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Sample records for state southwestern nigeria

  1. Eocene ostracoda from Oshosun formation Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okosun, E. A.

    A biostratigraphic study of the phosphate-bearing Oshosun Formation in southwestern Nigeria (eastern Dahomey Embayment) gave ostracos which are diagnostic for the Eocene. The ostracod assemblage contains the early to middle Eocene zonal index Costa dahomeyi. The majority of the species are common to the phosphatic sequence in the western Dahomey Embayment. This paleontologic evidence, and the association of clay and shale with the phosphate occurrences in different parts of the basin, suggest that the phosphatic beds were deposited in the Dahomey Embayment under similar paleoenvironmental conditions. Phosphatic sedimentation in southwestern Nigeria is inferred to have occurred during an early to early middle Eocene minor marine transgression.

  2. Assessment of iodine deficiency and goitre incidence in parts of Yewa Area of Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo, A M; Oyesanya, T M

    2005-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the occurrence, prevalence and contributing factors to the incidence of goitre in Yewa north local government area of Ogun state, southwestern Nigeria. To achieve these objectives, soil, water, and cassava tubers were collected from four villages -- Igbogila, Egua, Sawonjo and Imoto and from Lagos (about 250 m to the ocean) as a reference location, in order to determine their iodine concentrations. The results of the analyses indicated a soil mean iodine range of 2.1-5.8 microg g(-1); a cassava mean iodine value of 2.3-3.5 mug g(-1) and a drinking water mean iodine value of generally <1.0 microg L(-1) in all the four villages. These values of iodine in soil and water of the four villages are considered low when compared with the soil iodine value of 7.4 microg g(-1) and water iodine value of 6.1 microg L(-1) obtained from Lagos. The limestone unit of the study area remains an inhibiting factor in the bioavailability of the iodine because of its alkalinity. Statistical analysis has shown that there was significant difference between iodine concentration in the soils and the drinking water, and a correlation between the soil iodine and organic matter content at p < 0.05. The correlation between soil iodine and granulometric fractions occurred at p < 0.01. Potential goitrogens in the commonly consumed cassava products might also have contributed to the prevalence of goitre in the study area. Both the females and the adults (i.e., less mobile groups) were found to be vulnerable to goitre development in these villages. PMID:16237605

  3. Listenership of Radio Agricultural Broadcasts in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmanuel, Adekoya Adegbenga; Olabode, Badiru Idris

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural broadcasts on radio play a major role in agricultural extension and rural development in Nigeria due to the low ratio of extension agents in relation to the farming population. The broadcasts have been on air for some time and therefore there is a need to investigate their acceptance among the rural dwellers in Southwestern Nigeria.…

  4. Drought in Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  5. Determinants of use of insecticide treated bednets among caregivers of under five children in an urban local government area of Osun state, South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esimai, O A; Aluko, O O

    2015-01-01

    In Sub Sahara Africa, the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) is one of many strategies of Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiatives to reduce malaria burden. This study therefore assessed the current use of insecticide treated nets and the determinants of its use among the caregivers of under five children in an urban local government area in Osun state, Nigeria. The study utilised a cross-sectional design among caregivers of under- five children selected from households by multistage sampling technique. The study collected quantitative data using pretested semi structured, interviewer administered questionnaire while factors that determine the current use of ITN were identified using multi linear logistic regression. The study revealed that 54.4% caregivers of under five children were aware of ITNs as one of the malaria preventive measures, 49.1% had good knowledge of ITN and 38% agreed with the use of ITNs. Thirty four percent had access to ITNs, 32.3% owned at least one ITN with 30.3% reported been given free in the health care facilities. Thirty three percent had ever used and the foremost reasons for non-use are not readily available and expensive. Only 18.5% currently used ITNs and challenges faced were not easy to treat, difficult to set up and no place to keep it. Marital status, knowledge of ITN, attitude towards ITN, ownership of ITN and free ITN were factors that determined the use of ITNs amongst the respondents. There is a need to ensure intensive awareness on ITNs through campaigns and embark on its mass distribution to the public to enhance use.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from some rivers in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable development of resistance has sunk the great success achieved in the discovery of antimicrobial agents and dashed the hope of man in the recovery from infections and illnesses, as diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antimicrobials are now re-emerging in new leagues resistance to therapy. A total of 300 PCR confirmed Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different river sources in Osun State, Nigeria were evaluated for their antibiogram profiling by the disc diffusion method and the resistant isolates were further profiled for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by polymerase chain reaction assays. Among the 20 antimicrobials selected from 10 families, resistance among sulfonamides, β-lactams and tetracyclines were found to be most frequent than phenicols and aminoglycosides with a noticeable increase in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from three to nine antimicrobials. A total of 19 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [sulfonamides sulI (8%), sulII (41%)], [β-lactams; ampC 22%; blaTEM, (21%), and blaZ (18%),], [tetracyclines tetA (24%), tetB (23%), tetC (18%), tetD (78%), tetK (15%), and tetM, (10%)], [phenicols; catI (37%), catII (28%), and cmIA1 (19%)] and [aminoglycosides; aacC2 (8%), aphA1 (80%), aphA2 (80%), aadA (79%) and strA (38%)]. The Pearson chi-square exact test revealed many strong significant associations among ampC, blaTEM, blaZ and tetA genes with some determinants screened. The findings signify high increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the ingestion of waters from untreated sources. Hence, a necessity for safe water supply, provision of proper sanitation facilities and good surveillance programmes to monitor antimicrobial resistance patterns in water bodies.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance determinants of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from some rivers in Osun State, South-Western Nigeria: Implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Titilawo, Yinka; Obi, Larry; Okoh, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    The inevitable development of resistance has sunk the great success achieved in the discovery of antimicrobial agents and dashed the hope of man in the recovery from infections and illnesses, as diseases and disease agents that were once thought to be controlled by antimicrobials are now re-emerging in new leagues resistance to therapy. A total of 300 PCR confirmed Escherichia coli isolates recovered from different river sources in Osun State, Nigeria were evaluated for their antibiogram profiling by the disc diffusion method and the resistant isolates were further profiled for their genotypic antimicrobial resistance determinants by polymerase chain reaction assays. Among the 20 antimicrobials selected from 10 families, resistance among sulfonamides, β-lactams and tetracyclines were found to be most frequent than phenicols and aminoglycosides with a noticeable increase in the number of multi-drug resistance ranging from three to nine antimicrobials. A total of 19 resistance determinants were assessed with their prevalence and distributions obtained as follows; [sulfonamides sulI (8%), sulII (41%)], [β-lactams; ampC 22%; blaTEM, (21%), and blaZ (18%),], [tetracyclines tetA (24%), tetB (23%), tetC (18%), tetD (78%), tetK (15%), and tetM, (10%)], [phenicols; catI (37%), catII (28%), and cmIA1 (19%)] and [aminoglycosides; aacC2 (8%), aphA1 (80%), aphA2 (80%), aadA (79%) and strA (38%)]. The Pearson chi-square exact test revealed many strong significant associations among ampC, blaTEM, blaZ and tetA genes with some determinants screened. The findings signify high increase in the prevalence of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates and resistance determinants indicating increased public health risks associated with the ingestion of waters from untreated sources. Hence, a necessity for safe water supply, provision of proper sanitation facilities and good surveillance programmes to monitor antimicrobial resistance patterns in water bodies. PMID:25862994

  8. Groundwater fluoride and dental fluorosis in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo, A M

    2012-10-01

    This study was carried out to assess the fluoride levels of groundwater from open wells, consumed by the residents of three communities located in two distinct geological terrains of southwestern Nigeria. Fluoride concentration was determined using spectrophotometric technique, while analysis of other parameters like temperature, pH and total dissolve solids followed standard methods. Results of the analysis indicated that groundwater samples from Abeokuta Metropolis (i.e., basement complex terrain) had fluoride content in the range of 0.65 ± 0.21 and 1.20 ± 0.14. These values were found to be lower than the fluoride contents in the groundwater samples from Ewekoro peri-urban and Lagos metropolis where the values ranged between 1.10 ± 0.14-1.45 ± 0.07 and 0.15 ± 0.07-2.20 ± 1.41 mg/l, respectively. The fluoride contents in almost all locations were generally higher than the WHO recommended 0.6 mg/l. Analysis of Duncan multiple range test indicated that there is similarity in the level of significance of fluoride contents between different locations of same geological terrain at p ≤ 0.05. It was also observed that fluoride distribution of groundwater samples from the different geological terrain was more dependent on factors like pH and TDS than on temperature. The result of the analyzed social demographic characteristics of the residents indicated that the adults (between the age of 20 and >40 years) showed dental decay than the adolescent (<20 years). This signifies incidence of dental fluorosis by the high fluoride content in the drinking water of the populace. Further investigation on all sources of drinking water and other causes of tooth decay in the area is suggested.

  9. Dietary Diversity as a Correlate of Undernutrition among School-Age Children in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olumakaiye, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the association between undernutrition and dietary diversity among school-age children in southwestern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 600 school children were randomly selected from six private and six public schools in the region. A standardized FAO-published 24-hour diet recall…

  10. Adults Who Learn: Sharing Literacy Project Experience from South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolawole, Oluwatoyin Dare

    2011-01-01

    The paper reports the outcome of a funded non-formal, functional adult literacy project embarked upon in the university-based "Isoya" rural development programme area in south-western Nigeria from 2005-2007. It specifically presents the approaches used in legitimising the literacy project amongst community people; and reports the positive impact…

  11. Critical Thinking Dispositions of Undergraduate Nursing Students and Nursing Faculty in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojewole, Foluso O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…

  12. The incidence and distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat vegetables in South-Western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayeoba, Titilayo A; Atanda, Olusegun O; Obadina, Adewale O; Bankole, Mobolaji O; Adelowo, Olawale O

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables: (Cucumber, Cucumis sativas; Cabbage, Brassica olerecea; Carrot, Daucus carota; Tomato, Solanum lycopersicum; Lettuce, Lactuca sativa) in six states in South-Western Nigeria. A total of 555 composite samples were collected from 30 traditional markets within the states and only 244 L. monocytogenes species were isolated by standard methods. The incidence of L. monocytogenes was low and not statistically significant per vegetable type. The percentage distribution of the L. monocytogenes isolates in the RTE vegetables was 28.28, 9.02, 23.36, 19.67, and 19.67 for Cabbage, Carrot, Cucumber, Lettuce, and Tomatoes, respectively. Lagos state had the highest incidence of L. monocytogenes contamination (55%) followed by Ondo (48.89%), Oyo (48.75%), Ogun (44.09%), Osun (34.38%), and Ekiti (33.33%) states, respectively. Although the incidence of L. monocytogenes in the RTE vegetables in South-Western Nigeria is low, its presence should be a source of concern as it could constitute a public health threat for its consumers. PMID:26788311

  13. Inclusive Education Setting in Southwestern Nigeria: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluremi, Fareo Dorcas

    2015-01-01

    Researches from developed and developing countries found that there were problems affecting the inclusive education in Nigeria. Hence, there is need to determine the challenges facing the schools where inclusive education is being implemented, and what could be done to improve the programme. The study showed that essential facilities and materials…

  14. Prevalence of neck and back pain among dentists and dental auxiliaries in South-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abiodun-Solanke, I M F; Agbaje, J O; Ajayi, D M; Arotiba, J T

    2010-06-01

    Dental health workers like other workers have occupation related health problems and hazards which include neck and low back pain. Previous studies have shown that the prevalence and location of pain may be influenced by posture and work habits and as well as demographic factors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of neck and back problems among dentists and dental auxiliaries in private and government dental hospitals in south western Nigeria. Structured self administered questionnaire was sent to dentist and dental auxiliaries by randomly selecting 3 out of the 6 state capital from the southwestern Nigeria. Participants included those in private clinics, teaching hospitals and general hospitals. The questionnaire was composed of respondents biodata, questions about specific information on neck and back pain and routine practice posture while working at chairside. The total number of properly filled questionnaire was 210 with a male to female ratio of 1.04:1. Respondents included 147 dentists, 37 dental surgeon assistants (DSA), 14 dental therapists and 12 dental technologists. Prevalence of back and neck pain among the respondents was 88.1% and 81.9% respectively. Among the male respondents, the prevalence of back pain was 86.9% and 89.3% in female while for neck pain, the prevalence was 83.2% in male and 80.6% in female. Within the different professional groups, the prevalence of back pain was highest among the DSA (89.2%), closely followed by the dentists (88.4%), then therapists (85.7%) and least among the technologists (83.3%). For neck pain, the prevalence was highest among therapists followed by technologists, dentists and least among the DSA. More females missed work due to back and neck pain than males. There is therefore the need to address ergonomic issues and change the way dentistry is practiced. PMID:21117410

  15. Prevalence, distribution and pattern of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotosho, Oladipo O; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Lasisi, Olalekan T; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric lesions, especially ulceration, cause significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The study was designed to assess its prevalence, distribution and pattern in pigs in south-western Nigeria. Slaughter house surveys were conducted on three government-established abattoirs in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states. Stomachs from 480 pigs were assessed for gross lesions, which were graded using a modification of a standard technique. Tissues from different regions of the stomach were routinely stained to assess histopathologic changes. Data were presented as frequency counts and analysed using analysis of variance and chi-square technique. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Gastric lesions were encountered across the four regions of the stomach with a point prevalence of 57.29%. The prevalence of lesions in the non-glandular region was 32.9%, with severe hyperkeratosis (13.13%) being most frequently observed (p < 0.05). Erosions were significantly higher in the cardia (8.54%) (p < 0.05), followed by fundus (8.33%). Gastric ulcers were significantly higher in the fundus (19.58%) (p < 0.05). Scars of healed ulcers and lacerations were also observed in the fundus (5.42%) (p < 0.05). The gastric lesion distribution across the four regions of the stomach and the occurrence of ulceration in the fundus showed an unusual pattern, which is rarely reported in other parts of the world. The reason for these findings in pigs in Nigeria is not fully understood; therefore, further studies are required to identify and manage these factors for increased productivity, improved animal welfare and enhanced food security. PMID:27247073

  16. Application of high resolution aeromagnetic data for basement topography mapping of Siluko and environs, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Akanji, Adesoji O.; Olayinka, Abel I.

    2014-11-01

    The discovery of hydrocarbon in commercial quantity in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria, has since the early fifties shifted the attention of exploration/active geological studies from the Dahomey basin and the adjacent basement terrain in south-western Nigeria towards the south and this has left some gaps in information required for the discovery and exploitation of the economic potential of the region. This study mapped the Siluko transition zone in south-western Nigeria in terms of structures, geometry and basement topography with the object of providing requisite geological information that will engender interest in the exploration and exploitation of the numerous economic potentials of south-western part of Nigeria. Acquired high resolution aeromagnetic data were filtered, processed and enhanced, the resultant data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative magnetic interpretation, depth weighting analyses and modelling to generate the subsurface basement topography across the study area. The obtained results indicate regions of high and low magnetic anomalies with residual magnetic intensity values ranging from -100.8 nT to 100.9 nT. Euler Deconvolution indicates generally undulating basement topography with depth range of 125-1812 m. The basement relief is generally gentle and flat lying within the basement terrain with depth ranging from 125 to 500 m. However the sedimentary terrain is undulating and generally steeps south, down the basin with depth range of 300-1812 m. A basement topography model of the magnetic data constrained by Euler solutions correlate positively with the geology of the study area and indicates a generally increasing sedimentary deposits' thickness southward toward the western part of Dahomey basin. The revealed basement topography and structures as well as the delineated direction of continuous increase in thickness of sedimentary deposit provide insight to the controlling factor responsible for tar sand deposit and bitumen

  17. Planning health education: Internet and computer resources in southwestern Nigeria. 2000-2001.

    PubMed

    Oyadoke, Adebola A; Salami, Kabiru K; Brieger, William R

    The use of the Internet as a health education tool and as a resource in health education planning is widely accepted as the norm in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, access to computers and the Internet is quite limited in developing countries. Not all licensed service providers operate, many users are actually foreign nationals, telephone connections are unreliable, and electricity supplies are intermittent. In this context, computer, e-mail, Internet, and CD-Rom use by health and health education program officers in five states in southwestern Nigeria were assessed to document their present access and use. Eight of the 30 organizations visited were government health ministry departments, while the remainder were non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Six NGOs and four State Ministry of Health (MOH) departments had no computers, but nearly two-thirds of both types of agency had e-mail, less than one-third had Web browsing facilities, and six had CD-Roms, all of whom were NGOs. Only 25 of the 48 individual respondents had computer use skills. Narrative responses from individual employees showed a qualitative difference between computer and Internet access and use and type of agency. NGO staff in organizations with computers indicated having relatively free access to a computer and the Internet and used these for both program planning and administrative purposes. In government offices it appeared that computers were more likely to be located in administrative or statistics offices and used for management tasks like salaries and correspondence, limiting the access of individual health staff. These two different organizational cultures must be considered when plans are made for increasing computer availability and skills for health education planning.

  18. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Susan

    This document presents information on Nigeria for use in the elementary classroom. A basic theme of the text is change. Nigeria is currently in a state of change, as are most developing countries. North American children often have an idea of African people as poor and backward. In this text, Nigerian people are presented as a people with a rich…

  19. Geochemistry and U-Pb zircon geochronology of the pegmatites in Ede area, southwestern Nigeria: A newly discovered oldest Pan African rock in southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adetunji, A.; Olarewaju, V. O.; Ocan, O. O.; Ganev, V. Y.; Macheva, L.

    2016-03-01

    Field and petrographic studies, whole rock geochemistry and in-situ LA-ICP-MS geochemical and isotopic U-Pb measurements on zircons have been performed on granitic pegmatites of Ede area, southwestern Nigeria with a view to characterize them, determining their mineralization potentials, petrogenetic attributes and emplacement age. The pegmatites are hosted by migmatite gneiss complex, biotite-muscovite schist and associated quartzite. The textural and mineralogical characteristics of these pegmatites indicate the occurrence of two main varieties, namely, muscovite pegmatite and garnet pegmatite. Of less importance are inclusions and pods of graphic granite, quartz-microcline aplitic and pegmatitic bodies. At the present level of erosion, the parent igneous rocks of the pegmatites are not exposed. The two dominant pegmatite varieties show slightly different chemical peculiarities but similar peraluminous character. The average K/Rb ratios of 165 and 163, respectively, for muscovite and garnet pegmatites combined with other trace element compositions are indicative of affinity to muscovite class of pegmatite which are generally not promising for rare elements mineralization. However, the unusually high concentration of bismuth in the zircons indicates Bi mineralization in the area which can either be in the pegmatites or host rocks. The Nb/Ta ratios for both muscovite and garnet pegmatites range from 0.7 to 15.2 and 1.0 to 14.8, respectively. These Nb/Ta ratios and Eu anomalies are statistically similar for both pegmatites. These probably indicate the pegmatites crystallized from a common source but separated into crystallization paths that produced different pegmatite varieties through liquid-liquid immiscibity mechanism. In-situ measurements of REE, P, Y, Nb, Hf, Ta, Bi, Th and U of individual zircon grains show the existence of two chemically and texturally different domains which are indicative of alteration that may be due to interface-coupled dissolution

  20. Siliciclastic slope deposits from the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group, Dahomey (Benin) Basin, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabode, Solomon O.

    2006-10-01

    Outcrops in the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group of the Dahomey (Benin) Basin in southwestern Nigeria are described. Based on detailed sedimentological logging, 13 lithofacies were delineated. They are: massive and loose sand; cross-bedded loose sand; normally graded sandstone (upward fining sandstone); laminated silt; clay; laminated sandstone; clay with sandstone injections and clasts (sandstone boulders); clayey sand with sandstone boulders; silty clay with intraformational folds and breccias; highly contorted conglomerate/clayey silt; and channel infills. The association of the lithofacies and their sedimentary structures support that these lithologies were deposited by turbidity current, grain flow, debris flow, liquefied flow and fluidized flow. Since these depositional features are diagnostic of slope environments, the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group was concluded to have been deposited in slope environments.

  1. Geophysical investigations for groundwater in Precambrian terrains: a case history from Ikare, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olorunniwo, M. A.; Olorunfemi, M. O.

    Magnetic, very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF) and electrical resistivity methods have been applied in mapping buried bedrock relief for groundwater exploration in the Precambrian terrains of Ikare, southwestern Nigeria. Quantitative interpretation of the magnetic data involved initial modelling and Euler deconvolution using elementary magnetic sources to identify applicable geological models in the spatial domain. A depth estimate of the top of the buried valley of 23 m was obtained. The application of power spectral deconvolution yielded an estimated depth of up to 67 m on the bedrock surface. The VLF data indicated the existence of subsurface lineament in the area while obtained resistivity of the sedimentary fill amounted to 260 ohm-m. The results of the three techniques have successfully delineated a buried river channel for groundwater extraction in a crystalline basement terrain.

