In conclusion, although anti-Borrelia antibodies have been found in dogs, horses and their owners from the rural settlement, the lack of isolation, molecular characterization, absence of competent vectors and the low specificity of the commercial WB kit used herein may have impaired risk factor analysis.
Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos
Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.
Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos
Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595
Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira
Noroviruses are recognized as one of the leading causes of viral acute gastroenteritis, responsible for almost 50% of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The positive single-strand RNA genome of noroviruses presents a high mutation rate and these viruses are constantly evolving by nucleotide mutation and genome recombination. Norovirus recombinant strains have been detected as causing acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in several countries. However, in Brazil, only one report of a norovirus recombinant strain (GII.P7/GII.20) has been described in the northern region so far. For this study, 38 norovirus strains representative of outbreaks, 11 GII.4 and 27 non-GII.4, were randomly selected and amplified at the ORF1/ORF2 junction. Genetic recombination was identified by constructing phylogenetic trees of the polymerase and capsid genes, and further SimPlot and Bootscan analysis of the ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Sequence analysis revealed that 23 out of 27 (85%) non-GII.4 noroviruses were recombinant strains, characterized as: GII.P7/GII.6 (n = 9); GIIP.g/GII.12 (n = 4); GII.P16/GII.3 (n = 4); GII.Pe/GII.17 (n = 2); GII.P7/GII.14 (n = 1); GII.P13/GII.17 (n = 1); GII.P21/GII.3 (n = 1); and GII.P21/GII.13 (n = 1). On the other hand, among the GII.4 variants analyzed (Den Haag_2006b and New Orleans_2009) no recombination was observed. These data revealed the great diversity of norovirus recombinant strains associated with outbreaks, and describe for the first time these recombinant types circulating in Brazil. Our results obtained in southern Brazil corroborate the previous report for the northern region, demonstrating that norovirus recombinant strains are circulating more frequently than we expected. In addition, these results emphasize the relevance of including ORF1/ORF2-based analysis in surveillance studies as well as the importance of characterizing strains from other Brazilian regions to obtain epidemiological data for norovirus recombinant strains circulating in the
Zavialov, Peter O.; Wainer, Ilana; Absy, JoãO. M.
About 300,000 quality-controlled local reports from ships of opportunity were complemented with the data extracted from global data records to compile monthly series of sea surface temperature (SST) for the period 1854 to 1994 on a grid 1° × 1° in latitude and longitude. These historical data are used to investigate the variability off the coast of southern Brazil and Uruguay in a broad range of temporal scales from seasonal to secular. With respect to behavior at these scales, three distinct areas can be identified in the study region. The first one, located over the shelf and controlled by winter invasions of subantarctic water along with Rio de la Plata and Patos-Mirim discharges, is characterized by large annual range of SST (7° to over 10°C), energetic mean square variability (from 1.4 to 2.2°C2, after removal of seasonal signal), and an extremely high secular trend toward warming (1.2 to 1.6°C per 100 years), especially in the proximity of the estuaries. The second one, an area of the Brazil Current influence, exhibits smaller annual range (5° to 7°C) and mean square variability (1 to 1.4°C2). The secular trend is from 1° to 1.2°C per 100 years, smaller than observed in the shelf, but still high compared to the global average. The third area, which encompasses the eastern deep ocean part of the region away from the influence of either major currents or coastal discharges, exhibits less energetic variability at all examined scales, as compared to the rest of the region. Everywhere in the region, 50 to 80% of interannual variability is associated with periods smaller than 10 years; however, compared to the rest of the region, the shelf zone is characterized by a relatively large contribution from decadal and interdecadal scales. In austral winter a thermal front forms in the study region, separating warm tropical water associated with the Brazil Current and cold subantarctic water flowing northward on the shelf with an admixture of coastal
Topazio, Josué Pires; Weber, Augusto; Camillo, Giovana; Vogel, Fernanda Flores; Machado, Gustavo; Ribeiro, André; Moura, Anderson Barbosa; Lopes, Leandro Sâmia; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; Soldá, Natan Marcos; Bräunig, Patrícia; Silva, Aleksandro Schafer da
Neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Neospora caninum. Knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of Santa Catarina (SC), southern Brazil. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for N. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of SC. Blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. The indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against N. caninum. Thirty samples (4.58%) were seropositive, with titers ranging from 1:50 to 1:6400. An epidemiological survey was also conducted in order to identify risk factors for neosporosis in goats. It was found that reproductive problems on the farms, as well as the diet and direct contact with dogs were casual risks for neosporosis. These results indicate that N. caninum infects goats in these regions, which may lead to reproductive problems.
Dombroski, Julia R G; Parks, Susan E; Groch, Karina R; Flores, Paulo A C; Sousa-Lima, Renata S
Aiming to gather information on southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) mother-calf pairs' vocal behavior, archival acoustic recorders were deployed at a calving area off Brazil. Manual inspection of spectrograms revealed seven call classes: upcall, downcall, down-upcall, tonal variable, tonal constant, hybrid, and pulsive calls, which are consistent with those previously described for this species in Argentina. Gunshots and warbles, vocalizations described from other right whale species, were not detected. Mean values of start, end, maximum, minimum and peak frequencies, frequency bandwidth and duration were calculated for each call class. Start and end frequencies, frequency bandwidth and duration of upcalls recorded off Brazil were compared to those from other right whale populations and species. Only mean duration of upcalls from Brazil were significantly different from upcalls from all other populations. Differences in call duration may be driven by differences in demographic factors or background noise features among study areas. The repertoire characterization presented in this study will contribute to increase the utility of passive acoustic monitoring as a tool for conservation and research of southern right whales off Brazil as it provides important baseline information on the vocal behavior of this species.
Maltchik, Leonardo; Dalzochio, Marina Schmidt; Stenert, Cristina; Rolon, Ana Silvia
The selection of priority areas is an enormous challenge for biodiversity conservation. Some biogeographic methods have been used to identify the priority areas to conservation, and panbiogeography is one of them. This study aimed at the utilization of panbiogeographic tools, to identify the distribution patterns of aquatic insect genera, in wetland systems of an extensive area in the Neotropical region (approximately 280 000km2), and to compare the distribution of the biogeographic units identified by the aquatic insects, with the conservation units of Southern Brazil. We analyzed the distribution pattern of 82 genera distributed in four orders of aquatic insects (Diptera, Odonata, Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera) in Southern Brazil wetlands. Therefore, 32 biogeographic nodes corresponded to the priority areas for conservation of the aquatic insect diversity. Among this total, 13 were located in the Atlantic Rainforest, 16 in the Pampa and three amongst both biomes. The distribution of nodes showed that only 15% of the dispersion centers of insects were inserted in conservation units. The four priority areas pointed by node cluster criterion must be considered in further inclusions of areas for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil wetlands, since such areas present species from different ancestral biota. The inclusion of such areas into the conservation units would be a strong way to conserve the aquatic biodiversity in this region.
Marques, Leandro N; Pizzutti, Ionara R; Balardin, Ricardo S; Dos Santos, Ingrid D; Dias, Jonatan V; Stefanello, Marlon T; Serafini, Pablo T
Mycotoxins occurrence in wheat grains impose risks to human and animal health. The southern Brazil has favorable weather conditions for Fusarium graminearum infections and consequently for mycotoxins accumulation on grains. The goal of this study was to evaluate the behavior of new wheat commercial genotypes to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), to control performance of new fungicide formulations and their relationship with mycotoxins concentration in grains. The manly mycotoxin occurrence on wheat grains in southern Brazil was deoxynivalenol (DON). Two cultivars showed high DON concentration above the tolerance limits (>3000 μg kg(-1)). Many other mycotoxins monitored presented concentrations below method detection limit. Satisfactory levels of fungicide effectiveness were achieved against F. graminearum. Some fungicides promoted a satisfactory decrease on DON accumulation in grains. The best results were obtained when prothioconazole was present. SDHI (Succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors) + QoI (Quinone outside inhibitors) fungicides showed benefic effects at FHB control at field, but it did not promote satisfactory reduction on DON contamination. Fungicides can be used satisfactory for FHB control and reduce DON contamination in grains in southern Brazil. The presence of prothioconazole should be recommended. Some genotypes showed high DON concentration and it was not directly related with FHB severity at field.
It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.
This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.
The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira
The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and December 2010. Data collection was performed between October to December 2010 via structured interviews. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: chemical (93.7%), physical (88.2%), physiological (64.3%) and biological (62.4%). In this sample, 94.1% of gas station workers reported occupational accidents, and 74.2% reported fuel contact with the eyes (p < 0.05). It is concluded that workers perceive risks, and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their work environment. PMID:22851948
Corso, Josmael; Hepp, Diego; Ledur, Mônica C; Peixoto, Jane O; Fagundes, Nelson J R; Freitas, Thales R O
Domestic turkeys present several color phenotypes controlled by at least five genetic loci, but only one of these has been identified precisely: the bronze locus, which turned out to be the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene. MC1R variation is important for breeders interested in maintaining or developing different color varieties. In this study, we sequenced most of the MC1R gene from 16 White Holland (the main commercial turkey variety) and 19 pigmented turkeys from southern Brazil with two purposes. The first was to describe the MC1R diversity in White Holland turkeys, which may serve as reservoirs of genetic diversity at this locus. The second was to test whether the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders is related to previously known MC1R alleles. White Holland turkeys had four different haplotypes corresponding to the bronze (b+) and black-winged bronze (b1) alleles. Pigmented turkeys also had four haplotypes corresponding to the b+ and b1 alleles, but different haplotypes represent the most common b+ allele in these two groups. The black (B) allele was absent from our samples. Overall, our results suggest that white and pigmented individuals form two different populations, and that the traditional color classification used by Brazilian breeders cannot accurately predict the genotypes at the bronze locus.
Campagna, Claudio; Piola, Alberto R.; Rosa Marin, Maria; Lewis, Mirtha; Fernández, Teresita
This study describes the association between transient, mesoscale hydrographic features along the axis of the Brazil-Malvinas Confluence, in the SW Atlantic, and the foraging behavior of 2-3-year-old (focal) juvenile southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, from Península Valdés, Argentina. Departing from the dominant pattern of foraging on predictable bathymetric fronts on the Patagonian shelf and slope, three females out of 12 satellite-tracked juveniles remained at the edge of young warm-core eddies and near the outer core of cold-core eddies, coinciding with the most productive areas of these temperature fronts. Seal trajectories along high-temperature gradients were always consistent with the speed and direction of surface currents inferred from the temperature distribution and confirmed by surface drifters. Movements of foraging seals were compared with those of surface drifters, coinciding in time and space and yielding independent and consistent data on regional water circulation parameters. The diving pattern recorded for one focal seal yielded shallower dives and a loose diel pattern in the eddy, and a marked diurnal cycle compatible with foraging on vertically migrating prey in the cold waters of the Malvinas Current. Pre-reproductive females that use the mesoscale fronts of the Argentine Basin as an alternative foraging area would benefit from lower competition with more experienced seals and with other top predators that reproduce along the coast of Patagonia.
Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter
Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome.
Jorge, Roberta Jeane Bezerra; Jorge, Antônio Rafael Coelho; de Menezes, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra; Mello, Clarissa Perdigão; Lima, Danya Bandeira; Silveira, João Alison de Moraes; Alves, Natacha Teresa Queiroz; Marinho, Aline Diogo; Ximenes, Rafael Matos; Corrêa-Netto, Carlos; Gonçalves Machado, Larissa; Zingali, Russolina Benedeta; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul
Components from animal venoms may vary according to the snake's age, gender and region of origin. Recently, we performed a proteomic analysis of Bothrops jararaca venom from southern (BjSv) and southeastern (BjSEv) Brazil, showing differences in the venom composition, as well as its biological activity. To continue the study, we report in this short communication the different effects induced by the BjSEv and BjSv on isolated kidney and MDCK renal cells. BjSEv decreased perfusion pressure (PP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) and increased urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), while BjSv did not alter PP and RVR and reduced UF and GFR. Both types of venom, more expressively BjSEv, reduced %TNa(+), %TK(+) and %Cl(-). In MDCK cells, the two types of venom showed cytotoxicity with IC50 of 1.22 μg/mL for BjSv and 1.18 μg/mL for BjSEv and caused different profiles of cell death, with BjSv being more necrotic. In conclusion, we suggest that BjSv is more nephrotoxic than BjSEv.
Collet, Thais; Cristino, Alexandre Santos; Quiroga, Carlos Fernando Prada; Soares, Ademilson Espencer Egea; Del Lama, Marco Antônio
As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European.
Menegolla, Ivone Andreatta; Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Rodrigues, Inajara Haubert; Schwingel, Lucio Roberto; Scapinello, Elaine; Pedroso, Maisa Beltrame; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho
The nutritional status of under-five children and the association between social conditions and child stature were examined using data from the program to control malnutrition and mortality in the Guarita Indigenous Territory, southern Brazil, 2001-2002. Anthropometric indices were calculated in z-scores of the CDC 2000 reference. At entrance into the program, 34.7% of the children presented stunting, 12.9% low weight for age, 4.2% wasting, and 8.7% overweight. Stunting was most prevalent among boys and children older than one year. Multivariate linear regression showed that, on average, children were shorter when the drinking water was collected directly in the environment (p = 0.046), there was no refrigerator for food preservation (p = 0.021), maternal age was less than 16 years at the birth of the oldest child among the under-fives (p = 0.019), and the mother was illiterate (p = 0.083). Sewage facilities only had an effect on the unadjusted model. There was no evidence that the number of under-five children had an effect on stature. Social inclusion policies and health and social provision which takes these factors into account are potentially relevant for improving health and nutrition in this population.
Reche, Maria Helena L R; Machado, Vilmar; Saul, Danilo A; Macedo, Vera R M; Marcolin, Elio; Knaak, Neiva; Fiuza, Lidia M
This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program. The indicators used were: potential hydrogen, electrical conductivity, turbidity, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, total and fecal coliforms. Principal Component and Discriminant Analysis showed consistent differences between the water irrigation and drainage, as the temporal variation demonstrated a clear reduction in the concentration of most of the variables analyzed. The pattern of this reduction is not the same in the two regions - that is, the importance of each of the different variables in the observed differentiation is modified in two locations. These results suggested that the variations in the water quality utilized for rice irrigation was influenced by certain specific aspects of each rice region in South Brazilian - such as anthropic action or soil/climate conditions in each hydrographic basin.
Maschio, Vinicius José; Chies, Fernanda; Carlesso, Ana Maris; Carvalho, Amanda; Rosa, Sayonara Peixoto; Van Der Sand, Sueli Teresinha; Rott, Marilise Brittes
Acanthamoeba is a protist potential pathogen, capable of causing a blinding keratitis in contact lens wearers and disseminated infection, leading to granulomatous amebic encephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. This amoeba is a ubiquitous organism that has been isolated from various domestic water systems, such as cooling towers and hospital water networks. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba in mineral water bottles marketed in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the ASA.S1 region of 18S rDNA gene. Six of the eight isolates belonged to T5 genotype, one to T4 genotype, and one was T11. Several genotypes have been reported worldwide as causative of pathologies in humans, including genotypes T4, T5 and T11. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals, because this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide.
Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3 /DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8) and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17). CMA 3 /DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time. PMID:21637420
Leivas, Janice F.; de C. Teixeira, Antonio Heriberto; Andrade, Ricardo G.; de C. Victoria, Daniel; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo; Bolfe, Edson L.
The southern region is responsible for 70% of rice production in Brazil. In this study, rice areas of Rio Grande do Sul were selected, using the land use classification, scale 1: 100,000, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). MODIS Images were used and meteorological data, available by National Institute of Meteorology (INMET). The period of analysis was crop season 2011/2012, October to March. To obtain evapotranspiration was applied agrometeorological-spectral model SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Retrieving Evapotranspiration). From the analysis of the results, on planting and cultivation period , the average evapotranspiration (ET) daily was 1.93 +/- 0.96 mm.day-1. In the vegetative development period of rice, the daily ET has achieved 4.94 mm.day-1, with average value 2,31+/- 0.97 mm.day-1. In the period of harvest, evapotranspiration daily average was 1.84 +/- 0.80 mm.day-1. From results obtained, the estimation of evapotranspiration from satellite images may assist in monitoring the culture during the cycle, assisting in estimates of water productivity and crop yield.
Weber, M N; Silveira, S; Machado, G; Groff, F H S; Mósena, A C S; Budaszewski, R F; Dupont, P M; Corbellini, L G; Canal, C W
Ruminant pestiviruses can infect cattle populations worldwide and cause significant economic losses due to their impact on productivity and health. Knowledge of pestivirus diversity is important for control programs and vaccine development and for determining probable sources of infection. In this paper, we describe a search for ruminant pestiviruses with RT-PCR in sera of 9078 calves from 6 to 12 months of age. The calves were first analyzed in pools and then analyzed individually. Thirty-three RT-PCR positive animals were detected (0.36%) from 6.9% (24) of the 346 herds. The sequencing analysis of the 5' non-coding region and N terminal autoprotease showed the presence of BVDV-1a (15 isolates), -1b (3), -1d (1) and -2b (14), with a higher frequency (42.4%) of BVDV-2 in comparison with other countries. The presence of sheep was significantly associated with BVDV infection. Our results also suggested that a BVDV control program based only on the investigation of cattle would not be successful, especially in regions with farms harboring multiple animal species. This study may also serve as a reference for future control programs in Southern Brazil because it reports the prevalence of cattle with active infections and the genetic background of the circulating strains.
Rocha, Marcelo C; Hartmann, Paulo A; Winck, Gisele R; Cechin, Sonia Z
Viperid snakes are widely distributed in the South America and the greater distribution range of the family is found at the Crotalinae subfamily. Despite the abundance of this snakes along their geographic distribution, some ecological aspects remain unknown, principally at subtropical areas. In the present study, we evaluated the activity (daily and seasonal) and the use of the habitat by Bothrops diporus, B. jararaca and B. jararacussu, in an Atlantic Forest area at southern Brazil. We observed higher incidence of viperid snakes during the months with higher temperatures, while no snakes were found during the months with lower temperatures. The data suggest the minimum temperature as environmental variable with the greatest influence on the seasonal activity of this species. Considering the daily activity, we observed a tendency of snakes to avoid the warmest hours. Bothrops jararacussu tend to avoid open areas, being registered only inside and at the edges of the forest. We compared our results with previous studies realized at tropical areas and we suggest the observed seasonal activity as an evolutive response, despite the influence of the different environmental variables, according to the occurence region.
Martins, Fernando H; Guth, Beatriz E C; Piazza, Roxane M F; Elias, Waldir P; Leão, Sylvia C; Marzoa, Juan; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jorge; Pelayo, Jacinta S
Food-producing animals can harbor Escherichia coli strains with potential to cause diseases in humans. In this study, the presence of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) was investigated in fecal samples from 130 healthy sheep (92 lambs and 38 adults) raised for meat in southern Brazil. EPEC was detected in 19.2% of the sheep examined, but only lambs were found to be positive. A total of 25 isolates was characterized and designated atypical EPEC (aEPEC) as tested negative for bfpA gene and BFP production. The presence of virulence markers linked to human disease as ehxA, paa, and lpfAO113 was observed in 60%, 24%, and 88% of the isolates, respectively. Of the 11 serotypes identified, eight were described among human pathogenic strains, while three (O1:H8, O11:H21 and O125:H19) were not previously detected in aEPEC. Associations between intimin subtypes and phylogroups were observed, including eae-θ2/A, eae-β1/B1, eae-α2/B2 and eae-γ1/D. Although PFGE typing of 16 aEPEC isolates resulted in 14 unique pulsetypes suggesting a genetic diversity, specific clones were found to be distributed in some flocks. In conclusion, potentially pathogenic aEPEC strains are present in sheep raised for meat, particularly in lambs, which can better contribute to dissemination of these bacteria than adult animals.
Béhague, Dominique P.
In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870
Roberti, D. R.; de Moraes, O. L. L.; Diaz, M.; Tatsch, J. D.; Acevedo, O. C.; Zimermann, H. R.; Rubert, G. C.; Acosta, R.; Campos Velho, H. F.
The Pampa is the newest and most unknown Brazilian Biome. It is located in the Southern portion of the country, as well as part of Argentina and the entire Uruguay, and is formed principally by natural grasslands that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock. In recent decades it has gone through a process of intense land use change and degradation, with the replacement of natural vegetation by rice paddy crops, soybean and exotic forests. Recent studies show that the Pampa has only 36% of its original vegetation in Brazil. Research on carbon and greenhouse gas emissions in Pampa Biome are recent. It is known that the Pampa natural areas contain high stocks of soil organic carbon, and therefore their conservation is relevant for climate change mitigation. However, the net exchange of carbon and water between the surface and the atmosphere are unknown. To fill this gap, a flux tower network, SULFLUX - www.ufsm.br/sulfux, was created. Currently, SULFLUX comprises three flux towers in the Pampa biome, two of them being over natural vegetation and the other one over a rice paddy. The flux towers are nearly 100 km apart from each other. We examine the effects of climate on carbon fluxes of through the year 2014. Analysis of temporal variability in water and CO2 fluxes are examined at daily to annual scales. Overall, regional variability in climatic drivers, land use and soil proprieties appears to have a greater effect on evapotranspiration than on net carbon exchange.
Feldens, C A; Rodrigues, P H; Rauber, F; Chaffee, B W; Vitolo, M R
Family expenditures on food for children may represent an important barrier to the adoption of healthy feeding practices in populations of low socioeconomic status. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cariogenic feeding practices, expenditures on food for children and dental caries. This cross-sectional study included 329 four-year-old children from São Leopoldo in southern Brazil. Cariogenic dietary practices were assessed at 4 years of age using two 24-hour recalls conducted with the children's mothers. Expenditures on food for children were estimated based on all reported food items and the respective amounts ingested. Early childhood caries and severe early childhood caries were assessed by clinical examination at 4 years of age. Cariogenic dietary habits were not associated with lower food expenditures. On the contrary, in multivariable regression analysis, the intake of chocolate (p = 0.007), soft drinks (p = 0.027) and a higher number of meals and snacks per day (p < 0.001) was associated with greater expenditures on food for children. No statistically significant differences were observed in food expenditures or in the proportion of household income spent on feeding children between caries-free children, those with early childhood caries and those with severe early childhood caries. In conclusion, keeping children free of dental caries does not necessarily increase food expenditures or the proportion of household income spent on feeding children in low-socioeconomic status populations. Some cariogenic dietary practices were associated with greater expenditures on child feeding.
Colares, Ioni G; Oliveira, Raquel N V; Liveira, Rafael M; Colares, Elton P
The aim of this study was to determine the diet of coypu (Myocastor coypus) in two areas (Santa Isabel do Sul wetlands - Area 1, and Santa Marta Farm - Area 2) in the Southern region of Brazil, using microhistological analyses of feces. Twenty-four plant species were identified from collected feces samples. Among the identified species, nine are common in the animals' diet in both areas; the presence of Oriza sativa was not detected in any of the samples. Among the identified species, 84% and 54% of the coypu's diet from Areas 1 and 2, respectively, are aquatic plants. Poaceae family was most common, being found in 82% of the samples from both areas. Paspalum disthichum (Area 1) and Panicum tricholaenoides (Area 2) were the most frequent species on the coypu's diet. The diet comparison for both areas indicates that feeding habits vary depending on the type of habitat, environmental conditions and food availability. The absence of rice in our analysis may be an indication for the preservation of native areas around watercourses, so as to prevent coypu from invading irrigated crops.
Behling, Hermann; Negrelle, Raquel R. B.
Palynological analysis of a core from the Atlantic rain forest region in Brazil provides unprecedented insight into late Quaternary vegetational and climate dynamics within this southern tropical lowland. The 576-cm-long sediment core is from a former beach-ridge "valley," located 3 km inland from the Atlantic Ocean. Radio-carbon dates suggest that sediment deposition began prior to 35,000 14C yr B.P. Between ca. 37,500 and ca. 27,500 14C yr B.P. and during the last glacial maximum (LGM; ca. 27,500 to ca. 14,500 14C yr B.P.), the coastal rain forest was replaced by grassland and patches of cold-adapted forest. Tropical trees, such as Alchornea, Moraceae/Urticaceae, and Arecaceae, were almost completely absent during the LGM. Furthermore, their distributions were shifted at least 750 km further north, suggesting a cooling between 3°C and 7°C and a strengthening of Antarctic cold fronts during full-glacial times. A depauperate tropical rain forest developed as part of a successional sequence after ca. 12,300 14C yr B.P. There is no evidence that Araucaria trees occurred in the Atlantic lowland during glacial times. The rain forest was disturbed by marine incursions during the early Holocene period until ca. 6100 14C yr B.P., as indicated by the presence of microforaminifera. A closed Atlantic rain forest then developed at the study site.
Almeida, Valter Dos Anjos; de Magalhães, Vanessa Carvalho Sampaio; Neta, Elza de Souza Muniz; Munhoz, Alexandre Dias
The aim of this study was to determine the presence of species of the genus Eimeria species in naturally infected bovines in Southern Bahia, Northeast Brazil. The study population comprised 117 Zebu crossbred cattle that belonged to 10 dairy herds with extensive or semi-extensive production systems. The modified Gordon and Whitlock technique was used to determine positive samples and number of oocysts per gram of feces. Statistical analyses were performed using the chi-square test with Yates correction and a 95% confidence interval. Thirty-nine cattle (33.33%) were positive, and ten different species were identified in infected animals: E. bovis (24.79%); E. canadensis (8.55%); E. zuernii (6.83%); E. ellipsoidalis (5.99%); E. cylindrica (3.42%); E. auburnensis (3.42%); E. brasiliensis (2.56%); E. bukidnonensis (1.71%); E. alabamensis (0.85%), and E. subspherica (0.85%). Higher parasitism was observed in animals up to one year of age (p = 0.005), but no animal presented clinical signs of the disease. As the presence of clinical eimeriosis was not evidenced and all animals were Zebu crossbred cattle from extensive or semi-extensive production systems, further studies should be conducted to investigate the effects of these factors on disease development.
Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Tibola, Casiane S; Scussel, Vildes M
The fungal species Fusarium graminearum is related to deoxynivalenol (DON) formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate mycoflora and DON occurrence in 53 whole wheat grain samples collected in Southern Brazil during the 2012 crop. Wheat grains showed adequate values of water activity ranging from 0.48 to 0.72, within the required limits of moisture content, ranging from 9.1% to 13.9%. In addition, low counts of fungal colonies, ranging from 10 to 8.2 × 10(2), were found. For Fusarium genera, there was predominance of Fusarium verticillioides (34%) and F graminearum (30.2%). For Aspergillus species, 37.7% of Aspergillus flavus was determined. Regarding the Penicillium species, Penicillium digitatum (49%) was the most found species. DON was detected in 47.2% (25 out of 53) of the samples analysed, with levels ranging from 243.7 to 2281.3 µg kg(-1) (mean: 641.9 µg kg(-1)).
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Cezar Vaz, Joana
This study’s aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships. PMID:25607606
Rodrigues, Jackson Martins; Behling, Hermann; Giesecke, Thomas
At mid to high northern latitudes postglacial vegetation change has often occurred synchronously over large regions triggered mainly by abrupt climate change. Based on 19 pollen diagrams from southern and southeastern Brazil we explore if similar synchronicities in vegetation change were also characteristic for the vegetation dynamics in low latitudes. We used sequence splitting to detect past vegetation change in the pollen diagrams and computed principal curves and rates of change to visually evaluate the changes in composition and dynamics. The results show that vegetation change occurred mostly during the second half of the Holocene with distinct episodes of change. The character of vegetation change is generally consistent with shifts to wetter conditions and agrees with inferred shifts of the South American Monsoon. Speleothems as well as the titanium record from the Cariaco Basin indicate several episodes of rapid shifts in the precipitation regime, which are within the dating uncertainty of the here detected periods of vegetation change (8900, 5900, 2800, 1200 and 550 cal yrs BP). Our results indicate that low latitude vegetation composition follows precession forcing of the hydrology, while change is often triggered and synchronized by rapid climate change much like in high and mid latitudes. Pollen diagrams document changes in the abundance of individual taxa and changes in the amount of woodland cover, while small compositional changes indicate a regional stability of vegetation types during the Holocene.
Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C
Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil.
Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Vaz, Joana Cezar
This study's aim was to assess the perceptions of welding apprentices concerning welding fumes being associated with respiratory and cardiovascular disorders and assess the implementation of risk communication as a primary prevention tool in the welding training process. This quasi-experimental, non-randomized study with before-and-after design was conducted with 84 welding apprentices in Southern Brazil. Poisson Regression analysis was used. Relative Risk was the measure used with a 95% confidence interval and 5% (p ≤ 0.05) significance level. Significant association was found between perceptions of worsened symptoms of respiratory disorders caused by welding fumes and educational level (p = 0.049), the use of goggles to protect against ultraviolet rays (p = 0.023), and access to services in private health facilities without insurance coverage (p = 0.001). Apprentices younger than 25 years old were 4.9 times more likely to perceive worsened cardiovascular symptoms caused by welding fumes after risk communication (RR = 4.91; CI 95%: 1.09 to 22.2). The conclusion is that risk communication as a primary preventive measure in continuing education processes implemented among apprentices, who are future welders, was efficacious. Thus, this study confirms that risk communication can be implemented as a primary prevention tool in welding apprenticeships.