  2. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among Health Professional Students in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Awopeju, OF; Erhabor, GE; Awosusi, B; Awopeju, OA; Adewole, OO; Irabor, I

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control among these set of students who will be tomorrow's health care providers. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical schools in South-Western Nigeria with their accompanied nursing and pharmacy students. All students in the selected schools were eligible to participate and student's participation was voluntary. The Global Health Professional Students Survey core questionnaire was used to collect data on smoking prevalence and attitudes regarding its control. The data were summarized using percentages and confidence interval (CI) was calculated using standard error of mean. Pearson's Chi-square and fisher's exact were employed to test the significance. Results: Life-time prevalence of cigarette smoking was 17.9% (121/675) with (95% confidence interval [CI] 15-20.8). Only 5.04% (34/675) with (95% CI 3.7-7.1) of the respondents were currently smoking. Ever smokers were significantly less likely than non-smokers to indicate that tobacco sales to adolescents should be banned (P < 0.01). Fewer smokers than non-smokers agreed that there should be a complete ban on advertising of tobacco products (P < 0.001). 93.3% of them said that they were taught about danger of smoking but only 48.6% ever heard of using anti-depressant in tobacco cessation program. Conclusions: Smoking prevalence among health professional students in South-West Nigeria is relatively low; however, majority believed that health-care providers serve as role models for their patients and the public. PMID:24116313

  3. Radon measurements by nuclear track detectors in dwellings in Oke-Ogun area, South-Western, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obed, R I; Ademola, A K; Ogundare, F O

    2012-03-01

    An indoor radon survey of a total of 77 dwellings randomly selected in 10 districts in Oke-Ogun area of Oyo state, South-western Nigeria was carried out using CR-39 detectors. The CR-39 detectors were placed in the bedrooms and living rooms and exposed for 6 months and then etched in NaOH 6.25 N solution at 90 °C for 3 h. Mean concentrations amount to 255 ± 47 and 259 ± 67 Bq m(-3) in the living rooms and bedrooms, respectively. The lowest radon concentration (77 ± 29 Bq m(-3)) was found in Igbeti, whereas the highest was found in Okeho (627 ± 125 Bq m(-3)). The annual exposure of dwellers was estimated to fall <10 mSv (6.4 and 6.5 mSv y(-1) n living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), which is the upper range of action levels recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average excess lung cancer risk was estimated 24.8 and 25.2 per million person-years in both living rooms and bedrooms. It is believed that the high radon level in this part of the country may be attributed to its geographic location. The data presented here will serve as a baseline survey for radon concentration in dwellings in the area.

  4. Analysis of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in southwestern Nigeria revealed no West Nile virus activity

    PubMed Central

    Sule, Waidi Folorunso; Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Amplification and transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) by mosquitoes are driven by presence and number of viraemic/susceptible avian hosts. Methods In order to predict risk of WNV infection to humans, we collected mosquitoes from horse stables in Lagos and Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sorted and tested in pools with real-time RT-PCR to detect WNV (or flavivirus) RNA using WNV-specific primers and probes, as well as, pan-flavivirus-specific primers in two-step real-time RT-PCR. Minimum infection rate (MIR) was used to estimate mosquito infection rate. Results Only two genera of mosquitoes were caught (Culex, 98.9% and Aedes, 1.0%) totalling 4,112 females. None of the 424 mosquito pools tested was positive for WNV RNA; consequently the MIR was zero. Sequencing and BLAST analysis of amplicons detected in pan-flavivirus primer-mediated RT-PCR gave a consensus sequence of 28S rRNA of Culex quinquefasciatus suggesting integration of flaviviral RNA into mosquito genome. Conclusion While the latter finding requires further investigation, we conclude there was little or no risk of human infection with WNV in the study areas during sampling. There was predominance of Culex mosquito, a competent WNV vector, around horse stables in the study areas. However, mosquito surveillance needs to continue for prompt detection of WNV activity in mosquitoes. PMID:27279943

  5. Impact of Sex Education in Kogi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sule, H. A.; Akor, J. A.; Toluhi, O. J.; Suleiman, R. O.; Akpihi, L.; Ali, O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate the impact of family sex education in secondary schools on students in Kogi State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey design was used for the study. A total of 1,960 secondary school students were drawn by stratified random sampling from 40 schools within Kogi State, Nigeria. Three research questions were…

  6. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  7. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    1987-08-01

    Nigeria, located on the western coast of Africa, is bordered by Cameroon and Chad on the east, by the Gulf of Guinea on the south, by Niger on the north, and by Benin on the west. It is the most populous country in Africa, accounting for 1 in 4 of sub-Saharan Africa's people. While only 25% of Nigerians are urban dwellers, there are 24 cities with populations that exceed 100,000. There is wonderful diversity because of the 250 ethnic groups which comprise Nigeria. The country gained full independence on October 1, 1960 as a federation of 3 regions under a constitution that provided for a parliamentary form of government. This constitution provided a substantial measure of self-government for each of the 3 regions. In 1963, Nigeria proclaimed itself a federal republic and rewrote its constitution; a 4th region was established that same year. In an effort to resolve some of the increased tensions among the ethnic groups, the 4 regions became 12 states; civil war ensued in response to the establishment of the Republic of Biafra. Biafra was defeated and then reconciliation was rapid and effective. Economic development became the focus for Nigeria. Many changes in the government occurred in the years following, and in 1983, there was a military takeover. There are currently 19 states which receive most of their revenue from the federal government according to a formula based on population and other factors. Since 1986, the country has been involved in a public discussion of its political future which will serve as a prelude to the proposed return to civilian rule in 1990. It will hopefully result in the creation of a stable political system. Since the oil boom of the 1970s, the economy of Nigeria has shifted from an agriculturally-based to an oil-based economy. They now rely on oil for more than 95% of export earnings and 70% of federal budget resources. With changes in that market, Nigeria has had to reevaluate their development plans and transportation and

  8. Clinical presentation and visual status of retinitis pigmentosa patients: a multicenter study in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin Helen; Adeoti, Caroline Olufunlayo; Oluleye, Tunji Sunday; Ajayi, Iyiade Adeseye; Majengbasan, Timothy; Olorundare, Olayemi Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    Background To review the visual status and clinical presentation of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methodology Multicenter, retrospective, and analytical review was conducted of the visual status and clinical characteristics of patients with RP at first presentation from January 2007 to December 2011. Main outcome measure was the World Health Organization’s visual status classification in relation to sex and age at presentation. Data analysis by SPSS (version 15) and statistical significance was assumed at P<0.05. Results One hundred and ninety-two eyes of 96 patients with mean age of 39.08±18.5 years and mode of 25 years constituted the study population; 55 (57.3%) were males and 41 (42.7%) females. Loss of vision 67 (69.8%) and night blindness 56 (58.3%) were the leading symptoms. Twenty-one (21.9%) patients had a positive family history, with RP present in their siblings 15 (71.4%), grandparents 11 (52.3%), and parents 4 (19.4%). Forty (41.7%) were blind at presentation and 23 (24%) were visually impaired. Blindness in six (15%) patients was secondary to glaucoma. Retinal vascular narrowing and retinal pigmentary changes of varying severity were present in all patients. Thirty-five (36.5%) had maculopathy, 36 (37.5%) refractive error, 19 (20%) lenticular opacities, and eleven (11.5%) had glaucoma. RP was typical in 85 patients (88.5%). Older patients had higher rates of blindness at presentation (P=0.005); blindness and visual impairment rate at presentation were higher in males than females (P=0.029). Conclusion Clinical presentation with advanced diseases, higher blindness rate in older patients, sex-related difference in blindness/visual impairment rates, as well as high glaucoma blindness in RP patients requires urgent attention in southwestern Nigeria.

  9. Seismic stratigraphy and development of Avon canyon in Benin (Dahomey) basin, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabode, S. O.; Adekoya, J. A.

    2008-03-01

    Interpretation of a grid of high resolution seismic profiles from the offshore eastern part of the Benin (Dahomey) basin in southwestern Nigeria area permitted the identification of cyclic events of cut and fill associated with the Avon canyon. Seismic stratigraphic analysis was carried out to evaluate the canyon morphology, origin and evolution. At least three generations of ancient submarine canyons and a newly formed submarine canyon have been identified. Seismic reflection parameters of the ancient canyons are characterized by transparent to slightly transparent, continuous to slightly discontinuous, high to moderate amplitude and parallel to sub-parallel reflections. Locally, high amplitude and chaotic reflections were observed. The reflection configurations consist of regular oblique, chaotic oblique, progradational and parallel to sub-parallel types. These seismic reflection characteristics are probably due to variable sedimentation processes within the canyons, which were affected by mass wasting. Canyon morphological features include step-wise and spoon-shaped wall development, deep valley incision, a V-shaped valley, similar orientation in the southeast direction, and simple to complex erosion features in the axial floor. The canyons have a composite origin, caused partly by lowering of the sea level probably associated with the formation of the Antarctic Ice Sheet about 30 Ma ago and partly by complex sedimentary processes. Regional correlation with geological ages using the reflectors show that the canyons cut through the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary sediments while the sedimentary infill of the canyon is predominantly Miocene and younger. Gravity-driven depositional processes, downward excavation by down slope sediment flows, mass wasting from the canyon walls and variation in terrigenous sediment supply have played significant roles in maintaining the canyons. These canyons were probably conduits for sediment transport to deep-waters in the Gulf of

  10. Clinical presentation and visual status of retinitis pigmentosa patients: a multicenter study in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onakpoya, Oluwatoyin Helen; Adeoti, Caroline Olufunlayo; Oluleye, Tunji Sunday; Ajayi, Iyiade Adeseye; Majengbasan, Timothy; Olorundare, Olayemi Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    Background To review the visual status and clinical presentation of patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Methodology Multicenter, retrospective, and analytical review was conducted of the visual status and clinical characteristics of patients with RP at first presentation from January 2007 to December 2011. Main outcome measure was the World Health Organization’s visual status classification in relation to sex and age at presentation. Data analysis by SPSS (version 15) and statistical significance was assumed at P<0.05. Results One hundred and ninety-two eyes of 96 patients with mean age of 39.08±18.5 years and mode of 25 years constituted the study population; 55 (57.3%) were males and 41 (42.7%) females. Loss of vision 67 (69.8%) and night blindness 56 (58.3%) were the leading symptoms. Twenty-one (21.9%) patients had a positive family history, with RP present in their siblings 15 (71.4%), grandparents 11 (52.3%), and parents 4 (19.4%). Forty (41.7%) were blind at presentation and 23 (24%) were visually impaired. Blindness in six (15%) patients was secondary to glaucoma. Retinal vascular narrowing and retinal pigmentary changes of varying severity were present in all patients. Thirty-five (36.5%) had maculopathy, 36 (37.5%) refractive error, 19 (20%) lenticular opacities, and eleven (11.5%) had glaucoma. RP was typical in 85 patients (88.5%). Older patients had higher rates of blindness at presentation (P=0.005); blindness and visual impairment rate at presentation were higher in males than females (P=0.029). Conclusion Clinical presentation with advanced diseases, higher blindness rate in older patients, sex-related difference in blindness/visual impairment rates, as well as high glaucoma blindness in RP patients requires urgent attention in southwestern Nigeria. PMID:27601870

  11. Electrical resistivity and geotechnical assessment of subgrade soils in southwestern part of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebisi, N. O.; Ariyo, S. O.; Sotikare, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    The subgrade soils in areas underlain by the slightly Migmatized to Non-migmatized Metasedimentary and Metaigneous rocks of Southwestern Nigeria have been considerably investigated. However, a serious research which employs electrical resistivity method for insight into the profile development, as well as estimation of resistance to deformation for predicting the stability of flexible highway pavements is yet to be carried out. In this study, Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were carried out after a reconnaissance survey based on stable and unstable locations on the road. Index and strength tests related to road construction were also carried out on bulk samples obtained from stable and failed (unstable) locations of the Ago-Iwoye/Ishara highway. Results show mostly three (3) layers in the profiles with H, HK, and HKH curve types. The subgrade soils below the stable locations have better vertical and interval variations in the resistivities (89-1095 Ωm) to a depth of 3.4 m as against those from the failed portions. Those from the stable locations also have higher specific gravity (2.72), low-medium plasticity and A-2-6 kaolinitic clayey soils with higher compacted density (2090 kg/m3) compared to subgrade soils from the failed locations. On the basis of Califonia Bearing Ratio (CBR), subgrade soils at stable locations have greater strength than those obtained from failed locations. Estimated resistance to deformation (R-value) and resilient modulus (MR) proved to be the overriding parameters for predicting the stability of the flexible highway pavements.

  12. Microwave anomalous propagation (AP) measurement over Akure South-Western Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adediji, A. T.; Ajewole, M. O.

    2010-04-01

    Anomalous propagation (Anaprop) of microwave radiation is known to be caused by several meteorological conditions. In this study, radio refractive index and modified refractivity gradient were computed using the results of measurements of atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity made in Akure (7.15°N, 5.12°E), South Western Nigeria using Davis 6162 Wireless Vantage Pro2 weather stations (Integrated Sensor Suite, ISS) positioned at five different height levels beginning from the ground surface and at intervals of 50 m from the ground to a height of 200 m on a tower/mast owned by the Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) located at Iju in Akure north local government area of Ondo state but which is no longer being used. The study utilized one year of data measured between January and December 2008. From the results, the modified refractivity was calculated and found to increase with increasing altitude. The values were observed to be generally high during the rainy periods and generally low during the dry periods. The study also revealed that for microwave propagation in this geographic zone, the propagation condition is mostly super-refractive.

  13. Utilization of obstetric care services in a rural community in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bawa, S B; Umar, U S; Onadeko, M

    2004-09-01

    Utilization of Obstetric Services in Nigeria is very low with only a third of the deliveries being conducted under supervision of trained health personnel. Consequently maternal and infant mortality rates are unacceptably high at 1000/100,000 and 100/1000 live births per year respectively. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly sampled women in a rural community in Oyo State in Nigeria to study the pattern of utilization of antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services in the community. Results showed that utilization of antenatal care services to be relatively high but most of the respondents delivered at home without the supervision of trained health personnel. This poor utilization of delivery services was attributed to advanced labour and perceived poor quality of the health facilities in the community. Although postnatal care was given to the respondents, it did not include advice on family planning/child spacing. The variables found to have statistically significant association with seeking antenatal care were age and educational attainment (P < 0.0005). Educational attainment also significantly affects the respondents' choice of the place of delivery (P < 0.005). We recommend operations research to assess and improve the quality of existing health facilities and training/retraining of antenatal care providers on interpersonal communication skills, early recognition of labour and seeking delivery care. This training should also include providing advice on child spacing and use of obstetrics services provided.

  14. Fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in jute sacks and polyethylene bags in Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Ikotun, B; Ekpo, E J

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory studies were carried out in the Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, southwestern Nigeria, to determine the extent of fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in two types of storage bags viz; jute and polyethylene bags. Melon seeds of varieties Tc139 and V2 were stored in jute and polyethylene bags under ambient conditions using the 2 x 2 factorial design (variety vs type of bag) for 12 months. The moisture content (mc), incidence of visible mouldiness (ivm) and germinability of the stored seeds were determined monthly. The mc of Tc139 ranged from 6.1 to 6.7% in jute and 6.2 to 6.5% in polyethylene bags. The ivm which was initially 2.1% increased to 10.7% and 5.5% in jute and polyethylene bags respectively, after 12 months in storage. The germination percentage decreased from 96.3% to 28.7% and 45.3% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively. The mc of V2 stored in jute and polyethylene bags varied from 5.9 to 6.4%, and 5.8 to 6.2%, respectively. The ivm increased from 1.8% before storage to 8.9% and 4.8% in jute and polyethylene bags, respectively, after 12 months. The percentage seed germination declined from 98.0% to 37.3% in jute and 48.7% in polyethylene bags after 12 months. Decreased incidence of field fungi namely: Alternaria,Botryodiplodia theobromae, Cladosporium, Fusarium and Macrophomina phaseolina was accompanied by simultaneous increase in storage fungi viz: Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizopus with prolonged storage.

  15. Pattern of antimicrobial usage in livestock animals in south-western Nigeria: The need for alternative plans.

    PubMed

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Akanbi, IfeOluwapo O; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Obaweda, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibiotics has continued to increase, placing future animal and human disease management in real danger. The developing countries characterised by widespread indiscriminate antibiotic use and in which 'third-generation' antibiotics are not readily available or affordable are the worst affected. A 3-year (2010-2012) retrospective survey of antibiotic usage in livestock production in three selected states of south-western Nigeria was conducted. Data obtained from eight purposively selected licensed veterinary pharmaceutical sales establishments in the area, based on keeping detailed sales records for the study period, were analysed using Stata Version 12. Results showed that tetracyclines (33.6%), fluoroquinolones (26.5%) and beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (20.4%) constituted the majority of the antibiotics used over the 3 years. The differences in the quantities of antibiotic types used within each antimicrobial class were statistically significant for tetracyclines (F = 59.87; p < 0.0001) and fluoroquinolones (F = 43.97; p < 0.0001) but not for beta-lactams/aminoglycosides (F = 3.21; p = 0.148). Furthermore, antibiotic consumption increased by 40.4% between 2010 and 2012. Although statistically insignificant (F = 0.277; p = 0.762), the increasing trend across the years was at rates of 23.5% between 2010 and 2011 and 13.8% between 2011 and 2012. In addition, the findings show a significantly higher consumption rate (t = 15.21; df = 5; p < 0.0001) during the rainy (52.5%) than the dry (47.5%) seasons. The current increasing trend in antibiotic usage holds a serious danger for the future and therefore calls for alternative plans to safeguard future livestock production, food security and human health. This becomes more imperative considering emerging resistance against tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones, the foremost remedies for livestock diseases in most developing countries. PMID:26016985

  16. The Contribution of Information Acquisition and Management Capacity to Administrators' Decision-Making Effectiveness in Tertiary Institutions in South-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabunmi, Martins; Erwat, Eseza Akiror

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated through empirical methods the extent to which information acquisition and information management capacity of administrators in tertiary institutions in South-Western Nigeria contributed to their decision-making effectiveness. It adopted the ex post facto survey research design, using the random sampling technique to select…

  17. Implications of Farmers' Propensity to Discontinue Adoption of Downy-Mildew Resistant Maize and Improved Cowpea Varieties for Extension Education in Southwestern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oladele, O. I.; Adekoya, A. E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of farmers' propensity to discontinue the adoption of agricultural technologies in southwestern Nigeria. This is predicated on the fact that extension education process should be proactive in addressing farmers in order to sustain the adoption process. Empirical studies looking at diffusion processes from an…

  18. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with brucellosis in dogs in south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayoola, Modupe Comfort; Ogugua, Akwoba Joseph; Akinseye, Victor Oluwatoyin; Joshua, Tunde Olu; Banuso, Morenikeji Folusho; Adedoyin, Folashade Julianah; Adesokan, Hezekiah Kehinde; Omobowale, Temidayo Olutayo; Abiola, John Olusoji; Otuh, Patricia Ihuaku; Nottidge, Helen Oyebukola; Dale, Emma-Jane; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy; Cadmus, Simeon Idowu Babalola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria, there is limited information on brucellosis particularly in dogs, despite its public health implications. We undertook a sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis in dogs to determine the prevalence of the disease and associated risk factors for its occurrence in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to screen dogs in south-western Nigeria for antibodies to Brucella sp using the rapid slide agglutination test (RSA) and Rose Bengal test (RBT), with positive samples confirmed respectively by serum agglutination test (SAT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Data were analyzed with STATA-12. Results From the 739 dog sera tested, 81 (10.96%) were positive by RSA and 94 (12.72%) by RBT; these were corroborated with SAT (4/81; 4.94%) and cELISA (1/94; 1.06%), respectively. Logistic regression identified location (OR=0.04; 95% CI: 0.02-0.09), breed (OR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.34-2.19), age (OR=0.10; 95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and management system (OR=8.51; 95% CI: 1.07-68.05) as risk factors for Brucella infection by RSA. However, location (OR=10.83; 95% CI: 5.48-21.39) and history of infertility (OR=2.62; 95% CI: 1.41-4.84) were identified as risk factors using RBT. Conclusion Given the 10.96% to 12.72% seroprevalence of brucellosis recorded in this study, we advocate control of the disease in dogs, and public health education for those at risk of infection. Again, further studies are required to elucidate the role of dogs in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria considering the conducive human-animal interface and ecological factors responsible for the transmission of the disease. PMID:27200134

  19. Nigeria

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    article title:  Smoke over Nigeria and the Gulf of Guinea     ... document extensive smoke from fires burning throughout Nigeria and north central Africa on January 31, 2003. At left are natural-color ... the dark-colored Aïr Mountains), through forested Nigeria, and beyond the Niger Delta to the Gulf of Guinea and the open ocean. ...

  20. Downstream assessment of chlorinated organic compounds in the bed-sediment of Aiba Stream, Iwo, South-Western, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olutona, Godwin O; Olatunji, Stephen O; Obisanya, Joshua F

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated levels and distribution pattern of chlorinated organic compounds (COCs) otherwise known as organochlorine pesticides in sediment samples at downstream of Aiba watercourse in Iwo, South-western Nigeria. Soxhlet extraction method followed by GC-ECD analysis were used to ascertain levels of COCs in the sediment samples collected from four different locations along the stream. Eighteen COCs were detected with trans permethrin and endosulfan sulfate having highest and lowest concentrations of 375.70 ± 689.41 and 0.03 ± 0.05 µg/g, respectively. The varying levels of COCs as obtained in this study were attributed to organochlorine pesticides contamination emanated from different agricultural practices and domestic sewage loads of the study area. PMID:26839760

  1. How valid is the tallquist method in screening pregnant women with anemia in poor rural settings of southwestern Nigeria?

    PubMed Central

    Wasiu Olalekan, Adebimpe; Olufemi Emmanuel, Akanni

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of anemia is challenging in resource-poor settings due to inadequate laboratory resources. This study assessed the validity of the Tallquist haemoglobinometer in assessing anemia among pregnant women in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross - sectional study, in which 200 pregnant women of reproductive age were selected using multistage sapling method. A checklist was used to collect socio-demographic data and the results of the screening test. Blood collection and analysis were carried out using standardized referenced methods. Results: Mean±SD age of the respondents was 28.9+3.9 yrs.; and 62 (62.6%) had up to primary level education. When Tallquist and Haematocrit methods were compared, there was 68.4%, 83.5% and 100% likelihood of Tallquist method (TM) diagnosing severe, moderate and mild anemia, respectively. The validity indices of the TM versus Haematocrit method as the gold standard revealed the sensitivity of 97.9%, specificity of 92.1%, positive predictive value of 92.4%, and negative predictive value of 97.9% and diagnostic accuracy of 95.0%. When compared to the Haemoglobin Cyanide method, the Tallquist method showed a calculated sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 87.4%, positive predictive value of 86.0%, and negative predictive value of 97.0% and diagnostic accuracy of 91.5%. Conclusion: The TM is a valid tool in screening anemia among pregnant women in resource- poor settings and rural primary health care centers in Southwestern Nigeria; therefore, its use should be encouraged, particularly to assess mild to moderate anemia. PMID:27493933

  2. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption. PMID:19626447

  3. Effect of highways and local activities on the quality of underground water in Ogun State, Nigeria: a case study of three districts in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Odukoya, Olusegun O; Onianwa, Percy C; Sanusi, Olanrewaju I

    2010-09-01

    The effect of highways and local activities on the quality of groundwater in Ogun State, Nigeria was investigated. This was done by collecting groundwater samples from three different districts in the state, located in Southwestern Nigeria. The water samples collected at 5 m from the highway and control samples collected at 3 km from the highway were analyzed for the following physicochemical parameters: pH, conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, alkalinity, total hardness, total solid, suspended solid, dissolved solid, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, phenol, and the metals-lead, zinc, iron, aluminum, sodium, and potassium. The levels of chromium, copper, and cadmium in the samples were below the detectable limit. The levels of the parameters show that there are significant differences between those in the samples and the controls (F test) except for phosphate and phenol. Also, anthropogenic sources (local activities) elevate the levels of different specific parameters, which are related to these activities. Good correlation was observed between traffic density and lead levels as well as between conductivity and dissolved solids. Comparisons with the World Health Organization guidelines indicate that most of the water samples are not suitable for human consumption.

  4. Prevalence of HBsAg, knowledge, and vaccination practice against viral hepatitis B infection among doctors and nurses in a secondary health care facility in Lagos state, South-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abiola, Abdul-Hakeem Olatunji; Agunbiade, Adebukola Bola; Badmos, Kabir Bolarinwa; Lesi, Adenike Olufunmilayo; Lawal, Abdulrazzaq Oluwagbemiga; Alli, Quadri Olatunji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B Virus, a highly infectious blood-borne virus poses a major threat to public health globally due to its high prevalence rate and grave consequence in causing liver cirrhosis and hepatocelullar carcinoma, the third cause of cancer death worldwide. The aim is determine the prevalence of HBsAg, knowledge, and vaccination practices against viral hepatitis B infection among doctors and nurses in a health care facility. Methods Study design was a descriptive cross-sectional study among all the doctors and nurses in the health care facility. Data was collected using pre-tested, structured, self-administered questionnaire and blood samples were taken from respondents and tested using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELIZA) test kit to determine prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen after informed consent. Ethical approval was obtained from Health Research and Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Responses of the respondents to the knowledge and vaccination practices against viral hepatitis B infection were scored and graded as poor (<50%), fair (50-74%) and good (≥75%). The study was carried out in January, 2014. Results A total of 134 out of the 143 recruited respondents participated in the study. Prevalence of HBsAg was 1.5%. Among the respondents, 56.7% had good knowledge and 94.8% reported poor practice of vaccination against viral hepatitis B infection. Mean knowledge and vaccination practices scores (%) were 72.54+7.60 and 29.44+14.37 respectively. Only 29% of the respondents did post vaccination testing for anti HBsAg. Conclusion Prevalence of HBsAg was low. Knowledge of viral hepatitis B was fair, and practice of post hepatitis B vaccination testing was poor. It is therefore recommended that the state ministry of health should organise further health education programme, institute compulsory occupational hepatitis B vaccination programme and post vaccination anti-HBS testing to ensure adequate

  5. Co-endemicity of Loiasis and Onchocerciasis in Rain Forest Communities in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojurongbe, Olusola; Akindele, Akeem Abiodun; Adeleke, Monsuru Adebayo; Oyedeji, Matthew Oyebode; Adedokun, Samuel Adeyinka; Ojo, Josephine Folashade; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Bolaji, Oloyede Samuel; Adefioye, Olusegun Adelowo; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi Adegboyega

    2015-01-01

    Background Loiasis is currently receiving attention as a disease of public health importance because of the possibility of increased risk of developing neurologic serious adverse event following mass ivermectin treatment against onchocerciasis in individual co-infected with Onchocerca volvulus and Loa loa. Methodology/Principal Findings Rapid assessment procedure for loiasis (RAPLOA) was conducted in 12 communities covering the 3 senatorial districts of Osun State, Nigeria. A total of 960 people were interviewed for history of eye worm using the WHO guidelines for rapid assessment. The survey confirmed the presence of loiasis in all the 12 communities with 4 in Osun East/Ife south senatorial district being at high risk with a prevalence of over 40%. Based on the RAPLOA results, communities within Osun East/Ife south senatorial district were selected for microfilaraemic assessment of L. loa and O. volvulus. A total of 1115 and 1091 individuals were screened for L. loa and O. volvulus microfilaria worms respectively. 160 (14.3%) had L. loa microfilaria detected in their blood with 8 (5.0%) individuals having L. loa loads above 8000 mf/ml. 166 (15.2%) subjects had O. volvulus microfilaria (range 4-504 mf/ml) detected in their skin snip. 30 (2.69%) subjects were co-infected with both L. loa and O. volvulus. There was a significant variation in the prevalence (2.1% to 33.3%) of onchocerciasis in the communities studied (p = 0.001). Five (41.7%) of the studied communities had a prevalence that is equal to or greater than 20%. Conclusions/Significance Low prevalence of onchocerciasis and loiasis co-infection in this study suggests that loiasis may not pose a serious epidemiological threat to the continuous distribution and sustainability of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Evaluation of the interruption of onchocerciasis transmissions in this region using all the indicators set forth by WHO is therefore suggested. PMID:25812086

  6. Determinants of Internet use in Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anunobi, C. V.; Mbagwu, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    The research was designed to determine the use of internet in Imo state, Nigeria with a view to enlighten societal stakeholders on their implications to development. Self designed questionnaire was distributed to users from five internet centers in the three local government areas of Imo State. 219 (73%) of the 300 distributed questionnaires were…

  7. Understanding Women's Associations in Nigeria: The Case of Oun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deji, O. F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the characteristic features of women's associations and problems inhibiting their effective participation in rural development projects in Osun State, Nigeria. One rural local government area was purposively selected in each of the six administrative zones in Osun State, based on high degrees of ruralness. A list of…

  8. Survey of maize from south-western Nigeria for zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenols, fumonisin B1 and enniatins produced by Fusarium species.

    PubMed

    Adejumo, T O; Hettwer, U; Karlovsky, P

    2007-09-01

    A survey for the natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in maize for human consumption in four south-western states of Nigeria using High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy (HPLC/MS) showed that 93.4% of the samples were contaminated with zearalenone (ZON), alpha- and beta-zearalenols (alpha- and beta-ZOL), fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) or enniatins (ENNs). The fractions of contaminated samples were 73% for FB(1) (mean:117 microg kg(-1), range:10-760 microg kg(-1)); 57% for ZON (mean:49 microg kg(-1), range:115-779 microg kg(-1)) and 13% for alpha-ZOL (mean: 63.6 microg kg(-1), range:32-181 microg kg(-1)), while ENNs A1, B and B(1) were present in 3, 7 and 3% of the samples respectively. There was no beta-ZOL present above the quantification limits of 50 microg kg(-1). Only the FB(1) content was significantly different at the 95% confidence level among the four states. The Fusarium species most frequently isolated from maize seeds were F. verticillioides (70%), followed by F. sporotrichioides (42%), F. graminearum (30%), F. pallidoroseum (15%), F. compactum (12%), F. proliferatum (12%), F. equiseti (9%), F. acuminatum (8%) and F. subglutinans (4%). This is the first report of the occurrence of alpha-zearalenol and enniatins in Nigerian maize.

  9. Effect of mass media and Internet on sexual behavior of undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Olusesan S; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther O; Adebimpe, Wasiu O; Omisore, Akin G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The influence of media portrayals of sexual attitudes and normative expectations of young people at a critical developmental stage is of public health concern. Objectives To examine the role of mass media and Internet utilization in shaping the sexual health attitudes and behaviors of young undergraduates in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Materials and methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, 400 undergraduates were selected using a multistage random sampling technique. Four hundred and fifty pretested, semistructured questionnaires were distributed; of these, 400 were returned properly filled. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 16. Results Mean age of respondents ± standard deviation was 23.6±2.99 years. Most were aware of the various forms of mass media (>95%). Most (64.0%) respondents spent 1–5 hours watching television, daily, and most used the Internet often. About 38.3% and 24.2% of respondents used the Internet and radio/television, respectively, as sources of information on sexual issues. Most respondents used the Internet for school assignments (83.0%, n=332), electronic mail (89.0%, n=356), and for accessing sexually explicit materials (74.5%, n=298). Most of the respondents (73.5%) opined that the Internet has a bad influence on youths’ sexual behavior, although accessing the Internet for sexual material or movies was acceptable to 25.3% of them. Of the 226 respondents who had ever had sex, 226 (100%), 37 (16.4%), 31 (13.7%), and 10 (4.4%) practiced coitus, oral sex, masturbation, and anal sex, respectively; 122 (54.0%) always used condoms, whereas 90 (40.0%) never used condoms during sexual activity; 33 (14.6%) had had sex with commercial sex workers. Further analysis showed that those who were yet to marry (single) were less likely to be sexually experienced than those who were married (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.008–0.679), and those who said accessing

  10. Prevalence of erectile dysfunction and possible risk factors among men of South-Western Nigeria: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Oyelade, Bolaji Oyetunde; Jemilohun, Abiodun Christopher; Aderibigbe, Sunday Adedeji

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Erectile dysfunction (ED) is currently one of the most common sexual dysfunctions worldwide but it is usually underestimated because it is not a life threatening condition. The associated stigma makes men who have it to suffer in silence. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of erectile dysfunction and the possible associated risk factors among Nigerian men. Methods The study was a descriptive cross-sectional population based survey among men aged 30-80 years in Ogbomoso, South-west, Nigeria. A multistage random sampling method was used. The instrument used was the International Index of Erectile Function Questionnaire-5 (IIEF-5). Unadjusted odds ratios of possible risk factors were calculated by univariate analyses. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to eliminate the effect of possible confounders on the risk factors to get the adjusted odds ratios. Results The general prevalence of ED in this study was 58.9%. Sixty-seven (47.2%), 16 (11.3%) and 59(41.5%) respondents had mild, moderate and severe ED respectively. Age, hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive drugs, diabetes mellitus and heart disease all had significant unadjusted associations with ED, but their adjusted associations were not statistically significant. Diabetes mellitus maintained a positive statistically significant relationship with ED after adjustment for potential confounders [OR= 8.31(95% CI 1.02 - 67.65), P= 0.048]. Conclusion The prevalence of ED is high among south-western Nigeria male adults. Physicians, especially primary care ones, need to pay more attention to the sexual history of their patients in order to diagnose and manage ED more frequently. PMID:27642462

  11. Western United States and Southwestern Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This natural-color image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) captures the beauty of the western United States and Canada. Data from 45 swaths from MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free mosaic. The image extends from 48o N 128o W in the northwest, to 32oN, 104o W in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.

    The image area includes much of British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan in the north, and extends southward to California, Arizona and New Mexico. The snow-capped Rocky Mountains are a prominent feature extending through British Columbia, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. Many major rivers originate in the Columbia Plateau region of Washington, Oregon and Idaho. The Colorado Plateau region is characterized by the vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert in Utah and Arizona, and in New Mexico, White Sands National Park is the large white feature in the Southeast corner of the image with the Malpais lava flow just to its North. The southwest is dominated by the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada, California's San Joaquin Valley, the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during 2000-2002. The panels utilize data from blocks 45 to 65 within World Reference System-2 paths 31 to 53.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Scenario Development for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M.; Gupta, H.; Stewart, S.; Liu, Y.; Hartmann, H.; Wagener, T.

    2006-12-01

    The primary goal of employing a scenario development approach for the U.S. southwest is to inform regional policy by examining future possibilities related to regional vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian restoration. This approach is necessary due to a lack of existing explicit water resources application of scenarios to the entire southwest region. A formal approach for scenario development is adopted and applied towards water resources issues within the arid and semi-arid regions of the U.S. southwest following five progressive and reiterative phases: scenario definition, scenario construction, scenario analysis, scenario assessment, and risk management. In the scenario definition phase, the inputs of scientists, modelers, and stakeholders were collected in order to define and construct relevant scenarios to the southwest and its water sustainability needs. From stakeholder-driven scenario workshops and breakout sessions, the three main axes of principal change were identified to be climate change, population development patterns, and quality of information monitoring technology. Based on the extreme and varying conditions of these three main axes, eight scenario narratives were drafted to describe the state of each scenario's respective future and the events which led to it. Events and situations are described within each scenario narrative with respect to key variables; variables that are both important to regional water resources (as distinguished by scientists and modelers), and are good tracking and monitoring indicators of change. The current phase consists of scenario construction, where the drafted scenarios are re-presented to regional scientists and modelers to verify that proper key variables are included (or excluded) from the eight narratives. The next step is to construct the data sets necessary to implement the eight scenarios on the respective computational models of modelers investigating vegetation change, water-leasing, and riparian

  13. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R. Scott; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L. M.; Schouten, S.; Damste, J.S.S.; Huang, Y.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; Woldegabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, dust-bowl-like-megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C 4 plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles-1/42-C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6??C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  14. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase.

  15. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Peter J; Werne, Josef P; Anderson, R Scott; Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Brown, Erik T; Berke, Melissa A; Smith, Susan J; Goff, Fraser; Donohoo-Hurley, Linda; Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Huang, Yongsong; Toney, Jaime; Fessenden, Julianna; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Atudorei, Viorel; Geissman, John W; Allen, Craig D

    2011-02-24

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern. Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia were shorter and climatically different from the future permanent, 'dust-bowl-like' megadrought conditions, lasting decades to a century, that are predicted as a consequence of warming. So far, it has been unclear whether or not such megadroughts occurred in the southwestern US, and, if so, with what regularity and intensity. Here we show that periods of aridity lasting centuries to millennia occurred in the southwestern US during mid-Pleistocene interglacials. Using molecular palaeotemperature proxies to reconstruct the mean annual temperature (MAT) in mid-Pleistocene lacustrine sediment from the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, we found that the driest conditions occurred during the warmest phases of interglacials, when the MAT was comparable to or higher than the modern MAT. A collapse of drought-tolerant C(4) plant communities during these warm, dry intervals indicates a significant reduction in summer precipitation, possibly in response to a poleward migration of the subtropical dry zone. Three MAT cycles ∼2 °C in amplitude occurred within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 and seem to correspond to the muted precessional cycles within this interglacial. In comparison with MIS 11, MIS 13 experienced higher precessional-cycle amplitudes, larger variations in MAT (4-6 °C) and a longer period of extended warmth, suggesting that local insolation variations were important to interglacial climatic variability in the southwestern US. Comparison of the early MIS 11 climate record with the Holocene record shows many similarities and implies that, in the absence of anthropogenic forcing, the region should be entering a cooler and wetter phase. PMID:21350483

  16. Radiological risk assessment of natural radionuclides in sand collected from some beaches along the coastline of southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A; Nwafor, C O

    2013-10-01

    The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in sand from three beaches in southwestern Nigeria had been determined employing the gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively, were 12.5 ± 3.3, 25.8 ± 4.7 and 153.9 ± 18.5 Bq kg(-1) for Suntan Beach, 13.1 ± 3.1, 23.9 ± 4.5 and 219.9 ± 33.9 Bq kg(-1) for Bar Beach. Lekki Beach had 13.2 ± 3.2, 26.3 ± 3.8 and 149.0 ± 19.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The absorbed dose rates were calculated as 27.8 ± 3.1, 29.7 ± 4.0, 28.2 ± 3.3 nGy h(-1), respectively. The corresponding annual effective doses are 0.034 ± 0.004, 0.036 ± 0.005, 0.035 ± 0.004 mSv y(-1), which are less than the limit of 1 mSv y(-1) recommended for the members of the public. The radiological hazard indices are within the maximum recommended limits, hence pose no significant radiological hazards for construction.

  17. In vitro biomonitoring of the genotoxic and oxidative potentials of two commonly eaten insects in southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Memiş, Eray; Türkez, Hasan; Incekara, Ümit; Banjo, Adedoyin Davies; Fasunwon, Bamidele Temitope; Toğar, Başak

    2013-02-01

    In this study, the cytogenetic and oxidative effects of water soluble extracts of two commonly eaten insects, Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) and Oryctes boas (Solanales: Solanaceae), in southwestern Nigeria were evaluated on cultured human blood cells. The extracts were added to the cultures at various concentrations (0-2000 ppm). The chromosome aberration and micronucleus tests were used to find out the DNA and chromosomal damage potentials in vitro by aqueous insect extracts. To assess the oxidative effects of these insect extracts, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured. Our results indicated that these extracts did not show genotoxic effects at the tested concentrations. However, the extracts caused dose-dependent alterations in both TAC and TOS levels. Based on the findings, it was concluded that the studied insects can be consumed safely, but it is necessary to consider the cellular damages that are likely to appear depending on the oxidative stress. We also suggest that this in vitro approach for oxidative and genotoxicity assessments may be useful to compare the potential health risks of edible insects.