Franchin, P R; Ogliari, P J; Batista, C R V
1. The frequency of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcases was determined during processing in a Southern Brazil slaughterhouse. Samples were collected after defeathering, evisceration, water chilling and freezing. In addition, samples were obtained from the water of the chiller tank and from the surface of equipment in direct contact with the chicken. 2. Samples (335) were analysed and 71.3% were positive for Campylobacter. The frequency of Campylobacter spp. on carcases rinsed in BPW and skin samples from carcases was 49 of 72 (68.0%) after defeathering, 50 of 72 (69.4%) after evisceration, 61 of 72 (84.7%) after chilling, and 46 of 72 (63.9%) after freezing. Campylobacter was positive for 21 of 23 (91.3%) samples in the chilling water and for 12 of 24 (50.0%) samples on the table surface. 3. The frequency of qualitative analysis for Campylobacter spp. was reduced in frozen chickens, but not during the slaughtering process. The use of drinking water alone as a decontaminant to reduce the incidence of Campylobacter spp. during slaughter is therefore not sufficient. Furthermore, to ensure food safety, chickens must be cooked properly before consuming.
Constantino, Caroline; de Paula, Edson Ferraz Evaristo; Brandão, Ana Pérola Drulla; Ferreira, Fernando; Vieira, Rafael Felipe da Costa; Biondo, Alexander Welker
Neighborhood dogs may act as reservoirs and disseminators of vector-borne diseases in urban areas. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to ascertain the health status and the vector-borne pathogens infecting dogs living in public areas with high levels of human movement in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil. Blood samples from 21 neighborhood dogs that were found in nine of 22 bus stations and two public parks were subjected to a complete blood cell (CBC) count, serum biochemical profiling, a commercial rapid ELISA test and a commercial real-time PCR panel of vector-borne diseases. The CBC count and serum biochemical profiling were within the normal range for dogs and only 1/21 (4.7%) of the dogs was seroreactive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. The commercial real-time PCR panel showed that 7/21 (33.3%) of the dogs had Mycoplasma haemocanis infection, 9/21 (42.8%) had ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum’ and 4/21 (19.0%) had both. No statistical association between infected by the agents found here and abnormalities in physical examinations, laboratory tests or ectoparasite presence was found (p > 0.05). In conclusion, neighborhood dogs showed low prevalence of vector-borne diseases and satisfactory wellbeing, and dogs can be used as sentinels for disease exposure. PMID:28331833
As yet, certain aspects of the Africanization process are not well understood, for example, the reproductive behavior of African and European honeybees and how the first Africanized swarms were formed and spread. Drone congregation areas (DCAs) are the ideal place to study honeybee reproduction under natural conditions since hundreds of drones from various colonies gather together in the same geographical area for mating. In the present study, we assessed the genetic structure of seven drone congregations and four commercial European-derived and Africanized apiaries in southern Brazil, employing seven microsatellite loci for this purpose. We also estimated the number of mother-colonies that drones of a specific DCA originated from. Pairwise comparison failed to reveal any population sub-structuring among the DCAs, thus indicating low mutual genetic differentiation. We also observed high genetic similarity between colonies of commercial apiaries and DCAs, besides a slight contribution from a European-derived apiary to a DCA formed nearby. Africanized DCAs seem to have a somewhat different genetic structure when compared to the European. PMID:21637465
Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. RESULTS: On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (± 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy. PMID:19142341
Zubaran, Carlos; Lazzaretti, Rubia
ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence of appetite suppressant use among health sciences students in Southern Brazil. Methods: Undergraduate students (n=300) from seven health science undergraduate courses of the Universidade de Caxias do Sul completed a questionnaire about the use of substances to suppress appetite. Results: A significant percentage (15%; n=45) of research participants used appetite suppressants at least once in their lives. The most commonly used substances were sympathomimetic stimulant drugs (5%), including amfepramone (3.3%) and fenproporex (1.7%). The lifetime use of appetite suppressants was more prevalent among Nursing (26.7%) and Nutrition (24.4%%) students. There was no reported use of appetite suppressants among medical students. The use of appetite suppressants was significantly more prevalent among women. The majority of those who used these substances did so under medical recommendation. Most of users took appetite suppressants for more than 3 months. Conclusion: Lifetime use of appetite suppressants was substantial, being sympathomimetic stimulant drugs the most commonly used agents. Students enrolled in Nursing and Nutrition courses presented a significantly higher prevalence of lifetime use of appetite suppressants. PMID:23579743
Amorim, Dalton DE Souza; Schühli, Guilherme Schnell E
A new species of the genus Euricrium is described-Euricrium edwardsi sp. n.-from the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Additional material of E. varians is identified and illustrated, expanding the known distribution of the species. E. unimacula (Lane), n.com. is redescribed based on the female holotype and illustrated, and formally transferred to Euricrium. A key for the Neotropical species of Euricrium is presented and comments are made on the known diversity of the genus.
... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO... March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... the Brazilian Minister of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, co-chair the U.S.-Brazil CEO...
Braga, Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; André, Marcos Rogério; Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias
Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.
After more than 4 decades of studies, plans, and shelved projects, the proposed Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline is finally about to get off the ground. The 3,700 km gas pipeline will require an investment of at least $2 billion and is viewed by many as a litmus test for the developing gas market and energy integration of South America`s Southern Cone countries. Overall, industry officials see eventual emergence of two large integrated gas grids serving South America: one for the northern countries and another for the Southern Cone. This will enable the six countries with gas surplus to their needs to export the surplus to neighboring, gas-short countries. The northern gas-long countries are Venezuela, Colombia, and Trinidad and Tobago; those in the Southern Cone are Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru. The paper discusses financial details, project details, pipeline construction, the Petrobras strategy, Argentine pipeline projects, and other pipeline proposals.
This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.
Freitas-Júnior, Felipe; Christoffersen, Martin Lindsey; de Araújo, Joafrâncio Pereira; Branco, Joaquim Olinto
Monokalliapseudes schubarti is an endemic tanaidacean microcrustacean from southeastern Brazil to Uruguay inhabiting low energy estuaries. Saco da Fazenda is located in the estuary of the Itajaí-Açú River, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. It is exposed to strong anthropic impact and receives intensive flows of domestic wastewater, solid residues, and drainage activities. Specimens of M. schubarti were collected monthly, in the intertidal and subtidal regions of Saco da Fazenda, in four stations defined as a function of the physiography of the environment during the period of July 2003 to June 2004. Fecundity values were high, with continuous reproductive activity during the whole period of study. The greatest population densities were observed in the intertidal region, where they are nevertheless intensely consumed by birds, swimming crabs, and fish. This species represents a fundamental link in the food chain of Saco da Fazenda, transferring energy from the detritus level to higher trophic levels. Habitat disturbance and high organic matter may represent factors controlling the distribution of populations of M. schubarti. For this reason, the species may be used to monitor anthropic effects in estuarine areas. PMID:24298211
Desai, I D; Garcia Tavares, M L; Dutra de Oliveira, B S; Douglas, A; Duarte, F A; Dutra de Oliveira, J E
A new class of migrant workers, commonly known as "Boia-Frias", is rapidly growing in the periurban slumbs (favelas) of Brazil. In 1978 a collaborative study was undertaken to assess the food habits and nutritional status of 100 migrant worker families of Vila Recreio, a typical Boia-Fria settlement near Ribeirao Preto in the state of Sao Paulo. The findings of this survey revealed that the traditional diet of Boia-Frias is nutritionally inadequate both in quality and quantity. Their rice and bean-based diet lacks sufficient variety because of the infrequent use of fresh fruits and vegetables, which are available locally, and of supplemental amounts of protein-rich foods of animal origin. Empty-calorie foods such as carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages are consumed freely; and starchy foods, traditionally used in the North and Northeast of Brazil, are used commonly as weaning foods. Although dietary practices of pregnant and lactating women are poor, breast-feeding is still practiced by most mothers. The biochemical analysis of blood samples did not indicate major subclinical deficiencies except low hematological values and low plasma vitamin A concentrations in about 25% of the population examined. Plasma cholesterol and plasma vitamin E values were found to be normal. However, anthropometric examinations revealed clear signs of malnutrition and/or undernourishment, which likely impairs their capacity for physical work and adversely affects their overall health.
Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina
This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.
This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665
Soares, Joelson Lima; Nogueira, Afonso César Rodrigues; Domingos, Fábio; Riccomini, Claudio
Event Layers in Neoproterozoic cap carbonates of Brazil's southwestern Amazon Craton record post-Marinoan synsedimentary seismicity. The 35 m-thick cap carbonates overlie glaciogenic sediments related to the Marinoan glaciation (635 Ma) and are comprised of two units: the lower cap consists of dolomite (˜15 m thick) and the upper cap is limestone (˜25 m thick). The cap dolomite includes pinkish crystalline dolostone with even parallel lamination, stratiform stromatolites, eventual tube structures and megaripple bedded peloidal dolostone interpreted as shallow (euphotic) platform deposits. The cap limestone onlaps the cap dolomite and consists of red marl, gray to black bituminous lime mudstone, bituminous shale with abundant calcite crystal fans (pseudomorphs after aragonite) and even parallel lamination interpreted as moderately deep to deep platform deposits. Five successive events of synsedimentary deformation were recognized in the cap carbonates exposed at Mirassol d'Oeste and Tangará da Serra, in Central Brazil: Event 1 - large to small-scale load cast structures in the contact between dolostones and glaciogenic sediments; Event 2 - stromatolitic lamination truncated by tube structures; Event 3 - vertical to subvertical fractures and faults, and large-scale synclines and anticlines with chevron folds; Event 4 - conglomerate and breccia filling neptunian dykes limited by undeformed beds; and Event 5 - slump and sliding deposits found only in the upper part of the cap limestone. Event 1 was produced by hydroplastic dynamics likely induced by isostatic rebound during ice cap melting in the final stages of the Marinoan glaciation. Events 2 and 5 are autocyclic in nature, and related to depositional processes. Event 2 is linked to fluid and methane escape from organic degradation of microbial mats and domes that formed tubestones; Event 5 is associated to collapse and sliding/slumping in the platform and slope. The reliable orientations of synsedimentary faults
Dos Santos, Viviane Gularte Tavares; Amato, Suzana B; Borges-Martins, Márcio
Sixty specimens of the "cururu" toad, Rhinella icterica (Spix 1824) (Bufonidae), were collected in Campo Belo do Sul, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between May 2009 and January 2011, and were examined for the presence of helminth parasites. Nine species of adult helminths were found: Catadiscus cohni, Rudolphitrema rudolphii, Cylindrotaenia sp., Rhabdias fuelleborni, Strongyloides sp., Cosmocerca rara, Cosmocerca brasiliensis, Aplectana elenae, and Oxyascaris sp., in addition to an unidentified adult nematode species. Females of cosmocercid nematodes, proteocephalan plerocercoid, and acanthocephalan cystacanth were found but not identified for lack absolute of taxonomic characters. The sex of the anurans had no influence on prevalence, abundance, and richness of helminth species. Length and body mass of hosts did not influence the prevalence and richness of helminths, while the abundance of R. fuelleborni was significantly correlated with both parameters.
Teodoro, U; Guilherme, A L; Lozovei, A L; La Salvia Filho, V; Sampaio, A A; Spinosa, R P; Ferreira, M E; Barbosa, O C; de Lima, E M
Mosquitoes were collected on Sonho Real farm, Querência do Norte county, Paraná State, Brazil, using human bait and Falcão traps between June 1989 and May 1990. The fauna composition, monthly density, hours of major density, human attraction and presence of mosquitoes in domestic animal shelters were investigated. 5,923 mosquitoes of the genera Aedes, Aedomyia, Anopheles, Coquillettidea, Culex, Mansonia, Psorophora, Sabethes and Uranotaenia were collected. 33 species of mosquitoes were identified and among them Aedes scapularis, Anopheles albitarsis, Aedomyia squamipennis, Coquillettidea lynchi, Mansonia titillans e Coquillettidea venezuelensis were predominant. All these species were captured mainly on human bait, except Aedomyia squamipennis that was captured in domestic animal shelters. With regard to all the mosquitoes captured (5,923), their major period of activity was between 18 and 19 hours and April was the month of greatest density.
Araujo, Andreina de Carvalho; Gonçalves, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Ferreira, Fernando; Horta, Mauricio Claudio
Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases.
Araujo, Angelo; Pereira, Diamantino; Pereira, Paulo
The results on the geodiversity assessment of Ceará State (148,016 km2, northeast Brazil) are presented. The assessment was performed using a methodology based on the counting of occurrences of geodiversity with cartographical data and GIS procedures. This work is part of the methodological approaches applied in other large territories in Brazil and Portugal considering geodiversity as the diversity of rocks, fossils, lanforms, soils, water resources, and mineral and energy sources occurrences. Therefore, the geodiversity index resulted from the sum of the six partial indices: i) lithological; ii) paleontological; iii) geomorphological; iv) pedological; vi) hydrological; vi) mineral occurrences. The Geodiversity Index score of each grid square is the sum of all partial indices. Hydrological partial index was an upgrade to the previous five-partial indices methodological proposal, considering both surface water resources and ground water as essential components of geodiversity. Furthermore, the traditional cell grid used to operate the counting of geodiversity elements was substituted by a territorial organization by drainage sub-basins. Vector cartographical data were obtained from official Brazilian institutions and treated with GIS software to generate the six partial indices. According to the type of occurences these indices may have very different ranges thus values were normalized to a maximum of 5 points each. The sum of partial indices in each drainage sub-basin resulted in a quantitative map of geodiversity with values from 4 to 26. Subsequently the values were interpolated using the Kriging method delivering the geodiversity map of the Ceará State. Geodiversity index was here defined with qualitative values ranging from "very low" to "very high". The regions Noroeste Cearense and Sul Cearense have the highest geodiversity in the state while the region Sertões Cearenses has the lowest. The use of specific GIS procedures increases the mapping options and
Domiciano, Isabela G; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K; Koch, Mariana S; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L
Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience.
Reis, Ana Julia; David, Simone Maria Martini de; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; Valim, Andreia Rosane de Moura; Possuelo, Lia Gonçalves
We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective study, characterized by classical and molecular epidemiology, involving M. tuberculosis isolates from a regional prison in southern Brazil. Between January of 2011 and August of 2014, 379 prisoners underwent sputum smear microscopy and culture; 53 (13.9%) were diagnosed with active tuberculosis. Of those, 8 (22.9%) presented with isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis. Strain genotyping was carried out by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat analysis; 68.6% of the patients were distributed into five clusters, and 87.5% of the resistant cases were in the same cluster. The frequency of drug-resistant tuberculosis cases and the rate of recent transmission were high. Our data suggest the need to implement an effective tuberculosis control program within the prison system. RESUMO Estudo transversal, retrospectivo, com isolados de M. tuberculosis de pacientes de um presídio regional no sul do Brasil, caracterizado através de epidemiologia clássica e molecular. Entre janeiro de 2011 e agosto de 2014, 379 detentos foram submetidos a baciloscopia e cultura, sendo 53 (13,9%) diagnosticados com tuberculose ativa. Desses, 8 (22,9%) apresentavam tuberculose resistente a isoniazida. A genotipagem das cepas foi realizada por 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeat analysis; 68,6% dos pacientes estavam distribuídos em cinco clusters, e 87,5% dos casos resistentes estavam em um mesmo cluster. Verificou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de resistência e alta taxa de transmissão recente. Estes dados sugerem a necessidade da implantação de um programa efetivo de controle da tuberculose no sistema prisional.
Ullmann, Leila Sabrina; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Hoffmann, Juliano Leônidas; Moreira, Nei; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa; Montaño, Patrícia; Langoni, Helio; Biondo, Alexander Welker
Toxoplasma gondii is the causative intracellular protozoan of toxoplasmosis in human being and animals. Members of the Felidae family are considered the single definitive host for the infection; both wild and domestic cats are able to excrete oocysts in the environment. Wild cats maintained in captivity may serve as source of infection for other clinically susceptible animals in the same environment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of T. gondii IgG antibodies in 57 neotropical felids (1 Leopardus geoffroyi; 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 17 Leopardus wiedii; 22 Leopardus tigrinus; and 14 Leopardus pardalis) kept at the Bela Vista Biological Sanctuary, Itaipu Binacional, Southern Brazil, by the modified agglutination test (MAT) using titer 16 as cut-off point. Seropositivity was observed in 38/57 (66.67%; 95% CI 53.66-77.51%) samples, with higher frequency in ocelots (71.43%). Wild-caught felids were three times more likely to be infected when compared to zoo-born animals (P
Chisini, Luiz Alexandre; Conde, Marcus Cristian Muniz; Correa, Marcos Britto; Dantas, Raquel Venâncio Fernandes; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldes; Demarco, Flávio Fernando
Studies based on dentists' clinical practice possess vital relevance to understand factors leading the clinicians to choose by a specific technique over another. This study investigated which clinical conduct therapies are adopted by dentists in front of deep caries. Was evaluated how the place of work, post-graduate training and years since complete graduation influenced their decisions. A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-applied questionnaire with dentists (n=276) in Southern Brazil. Information regarding post-graduation training (specialization, master's or PhD), clinical experience (years since completing graduation) and place of work were investigated. The information regarding pulp vital therapies (materials for direct pulp capping; techniques for caries removal in deep cavities and strategies for indirect pulp capping) were collected by specific questions. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis and Exact Fischer Test. Response rate was 68% (187). The majority of dentists selected the calcium hydroxide (CH) as first material for direct (86.3%) and indirect (80.3%) pulp protection. Partial caries removal was reported by 61.9% of dentists. Less experienced clinical dentists choose partial caries removal more frequently (p=0.009), if compared with dentists graduated 10 years and up ago. The use of MTA was more common among professionals working at academic environment. Besides, MTA was not mentioned by professionals working exclusively in the public health service (p=0.003). In conclusion, the time since graduation influenced the clinical conduct related to caries removal. The choice of liner materials was influenced by dentists' workplace.
Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G
OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. METHODS The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. RESULTS Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth’s age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. CONCLUSIONS There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health. PMID:19142344
Domiciano, Isabela G.; Domit, Camila; Broadhurst, Matt K.; Koch, Mariana S.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.
Cetaceans are considered environmental sentinels and their health often reflects either anthropogenic or natural spatio-temporal disturbances. This study investigated the pathological findings and mortality of small cetaceans with the aim of detecting hazards and monitoring health trends in a high-biodiversity area. Between 2007 and 2012, 218 stranded cetaceans were recorded on the Paraná coast, southern Brazil. Fifty-seven (26.1%) of these animals, including 50 Sotalia guianensis, 2 Pontoporia blainvillei, 2 Stenella frontalis, 1 Stenella longirostris, 1 Tursiops truncatus and 1 Globicephala melas were necropsied and samples were collected for histopathology. Causes of death were determined in 46 of the 57 (80.7%) animals and most (30 or 65.2%) were ascribed to anthropogenic activities, including fisheries bycatch (28/30) and trauma (2/30). The remaining 16 fatalities were considered natural, and attributed to pneumonia (10/16), emaciation (3/16), septicemia (1/16), neonatal pathology (1/16) and choking via food obstruction (1/16). Irrespective of the cause, bronchointerstitial pneumonia, associated with parasitism, lymphadenitis and membranous glomerulonephritis were common findings among all fatalities. These results suggest, that while anthropogenic activities are a leading cause of cetacean strandings in Paraná, underlying pre-existing diseases may contribute towards deaths. Although the studied area is considered a biosphere reserve by UNESCO, complex anthropogenic and natural interactions might be occurring, increasing cetacean susceptibility to hazards. This study may help facilitate developing an effective conservation plan for coastal cetaceans focusing on reducing fisheries interactions, habitat degradation and pollution as mechanisms for ultimately increasing species resilience. PMID:26871703
Menezes, Ana M B; Lima, Rosângela C; Minten, Gicele C; Hallal, Pedro C; Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of wheezing in the chest among adults, and to explore the effect of some variables on the prevalence of this condition. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study on individuals born in the city of Pelotas (Southern Brazil) in 1982. A total of 4,297 subjects was traced in 2004-5, representing 77.4% of the original cohort. Data were collected by means of interviews using the ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Steering Committee) questionnaire. Associations between the outcome “occurrence of wheezing in the chest within the 12 months prior to the interview” and the variables of socioeconomic, demographic and birth characteristics were tested by means of multivariable analyses, using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of wheezing over the preceding year was 24.9%. Among the individuals reporting wheezing, 54.6% reported difficulty in sleeping, and 12.9% reported difficulty in speaking due to wheezing. The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was significantly higher among women. This association was maintained in analyses adjusted for non-white skin color, family history of asthma and low socioeconomic level. Among men, there was no significant association in the analyses adjusted for skin color and family income at birth. Family histories of asthma and poverty throughout life presented significant associations with wheezing in the chest. For both sexes, there were no associations with the variables of birth weight and breastfeeding duration. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of wheezing in the chest was high, and subjects with low family income at birth were more likely to have had wheezing in the chest over the preceding year. PMID:19142351
de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J.
HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale; IHDS), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T-scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B and C infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis. PMID:24277437
de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; Cherner, Mariana; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; Heaton, Robert K; Umlauf, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J
HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C-infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in Southern Brazil. We evaluated neuropsychological (NP) impairment using a screening instrument (the International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS)), as well as a Brazilian Portuguese adaptation of a comprehensive battery that has demonstrated sensitivity to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) internationally. NP performance in controls was used to generate T scores and impairment ratings by the global deficit score (GDS) method. Clade assignments were ascertained by sequencing pol and env. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected from all HIV+ participants. HIV+ and HIV- participants were comparable on demographic characteristics. HIV+ participants overall were more likely to be impaired than HIV- by the IHDS and the GDS. Clade B- and C-infected individuals were demographically similar and did not differ significantly in rates of impairment. The prevalence of pleocytosis, a marker of intrathecal cellular chemotaxis, also did not differ between clade B and C infections. Clade B and C HIV-infected individuals from the same geographic region, when ascertained using comparable methods, did not differ in their rates of neurocognitive impairment, and there was no evidence of differences in CNS chemotaxis.
da Silva Castiglioni, Daniela; Buckup, Georgina Bond
This work was performed with the aim to test theoretical predictions regarding that the sympatric species Hyalella pleoacuta and H. castroi might show distinct population biology to facilitate its coexistence. The specimens were collected monthly with nets from August 2003 through July 2004 in two trout ponds at Sítio Vale das Trutas locality, São José dos Ausentes County, southern Brazil. In the laboratory, the specimens were measured as cephalothorax length (mm), being the sex and ovigerous conditions checked. The species H. pleoacuta was 2.94 times more frequent than H. castroi. Males were significantly greater in size than females ( H. pleoacuta—males: 0.74 ± 0.002 mm and females: 0.66 ± 0.001 mm; H. castroi—males: 0.84 ± 0.00 mm and females: 0.72 ± 0.003 mm). Males and females of H. castroi showed a greater mean body size than H. pleoacuta. Sexual maturity was attained at 0.53 mm in males and 0.48 mm in females of H. pleoacuta, and 0.72 mm in males and 0.67 mm in females of H. castroi. The frequency distribution in size classes was usually bimodal in H. pleoacuta and polymodal in H. castroi throughout the year. Sex ratio was female-biased in either species of Hyalella. Ovigerous females (carrying eggs or juveniles in the marsupium) were collected throughout the year in both Hyalella species, but H. pleoacuta and H. castroi were found with more frequency during the winter and fall, respectively. Recruitment occurred in all months of sampling, the juvenile frequency being more than 50% of the amphipods collected in almost all months in both species. The biological differences (especially body size, size at sexual maturity, number of specimens collected and reproductive peak) and microhabitat specialization can be facilitating factors in the coexistence of H. pleoacuta and H. castroi in artificial ponds raising trout.
Godoi, Ricardo H M; Gonçalves, Sérgio J; Sayama, Célia; Polezer, Gabriela; Reis Neto, José M; Alföldy, Bálint; Van Grieken, René; Riedi, Carlos A; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Godoi, Ana F L; Bencs, László
Serpentine and amphibole asbestos occur naturally in certain geologic settings worldwide, most commonly in association with ultramafic rocks, along associated faults. Ultramafic rocks have been used in Piên County, Southern Brazil for decades for the purpose of road paving in rural and urban areas, but without the awareness of their adverse environmental and health impact. The aim of this study was the chemical characterization of aerosols re-suspended in two rural roads of Piên, paved with ultramafic rocks and to estimate the pulmonary deposition of asbestos aerosols. Bulk aerosol samples were analyzed by means of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis, in order to characterize elemental composition and crystallinity. Single-particle compositions of aerosols were analyzed by computer-controlled electron-probe microanalysis, indicating the presence of a few percentages of serpentine and amphibole. Given the chemical composition and size distribution of aerosol particles, the deposition efficiency of chrysotile, a sub-group of serpentine, in two principal segments of the human respiratory system was estimated using a lung deposition model. As an important finding, almost half of the inhaled particles were calculated to be deposited in the respiratory system. Asbestos depositions were significant (∼25 %) in the lower airways, even though the selected breathing conditions (rest situation, nose breathing) implied the lowest rate of respiratory deposition. Considering the fraction of inhalable suspended chrysotile near local roads, and the long-term exposure of humans to these aerosols, chrysotile may represent a hazard, regarding more frequent development of lung cancer in the population of the exposed region.
Barbosa, Valter Cordeiro; Lopes, Adair da Silva; Fagundes, Ricardo Rosa; de Campos, Wagner
OBJECTIVE: To describe the percentile values for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height (WHtR) of children from Colombo, Brazil, and compare them with data of children from other countries. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,035 children aged 6-11 years. Age- and sex-specific smoothed percentiles curves for BMI, WC and WHtR were created using the LMS method. Values of 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from Brazilian children were compared with data from other countries. RESULTS: There was a trend of increasing BMI and WC with age in both sexes. WHtR remained constant with advancing age in boys and girls. Comparison of the growth pattern among countries showed clear differences. Southern Brazil boys and girls had elevated 90th percentile values for BMI, which was similar to German children and higher than the North American and World Health Organization percentile values. However, children from this study had intermediate values for WC and WHtR in comparison to children from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated BMI values were observed among southern Brazilian children, but WC and WHtR percentile values were lower in southern Brazilian children than in children from other countries. Interventions at different levels should be made to avoid a probable increase of nutritional disorders (especially general obesity) in the next years. PMID:25510997
Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson
Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.
Araujo, Paula Beatriz; Bond-Buckup, Georgina
Data were obtained on the population structure and reproduction of Atlantoscia floridana, one of the most common species of terrestrial isopods in the restinga (coastal dune) forests of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. During a 19-month period, a total of 7833 individuals were sampled: 2792 males, 3400 females and 1691 mancas. There was a significant difference between the size of both males and females collected in 2000 and 2001: the mean size was smaller in the second year when individuals in the larger size classes were lacking. Population density varied with season. The minimum population was 131 ind per m 2 individuals, the maximum 1040 ind per m 2 and the mean 450 per m 2. While the overall sex ratio was clearly female biased, the operational sex ratio favored males, and showed no changes with season. Because both ovigerous and post-ovigerous females were present throughout the year, reproduction is considered continuous; however, reproduction peaked during autumn and spring. Ovigerous females were measured (CW = cephalothorax width) and the number of eggs was counted. Fecundity (F) varied from 5 to 23 eggs ( x¯ = 11.18 ± 4) per female, and was expressed by the regression F = -18.48 + 22.59 CW, with the female cephalothorax width varying from 1.04 to 1.68 mm. Marsupial mortality was only 0.9%. Egg production was 588 eggs per m 2 in spring and 660 eggs per m 2 in autumn. Recruitment occurred in all months, and eggs, embryos and marsupial mancas were also present year-round. A. floridana is the dominant species of terrestrial isopod in the study area. Its most remarkable characteristic is its high reproductive investment.
Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Jacinto, Michelle Moraes; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Lorencetti, Emilaine Karine; da Rosa Filho, Heitor Tomé; Mueller, Andressa; de Garcia, Claudia Garcia; Nardi, Henrique Caetano; Koller, Silvia Helena; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues
This study assessed HIV prevalence and associated factors in 284 male-to-female transsexuals from southern Brazil. Seroprevalence was 25 %. Seroprevalence was higher and associated with older age, residence in the metropolitan area, history of diagnosis of other STDs, and reported history of sex work. The year of diagnosis showed no significant relationship with the prevalence of HIV nor the fact of being in a stable relationship, a history of drug use, years of education, and race/ethnicity. The odds of HIV infection compared with the general Brazilian population was 55.55 (95 % CI 38.39-80.39). Changes in the views of the vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS in Brazil and efforts in the construction of strategies of prevention and in the guarantee of human rights are required.