  18. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitude and Risk Perception among Pregnant Women in a Teaching Hospital, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ojieabu, Winifred Aitalegbe; Femi-Oyewo, M. N.; Eze, Uchenna I.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The rising HIV infection rates among women especially of child bearing age particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa expose children to increased HIV risk even before they are born. Without effective measures or awareness campaigns to deal with mother-to-child transmission, 390 000 out of the global 430 000 children newly infected with HIV during 2008 were from sub-Saharan Africa This study was undertaken to assess HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and risk perception among pregnant women in Tertiary hospital, Southwestern Nigeria Method: The study was carried out using a 43- item self administered questionnaire, pretestd and administered to 403 pregnant women during ante-natal clinic sessions Results: High HIV/AIDS awareness level (97%) was recorded, 77.7% had correct knowledge of the cause of the disease but knowledge on the modes of vertical transmission during pregnancy (57.5%) and prevention during breast-feeding (62.3%) was not encouraging A lot of misconceptions about the cause of the HIV/AIDS, modes of contact, transmission, prevention and anti-retroviral therapy were recorded Conclusion: The survey revealed that a lot needed to be done to improve the knowledge, attitude, perception and behavioral changes among the populace especially in this particular group. This calls for urgent and proper response in order to stem the tide of HIV/AIDS. PMID:24826022

  19. Cytological and toxicological properties of a decoction used for managing tumors in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, A; Okpuzor, J; Omidiji, O

    2009-02-15

    The cytological and toxicological potentials of an ethanol extract of a decoction used in South Western Nigeria for the management of breast tumors were evaluated using mice and Allium cepa models. The oral administration of the extract to the mice within the range of 400-1600 mg kg(-1) b. wt., dosage did not result in any mortality until 2000 mg kg(-1) body weight (b. wt.), when 60% mortality occurred. The LD50 of the extract administered intraperitoneally, was 400 mg kg(-1) b. wt. Furthermore, the extract induced macroscopic and microscopic changes causing a dose-related root growth inhibition and chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa. The effect of the extract was more pronounced at 1600 mg kg((-1), dose while the EC50 was at 380 mg after 72 h. This decoction may present cytological and toxicological potential for managing breast tumors and corroborates its use in ethno medicine. PMID:19579974

  20. Extension personnel's sexual behaviour and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ladebo, Olugbenga Jelil; Tanimowo, Adewunmi George

    2002-08-01

    This study examined the sexual behavioural pattern, knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS of 216 extension personnel in south-west Nigeria. Information was obtained using a combination of structured interview schedule and focus group discussions. Results show that the extension personnel were young men and women, married, mostly Christians and educated. All the women had premarital sex, compared with 98.3% of the men, more men (46.7%) engaged in extramarital sex than women (18.4%), and 81.2% of the men were using condoms regularly, compared to 57.5% women users. All the respondents were fully aware of HIV/AIDS, while 79.5% of men and 85.0% of women expressed negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS. This has serious implications for the delivery efforts of focal extension agencies.

  1. Development of vegetation and climate in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Van Devender, T R; Spaulding, W G

    1979-05-18

    Plant macrofossils in ancient packrat middens document the presence of woodland communities in most of the present Chihuahuan, Sonoran, and Mohave deserts in the southwestern United States during the late Wisconsinan (22,000 to 11,000 years before present by radiocarbon dating). Warm desert species were common in the woodlands at lower elevations and mixed conifer and subalpine forests were present at high elevations. Inferred mild, wet winters and cool summers produced unusual plant and animal associations compared to those of today. Montane communities acquired modern aspects and more mesophytic species disappeared from lower woodlands about 11,000 years ago. Early Holocene xeric woodlands and an inferred winter precipitation regime persisted until about 8000 years ago. The present circulation patterns, rainfall regimes, and biotic distributions probably formed as a result of the melting of the continental ice sheets. Southwestern communities appear to have responded quickly to climatic changes compared to the gradual responses of central and eastern United States forest communities.

  2. Interpretation of high resolution aeromagnetic data for lineaments study and occurrence of Banded Iron Formation in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Michael Adeyinka; Olayinka, Abel Idowu; Alaba, Mustapha; Adabanija, Moruffdeen Adedapo

    2016-02-01

    The quest for solid mineral resource as an alternative for oil income in Nigeria presents opportunity to diversify the resource base of the country. To fill some information gap on the long abandoned Ajase and Gbede Banded Iron Formations (BIF) in Ogbomoso area, Southwestern Nigeria, high resolution aeromagnetic data of Ogbomoso - Sheet 222 was interpreted; to provide a better understanding of the mode of occurrence of the iron ore and associated structural features and geologic model. These were accomplished by subjecting reduced-to-pole (RTP) residual aeromagnetic intensity map to various data filtering and processing involving total horizontal derivative, vertical derivative, Upward Continuation (UC), Downward Continuation (DC), Euler Deconvolution at different Spectral Indices (SI), and Analytical signal using Geosoft Oasis Montaj 6.4.2 (HJ) data processing and analysis software. The resultants maps were overlain, compared and or plotted on RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map and or geological map and interpreted in relation to the surface geological map. Positive magnetic anomalies observed on the RTP residual aeromagnetic intensity map ranged from 2.1 to 94.0 nT and associated with contrasting basement rocks, Ajase and Gbede BIF; while negative magnetic anomalies varied between -54.7 nT and -2.8 nT and are associated with intrusive bodies. Interpreted lineaments obtained from total horizontal derivative map were separated into two categories namely ductile and brittle based on their character vis-à-vis magnetic anomalies on RTP intensity map. Whilst the brittle lineaments were interpreted as fracture or faults; the ductile lineaments were interpreted as folds or representing the internal fabric of the rock units. In addition prominent magnetic faults mainly due to offset of similar magnetic domain/gradient were also interpreted. The iron ore mineralization is distributed within the eastern portion of the study area with Ajase BIF at relatively greater

  3. Algae from the arid southwestern United States: an annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, W.H.; Gaines, S.R.

    1983-06-01

    Desert algae are attractive biomass producers for capturing solar energy through photosynthesis of organic matter. They are probably capable of higher yields and efficiencies of light utilization than higher plants, and are already adapted to extremes of sunlight intensity, salinity and temperature such as are found in the desert. This report consists of an annotated bibliography of the literature on algae from the arid southwestern United States. It was prepared in anticipation of efforts to isolate desert algae and study their yields in the laboratory. These steps are necessary prior to setting up outdoor algal culture ponds. Desert areas are attractive for such applications because land, sunlight, and, to some extent, water resources are abundant there. References are sorted by state.

  4. Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Hillian, John

    Nigeria is Africa's most populous nation, and one of its richest. During the 1970s, oil prices fueled rapid development. With world-wide crude oil prices now fluctuating, the future of this diverse, turbulent country is uncertain. The unit contains three sections: the Text, Suggestions for the Teacher, and the Slide-Tape Script. An overview of the…

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of traceability among livestock traders in south-western Nigeria: implications for sustainable livestock industry.

    PubMed

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E

    2014-01-01

    Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p = 0.000; 0.014) and education (p = 0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p = 0.000) and length of years in the trade (p = 0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels.

  6. Forms and pedogenic distribution of extractable manganese in some soils of south-western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Ayanlaja, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The contents of various forms of manganese in 10 profiles from S.W. Nigeria was determined by selective extraction methods: dithionite (total), oxalate (amorphous), hydroquinone (easily reducible) and pyrophosphate (organic). All forms were generally highest in the surface horizon and decreased down the profile. Amorphous Mn is the dominant form, being between 80-100% of the total Mn. This indicates that a high proportion of the total soil Mn is potentially available to plant. The active Mn ratio remains fairly constant through most of the profiles suggesting that a dynamic equilibrium exists between the crystalline and the amorphous forms. X-ray diffraction analysis of the manganese concretions picked out from the soils revealed birnessite as the prevalent crystalline form, and the formula derived for birnessite by chemical and thermogravimetric analyses is: (Mn/sub 6.37/, Co/sub 0.16/, Na/sub 1.52/, Ni/sub 0.03/, Ca/sub 0.02/, K/sub 0.06/, Cu/sub 0.01/, Mg/ sub 0.07/) O/sub 14/.4H/sub 2/O.

  7. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico.

  8. Trichinella infection in wildlife of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Pozio, E; Pence, D B; La Rosa, G; Casulli, A; Henke, S E

    2001-10-01

    Several potential mammalian reservoirs of sylvatic species of Trichinella were examined from Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. During 1998-99, tongues were collected from a black bear (Ursus americanus) in Arizona; from 9 black bears, a coyote (Canis latrans), and a mountain lion (Felis concolor) in New Mexico; and from 154 coyotes, 32 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 13 opossums (Didelphis marsupialis), 4 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 3 bobcats (Lynx rufus), and 5 feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in southern Texas. Larvae of Trichinella murrelli were identified by a multiple-polymerase chain reaction analysis in 1 black bear (11.1%) from New Mexico and in 7 coyotes (4.5%) of Texas, whereas Trichinella spiralis larvae were detected in the black bear of Arizona. This is the first report of Trichinella infection in wildlife of New Mexico and Texas and extends the distribution of T. murrelli into the southwestern United States near the border of Mexico. PMID:11695403

  9. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Aboderin, Bukola W; Idris, Olayinka O; Mabayoje, Victor O; Opaleye, Oluyinka O; Adekunle, O Catherine; Olowe, Rita Ayanbolade; Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Ojurongbe, Olusola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6%) and were female (61.9%). Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05). A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%), cefotaxime (77.7%), and cefuroxime (75.7%) was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 μg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of stx1 were in the 0–10-year-old age group, 3.5% of stx2 were aged ≥40 and above, and 1.0% of the hlyA isolates were in the 0–10-year-old age group. Conclusion The prevalence of virulent STEC is a public health concern. The use of polymerase chain reaction assay should aid quick detection of this virulent serotype and help curb the severe epidemic of human diseases associated with STEC infections. PMID:25342913

  10. Trends and patterns of sexual assaults in Lagos south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Adesolamusa, Zaidat; David, Agatha Nkiru; Wapmuk, Agatha Eileen; Gbajabiamila, Titilola Abike; Eugeniaidigbe, Ifeoma; Ezeobi, Paschal Mbanefo; Ohihoin, Aigbe Greg; Ujah, Innocent Achanya Otobo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sexual assault is a severely traumatic experience that disproportionally affects women and girls. Yet there is limited information on the subject in our environment. This study was conducted to determine the trend and pattern of sexual assault among Nigerians. Methods A retrospective study of sexual assault victims managed at a large clinic in south west Nigeria. Victims were identified from the programme data base and case files retrieved from medical records department. Relevant information was extracted and managed with SPSS for windows version 19. Results Steady increase in the proportion of reported cases of sexual violence over the years (P < 0.0001) was observed. Sexual assaults were recorded among the males (6.1%), although female victims were in the majority (93.9%). Sexual assault was found to be higher in person’s <20 years and the unmarried. Most sexual assault occurred during the day time. Assailants were mostly persons known to the victim (52.0%) and the assault occurred mostly in the assailants’ house or office (48.5%). Sexual assault through vaginal route only (87.2%) was the most common route of sexual assault. Threat of violence (31.1%) and physical force (29.6%) was the common methods for overcoming the victims. Follow up was completed by 75.0% of the victims. Conclusion Sexual assault is common in our environment, with increasing prevalence and change in pattern. Young persons aged less than 20 years constitutes the majority of victims and assailants were mostly persons known to them. The current public education on the evils of sexual violence should be intensified. PMID:27800114

  11. Emergency Peripartum Hysterectomy: A Multicenter Study of Incidence, Indications and Outcomes in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akintayo, A A; Olagbuji, B N; Aderoba, A K; Akadiri, O; Olofinbiyi, B A; Bakare, B

    2016-06-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, indications and outcomes of emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) in three tertiary institutions in south-west Nigeria between January, 2010 and December , 2013. Methods A retrospective review of all cases of EPH over a 4 year period was done. EPH was defined as hysterectomy performed at the time of delivery or within 24 h of delivery for uncontrollable postpartum bleeding not responsive to conservative measures. Relevant information was extracted from the hospital records and operation notes. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 17.0. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There were 102 EPHs performed among 39,738 deliveries within the study period, giving a rate of 2.6 per thousand deliveries. Indications were uterine rupture (44.1 %), uterine atony (37.3 %), morbidly adherent placenta (17.6 %) and extension of caesarean section incision involving the uterine arteries (1 %). Subtotal hysterectomy was performed in most cases (67.6 %).Maternal case fatality rate was 11.8 % and perinatal mortality rate was 55.9 %. Blood transfusion, severe postoperative anaemia, wound sepsis, febrile morbidity and acute kidney injury were common morbidities associated with the procedure. Following multivariate logistic regression, the unbooked status [odds-ratio 95 % CI = 12.80 (1.22-133.97) p = 0.03] was the only variable that significantly predicted maternal death. Conclusion The incidence of EPH from our study is high. Much more needs to be done in maternal health services, particularly provision of quality obstetric care to reduce the rates of EPH and the associated high maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:26961244

  12. Prevalence of previously undetected tuberculosis and underlying risk factors for transmission in a prison setting in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adesokan, HK; Cadmus, EO; Adeyemi, WB; Lawal, O.; Ogunlade, C.O.; Osman, E.; Olaleye, OD; Cadmus, SIB

    2014-01-01

    Summary People with congregational tendencies such as the prison inmates constitute an important target group in the global efforts towards the control of tuberculosis (TB). The prison setting in most developing countries particularly Nigeria, currently does not have routine diagnostic procedures for TB despite the existing risks that could facilitate disease transmission. We conducted a cross sectional study among the inmates in a major prison in south-western Nigeria for TB by screening their sputum samples using a simple random sampling method coupled with questionnaire interview, on the assumption of sub-clinical pulmonary TB infection. The overall TB prevalence found was 1.2% (2/164). Significant risk factors that could facilitate disease transmission in the prison included lack of BCG immunization (p = 0.017); history of contact with TB patients (p = 0.020); prolonged cough (p = 0.016) and drug abuse (p = 0.019). Our findings of 1.2% undetected pulmonary TB infection among the inmates though low; still reiterate previous observation that the prison setting constitutes a veritable environment for TB transmission and a threat to public health. Efforts are therefore needed to institute routine screening and reduce the risk factors associated with TB transmission among prison inmates in Nigeria. PMID:26689165

  13. Occupational Stress and Management Strategies of Secondary School Principals in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anyanwu, Joy; Ezenwaji, Ifeyinwa; Okenjom, Godian; Enyi, Chinwe

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at finding out sources and symptoms of occupational stress and management strategies of principals in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study with a population of 420 principals (304 males and 116 females) in secondary schools in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three…

  14. Adoption of Aquaculture Technology by Fish Farmers in Imo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Nwachukwu; Roseline, Onuegbu

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluated the level of adoption of aquaculture technology extended to farmers in Imo State, Nigeria. To improve aquaculture practice in Nigeria, a technology package was developed and disseminated to farmers in the state. This package included ten practices that the farmers were supposed to adopt. Eighty-two respondents were randomly…

  15. Medication adherence among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes in a tertiary healthcare setting in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, Rasaq; Fakeye, Titilayo O.; Fasanmade, Adesoji

    Objective To assess adherence to medication among ambulatory patients with type 2 diabetes, ascertain the level of glycemic control, and evaluate patients’ opinions on probable reasons for non-adherence with a view to identify areas of intervention to improve adherence. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at a 900-bed tertiary teaching hospital in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria between June and August, 2009. Out of 140 consented patients, 114 (81.4%) properly responded to the validated and pre-tested data collection tool and these were subsequently considered for analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Means and proportions were compared using student t-test and chi-square or Kruskal-Wallis test as appropriate, with p<0.05 considered statistical significant. Results Approximately sixty percent of the patients were adjudged adherent with prescribed medication. Out of 58.8% of the cohort who gave their recent fasting plasma glucose (FPG) values, 59.7% had FPG above 110mg/dL. The mean FPG for patients was 139.05 (SD=70.5)mg/dL, males and females significantly differed in their mean FPG, 146.55 (SD=85.0)mg/dL versus 133.33 (SD=57.6)mg/dL respectively (p=0.032). Also, the mean FPG values for adherent patients, 137.09 (SD=59.3)mg/dL was lower than their non-adherent counterparts, 143.92 (SD=87.6) mg/dL, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.095). Financial constraint (34.4%) was the major barrier to optimal adherence with medication. A significant association exist between genders and opinions on physician’s mode of approach during patient-physician interaction as a contributory factor for non-adherence (p=0.038). Conclusions Medication adherence of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients is considerable. However, the relatively high level of adherence did not appear to have significantly impacted on patients’ glycemic status due to a substantial number who had plasma glucose above the recommended

  16. Entrepreneurship Education and Graduates Unemployment in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emunemu, B. O.; Kasali, O. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated entrepreneurship and graduates' unemployment in Nigeria.The problem of unemployment in Nigeria has become endemic. There have been reported cases of under-employment, seasonal, casual and full blown unemployment. Previous studies on unemployment and factors influencing it in Nigeria identify poor educational standards,…

  17. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Opinions among Adolescents in the River States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodi, Ben E.

    2005-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa remains the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic (Taylor et al., 2003; UNAIDS/UNICEF/WHO, 2000; Eaton, Flishera and Arob, 2002; Prat, et al., 2000). Nigeria is one of the most afflicted sub-Saharan nations (UNAIDS, 2002). Rivers State, a major industrial area of Nigeria and the nerve center of the oil industry, represents a…

  18. Permian evaporites in the Permian basin of southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    During Permian time, a broad and shallow inland sea covered much of southwestern United States, extending northward from west Texas into northwestern Kansas. Slow but continual subsidence beneath all parts of this vast Permian basin caused deposition of a thick sequence of Permian red beds and evaporites, including dolomite, gypsum/anhydrite, salt, and potash. Evaporite units are notably thick and laterally persistent throughout the Permian basin. The entire Permian System ranges up to 2,000 m thick in various parts of the basin, and individual formations, consisting mostly of gypsum/anhydrite and salt, commonly are 60-500 m thick. Evaporite deposits are oldest in the northern part of the Permian basin, and they generally are progressively younger toward the south. The site of principal salt deposition during early Leonardian time (Wellington evaporites) was in Kansas and northwestern Oklahoma; it then shifted southward into western Oklahoma and the Texas Panhandle during late Leonardian and early Guadalupian time (Lower Clear Fork/Lower Cimarron evaporites, Upper Clear Fork/Upper Cimarron evaporites, and San Andres/Blaine evaporites); and finally into west Texas and southeastern New Mexico during late Guadalupian and Ochoan time (Artesia, Castile, Salado, and Rustler evaporites). These evaporites comprise a significant resource for the region: rock salt is produced from dry mines, brine fields, and solar-salt operations at 18 locations; gypsum is mined at 13 sites; potash is produced from 5 underground mines in the world-famous Carlsbad potash district; and sulfur is produced by the Frasch process at one site.

  19. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A.

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with blaTEM being the most abundant (50/61) and blaCTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, blaSHV + blaTEM or blaCTX + blaTEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic blaTEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  1. Detection of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases Resistance Genes among Bacteria Isolated from Selected Drinking Water Distribution Channels in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adesoji, Ayodele T; Ogunjobi, Adeniyi A

    2016-01-01

    Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL) provide high level resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics among bacteria. In this study, previously described multidrug resistant bacteria from raw, treated, and municipal taps of DWDS from selected dams in southwestern Nigeria were assessed for the presence of ESBL resistance genes which include bla TEM, bla SHV, and bla CTX by PCR amplification. A total of 164 bacteria spread across treated (33), raw (66), and municipal taps (68), belonging to α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Bacilli, and Actinobacteria group, were selected for this study. Among these bacteria, the most commonly observed resistance was for ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61 isolates). Sixty-one isolates carried at least one of the targeted ESBL genes with bla TEM being the most abundant (50/61) and bla CTX being detected least (3/61). Klebsiella was the most frequently identified genus (18.03%) to harbour ESBL gene followed by Proteus (14.75%). Moreover, combinations of two ESBL genes, bla SHV + bla TEM or bla CTX + bla TEM, were observed in 11 and 1 isolate, respectively. In conclusion, classic bla TEM ESBL gene was present in multiple bacterial strains that were isolated from DWDS sources in Nigeria. These environments may serve as foci exchange of genetic traits in a diversity of Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27563674

  2. Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analysis was performed on the states in the Southwestern United States to determine methods to increase the proportion of wind and solar generated electricity in those states to levels as high as 40% of total electricity used. This analysis was performed by comparing the monthly and diurnal elect...

  3. Small wind power in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The Southwestern Great Plains agricultural production in both vegetable crops and cattle, and the extraction industries in oil and natural gas recovery both feed and power a significant percentage of our nation. Energy costs that are rising faster than the rate of return on the sale of these products are contributing to a serious situation with many farms being abandoned and oil wells being capped. Wind energy, which is abundant in the region, is investigated as a near term applicable alternative energy sources.

  4. Calcic soils and calcretes in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bachman, George Odell; Machette, Michael N.