Souto, F J; Fontes, C J; Martelli, C M; Turchi, M D; Martins, R M; Andrade, A L
A community-based random survey was conducted in a southern Brazilian Amazonian county aiming to investigate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence and the association of demographic variables and lifestyle behaviours. Seven hundred eighty individuals were serologically screened with a third generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect anti-HCV antibodies between 1994/1995. Positive samples were retested for confirmation with a line immunoassay (LIA, Inno-LIA HCV Ab III). Most of these subjects were low income and came from southern Brazilian states (65.8). Two point four percent (IC 95% 1.2%- 4.6%) of the subjects had LIA-confirmed anti-HCV antibodies reactivity. The age-specific prevalence of HCV antibodies slightly increased with age, with the highest prevalence after the age of 40 years. The results of multivariate analysis indicate a strong association between HCV antibodies and previous surgery and history of intravenous drug use. There were no apparent association with gender, hepatitis B virus markers, blood transfusion, and sexual activity. Mean time living in Amazon did not differ between confirmed and negative anti-HCV individuals. The present data point out an intermediate endemicity of HCV infection among this immigrant community to the Amazon region and that few HCV infected participants presented known risk factors.
Moreira, Francielli B; Rosario, Cristine S; Santos, Jucelia S; Avanzi, Valéria M; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Vidal, Luine R; Raboni, Sonia Mara
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a major etiologic agent of pediatric respiratory infections. Genetic variability of its glycoprotein G enables HRSV to evade the immune response and determines its seasonal dissemination. This study reports genetic variability and clinical profiles of HRSV-infected patients from Southern Brazil. Seventy positive samples, 78% type A and 22% type B, were analyzed. Of the patients (median age, 6 months; interquartile range, 2-11 years), 16% had co-morbidities and 17% developed severe disease. The ON1 HRSV genotype first appeared in 2012, and patients infected with this genotype showed an increased tendency to develop severe disease.
Okumura, Mercedes; Araujo, Astolfo G M
Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997), Bradbury (1997), Fenenga (1953), Hughes (1998), and Hildebrandt and King (2012) to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads.
Traebert, Jefferson; Nickel, Daniela A; Traebert, Eliane; Escalante, Juan J C; Schneider, Ione J C
Infectious diseases are still significant causes of deaths in Brazil. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of selected infectious diseases in the Brazilian Southern state of Santa Catarina in 2011. An ecological study was conducted. The infectious diseases included were HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease, diarrheal diseases and other infectious diseases. Data were collected from official health information systems. Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated by the sum of Years of Life Lost (YLL) and Years Lived with Disability (YLD). 45,237.33 DALYs were estimated, with a rate of 685.46 DALYs per 100,000 population. 92.9% was due to YLL and 7.1% to YLD. Men and the age range of 0-4 years presented higher burden. The highest burden was attributed to HIV/AIDS. There was a high concentration of burden rates in the coast regions of the state. It could be concluded that more than 90% of the burden was attributed to the early mortality component. The highest burden was observed among men, children under 5 years of age and at the coast regions of the state. The highest levels of burden were due to HIV/AIDS.
Reifschneider, Marina Becker
This article provides an overview of distance education in Brazil and compares it with that in the United States. It presents a brief historical perspective of private and public initiatives in Brazil and concentrates on present governmental projects and educational policies guiding distance education, with emphasis on higher education. Deficits…
This research report aims to demonstrate how the state of Paraná, Brazil, featured in the transnational context of different schools of biotypological thought present in Brazil as of the 1930s. The city of Curitiba is taken as a case study, where we can identify, in an academic lecture from 1938 and two mental health reports from 1950 and 1951, the observance of Ernst Kretschmer's German constitutional medicine, despite the prevalence of the Italian school of thought in the bibliography on the subject. With this, we seek to identify through what channels and forums the precepts of the German school were legitimized.
Liberatti, C; Andrade, S; Soares, D
Objective—The aim was to study characteristics of traffic accident victims before and after the implementation of the new Brazilian traffic code, in January 1998. Subjects and methods—The study population was car and motorcycle occupants seen in a pre-hospital care service in Londrina, Paraná State (Brazil) before the introduction of the new Brazilian traffic code, from 22 January to 21 July 1997, and after its implementation during the same period in 1998. Victims were analyzed over the time periods according to helmet and seat belt use, gender, underage driving, and alcohol on the breath. Results—Use of seat belts increased from 45% to 62.6% and of helmets from 31.2% to 66.2% after the introduction of the new Brazilian code. The proportion driving under age 18 and with perceptible alcoholic breath declined significantly only among motorcycle riders. There was a 20% decline in car occupant injuries along with a 9% reduction in motorcycle related injuries after the change of the law. Conclusion—Results favor the hypothesis that rigorous legislation increases safer practices in traffic, at least during the first months of its implementation. PMID:11565982
Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho
The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance (‘1’) identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance (‘1’) tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance ‘1’ showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds. PMID:27658592
Banfi, Felipe Finger; Guedes, Karla de Sena; Andrighetti, Carla Regina; Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Debiasi, Bryan Wender; Noronha, Janaina da Costa; Rodrigues, Domingos de Jesus; Júnior, Gerardo Magela Vieira; Sanchez, Bruno Antonio Marinho
The drug-resistance of malaria parasites is the main problem in the disease control. The huge Brazilian biodiversity promotes the search for new compounds, where the animal kingdom is proving to be a promising source of bioactive compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activity of the compounds obtained from the toad venoms of Brazilian Amazon. Toad venoms were collected from the secretion of Rhinella marina and Rhaebo guttatus in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The powder was extracted at room temperature, yielding 2 extracts (RG and RM) and a substance ('1') identified as a bufadienolide, named telocinobufagin. Growth inhibition, intraerythrocytic development, and parasite morphology were evaluated in culture by microscopic observations of Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Cytotoxicity was determined against HepG2 and BGM cells by MTT and neutral red assays. The 2 extracts and the pure substance ('1') tested were active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain, demonstrating lower IC50 values. In cytotoxic tests, the 2 extracts and substance '1' showed pronounced lethal effects on chloroquine-resistant P. faciparum strain and low cytotoxic effect, highlighting toad parotoid gland secretions as a promising source of novel lead antiplasmodial compounds.
Pulerwitz, J; Michaelis, A P; Lippman, S A; Chinaglia, M; Díaz, J
HIV-related stigma and discrimination (S&D) have been shown to impede prevention, care and treatment. Yet, few quantitative studies have tested the associations between stigma, service utilization and status disclosure, especially in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics. Surveys, administered to a random sample of 1,775 truck drivers crossing Southern borders in Brazil, included items on multiple conceptual domains of S&D, such as fear of casual contact and blame towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to examine correlations. Less stigma (both individual items and grouped as a scale) was significantly correlated with VCT use (p
de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan
Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542
Dos Santos, Emili Bortolon; Favretto, Mario Arthur; Dos Santos Costa, Samuel Geremias; Navarro-Silva, Mario Antonio
In this study, a total of 4146 culicids collected in an Atlantic Forest area in Paraná state, southern Brazil were examined for the presence of mites. Forty larval Parasitengone mites (Arrenurus spp., Arrenuridae; Durenia spp., Trombellidae; Microtrombidium spp., Microtrombidiidae) parasitized 25 specimens of mosquitoes, with the intensity varying from one to nine mites attached. Most mites were found on Aedes serratus/nubilus, Culex vomerifer, Cx. pedroi and Cx. sacchettae. The overall percentage of parasitized mosquitoes was 0.6 %. The highest intensity of mites encountered was in an individual of Cx. pedroi with nine attached mites. Regarding the attachment site, most mite specimens were attached to the abdomen (n = 25), whereas 15 were located on the thorax. Specimens of Arrenurus spp. were only found on the abdomen of mosquitoes, and the same was observed for Microtrombidium spp., while Durenia spp. attached to both the thorax (n = 15) and abdomen (n = 4). This is the first record for the genus Durenia in Brazil. Additionally, some species of mosquitoes were, for the first time, reported as being parasitized by mites.
Henzel, Andréia; Brum, Mário Celso Sperotto; Lautert, Cláudia; Martins, Mathias; Lovato, Luciane Teresinha; Weiblen, Rudi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) are the two primary causes of upper respiratory tract disease in cats. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the distribution of FCV and FHV-1 among the feline population of several counties in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. To this end, conjunctival and nasal swabs were collected from 302 cats from different locations, including households, breeding catteries, veterinary clinics, animal hospitals and experimental research facilities. The samples were collected between July 2006 to June 2009. The virus isolation was performed in CRFK cells and, subsequently, the identification was confirmed by PCR. FCV, FHV-1, or both were isolated from 55 cats from 28 different locations. FCV alone was isolated from 52.7% (29/55) of the animals that tested positively, FHV-1 alone was isolated from 38.2% (21/55) of the animals that tested positively, and co-infection were detected in 9.1% (5/55) of the animals that tested positively. Virus detection was more prevalent in cats that were less than 1 year old, among animals that shared a living space with other cats, and females. FCV and FHV-1 were isolated from vaccinated cats. In addition, both viruses were isolated from cats that showed no signs of disease. The results suggest that a carrier state is common for both viruses in the evaluated population. A search for other causes of respiratory disease in that population is necessary; and further studies relating to the molecular characterization of viruses and vaccine efficacy are also necessary. PMID:24031864
Schmidt, C; Cibulski, S P; Andrade, C P; Teixeira, T F; Varela, A P M; Scheffer, C M; Franco, A C; de Almeida, L L; Roehe, P M
Despite the putative endemic status of swine influenza A virus (swIAV) infections, data on the occurrence of swine influenza outbreaks are scarce in Brazil. The aim of this study was to detect and subtype swIAVs from six outbreaks of porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in southern Brazil. Nasal swabs were collected from 66 piglets with signs of respiratory disease in six herds. Lung tissue samples were collected from six necropsied animals. Virus detection was performed by PCR screening and confirmed by virus isolation and hemagglutination (HA). Influenza A subtyping was performed by a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) to detect the A(H1N1)pdm09; other swIAV subtypes were determined by multiplex RT-PCR. In lung tissues, the major bacterial and viral pathogens associated with PRDC (Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and PCV2) were investigated. In some affected pigs, clinico-pathological evaluations were conducted. Influenza A was detected by screening PCR in 46 of 66 swab samples and from five of six lungs. Virus was recovered from pigs of all six herds. Subtype A(H1N1)pdm09 was detected in four of six herds and H1N2 in the other two herds. In lung tissues, further agents involved in PRDC were detected in all cases; Pasteurella multocida was identified in five of six samples and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in three of six. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (1/6), Haemophilus parasuis (1/6) and PCV2 (1/6) were also detected. These findings indicate that subtypes A(H1N1)pdm09 and H1N2 were present in pigs in southern Brazil and were associated with PRDC outbreaks.
Brandão, Ajacio BM; Costa Fuchs, Sandra
Background In Brazil, it is estimated that between 2.5 and 4.9% of the general population present anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies, which corresponds to as many as 3.9 to 7.6 million chronic carriers. Chronic liver disease is associated with HCV infection in 20% to 58% of the Brazilian patients. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors for presence of anti-HCV antibody in blood donors in southern Brazil. Methods One hundred and seventy eight blood donors with two positive ELISA results for anti-HCV were cases, and 356 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic and socioeconomic aspects, history of previous hepatitis infection, social and sexual behaviors, and number of donations. Variables were grouped into sets of hierarchical categories. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression, odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. The statistical significance of the associations was assessed through likelihood ratio tests based on a P value < 0.05. Results The prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors was 1.1%. Most of the donors were white and males. In the multivariate analysis, independent predictors of anti-HCV positivity were: intravenous drug use, blood transfusion >10 years earlier, having had two to four sexually transmitted diseases, incarceration, tattooing, sex with a hepatitis B or C virus carrier or with intravenous drug users. Conclusion Intravenous drug use, blood transfusion, and tattooing were the main risk factors for anti-HCV positivity among blood donors from southern Brazil, but sexual HCV transmission should also be considered. PMID:12169200
Pacheco da Silva, V C; Kaydan, M B; Germain, J-F; Botton, M
The worldwide mealybug genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) has eight described Neotropical species, including two species known from Brazil. In this article, we describe a third species from Brazil: Paracoccus galzerae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan sp. n., based on the morphology of adult females collected on the roots of Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul. A revised identification key including the new species is provided for the Neotropical region.
Corte, Andreia C; Svoboda, Walfrido K; Navarro, Italmar T; Freire, Roberta L; Malanski, Luciano S; Shiozawa, M M; Ludwig, Gabriela; Aguiar, Lucas M; Passos, Fernando C; Maron, Angela; Camargo, Zoilo P; Itano, Eiko N; Ono, Mario Augusto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in wild New World monkeys (Cebus sp. and Alouatta caraya). A total of 93 animals (Cebus sp., n = 68 and Alouatta caraya, n = 25) were captured in the Paraná River basin, Paraná State, Brazil and the serum samples were analyzed by ELISA and immunodiffusion using P. brasiliensis gp43 and exoantigen as antigens, respectively. The seropositivity observed by ELISA was 44.1% and 60% for Cebus sp. and A. caraya, respectively, while by immunodiffusion test Cebus sp. showed positivity of 2.9% only. No significant difference was observed in relation to age and sex. This is the first report of paracoccidioidomycosis in wild capuchin monkeys and in wild-black and golden-howler monkeys. The high positivity to P. brasiliensis infection in both species evaluated in our study and the positivity by immunodiffusion test in Cebus sp. suggest that natural disease may be occurring in wild monkeys living in paracoccidioidomycosis endemic areas.
Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos
This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.
Veado, M A R V; Arantes, I A; Oliveira, A H; Almeida, M R M G; Miguel, R A; Severo, M I; Cabaleiro, H L
Intense mining activities in Minas Gerais State - Brazil brings out tons of waste to the environment. Considerable concentrations of toxic elements penetrate the soil, ground waters and rivers. This endangers the environment quality not only in the surrounding areas but also in ichthyofauna and in more distant areas of cattle raising and agricultural activities. After seasonal floods, veterinary clinic studies have shown that most animals raised in this region are affected by symptomatologic nervous diseases, still not clearly diagnosed, which suggests intoxication. These pathologies are mostly noted after floods. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis was applied to determine Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th and Zn in environmental samples. The obtained results show that the water and sediment contaminated with heavy metals and toxic elements from the Das Velhas River upstream basin, the mining region, carry contamination to the ichthyofauna and farming region within a distance of approximately 400 km.
This radar image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the leftside of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. The three dark vertical stripes show the boundaries where four segments of the swath are merged to form the full scanned swath. These will be removed in later processing. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space
Rolon, Ana Silvia; Rocha, Odete; Maltchik, Leonardo
The Lagoa do Peixe has its connection with the sea artificially opened every year at the end of winter. However, this management has been carried out without the evaluation of the impact of this opening in the aquatic biodiversity. This information is crucial for the management of the natural resources of the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, the unique Ramsar site in Southern Brazil. The following questions were analyzed: (1) Do richness and composition of aquatic macrophytes from Lagoa do Peixe floodplain varies temporarily according to the sandbar opening and closing? (2) Does the variation pattern of the macrophyte community changed according to the sandbar opening and closing? A set of eight sampling sites of 1ha were selected over the Lagoa do Peixe floodplain: four sites not influenced by the artificial sandbar opening and four sites influenced by this event, being two sites closer to the sandbar opening and the two sites distant to the sandbar opening. The samplings were carried out between November 2007 and October 2009. The results show that although the artificial sandbar breaching does not affect the aquatic macrophyte richness at the floodplain, it affects the dynamics of species composition. The hydrological variation related to this management can be the main factor of the continuous change in the species composition in the floodplain, especially in the Southern portion. In order to avoid impacts in the macrophyte conservation, the artificial sandbar opening should be considered carefully, since the area of study is one of the most important conservation units to wetland systems in Southern Brazil.
Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.
HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702
Krawczak, Felipe S; Binder, Lina C; Oliveira, Caroline S; Costa, Francisco B; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Martins, Thiago F; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Gregori, Fábio; Polo, Gina; Oliveira, Stefan V; Labruna, Marcelo B
Rio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state of Brazil, bordering Uruguay. Clinical cases of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis were recently reported in Rio Grande do Sul. None of these cases was lethal, and all were confirmed by seroconversion to R. rickettsii antigens. Because serological cross-reactions are well known to occur between different SFG agents, the SFG agent responsible for the clinical cases remains unknown in Rio Grande do Sul, where no rickettsial agent is known to infect ticks. During 2013-2014, ticks and blood sera samples were collected from domestic dogs and wild small mammals, and from the vegetation in a SFG-endemic area of Rio Grande do Sul. Dogs were infested by Amblyomma ovale adult ticks, whereas small mammals were infested by immature stages of A. ovale, Ixodes loricatus, and adults of I. loricatus. Ticks collected on vegetation were adults of A. ovale, and immature stages of A. ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, and Amblyomma longirostre. Three Rickettsia species were detected: Rickettsia bellii in I. loricatus, Rickettsia amblyommii in A. longirostre, and a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent (Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) in A. ovale. Seroreactivity to SFG antigens were detected in 19.7 % (27/137) canine and 37.5 % (15/40) small mammal sera, with highest titers to R. parkeri. Results indicate that the R. parkeri-like agent, strain Atlantic rainforest, is circulating between A. ovale ticks, dogs and small mammals in the study area, suggesting that this SFG pathogen could be one of the etiological agents of SFG clinical cases in Rio Grande do Sul.
Lacerda, Willy A.
The weathering of granitic and gneissic rocks in tropical regions can reach depths of more than 100 m. In southeast Brazil there are situations where landslide initiation depends on the fluctuation of the groundwater level, on the impact of falling rocks and on intense rainfall, causing superficial slides. The fluctuation of groundwater induces cyclical variations of the pore water pressure, and consequently of the effective stresses. This variation causes cyclic expansion and contraction of the structure of the saprolitic soil, weakening the imbrication of grains and loss of the cementation that may exist. This could be called a "fatigue" phenomenon. The practical effect is the lowering of the Mohr shear strength envelope, and a sudden rupture of the soil at a lower groundwater level than that which would be compatible with the intact soil strength properties, initiating a landslide. Another situation arises during intense rains, when a rock slab or a rock block detaches from the uppermost parts of a slope. This occurs where steep rock outcrops exhibit relief joints or where residual blocks of granite roll down the slope, impacting the compressible, saturated colluvial soil overlying the saprolitic soil. The sudden increase of pore pressure can liquefy the soil. Finally, another mechanism is that of the advance of a saturation front in a steep slope of unsaturated saprolitic soil, reaching a depth below the root zone. The loss of the cohesion due to suction, without the beneficial contribution of the roots to the shearing strength, causes a sudden slide. During extreme rain episodes literally hundreds of such superficial slides, reaching 1 to 3 m in depth, occur in a given basin. The concentrated runoff that flows along the surface of the thalweg of the basin carries this soil in a muddy state, and a debris flow ensues.
Barcellos, Aline; Schmidt, Letícia S; Brailovsky, Harry
The coreoid fauna from Neotropics is poorly known, especially in terms of community studies. Aiming at contributing to this knowledge, a two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Coreoidea. Samplings were conducted in the springs of 2003 and 2004 (October), and autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May), using beating tray method, along two trails of the park. Sampling effort (hours X collectors) totaled 153h. A total of 282 individuals of Coreoidea were collected, distributed in 28 species of Alydidae, Coreidae and Rhopalidae. The most abundant species was the coreid Cebrenis supina Brailovsky, representing 16% of the collected individuals, followed by the rhopalids Jadera aeola (Dallas), and Harmostes sp., with 12.1% and 11.7%, respectively. The estimated richnesses by Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 and Jackknife 2 indicated that the observed richness corresponds to 70% to 80% of the expected for the area. The estimated richness through rarefaction was significantly higher in spring 2003 and autumn 2004 than in the other periods. There was no significant difference, however, between spring of 2003 and autumn of 2004, and between spring of 2004 and autumn of 2005, for the same parameter. Yucumã and Garcia trails did not differ significantly for the estimated richness. Singletons and doubletons represented 32.1% of the recorded species. Additionally, eight other species were obtained qualitatively by using, besides beating tray without protocol, manual collection.
Coe, H. H.; Augustin, C. R.; Chueng, K. F.
Phytoliths are particles of silica formed as a result of absorption of silicic acid in the soil solution by plant roots and then precipitate in plant cells. They enable paleoenvironmental reconstruction, indicating climate change and its effects on vegetation, offering clues about factors that may influence geomorphologic processes. Samples were collected at the Serra do Engenho, part of the Southern Espinhaço, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in two profiles formed by sandy soils located in a slightly inclined slope. Profile 1 shows a slightly concavity and an abrupt break of slope in its contact with a quartzite outcrop. It is located at the upper portion of the slope and presents a thick layer of material in which it is possible to identify depositional sequences. This layer although thinner is also present at the profile 2, located at the middle slope. There are evidences that the deposition of these sequences have occurred at the same time, but the type or the intensity of the accumulative processes have occurred in different ways, as indicated by phytoliths and others. Both profiles present a detrictic pavement at the same depth (50-60 cm), on the top of which in P2 occurs an organic horizon. In both profiles and in almost all modern vegetation assemblages collected near them, phytoliths are very weathered. This makes identification of the types and calculation of phytolith indexes difficult, but highlights the intensity of erosion in the area. The results also show the dominance of big phytoliths, because they are more resistant to erosion, and low proportions of short cells phytoliths, more fragile ones. Organic carbon stocks are higher in P2 than in P1, due to the presence of the organic horizon, formed because of better conditions of accumulation and decomposition of organic matter. It does not occur in P1, where the runoff until nowadays is more effective due to the proximity of the outcrop and to its small presence of lower strata of vegetation cover. These
Bruschi, Daniel P.; Lucas, Elaine M.; Garcia, Paulo C. A.; Recco-Pimentel, Shirlei M.
The taxonomic status of a disjunctive population of Phyllomedusa from southern Brazil was diagnosed using molecular, chromosomal, and morphological approaches, which resulted in the recognition of a new species of the P. hypochondrialis group. Here, we describe P. rustica sp. n. from the Atlantic Forest biome, found in natural highland grassland formations on a plateau in the south of Brazil. Phylogenetic inferences placed P. rustica sp. n. in a subclade that includes P. rhodei + all the highland species of the clade. Chromosomal morphology is conservative, supporting the inference of homologies among the karyotypes of the species of this genus. Phyllomedusa rustica is apparently restricted to its type-locality, and we discuss the potential impact on the strategies applied to the conservation of the natural grassland formations found within the Brazilian Atlantic Forest biome in southern Brazil. We suggest that conservation strategies should be modified to guarantee the preservation of this species. PMID:25141279
Battisti, R.; Sentelhas, P. C.; Boote, K. J.
Water deficit is the main factor responsible for soybean yield gap in Southern Brazil and tends to increase under climate change scenarios. Alternatives need be identified in order to create options to reduce the yield gap. One alternative is the selection of soybean cultivars with traits associated to drought tolerance. Thus, the aim of this study, via use of crop models, is to evaluate genetic traits that can help to improve soybean yield under climate change scenarios in Southern Brazil by improving the crop tolerance to water deficit. For this, the CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean model was used to simulate soybean yield in Southern Brazil and evaluate yield with altered genetic traits. The first step was to calibrate the model for a Brazilian soybean cultivar, using results from irrigated and rainfed experiments conducted in different sowing dates and locations in Southern Brazil. The CSM-CROPGRO-Soybean estimated a mean yield of 3551 (SD = 1439) kg ha-1, while the mean observed yield was 3313 (SD = 1105) kg ha-1. The mean error was 238 kg ha-1 (7.2%), mean error absolute was 765 kg ha-1 (23%) and modeling efficiency was 0.27, with a good relationship between observed and simulated yield (Figure 1). The model was able to estimate soybean yield for different levels of soil water available during the crop season. The next steps of the project are to manipulate the coefficients related with rooting depth extension, early stomata closure at high soil water contents, transpiration limited to a maximum rate, and N2 fixation drought tolerance in the model in order to identify their impact on yield under current and future climate scenarios in all soybean production regions in Southern Brazil. The soybean yield from different changed traits will be evaluated in order to define guidelines for breeding programs, allowing the saving of resources and time in the new cultivars development process, focused on adaptation to climate change.
Trombini, Eliana Silva; Schermann, Lígia Braun
This study verified the prevalence and associated factors to the adhesion of children in Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), in three urban centers in Southern Brazil: Passo Fundo, Canoas and Cachoeira do Sul. The population of the study consisted of 44 children, between 18 months to 13 years old, in HAART. Data was collected by applying a socio-demographic questionnaire with the caregivers, aiming to know the children's sex, age, schooling, treatment type and clinical state, as well as the caregiver's income, age and schooling. Adhesion was considered when the effectiveness of the HAART was at least 95% of the prescribed regimen. The design of the study was analytical and transversal. Data analysis was performed by descriptive analysis (frequency, percentage) and bivariate analysis (chi-square test), crossing the outcome variable (adhesion to HAART) and the independent variables (sociodemographic, clinical state, treatment type, caregiver's age and schooling). The results showed 82% of adhesion in the studied children. The bivariate analysis did not point out significant associations between adhesion and independent variables. A possible linear tendency to increase the adhesion as a function of the improvement of the physical state was observed.
Yokota, Renata T C; Skalinski, Lacita M; Igansi, Cristine N; de Souza, Libia R O; Iser, Betine P M; Reis, Priscilleyne O; Barros, Eliana N C; Macário, Eduardo M; Bercini, Marilina A; Ranieri, Tani M S; Araújo, Wildo N
To identify risk factors for death from pandemic (H1N1) 2009, we obtained data for 157 hospitalized patients with confirmed cases of this disease. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes and class III obesity were associated with death. These findings helped define priority vaccination groups in Brazil.
Da Rocha, A M; Salomão de Freitas, D P; Burns, M; Vieira, J P; de la Torre, F R; Monserrat, J M
This study analyzed biochemical biomarkers of freshwater and estuarine fish species from Southern Brazil. It analyzed three organs (muscle, liver and gills), in four fish species (Micropogonias furnieri, Pimelodus pintado, Loricariichthys anus and Parapimelodus nigribarbis) in order to perform an environmental diagnosis. Obtained results showed that liver of L. anus and gills of M. furnieri presented higher total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals during fall, whereas a clear seasonality was found for gill reduced glutathione (GSH) levels of all studied species, with higher concentration during spring. In terms of oxidative damage (TBARS), liver of M. furnieri and gills of P. nigribarbis showed higher TBARS levels during fall, whereas P. pintado showed the lowest TBARS value. Finally, a conspicuous seasonal effect was observed for purified and non-purified glutathione-S-transferase (GST), where minimum values were registered during fall, pointing to this season as one where fish species are less competent to perform detoxifying reactions.
Sardi, Adriana E; Renaud, Paul E; da Cunha Lana, Paulo; Camus, Lionel
Offshore petroleum exploration has increased the risks of oil spills in coastal tropical and subtropical habitats. Monitoring tools are needed to assess and protect environmental health. We determined baseline values of antioxidant biomarkers (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA) for five ecologically relevant species in a subtropical system in southern Brazil. Regional baseline levels are compared with literature data as a basis to eventually test their efficacy as post-spill monitoring tools. Differences in the antioxidant response among species, contamination, and seasons were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. The bivalves Anomalocardia flexuosa and Crassostrea rhizophorae and the catfish Genidens genidens emerge as suitable sentinel species. Seasonality is the main factor accounting for biomarkers variability, and not background contamination level. However, interactions between season and contamination level are also significant, indicating that biomarkers respond to complex environmental settings, a fact that needs to be fully understood for designing proper monitoring programs.
Utz, Laura R P; Farias, Ana Carolina Silva Rodrigues; Freitas, Eduarda Correa; de Araújo, Gabriella Oliveira
Epistylis riograndensis n. sp., a freshwater peritrich hosting symbiotic algae in its cytoplasm, was collected from an artificial lake, in a Botanical garden in Southern Brazil. Its detailed morphology was investigated using live and silver-stained specimens. The colonial sessile E. riograndensis has elongate zooids measuring, on average, 162 μm in length and 45 μm in width. A single contractile vacuole located near the infundibulum and a C-shaped macronucleus located transversely in the adoral half of the cell were also observed. The oral infraciliature revealed in silver-stained specimens was typical of peritrich ciliates. Three infundibular polykineties consisting of 3 rows of kinetosomes were observed. Molecular analyses of 18s rDNA placed E. riograndensis among other Epistylis species in the Order Vorticellida.