    1977-01-01

    Secondary calcium carbonate of diverse origins, 'caliche' of many authors, is widespread in the southwestern United States. 'Caliche' includes various carbonates such as calcic soils and products of groundwater cementation. The term 'caliche' is generally avoided in this report in favor of such terms as calcrete, calcic soils, and pervasively cemented deposits. Criteria for the recognition of various types of calcrete of diverse origins include field relations and laboratory data. Calcic soils provide a comprehensive set of characteristics that aid in their recognition in the field. These characteristics include a distinctive morphology that is zoned horizontally and can frequently be traced over tens to hundreds of square kilometers. The major process in the formation of pedogenic calcrete and calic soils is the leaching of calcium carbonate from upper soil horizons by downward percolating soil solutions and reprecipitation of the carbonate in alluvial horizons near the base of the soil profile. The formation of pedogenic calcrete involves many factors including climate, source of carbonate, and tectonic stability of the geomorphic surface on which the calcrete is deposited. Most of the carbonate in pedogenic calcrete is probably derived from windblown sand, dust, and rain. Calcic soils and pedogenic calcretes follow a six-stage sequence morphologic development and is based on a classification devised by Gile, Peterson and Grossman in 1966. The .six morphologic stages of carbonate deposition in soils are related to the relative age of the soil and are as follows: I. The first or youngest stage includes filamentous or faint coatings of carbonate on detrital grains. II. The second stage includes pebble coatings which are continuous; firm carbonate nodules are few to common. III. The third stage includes coalesced nodules which occur in a friable or disseminated carbonate matrix. IV. The fourth stage includes platy, firmly cemented matrix which engulfs nodules

  5. Migrant Programs in the Southwestern States -- Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Information Clearinghouse, Austin, TX. Juarez-Lincoln Center.

    Part of the "Comprehensive National Survey of Migrant Programs" series, this directory was prepared for use by agencies working with migrant and seasonal farmworkers in the Southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The directory lists programs, services, and resources available to migrants in these states.…

  6. Internal fixation at ECWA Hospital, Egbe, Kogi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agaja, S B

    2002-01-01

    Forty two (42) cases of fractures treated by internal fixation at Egbe Hospital ECWA, Kogi State, Nigeria were analysed retrospectively. Most of the patients requiring internal fixation were young male patients in their reproductive years 26 patients were under 50 years of age out of which 22 patients were males (84.6%) whilst only 4 patients (15.4%) were females. Internal fixation was found to be commoner in males: 31 patients (73.8%) than in females: 11 patients (26.2%). Fractures requiring internal fixation are commoner in the lower limbs than in the upper limbs (Ratio 6:1). The femur is the commonest site of internal fixation, 22 cases (54.2%) followed by the tibia, 6 cases (14.3%). Majority of the patients, 28 cases (67%) left the hospital under 50 days whereas when treated conservatively most will be in the hospital for up to 100 days. Only about 60% of the cases require blood transfusion and even a more cautious approach could reduce this percentage. 13 (31%) of the cases had fever post-operatively which was not necessarily due to infection. Based on its advantages, internal fixation is therefore encouraged and should only be performed by a surgeon who has adequate experience, equipment, instruments and a good operating theatre setting.

  7. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Moro area, Kwara state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijani, M.'n.

    1994-11-01

    Detailed study of chemical analysis results of several groundwater samples (UNICEF-Assisted Water project, Kwara state, Nigeria) were carried out in an attempt to assess the quality and usability of groundwaters in the Moro area. Chemical analysis results indicate higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3 - as compared to Na+, K+, Cl-, and SO4 2-. With exception of few locations where Fe is relatively higher, the concentrations of these ions together with other water quality parameters are all within permissible limits of the domestic and agricultural standards. On the basis of the analytical results, groundwaters in the study area are largely characterized as Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type reflecting (possibly) young facies with limited migratory history. The occurrence of Ca-(Mg)-Na-HCO3 water type in certain areas is attributed to cation exchange processes. In addition, the observed scattered relationship between the TDS and the thickness of weathered horizons in the boreholes indicates the contribution of precipitation (recharge) to the ionic inputs in the groundwaters in addition to the weathering and dissolution processes.

  8. A Note on the Spatio Temporal Variations in the Temperature and Relative Humidity over Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eludoyin, A. O.; Akinbode, O. M.; Archibong, E. O.

    2007-07-01

    This study was carried out in one of the Administrative State Capitals in the southwestern part of Nigeria. Its aim is to serve as a baseline data for highlighting the effect of spatial distribution of settlements, population, and socioeconomic activities on urban air temperature and relative humidity. The main objective of the study is to assess the impact of urban growth on the microclimate of the administrative city. Temperature and relative humidity data from 1992 to 2001 were obtained from the three existing meteorological stations in Akure, the Administrative Capital of Ondo State, Nigeria, namely the Federal Ministry of Aviation, Akure Airport station (FMA), Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and the Federal School of Agriculture (SOA). Air temperature and relative humidity measurements along primary roads and in the built up areas were obtained from seventeen stations, using sling psychrometer. The data were subsequently analysed for spatial and temporal variations. The results obtained indicated that while the maximum, average and minimum temperatures showed significant annual variations, the spatial variations among the existing meteorological stations were not significant. The city is characterized by increasing annual mean temperatures whose maximum was significantly higher than that of Ondo town — another important town within the state. The annual mean temperatures ranged between 26.2°C and 30.4°C. Minimum and maximum temperatures varied from 12.3°C to 26°C and 22.5°C to 39.6°C, respectively while the relative humidity ranged between 27.5% and 98.2%. Urban `heat island' intensity was exhibited around central business district of the Oba market. 2007 American Institute of Physics

  9. Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Yam in Kogi State Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekunwe, Peter A.; Orewa, Sylvester I.

    The study examined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam in Kogi States of Nigeria. Specifically the study examined the socioeconomic characteristics of yam producers in Kogi State, determined the technical efficiency and productivity of yam farmers in the study areas and made recommendations on ways of improving the efficiency of yam production in Kogi State. Primary data were collected using a set of structured questionnaire from 200 selected Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact yam farmers from the State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the farmers. The first stage was a purposive sampling of 5 Local Government Areas (LGAs) each from Kogi States. The LGAs selected were Omala, Ofu, Ankpa, Dekina and Ida. This was based on the high concentration of the population of yam producers and the availability of market for yam products. The second stage involved a simple random sampling of 5 villages from each LGA and 8 yam farmers from each village. In all 200 yam farmers were interviewed by trained enumerators. Out of the 200 only 144 copies of the questionnaires were found adequate and used in the analysis for the study. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation, as well as the stochastic frontier production function. Results from the study showed that on the average more males (98.6%) were involved in yam production as compared to 1.4% in the case of female. The mean age of farmers was 53 years. The average years of schooling by farmers was about 4 years suggesting that the farmers were not well educated. The average farming years was 25 years. In terms of cropping pattern all the farmers practiced sole yam cropping. Their average farm sizes were 0.97 ha. The technical efficiency of the farmers in the State varied. The technical efficiency of farmers varied from 0.05 to 0.95 with a mean of 0.62, while only about 23% of the farmers had technical efficiencies exceeding 0

  10. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Engelthaler, David M; Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern. PMID:26982330

  11. 77 FR 35618 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (77 FR 24157). Interested parties were invited to participate in... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a regulatory..., 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation...

  12. 77 FR 40490 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... the southwestern United States (77 FR 35618). Subsequent to publication, an error was found in the... June 14, 2012 (77 FR 35618) (FR Doc. 2012-14406) for RNAV route T- 310, is corrected under the.../longitude coordinates for the NOCHI waypoint (WP) as appears in the description of RNAV route T-310....

  13. 77 FR 24156 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a... continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3... of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  14. 77 FR 35836 - Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... routes in the southwestern United States (78 FR 24156). An NPRM correction published in the Federal Register of May 23, 2012 (77 FR 30437) corrected the description of VOR Federal airway V-16. Interested... and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...

  15. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern. PMID:26982330

  16. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Engelthaler, David M; Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern.

  17. 77 FR 30437 - Proposed Amendment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Southwestern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... (77 FR 24156). The description of V-16 in the NPRM did not reflect a previous amendment of the route that was published on September 19, 2011 (76 FR 57902). The incorrect part of the V-16 description in...; Southwestern United States as published in the Federal Register of April 23, 2010 (77 FR 24156) FR Doc....

  18. Increasing the percentage of renewable energy in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining the output of wind farms with that of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants (including a heat storage system) resulted in a substantial percentage (40%) of the total utility electrical generation in the Southwestern United States being met by renewable energy. Using wind and solar resourc...

  19. Sensitivity of a semi-arid riparian ecosystem to climatic variability in the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic change will have strong impacts on riverine ecosystems and their associated riparian zones. In the southwestern United States, conservation and restoration of riparian habitats has become a priority for resource management agencies and conservation groups, and these areas are biodiversity h...

  20. Why Veteran Teachers in a Southwestern Border State Choose to Stay in the Education Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Blanca O.

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study provided a venue for veteran teachers in a southwestern border state to voice their thinking of what they believed had made them stay in the education profession. The "maestros veterans" in this study had a minimum of 10 years in the education profession and were currently teaching within the "Mexica"…

  1. Environmental impact assessment of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on surface and groundwater quality using geo-electrical imaging and microbiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olawale Olufemi; Akinlabi, Ismail A; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel

    2012-07-01

    The impact of Attenda abattoir, Ogbomoso southwestern Nigeria on four water sources was investigated using geoelectrical imaging and microbiological analysis. 2D electrical resistivity imaging indicated groundwater contamination by leachate from the abattoir. Electrical resistivity values measured by the traverse run directly on the waste dump and other areas impacted by the waste from the abattoir are generally very low (6.68-16.7 Ωm) in comparison to other positions (135-288 Ωm). The total viable bacteria count of the water samples ranged from 0.49 × 10(6) to 2.85 × 10(8) cfu/ml and all samples are contaminated with coliforms with the most probable number (MPN)/100 ml ranging from 110 to ≥ 1,600 MPN/100 ml. Among bacteria isolated from the study site (n = 95), resistance to eight antibiotics ranged from 35.8% to 94%. In addition, 85% of Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 31) and Staphylococci (n = 9) showed haemolytic activity while 92% of all isolates showed β-lactamase activity. These results suggest that operations of the abattoir may impact negatively on surrounding aquatic ecosystem and endanger the health of surrounding residents who use water from the wells for domestic purposes. Furthermore, such aquatic ecosystems may serve as reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

  2. Management of immunization solid wastes in Kano State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Oke, I.A.

    2008-12-15

    Inadequate management of waste generated from injection activities can have a negative impact on the community and environment. In this paper, a report on immunization wastes management in Kano State (Nigeria) is presented. Eight local governments were selected randomly and surveyed by the author. Solid wastes generated during the Expanded Programme on Immunization were characterised using two different methods: one by weighing the waste and the other by estimating the volume. Empirical data was obtained on immunization waste generation, segregation, storage, collection, transportation, and disposal; and waste management practices were assessed. The study revealed that immunization offices were accommodated in either in local government buildings, primary health centres or community health care centres. All of the stations demonstrated a high priority for segregation of the infectious wastes. It can be deduced from the data obtained that infectious waste ranged from 67.6% to 76.7% with an average of 70.1% by weight, and 36.0% to 46.1% with an average of 40.1% by volume. Non-infectious waste generated ranged from 23.3% to 32.5% with an average of 29.9% by weight and 53.9% to 64.0% with an average of 59.9% by volume. Out of non-infectious waste (NIFW) and infectious waste (IFW), 66.3% and 62.4% by weight were combustible and 33.7% and 37.6% were non-combustible respectively. An assessment of the treatment revealed that open pit burning and burial and small scale incineration were the common methods of disposal for immunization waste, and some immunization centres employed the services of the state or local government owned solid waste disposal board for final collection and disposal of their immunization waste at government approved sites.

  3. Lecturers' Perception of Research Activities for Knowledge Production in Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchendu, C. C.; Osim, R. O.; Odigwe, F. N.; Alade, F. N.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined lecturers' perception of research activities for knowledge production in universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Two hypotheses were isolated to give direction to this investigation. 240 university lecturers were sampled from a population of 1,868 from the two universities in Cross River State, using stratified random…

  4. Factors Influencing Current Costs of Secondary Education in the Oyo State of Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Remi S.

    Concentrating on a sample of 30 secondary schools in the Oyo state of Western Nigeria, this study diagnoses the disparities in secondary education development there and seeks those factors that determine the unit cost of education. The status of secondary educational development in Oyo state is shown by examining those indicators showing such…

  5. Gender, Geographic Locations, Achievement Goals and Academic Performance of Secondary School Students from Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K.J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper examined gender, geography location, achievement goals and academic performance of senior secondary school students in Borno State, Nigeria. The sample consists of 827 students from 18 public boarding secondary schools across South and North of Borno State: 414 (50.1 per cent) males and 413 (49.9 per cent) are females; 414 (50.1 per…

  6. Determinants of Adoption of Improved Fish Production Technologies among Fish Farmers in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofuoku, A. U.; Olele, N. F.; Emah, G. N.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to isolate the determinants of improved fish production technologies in Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from a sample population of 250 fish farmers from ten randomly selected Local Government Areas of Delta State. The data were elicited from respondents with the use of structured interview schedule while…

  7. Youth Empowerment in Higher Education for Sustainable Development of Developing Communities in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpiken, William E.; Ukpabio, Godfrey U.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was an attempt to examine youth empowerment in higher education for sustainable development of developing communities in Cross River State in Nigeria. In Cross River State developing communities, youths are in the majority and form a very strong formidable force in the society we live, study, but are not empowered while in school nor…

  8. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  9. Status of Health Appraisal Services for Primary School Children in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojugo, Augustine I.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of the health appraisal services provided for primary school children in Edo State, Nigeria. Using the cross-sectional survey design a total of 1506 primary school children were selected from across the state as the study participants. The analysis of data collected through a 14-item…

  10. Prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women receiving antenatal care in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Olowe, Rita; Adekanle, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal infections in pregnancy are associated with considerable discomfort and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preterm delivery, low birth weight and increased infant mortality and also predisposition to HIV/AIDS. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis among women attending antenatal clinic at a hospital in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered and high vaginal swab samples were obtained from consenting pregnant women. The samples were processed following standard protocols. The prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 36%, while those of trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were 2% and 38%, respectively. Infections were higher in the third trimester and many women admitted to practices that increase risk of these infections. Significant association was found between recent intake of antibiotics and vaginal candidiasis, same association was also found with bacterial vaginosis. Adequate investigation and prompt treatment will reduce the morbidity and attendant effects of these prevalent infections on mother and fetus. PMID:25544891

  11. Forest responses to increasing aridity and warmth in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, A.P.; Allen, C.D.; Millar, C.I.; Swetnam, T.W.; Michaelsen, J.; Still, C.J.; Leavitt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In recent decades, intense droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires have led to decreasing tree growth and increasingmortality inmany temperate forests. We compared annual tree-ring width data from 1,097 populations in the coterminous United States to climate data and evaluated site-specific tree responses to climate variations throughout the 20th century. For each population, we developed a climate-driven growth equation by using climate records to predict annual ring widths. Forests within the southwestern United States appear particularly sensitive to drought and warmth.We input 21st century climate projections to the equations to predict growth responses. Our results suggest that if temperature and aridity rise as they are projected to, southwestern trees will experience substantially reduced growth during this century. As tree growth declines, mortality rates may increase at many sites. Increases in wildfires and bark-beetle outbreaks in the most recent decade are likely related to extreme drought and high temperatures during this period. Using satellite imagery and aerial survey data, we conservatively calculate that ???2.7% of southwestern forest and woodland area experienced substantialmortality due to wildfires from1984 to 2006, and???7. 6%experiencedmortality associated with bark beetles from 1997 to 2008. We estimate that up to ???18% of southwestern forest area (excluding woodlands) experienced mortality due to bark beetles or wildfire during this period. Expected climatic changes will alter future forest productivity, disturbance regimes, and species ranges throughout the Southwest. Emerging knowledge of these impending transitions informs efforts to adaptively manage southwestern forests.

  12. Comparative analysis of clinical and computed tomography features of basal skull fractures in head injury in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olabinri, Eunice O.; Ogbole, Godwin I.; Adeleye, Amos O.; Dairo, David M.; Malomo, Adefolarin O.; Ogunseyinde, Ayotunde O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal skull fractures (BSF) in head injury may be missed clinically. Early detection ensures prompt treatment and prevention of complications We compared the clinical and Computed Tomography (CT) features of basal skull fractures in head injured patients in a southwestern Nigerian hospital. Materials and Methods: Head injury patients who had cranial CT at a Southwestern Nigerian hospital were selected. CT images were acquired with a 64-slice Toshiba Aquillion CT scanner using a standard head protocol. The images were evaluated for evidence of skull fractures, and associated complications. The clinical data and CT findings were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty patients were evaluated, including 103 (79.2%) males. Their ages ranged between 7 months and 81 years, mean 35 years (SD, 20.3). In 59 patients (45.4%, 59/130) BSF was detected on CT, while 71 (54.6%) had no evidence BSF. Forty-two (71.2%) of the 59 patients detected on CT had clinical suspicion of BSF (P < 0.001) while the remaining 17 (28.8%) were not clinically diagnosed. This equaled a sensitivity of 71.2% and, specificity of 90.1% for clinical determination of BSF in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between clinical and CT diagnosis (P > 0.05). The commonest observed clinical feature in patients with confirmed BSF was otorrhagia (45.8%) and the petrous temporal bone (45.8%) was the most commonly fractured bone. The BSF was caused most commonly by motor bike accidents in 53 (40.8%). The most common associated intracranial injuries were intracerebral haemorrhage (34.6%) and subdural (17.3%) Conclusion: It appears that neurosurgical evaluation is comparatively reliable in evaluating basal skull fractures in this study area even as they are consistently demonstrated by high resolution CT scanners. A clinical suspicion of BSF should warrant a closer detailed CT evaluation and reporting by radiologists. PMID:25883468

  13. Management of Re-Occurring Cases of Examination Malpractice in Plateau State Collage of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dusu, Paul Bot; Gotan, Anthony; Deshi, Jummai M.; Gambo, Barashe

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's educational system is gradually degenerating, as the sanctity of education process has been affected by malpractice. The purpose of this paper was to assess re-occurring incidence of examination malpractice in Plateau State College of Health Technology Pankshin, Nigeria. It looked at cases of examination malpractice and students'…

  14. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  15. Tested, Trusted, Yet Frustrating: An Investigation into the Effectiveness of Environmental Radio Jingles in Oyo State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojebode, Ayo

    2005-01-01

    Radio stations have used jingles for environmental education and communication in Nigeria for decades though not much has been done to study the impact of such use--which is the purpose of this article. Through 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) in six local government areas of Oyo state, Nigeria, interviews with the program directors of two radio…

  16. Geo-electrical investigation of near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation in a resistive crystalline basement environment: A case study of Isuada, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayode, J. S.; Adelusi, A. O.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Bawallah, M.; Olowolafe, T. S.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a geophysical surveying for groundwater identification in a resistive crystalline basement hard rock in Isuada area, Southwestern Nigeria. Very low frequency (VLF) electromagnetic and electrical resistivity geophysical techniques combined with well log were used to characterize the concealed near surface conductive structures suitable for groundwater accumulation. Prior to this work; little was known about the groundwater potential of this area. Qualitative and semi-quantitative interpretations of the data collected along eight traverses at 20 m spacing discovered conductive zones suspected to be fractures, faults, and cracks which were further mapped using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) technique. Forty VES stations were utilized using Schlumberger configurations with AB/2 varying from 1 to 100 m. Four layers i.e. the top soil, the weathered layer, the partially weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement were delineated from the interpreted resistivity curves. The weathered layers constitute the major aquifer unit in the area and are characterized by moderately low resistivity values which ranged between about 52 Ωm and 270 Ωm while the thickness varied from 1 to 35 m. The depth to the basement and the permeable nature of the weathered layer obtained from both the borehole and the hand-dug wells was used to categorize the groundwater potential of the study area into high, medium and low ratings. The groundwater potential map revealed that about 45% of the study area falls within the low groundwater potential rating while about 10% constitutes the medium groundwater potential and the remaining 45% constitutes high groundwater potential. The low resistivity, thick overburden, and fractured bedrock constitute the aquifer units and the series of basement depressions identified from the geoelectric sections as potential conductive zones appropriate for groundwater development.

  17. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Amy C.; Harhay, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. Approach Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. Results Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). Conclusion/Recommendations The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses. PMID:21479150

  18. Population Growth, Climate Change and Water Scarcity in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Amy C; Harhay, Michael O

    2010-06-30

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: In a simple economic model, water scarcity arises as a result of an imbalance between the supply of and demand for water sources. Distribution in this setting is the source of numerous conflicts globally. APPROACH: Already, the Southwestern United States (US) suffers from annual drought and long-standing feud over natural water resources. RESULTS: Population growth in the Southwestern United States along with the continued effects of climate change (natural and anthropogenic) predicts a perpetual decline in natural water sources, such as smaller snowpacks, in the coming years. As the increasing number of communities across multiple US states that subsist off of natural water supplies face water shortages with increasing severity, further water conflict will emerge. Such conflicts become especially protracted when the diversion of water from a source of benefit to one community negatively impacts nearby communities of humans and economically vital ecosystems (e.g., marshlands or tributaries). CONCLUSION/RECOMMENDATIONS: The ensuing politics and health effects of these diversions can be complicated and future water policies both domestically and internationally are lacking. To draw attention to and stimulate discussion around the lacking policy discussion domestically, herein we document existing and emerging consequences of watery scarcity in the Southwestern United States and briefly outline past and potential future policy responses.