Attention in this discussion of Brazil focuses: the history of the country's demographic situation; government's overall approach to population problems; population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population within development planning; government's view of the importance of population policy in achieving development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. The population of Brazil grew from 17 million in 1900 to about 119 million in 1960, making it the most populous country in the world and 1 of the relatively few countries to have sustained rates of population growth of more than 2% for over a century. The government has not adopted an explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth. Initially this was because of its positive perception of the benefits of population growth and a large population size and, amore recently, because of Brazil's gradual transition to more moderate levels of fertility and population growth. Brazil's main sources of demographic data are its 9 censuses, conducted in 1982, 1890, 1900, 1920, 1940, 1950, 1960, 1970, and most recently in August 1980. A nationwide system of vital registration data are still lacking in many geographic areas, researchers have had to rely on indirect estimation techniques to derive estimates of past trends in fertility and mortality. Population policy has been regarded as a highly sensitive issue by Brazilian officials, and the government remains cautious in regard to population issues. Preliminary results of Brazil's 1980 census indicate a population of 119 million and an annual rate of population growth of 2.1%, continuing the downward trend that was first evident in 1976. The government considers levels and trends of population growth to be satisfactory, and morbidity and mortality to be unacceptable, partly because of a lack of success in reducing the incidence of
Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano; Capra, Lucia; Dias Fernandes, Carlos Marcelo
Precambrian volcanism played an important role in geological evolution and formation of new crust. Most of the literature on Precambrian volcanic rocks describes settings belonging to subaqueous volcanic systems. This is likely because subaerial volcanic rocks in Proterozoic and Archean volcano-sedimentary succession are poorly preserved due to erosive/weathering processes. The late Paleoproterozoic Sobreiro Formation (SF) here described, seems to be one of the rare exceptions to the rule and deserves particular attention. SF represents the subaerial expression of an andesitic magmatism that, linked with the upper felsic Santa Rosa F., composes the Uatumã Group. Uatumã Group is an extensive magmatic event located in the Xingú region, southwestern of Pará state, Amazonian Craton (northern Brazil). The Sobreiro volcanism is thought to be related to an ocean-continent convergent margin. It is characterized by ~1880 Ma well-preserved calc-alkaline basaltic/andesitic to andesitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and associated reworked successions. The superb preservation of its rock-textures allowed us to describe in detail a large variety of volcaniclastic deposits. We divided them into primary and secondary, depending if they result from a direct volcanic activity (pyroclastic) or reworked processes. Our study reinforces the importance of ancient volcanic arcs and rocks contribution to the terrestrial volcaniclastic sedimentation and evolution of plate tectonics. The volcanic activity that produced pyroclastic rocks influenced the amount of detritus shed into sedimentary basins and played a major role in the control of sedimentary dispersal patterns. This study aims to provide, for the first time, an analysis of the physical volcanic processes for the subaerial SF, based in field observation, lithofacies analysis, thin section petrography and less geochemical data. The modern volcanological approach here used can serve as a model about the evolution of Precambrian
Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa
The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa
Prellwitz, Isabel M; Alves, Brunna M; Ikeda, Maria Letícia R; Kuhleis, Daniele; Picon, Pedro D; Jarczewski, Carla A; Osório, Marta R; Sánchez, Alexandra; Seuánez, Héctor N; Larouzé, Bernard; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A
People deprived of liberty in prisons are at higher risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due to their increased exposure through intravenous drug use, unprotected sexual activity, tattooing in prison and blood exposure in fights and rebellions. Yet, the contribution of intramural HIV transmission to the epidemic is scarcely known, especially in low- and middle-income settings. In this study, we surveyed 1,667 inmates incarcerated at Presídio Central de Porto Alegre, located in southern Brazil, for HIV infection and molecular characterization. The HIV seroprevalence was 6.6% (110/1,667). Further analyses were carried out on 40 HIV-seropositive inmates to assess HIV transmission clusters and drug resistance within the facility with the use of molecular and phylogenetic techniques. The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 subtypes observed was similar to the one reported for the general population in southern Brazil, with the predominance of HIV-1 subtypes C, B, CRF31_BC and unique BC recombinants. In particular, the high rate (24%) of URF_BC found here may reflect multiple exposures of the population investigated to HIV infection. We failed to find HIV-infected inmates sharing transmission clusters with each other. Importantly, the analysis of HIV-1 pol genomic fragments evidenced high rates of HIV primary and secondary (acquired) drug resistance and an alarming proportion of virologic failure among patients under treatment, unveiling suboptimal access to antiretroviral therapy (ARV), low ARV adherence and dissemination of drug resistant HIV strains in primary infections. Our results call for immediate actions of public authority to implement preventive measures, serological screening and, for HIV-seropositive subjects, clinical and treatment follow-up in order to control HIV infection and limit the spread of drug resistance strains in Brazilian prisons.
Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Tondo, Eduardo César; Streck, André Felipe; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; de Souza Moraes, Hamilton Luiz; do Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro
Salmonella spp. are among the most important agents of foodborne diseases all over the world. Human Salmonella outbreaks are often associated with the consumption of poultry products (meat and eggs), and one of the most prevalent serotypes associated with these products is Salmonella Enteritidis. Brazil is one of the most important poultry exporters in the world. In southern Brazil, three closely related clones of Salmonella Enteritidis have been responsible for the majority of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks over the past decade. However, until now, there has been little information regarding the clonal relationship among the Brazilian Salmonella strains of avian origin and those involved in foodborne outbreaks. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to complete the molecular characterization of Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated from poultry and food sources involved in Salmonella outbreaks. PCR ribotyping was performed to discriminate the strains into different ribotype profiles according to the banding pattern amplification. This technique was able to differentiate the Salmonella Enteritidis strains into two banding patterns: R2 and R4. R2 accounted for 98.7% of the strains. DNA sequencing of the 600-bp fragment, present in all ribotypes, was applied to confirm this result. The sequences generated showed high levels of similarity, ranging from 99.7 to 100%, and were grouped into a single cluster. These results suggest that there is a clonal relationship among the Salmonella Enteritidis strains responsible for several salmonellosis outbreaks and the strains collected from poultry sources.
Pursues Dream in Space," Washington Post, 13 December 1984, lf, 4f. According to Defense News, "Brazil’s Andrade Gutierrez Quimica produces ammonium...Defense Intelligence Agency JSI-IC Washington, DC 22340 Gary Wynia Carleton College Northfield, MN 55057
Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Silveira, Iara; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Leite, Ronaldo Viana; Bonacim, José Edivaldo; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) is a vector-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii bacteria. Dogs can be host sentinels for this bacterium. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of antibodies against Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the city of São José dos Pinhais, State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, where a human case of BSF was first reported in the state. Between February 2006 and July 2007, serum samples from 364 dogs were collected and tested at 1:64 dilutions by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against R. rickettsii and R. parkeri. All sera that reacted at least to one of Rickettsia species were tested against the six main Rickettsia species identified in Brazil: R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. bellii, R. rhipicephali, R. amblyommii and R. felis. Sixteen samples (4.4%) reacted to at least one Rickettsia species. Among positive animals, two dogs (15.5%) showed suggestive titers for R. bellii exposure. One sample had a homologous reaction to R. felis, a confirmed human pathogen. Although Rickettsia spp. circulation in dogs in the area studied may be considered at low prevalence, suggesting low risk of human infection, the present data demonstrate for the first time the exposure of dogs to R. bellii and R. felis in Southern Brazil.
Cordero, Rodrigo León; Torchelsen, Fábio P; Overbeck, Gerhard E; Anand, Madhur
The occurrence of Scotch broom Cytisus scoparius (L.) Link (Fabaceae), is reported for the first time in Brazil. The species has been registered in the species-rich Campos Sulinos grasslands, in the Campos de Cima da Serra, and in the Serra do Sudeste. Naturalizing populations were frequently formed in natural habitats near to human settlements, where prevailing land uses and disturbances facilitate dispersal and establishment. The plant is an invasive species that has globally caused significant damage to biodiversity and economic losses. In Brazil, the species has a strong potential for spreading into a wide range of ecosystems. The Atlantic Forest biome and part of the Pampa biome, together known as the Campos Sulinos, represent optimal areas for the species. Features of the observed populations and recommendations for management are presented.
Verrastro, L; Ely, I
Knowledge of a species' diet provides important information on adaptation and the relationship between the organism and its environment. The genus Liolaemus occurs in the southern region of South America and is an excellent model to investigate the adaptive processes of vertebrate ecology in ecosystems of this region of the world. Liolaemus occipitalis is an endangered species that inhabits the coastal sand dunes of southern Brazil. This species is the most abundant vertebrate in this environment, and it presents unique adaptation characteristics to the restinga environment. The present study analyzed this lizard's diet to verify similarities or differences between this species and other species of the same genus. Specimens were collected monthly from January 1996 to December 1997. The number of items, frequency of occurrence and volume of each prey taxon were determined. Arthropods were identified to the order level, and plant material was identified as flower, fruit, seed and leaves. Variations in the diet of males and females, adults and juveniles and seasons were also analyzed. The data indicate that Liolaemus occipitalis is a generalist, "sit-and-wait" or ambush predator as well as omnivorous, feeding on both arthropods and plant material. Significant ontogenetic differences were verified. Juveniles are more carnivorous, and the intake of plant material increases with size and age. Seasonal differences in diet composition were also observed. In the spring, arthropod and plant materials were more diversified and, therefore, consumed more often.
Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão
Abstract This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeus kroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter. PMID:25561841
Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Simões, Sabrina Morilhas; Castilho, Antonio Leão
This study evaluated the growth and population structure of Xiphopenaeuskroyeri in Babitonga Bay, southern Brazil. Monthly trawls were conducted from July 2010 through June 2011, using a shrimp boat outfitted with double-rig nets, at depths from 5 to 17 m. Differences from the expected 0.5 sex ratio were determined by applying a Binomial test. A von Bertalanffy growth model was used to estimate the individual growth, and longevity was calculated using its inverted formula. A total of 4,007 individuals were measured, including 1,106 juveniles (sexually immature) and 2,901 adults. Females predominated in the larger size classes. Males and females showed asymptotic lengths of 27.7 mm and 31.4 mm, growth constants of 0.0086 and 0.0070 per day, and longevities of 538 and 661 days, respectively. The predominance of females in larger size classes is the general rule in species of Penaeidae. The paradigm of latitudinal-effect does not appear to apply to seabob shrimp on the southern Brazilian coast, perhaps because of the small proportion of larger individuals, the occurrence of cryptic species, or the intense fishing pressure in this region. The longevity values are within the general range for species of Penaeidae. The higher estimates for longevity in populations at lower latitudes may have occurred because of the growth constants observed at these locations, resulting in overestimation of this parameter.
Almeida, Marco A. B.; Cardoso, Jader da C.; dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F.; Cruz, Laura L.; Faraco, Fernando J. C.; Bercini, Marilina A.; Vettorello, Kátia C.; Porto, Mariana A.; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M. S.; Schermann, Maria T.; Sperb, Alethéa F.; Paz, Francisco Z.; Nunes, Zenaida M. A.; Romano, Alessandro P. M.; Costa, Zouraide G.; Gomes, Silvana L.; Flannery, Brendan
In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases. PMID:24625681
Almeida, Marco A B; Cardoso, Jader da C; Dos Santos, Edmilson; da Fonseca, Daltro F; Cruz, Laura L; Faraco, Fernando J C; Bercini, Marilina A; Vettorello, Kátia C; Porto, Mariana A; Mohrdieck, Renate; Ranieri, Tani M S; Schermann, Maria T; Sperb, Alethéa F; Paz, Francisco Z; Nunes, Zenaida M A; Romano, Alessandro P M; Costa, Zouraide G; Gomes, Silvana L; Flannery, Brendan
In Brazil, epizootics among New World monkey species may indicate circulation of yellow fever (YF) virus and provide early warning of risk to humans. Between 1999 and 2001, the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul initiated surveillance for epizootics of YF in non-human primates to inform vaccination of human populations. Following a YF outbreak, we analyzed epizootic surveillance data and assessed YF vaccine coverage, timeliness of implementation of vaccination in unvaccinated human populations. From October 2008 through June 2009, circulation of YF virus was confirmed in 67 municipalities in Rio Grande do Sul State; vaccination was recommended in 23 (34%) prior to the outbreak and in 16 (24%) within two weeks of first epizootic report. In 28 (42%) municipalities, vaccination began more than two weeks after first epizootic report. Eleven (52%) of 21 laboratory-confirmed human YF cases occurred in two municipalities with delayed vaccination. By 2010, municipalities with confirmed YF epizootics reported higher vaccine coverage than other municipalities that began vaccination. In unvaccinated human populations timely response to epizootic events is critical to prevent human yellow fever cases.
Miot da Silva, Graziela; Hesp, Patrick
This paper examines the role of coastline orientation on foredune and dunefield development at Moçambique Beach, Southern Brazil. The beach displays significant alongshore variations in exposure to the prevailing winds and waves, grain size, beach/surfzone morphodynamic type, foredune volume, and type and dimensions of the Holocene dune systems. Two wind analyses and calculation of aeolian drift potentials were carried out, one based on 1 year of wind record and another based on a record of 34 years. Monthly topographic surveys of beach and foredunes on 5 profiles along Moçambique beach were conducted over one year to obtain data on beach mobility and width, aeolian sediment transport and foredune development. Southerly winds dominate, and aeolian sediment supply is minimal in the south, moderate in the central portion and high in the northern portion of the embayment. The relationship between actual sediment supply, foredune building and potential sediment supply is relatively poor over one year due to factors such as beach type and mobility, beach moisture levels, rainfall, storm surge and wave scarping. The intermediate term (34 year) record indicates a strong relationship between foredune size and volume, winds and shoreline orientation: foredune volume is minimum in the southern part of the beach and greatest in the northern part of the beach. The Holocene barrier and dunefield development also reflects the long term control of shoreline orientation and increasing longshore gradient in exposure to southerly winds: for the last 6000-7000 years a small foredune developed in the southern portion, parabolics and small transgressive dunes in the central portion, and a large-scale transgressive dunefield in the northern portion.
Antoneli, Valdemir; Thomaz, Edivaldo; Berdnaz, João
The Faxinal System is a form of peasant organization, existing in the Center-South region of Paraná State which is subject to extensive livestock breeding in a common breeding site; forest harvesting within the common breeding site and subsistence feeding polyculture out of faxinal limits. The organization of Faxinal occurs through the fencing of the entire area of faxinal, without boundaries between the properties where the common breeding works. All owners have the right to raise their animals (bovine, equine, etc.) roaming free. The breeding site consists of outdoor areas (natural pastures) and secondary forest areas. The form of creation without properties restriction (roaming free) is identified as the main factor of soil erosion and land degradation due to constant grazing. The trampling ends up compacting and influencing the physical conditions of the soil which lead to the reduction of leakage and increasing the erosive processes. Based on the above considerations, the objective of this study was to evaluate the compression and water infiltration to the soil in a Faxinal in the South Central Region of Paraná - Brazil. The presented data was collected in a pasture site and secondary forest, both with constant grazing (breeding area) and an area with uncounted animals (control area) out of Faxinal limits. Two collection campaigns were carried out as follows: August (winter) and January (summer). In each collection campaign ten (10) infiltration repetitions were made in each area. In each infiltration test 15 compression collections were performed in each infiltration area, totaling 150 repetitions in each campaign. For the evaluation of water infiltration into the soil, a manual concentric cylindrics infiltrometer was used with readings each 5 minutes during one hour. The Compression was collected with the aid of a pocket penetrometer with a value of 4.5 kgf / cm2. The Infiltration in August was of 26.7 cm / h in secondary forest, 19.1 cm / h in grassland
In southern Bahia, cabruca is the agroforestry system in which cocoa is cultivated under the shade of sparse native forest trees. Aiming to characterize the tree component of this system and its management practices, we conducted an inventory of the non-cocoa trees in 16 ha of cabruca and do intervi...
Surveys for fungal pathogens affecting adult mosquitoes from the genus Anopheles were conducted in flooded and swamp-like natural breeding sites near residences in the center and suburbs of the city of Una as well as the nearby village of Outeiro in southern Bahia. Surveys of 54 mosquito breeding si...
Novaes, Renan Milagres Lage; De Lemos Filho, José Pires; Ribeiro, Renata Acácio; Lovato, Maria Bernadete
Little is known about past vegetation dynamics in Eastern Tropical South America (ETSA). Here we describe patterns of chloroplast (cp) DNA variation in Plathymenia reticulata, a widespread tree in the ETSA Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes, but not found in the xeromorphic Caatinga. Forty one populations, comprising 220 individuals, were analysed by sequencing the trnS-trnG and trnL-trnL-trnF cpDNA regions. Combined, they resulted in 18 geographically structured haplotypes. The central region of the sampling area, comprising Minas Gerais and Goiás Brazilian states, is a centre of genetic diversity and probably the most longstanding area of the distribution range of the species. In contrast, populations from northeastern Brazil and the southern Cerrados showed very low diversity levels, almost exclusively with common haplotypes which are also found in the central region. Coupled with a long-branched star-like network, these patterns suggest a recent range expansion of P. reticulata to those regions from central region sources. The recent origin of the species (in the early Pleistocene) or the extinction of some populations due to drier and cooler climate during the last glacial maximum could have been responsible for that phylogeographic pattern. The populations from northeastern Brazil originated from two colonization routes, one eastern (Atlantic) and one western (inland). Due to its high diversity and complex landscape, the central region, especially central-north Minas Gerais (between 15 degrees -18 degrees S and 42 degrees -46 degrees W), should be given the highest priority for conservation.
Lima, Francisco Esmaile de Sales; Campos, Fabrício Souza; Kunert Filho, Hiran Castagnino; Batista, Helena Beatriz de Carvalho Ruthner; Carnielli, Pedro; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia
A survey was carried out in search for bat coronaviruses in an urban maternity roost of about 500 specimens of two species of insectivorous bats, Molossus molossus and Tadarida brasiliensis, in Southern Brazil. Twenty-nine out of 150 pooled fecal samples tested positive by reverse transcription-PCR contained fragments of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of coronavirus-related viruses. The sequences clustered along with bat alphacoronaviruses, forming a subcluster within this group. Our findings point to the need for risk assessment and continued surveillance of coronavirus infections of bats in Brazil.
Dalmolin, D A; Rosa, F O; Freire, M D; Fonte, L F M; Machado, I F; Paula, C N; Loebmann, D; Périco, E
Herein, we provide new occurrence records of Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. All new records here provide are located on Southern half of the state. Besides this, we provide the first record for species in Brazilian coastal zone. Those records improve considerably our knowledge regarding species distribution in Southern Brazil.
15. SUBJECT TERMS UNASUR, MERCOSUR , Tri-Border Area, UNSC, Hezbollah, National Security Strategy, National Military Strategy, SADC 16. SECURITY...FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 23 March 2012 WORD COUNT: 5,000 PAGES: 30 KEY TERMS: (UNASUR, MERCOSUR , Tri-Border Area, UNSC, Hezbollah...lost for substantial economic trade and growth. Already Brazil has concluded Common Market of the South ( MERCOSUR ) free trade agreements with Israel
Guilherme, Pablo D B; Rosa, Leonardo C
The sea star Astropecten marginatus has a neotropical distribution and is a highly abundant and frequent species in shrimp trawling by-catchin many places along the Brazilian coast. This has caused its threat to extinction and in addition, its bio-ecological aspects are poorly known. Thus, the main objective of this study was to analyze the seasonal variations of population length structure and feeding habits of the sea stars A. marginatus inhabiting off state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. The analyzed specimens were collected in February (summer), April (fall), June (winter) and October (spring) of 2008 from shrimp by-catch trawling. In the laboratory, each individual had its length measured and then weighed on an analytical scale. Afterwards, the stomach contents of 10 individuals of each of two most frequent length classes were seasonally analyzed. The relative frequency and abundance for each prey category was determined and, then combined into an index of alimentary importance. A total of 994 individuals of A. marginatus were collected with length ranging from 7.0 to 56.2mm, but most individuals were in the 20.1-25mm length classes. Individuals larger than 40mm were only collected in the spring while a few recruits (<10mm) were found in fall and winter. The total weight of individuals ranged from 0.1 to 15.3g and the weight-length relationships showed a negative allometric growth (b<2.54). Regarding its food consumption, this sea star explored eleven food items, with cumaceans and mollusks as the most frequent items. High frequency of empty stomach was recorded at fall. Seasonal differences in the amount explored preys and ingested items as well as in the prey composition were also observed. Higher amount of explored prey categories and ingested items were recorded at winter-spring than summer-fall periods. Predominance in prey category changed from gastropods (summer and fall) to cumaceans (winter and spring). The importance of gastropods as main prey category
Lopes, Montalverne Hb; Rösing, Cassiano K; Colussi, Paulo Roberto G; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mg; Linden, Maria Ss
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors in adolescents from Passo Fundo, Brazil. Additionally, we studied adolescents' concern with their own breath and whether anyone had ever told them that they had halitosis. A crosssectional observational survey was conducted on 15to 19year old high school students from public and private schools in the city of Passo Fundo, Brazil. The random sample consisted of 736 adolescents from 20 schools. An interview with a structured questionnaire was administered. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis and associated factors was analyzed by either the chisquare test or Fisher's exact test. The prevalence of selfreported halitosis was 39.67%. The mother's level of education was associated with the outcome. Gender and behavioral habits were not associated with selfreported halitosis. Halitosis reported by others presented a prevalence of 10.73% and was associated to male gender and oral hygiene habits. Individuals with less toothbrushing frequency and no use of dental floss were associated to halitosis reported by others. It was observed that 88.58% of the participants are concerned with halitosis. It is concluded that there is high prevalence of selfreported halitosis, which is associated with a socioeconomic pattern. Most adolescents report concern with their own breath.
HEIDRICH, Daiane; DABOIT, Tatiane Caroline; STOPIGLIA, Cheila Denise Ottonelli; MAGAGNIN, Cibele Massotti; VETORATTO, Gerson; AMARO, Taís Guarienti; SCROFERNEKER, Maria Lúcia
SUMMARY Pityriasis versicolor is the most common of the diseases caused by Malasseziayeasts. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor and its etiological aspects in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. A retrospective crosssectional study with data from patients of a reference hospital from 1996 to 2011 was performed. Collected data included: date, age, gender, ethnicity, anatomical region of lesion and the direct mycological examination results. Among the positive results in the direct mycological examination, 5.8% (2,239) were positive for pityriasis versicolor. The angular coefficient (B) was -0.3%/year, showing a decrease over the years. The disease was more prevalent in men (7.1% of men versus 5.1% of women that underwent the direct mycological examination); younger age (median 31 years old); "pardo" and black people (3.7% more than expected in the sample); trunk (73.44% of the affected anatomic sites). Lesions in rare sites (groin, genitals, legs, feet and hands) were also observed in this study. In conclusion, due to the decrease in the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor, long-term epidemiological studies in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, Brazil, are needed to continue the monitoring of this disease. PMID:26422149
Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M
Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.
2004-01-01Vigorous vegetation growth in the Southern United States after heavy rains fell during April and early May, 2004, is quantified in these images and data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images were acquired on April 1 (top set) and May 3 (bottom set), and extend through Kansas and Missouri, Oklahoma and Arkansas, and eastern Texas, with the Texas-Louisiana border at the bottom right-hand corner. The left-hand images are natural-color views from MISR's nadir camera. In the month between the April and May images, the overall greenness is enhanced, and the Boston and Ouachita Mountains are transformed from brownish hues to vivid green. The city of Dallas, Texas, appears as the pale gray area at lower left and the Red River (which corresponds with the Texas-Oklahoma border) is apparent as the yellowish feature flowing toward the lower left-hand edge. Scattered clouds appear in the upper right-hand corners of both images. Quantitative values for the vegetation changes are provided by the center and right-hand images. The middle panels show Leaf Area Index (LAI), or the area of leaves per unit area of ground below them, as measured from above. The right-hand panels show FPAR, which is the fraction of the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm) absorbed by green vegetation. LAI and FPAR are two important quantities for monitoring the photosynthetic activity and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's LAI and FPAR products make use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and use plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data
Ferreira, Cristina Targa; Leite, Júlio César; Tanaguchi, Adriano Nori R; Vieira, Sandra Maria G; Pereira-Lima, Jorge; da Silveira, Themis Reverbel
The high incidence of Hepatitis A and B in institutionalized patients with Down Syndrome (DS) is not fully understood. Under poor hygienic conditions, immunological alterations might predispose individuals to these infections. Sixty three DS children between 1 and 12 years old living at home with their families were examined for anti-HAV and compared to age-matched controls (64 healthy children). This cross-sectional study was carried out from May 1999 to April 2000 at the Hospital de Clínicas of Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. Groups were compared in terms of age, sex, skin color, and family income (> R$ 500 and < R $ 500/month) by the chi-square test, with Yates' correction and for the prevalence of anti-HAV (Fisher's exact test). In the DS group (n=63), the mean age was 4.4 +/- 3.3 years, 94% of the patients were white and 51% were female. Family income was < or = R$ 500/month in 40 cases (63%). In the control group (n=64), the mean age was 4.8 +/- 2.7 years, 81% of the patients were white and 56% were female. Family income was < or = R$ 500 in 20 patients (31%). DS children's families had a significantly lower income (P<0.0005). In the DS group there were 6 positive (9.5%) anti-HAV cases, and all came from low-income families (less than R$ 500/ month). In the control group, 3 cases (4.7%) were positive for anti-HAV (two were from a low-income family and one was from a higher income family). These differences were not significant. Our data indicate that Hepatitis A is not a special risk for mentally retarded DS outpatients, even in a developing country like Brazil.
Background Trichomoniasis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world; however, it remains a neglected parasitic disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of trichomoniasis and its associated epidemiological factors among women treated at a hospital in southern Brazil. Methodology/Principal findings A cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence of this infection in women treated at Hospital Universitário (HU) in Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, between January 2012 and January 2015. This study consisted a self-administered questionnaire regarding demographic, clinical, and behavioural data and a molecular diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the TVK3/7 primer set, which was confirmed with sequence analysis. Of the 345 women surveyed, the overall prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis) was 4.1% (14/345). The prevalence rates were 5.9% among pregnant women, 8.5% among HIV-positive women, and 10.1% among HIV-positive pregnant women. The rates for groups with other significant demographic and clinical features were as follows: 6.6% among women with white skin, 12.3% among women with an income below the minimum monthly wage, 7.4% among women with a vaginal pH greater than or equal to 4.6, and 7.9% among women with a comorbid STD. The multivariate analysis confirmed that pregnant women who were HIV-positive (p = 0.001) and had low incomes (p = 0.026) were the most likely to have this infection. Conclusions A multivariate analysis confirmed that HIV-positive pregnant women with low incomes were the participants most likely to have trichomoniasis. These results are important because this Brazilian region presents a high prevalence of HIV-1 subtype C, which is associated with greater transmissibility. Additionally, low family income reveals a socioeconomic fragility that might favour the transmission of this STD. PMID:28346531
de Oliveira, Paula Duarte; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Macedo, Silvia Elaine Cardozo
OBJECTIVE: To identify incorrect inhaler techniques employed by patients with respiratory diseases in southern Brazil and to profile the individuals who make such errors. METHODS: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study involving subjects ≥ 10 years of age using metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs) in 1,722 households in the city of Pelotas, Brazil. RESULTS: We included 110 subjects, who collectively used 94 MDIs and 49 DPIs. The most common errors in the use of MDIs and DPIs were not exhaling prior to inhalation (66% and 47%, respectively), not performing a breath-hold after inhalation (29% and 25%), and not shaking the MDI prior to use (21%). Individuals ≥ 60 years of age more often made such errors. Among the demonstrations of the use of MDIs and DPIs, at least one error was made in 72% and 51%, respectively. Overall, there were errors made in all steps in 11% of the demonstrations, whereas there were no errors made in 13%.Among the individuals who made at least one error, the proportion of those with a low level of education was significantly greater than was that of those with a higher level of education, for MDIs (85% vs. 60%; p = 0.018) and for DPIs (81% vs. 35%; p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample, the most common errors in the use of inhalers were not exhaling prior to inhalation, not performing a breath-hold after inhalation, and not shaking the MDI prior to use. Special attention should be given to education regarding inhaler techniques for patients of lower socioeconomic status and with less formal education, as well as for those of advanced age, because those populations are at a greater risk of committing errors in their use of inhalers. PMID:25410839
Urach Monteiro, Danieli; de Azevedo, Maria Isabel; Weiblen, Carla; Correia Ribeiro, Tatiana; Emmanouilidis, Jéssica; Tonin, Alexandre Alberto; de Avila Botton, Sônia; de la Rue, Mário Luiz
Echinococcosis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic infection that affects humans and animals. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the fertile hydatid cysts from bovine viscera in order to verify different species and/or genotypes present in Southern Brazil. Firstly, cysts were collected from a slaughterhouse, which received animals from different regions of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS), considered an important area of occurrence of cystic echinococcosis. In total, 2396 cysts were analyzed by microscopy to verify the presence of protoscoleces. Protoscoleces were detected in 291 samples and were classified as fertile hydatid cysts. Total DNA was extracted from protoscoleces and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two hundred and fifty-one samples were identified by PCR and characterized as G5/G6/G7 genotypes, of which 40 belonged to Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3). PCR was also performed, using G5-specific primers to identify 250 samples as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5). Only one sample was identified as Echinococcus canadensis (G7) by DNA sequencing using primers specific for the coxI gene. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed and identified three distinct groups E1 (G5), E2 (G7), and E3 (G1-G3), which were grouped according to similarity of their sequences. The study highlights the fact that E. granulosus sensu stricto, E. ortleppi, and E. canadensis (G7) were infecting cattle in RS, emphasizing the adaptation of different species of Echinococcus to this intermediate host.
Paiva, Michelle Helena Pereira de; Pegorari, Maycon Sousa; Nascimento, Janaína Santos; Santos, Álvaro da Silva
This study sought to establish the socioeconomic and health factors associated with quality of life among the elderly in the community. An analytical study with a cross-sectional and quantitative approach was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with 3430 senior citizens in 24 municipalities in the Southern Triangle Macro-region of the State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. A structured questionnaire was used for socioeconomic and health variables, as well as the Katz scale, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment for Older Adults (WHOQOL-OLD). Descriptive, bivariate statistical analysis was performed and a multiple linear regression model (p < 0.05) was created. Lower quality of life (QoL) scores were found in the environment and autonomy domains associated with advanced age, lack of schooling and income, a negative perception of health and functional disability. The salient key factor was negative health perception. The conclusion drawn was that socioeconomic and health factors were associated with the quality of life of the elderly, highlighting the lowest scores in the environmental domain and from the aspect of autonomy, a key influencing factor being negative health perception.