  19. Arbovirus studies in two towns in western state of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H; Fabiyi, A

    1975-03-01

    Three hundred and fifty-one persons were tested for HI antibody to arbovirus Groups A, B and Ingwavuma viruses in Ilesha and Oshogbo, two towns in western Nigeria. Chikungunya accouted for most Group A infections (39%). Antibodies to Group B virus were distributed as follows: Dengue 22%, Yellow Fever 25%, West Nile 28% and Wesselsbron 30%. Few sera 5% were positive to Ingwavuma. No virus was isolated from 188 blood specimens processed for virus isolation.

  20. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwankiti, O O; Ikeh, E I; Arowolo, O A; Nwankiti, A J; Odugbo, M O; Seuberlich, T

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrP(Sc), using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  1. A Targeted Survey for Scrapie in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nwankiti, O. O.; Ikeh, E. I.; Arowolo, O. A.; Nwankiti, A. J.; Odugbo, M. O.; Seuberlich, T.

    2013-01-01

    Scrapie, a disease of sheep and goats with a progressive course and fatal outcome, has not been identified in Nigeria. Anecdotal scrapie reports by livestock workers abound. Livestock diseases like scrapie form huddles in livestock economics of countries. For 8 months we surveyed for scrapie targeting emergency/casualty slaughter sheep and goats in Jos, Nigeria. We clinically examined 510 sheep and 608 goats of local breeds, aged from 12 months to 5 years. In total 31 (5.10%) goats and no sheep were clinically suspicious for scrapie. Caudal brainstem tissues of suspect animals collected postmortem were analyzed for the disease specific form of the prion protein, PrPSc, using Bio-Rad's TeSeE ELISA rapid test kit. No sample was positive for scrapie. Fluorescent antibody test for rabies and H&E staining on samples were carried out for differential diagnosis. These showed no pathological lesions indicative for neurological disease. While our findings do not exclude the presence of scrapie in Jos, we demonstrate that targeted sampling of small ruminants for neuroinfectious disease is feasible in developing countries, pointing to the possibility of implementing such a monitoring scheme in Nigeria to prevent economic losses in small ruminant livestock as scrapie caveats from endemic countries have shown. PMID:26464913

  2. Teaching Clothing and Textiles: An Appraisal by Students in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arubayi, D. O.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to find out how students appraise the teaching of Clothing and Textiles in Tertiary Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. To do this two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to give direction to the study. The target population consisted of 660 Home Economics Students enrolled in Home Economics in…

  3. Entrepreneurial Training Needs of Illiterate Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwu, Emmanuel U.; Okey, Stella-Maris A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve on the curriculum and participation rate of adult learners in the current Adult Basic Education (ABE) program in Nigeria, this explorative study investigated the entrepreneurial (or vocational) training needs of illiterate women in Cross River State (CRS). Three research questions were posed to elicit from the participants…

  4. Information Methods of Human and Veterinary Medical Scientists (HVMS) in Borno State, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nweke, Ken M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Describes results of a survey of human and veterinary medical scientists in Borno State (Nigeria) that was conducted to determine their information-seeking behavior and to examine sources of information used. Problems in information gathering are discussed, including lack of relevant sources, and suggestions for improvements in information…

  5. Teacher Factors and Perceived Assessment Practices Needs of Social Studies Teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, Emmanuel Etta; Egbai, Julius Michael; Ita, Caroline Iserome

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated perceived assessment practices needs among social studies teachers in Cross River State, Nigeria, in relation to some teacher factors (attitude towards social studies, sex, teaching experience and educational qualification). Subjects who participated in this study were 297 social studies teachers (144 males and 153 females)…

  6. Conflict Resolution Strategies in Non-Government Secondary Schools in Benue State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie; Alfa, Idoko Alphonusu

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated perceived CRSs (conflict resolution strategies) for the resolution of conflicts in non-government secondary schools in Benue State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided this study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used in drawing 15% of the population which gave a total of 500…

  7. Dimensions of Job Stress among Public Secondary School Principals in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina

    2008-01-01

    The study examined the dimensions of job stress among public secondary school principals in Oyo State, Nigeria. It also determined difference in job stress between demographic characteristics of principals (gender and years of experience) and school variables (type of school and location of the school). Descriptive survey design was adopted. The…

  8. Information and Communication Technologies in Enhancing Learning Ability in Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.

    2012-01-01

    The dismal results of 2011, 2010, 2009, and previous years WAEC and NECO Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) show the pitiable state of education in secondary schools in Nigeria. The youths of today live in a digital age. Web technologies and sites have become an integral part of the youth culture. Today's youths use the web tools to…

  9. Principals' Administrative Styles and Students' Academic Performance in Taraba State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bello, Suleiman; Ibi, Mustapha Baba; Bukar, Ibrahim Bulama

    2016-01-01

    The study determined the relationship between principals' administrative styles and students' academic performance in Taraba State secondary schools, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine the relationships between initiative structure of leadership styles, consideration structure of leadership styles, participatory structure of…

  10. Business Studies Academic Performance Differences of Secondary School Juniors in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udoukpong, Bassey E.; Emah, Ime E.; Umoren, Shirley E.

    2012-01-01

    The research examined the differences in the academic performance in Business Studies of a sampled secondary school junior students in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. A sample of 290 (138 male and 152 female) Junior Secondary Three (9th grade) students was surveyed. The students' variables' being examined vis-à-vis academic performance in Business…

  11. Adolescent Girls' Need for Love in Two Cultures--Nigeria and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osa, Osayimwense

    1983-01-01

    Compares a junior novel from the United States with one from Nigeria--Bette Greene's "Summer of My German Soldier" with Buchi Emecheta's "The Bride Price." Suggests that their similarity can inspire children from a variety of backgrounds to an awareness and appreciation of different cultures. (MM)

  12. Assessment of Users Information Needs and Satisfaction in Selected Seminary Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adekunjo, Olalekan Abraham; Adepoju, Samuel Olusegun; Adeola, Anuoluwapo Odebunmi

    2015-01-01

    The study assessed users' information needs and satisfaction in selected seminary libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria. This paper employed the descriptive survey research design, whereby the expost-facto was employed with a sample size of three hundred (300) participants, selected from six seminaries located in Ibadan, Oyo and Ogbomoso, all in Oyo…

  13. Laboratory Teaching: Implication on Students' Achievement in Chemistry in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigation of the roles of the laboratory in students' academic achievement in chemistry in secondary schools in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. Four research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 240 students selected through simple random sampling technique from ten secondary schools in the 3 Education Zones…

  14. Some Correlates of Risky Sexual Behavior among Secondary School Adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemo, D. A.; Williams, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviors among secondary school adolescents in Ogun State, Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty adolescents randomly selected from three schools participated in the study. The ages of the participants ranged from 13 to 18 years. Both the independent and dependent variables were…

  15. Conditions Restraining the Teaching of Major Nigerian Languages in Secondary School in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chidi-Ehiem, Ugochi Ijeoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey was carried out in order to determine the conditions handicapping the teaching of major Nigerian languages in secondary schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. A random sample of 953 students and 602 language teachers completed a corresponding copies of questionnaire designed for the study. Out of 1555 copies of questionnaire…

  16. Farmers' Adoption of Soil Conservation Technologies: A Case Study from Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junge, B.; Deji, O.; Abaidoo, R.; Chikoye, D.; Stahr, K.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the attitude of farmers towards erosion and the adoption of appropriate soil conservation technologies (SCTs). For the survey, farmers were selected from the communities Esa Oke, Elwure and Owode-Ede and Akoda in Osun State in Nigeria. In the first three communities farmers did receive training on…

  17. Assessing Principals' Quality Assurance Strategies in Osun State Secondary Schools, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasasi, Yunus Adebunmi; Oyeniran, Saheed

    2014-01-01

    This paper examined principals' quality assurance strategies in secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 10 male and 10 female principals, and 190 male and190 female teachers. "Secondary School Principal Quality Assurance…

  18. Correlates of Examination Malpractice among Secondary School Students in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Animasahun, R. A.; Ogunniran, J. O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlates of examination malpractice among secondary school students in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was tagged Predisposing Factors towards Examination Malpractice Questionnaire (PFTEMQ). The instrument was administered to 300 students randomly selected from 20 multi staged…

  19. Some Issues in Formal Music Education in Nigeria: A Case Study of Kwara State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emielu, Austin

    2011-01-01

    Every educational system has its goals and objectives, curricula and modes of implementation. There is however the need for periodic assessment and evaluation. Specifically, this research paper sets out to evaluate the success or otherwise of the music education delivery system in Kwara state of Nigeria and its implications for the goals of music…

  20. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  1. Personality Variables as Correlates of Marital Adjustment among Married Persons in Delta State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebenuwa-Okoh, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which emotional expression, communication flow, financial management and work involvement predict marital adjustment among married persons in Delta State, Nigeria. One question was raised and one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. 2561 married persons were selected through the use of purposive sampling…

  2. Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Secondary Schools Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Nwachukwu, Kelechukwu I.; Ali, Domiya Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The study determined Relationship between Students' Expectancy Beliefs and English Language Performance of Students in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria. Correlation design was adopted for the study. Four hypotheses which determined the relationships between the components of expectancy beliefs: ability, tasks difficulty, and past…

  3. Analysis of Classroom Management Problems in Primary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oghuvbu, Enamiroro Patrick; Atakpo, Theresa Edirin

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies classroom management problems, their causes, and possible ways to reduce these problems in primary schools located in Delta State, Nigeria. A total of 600 teachers selected from twelve local government areas participated in this study. Data were collected in a checklist containing 27 items and a two section questionnaire…

  4. The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Stroh, G.; Lee, V. H.; Smith, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Serological surveys undertaken to define the geographic limits of the 1970 rural yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that surrounding areas of Benue Plateau State and East Central State were not involved. However, the surveys uncovered a separate focus of unrecognized, recent epidemic yellow fever in Mbawsi, in southern East Central State. The highest proportions of yellow-fever-immune sera outside the Okwoga and Mbawsi foci were found in zones of Guinea savannah in the Benue River basin. PMID:4545319

  5. Hydrochemical and stable isotopic characterization of shallow groundwater system in the crystalline basement terrain of Ekiti area, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talabi, Abel O.; Tijani, Moshood N.

    2013-03-01

    Assessments of hydrochemical quality and recharge source are critical components of sustainable groundwater resources evaluation and management, especially in complex weathered/fractured crystalline bedrock terrains. Assessment of the weathered/fractured basement aquifer of Ekiti area, SW-Nigeria was undertaken with emphasis on hydrochemical quality and stable isotope characterization of shallow groundwater system. The study approach involved field sampling and in situ measurements of physico-chemical parameters followed by hydrochemical and stable isotope analyses of the water samples. In situ measurements revealed EC value of 43-995 μS/cm (av 431.96 μS/cm) and total hardness of 31.3-295.1 mg/L. The pH of the water sample ranged from 7.0 to 8.9 (av 8.00). The concentrations of the major cations are in the order of Ca2+ > K+ > Na+ > Mg2+ with their respective average values of 33.35, 25.61, 24.91 and 8.7 mg/L respectively while that of the anions are in the order of HCO3 - > Cl- > SO4 2- > NO3 - with their respective average values of 165.44, 31.85, 21.27 and 5.44 mg/L respectively. However, the results of stable isotope analyses revealed δ18O value of -4.2 to -2.1 ‰ and δD of -22.3 to -10.2 ‰, suggesting meteoric water source (recent precipitation water recharging the associated shallow basement aquifer) while the estimated deuterium excess of 6.80-11.00 ‰ (av 9.6 ‰) suggested little or no imprint of kinetic evaporation. Furthermore, the overall hydrochemical profiles revealed the main hydrochemical facies as Ca(Mg)-HCO3 (dominant) and Na(K)-HCO3 (minor) water types which can be attributed to dissolution of minerals in the various rock units in the study area. Conclusively, the overall hydrochemical and stable isotope evaluations revealed a recharge predominantly derived from meteoric (rainfall) source while the corresponding low TDS is a reflection of low water-rock interaction and limited migratory history of the shallow groundwater system in the

  6. The development of poultry farms risk assessment tool for avian influenza in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Obinani, Chidi; Onweagba, Anthony; Lloyd, Linda; Ross, Micheal; Troisi, Cathrine; Ohazurika, Nathaniel; Chukwu, Andrew O

    2014-09-01

    This study validated the content of a questionnaire that will be used for risk stratification in poultry farms in Imo State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was developed from avian influenza risk domains peculiar to poultry farms in Nigeria. The questionnaire was verified and modified by a group of five experts with research interest in Nigeria's poultry industry and avian influenza prevention. The questionnaire was distributed to 30 poultry farms selected from Imo State, Nigeria. The same poultry farms were visited one week after they completed the questionnaires for on-site observation. Agreement between survey and observation results was analyzed using the kappa statistic and rated as poor, fair, moderate, substantial, or nearly perfect; internal consistency of the survey was also computed. The mean kappa statistic for agreement between the survey and observations (validation) ranged from 0.06 to 1, poor to nearly perfect agreement. Eight questions showed poor agreement, four had a fair agreement, two items had moderate agreement, nineteen survey questions had substantial agreement and ten questions had nearly perfect agreement. Out of the 43 items in the questionnaire, 32 items were considered validated with coefficient alpha >0.70.

  7. Identification and prevalence of tetracycline resistance in enterococci isolated from poultry in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayeni, Funmilola A.; Odumosu, Bamidele Tolulope; Oluseyi, Adekola E.; Ruppitsch, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tetracycline is one of the most frequently used antibiotics in Nigeria both for human and animal infections because of its cheapness and ready availability. The use of tetracycline in animal husbandry could lead to horizontal transfer of tet genes from poultry to human through the gut microbiota, especially enterococci. Therefore, this study is designed to identify different enterococcal species from poultry feces in selected farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria, determine the prevalence of tetracycline resistance/genes and presence of IS256 in enterococcal strains. Materials and Methods: Enterococci strains were isolated from 100 fresh chicken fecal samples collected from seven local poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria. The strains were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, amoxycillin/claulanate, and of loxacin were performed by disc diffusion method. Detection of tet, erm, and van genes and IS256 insertion element were done by polymerase chain reaction amplification. Results: Sixty enterococci spp. were identified comprising of Enterococcus faecalis 33 (55%), Enterococcus casseliflavus 21 (35%), and Enterococcus gallinarium 6 (10%). All the isolates were resistant to erythromycin (100%), followed by tetracycline (81.67%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (73.33%), ofloxacin (68.33%), vancomycin (65%), and gentamicin (20%). None of the enterococcal spp. harbored the van and erm genes while tet(M) was detected among 23% isolates and is distributed mostly among E. casseliflavus. IS256 elements were detected only in 33% of E. casseliflavus that were also positive for tet(M) gene. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that tetracycline resistance gene is present in the studied poultry farms in Ilishan, Ogun State, Nigeria and underscores the need for strict regulation on tetracycline usage in poultry farming in the studied location and

  8. Forest response to 1,000 years of drought variability in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Meko, D. M.; Woodhouse, C. A.; Cook, E.; Swetnam, T. W.; Macalady, A. K.; Allen, C. D.; Rauscher, S. A.; Jiang, X.; Grissino-Mayer, H.; McDowell, N. G.; Cai, M.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts in the early 1950s and early 2000s significantly accelerated tree mortality rates in the Southwestern United States. During the early 2000s, forest inventory data indicate that the proportion of dead piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir trees doubled in the Southwest. The 2000s drought peaked in 2002 and was the most severe drought in at least 100 years. In 2011, precipitation, dew-point, and wind data indicate the intensity of the 2002 drought has been surpassed in a number of ways. Measurements of water potential in piñon pine trees in northern New Mexico indicate that, at present, trees have less access to soil moisture than in 2002 when widespread mortality occurred. How do these recent droughts compare to those of the last 1000 years? We used records of annual tree-ring widths from 309 populations of piñon pine, ponderosa pine, and Douglas-fir throughout the Southwestern United States to reconstruct a single record of regional drought stress from 1000-2005 AD. This record indicates that the last Southwestern drought similar in intensity to one in the early 2000s occurred in the late 1600s. Both of these droughts, however, paled in comparison to a mega-drought that occurred from 1575-1595. The emergence from this mega-drought, around 1600 AD, appears to mark a transition period from a time when droughts similar the early 2000s drought were much more common. Tree-age studies indicate a scarcity of Southwestern trees with rings extending back beyond the mega-drought of the late 1500s. This suggests that (1) the late-1500s mega-drought triggered a massive die-off of forests and/or (2) the higher frequency of drought events prior to the mega-drought sustained a much more sparse forest population than the one that has thrived from the 1600s through present. Given this apparent plasticity of Southwestern forests, a change in the forest population should be underway if higher temperatures contribute to forest drought stress. The Southwestern tree

  9. State Variations in Women’s Socioeconomic Status and Use of Modern Contraceptives in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lamidi, Esther O.

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the 2014 World Population Data Sheet, Nigeria has one of the highest fertility and lowest contraceptive prevalence rates around the world. However, research suggests that national contraceptive prevalence rate overshadows enormous spatial variations in reproductive behavior in the country. Objective I examined the variations in women’s socioeconomic status and modern contraceptive use across states in Nigeria. Methods Using the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey data (n = 18,910), I estimated the odds of modern contraceptive use among sexually active married and cohabiting women in a series of multilevel logistic regression models. Results The share of sexually active, married and cohabiting women using modern contraceptives widely varied, from less than one percent in Kano, Yobe, and Jigawa states, to 40 percent in Osun state. Most of the states with low contraceptive prevalence rates also ranked low on women’s socioeconomic attributes. Results of multilevel logistic regression analyses showed that women residing in states with greater shares of women with secondary or higher education, higher female labor force participation rates, and more women with health care decision-making power, had significantly higher odds of using modern contraceptives. Differences in women’s participation in health care decisions across states remained significantly associated with modern contraceptive use, net of individual-level socioeconomic status and other covariates of modern contraceptive use. Conclusion Understanding of state variations in contraceptive use is crucial to the design and implementation of family planning programs. The findings reinforce the need for state-specific family planning programs in Nigeria. PMID:26258578

  10. Studies of the proterozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeley, John Martin

    This dissertation is comprised of an introductory chapter (1) and four subsequent chapters (2, 3, 4, and 5) which concentrate on the evolution of Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern United States. Chapter 2 utilizes gravity and magnetic geophysical techniques to delineate subsurface occurrences of Mesoproterozoic Unkar and Neoproterozoic Chuar Group rocks in northern Arizona and southern Utah. These rocks were delineated using gravity and aeromagnetic data, in combination with gravity profile modeling, seismic velocity analysis, geologic cross-sections, analysis of surface geologic structures, and analysis of drilling data. Delineation of Proterozoic extensional trends within this region provides insights in to Proterozoic paleogeography along the southwestern margin of Laurentia. Chapter 3 focuses on the geologic mapping and areal distribution of the Mesoproterozoic Apache Group, Troy Quartzite and diabase in central Arizona. Landsat TM imagery was used in combination with existing geologic maps of the region to define the areal distribution of these units. Results were used to construct a regional-scale photo-geologic map of exposed Middle Proterozoic rocks. Chapter 4 introduces a sequence stratigraphic model for siliciclastic rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Lanoria Formation of the Franklin Mountains, Texas, comprised of 700+ m of marine shelf and marginal marine sandstone, siltstone and mudstone. It is divided into six members (L1 through L6). Four facies associations are identified: proximal, distal shelf; tidal flat; incised valley; and, estuarine/deltaic. Six stratigraphic sequences have been interpreted. Sequences LS1, LS2, LS4 and LS6 represent marine shelf deposits. Sequence LS3 comprises incised valley fill and overlying tidal flat deposits. Sequence LS5 comprises incised valley fill overlain by estuarine/deltaic sediments. Sequences, facies, and paleocurrents suggest a northward sloping platform, indicating a southern source. Tidal processes dominated on

  11. AAR in concrete of Asejire spillway (OYO state - Nigeria)

    SciTech Connect

    Lamaudiere, J.P.; Spaeti, F.

    1995-12-31

    The Asejire dam at Ibadan, Nigeria was constructed in the late sixties for the purpose of providing water for the city of Ibadan (presently about 4,5 million inhabitants). It is located on the Oshun river approximately fifteen miles from the city. In 1982 cracks were observed on the wing walls and although these continued to develop, no attempt was made at that time to investigate their causes and no repair was carried out. In 1989 the SGI ENGINEERING Group of Geneva, Switzerland was appointed as the consultant for the complete refurbishment of the Asejire water scheme. The consortium Degremont-Poat-Clemessy was awarded the contract for the project. The African Development Bank and the Nigerian Government have provided the loan to finance the project.

  12. Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States - Executive Summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a regional study in the Southwestern United States to characterize dissolved-solids conditions in major water supplies, including important rivers and aquifers. High concentrations of dissolved solids can degrade a water supply's suitability for important uses, such as drinking water or crop irrigation. In an effort to ensure the continued availability of clean surface and groundwater, USGS scientists identified areas where there have been both increasing and decreasing trends in dissolved-solids concentrations.

  13. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu district.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 2552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum-Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this State. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed. The study will fill the gap in our knowledge of filariasis in this part of Nigeria.

  14. Environmental-impacts of Urban Road Transportation in South-western States of Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuntogun, B. A.; Koku, C. A.

    A study of the impacts of urban road transportation on the environmental resources, air and the health of residents of some heavily trafficked locations-eight in Lagos metropolis, four in Ibadan and four in Ado-Ekiti were carried out. Also, two locations in Lagos, one in Ibadan and one in Ado-Ekiti were used as control. Air quality indicators namely carbon-monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total suspended particulates were estimated using automatic air monitors. The noise levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels at the locations were also determined with a noise metre. The highest levels obtained for the air pollution indicators in Lagos were CO- 232 ppm at Idumota; SO2- 2.9 ppm at Idumota; NO2- 1.5 ppm at Iyana-Ipaja bus stop; total suspended particulates- 852 cpm at Oshodi bus stop. At Ibadan, the CO and SO2 levels at 271 and 1.4 ppm were, respectively highest at Mokola round about while NO2 at 1.0 ppm was highest at Bere round about. In Ado-Ekiti, the highest levels obtained were CO- 317 ppm at Oke Isha, NO2- 0.6 ppm at Ijigbo junction and SO2- 0.8 ppm at Old garage junction. The recorded noise levels were 112.8 dB at Oshodi bus stop in Lagos, 120 dB at Iwo road in Ibadan and 115 dB at Old Garage junction, Ado-Ekiti. The Federal Ministry of Environment National Standards for these air pollutant indicators are CO, 10-20 ppm; SO2, 0.01-0.1 ppm; NO2, 0.04-0.6 ppm and total suspended particulates, 250 mg dm-3. The noise level is restricted to 90 db. The blood samples of people at these high trafficked locations such as the commercial drivers, conductors, street traders and road traffic wardens were also analysed for Lead content with a resultant high Pb concentration. Responses to interviews indicate that these people suffer from air pollution related diseases such as headaches, loss of vision, anaemia, forgetfulness and fatigue than those from the control locations.

  15. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  16. Automatic detection of vegetation changes in the southwestern United States using remotely sensed images

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, P.S.; Mackinnon, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    The capability to automatically detect vegetation changes using multitemporal remotely sensed image data is of upmost importance to many global-change research projects. A procedure to automatically map vegetation changes within arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States is presented. Multitemporal Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images were the primary data source, but some preliminary work was also done using same-date Visible-Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer (VISSR) data for comparison with the MSS results. The change-detection procedure includes multitemporal image calibration using a hybrid method that we developed for the project; the hybrid calibration allows a radiometric calibration to be applied to historical data by using field-radiance information rather than a modeling procedure. The results indicate that a calibrated visible band is more sensitive than the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in detecting vegetation changes in the arid and semi-arid environments of the southwestern United States. Changes were detected in the desert environment, where the vegetation density is relatively low, with both Landsat MSS and GOES VISSR images. Some changes detected by the automatic procedure were confirmed in the field during two of the Landsat overpasses. The changes corresponded mostly to the blooming of ephemeral or annual vegetation.

  17. Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Reheis, Marith C.; Yount, James C.; Neff, Jason C.

    2008-06-01

    Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the Mojave Desert to the central Colorado Plateau. Aeolian dust is recognized in these depressions on the basis of textural, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics and comparisons of those characteristics to the underlying bedrock units. Spatial and temporal trends suggest that although local dust sources are important to the accumulated material in these depressions, Mojave Desert dust sources may also contribute. Depth trends in the depressions suggest that Mojave sources may have contributed more dust to the Colorado Plateau recently than in the past. These interpretations point to the important roles of far-traveled aeolian dust for landscape geochemistry and imply future changes to soil geochemistry under changing conditions in far-distant dust source areas.

  18. Compositional trends in aeolian dust along a transect across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, H.L.; Reynolds, R.L.; Reheis, M.C.; Yount, J.C.; Neff, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian dust strongly influences ecology and landscape geochemistry over large areas that span several desert ecosystems of the southwestern United States. This study evaluates spatial and temporal variations and trends of the physical and chemical properties of dust in the southwestern United States by examining dust deposited in natural depressions on high isolated surfaces along a transect from the Mojave Desert to the central Colorado Plateau. Aeolian dust is recognized in these depressions on the basis of textural, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics and comparisons of those characteristics to the underlying bedrock units. Spatial and temporal trends suggest that although local dust sources are important to the accumulated material in these depressions, Mojave Desert dust sources may also contribute. Depth trends in the depressions suggest that Mojave sources may have contributed more dust to the Colorado Plateau recently than in the past. These interpretations point to the important roles of far-traveled aeolian dust for landscape geochemistry and imply future changes to soil geochemistry under changing conditions in far-distant dust source areas. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Relationships between Gulf of California Moisture Surges and Precipitation in the Southwestern United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, R. W.; Shi, W.; Hain, C.

    2004-08-01

    Relationships between Gulf of California moisture surges and precipitation in the southwestern United States are examined. Standard surface observations are used to identify gulf surge events at Yuma, Arizona, for a multiyear (July August of 1977 2001) period, and Climate Prediction Center (CPC) precipitation analyses and NCEP NCAR reanalysis data are used to relate the gulf surge events to the precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns, respectively. Emphasis is placed on the relative differences in the precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns for several categories of surge events, including those that are relatively strong (weak) and those that are accompanied by relatively wet (dry) conditions in Arizona and New Mexico after onset. It is shown that rapid surface dewpoint temperature increases are not necessarily a good indicator of increased rainfall in the region.The extent to which the precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns are influenced by a phasing of tropical easterly and midlatitude westerly waves is also considered. Results indicate that a significant fraction of the events in all categories are related to the passage of westward-propagating tropical easterly waves across western Mexico. However, the occurrence of wet versus dry surges in the southwestern United States is not discriminated by the presence of tropical easterly waves, but rather by the relative location of the upper-level anticyclone in midlatitudes at the time of the gulf surge.


  20. Geochemical evidence for diversity of dust sources in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Budahn, J.R.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential dust sources, including generic sources of sparsely vegetated alluvium, playa deposits, and anthropogenic emissions, as well as the area around Owens Lake, California, affect the composition of modern dust in the southwestern United States. A comparison of geochemical analyses of modern and old (a few thousand years) dust with samples of potential local sources suggests that dusts reflect four primary sources: (1) alluvial sediments (represented by Hf, K, Rb, Zr, and rare-earth elements, (2) playas, most of which produce calcareous dust (Sr, associated with Ca), (3) the area of Owens (dry) Lake, a human-induced playa (As, Ba, Li, Pb, Sb, and Sr), and (4) anthropogenic and/or volcanic emissions (As, Cr, Ni, and Sb). A comparison of dust and source samples with previous analyses shows that Owens (dry) Lake and mining wastes from the adjacent Cerro Gordo mining district are the primary sources of As, Ba, Li, and Pb in dusts from Owens Valley. Decreases in dust contents of As, Ba, and Sb with distance from Owens Valley suggest that dust from southern Owens Valley is being transported at least 400 km to the east. Samples of old dust that accumulated before European settlement are distinctly lower in As, Ba, and Sb abundances relative to modern dust, likely due to modern transport of dust from Owens Valley. Thus, southern Owens Valley appears to be an important, geochemically distinct, point source for regional dust in the southwestern United States. Copyright ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  1. Endemicity and striking manifestations of onchocerciasis in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edungbola, L D; Watts, S J; Kayode, O O

    1987-09-01

    A house-to-house screening exercise was carried out in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria, to determine the status of onchocerciasis in the town. The results of skin snips taken from 2018 subjects revealed that, with an overall infection rate of 54.6%, the community is mesoendemic for river blindness. The prevalence and intensity of the infection were significantly higher for adults than for children, for males than for females and for farmers than for other occupational groups (P less than 0.01). The severity and frequency of occurrence of striking manifestations of onchocerciasis, including blindness, hernias, hanging groins, 'leopard skin' and scrotal elephantiasis, strongly suggest that the community had a history of long-standing onchocerciasis. The desirability for the implementation of a nation-wide control programme in Nigeria to complement the ongoing control efforts in the Volta River Basin Areas, is highlighted. PMID:2829608

  2. Endemicity and striking manifestations of onchocerciasis in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Edungbola, L D; Watts, S J; Kayode, O O

    1987-09-01

    A house-to-house screening exercise was carried out in Shao, Kwara State, Nigeria, to determine the status of onchocerciasis in the town. The results of skin snips taken from 2018 subjects revealed that, with an overall infection rate of 54.6%, the community is mesoendemic for river blindness. The prevalence and intensity of the infection were significantly higher for adults than for children, for males than for females and for farmers than for other occupational groups (P less than 0.01). The severity and frequency of occurrence of striking manifestations of onchocerciasis, including blindness, hernias, hanging groins, 'leopard skin' and scrotal elephantiasis, strongly suggest that the community had a history of long-standing onchocerciasis. The desirability for the implementation of a nation-wide control programme in Nigeria to complement the ongoing control efforts in the Volta River Basin Areas, is highlighted.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist. PMID:24261117

  4. Occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community of Cross River State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iboh, C I; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Asor, J E; Opara, K N

    2012-12-01

    Chrysops species have been recognized for its role as vectors in the transmission of human loiasis in Nigeria. This investigation was aimed at studying the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops species in Akamkpa community, Cross River State. Two fly boys were used as human baits in the collection of adult Chrysops from each of the various villages in Akamkpa community, cross river state, Nigeria. Two species of Chrysops were identified. Chrysops dimidiata recorded significantly higher prevalence of 69.7% than Chrysops silacea 30.3% in all the sampling sites (p<0.05). Out of the 1299 Chrysops species caught in the entire study, the highest prevalence was reported during the late rainy season 916 (70.5%), while the least prevalence of 137 (10.6%) was reported during the late dry season (p<0.05). Two biting peaks 9-10 am and 3-4 pm were identified for Chrysops at all the sampling sites. Fly abundance was found to be higher in the morning hours than in the afternoon. The knowledge of the occurrence and distribution of Chrysops vectors will aid in the ongoing control program for human loiasis in Nigeria and the neighbouring countries where the vectors exist.

  5. Living with vesico-vaginal fistula: experiences of women awaiting repairs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Uzoma O; Emma-Echiegu, Nkechi; Tanyi, Perpetua L

    2014-10-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistula (VVF) is one of maternal health problems confronting public health workers in Nigeria today. Information on how women suffering from this condition cope is important in that it can inform the design and delivery of programmes and interventions to address the challenges that face victims of VVF. The objective of this study was to highlight how women living with VVF cope with the health problem in Ebonyi state, Nigeria. In-depth interviews were conducted with ten women awaiting repairs at the National Fistula Centre at Abakaliki in Nigeria. Six of the women have lived with the health problem for more than ten years. Findings show that nearly all the women attributed their health problem to supernatural causes. The women stated that they go through a lot of physical and emotional problems. Some of the ways they have devised of physically coping with the problem include bathing regularly and use of strips of old wrappers as pads. Many of them cope emotionally and financially by attending religious gatherings and having some form of income yielding business. The study recommends the need for repairs to go hand in hand with vocational training so that they will have some income yielding business after repairs. PMID:26891522

  6. An Analysis of the Post-Retirement Employment of Army Commissioned Officers and Warrant Officers in the Southwestern United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwaltney, Robert L.

    An empirical study was made to identify and measure some of the factors affecting the postretirement employment of United States Army officers and warrant officers living in the southwestern United States. Data were gathered by questionnaire survey of a random sample of officer personnel who had retired since 1960 and who lived in Texas, Oklahoma,…

  7. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Theimer, T.C.; Sogge, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a wellstudied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  8. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  9. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    DAWAKI, Salwa; AL-MEKHLAFI, Hesham Mahyoub; ITHOI, Init; IBRAHIM, Jamaiah; ABDULSALAM, Awatif Mohammed; AHMED, Abdulhamid; SADY, Hany; ATROOSH, Wahib Mohammed; AL-AREEQI, Mona Abdullah; ELYANA, Fatin Nur; NASR, Nabil Ahmed; SURIN, Johari

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  10. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  11. Serological Survey for Avian Influenza in Turkeys in Three States of Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oluwayelu, Daniel Oladimeji; Aiki-Raji, Comfort Oluladun; Adigun, Oladunni Taiwo; Olofintuyi, Opeyemi Kazeem; Adebiyi, Adebowale Idris

    2015-01-01

    Since the first outbreak of avian influenza (AI) in Nigeria in 2006, there has been continuous monitoring of the disease in chickens with little attention given to turkeys. As part of on-going surveillance for AI in southwest Nigeria, we used a competitive ELISA to detect anti-AI virus antibodies in 520 turkey sera obtained from poultry farms in Oyo, Osun, and Ondo states while haemagglutination inhibiting antibodies against low pathogenic AI viruses (LPAIVs) were detected using H3N8 and H5N2 subtype-specific antigens. The overall seroprevalence obtained by ELISA was 4.4% (23/520). Of the 23 ELISA-positive samples, 18 were positive for anti-AIV H3N8 antibodies only and four were positive for both anti-AIV H3N8 and H5N2 antibodies indicating a mixed infection, while five were negative for antibodies to either of the two AIV subtypes. Considering that turkeys have been implicated as a mixing vessel for generating influenza virus reassortants of human and avian origin, the detection of antibodies to LPAIV H3N8 and H5N2 in these turkeys is of public health concern. We advocate further studies to determine the potential role of turkeys in the zoonotic transmission of AIVs in Nigeria. Additionally, the practice of rearing turkeys with chickens should be discouraged. PMID:26664747

  12. PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG HAUSA COMMUNITIES IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham Mahyoub; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif Mohammed; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib Mohammed; Al-Areeqi, Mona Abdullah; Elyana, Fatin Nur; Nasr, Nabil Ahmed; Surin, Johari

    2016-07-11

    Schistosomiasis remains one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases especially in Nigeria which has the greatest number of infected people worldwide. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 551 participants from Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Fecal samples were examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni eggs using the formalin-ether sedimentation method while the urine samples were examined using the filtration technique for the presence of S. haematobium eggs. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information was collected using a pre-validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively and 0.5% presenting co-infection with both species. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age < 18 years (OR = 2.13; 95% CI; 1.34- 3.41), presence of infected family members (OR = 3.98; 95% CI; 2.13-7.46), and history of infection (OR = 2.87; 95% CI; 1.87- 4.56) were the significant risk factors associated with schistosomiasis in these communities. In conclusion, this study revealed that schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria. Mass drug administration, health education and community mobilization are imperative strategies to significantly reduce the prevalence and morbidity of schistosomiasis in these communities. PMID:27410914

  13. Epidemiological study of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adamu, S. G.; Atsanda, N. N.; Tijjani, A. O.; Usur, A. M.; Sule, A. G; Gulani, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the seroepidemiological patterns of bovine brucellosis in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from the anterior jugular vein of 336 slaughtered cattle, between September 2013 and March 2014 in three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Nigeria. The sera obtained were screened for brucellosis using rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) in parallel. The data generated was subjected to Chi-square and Fishers exact test analysis to establish whether there is a relationship between the breeds, sex, and location of the animals sampled. Results: Of the 336 cattle screened, 18 (5.4%) and 13 (3.9%) were positive by RBPT and SAT, respectively. There was no statistically significant association (p>0.05) between the sex, age, and location of cattle with seropositivity of brucellosis in the state. It was concluded that brucellosis is prevalent in Bauchi State. Further study is recommended in other abattoirs and herds of cattle in Bauchi State for confirmation of the status of the disease among cattle slaughtered in the state. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the cattle in Bauchi state indicates that the disease is endemic and cattle are one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease. PMID:27051184

  14. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  15. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  16. Models of Regional Habitat Quality and Connectivity for Pumas (Puma concolor) in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Brett G.; Roemer, Gary W.; McRae, Brad H.; Rundall, Jill M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  17. Growth, stabilization, and reactivation of Proterozoic lithosphere in the southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bowring, S.A. ); Karlstrom, K.E. )

    1990-12-01

    Growth of Proterozoic continental lithosphere in the southwestern United States involved assembly of tectonostratigraphic terranes during several pulses of convergent tectonism ca. 1.74, 1.70, and 1.65-1.60 Ga. Prograde metamorphism accompanied orogenic assembly, and peak metamorphic conditions outlasted deformation. Regions now characterized by the highest metamorphic grades underwent slow isobaric cooling and were not uplifted until more than 200 m.y. after assembly. Regions of low metamorphic grade were not uplifted substantially after assembly. The authors suggest that (1) relatively thin lithospheric fragments were assembled into isostatically stable, normal thickness continental lithosphere; (2) assembly did not erase lithospheric-scale heterogeneities; (3) the present juxtaposition of different crustal levels reflects differential uplift related to 1.4-1.1 Ga tectonomagmatic activity; and (4) the boundaries between different lithospheric blocks were repeatedly reactivated from Precambrian through Tertiary time.

  18. Wetter and cooler late Holocene climate in the southwestern United States from mites preserved in stalagmites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, Victor J.; Cokendolpher, James C.; Norton, Roy A.; Asmerom, Yemane

    2001-07-01

    The presence of at least 12 species of well-preserved mites in two late Holocene stalagmites from Hidden Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, New Mexico, depicts changing climate over the past 3200 yr. Growth of both stalagmites, determined by uranium-series dating, occurred from at least 3171 ± 48 yr ago and ceased by 819 ± 82 yr ago. Some of the 12 subfossil genera and species in the stalagmites are like those currently found in wetter and cooler climates, northern-like, and distinctly different from those known in the cave (n = 16) and on the surface immediately around the cave (n = 32). The mismatch of genera and species in the stalagmites, cave, and surface near the cave argues for a wetter and cooler late Holocene climate in the southwestern United States from ca. 3200 to 800 yr ago.

  19. Patterns and causes of observed piñon pine mortality in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hicke, Jeff H.; Macalady, Alison K.; Buotte, P.C.; Cowles, T.R.; Allen, Craig D.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, widespread piñon pine die-off occurred in the southwestern United States. Here we synthesize observational studies of this event and compare findings to expected relationships with biotic and abiotic factors. Agreement exists on the occurrence of drought, presence of bark beetles and increased mortality of larger trees. However, studies disagree about the influences of stem density, elevation and other factors, perhaps related to study design, location and impact of extreme drought. Detailed information about bark beetles is seldom reported and their role is poorly understood. Our analysis reveals substantial limits to our knowledge regarding the processes that produce mortality patterns across space and time, indicating a poor ability to forecast mortality in response to expected increases in future droughts.

  20. Earlier onset of the spring fine dust season in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, J. L.; White, W. H.; Gebhart, K. A.; Hyslop, N. P.; Gill, T. E.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM)2.5 dust concentrations (mineral particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 µm) typically peak in spring and early summer at rural and remote sites across the southwestern United States. Trend analyses indicate that springtime regional mean PM2.5 dust concentrations have increased from 1995 to 2014, especially in March (5.4% yr-1, p < 0.01). This increase reflects an earlier onset of the spring dust season across the Southwest by 1 to 2 weeks over the 20 year time period. March dust concentrations were strongly correlated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (r = -0.65, p < 0.01), which was mostly in its negative phase from 2007 to 2014, during which the region was drier, windier, and less vegetated. The positive spring trend and its association with large-scale climate variability have several important implications for visibility, particulate matter, health effects, and the hydrologic cycle in the region.