The orchid-bee faunas of 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', 'Parque Nacional do Descobrimento' and three other Atlantic Forest remnants ranging from 1 to 300 ha in southern Bahia, eastern Brazil, were surveyed. Baits with seventeen different scents were used to attract orchid-bee males. Four thousand seven hundred and sixty-four males belonging to 36 species were actively collected with insect nets during 300 hours from November, 2008 to November, 2009. Richness and diversity of orchid bees found in this study are the highest ever recorded in the Atlantic Forest domain. Eufriesea dentilabris (Mocsáry, 1897) and Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard, 1840) were collected at the 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal', the first record of these species for the state of Bahia and the northernmost record for both species. Females Exaerete dentata (Linnaeus, 1758) were also collected at 'Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal' and old records of Eufriesea aeneiventris (Mocsáry, 1896) in this area makes this site the richest and most diverse concerning its orchid-bee fauna in the entire Atlantic Forest and similar to areas in the Amazon Basin.
Beltrame, L M; Sell, A M; Moliterno, R A; Clementino, S L; Cardozo, D M; Dalalio, M M; Fonzar, U J; Visentainer, J E
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) form a group of regulatory molecules that specifically recognise human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, modulating the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of KIR genes and their class I HLA ligands in susceptibility to dengue fever in a population from southern Brazil through a case-control study. One hundred four subjects with confirmed diagnoses of dengue participated in this study, along with a control group of 172 individuals from the same geographic area. HLA and KIR genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSOP) and with sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) techniques, respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences for the KIR2DS1 (54.8% vs 40.7%, P = 0.03), KIR2DS5 (50.0% vs 36.0%, P = 0.03) and KIR2DL5 (76.0% vs 56.4%, P = 0.001) genes. With regard to KIR-ligand pairs, positive associations with dengue were observed in KIR3DS1-Bw4 (45.2% vs 29.7%, P = 0.01), KIR3DL1-Bw4 (80.7% vs 65.1%, P < 0.001), KIR2DL1-C2 (75.0% vs 62.2%, P = 0.03) and KIR2DS1-C2 (40.4% vs 25.6%, P = 0.01) interactions, and a negative association in KIR2DL3-C1/C1 (18.2% vs 33.1%, P = 0.01). Furthermore, the analysis of KIR haplogroups showed a possible protective factor against dengue fever in individuals with the AA genotype. Taken together, these results suggest the existence of genetic predisposition to dengue fever in the population from southern Brazil.
Scheer, Maurício B.; Pereira, Nuno Veríssimo; Behling, Hermann; Curcio, Gustavo R.; Roderjan, Carlos V.
Biodiversity loss, climate change, and increased freshwater consumption are some of the main environmental problems on Earth. Mountain ecosystems can reduce these threats by providing several positive influences, such as the maintenance of biodiversity, water regulation, and carbon storage, amongst others. The knowledge of the history of these environments and their response to climate change is very important for management, conservation, and environmental monitoring programs. The genesis of the soil organic matter of the current upper montane vegetation remains unclear and seems to be quite variable depending on location. Some upper montane sites in the very extensive coastal Sea Mountain Range present considerable organic matter from the late Pleistocene and other from only the Holocene. Our study was carried out on three soil profiles (two cores in grassland and one in forest) on the Caratuva Peak of the Serra do Ibitiraquire (a sub-range of Sea Mountain Range - Serra do Mar) in Southern Brazil. The δ13C isotopic analyses of organic matter in soil horizons were conducted to detect whether C3 or C4 plants dominated the past communities. Complementarily, we performed a pollen analysis and 14C dating of the humin fraction to obtain the age of the studied horizons. Except for a short and probably drier period (between 6000 and 4500 cal yr BP), C3 plants, including ombrophilous grasses and trees, have dominated the highlands of the Caratuva Peak (Pico Caratuva), as well as the other uppermost summits of the Serra do Ibitiraquire, since around 9000 cal yr BP. The Caratuva region represents a landscape of high altitude grasslands (campos de altitude altomontanos or campos altomontanos) and upper montane rain/cloud forests with soils that most likely contain some organic matter from the late Pleistocene, as has been reported in Southern and Southeastern Brazil for other sites. However, our results indicate that the studied deposits (near the summit) are from the early
Background People influence their environments through the manipulation of landscapes and species. Human influence on the landscape may lead to the development of differentiated landscape units that originate from past use and may be related to the presence of certain species. This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil. The objectives of this study were to characterize the use of the species, to identify the importance of E.edulis for the German immigrant community, to identify past and current uses of E.edulis, to describe the historical use of the landscape, and lastly, to identify landscape units in which E.edulis is found. Methods The researched community is composed of people of German descent residing in southern Brazil. A variety of research tools were used to achieve the objectives of the research. Semi-structured interviews and free-listings were conducted in all family units. The interviews focused on groups of people in the community who had current or historical connection with the species. Group workshops and guided tours were conducted to identify different landscape units. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, use-value index, citation frequency, salience index, and informant perception analysis. Results Over the historical period studied, the community demonstrated changes with respect to economic activities. These changes are reflected in the transformation of the landscape. The species E.edulis was and still is very important for people in the community; its importance is reflected in its high use value, citation frequency and salience. The species is found within various landscape units in the community as well as in homegardens and in secondary forests. Conclusions The landscape heterogeneity of this community is influenced by changes in economic activities and by the relationship
Race Relations Information Center, Nashville, TN.
Little has been compiled relating to research on the 300 Southern, rural majority-black public school districts. The question of how to desegregate these districts has been as difficult to answer as it has been in the big cities. For several years the Federal government has applied a different set of standards for desegregation compliance, but now…
Sobrinho, Paulo de Souza Costa; Destro, Maria T.; Franco, Bernadette D. G. M.; Landgraf, Mariza
The presence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in 123 oyster samples collected from an estuary on the southern coast of Sao Paulo state, Brazil, was investigated. Of the 123 samples, 99.2% were positive with densities ranging from <3 to 105 most probable number (MPN)/g. Densities correlated significantly with water temperature (r = 0.48; P < 0.001) but not with salinity (r = −0.09; P = 0.34). The effect of harvest site on counts was not significant (P > 0.05). These data provide information for the assessment of exposure of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters at harvest. PMID:20023076
Silveira, Erika Aparecida da; Araújo, Cora Luíza; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Aluisio J D; Lima, Maurício Silva de
This study evaluated the accuracy of body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported weight and height for predicting adult nutritional status. In a cross-sectional study of 3,934 adults (> 20 years) in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, a sub-sample of 140 individuals was drawn and weight and height were measured. From the comparison between "measured" and "reported" BMI, the average reported BMI error was estimated and the associated factors were identified. Regardless of nutritional status, women underestimated their "reported" BMI, while in men this information was accurate. Among women, age and income were associated with underestimated BMI in a multivariate analysis. Thus, women over 50 and with lower income underestimated BMI by more than 2 kg/m2. The use of "reported" BMI to predict adult nutritional status can underestimate prevalence of obesity and overestimate that of overweight in women. Correction minimizes this kind of bias, thereby making the data more accurate.
Eichler, Patricia P B; Eichler, Beatriz B; Gupta, Barun Sen; Rodrigues, André Rösch
Analyses of living foraminiferal and environmental parameters near an outfall at Mar Grosso Beach (Laguna, SC, Brazil) demonstrate its usefulness as indicators of domestic sewage pollution. The low species diversity may be due to sand accumulation in the central part. Higher diversity was noted closer to the mouth of Laguna estuarine system where reduced salinity and higher temperatures indicate freshwater influence, suggesting a relationship between increased diversity and greater availability of terrestrial food. On the basis of foraminiferal diversity and average coliform count the higher values are closer to the mouth of the estuarine system and under the influence of the outfall. Due to the effect of local hydrodynamics, the particulate organic waste derived from the outfall does not settle down locally, and thus, do not accumulate nearby. Our hypothesis is that the fine material derived from the outfall is accumulating on the southwestern and northwestern parts of the beach.
Silva, C A; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A; Katsumiti, A; Araújo, M L P; Zandoná, E M; Costa Silva, G P; Maschio, J; Roche, H; Silva de Assis, H C
Fish (Astyanax sp.) were exposed to water samples from the Arroio Saldanha, locality of an oil spill, and the Barigui River (upstream and downstream of the confluence of the river and Arroio Saldanha), Brazil. Histopathological and biochemical biomarkers, as acetylcholinesterase (AchE), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and amounts of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon residues (PAHs) in bile were evaluated. PAHs, metals, and surfactants were investigated in the water samples. CAT and GST activities increased in the Arroio Saldanha sample, whereas CAT activity and LPO levels were increased in the upstream and downstream sites. The results suggested a toxic action of the free radicals and disturbance of the antioxidant defense mechanisms. However, the EROD and AchE activities were not affected. Histopathology studies showed severe lesions. The oil is still bioavailable to biota, moreover, other pollution sources continue to affect the water in the Barigui River.
De Oliveira, Verônica Maria; Eibye-Jacobsen, Danny; Lana, Paulo Da Cunha
We describe three new species of Eumida from shallow estuarine and shelf bottoms from south and southeastern Brazil as part of a regional survey of the family Phyllodocidae. Previous regional records of Eumida sanguinea (Örsted, 1843) are herein referred to Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The two species differ in the size of the prostomium, the distribution of micropapillae on the proboscis, and the shape of the dorsal cirri. Eumida macrophthalma sp. nov. has much larger eyes than the other two species described herein. The dorsal cirri on anterior median segments are rounded and on median and posterior segments they are asymmetrical and cordiform, longer than the dorsal cirri in Eumida dracodermica sp. nov. The lanceolate median dorsal cirri in Eumida delicata sp. nov. are only shared with E. ockelmanni Eibye-Jacobsen, 1987. It is also possible to diagnose the three species by their dorsal whitish pigmentation patterns on the first segments of living or well conserved animals.
Campbell, Dottie C.
This study examined the type of collaboration occurring among child care, Head Start, and prekindergarten programs in eight southern states.The telephone survey was follow-up to a written survey of child care administrators in 15 southern states and the District of Columbia. Participating in the telephone survey were seven child care…
Morrier, Michael J.; Gallagher, Peggy A.
Special education placements for more than 69,000 preschoolers with disabilities were examined within and across five southern states. Data were gathered from the 2007 December 1st Child Count reported to the U.S. Department of Education. All states examined offered state-funded prekindergarten programs. Analyses compared disproportionate…
Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4–18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians. PMID:26488577
Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen
OBJECTIVE: Although the relationship between epidemiology and anthropology has a long history, it has generally been comprised of the integration of quantitative and qualitative methods. Only recently have the two fields begun to converge along theoretical lines, leading to a growing mutual interest in explaining rather than simply describing phenomena. This paper aimed to illustrate how ethnographic analyses can be used to assist with the in-depth and theoretically-imbued interpretation of epidemiological results. METHODS: The anthropological analysis presented in this paper used ethnographic data collected as part of the ongoing 1982 birth cohort study, between 1997 and 2007 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Analyses were framed according to the results presented in two of the epidemiological articles published in this series on the determinants of mental morbidity and age of sexual initiation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The ethnographic results show that statistical associations consist of multiple pathways of influence and causality that generally correspond to the unique experiences of specific subgroups. In exploring these pathways, the paper highlights the importance of an additional set of mediating factors that account for epidemiological results; these include the awareness and experience of inequities, the role of violence in everyday life, traumatic life events, increasing social isolation and emotional introversion as a response to life's difficulties, and differing approaches towards socio-psychological maturation. Theoretical and methodological collaboration between anthropology and epidemiology is important for public health, as it has positively modified both fields. PMID:19142353
Souza Mario Bueno, Larissa; Rosset, Clévia; Aguiar, Ernestina; Pereira, Fernando de Souza; Izetti Ribeiro, Patrícia; Scalco, Rosana; Matzenbacher Bittar, Camila; Brinckmann Oliveira Netto, Cristina; Gischkow Rucatti, Guilherme; Chies, José Artur; Camey, Suzi Alves; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) patients are more likely to have vitamin D deficiency when compared to the general population. This study aimed to determine the levels of 25-OH-vitamin D [25(OH)D] in individuals with NF1 and disease-unaffected controls and analyze FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms in a case and in a control group. Vitamin D levels were compared between a group of 45 NF1 patients from Southern Brazil and 45 healthy controls matched by sex, skin type, and age. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of VDR gene polymorphisms were obtained from the same NF1 patients and 150 healthy controls. 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency was not more frequent in NF1 patients than in controls (p = 0.074). We also did not observe an association between FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms and vitamin D levels in NF1 patients, suggesting that their deficient or insufficient biochemical phenotypes are not associated with these genetic variants. The differences between the groups in genotypic and allelic frequencies for FokI and BsmI VDR gene polymorphisms were small and did not reach statistical significance. These polymorphisms are in partial linkage disequilibrium and the haplotype frequencies also did not differ in a significant way between the two groups (p = 0.613). PMID:26161090
Aguiar, Lucas M; Mellek, Daniel M; Abreu, Kaue C; Boscarato, Tiago G; Bernardi, Itiberê P; Miranda, João M D; Passos, Fernando C
Records of sympatry between Alouatta caraya and A. clamitans are rare despite their extensive range overlap. An example of their current sympatry and the rediscovery of free-ranging potential hybrids of A. caraya and A. clamitans in the forests of the Upper Paraná River, Southern Brazil, are reported in this paper. Eight groups were observed in the study area: five monospecific groups of A. caraya, two of A. clamitans, and a group containing two adult males and two adult females of A. caraya and a sub-adult male and two adult females identified as Alouatta sp. The color of the last three individuals was a mosaic between the two species; this is consistent with previously described variations in museum specimens collected in the Paraná River in the 1940s that had been identified as potential hybrids. The results from this study emphasize the need for scientific studies in the region of the Ilha Grande National Park, one of the few regions in the Paraná River that currently harbors both howler species.
Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C
OBJECTIVE To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. METHODS Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson’s regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. RESULTS Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. CONCLUSIONS Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions. PMID:19142347
Silva, Natália Carolina de Almeida; Vidal, Rafael; Costa, Flaviane Malaquias; Vaio, Magdalena; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi
Records of the occurrence of wild relatives of maize in South American lowlands are unprecedented, especially in sympatric coexistence with landraces. This fact is relevant, because regions of occurrence of wild relatives of cultivated plants should be a priority for conservation, even if they do not correspond to the center of origin of the species. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the wild relatives of maize in the Far West of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Therefore, phenotypic characterization was performed for five populations, based on 22 morphological traits deemed as fundamental for classifying the species of the genus Zea, and validated through the characterization of chromosomal knobs of two populations. The occurrence and distribution of teosinte populations were described through semi-structured interviews applied to a sample of 305 farmers. A total of 136 teosinte populations were identified; 75% of them occur spontaneously, 17% are cultivated populations, and 8% occur both ways, for the same farm. Populations that were characterized morphologically had trapezoidal fruits mostly, upright tassel branch (4-18), non-prominent main branch and glabrous glumes, with two protruding outer ribs and 8 inner ribs, on average. Cytogenetic analysis identified 10 pairs of homologous chromosomes (2n = 20) with 26 knobs, located in the terminal region of all chromosomes. The similarity of these results with the information reported in the literature indicates that the five populations of wild relatives of maize in this region of Santa Catarina belong to the botanical species Zea luxurians.
Ribeiro, Juliane; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo
Worldwide diarrhea outbreaks in cattle herds are more frequently detected in calves being that diarrhea outbreaks in adult cattle are not common. Winter dysentery (WD) is a bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infection that is more reported in Northern hemisphere. Seasonal outbreaks of WD in adult cattle occur mainly in dairy cows. WD has not been described in beef cattle herds of tropical countries. This study describes the molecular detection of BCoV in a diarrhea outbreak in beef cattle steers (Nellore) raised on pasture in Parana, southern Brazil. During the outbreak, the farm had about 600 fattening steers. Watery and bloody diarrhea unresponsive to systemic broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy reveals a morbidity rate of approximately 15 %. The BCoV N gene was identified in 42.9 % (6/14) of the diarrheic fecal samples evaluated by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (SN-PCR) technique. Other enteric microorganisms occasionally identified in adult cattle and evaluated in this study such as bovine groups A, B, and C rotavirus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, bovine torovirus, aichivirus B, and Eimeria sp. were not identified in the fecal samples. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first description of the BCoV diagnosis in fecal samples collected in a diarrhea outbreak in adult beef cattle grazing in the grass in a tropical country.
da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Drescher, Guilherme; Maboni, Franciele; Weber, Shana; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Vainstein, Marilene Henning; Schrank, Irene Silveira; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna
The present study determined the molecular and resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from urinary tract of swine in Southern of Brazil. Molecular characterization of urinary vesicle samples was performed by PCR detection of virulence factors from ETEC, STEC and UPEC. From a total of 82 E. coli isolates, 34 (38.63%) harbored one or more virulence factors. The frequency of virulence factors genes detected by PCR were: pap (10.97%), hlyA (10.97%), iha (9.75%), lt (8.53%), sta (7.31%) sfa (6.09%), f4 (4.87%), f5 (4.87%), stb (4.87%), f6 (1.21%) and f41 (1.21%). Isolates were resistant to penicillin (95.12%), lincomycin (93.9%), erythromycin (92.68%), tetracycline (90.24%), amoxicillin (82.92%), ampicillin (74.39%), josamycin (79.26%), norfloxacin (58.53%), enrofloxacin (57.31%), gentamicin (39.02%), neomycin (37.8%), apramycin (30.48%), colistine (30.48%) and cefalexin (6.09%). A number of 32 (39.02%) E. coli isolates harbored plasmids. PMID:24031300
Maraschin, Marcelo; Somensi-Zeggio, Amélia; Oliveira, Simone K; Kuhnen, Shirley; Tomazzoli, Maíra M; Raguzzoni, Josiane C; Zeri, Ana C M; Carreira, Rafael; Correia, Sara; Costa, Christopher; Rocha, Miguel
The chemical composition of propolis is affected by environmental factors and harvest season, making it difficult to standardize its extracts for medicinal usage. By detecting a typical chemical profile associated with propolis from a specific production region or season, certain types of propolis may be used to obtain a specific pharmacological activity. In this study, propolis from three agroecological regions (plain, plateau, and highlands) from southern Brazil, collected over the four seasons of 2010, were investigated through a novel NMR-based metabolomics data analysis workflow. Chemometrics and machine learning algorithms (PLS-DA and RF), including methods to estimate variable importance in classification, were used in this study. The machine learning and feature selection methods permitted construction of models for propolis sample classification with high accuracy (>75%, reaching ∼90% in the best case), better discriminating samples regarding their collection seasons comparatively to the harvest regions. PLS-DA and RF allowed the identification of biomarkers for sample discrimination, expanding the set of discriminating features and adding relevant information for the identification of the class-determining metabolites. The NMR-based metabolomics analytical platform, coupled to bioinformatic tools, allowed characterization and classification of Brazilian propolis samples regarding the metabolite signature of important compounds, i.e., chemical fingerprint, harvest seasons, and production regions.
Dalla Vecchia, Andréia; Rigotto, Caroline; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Soliman, Mayra Cristina; Gil de Souza, Fernanda; Henzel, Andreia; Santos, Eliane Lemos; do Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; de Quevedo, Daniela Muller; Fleck, Juliane Deise; Heinzelmann, Larissa Schemes; de Matos Almeida, Sabrina Esteves; Spilki, Fernando Rosado
Around the world, enteric viruses are often found in surface waters. This study set out to evaluate the occurrence of adenoviruses (AdVs) in water samples, and its relation to different physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters [total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC), represented by Escherichia coli]. Monthly samples of 500 ml of raw water were collected from May 2011 to June 2013 in eight abstraction points water treatment stations along three stretches of the Sinos River Basin (SRB), in Southern Brazil and, subsequently, were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). AdVs from different species, from human (HAdV), and from other animals (CAV1-2, BAdV, PAdV, and AvAdV) were detected along the three stretches of the basin, indicating fecal contamination from different sources and proving the inefficiency of the wastewater treatment in the waters of the SRB and intensifying the strong influence of human activities that can contribute to the presence of inhibitory substances such as organic acids in surface of these waters. Statistical analyses revealed no significant correlations between the concentrations of TC and FC and the concentrations of AdVs. We observed a small, nonconstant, and unstable correlation between viruses and physicochemical parameters. These correlations were not sufficiently consistent to establish a reliable association; therefore, this study corroborates that only the viral assay itself is reliable for the diagnosis of fecal contamination by viruses in environmental samples.
Santos, Maria Josefa; Tarley, César Ricardo Teixeira; Cunha, Isabella; Zapelini, Iago; Galunin, Evgeny; Bleinroth, Diego; Vieira, Isadora; Abrão, Taufik
Leachability of major and trace elements from sediment and soil samples of an abandoned coal mining area in southern Brazil was assessed by titration and pH-stat tests according to the SR002.1 and CEN/TS 14429 protocols. Major (Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Mn) and trace (Cu, Zn, As, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Hg) elements were quantified in aqueous extracts. Acid and base neutralizing capacity values and pH changes after the addition of certain acid/base amounts were estimated. In general, a decrease in the major metal leaching at pH < 4.0 and an increase at pH > 8.0 was observed. The response to the acid and base additions confirmed that strong acids can cause an effect on Ca- and Mg-bearing silicate phases and Mn oxides, and strong bases can only affect Ca silicates. At pH < 5.0, higher extractability was found for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd. Considering that the samples showed sharp pH changes after acid additions and released major and trace metal into the solution at greater rates, high metal contamination risks can be assumed for the studied area.
da Silva, Joseane Balan; Piva, Camila; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Rossoni, Diogo Francisco; de Ornelas Toledo, Max Jean
The prevalence and distribution of soil and water samples contaminated with enteroparasites of humans and animals with zoonotic potential (EHAZP) in Apucaraninha Indigenous Land (AIL), southern Brazil, was evaluated. An environmental survey was conducted to evaluate the presence of parasitic forms in peridomiciliary soil and associated variables. Soil samples were collected from 40/293 domiciles (10 domiciles per season), from November 2010 to June 2011, and evaluated by modified methods of Faust et al. and Lutz. Analyses of water from seven consumption sites were also performed. The overall prevalence of soil samples contaminated by EHAZP was 23.8 %. The most prevalent parasitic forms were cyst of Entamoeba spp. and eggs of Ascaris spp. The highest prevalence of contaminated soil samples was observed in winter (31 %). The probability map obtained with geostatistical analyses showed an average of 47 % soil contamination at a distance of approximately 140 m. The parasitological analysis of water did not detect Giardia spp. or Cryptosporidium spp. and showed that all collection points were within the standards of the Brazilian law. However, the microbiological analysis showed the presence of Escherichia coli in 6/7 sampled points. Despite the low level of contamination by EHAZP in peridomiciliar soil and the absence of pathogenic protozoa in water, the AIL soil and water (due to the presence of fecal coliforms) are potential sources of infection for the population, indicating the need for improvements in sanitation and water treatment, in addition periodic treatment of the population with antiparasitic.
Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Bandinelli, Eliane; Santos, Pollyanna Almeida Dos; Schüler-Faccini, Lavínia
This study aimed to investigate the role of maternal polymorphisms, as well as their risk genotypes combinations of MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, CBS 844ins68, and RFC A80G, involved in folate/homocysteine metabolism, as possible risk factors for Down syndrome (DS) in Southern Brazil. A case-control study was conducted with 239~mothers of DS children and 197 control mothers. The investigation of polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP. The distribution of genotypic variants was similar in both groups when they were analyzed separately. An investigation of combined risk genotypes showed that the risk of having a DS child for one, two or three risk genotypes was 6.23, 6.96 and 5.84 (95%CI 1.48–26.26; 1.69–28.66; 1.37–24.86), respectively. The combined MTRR 66G and MTHFR 677T alleles were significantly more common among mothers of children with DS than among control mothers (OR 1.55; IC 95% 1.03–2.35). The results show that individual polymorphisms studied in this work are not associated with DS; however, the effects of the combined risk genotypes among MTR, MTRR, CBS and RFC genes are considered maternal risk factors for DS offspring in our population. PMID:21045269
Pereira, Camila V; Tovo, Cristiane Valle; Grossmann, Thiago K; Mirenda, Henrique; Dal-Pupo, Bruna B; de Almeida, Paulo RL; de Mattos, Angelo A
There are about 350 million hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide and chronic HBV is considered a major public health problem. The objective of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of the nucleos(t)ide analogues tenofovir (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) in the treatment of chronic HBV. A cross-sectional study was carried out from March-December 2013, including all patients with chronic HBV, over 18 years of age, undergoing therapy through the public health system in southern Brazil. Only the data relating to the first treatments performed with TDF or ETV were considered. Retreatment, co-infection, transplanted or immunosuppressed patients were excluded. Six hundred and forty patients were evaluated, of which 336 (52.5%) received TDF and 165 (25.8%) ETV. The other 139 (21.7%) used various combinations of nucleos(t)ide analogues and were excluded. The negativation of viral load was observed in 87.3% and 78.8% and the negativation of hepatitis B e antigen was achieved in 79% and 72% of those treated with ETV or TDF, respectively. Negativation of hepatitis B surface antigen was not observed. There was no occurrence of adverse effects. This is a real-life study demonstrating that long-term treatment with ETV and TDF is both safe and effective. PMID:27074254
Beheregaray, Luciano B; Sunnucks, Paul; Briscoe, David A
Coastal freshwater fishes provide valuable models for studying the role of the last glaciations in promoting speciation. To date, the great majority of studies are of Northern Hemisphere taxa, and reflect the influence of vicariant events during, or prior to, the Pleistocene. Microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA sequences were used to investigate patterns of population divergence and evolutionary relationships in a freshwater group of silverside fishes (Odontesthes perugiae complex), endemic to the recently formed coastal plain of southern Brazil. Lacustrine morphotypes showed concordant patterns of genetic and morphological divergence consistent with the geographical history of the coastal plain. The results support the proposal of a silverside radiation chronologically shaped by the sea-level changes of the Pleistocene and Holocene. The radiating lineage comprises a minimum of three allopatric and two sympatric lacustrine species. Four species displayed extremely high levels of genetic variation and some of the most rapid speciation rates reported in fishes. These features were related to a marine-estuarine origin of the radiation. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first molecular phylogeographic survey of a coastal radiation in South America. PMID:11788038
Cavalheiro, Charles Henrique; Abegg, Claides; Fontanive, Victor Nascimento; Davoglio, Rosane Silvia
This study aimed at assessing the relationship between dental pain and the reason for using dental services and oral health quality of life in people aged 50 to 74 years in southern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted with 720 individuals aged 50 to 74 years, living in three health districts in the city of Porto Alegre. Dental impacts on daily life and sociodemographic data were assessed using structured interviews. The Oral Impacts on Daily Performance - OIDP instrument was used to measure oral impacts. The information was analyzed by Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment, taking into account cluster sampling. Dental pain was present in 32.5% of those reporting an oral impact on their daily activities. Dental pain most frequently affected talking (37.6%), cleaning teeth and gums (37.0%) and enjoying the companionship of people (36.5%). After adjustments to the multivariate analysis, the reason for dental visits due to dental pain was found to have a high impact on daily activities [RP 1.68 (1.11 - 2.54].
Radaeski, Jefferson N.; Bauermann, Soraia G.; Pereira, Antonio B.
This aim of this study was to distinguish grasslands from forests in southern Brazil by analyzing Poaceae pollen grains. Through light microscopy analysis, we measured the size of the pollen grain, pore, and annulus from 68 species of Rio Grande do Sul. Measurements were recorded of 10 forest species and 58 grassland species, representing all tribes of the Poaceae in Rio Grande do Sul. We measured the polar, equatorial, pore, and annulus diameter. Results of statistical tests showed that arboreous forest species have larger pollen grain sizes than grassland and herbaceous forest species, and in particular there are strongly significant differences between arboreous and grassland species. Discriminant analysis identified three distinct groups representing each vegetation type. Through the pollen measurements we established three pollen types: larger grains (>46 μm), from the Bambuseae pollen type, medium-sized grains (46–22 μm), from herbaceous pollen type, and small grains (<22 μm), from grassland pollen type. The results of our compiled Poaceae pollen dataset may be applied to the fossil pollen of Quaternary sediments. PMID:27999585
Poleto, Cristiano; Merten, Gustavo H; Minella, Jean P
Soil particles eroded from the land surface and transported into rivers by runoff are considered one of the main components of non-point source pollution in urban watersheds. These particles also serve as a vector for a wide variety of both organic and inorganic constituents. As a result, the identification of sediment sources in an urban watershed is necessary not only to understand erosion dynamics, but also to help implement more effective measures to control and/or remediate non-point source pollution. The present study employs sediment 'fingerprinting' to determine the main sediment sources in a small residential urban watershed (0.83 km2) on the outskirts of Porto Alegre in southern Brazil. Based on an evaluation spanning 12 rainfall events, the results show that paved and unpaved roads and the stream channel itself contribute, on average, 46%, 23%, and 31%, respectively, to the suspended sediment flux in the watershed. Furthermore, the source contributions varied both between events and over the course of a single event. This appears to imply that source contributions, at least to some extent, depend on local precipitation patterns. The results from this study indicate that the level of uncertainty in source ascription tends to decline with increasing numbers of tracers; hence, successful sediment fingerprinting and source ascription in complex hydrologic environments, such as urban watersheds, may require the use of a large number of chemical and/or physical tracers.
Gonçalves, Helen; Béhague, Dominique P; Gigante, Denise P; Minten, Gicele C; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C
OBJECTIVE To analyze social determinants of early sexual initiation among young adults from a birth cohort. METHODS Individuals from the 1982 birth cohort (N=4,297) were interviewed in 2004-5, city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Early sexual initiation (≤13 years of age) was the outcome. Descriptive and stratified analyses were performed according to sex. Variables analyzed were family income in 1982, ethnicity, young adult’s level of education and change in income (between 1982 and 2004-5). Ethnographic data were used to complement result analysis. RESULTS Prevalence of early sexual initiation was higher among black and mixed men, and those with low level of education and low family income in 1982 and 2004-5. More traditional male sexual role requirements, such as virility and sexual initiative, showed more repercussion and adherence from an early age among men. Young family women with higher income and level of education tended to delay their sexual initiation. Imposition of traditional values was found to influence early sexual initiation among men and women with lower level of education and income. CONCLUSIONS Results found re-established the economic factor as a determinant of behavior or uses of sexuality for both sexes. To focus on political efforts that help the economically disadvantaged to have opportunities and egalitarian future perspectives is an important strategy for health outcomes. PMID:19142343
Dias, Jose Augusto; Lynch, Patrick D.
Both Brazil's and the United States's educational policies are influenced by centralization of administration and formal objectives mandated by law. Arising from a long division in Brazilian life between government and people, public schools have been seen to be the concern of the government, which has preserved the antiquated division of…
Southern Education Foundation, Atlanta, GA.
This set of four publications examines contemporary power relations between persons of European and African descent in Brazil, South Africa, and the United States. Using a comparative and multidisciplinary approach, these publications focus on three democracies with large multiracial and multiethnic populations. "Overview Report," which…
The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in turkeys and chickens on family farms in the semi-arid region of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. In order to do so, 204 sera samples from turkeys were analyzed using the Modified Agglutination T...
Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...
The city of Belo Horizante, State of Minas Gerais, (20.0S, 44.0W) is a relatively new community in southeastern Brazil. It lies about 225 miles north of Rio de Janeiro and occupies an area of rolling and hilly terrain. The economy is based on a mixture of agriculture, cattle grazing, mining and manufacturing.
Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis
The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474
de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M
Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.
Russo, I C
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the field of clinical and rehabilitative audiology for children and adults in Brazil, while simultaneously offering some data and results from several different research studies within the country. The theme will address seven main topics: (1) the status of services and assistance for the hearing impaired; (2) the results of five different institutional research studies showing the main causes of hearing impairment in children in the city of Săo Paulo; (3) a review of subjective and objective methods for early diagnosis and audiological habilitation of children, including parent counseling, hearing aids, and cochlear implants; (4) a discussion of hearing conservation in different settings; (5) a brief consideration of audiological rehabilitation for hearing-impaired elderly adults in the country; (6) the main results of the First and Second Brazilian National Campaigns of Deafness Prevention; and (7) conclusions.
Gomes, Sâmara Nunes; Pesenti, Tatiana Cheuiche; Cirne, Maximiano Pinheiro; Müller, Gertrud
During April and September from 2010 to 2012, 80 birds of the species Calidris fuscicollis (white-rumped sandpiper) were collected for parasitological studies in the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, under ICMBIO license No. 26234-1. For ectoparasite collection, the birds were first submerged in water with detergent. The parasites found were fixed in 70% alcohol, cleared in 10% potassium hydroxide and mounted in Canada balsam. Of 80 birds examined, 79% were parasitized. Actornithophilus umbrinus (47.5%), Actornithophilus lacustris (37.5%), Actornithophilus spp. (13.75%), Carduiceps zonarius (26.25%), Lunaceps incoenis (27.5%), and Lunaceps spp. (16.25%) were the species found with their respective prevalence. We record for the first time parasitism by chewing lice in Calidris fuscicollis.
Moresco, V; Viancelli, A; Nascimento, M A; Souza, D S M; Ramos, A P D; Garcia, L A T; Simões, C M O; Barardi, C R M
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of sewage discharge on coastal waters by evaluating the influence of physicochemical parameters on the presence of enteric microorganisms in seawater samples collected from 11 beaches in Florianopolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, over a one-year period (August 2009 to July 2010). Samples were assessed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV), polyomavirus (JCPyV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), and noroviruses (HuNoV GI and GII). Escherichia coli and physicochemical parameters (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were also evaluated. From the 132 samples analyzed, 55% were positive for HAdV, 51.5% for HAV, 7.5% for HuNoV GI, 4.5% for HuNoV GII, and 3% for JCPyV. E. coli levels ranged from 8 to 1325 CFU/100mL at all sites. The overall results highlight the problem of sewage discharge into coastal waters and confirm that there is no correlation between viral presence and bacterial contamination.
dos Santos, Marcio Neres; Marques, Alexandre Carriconde
Various health complications have been identified among teachers and there is little information available about their lifestyle habits. The scope of this study was to investigate health conditions, lifestyles and occupational characteristics of municipal teachers in Bagé in the south of Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving 414 teachers was conducted by asking the teachers to fill out a standardized questionnaire. Descriptive and bivariate analysis techniques were employed. Most teachers were females (96.1%) and the mean age was 40.1 years (SD 9.4). Average teaching experience was 12.4 years (SD 9.5); 59% of the teachers had a degree; they taught many working hours per week (31.7 hours, SD 10.5) and 62% were absent from work at least once in the last 12 months. Self-rated heath was good (38.5%); 62.5% of them were physically active; 32.3% were overweight and 14.4% obese. They consumed hardly any fruit and vegetables (79.6%), had average stress levels of 14.9 points (SD 6.6) and 20.3% reported hypertension. Self-reported health was associated with teaching time, absenteeism, physical activity, number of meals per day, stress levels and hypertension. The prevalence of teachers who rated their health negatively was low, however several lifestyle issues were identified, which can be prejudicial to the health of these individuals.
Fabres, Laura Fuhrich; Rosa Dos Santos, Sayonara Peixoto; Benitez, Lisianne Brittes; Rott, Marilise Brittes
Free-living amoebae (FLA) are widely distributed in soil and water. A few number of them are implicated in human disease: Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris and Sappinia diploidea. Species of Acanthamoeba can cause keratitis and brain infections. In this study, 72 water samples were taken from both hot tubs and thermal swimming pools in the city of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba in the water as well as perform the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of the isolates. The identification of the isolates was based on the cysts morphology and PCR amplification using genus-specific oligonucleotides. When the isolates were submitted to PCR reaction only 8 were confirmed as belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba. The sequences analysis when compared to the sequences in the GenBank, showed genotype distribution in group T3 (12,5%), T5 (12,5%), T4 (25%) and T15 (50%). The results of this study confirmed the presence of potentially pathogenic isolates of free living amoebae in hot swimming pool and spas which can present risks to human health.
Amaral, D T; Arnoldi, F G C; Rosa, S P; Viviani, V R
Bioluminescence in beetles is found mainly in the Elateroidea superfamily (Elateridae, Lampyridae and Phengodidae). The Neotropical region accounts for the richest diversity of bioluminescent species in the world with about 500 described species, most occurring in the Amazon, Atlantic rainforest and Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems in Brazil. The origin and evolution of bioluminescence, as well as the taxonomic status of several Neotropical taxa in these families remains unclear. In order to contribute to a better understanding of the phylogeny and evolution of bioluminescent Elateroidea we sequenced and analyzed sequences of mitochondrial NADH2 and the nuclear 28S genes and of the cloned luciferase sequences of Brazilian species belonging to the following genera: (Lampyridae) Macrolampis, Photuris, Amydetes, Bicellonycha, Aspisoma, Lucidota, Cratomorphus; (Elateridae) Conoderus, Pyrophorus, Hapsodrilus, Pyrearinus, Fulgeochlizus; and (Phengodidae) Pseudophengodes, Phrixothrix, Euryopa and Brasilocerus. Our study supports a closer phylogenetic relationship between Elateridae and Phengodidae as other molecular studies, in contrast with previous morphologic and molecular studies that clustered Lampyridae/Phengodidae. Molecular data also supported division of the Phengodinae subfamily into the tribes Phengodini and Mastinocerini. The position of the genus Amydetes supports the status of the Amydetinae as a subfamily. The genus Euryopa is included in the Mastinocerini tribe within the Phengodinae/Phengodidae.
Scheer, Simone; Macedo, Márcia Raquel Pegoraro; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Schramm, Camila Costa; Muller, Gertrud
Species of Hystrichis are parasite nematodes of the digestive tract of aquatic birds in South America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, Hystrichis acanthocephalicus has been reported in Phimosus infuscatus. There are few data on the morphometry of this species and there are no reports on pathological conditions that it causes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report morphometric data from H. acanthocephalicus and describe the pathological effects of this parasite on the Phimosus infuscatus proventriculus. Thirty gastrointestinal tracts of P. infuscatus were examined to search for nematodes and H. acanthocephalicus occurred in 83% of hosts. Were measured the total length and body width of males and females, and of their respective cuticular spines, esophagus, spicules and eggs, and the internal and external diameter of copulatory bursa. Histopathological examination revealed parasitic structures in the proventriculus from the lumen (anterior end) to the outer layers of the organ (intermediate and posterior parts), in which we observed inflammatory reaction with infiltration of heterophils, hemorrhage and hemosiderin. The results of this study of histopathology, morphometry and parasitological indices are the first ones reported to H. acanthocephalicus and should contribute to the identification and recognition in cases of outbreaks in the Neotropical region.
De Oliveira Leite, J.
Two experimental plots for hydrologic studies, 3595 and 7060 m 2, were delimited on a slope of Alfisol planted with cacao in Bahia, Brazil. Volumes of overland flow and interflow were measured daily and samples of collected water were taken monthly for analysis of Ca, Mg, Na, K, N, P and Fe. The highest overland-flow volumes represented 24% and the highest interflow 53% of the rainfall but on the average the volumes of overland flow and interflow were found to represent 1 and 14% of the annual rainfall. The percentage of interflow increases with increasing rainfall. In winter, it is higher than in summer, except during the highest rains observed. The mean annual loss for calcium was 85.8 kg ha -1 yr -1; for magnesium 18.2; potassium 17.0; sodium 23.5; nitrogen 22.1; iron 5.5 and phosphorus 0.9. In relative terms, considering the chemical components of the soils, the K losses are highest, indicating that this element is most leachable. The interflow volumes and the amounts of Na, K, N and P correlated at the 1% significance level in both plots. A general conclusion is that the leaching of nutrients varied with the intensity of the interflow, especially for Na, K, N and P, the leaching of nutrients through overland flow being of less importance.
Fodor, R.V.; McKee, E.H.; Roisenberg, A.
We evaluated 193 K-Ar ages (10 newly determined) of basaltic and differentiated rocks of the Serra Geral (Paraná) flood-basalt province for indications of magmatism occurring systematically with progressive rifting and complete separation ( ≈130-105 Ma) of South America from Africa. The K-Ar ages represent basalt emplacement between 35° and 19°S covering about 1,200,000 km2. We note that volcanism appears ubiquitous across the province between about 140 and 115 Ma, and that there are no significant age differences within that relate directly to progressive south-to-north tectonism. On the other hand, the oldest samples, about 140–160 Ma, are among those nearest the Brazil coastline (rift margin), perhaps suggesting migration of activity away from the rift with time. Studies of other flood-basalt provinces now indicate short (<3 m.y.) eruption periods, thereby pointing to the need for re-examination of Serra Geral ages by 40Ar-39Ar incremental heating techniques.
CARDOSO, Juliana Andrade; SPANEMBERG, Juliana Cassol; CHERUBINI, Karen; de FIGUEIREDO, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; SALUM, Fernanda Gonçalves
Granuloma gravidarum (GG) is an inflammatory lesion, which develops in the oral mucosa of pregnant women in response to chronic low-grade irritants, under the influence of hormonal factors. Objective: To characterize GG clinically by means of a retrospective study of the cases of the Oral Medicine Division, São Lucas Hospital, Brazil. Material and Methods: Cases of GG diagnosed between 1980 and 2012 were analyzed. Data were obtained referring to the age of the patients, lesion location, clinical features, as well as the presence of local irritants. The gestation period in which the lesion developed was also investigated. Results: Forty-one cases of GG were found. The lesions developed predominantly in the third trimester of pregnancy (51.22%) and the mean age of the patients was 28 years. Most GG was found in the gingiva (73.17%), was reddish color and had a mean diameter of 1.5 cm. Local irritants were involved in 75.6% of the cases. Conclusions: The hormonal conditions of pregnancy can have an impact on the oral cavity, predisposing the patient to inflammatory lesions such as GG. PMID:23857656
Raboni, Sonia Maria; Damasio, Guilherme Augusto Costa; Ferreira, Carla E O; Pereira, Luciane A; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Cruz, Cristina R; Almeida, Sergio M
Viral acute gastroenteritis (AG) is a significant cause of hospitalisation in children younger than five years. Group A rotavirus (RVA) is responsible for 30% of these cases. Following the introduction of RVA immunisation in Brazil in 2006, a decreased circulation of this virus has been observed. However, AG remains an important cause of hospitalisation of paediatric patients and only limited data are available regarding the role of other enteric viruses in these cases. We conducted a prospective study of paediatric patients hospitalised for AG. Stool samples were collected to investigate human adenovirus (HAdV), RVA, norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV). NoV typing was performed by nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. From the 225 samples tested, 60 (26%) were positive for at least one viral agent. HAdV, NoV, RVA and AstV were detected in 16%, 8%, 6% and 0% of the samples, respectively. Mixed infections were found in nine patients: HAdV/RVA (5), HAdV/NoV (3) and HAdV/NoV/RVA (1). The frequency of fever and lymphocytosis was significantly higher in virus-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of NoV indicated that all of these viruses belonged to genotype GII.4. The significant frequency of these pathogens in patients with AG highlights the need to routinely implement laboratory investigations.
AMBROZIO, Cíntia Lima; NAGEL, Andréia Saggin; JESKE, Sabrina; BRAGANÇA, Guilherme Cassão Marques; BORSUK, Sibele; VILLELA, Marcos Marreiro
SUMMARY Trichomonas vaginalis infections have been associated with other diseases so that epidemiological studies of the parasite are important and help to prevent the spread of the disease. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. vaginalis in female patients of 19 counties in southwestern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. For diagnosis, was used direct examination, followed by applying a socio-epidemiological questionnaire. We analyzed 300 women and 9% were infected by Trichomonas vaginalis. The highest frequency occurred in women between 18 and 39 years old, single/divorced/widowed, whose family income was at one minimum wage or less, and they had not completed the primary school. Statistically significant risk factors were: women reporting two or more sexual partners in the last year were 3.3 times more likely to acquire the parasite, and those in use of oral contraceptives were 2.7 times more likely to have T. vaginalis. Importantly, 33% of the asymptomatic women were infected, and most of the negative results were from women presenting symptoms consistent with the infection. The findings emphasize that it is necessary to expand the knowledge of individuals about the disease, especially among women with the above mentioned risk factors and also to include the regular screening of Trichomonas vaginalis infections in health centers. PMID:27680166
Ferreira, Alessandra E; Marchetti, Desirée P; De Oliveira, Lyvia M; Gusatti, Carolina S; Fuentefria, Daiane B; Corção, Gertrudes
The aim of the study was to evaluate the dissemination of multiresistant isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii carrying resistance genes, by samples of wastewater from hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. We obtained 303 bacterial isolates from the wastewater of three hospitals in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. For each isolate, we determined the profile of susceptibility to antimicrobials and the presence of the genes bla(OXA-23), bla(OXA-24), bla(OXA-51), bla(OXA-58), bla(SPM-1), bla(IMP), and bla(VIM.) The bla(OXA-51) gene was found in 56% of the isolates, indicating the presence of A. baumannii in this environment. Of these, three multiresistant isolates were positive for the bla(OXA-23) gene, in wastewater from two of the hospitals. The results obtained in this study indicate that isolates of A. baumannii which are multiresistant and carry resistance genes such as bla(OXA-51) and bla(OXA-23) are being released into the environment in the wastewater from the hospitals analyzed. Multiresistant Acinetobacter junii, the newly emerging pathogen, were also found among the multiresistant isolates. Hospital wastewater may be crucial to the development and dispersal of multiresistant bacteria, making waterbodies reservoirs of bacterial resistance.
Vecchia, Andréia Dalla; Kluge, Mariana; dos Santos da Silva, Joseane V; Comerlato, Juliana; Rodrigues, Manoela T; Fleck, Juliane D; da Luz, Roger B; Teixeira, Thais F; Roehe, Paulo M; Capalonga, Roberta; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Spilki, Fernando R
Torque teno virus (TTV) was surveyed in tap water collected in schools from three municipalities located in the south of Brazil. TTV genomes were found in 11.7 % (4/34) of the samples. TTV DNA was detected in 10.5 % (2/19) of the samples collected at the city of Caxias do Sul and in 25 % (2/8) of the samples from Pelotas. Those cities have a low rate of sewage treatment. All samples from Santa Cruz do Sul, which has nearly 92 % of its sewage treated, were negative. These results suggest that the amount of sewage treated may have an effect on the detection rates of TTV DNA in drinking water in a given urban area, showing a mild negative correlation (r = -0.76), when comparing the percentage of sewage treatment to the detection of TTV genomes. The detection rate of TTV was also compared with Escherichia coli, showing a strong correlation (r = 0.97), indicating that TTV may be a suitable marker of fecal contamination.
Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo
Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010
Nunes, Luciana de S; Baethgen, Ludmila F; Ribeiro, Marta O; Cardoso, Cássia M; de Paris, Fernanda; De David, Simone M M; da Silva, Marlei G; Duarte, Rafael S; Barth, Afonso L
Outbreaks associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been increasingly reported worldwide, including in Brazil. Among the RGM, the Mycobacterium abscessus complex is the most pathogenic and related to multidrug resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular profile of RGM isolates involved in new postsurgical infection outbreaks in Brazil since 2007. Of the 109 cases reported in the state of Rio Grande do Sul between 2007 and 2011, 43 (39 %) had confirmed mycobacterial growth in culture. Clinical isolates were obtained from biopsy specimens or abscess aspirates. PRA-hsp65 restriction pattern identified the isolates as M. abscessus type 2, and partial rpoB sequencing confirmed the identification as M. abscessus subsp. bolletii. All isolates were susceptible to amikacin and resistant to ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, moxifloxacin and tobramycin. Most isolates (72 %) were fully susceptible to cefoxitin but six isolates (14 %) were fully resistant to clarithromycin. The latter differed from the susceptibility profiles of the previously described BRA100 clone from other Brazilian regions. Nevertheless, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that these isolates belonged to a single BRA100 clone. In conclusion, our study reports the persistence of an emergent single and highly resistant clone of M. abscessus subsp. bolletii for several years even after national implementation of infection control measures.
Carvalho, Manoela de; Paulus Júnior, Aylton; Cordoni, Luiz
This study discusses public health financing by the State Government of Paraná, Brazil. Expenditures by the State Health Department were analyzed as a proxy for health expenditures by the State Government of Paraná from 1991 to 2006. Three criteria were used: (1) expenditures as a percentage of net revenue, in accordance with Constitutional Amendment no. 29; (2) expenditures as a percentage of total budget outlay; and (3) per capita health expenditures with the State's own resources. The findings showed distinct trends in expenditures during the period studied, the most recent being an expansion in spending of funds from the State treasury.
Hermes, Chirley Roberta; Baumhardt, Simone Glesse; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
Aggressive periodontitis is a rare, severe and rapidly progressing periodontal disease. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance for establishing treatment in order to stop periodontal destruction and prevent tooth loss. The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of aggressive periodontitis in patients at a Dental School in Brazil by means of a cross-sectional study. First, records from patients aged 15-36 years were consecutively scrutinized. Patients should not have systemic diseases. The search went up to 383 valid records. By means of periapical radiographs, the distance between the cement-enamel junction and the bone crest was measured. Records in which there was severe bone loss or periodontal destruction incompatible with the age of the patient were selected. Patients with bone loss > or = 3mm were called to answer a questionnaire and undergo periodontal examination, in order to confirm or dismiss the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis. From a total 383 records, 55.1% (211) were female and 44.9% (172) were male. In 3.9% (15) of the records, presumed diagnosis was aggressive periodontitis, and 12 out of those 15 eligible patients (80%) came in for clinical examination and confirmation or dismissal of the diagnosis. Aggressive periodontitis was diagnosed in 7 patients, corresponding to 1.8% of the total. Of these, 4 (1% of the total) presented generalized aggressive periodontitis and 3 (0.8% of the total) presented localized aggressive periodontitis. In 5 patients (1.3%) chronic periodontitis was diagnosed. It may be concluded, within the limits of the study, that aggressive periodontitis at this Dental School is compatible with world prevalence values, suggesting the need for periodontal diagnosis as from adolescence, considering the possible damage caused by this disease.
Mohedano, R A; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Hofmann, S M; Belli Filho, P
Brazil is one of the most important countries in pork production worldwide, ranking third. This activity has an important role in the national economic scenario. However, the fast growth of this activity has caused major environmental impacts, especially in developing countries. The large amount of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds found in pig manure has caused ecological imbalances, with eutrophication of major river basins in the producing regions. Moreover, much of the pig production in developing countries occurs on small farms, and therefore causes diffuse pollution. Therefore, duckweed pond have been successfully used in the swine waste polishing, generating further a biomass with high protein content. The present study evaluated the efficiency of two full scale duckweed ponds for the polishing of a small pig farm effluent, biomass yield and crude protein (CP) content. Duckweed pond series received the effluent from a biodigester-storage pond, with a flow rate of 1 m(3)/day (chemical oxygen demand rate = 186 kg/ha day) produced by 300 animals. After 1 year a great improvement of effluent quality was observed, with removal of 96% of total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and 89% of total phosphorus (TP), on average. Nitrogen removal rate is one of the highest ever found (4.4 g TKN/m(2) day). Also, the dissolved oxygen rose from 0.0 to 3.0 mg/L. The two ponds produced together over 13 tons of fresh biomass (90.5% moisture), with 35% of CP content, which represents a productivity of 24 tonsCP/ha year. Due to the high rate of nutrient removal, and also the high protein biomass production, duckweed ponds revealed, under the presented conditions, a great potential for the polishing and valorization of swine waste. Nevertheless, this technology should be better exploited to improve the sustainability of small pig farms in order to minimize the impacts of this activity on the environment.
Nomura, Lincon Hideo; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Peres, Marco Aurélio
The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT index (WHO, 1997). The field workteam consisted of an examiner and a recorder. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the non-conditional multiple logistic regression. The response rate was 93.4%. The intraexaminer agreement measured on a tooth by tooth basis was high (kappa > 0.73). Dental pain prevalence was 33.7% (CI95% 26.0-42.0). The multiple regression analysis, adjusted by sex and other variables, showed that children with DMFT > 1 presented 2.9 (OR CI95% 1.4-6.1, p < 0.01) more chances of having dental pain when compared with those with DMFT < or = 1. Children whose mother's schooling level was equal or less than 4 years presented 2.5 (OR CI95% 1.2-5.6, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with others whose mothers had more than 5 years of schooling and, finally, children whose family income was up to U$ 67.00 showed 3.2 (OR CI95% 1.2-8.4, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with the ones whose families had higher income. High levels of caries attack, low mother schooling level and low family income were associated to dental pain.
This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives.
Silveira, T C L; Gama, A M S; Alves, T P; Fontoura, N F
This study aimed to model the habitat suitability for an invasive clam Corbicula fluminea in a coastal shallow lagoon in the southern Neotropical region (-30.22, -50.55). The lagoon (19km2, maximum deep 2.5m) was sampled with an Ekman dredge in an orthogonal matrix comprising 84 points. At each sampling point, were obtained environmental descriptors as depth, organic matter content (OMC), average granulometry (Avgran), and the percentage of sand (Pcsand). Prediction performance of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) were compared. Also, niche overlapping with other native clam species (Castalia martensi, Neocorbicula limosa and Anodontites trapesialis) was examined. A BRT model with 1400 trees was selected as the best model, with cross-validated correlation of 0.82. The relative contributions of predictors were Pcsand-42.6%, OMC-35.8%, Avgran-10.9% and Depth-10.8%. Were identified that C. fluminea occur mainly in sandy sediments with few organic matter, in shallow areas nor by the shore. The PCA showed a wide niche overlap with the native clam species C. martensi, N. limosa and A. trapesialis.
Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José
Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts.
Galato, Dayani; Alano, Graziela M.; Trauthman, Silvana C.; França, Tainã F.
Objective A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty. Results The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%); inadequate communication style (21.9%); lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7%) and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%). Conclusions These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients. PMID:24367467
Regolin, André Luis; Furnari, Nina; de Castro Jacinavicius, Fernando; Linardi, Pedro Marcos; de Carvalho-Pinto, Carlos José
Cavia intermedia is a rodent species critically endangered and is found only on a 10 hectare island off the southern Brazilian coast. To identify the ectoparasites of C. intermedia, 27 specimens (14 males and 13 females), representing approximately 65% of the estimated total population, were captured and examined. A total of 1336 chewing lice of two species were collected: Gliricola lindolphoi (Amblycera: Gyropidae) and Trimenopon hispidum (Amblycera: Trimenoponidae). In addition, chiggers Arisocerus hertigi (Acari: Trombiculidae) and Eutrombicula sp. (Acari: Trombiculidae) were collected from the ears of all captured animals. This low species richness compared to those for other Cavia species is expected for island mammals. Although the results presented here are not conclusive about the relationship between C. intermedia and ectoparasites, this low species richness found might be reflected in a low level of investment by the hosts in the basal immune defense, since investments in white blood cell production by mammals are influenced by the diversity of parasites in the environment. Additionally, considering that it might result in host vulnerability to other parasites that might be introduced through exotic or migratory host species, the monitoring of C. intermedia, including parasitological and immunological assessments, is recommended as a key component of conservation efforts. PMID:25830106
Pinheiro, Esther R. S.; Duarte, Leandro da S.; Diehl, Elena; Hartz, Sandra M.
This study analyzed the influence of vegetation structure variation along a natural vegetation mosaic formed by Araucaria forest and Campos grassland in the southern Brazilian highlands, on the species richness and composition of epigeic ants. The study site consisted of two different grassland-forest ecotones, where 76 pitfall traps were installed. We estimated the area covered by canopy vegetation by hemispherical photographs, and the structure of the understory vegetation by counting the number of vegetation touches, using a graduated stick. We collected 31 species or morphospecies of epigeic ants belonging to 17 genera and 6 subfamilies. Cluster analysis defined three habitat groups (grassland, edge, and forest) with different ant species composition as revealed by ordination analysis. The highest richness was observed at the forest edge, and decreased towards the grassland and the forest interior. Variation in the richness and composition of epigeic ant species was significantly explained by the factor of distance from the forest. The relationship between species richness and understory density was negative. On the other hand, species composition of epigeic ant assemblages was significantly explained by canopy cover. This finding indicates that the ecological responses of ant assemblages resulted predominantly from edge effects mediated by changes in vegetation structure.
Souza, Rosangela de Leon Veleda de; Madruga, Samanta Wink; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Aluísio J D; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso
This study aimed to describe dietary patterns and to investigate associations with demographic and socioeconomic factors among children one to six years of age in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Pearson correlation was used to group different foods. Dietary patterns were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA). Associations were established with the Kruskal Wallis test (α = 0.05). The study evaluated 667 children. Five dietary patterns were identified: "vegetables", "traditional" (bread, butter/margarine, rice/pasta, coffee, sugar), "sweets and sausages", "snacks" (dairy products, chocolate, cookies, and juice), and "fruits". Children of mothers with more schooling and higher income showed greater adherence to "vegetables" and "fruits". The "traditional" pattern was more common in children of mothers with less education and lower family income. The "vegetables" and "traditional" patterns showed greater variance. Families' socioeconomic status played a key role in determining children's dietary patterns.
Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses
Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil.
Sanches, Luciana; Valentini, Carla Maria Abido; Júnior, Osvaldo Borges Pinto; de Souza Nogueira, José; Vourlitis, George Louis; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi; da Silva, Carlos José; Bambi, Paulino; de Almeida Lobo, Francisco
This study analyzed how seasonal and interannual variations in climate alter litter dynamics, including production, decomposition, and accumulation. Monthly measurements of leaf, stem, and reproductive (flower plus fruit) litter and the forest floor litter mass were combined with a mass balance model to determine rates of litter decomposition for a semideciduous tropical forest located in the rain forest-savanna ecotone of the southern Amazon Basin for 2001-2007. Annual rates of litter production varied between 8 and 10.5 Mg ha-1 a-1, and leaf litter production accounted for the majority (˜70%) of the total litter production. Leaf litter production peaked at the end of the May-August dry season while stem litter production peaked during the wet season and reproductive litter production peaked during the dry-wet season transition. Forest floor litter mass ranged between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 over the study period and generally declined as litter inputs declined. Litter decomposition rates were remarkably stable from year-to-year and varied between 10.8 and 12.4 Mg ha-1 a-1. On average, rates of litter decomposition were highest during the dry-wet season transition. Overall, our results suggest that rainfall variability directly altered litter production dynamics and indirectly altered forest floor litter mass and decomposition kinetics through its effect on litter production. Future changes in seasonal and/or interannual rainfall patterns, whether in response to El Niño or to anthropogenic climate change, will likely have important consequences for the litter dynamics of Amazonian semideciduous forest.
Marcon, I. R.; Cauduro Dias de Paiva, E. M.; Dias de Paiva, J.; Beling, F. A.; Heatwole, C.
This study presents the results of simulations with the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model in a small watershed in Southern Brazil (latitude 29°38'37.5 " and longitude 53°48'2.2"), representative of the Atlantic Forest Biome. This area was monitored by two sequential stations, each with one rain gauge and one stage gauge, having contributing areas of 4.5 km2 and 12 km2 respectively. The altitudes in the basins range from 316 m to 431 m and vegetation is predominantly composed of native forest (55%) and native pasture (39%). The simulated period was from August 2007 to July 2011, corresponding to the period of monitoring. The temperature ranged from -2.2°C to 39.2°C, and annual rainfall ranged between 2005 mm and 2250 mm. For this application, a modification in the SWAT 2000 model algorithm was made, as proposed by Paiva and Paiva (2006), to adjust the rate of leaf area during the winter season of the region. The quality of the results was characterized by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index (NSE) and by the coefficient of determination (R2). The model was evaluated in a monthly and daily scale. At the monthly scale, the values obtained for NSE in the calibration phase, were 0.73 and 0.81, respectively for the two sections. The values obtained for R2 were 0.77 and 0.83 in the same sections. At the daily scale, in the calibration phase NSE values were -0.44 and -0.31, respectively, for the two sections, while for R2, the values were 0.27 and 0.38 in the same sections. These results show that the fit was good for monthly values, but for daily values a proper adjustment was not possible. Due to the short period of monitoring, the validation of the model results was made with the observed data from first station with an area of 4.5 km2. The values obtained for the NSE in the validation phase were 0.73 and -0.33 for the monthly and daily scales respectively, and for R2, 0.77 and 0.27 for the monthly and daily values, thus confirming the quality of the fit
Roncada, Cristian; de Oliveira, Suelen Goecks; Cidade, Simone Falcão; Rafael, Joseane Guimarães; Ojeda, Beatriz Sebben; dos Santos, Beatriz Regina Lara; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Pitrez, Paulo Márcio
Objective: To describe the frequency of popular myths about and features of asthma treatment in children and adolescents in an urban area in southern Brazil. Methods: The parents or legal guardians of public school students (8-16 years of age) completed a specific questionnaire regarding their understanding of asthma, asthma control, and treatment characteristics. The sample included parents or legal guardians of students with asthma (n = 127) and healthy controls (n = 124). Results: The study involved 251 parents or legal guardians, of whom 127 (68.5%) were the mothers and 130 (51.8%) were White. The mean age of these participants was 38.47 ± 12.07 years. Of the participants in the asthma and control groups, 37 (29.1%) and 26 (21.0%), respectively, reported being afraid of using asthma medications, whereas 61 (48%) and 56 (45.2%), respectively, believed that using a metered dose inhaler can lead to drug dependence. However, only 17 (13.4%) and 17 (13.7%) of the participants in the asthma and control groups, respectively, reported being afraid of using oral corticosteroids. In the asthma group, 55 students (43.3%) were diagnosed with uncontrolled asthma, only 41 (32.3%) had a prescription or written treatment plan, and 38 (29.9%) used asthma medications regularly. Conclusions: Popular myths about asthma treatment were common in our sample, as were uncontrolled asthma and inappropriate asthma management. Further studies in this field should be conducted in other developing countries, as should evaluations of pediatric asthma treatment programs in public health systems. PMID:27167435
Francisco, Flávio O; Santiago, Leandro R; Mizusawa, Yuri M; Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Arias, Maria C
Tetragonisca angustula is one of the most widespread stingless bees in the Neotropics. This species swarms frequently and is extremely successful in urban environments. In addition, it is one of the most popular stingless bee species for beekeeping in Latin America, so nest transportation and trading is common. Nest transportation can change the genetic structure of the host population, reducing inbreeding and increasing homogenization. Here, we evaluate the genetic structure of 17 geographic populations of T. angustula in southern Brazil to quantify the level of genetic differentiation between populations. Analyses were conducted on partially sequenced mitochondrial genes and 11 microsatellite loci of 1002 workers from 457 sites distributed on the mainland and on 3 islands. Our results show that T. angustula populations are highly differentiated as demonstrated by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Of 73 haplotypes, 67 were population-specific. MtDNA diversity was low in 9 populations but microsatellite diversity was moderate to high in all populations. Microsatellite data suggest 10 genetic clusters and low level of gene flow throughout the studied area. However, physical barriers, such as rivers and mountain ranges, or the presence or absence of forest appear to be unrelated to population clusters. Factors such as low dispersal, different ecological conditions, and isolation by distance are most likely shaping the population structure of this species. Thus far, nest transportation has not influenced the general population structure in the studied area. However, due to the genetic structure we found, we recommend that nest transportation should only occur within and between populations that are genetically similar.
do Nascimento, Sabrina Nunes; Charão, Mariele Feiffer; Moro, Angela Maria; Roehrs, Miguel; Paniz, Clovis; Baierle, Marília; Brucker, Natália; Gioda, Adriana; Barbosa, Fernando; Bohrer, Denise; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Garcia, Solange Cristina
Children’s exposure to metals can result in adverse effects such as cognitive function impairments. This study aimed to evaluate some toxic metals and levels of essential trace elements in blood, hair, and drinking water in children from a rural area of Southern Brazil. Cognitive ability and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity were evaluated. Oxidative stress was evaluated as a main mechanism of metal toxicity, through the quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. This study included 20 children from a rural area and 20 children from an urban area. Our findings demonstrated increase in blood lead (Pb) levels (BLLs). Also, increased levels of nickel (Ni) in blood and increase of aluminum (Al) levels in hair and drinking water in rural children were found. Deficiency in selenium (Se) levels was observed in rural children as well. Rural children with visual-motor immaturity presented Pb levels in hair significantly increased in relation to rural children without visual-motor immaturity (p < 0.05). Negative correlations between BLLs and ALA-D activity and positive correlations between BLLs and ALA-RE activity were observed. MDA was significantly higher in rural compared to urban children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that rural children were co-exposed to toxic metals, especially Al, Pb and Ni. Moreover, a slight deficiency of Se was observed. Low performance on cognitive ability tests and ALA-D inhibition can be related to metal exposure in rural children. Oxidative stress was suggested as a main toxicological mechanism involved in metal exposure. PMID:25329533
Patterson, Elizabeth; Johnson, Beverly; Dostie, Philip; Copertino, Margareth
This project investigates carbon stocks in salt marshes and seagrass beds in the Patos Lagoon estuary, the largest choked lagoon in the world, located in Southern Brazil. The study was conducted in the mesohaline region, at three shallow shoals. At each shoal, three sediment cores (50 cm deep) and plant biomass samples (above and belowground) were collected along a transect line, spanning from the marsh to seagrass beds (total = 9 sediment cores). The 50cm cores were subsampled and analyzed for organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, C/N ratios, and the isotope ratios of 13C/12C, and 15N/14N. The organic carbon content of these sediments ranged between 10% (in surface sediments) and 1% (deeper in the core), suggesting that both the salt marshes and seagrass beds in this region are sequestering carbon. Early results indicate that cores taken in marsh dominated by C3 plants (Scirpus maritimus) tended to be the most depleted in 13C with δ13C values around -25‰. Cores taken in marsh dominated by C4 plants (Spartina alterniflora, Spartina densiflora), seagrass beds (Ruppia maritima) , and non vegetated areas were generally isotopically heavier with δ13C values ranging -20‰ to -15‰, indicating a mix of organic sources in the sediments. The δ15N values and C/N ratios both varied with most values falling in a range of 2-8‰ and 7-20 respectively. Analysis of the δ 34S isotope composition of the sediments is currently underway and may provide better information on the relative contributions of macro and micro algae in the sediments. The present data will reveal the carbon stock size, as well as the types and history of organic matter deposition in Patos Lagoon estuary.
Neves, Carolina Somaio; Rocha, Rosana Moreira; Pitombo, Fabio Bettini; Roper, James J
Ports are important locations for the introduction of marine species, while marinas and pontoons often serve as secondary habitats for these species. In a marina near Paranaguá Port, a major international port in southern Brazil, the encrusting community was studied to (i) identify possibly introduced species, and (ii) examine the use of artificial substrata by these species. Samples (20 x 20 cm) were taken from fibreglass floats (boardwalks and boat hulls) and concrete columns. A total of 85 species were found of which 50 were classified into three categories: four introduced, 33 cryptogenic and 13 native. The introduced species were the hydrozoan Garveia franciscana (on floats, boats and submerged concrete), the polychaete Polydora cornuta (more abundant on floats and submerged concrete) and the barnacles Amphibalanus reticulatus (equally abundant on the three substrata) and Striatobalanus amaryllis (only on floats and submerged concrete). Organisms were most abundant on floating boardwalks, while species richness and composition were similar to that on boat hulls (32 and 37, respectively), which are an important vector for intraregional transport. All substrata supported at least three of the four introduced, and many of the cryptogenic species. The proportion of introduced to the total number of species was greater than observed in other ports. This demonstrates that the introduction potential is great in Paranaguá Bay, especially considering that this study was restricted to one site and sampled only hard substrata. None of the introduced species has yet been identified as invasive, but all are generalists with respect to substratum, indicating their invasive potential. The ability to colonise stable concrete walls shows that they could also colonise the natural granite rocky substrata in the bay, and the ability to colonise floating surfaces indicate their capability of spreading in the region on the hulls of recreational boats.
Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal S; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G
OBJECTIVE To describe the pattern of health services utilization by young adults. METHODS Longitudinal study in Pelotas (Southern Brazil), in which the individuals were identified at birth in 1982 and followed up until 23 years of age. The outcome was defined by information collected about visits to health professionals that were attended in the year before the interview, between 2004 and 2005. The places where the visits occurred were categorized as public, private or belonging to health plan systems. Descriptive analyses were carried out for utilization and type of health service. Poisson Regression was employed in the adjusted analysis. RESULTS Of the interviewees, 72.0% visited health professionals in the year before the interview; 86.2% (95% CI 84.7;87.7) of the women and 59.3% (95% CI 57.3;61.3) of the men. Even when gynecological visits were excluded, the women still attended more visits than the men, 68.4% (95% CI 66.4;70.4). Health services utilization was more frequent among interviewees of better socioeconomic level. A difference of lower use in relation to non-white skin color was observed only among male youths. There were differences regarding the type of professional visited by men and women and also according to family income. Men and women used more frequently the public system, the health plan system and, in a smaller proportion, the private system. CONCLUSIONS The socioeconomic situation influenced the utilization and the type of health service, with men and women classified as “poor at the moment”, which indicates lower utilization of services. Such socioeconomic differences may indicate difficulties in the access to the health system. PMID:19142345
PALMEIRA, Andre; dos SANTOS, Luciana Ruschel; BORSOI, Anderlise; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; CALASANS, Max; do NASCIMENTO, Vladimir Pinheiro
Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. SalmonellaEnteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning. PMID:27007562
Palmeira, Andre; Santos, Luciana Ruschel dos; Borsoi, Anderlise; Rodrigues, Laura Beatriz; Calasans, Max; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do
Salmonella spp. causes diseases in fowls, when species-specific serovars (Salmonella Pullorum and S.Gallinarum) are present in flocks, and public health problems, when non-typhoid serovars are isolated, as well as possible bacterial resistance induced by the preventive and therapeutic use of antimicrobials in animal production. This study describes the serovars and bacterial resistance of 280 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from turkey and broiler carcasses in Southern Brazil between 2004 and 2006. Salmonella Enteritidis was the most prevalent serovar (55.7%), followed by Heidelberg (5.0%), Agona (4.3%), Bredeney (3.9%), Hadar (3.2%), and Typhimurium (2.9%). Tennessee and S. Enterica subspecies enterica(O: 4.5) were isolated only in turkeys, and Hadar (18.6%) was the most prevalent serovar in this species. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed in 178 isolates (43 from turkeys and 135 from broilers). All isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid, polymyxin B, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin, and were resistant to bacitracin and penicillin. Broiler carcass isolates showed resistance to nalidixic acid (48.9%), nitrofurantoin (34.3%), neomycin (9.6%), tetracycline (5.2%), and kanamycin (8.9%); and turkey carcass isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid (62.8%), tetracycline (34.9%), and neomycin (30.2%), with a significant difference in turkeys when compared to broiler carcass isolates. These results indicate the need for judicious use of antimicrobials in livestock production, given that the serovars identified are potential causes of food poisoning.
Raboni, Sonia M; Stella, Vanessa; Cruz, Cristina R; França, João B; Moreira, Suzana; Gonçalves, Lili; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R; Almeida, Sergio M; Debur, Maria C; Carraro, Hipolito; dos Santos, Claudia N Duarte
Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are commonly associated with seasonal infections. They have been associated with higher morbidity and mortality among children, elderly individuals, and immunosuppressed patients. In April 2009, the circulation of a new influenza A virus (FLUA H1N1v) was responsible for the first influenza pandemic of this century. We report the clinical and epidemiological profiles of inpatients infected with CRVs or with FLUA H1N1v at a tertiary care hospital in southern Brazil. In addition, we used these profiles to evaluate survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with FLUA H1N1v. Multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and real time RT-PCR were used to detect viruses in inpatients with respiratory infections. Record data from all patients were reviewed. A total of 171 patients were examined over a period of 16 weeks. Of these, 39% were positive for FLUA H1N1v, 36% were positive for CRVs, and 25% were negative. For the FLUA H1N1v- and CRV-infected patients, epidemiological data regarding median age (30 and 1.5 years), myalgia (44% and 13%), need for mechanical ventilation (44% and 9%), and mortality (35% and 9%) were statistically different. In a multivariate analysis comparing survivor and nonsurvivor patients infected with influenza A virus H1N1, median age and creatine phosphokinase levels were significantly associated with a severe outcome. Seasonal respiratory infections are a continuing concern. Our results highlight the importance of studies on the prevalence and severity of these infections and that investments in programs of clinical and laboratory monitoring are essential to detect the appearance of new infective agents.
Hennemann, Mariana Coutinho; Simonassi, José Carlos; Petrucio, Mauricio Mello
Paleolimnology of lake sediments can be a powerful tool to assess various aspects of lake history and catchment change through elemental, isotopic and molecular analysis of the sedimented organic matter (OM). In this sense, the objective of the present study was to investigate the source, depositional history and preservation of OM in the sediments of two different sites in Peri Lake (southern Brazil) to better understand the nature and direction of environmental changes. Therefore, two sediment cores were sampled and analysed for total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations and elemental ratios, and stable isotope ratios of C and N (δ(13)C and δ(15)N). Both cores showed similar general tendencies, with increasing amounts of OM (range 1-35%), TOC (2.55-258.40 mg g(-1)), TN (0.30-25.97 mg g(-1)) and TP (0.03-4.72 mg g(-1)) from the bottom toward the top more recent layers. TOC:TN ratios (range 8.1-14.7) showed a slight decrease in recent times and indicated a mixture of allochthonous and autochthonous contribution to the OM, with predominance of the last source. TN:TP (range 0.2-51.3) indicated a condition of potential limitation by P in general. Both δ(13)C (range -25.58 to -20.85) and δ(15)N (range 2.6 to 7.1) showed a decreasing pattern toward the top of the cores, in opposition to macronutrient concentration. Differences in the depth variation pattern between the two cores were associated to the marginal location of one of the cores. The results suggest that nutrients and primary production are increasing in the lake.
Roverato, Matteo; Juliani, Caetano
style that produced them. The aim of this work is to provide a preliminary detailed description of the textural facies of this old volcanic units that outcrop in the southern region of Tapajós to better understand its origins, mechanisms of genesis, and, even possible, stratigraphic relationships. Acknowledgments: we acknowledge the CNPq/CT-Mineral (Proc. 550.342/2011-7) and the INCT-Geociam (573733/2008-2) - CNPq/MCT/FAPESPA/PETROBRAS).
Silva, Ana Elisa Pereira; Freitas, Corina da Costa; Dutra, Luciano Vieira; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão
Fasciola hepatica is the causative agent of fasciolosis, a disease that triggers a chronic inflammatory process in the liver affecting mainly ruminants and other animals including humans. In Brazil, F. hepatica occurs in larger numbers in the most Southern state of Rio Grande do Sul. The objective of this study was to estimate areas at risk using an eight-year (2002-2010) time series of climatic and environmental variables that best relate to the disease using a linear regression method to municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. The positivity index of the disease, which is the rate of infected animal per slaughtered animal, was divided into three risk classes: low, medium and high. The accuracy of the known sample classification on the confusion matrix for the low, medium and high rates produced by the estimated model presented values between 39 and 88% depending of the year. The regression analysis showed the importance of the time-based data for the construction of the model, considering the two variables of the previous year of the event (positivity index and maximum temperature). The generated data is important for epidemiological and parasite control studies mainly because F. hepatica is an infection that can last from months to years.
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Melo, Mário Sérgio de; Guimarães, Gilson Burigo; Chinelatto, Adilson Luiz; Giannini, Paulo César Fonseca; Pontes, Henrique Simão; Chinelatto, Adriana Scoton Antonio; Atencio, Daniel
Karstification processes in sandstones of the Furnas Formation, Silurian to Devonian of the Paraná Basin, have been described since the mid-twentieth century. However, some geologists still doubt the idea of true karst in sandstones. Studies carried out in the Campos Gerais region, Paraná State, Southern Brazil, aimed at investigating the nature of erosion processes in Furnas Formation and the role of the dissolution in the development of their notorious erosive features and underground cavities. These studies have led to the recognition of dissolution macro to micro features ('furnas', caves, ponds, sinks, ruiniform relief on cliffs and rocky surfaces, grain corrosion, speleothems, mineral reprecipitation and incrustation). The analysis (scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometry and x-ray diffractometry) of sandstones and their alterites has indicated significant dissolution of clay cement along with discrete quartz grain dissolution. This mesodiagenetic cement (kaolinite and illite) is dissolved and reprecipitated as clay minerals with poorly developed crystallinity along with other minerals, such as variscite and minerals of the alunite supergroup, suggesting organic participation in the processes of dissolution and incrustation. The mineral reprecipitation usually forms centimetric speleothems, found in cavities and sheltered rocky surfaces. The cement dissolution associated with other factors (fractures, wet weather, strong hydraulic gradient, antiquity of the landforms) leads to the rock arenisation, the underground erosion and the appearance of the karst features. Carbonate rocks in the basement may locally be increasing the karst forms in the overlying Furnas Formation. The recognition of the karst character of the Furnas Formation sandstones has important implications in the management of underground water resources (increasingly exploited in the region), in the use of the unique geological heritage and in the prevention of geo
Stone, T. A.; Birnie, R. W.; Zantop, H.
This project has applied Landsat digital data to a study of the geology of a mineralized zone in northern Bahia State, Brazil. The study accomplished two tasks: (1) production of a 1:100,000 geologic map of approximately 3300 sq km and (2) development of a two tiered geobotanical index that exploits increased vegetation density and decreased soil brightness on the mafic rock units.
Balestra, Rafael A M; Pereira, Rosany K de O; Ribeiro, Maria J de S; Silva, Júlia dos S; Alencar, Jeronimo
This is the first report of the presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Tocantins State, Brazil, in urban area of the Mateiros city. Immature specimens (aquatic stages) of this vector were collected in water reservoirs, treeholes, old tires and others. The existence of Ae. albopictus in the metropolitan area poses a potential risk for the interaction of this mosquito species with the urban human population.
Desjardin, Dennis E; Perry, Brian A; Stevani, Cassius V
Four species of mycenoid fungi are reported as luminescent (or putatively luminescent) on the basis of specimens collected from São Paulo State, Brazil. Two of them represent new species (Mycena oculisnymphae, Resinomycena petarensis), and two represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. deformis, M. globulispora). Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions were generated for barcoding purposes and for comparisons with similar species.
Knakievicz, Tanise; Lau, Adriana Helena; Prá, Daniel; Erdtmann, Bernardo
In the Tricladida (Platyhelminthes), the incidence of different biotypes identified by several ploidy levels is very common. Planarians collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul were identified using cytogenetics. Different species distributions were observed with respect to Rio Grande do Sul's geomorphology, which could have been caused by their different microhabitats. Girardia tigrina and G. anderlani consisted of diploid and triploid individuals, whereas G. schubarti showed diploids, triploids, and mixoploids; for all these species, individuals of different ploidies were sympatric. Only for diploid G. anderlani were B chromosomes observed. These B chromosomes seem to have an irregular segregational behavior during mitosis, and possibly also during meiosis. However the processes (e.g., selection, mutation) of maintaining 2n, 3n, and 2n/3n individuals within natural populations of G. schubarti remain to be clarified.
Pinho, Luiz Carlos; Andersen, Trond
A new species of Limnophyes Eaton collected in the Corvo Branco Mountains in Santa Catarina State is described and figured, based on male and female adults, larva and pupa. The species groups with L. griseata (Edwards) and L. bidumus Sæther as the adults have a pronounced humeral pit with lanceolate setae and an additional group of lanceolate setae just posterior to antepronotum. The adults are, however, distinctly smaller, have a lower AR and have more lanceolate setae in the group just posterior to antepronotum than the two other species. The pupa can easily be separated from the pupa of L. bidumus as the anal macroseta is longer than the anal lobe. The larva lives hygropetric on vertical rock surfaces. A key to male adults of Neotropical Limnophyes is given.
Ghedhoui, Rim; Deffontaines, Benoît; Rabia, Mohamed Chedly
Helped by the studies and results of previous researchers, we herein study the neotectonic of the coastal Jeffara with the input of numerous 2D reflection seismic profiles onshore, combined with Digital Elevation Model analyses (issued from SRTM) and field works. Acquired and available data were then integrated within a GIS Geodatabase, where Jerba, Zarzis and Jorf appear to be part of a N-S pull-apart basin within a NW-SE transtensive right-lateral major fault zone. Our structural geologic and geomorphologic analyses confirm and prove the presence of NNW-SSE right-lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous active folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so-on… They are associated with this major right-lateral NW-SE transtensive major coastal Jeffara fault zone that affect the Holocene and the Villafranchian deposits. We therefore confirm herein a new structural geodynamic Jeffara model, due to the post Lower Cretaceous northward migration of northern African to the Eurasian plates, this NW-SE transtensive fault zone is interpreted as a part of the southern branch of the eastward Sahel block extrusion toward the free Mediterranean Sea boundary. Therefore this geodynamic movement may explain the presence, offshore, of small elongated NW-SE, N-S and NE-SW transtensive basins and grabens with petroleum interest. To conclude, at the regional scale, the structural geomorphologic approach combined with both field work and 2D reflection seismic profile analyses appear to be an excellent tool to prove and confirm the NW-SE right-lateral transtensive extrusion fault zone of the coastal Jeffara.
Lopes, Carina Graciniana; Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; Gruber, Leonardo; Armstrong, Richard; Junges, Sergio
The Passo Feio complex (PFC) is a sequence of metapelite, amphibolite, metavolcanic/metavolcanoclastic rocks, marble, calc-silicate rocks, quartzite and magnesium schist. It is part of the São Gabriel Terrane, a Neoproterozoic juvenile arc formed during the early stages of evolution of the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano Belt (DFB), in southern Brazil. This belt corresponds to the southernmost portion of the Mantiqueira Province, an important Neoproterozoic orogenic system exposed in the NNE direction along the southeastern coast of Brazil. The geotectonic significance of the original Passo Feio basin in the tectonic evolution of São Gabriel Terrene is not well understood. It has been considered as part of a passive margin sequence or as a back-arc sequence. Geochronological and isotopic data are very scarse for the Passo Feio rocks and this has hampered the better understanding of its significance in the Neoproterozoic tectonic evolution of southern Brazil. In the present study the age and significance of metasedimentary rocks of the PFC were investigated. The provenance study was carried out in four metapelite samples from the southern and northern Passo Feio complex, using U-Pb dating of detrital zircon. The results showed varied provenance patterns and zircon ages range from 3637 to 803 Ma. Paleo- and Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon grains are present in all samples, but an important Neoproterozoic population has been identified in one of them. 3.5 Ga old zircon grains form the oldest population of detrital zircon ever reported in southern Brazil. Paleoproterozoic/Archean terranes within the Rio de la Plata Craton may represent the main source of detrital sediments and this suggests that part of the Passo Feio complex might have been a passive margin sequence, developed along the northeastern margin of that paleocontinent. However, the presence of a Neoproterozoic zircon population is not consistent with derivation solely from the craton and indicates
Ghisi, Nédia C; Oliveira, Elton C; Mendonça Mota, Thais F; Vanzetto, Guilherme V; Roque, Aliciane A; Godinho, Jayson P; Bettim, Franciele Lima; Silva de Assis, Helena Cristina da; Prioli, Alberto J
Aquatic pollutants produce multiple consequences in organisms, populations, communities and ecosystems, affecting the function of organs, reproductive state, population size, species survival and even biodiversity. In order to monitor the health of aquatic organisms, biomarkers have been used as effective tools in environmental risk assessment. The aim of this study is to evaluate, through a multivariate and integrative analysis, the response of the native species Hypostomus ancistroides over a pollution gradient in the main water supply body of northwestern Paraná state (Brazil). The condition factor, micronucleus test and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENA), comet assay, measurement of the cerebral and muscular enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and histopathological analysis of liver and gill were evaluated in fishes from three sites of the Pirapó River during the dry and rainy seasons. The multivariate general result showed that the interaction between the seasons and the sites was significant: there are variations in the rates of alterations in the biological parameters, depending on the time of year researched at each site. In general, the best results were observed for the site nearest the spring, and alterations in the parameters at the intermediate and downstream sites. In sum, the results of this study showed the necessity of a multivariate analysis, evaluating several biological parameters, to obtain an integrated response to the effects of the environmental pollutants on the organisms.
Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh
This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.
In the United States, over 70% of imported rice that currently makes up the 12% of domestic consumption is Jasmine, primarily from Thailand. Development of improved Jasmine-type cultivar with similar specialty characteristics (aroma, texture, and flavor) to those imports and with competitive grain a...
Thomaz, E. L.; Vestena, L. R.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.
Unpaved roads have earned a reputation of inducing adverse effects on downstream water resources by increasing suspended sediment concentration because they typically generate sediment at rates up to several orders of magnitude above background and because they may enhance the efficiency of sediment delivery to fluvial networks. Although much research has been conducted on road effects in forested landscapes, proper understanding of their hydro-geomorphic role in rural areas is still desired. Unpaved roads are fundamental in the agricultural systems employed for the cultivation of maize and black beans on topographically-steep, marginal lands of southern Brazil. Marginal lands generate a sizeable fraction of the agricultural production in the state of Paraná, one of Brazil's agricultural powerhouses. This study documents the localized impacts on suspended sediment concentration of seven unpaved road crossings in the Guarabiroba River Catchment, Paraná, Brazil. A total of 156 suspended sediment samples were manually collected both upstream and downstream of road-crossings between 22-Apr-09 and 26-Apr-10 during 14 rainfall events ranging between 16 and 96 mm in total rainfall. The average length of road directly delivering runoff to each crossing varied from 0.56 - 2.4 km, and the size of the catchment areas of the third to fifth order monitored streams ranged from 0.3 to 13.5 km2. In addition to stream samples, 78 samples representing unpaved road runoff were collected during the same rain events. Upstream and downstream mean concentration values were compared for each storm at every site based on a paired t-test analysis (0.05% level). Mean suspended sediment concentration at stream segments located upstream of road crossings was 0.04 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.05 mg L-1), while the mean downstream concentration was 0.11 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.14 mg L-1) or 2.9 times higher than upstream samples. Meanwhile, road runoff had an average concentration of 0.93 mg L-1 (s.d. = 0.97 mg
For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...
Kelly, Tammy Denise
The purpose of this study was to explore and describe succession plans and components of importance as perceived by the organizational leadership within the Southern Region of the Cooperative Extension System. Cooperative Extension Systems across the United States, continue to be faced with a reduction in force, primarily due to retirement, budget…
American Friends Service Committee, Columbia, SC. Southeastern Public Education Program.
Volunteers from community organizations in six southern states monitored 21 school districts to find their districts' initial answer to Title IX, federal legislation barring sex discrimination. The actual monitoring of the 21 districts was completed in the late spring of 1976, with data covering the first year of Title IX implementation. The…
... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD35 Irradiation Treatment; Location of Facilities in the Southern United States; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... approving treatment facilities for fruits, vegetables, and other articles to prevent the introduction...
Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey
The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…
Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.
In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…
Otero, Ubirani B; Antoniazzi, Berenice N; Veiga, Lene H S; Turci, Silvana R; Azevedo, Gulnar; Mendonça, Silva
An epidemiological investigation was launched in several cities in southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil, considering the possibility of increased cancer incidence due to high exposure to natural radiation. First, the cancer mortality patterns were assessed to determine whether there was an increase in cancer deaths and to discuss the possible risk factors related to such an increase. The study proposed the use of a screening methodology based on standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in order to classify priority areas for future studies. Cities considered high priority for further investigation were: Andradas, for lung cancer in men (SMR = 208 (106-310)) and liver cancer in women (SMR = 403 (104-701)); Poços de Caldas, leukemia in men and women (SMR = 284 (156-412)) and SMR = 211 (111-312), respectively); Pouso Alegre, leukemia in men (SMR = 333 (127-540)) and hematological cancers in women (SMR = 257 (188-396)). Epidemiological studies are necessary to evaluate the role of radiation and other risk factors in these cancers and thus to support future preventive and control measures.
Cardoso, Eduardo; Fukuda, Thiago; Pereira, Júlio; Seixas, Jamile; Miranda, Rafael; Rodrigues, Bernardo; Saback, Thaís; Andrade, Renata; Cardoso, Grace; Martinez, Rosa; Avena, Juliane; Melo, Ailton
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, demyelinating and degenerative disease that affects the central nervous system. Its prevalence and clinical aspects vary according to the continent considered, being more frequent in Caucasians and young individuals aged 20 to 40 years. Epidemiological data from Brazil show that prevalence is variable, being more frequent in the Southern and Southeastern areas of the country, rather than in the Northern and Northeastern areas. The purpose of this paper is to describe MS clinical and epidemiological features in the State of Bahia, in the Brazilian Northeastern region. Thus, we held a cross-sectional study over the period from February to May, 2005, in the Multiple Sclerosis Patient Support Center ("Núcleo de Apoio aos Pacientes com Esclerose Múltipla") of Bahia, which included all patients with a diagnosis of MS seen over this period of time. A total of 121 patients were investigated, being 80.2% females (female:male ratio=4:1), with higher frequency in mulatto individuals (64%), and the relapsing-remitting type (91.3%). Most patients (68.7%) had mild MS, and blacks were prone to worse prognosis compared to other patients.
Bastos, Jorge Tiago; Shen, Yongjun; Hermans, Elke; Brijs, Tom; Wets, Geert; Ferraz, Antonio Clóvis Pinto
The intense economic growth experienced by Brazil in recent decades and its consequent explosive motorization process have evidenced an undesirable impact: the increasing and unbroken trend in traffic fatality numbers. In order to contribute to road safety diagnosis on a national level, this study presents a research into two main indicators available in Brazil: mortality rate (represented by fatalities per capita) and fatality rate (represented by two sub-indicators, i.e., fatalities per vehicle and fatalities per vehicle kilometer traveled). These indicators were aggregated into a composite indicator or index through a multiple layer data envelopment analysis (DEA) composite indicator model, which looks for the optimum combination of indicators' weights for each decision-making unit, in this case 27 Brazilian states. The index score represents the road safety performance, based on which a ranking of states can be made. Since such a model has never been applied for road safety evaluation in Brazil, its parameters were calibrated based on the experience of more consolidated European Union research in ranking its member countries using DEA techniques. Secondly, cluster analysis was conducted aiming to provide more realistic performance comparisons and, finally, the sensitivity of the results was measured through a bootstrapping method application. It can be concluded that by combining fatality indicators, defining clusters and applying bootstrapping procedures a trustworthy ranking can be created, which is valuable for nationwide road safety planning.
Vieira de Campos, André Luiz
The Special Public Health Service (Servicio Especial de Salud Pública-SESP) was created in 1942 as a bilateral agency between Brazil and the United States, thanks to an agreement signed by the Brazilian Ministry of Education and Health and the Institute for Inter-American Affairs. Although it was originally conceived by the Americans as a temporary agency with the military purposes of "cleaning the Amazon" and stimulating rubber production, the SESP contributed from its beginningS to an expansion of the presence of the Brazilian state. In the context of the "Cold War" and the "discovery of underdevelopment", the SESP reoriented its goals towards the formation of a district model of healthcare, based on the construction of a horizontal and permanent network of sanitary units. Despite its international constitution and its inspiration on a American model, the health policies of the SESP in Brazil never resulted from a one-way process. On the contrary, they were the result of a process of conflict, negotiation, resistance and adaptation. The combination of American influences and local responses shaped the history of the SESP in Brazil.
Ramalho, Laís V; Távora, Vladimir A; Tilbrook, Kevin J; Zágoršek, Kamil
The Pirabas Formation in Brazil has been studied for many years and a great diversity of animal groups (in particular fishes, molluscs and echinoderms) have been described from there, whereas the Bryozoa have scarcely been mentioned. New samples, collected specifically to focus on bryozoans, have shown that the diversity in this formation is higher than previously thought. Here we describe two new species belonging to the cheilostomate genus Hippopleurifera--H. barbosae sp. nov. and H. confusa sp. nov. Both species were collected at Atalaia Beach, northeastern Pará state, which boasts some of the best marine Cenozoic fossil outcrops in Brazil. After accounting for all described species, plus the two new species and four generic reassignments (new combinations) described herein, some 29 Hippopleurifera species are now known. Most of these are fossils from Europe or the USA, but a handful are known from the Recent Mediterranean, Caribbean and Indo-West Pacific.
Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva
This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.
Melo, Cristiane Maria Fernandes de; Oliveira, Jaqueline Bianque; Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Dantas, Antônio Flávio Medeiros; Wagner, Paulo Guilherme Carniel; Febrônio, Andrei Brum
In this study, we investigated the presence of gastrointestinal helminths in 97 captive birds (Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes) necropsied between June and December 2011 in the state of Paraiba, Brazil. Forty-three birds were infected. Psittaciformes were infected by nematode Ascaridia hermaphrodita (97.6%) and cestode Raillietina sp. (2.4%). A. hermaphrodita was found in all species of parrots and Raillietina sp. was found only in Amazona aestiva. A. hermaphrodita was the cause of death, by intestinal obstruction, in 14 of the 40 birds investigated. Accipitriformes were infected by nematode Synhimantus (Synhimantus) rectus (100%) and acantocephalan Centrorhynchus tumidulus (50%). In Brazil, Diopsittaca nobilis and A. aestiva are reported for the first time as hosts of A. hermaphrodita and Raillietina sp., respectively. We concluded that Psittaciformes and Accipitriformes in captivity are affected by nematodes, cestodes and acanthocephalans and that implementation of control measures is essential.
Bündchen, Márcia; Boeger, Maria Regina T; Reissmann, Carlos B; Geronazzo, Kelly M
The purpose of this study was to analyze the seasonal variation in the nutrient and pigment content of leaves from five tree species - of which three are perennial (Cupania vernalis, Matayba elaeagnoides and Nectandra lanceolata) and two are deciduous (Cedrela fissilis and Jacaranda micrantha) - in an ecotone between a Deciduous Seasonal Forest and a Mixed Ombrophilous Forest in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Leaf samples were collected in the four seasons of the year to determine the content of macronutrients (N, K, P, Mg, Ca, S) and photosynthetic pigments (Chla, Chlb, Chltot, Cartot, Chla:Chlb and Cartot:Chltot). The principal component analysis showed that leaf pigments contributed to the formation of the first axis, which explains most of the data variance for all species, while leaf nutrient contribution showed strong interspecific variation. These results demonstrate that the studied species have different strategies for acquisition and use of mineral resources and acclimation to light, which are determinant for them to coexist in the forest environment.
Cruz, Carolina Fordellone Rosa; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Galati, Eunice A Bianchi
The high proportion of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported amongst residents in the city of Bandeirantes, in the state of Paraná, Brazil, led the authors to investigate the phlebotomine fauna in both urban and rural environments. The sandflies were captured with automatic light traps from 07:00 pm-07:00 am fortnightly in 11 urban peridomiciles from April 2008-March 2009 and monthly in three ecotopes within four rural localities from April 2009-March 2010. In one of these latter localities, sandfly capture was conducted with white/black Shannon traps during each of three seasons: spring, summer and fall. A total of 5,729 sandflies of 17 species were captured. Nyssomyia neivai (46.7%) and Nyssomyia whitmani (35.3%) were the predominant species. In this study, 3,865 specimens were captured with automatic light traps: 22 (0.083 sandflies/trap) in the urban areas and 3,843 (26.69 sandflies/trap) in the rural areas. Ny. neivai was predominant in urban (68.2%) and rural (42.8%) areas. A total of 1,864 specimens were captured with the white/black Shannon traps and Ny. neivai (54.5%) and Ny. whitmani (31.4%) were the predominant species captured. The small numbers of sandflies captured in the urban areas suggest that the transmission of Leishmania has occurred in the rural area due to Ny. neivai and Ny. whitmani as the probable vectors. PMID:23778669
Freddo, Silvia Letícia; Aerts, Denise Rangel Ganzo de Castro; Abegg, Claídes; Davoglio, Rosane; Vieira, Patrícia Conzatti; Monteiro, Lisiane
This study evaluated oral hygiene habits and use of dental services among teenage students, and analyzed their association with sociodemographic factors and life styles. This cross-sectional study included a representative sample of 1,170 seventh-graders from municipal public schools of Gravataí, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The Cox regression model for univariate analysis, modified for cross-sectional studies, was used to analyze the association between variables. Of the adolescents included in the study, 77.8% brushed their teeth three or more times a day, 31.9% flossed daily, 68.9% visited the dentist regularly, and 50% visited the dentist for dental treatment. Tooth brushing was more frequent among female adolescents. Lower socioeconomic status was associated with a lower frequency of daily flossing, fewer annual dental visits, and a greater prevalence of dental treatment visits. Similar results were found for adolescents with a sedentary lifestyle or that had tried smoking. The consumption of candy was associated with lower frequency of annual dental visits, and the consumption of soft drinks, with greater frequency of treatment visits. A healthy life style was associated with better oral hygiene habits and more frequent dental visits.
... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...
... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...
... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...
Reis, N R; Gallo, P H; Peracchi, A L; Lima, L P; Fregonezi, M N
Most natural forests have been converted for human use, restricting biological life to small forest fragments. Many animals, including some species of bats are disappearing and the list of these species grows every day. It seems that the destruction of the habitat is one of its major causes. This study aimed to analyze how this community of bats was made up in environments with different sizes and quality of habitat. Data from studies conducted in the region of Londrina, Parana, Brazil, from 1982 to 2000 were used. Originally, this area was covered by a semi deciduous forest, especially Aspidosperma polyneuron (Apocynaceae), Ficus insipida (Moraceae), Euterpe edulis (Arecaceae), Croton floribundus (Euforbiaceae), and currently, only small remnants of the original vegetation still exist. The results showed a decline in the number of species caught in smaller areas compared to the largest remnant. In about 18 years of sampling, 42 species of bats were found in the region, representing 67% of the species that occur in Paraná and 24.4% in Brazil. There were two species of Noctilionidae; 21 of Phyllostoma; 11 Vespertilionidae and eight Molossidae. Eight of these were captured only in the largest fragment, Mata dos Godoy State Park (680 ha). Ten species had a low capture rate in the smaller areas with less than three individuals. Of the total sampled, 14 species were found in human buildings, and were able to tolerate modified environments, foraging and even using them as shelter. As the size of the forest area increases, there is a greater variety of ecological opportunities and their physical conditions become more stable, i.e., conditions favorable for growth and survival of a greater number of species. Forest fragmentation limits and creates subpopulations, preserving only long-lived K-strategist animals for some time, where the supporting capacity of the environment is a limiting factor. The reduction of habitats, species and genetic diversity resulting from human
Scheibler, D R
I examined the diet of breeding White-tailed Kites (Elanus leucurus; Aves; Accipitridae) and Barn Owls (Tyto alba; Aves; Tytonidae) in an agrarian area of southern Brazil by analyzing regurgitated prey remains. The objective was to evaluate how these raptors, which differ markedly in their hunting activity periods (owls are nocturnal and kites diurnal), share their mammalian food component. 2,087 prey consumed by Barn Owls and 1,276 by White-tailed Kites were identified. They presented a high overlap of food-niches (Piankas index was 0.98). Based on the daily activity period of their main small mammal prey, a lower overlap would be expected. The crepuscular/nocturnal Mus musculus was the main prey for the diet of breeding Barn Owls (81%) and White-tailed Kites (63%). This small exotic rodent provided 63% of the small mammal biomass ingested by owls and 44% by kites. Larger native small mammals were also considered important for the diet of kites, mainly because of their biomass contribution. Although these raptors differ markedly in their hunting activity periods, Barn Owls and White-tailed Kites are very similar predators in southern Brazil, overlapping their diets.
Raboni, Sonia Mara; Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Beloto, Nayara Carvalho Polido; Demeneck, Henrique; Oliveira, Andre; Largura, Denis; Sagrado, Andressa Gervasoni; Lima, Bárbara Perdonsini; Franzoni, João Paulo; Pedroso, Maria Lucia
Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus share a similar transmission pathway and are often diagnosed in the same patient. These patients tend to have a faster progression of hepatic fibrosis. This cross-sectional study describes the demographic features and clinical profile of human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis co-infected patients in Paraná, Southern Brazil. A total of 93 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care academic hospital in Southern Brazil were included. Clinical, demographic and epidemiological data were evaluated. Hepatitis B virus and/or hepatitis C virus positive serology was found in 6.6% of patients. The anti-hepatitis C virus serum test was positive in 85% (79/93) of patients, and the infection was confirmed in 72% of the cases. Eighteen patients (19%) were human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis B virus positive (detectable HBsAg). Among co-infected patients, there was a high frequency of drug use, and investigations for the detection of co-infection were conducted late. A low number of patients were eligible for treatment and, although the response to antiretroviral therapy was good, there was a very poor response to hepatitis therapy. Our preliminary findings indicate the need for protocols aimed at systematic investigation of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, thus allowing for early detection and treatment of co-infected patients.
Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J
There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (∼ 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil.
Almeida, Alexandre O.; Simões, Sabrina M.; Costa, Rogério C.; Mantelatto, Fernando L.
The occurrence of two alien alpheid shrimps of the genus Athanas Leach, 1814 [in Leach 1813-1814], the Indo-West Pacific A. dimorphus Ortmann, 1894 and the Eastern Atlantic A. nitescens (Leach, 1813 [in Leach 1813-1814]), on the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, is reported. The presence of A. dimorphus extends the range of this species in the western Atlantic farther to the south in Brazil, whereas A. nitescens is reported for the first time in the western Atlantic, representing the second alien alpheid species on this side of the Atlantic and the twenty-first decapod crustacean introduced in Brazil. We provide morphological accounts of the material examined and illustrate the most important diagnostic characters of both species. An overview of the possible mechanisms of their introduction on the coast of São Paulo is also provided.
Junqueira, Danilo Guedes; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Gonçalves, Vitor Salvador Picão; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Almeida, Valéria Maria de Andrade; Nicolino, Rafael Romero; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Mota, Ana Lourdes Arrais de Alencar; Veloso, Flávio Pereira; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Lage, Andrey Pereira
The present survey aimed at estimating the seroprevalence of brucellosis in working equines of cattle farms from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and investigating risk factors associated with the infection. Serum samples from 6439 animals, including 5292 horses, 1037 mules and 110 donkeys, were collected from 1936 herds, between September 2003 and March 2004, in 848 municipalities from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella spp. found in equines from Minas Gerais State was 1.37% (95% CI: 0.97-1.78), resulting in a prevalence of herds with infected animals of 4.28% (95% CI: 4.21-4.36). There were differences between regions but these were not of major epidemiological relevance nor were most of them statistically significant, given the considerable overlap of confidence intervals. Nevertheless, the point estimates suggest that the three northeastern regions have slightly higher prevalence than the rest of the state, both at the herd and animal levels. No association of Brucella spp. seropositivity with sex, age or host was observed. In conclusion, the present study showed a low but widespread prevalence of antibodies against smooth Brucella in equines kept in cattle farms in Minas Gerais, a state where bovine brucellosis is also widespread albeit with low prevalence.
Gomes, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; Vieira, José Luiz Fernandes; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Nacher, Mathieu; Couto, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Couto, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida
Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.
GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida
SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177
Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro
Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO © software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19% (CONSERV) and 42% (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.
Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Fearnside, Philip Martin; Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima de Alencastro
Reconstruction of Highway BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho) would allow for access from the "arc of deforestation" in the southern part of Brazil's Amazon region to vast blocks of forests in central and northern Amazonia. Building roads is known to be a major driver of deforestation, allowing entry of squatters, and other actors. Rather than deforestation along the highway route, here we consider the road's potential for stimulating deforestation in a separate location, approximately 550 km north of BR-319's endpoint in Manaus. Reconstructing BR-319 has great potential impact to start a new wave of migration to this remote region. The southern portion of the state of Roraima, the focus of our study, is already connected to Manaus by Highway BR-174. We modeled deforestation in southern Roraima and simulated carbon emissions between 2007 and 2030 under four scenarios. Simulations used the AGROECO model in DINAMICA-EGO software. Two scenarios were considered with reconstruction of BR-319 and two without this road connection. For each of the two possibilities regarding BR-319, simulations were developed for (1) a "conservation" (CONSERV) scenario that assumes the creation of a series of protected areas, and (2) a "business-as-usual" (BAU) scenario that assumes no additional protected areas. Results show that by 2030, with BR-319 rebuilt, deforestation carbon emissions would increase between 19 % (CONSERV) and 42 % (BAU) over and above those corresponding to no-road scenarios.
Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Siegel, Herbert; Wacker, Lukas; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), a key aspect of the Earth's climate, drives regional to global oceanic and climate changes on various time-scales. Differences in the temporal coverage of Holocene records for the more general state in El Niño frequency, however, restrict a comprehensive overview. Oceanic variability offshore southern Australia is linked to the Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transporting tropical waters from the Indo Pacific Warm Pool region towards higher latitudes. Instrumental data, spanning the last few decades, document that ENSO modulates LC variability. Here we present new, well-dated time series from two marine sediment cores (MD03-2611 and SS0206-GC 15)of past LC variability, based on alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) and planktonic foraminifera offshore southern Australia, an area affected by recent El Niño and La Niña events. Our reconstructions of ENSO-state changes cover the last 7,400 years. With transition into the mid Holocene [dates], we find clear evidence that oceanic conditions prevailed under the dominant influence of a persistent La Niña mode. A strong LC produces a stratified water column and establishes a permanent thermocline as seen in the high abundance of the 'tropical fauna' (Globoturborotalita rubescens, Globoturborotalita tenella and Globigerinella sacculifer (including G. trilobus)) and maximum SST offshore southern Australia. During this La Niña-state dominated period, we record at c. 5000 years BP the first short period of a strong El Niño-like-state, by a pronounced drop in abundance of the subtropical species Globigerinoides ruber and a reduced SST gradient between the two core sites. The Late Holocene (from 3,500 years BP onwards) period is characterized by centennial to millennial scale variability in the LC strength, which is accompanied by an overall decrease of SSTs offshore southern Australia. We link this LC variability to Late Holocene centennial
Albano, A P N; Klafke, G B; Brandolt, T M; Da Hora, V P; Minello, L F; Jorge, S; Santos, E O; Behling, G M; Camargo, Z P; Xavier, M O; Meireles, M C A
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, causes the principal form of systemic mycosis in Brazil. The literature furnishes only limited data on the ecology of this fungus in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal infection in wild animals, using serological tests and using the animals as sentinels of the presence of P. brasiliensis in three specified mesoregions of Rio Grande do Sul. A total of 128 wild animals from the three mesoregions were included in the study. The serum samples were evaluated by immunodiffusion and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique to detect anti-gp43 antibodies from P. brasiliensis. Two conjugates were tested and compared with the ELISA technique. Although no positive samples were detected by immunodiffusion, 26 animals (20%), belonging to 13 distinct species, were found to be seropositive by the ELISA technique. The seropositive animals were from two mesoregions of the state. The results were similar according to the gender, age, and family of the animals, but differed significantly according to the conjugate used (p < 0.001), showing more sensitivity to protein A-peroxidase than to protein G-peroxidase. The finding that wild animals from the state of Rio Grande do Sul are exposed to P. brasiliensis suggests that the fungus can be found in this region despite the often-rigorous winters, which frequently include below-freezing temperatures.
Reis, T A; Oliveira, T D; Baquião, A C; Gonçalves, S S; Zorzete, P; Corrêa, B
The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid) in Brazil nut samples collected in different states of the Brazilian Amazon region: Acre, Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará. A total of 200 husk samples and 200 almond samples were inoculated onto Aspergillus flavus-parasiticus agar for the detection of fungi. Mycotoxins were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The mycobiota comprised the following fungi, in decreasing order of frequency: almonds - Phialemonium spp. (54%), Penicillium spp. (16%), Fusarium spp. (13%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), and Aspergillus spp. (4%), husks - Phialemonium spp. (62%), Phaeoacremonium spp. (11%), Penicillium spp. (10%), Fusarium spp. (9%), and Aspergillus spp. A polyphasic approach was used for identification of Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 22 (11%) of the 200 almond samples, with 21 samples presenting aflatoxin B(1) levels above 8μg/kg, the limit established by the European Commission for Brazil nuts for further processing. Nineteen (9.5%) of the 200 husk samples contained aflatoxins, but at levels lower than those seen in almonds. Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) was detected in 44 (22%) almond samples, with levels ranging from 98.65 to 161.2μg/kg. Aspergillus nomius and A. flavus were the most frequent Aspergillus species. The presence of fungi does not necessarily imply mycotoxin contamination, but almonds of the Brazil nut seem to be a good substrate for fungal growth.
Souza, Eder Dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu
Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensissp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensissp. n.
Souza, Eder dos Santos; Von Atzingen, Noé Carlos Barbosa; Furtado, Maria Betânia; de Oliveira, Jader; Nascimento, Juliana Damieli; Vendrami, Daniel Pagotto; Gardim, Sueli; da Rosa, João Aristeu
Abstract Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. was collected on 12 May 2014 in the Murumurú Environmental Reserve in the city of Marabá, Pará State, Brazil. This study was based on previous consultation of morphological descriptions of 19 Rhodnius species and compared to the identification key for the genus Rhodnius. The examination included specimens from 18 Rhodnius species held in the Brazilian National and International Triatomine Taxonomy Reference Laboratory in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The morphological characteristics of the head, thorax, abdomen, genitalia, and eggs have been determined. Rhodnius prolixus and Rhodnius robustus were examined in more detail because the BLAST analysis of a cyt-b sequence shows they are closely related to the new species, which also occurs in the northern region of Brazil. The most notable morphological features that distinguish Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. are the keel-shaped apex of the head, the length of the second segment of the antennae, the shapes of the prosternum, mesosternum and metasternum, the set of spots on the abdomen, the male genitalia, the posterior and ventral surfaces of the external female genitalia, and the morphological characteristics of the eggs. Rhodnius jacundaensis Serra, Serra & Von Atzingen (1980) nomen nudum specimens deposited at the Maraba Cultural Center Foundation - MCCF were examined and considered as a synonym of Rhodnius marabaensis sp. n. PMID:27833419
Drachler, M de Lourdes; Bobák, M; Rodrigues, L; Aertz, D R G de Castro; Leite, J C de Carvalho; Dánová, J; Kríz, B
Children's height is an important indicator of nutritional status and health of populations. Little is known about the role of individual socioeconomic factors and whether socioeconomic differences within countries can help explaining differences in children's height between countries. This paper examines the effect of socioeconomic factors on children's height in two population with different social environments. Two separate cross-sectional studies of children 36-59 months old from Southern Brazil and the Czech Republic collected data on height and socioeconomic and demographic variables. Height was converted into height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) based on one growth standard, and the effect of socioeconomic and demographic factors on children's heights was studied by multiple regression. First, these effects were estimated separately for each country, and secondly, it was assessed whether some of the difference in height between the two countries could be explained by these factors. Czech children were 0.61 HAZ (approximately 2.6 cm) taller than Brazilian children. In Brazil, income, dwelling conditions, birth order, birth weight and maternal age were independently and significantly associated with height (multiple R-squared 0.27). In the Czech Republic, maternal education, birth order, birth weight and maternal age predicted height in a multivariate analysis (multiple R-squared 0.11). Maternal education alone explained 30% of the difference in children's height between Brazil and the Czech Republic; further adjustment for education of the father, birth weight, number of siblings and birth order slightly increased the proportion of explained difference to 41%. Our results suggest that although socioeconomic and demographic factors predicted children's growth in both countries, the role of individual factors differed and the associations were stronger in South Brazil. The finding that these factors explained a large part of the between-population difference further
Gómez, Eduardo J
Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.
Grabowski, Raphael Cezar; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia; Castilho, Antonio Leão
The predictability of certain environmental factors that affect the life cycle of the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) was evaluated in a study of its reproductive biology in an area adjacent to Babitonga Bay, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Monthly sampling was conducted from July 2010 through June 2011 at depths of 5, 8, 11, 14, and 17 m. 76 004 individuals were obtained, with a pronounced peak in absolute abundance in austral autumn (34 208), coinciding with the annual closed season from March to May. Grain size composition of the sediment showed the closest relationship to the distribution of individuals (multiple linear regression, P <0.05), related to their burying habit. The observed correlations between the abundance of reproductive males (bearing spermatophores) and females with spent gonads (cross-correlation, P <0.05), and between reproductive males and reproductive females (with a 1-month lag) suggest that the peak of reproductive males preceded the peak of female ones. This result agrees with the pattern expected for females, which copulate in post-ecdysis (spent gonads). Spawning seemed to take place at greater depths, as evidenced by the concentration of reproductive females in these areas. The reproductive activities observed here confirm that this species follows a tropical/subtropical reproductive pattern, spawning continuously throughout the year, with the highest peaks in spring and autumn. The data indicate that the juvenile recruitment period observed in August-September resulted from the reproductive output noted in April-May. Additionally, the reproductive period recorded in November led to the juvenile peak observed in March-May.
Ronquim, Carlos C.; Silva, Ramon F. B.; de Figueiredo, Eduardo B.; Bordonal, Ricardo O.; de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Cochasrk, Thomas C. D.; Leivas, Janice F.
We studied the Paraíba do Sul river watershed, São Paulo state (PSWSP), Southeastern Brazil, in order to assess the land use and cover (LULC) and their implications to the amount of carbon (C) stored in the forest cover between the years 1985 and 2015. The region covers an area of 1,395,975 ha. We used images made by the Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor (OLI/Landsat-8) to produce mappings, and image segmentation techniques to produce vectors with homogeneous characteristics. The training samples and the samples used for classification and validation were collected from the segmented image. To quantify the C stocked in aboveground live biomass (AGLB), we used an indirect method and applied literature-based reference values. The recovery of 205,690 ha of a secondary Native Forest (NF) after 1985 sequestered 9.7 Tg (Teragram) of C. Considering the whole NF area (455,232 ha), the amount of C accumulated along the whole watershed was 35.5 Tg, and the whole Eucalyptus crop (EU) area (113,600 ha) sequestered 4.4 Tg of C. Thus, the total amount of C sequestered in the whole watershed (NF + EU) was 39.9 Tg of C or 145.6 Tg of CO2, and the NF areas were responsible for the largest C stock at the watershed (89%). Therefore, the increase of the NF cover contributes positively to the reduction of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) may become one of the most promising compensation mechanisms for the farmers who increased forest cover at their farms.
da Costa, Marta Cocco; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques; Soares, Joannie dos Santos Fachinelli
This study analyses health managers' perceptions of local public health agendas addressing violence against rural women in municipalities in the southern part of the State Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It consists of an exploratory descriptive study utilizing a qualitative approach. Municipal health managers responsible for planning actions directed at women's health and primary health care were interviewed. The analysis sought to explore elements of programmatic vulnerability related to violence in the interviewees' narratives based on the following dimensions of programmatic vulnerability: expression of commitment, transformation of commitment into action, and planning and coordination. It was found that local health agendas directed at violence against rural women do not exist. Health managers are therefore faced with the challenge of defining lines of action in accordance with the guidelines and principles of the SUS. The repercussions of this situation are expressed in fragile comprehensive services for these women and programmatic vulnerability.
Varejão, Eduardo V V; Bellato, Carlos R; Fontes, Maurício P F
The Iron Quadrangle (IQ) region, located in the state of Minas Gerais, has been the most important gold producing area in Brazil since the end of seventeenth century. The use of mercury for gold amalgamation in small scale mines has been responsible for large release of Hg to aquatic and terrestrial environments during 300 years of mining. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of Hg in stream sediments is the southern region of the IQ by utilizing sequential extraction. Since mobility and availability of Hg are related to its distribution among sediment partitions, fractionation methods provide detailed information on the ecotoxicological impact and risks associated to the presence of Hg in sediments. The total Hg concentration varied from 179.3 to 690.1 microg kg( - 1) and Hg(0) accounted for the majority at all sample sites, ranging from 42% to 56% of the total.
Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, P