  1. The diffusion of maize to the southwestern United States and its impact

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, William L.; Hard, Robert J.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Fritz, Gayle J.; Adams, Karen R.; Roney, John R.; MacWilliams, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    Our understanding of the initial period of agriculture in the southwestern United States has been transformed by recent discoveries that establish the presence of maize there by 2100 cal. B.C. (calibrated calendrical years before the Christian era) and document the processes by which it was integrated into local foraging economies. Here we review archaeological, paleoecological, linguistic, and genetic data to evaluate the hypothesis that Proto-Uto-Aztecan (PUA) farmers migrating from a homeland in Mesoamerica introduced maize agriculture to the region. We conclude that this hypothesis is untenable and that the available data indicate instead a Great Basin homeland for the PUA, the breakup of this speech community into northern and southern divisions ≈6900 cal. B.C. and the dispersal of maize agriculture from Mesoamerica to the US Southwest via group-to-group diffusion across a Southern Uto-Aztecan linguistic continuum. PMID:19995985

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

  4. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbodi, T A; Atawodi, S E

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  5. Nitrate contents of well, raw, treated and pipe borne water in Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Gbodi, T.A.; Atawodi, S.E.

    1987-04-01

    Nitrate content of water available to man and animals in a rural community in Plateau State, Nigeria was determined. Water samples were obtained from artesian wells, raw untreated surface water, treated raw water, and pipe borne water. The examination of the samples was over a period of 3 mo at weekly intervals. Sixty percent of the artesian wells sampled had nitrate concentration above 5-50 ppm in June and August, while samples from other sources had less than 1 ppm. The proximity of pit latrines to some of the wells may have been responsible for high nitrate content of the well water.

  6. Application of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in the Management of Universities in the North-Central State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oboegbulem, Angie Ijeoma; Godwin, Ochai

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the application of ICT (information and communication technology) in the management of universities in the north-central Nigeria. The study was a descriptive survey. The population of the study comprised 1,294 respondents in federal and state universities (763 in federal and 531 in state universities). The sample size…

  7. Assesment of Perceived Academic and Incentive Needs of Senior Secondary School Biology Teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Mulkah Adebisi; Moradeyo, Ismail; Abimbola, Isaac Olakanmi

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the Assessment of perceived academic and incentive needs of senior secondary school biology teachers in Kwara State, Nigeria. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select two hundred and fifty (250) biology teachers from the three senatorial district of Kwara State. A questionnaire was prepared, validated and used…

  8. The Role of Counselling and Parental Encouragement on Re-Entry of Adolescents into Secondary Schools in Abia State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alika, Henrietta Ijeoma; Ohanaka, Blessing Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the role of counselling, and parental encouragement on re-entry of adolescents into secondary school in Abia State, Nigeria. A total of 353 adolescents who re-entered school were selected from six secondary schools in the State through a simple random sampling technique. A validated questionnaire was used for data analysis.…

  9. Access to and Use of Reproductive Health Information among In-School Adolescent Girls in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwalo, K. I. N.; Anasi, Stella N. I.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated access to and use of reproductive health information among in-school adolescent girls in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Setting: The study sample consisted of 1,800 girls randomly selected from 18 public senior secondary schools in Lagos State. Method:…

  10. Parental Involvement, Interest in Schooling and Science Achievement of Junior Secondary School Students in Ogun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatoye, R. A.; Ogunkola, B. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relative and combined influences of parental involvement and interest in schooling on science achievement of selected Junior Secondary School students in Ogun State, Nigeria. Twelve secondary schools were selected from the four administrative divisions of the State. A sample of 360 students participated in the study and…

  11. Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning Concept in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Amin Umar; Bala, Dauda; Ladu, Kolomi Mutah

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the Effectiveness of Demonstration and Lecture Methods in Learning concepts in Economics among Secondary School Students in Borno state, Nigeria. Five objectives: to determine the effectiveness of demonstration method in learning economics concepts among secondary school students in Borno state, determine the effectiveness…

  12. Tamarix as habitat for birds: Implications for riparian restoration in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Sferra, S.J.; Paxton, E.H.

    2008-01-01

    Exotic vegetation has become a major habitat component in many ecosystems around the world, sometimes dramatically changing the vegetation community structure and composition. In the southwestern United States, riparian ecosystems are undergoing major changes in part due to the establishment and spread of the exotic Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk). There are concerns about the suitability of Tamarix as habitat for birds. Although Tamarix habitats tend to support fewer species and individuals than native habitats, Arizona Breeding Bird Atlas data and Birds of North America accounts show that 49 species use Tamarix as breeding habitat. Importantly, the relative use of Tamarix and its quality as habitat vary substantially by geographic location and bird species. Few studies have examined how breeding in Tamarix actually affects bird survivorship and productivity; recent research on Southwestern Willow Flycatchers has found no negative effects from breeding in Tamarix habitats. Therefore, the ecological benefits and costs of Tamarix control are difficult to predict and are likely to be species specific and site specific. Given the likelihood that high-quality native riparian vegetation will not develop at all Tamarix control sites, restoration projects that remove Tamarix but do not assure replacement by high-quality native habitat have the potential to reduce the net riparian habitat value for some local or regional bird populations. Therefore, an assessment of potential negative impacts is important in deciding if exotic control should be conducted. In addition, measurable project objectives, appropriate control and restoration techniques, and robust monitoring are all critical to effective restoration planning and execution. ?? 2008 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  13. Nigeria in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizea, F. D.

    On the 27th of September, 2003 Nigeria joined Space faring Nations with the launch of its first satellite "NigeriaSat-1" into the Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Satellite which carries Remote sensing payload and has a Ground Sampling Distance of 32m is a fulfillment of one of Government thrust towards solving socio-economic problems and its realizing sustainable development plans through the applications of space science and technology. NigeriaSat-1 project also included the acquiring of expertise in the area of Satellite Technology as 15 Nigerian Engineers/Scientists under gone an 18 months Know How Technology Surrey Satellite Technology Limited (SSTL). The trainee along side their SSTL counterparts designed and built the NigeriaSat-1. The NigeriaSat-1 has been fully commissioned from the Ground Control Station in Nigeria and the spacecraft is in perfect working condition. The spacecraft has been sending down excellent images of the earth. NigeriaSat-1 is being controlled from Nigeria by Nigerian Ground Station Engineers. The NigeriaSat-1 is one of the Spacecrafts in the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC) which has the following member states, United Kingdom, Turkey, Algeria, China, Vietnam and Thailand. The DMC is to provide real time data with a global coverage. This paper will focus on the NigeriaSat-1 project, the know-how technology training, the utilization plan of data from the NigeriaSat-1 and the gains from the DMC.

  14. Assessing resources for implementing a community directed intervention (CDI) strategy in delivering multiple health interventions in urban poor communities in Southwestern Nigeria: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many simple, affordable and effective disease control measures have had limited impact due to poor access especially by the poorer populations (urban and rural) and inadequate community participation. A proven strategy to address the problem of access to health interventions is the Community Directed Interventions (CDI) approach, which has been used successfully in rural areas. This study was carried out to assess resources for the use of a CDI strategy in delivering health interventions in poorly-served urban communities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods A formative study was carried out in eight urban poor communities in the Ibadan metropolis in the Oyo State. Qualitative methods comprising 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with community members and 73 key informant interviews (KIIs) with community leaders, programme managers, community-based organisations (CBOs), non-government organisations (NGOs) and other stakeholders at federal, state and local government levels were used to collect data to determine prevalent diseases and healthcare delivery services, as well as to explore the potential resources for a CDI strategy. All interviews were audio recorded. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Malaria, upper respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea and measles were found to be prevalent in children, while hypertension and diabetes topped the list of diseases among adults. Healthcare was financed mainly by out-of-pocket expenses. Cost and location were identified as hindrances to utilisation of health facilities; informal cooperatives (esusu) were available to support those who could not pay for care. Immunisation, nutrition, reproductive health, tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy, environmental health, malaria and HIV/AIDs control programmes were the ongoing interventions. Delivery strategies included house-to-house, home-based treatment, health education and campaigns. Community participation in the planning, implementation and monitoring of

  15. Lagrangian particle modeling of air pollution transport in southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Uliasz, M.; Stocker, R.A.; Pielke, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Several modeling techniques of various complexity and accuracy are applied in a numerical modeling study of regional air pollution transport being performed within the Measurement Of Haze And Visual Effect (MOHAVE) project. The goal of this study is to assess the impact of the Mohave Power Project (MPP) and other potential sources of air pollution to specific Class I areas located in the desert southwest United States including the Grand Canyon National Park. The Colorado State University team is performing the daily meteorological and dispersion simulations for a year long study using a nonhydrostatic mesoscale meteorological model; the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) coupled with a Lagrangian particle dispersion (LPD) model. The modeling domain covers the southwestern United States with its extremely complex terrain. Two complementary dispersion modeling techniques: a traditional source-oriented approach and receptor-oriented approach are used to calculate concentration and influence function fields, respectively. All computations are performed on two IBM RISC-6000 workstations dedicated to the project. The goal of this paper is to present our design for daily dispersion simulations with an emphasis on influence function calculations using examples from the winter and summer intensive periods of the MOHAVE project.

  16. Geographic disparities of asthma prevalence in south-western United States of America.

    PubMed

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hasanat

    2014-11-01

    Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the United States of America (USA), and many of its risk factors have so far been investigated and identified; however, evidence is limited on how spatial disparities impact the disease. The purpose of this study was to provide scientific evidence on the location influence on asthma in the four states of southwestern USA (California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas) which, together, include 360 counties. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System database for these four states covering the period of 2000 to 2011 was used in this analysis, and a Bayesian structured additive regression model was applied to analyse by a geographical information system. After adjusting for individual characteristics, socioeconomic status and health behaviour, this study found higher odds associated with asthma and a likely cluster around the Bay Area in California, while lower odds appeared in several counties around the larger cities of Texas, such as Dallas, Houston and San Antonio. The significance map shows 43 of 360 counties (11.9%) to be high-risk areas for asthma. The level of geographical disparities demonstrates that the county risk of asthma prevalence varies significantly and can be about 19.9% (95% confidence interval: 15.3-25.8) higher or lower than the overall asthma prevalence. We provide an efficient method to utilise and interpret the existing surveillance data on asthma. Visualisation by maps may help deliver future interventions on targeted areas and vulnerable populations to reduce geographical disparities in the burden of asthma.

  17. Climate change in Lagos state, Nigeria: what really changed?

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun; Balogun, Isaac Idowu; Salami, Adebayo Wahab

    2015-10-01

    Our study revealed periodicities of 2.3 and 2.25 years in wet and dry seasons and periodicities of 2 to 5 years on seasonal and annual timescales. Minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and evaporation recorded increases of 2.47, 1.37 and 28.37 %, respectively, but a reduction of 19.58 % in rainfall on decadal timescale. Periodicity of 8 to 12 years was also observed in annual Tmax. Cramer's test indicated a warming trend with significant Tmax increase in February, April, July, August, October and November during 2000-2009 on decadal monthly timescale, a significant decline in Summer rainfall but significant Tmax increase in Spring, Autumn and Winter on decadal seasonal timescale. The low correlation of rainfall with temperature parameters and evaporation indicates that advection of moisture into Lagos State seems to be the dominant mechanism controlling rainfall within the State alongside other tropical and extra-tropical factors. In addition, our study revealed that the persistent state of minimum temperature often precedes the arrival and reversal of the phase of maximum temperature. Furthermore, our study also revealed that extreme and high variable rainfalls, which are associated with the increased warming trend, had periodicities of 1 to 3 years with a probability of 86.45 % of occurring every 3 years between April and September. It is recommended that government and private sector should give financial and technical supports to climate researches in order to appropriately inform policy making to improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of Lagos State against climate change impacts and guard against maladaptation. PMID:27613292

  18. Climate change in Lagos state, Nigeria: what really changed?

    PubMed

    Sojobi, Adebayo Olatunbosun; Balogun, Isaac Idowu; Salami, Adebayo Wahab

    2015-10-01

    Our study revealed periodicities of 2.3 and 2.25 years in wet and dry seasons and periodicities of 2 to 5 years on seasonal and annual timescales. Minimum temperature (Tmin), maximum temperature (Tmax) and evaporation recorded increases of 2.47, 1.37 and 28.37 %, respectively, but a reduction of 19.58 % in rainfall on decadal timescale. Periodicity of 8 to 12 years was also observed in annual Tmax. Cramer's test indicated a warming trend with significant Tmax increase in February, April, July, August, October and November during 2000-2009 on decadal monthly timescale, a significant decline in Summer rainfall but significant Tmax increase in Spring, Autumn and Winter on decadal seasonal timescale. The low correlation of rainfall with temperature parameters and evaporation indicates that advection of moisture into Lagos State seems to be the dominant mechanism controlling rainfall within the State alongside other tropical and extra-tropical factors. In addition, our study revealed that the persistent state of minimum temperature often precedes the arrival and reversal of the phase of maximum temperature. Furthermore, our study also revealed that extreme and high variable rainfalls, which are associated with the increased warming trend, had periodicities of 1 to 3 years with a probability of 86.45 % of occurring every 3 years between April and September. It is recommended that government and private sector should give financial and technical supports to climate researches in order to appropriately inform policy making to improve the adaptive capacity and resilience of Lagos State against climate change impacts and guard against maladaptation.

  19. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kazeem, Haruna M.; Kwanashie, Clara N.; Mshelia, Wayuta P.; Edeh, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  20. Equine Dermatophytosis: A Survey of Its Occurrence and Species Distribution among Horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Magdalene N; Kazeem, Haruna M; Kwanashie, Clara N; Maurice, Nanven A; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Adamu, Helen N; Mshelia, Wayuta P; Edeh, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the occurrence and species distribution of dermatophyte from cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 102 skin scrapings were collected from 102 horses with skin lesions. Mycological studies were carried out using conventional techniques. Dermatophytes were isolated from 18 (17.6%) of the 102 samples collected. The 18 dermatophytes were distributed into 10 different species belonging to Microsporum (n = 5) and Trichophyton (n = 5) genera. T. verrucosum (n = 4) was the most predominant species isolated followed by M. equinum (n = 3), T. vanbreuseghemii (n = 2), M. gypseum (n = 2), and M. canis (n = 2). Others include M. fulvum (n = 2), T. mentagrophytes (n = 1), T. equinum (n = 1), T. soudanense (n = 1), and M. gallinae (n = 1). The present study reveals the occurrence of dermatophytes in cutaneous skin lesions of horses in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In addition for the first time in this environment the anthropophilic dermatophyte T. soudanense was isolated from horses. These findings have great economic, veterinary, and public health significance as they relate to the cost of treatment and dissemination of zoonotic dermatophytes. PMID:27340592

  1. Dog ecology and population studies in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hambolu, Sunday Emmanuel; Dzikwi, Asabe A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Kazeem, Haruna M; Umoh, Jarlath U; Hambolu, Dupe A

    2014-02-14

    Dog population dynamics have a major impact upon the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. As such, understanding domestic dog ecology has been recognized as central to the design of effective rabies control programmes. This study was conducted to determine the dog ecology in Lagos State using compound dog count and street dog count in the three senatorial districts (Lagos West, East and Central) of Lagos State from February, 2011 to January, 2012. A total of 546 questionnaires were distributed for the compound dog count and all were completed and returned. Various aspects of dog ecology were determined, including size, sex, breed of the dog population, management of dogs and rabies awareness among the respondents. Out of the 546 compounds surveyed, 518 (94.87%) owned at least one dog. A total of 1,427 dogs were counted from the street counts while a total of 1,447 dogs (2.8 dogs/compound) were counted from the compound count. The dogs comprised of 583 males and 864 females, out of which 64.10% are confined. The dog vaccination coverage in the dog population surveyed was 64.10% and administered majorly (91.30%) by veterinarians. Security (60%) and pets (26%) were the major reasons for keeping dogs. Majority (88.80%) of the respondents were aware of rabies and its mode of transmission, but still believed in the use of concoctions (40.40%), herbs (19.90%) and consumption of the organ of the offending dog (11.50%) for the treatment of rabies. The findings of this study showed a male: female ratio of dog to be 1:1.5 and a dog: human ratio of 1:5.6. There was also a responsible dog ownership as majority of the respondents do confine, vaccinate and provide food for their dogs. Vaccination coverage of the total dog population was however below the 70-80% target recommended by the World Health Organization to achieve herd immunity.

  2. Do Water Markets ``Work''? Market Transfers and Trade-Offs in the Southwestern States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Bonne Colby

    1987-07-01

    Many authors argue that markets will (and should) become a common means of transferring water rights in the western United States. Previous studies have estimated benefits from potential transfers and identified institutional arrangements conducive to market development. However, there is little published material that describes and evaluates existing markets. This article describes five southwestern water markets and evaluates market processes using transactions data from each study area. While the evaluation is necessarily preliminary due to the limited availability of data on market transactions, the markets analyzed here appear to be relatively efficient in allocating water between municipal and agricultural uses. However, nonconsumptive use water values and third-party impacts not specifically addressed in state laws are poorly accounted for in most areas. Trade-offs between benefits of market activities, opportunity costs related to market transfers, and transactions costs induced by laws and institutions are identified. These trade-offs are a key issue facing policymakers who determine the roles that market and administrative processes play in water allocation.

  3. Quantification and Characterization of Chloride Sources in the Rio Grande, Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, H. F.; Phillips, F. M.; Tidwell, V.; Hogan, J.; Bastien, E.; Oelsner, G.

    2005-12-01

    Salinization of rivers is a problem in the southwestern United States as well as in other semiarid and arid regions of the world. Arid and semiarid rivers including the Rio Grande often exhibit increasing salinity with distance downstream, which is commonly attributed to irrigated agriculture. Increased river salinity causes economic losses by reducing crop productivity, rendering the water unsuitable for many municipal and industrial uses, and corroding or plugging pipes. Although most salinization of the Rio Grande takes place in the United States, many of the effects are felt in Mexico. Recent studies have found that salinization of the Rio Grande is geologically controlled by the addition of deep saline brines at several distinct locations. However, these additions of deep brine have not been well quantified. We have designed a model using a system dynamics software program to analyze Rio Grande chloride data. The model uses historical chloride and gaging station data and high-resolution synoptic chloride samples collected between 2000 and 2005 to characterize and quantify additions of deep brine to the river. The model has also been used to evaluate the effect of the construction of Elephant Butte Reservoir on the chloride balance of the river using chloride concentration data from 1905-1907. The model can also be used to evaluate future climatic and management scenarios in order to plan for the future water needs of the basin.

  4. Sustainable Water Management in the Southwestern United States: Reality or Rhetoric?

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Robert M.; Robles, Marcos D.; Majka, Daniel R.; Haney, Jeanmarie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background While freshwater sustainability is generally defined as the provisioning of water for both people and the environment, in practice it is largely focused only on supplying water to furnish human population growth. Symptomatic of this is the state of Arizona, where rapid growth outside of the metropolitan Phoenix-Tucson corridor relies on the same groundwater that supplies year-round flow in rivers. Using Arizona as a case study, we present the first study in the southwestern United States that evaluates the potential impact of future population growth and water demand on streamflow depletion across multiple watersheds. Methodology/Principal Findings We modeled population growth and water demand through 2050 and used four scenarios to explore the potential effects of alternative growth and water management strategies on river flows. Under the base population projection, we found that rivers in seven of the 18 study watersheds could be dewatered due to municipal demand. Implementing alternative growth and water management strategies, however, could prevent four of these rivers from being dewatered. Conclusions/Significance The window of opportunity to implement water management strategies is narrowing. Because impacts from groundwater extraction are cumulative and cannot be immediately reversed, proactive water management strategies should be implemented where groundwater will be used to support new municipal demand. Our approach provides a low-cost method to identify where alternative water and growth management strategies may have the most impact, and demonstrates that such strategies can maintain a continued water supply for both people and the environment. PMID:20657735

  5. Utilisation of Pangolin (Manis sps) in traditional Yorubic medicine in Ijebu province, Ogun State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Concern about the use of endangered and threatened species in traditional medicine escalated as populations of many species plummeted because of poaching for the medicinal trade. Nigeria is known for a long and valued tradition of using wild animals and plants for medicinal purposes. Despite this, studies on medicinal animals are still scarce when compared to those focusing on medicinal plants. Utilisation of wild animals in traditional Yorubic medical practices was indiscriminate as it involved threatened species. By touting the medicinal properties of these species, traditional medicine fuel continuing demand, thereby subjecting such species to further threats. This paper examined the use and commercialisation of pangolins for traditional medicinal purposes amongst the Ijebus, South-western Nigeria, and the implications of this utilisation for the conservation of this species. Methods Traditional Yorubic medical practitioners (tymps) (16) and dealers in traditional medicinal ingredients (56) in public markets in Ijebu province, Nigeria, were interviewed using open-ended questionnaires. The dynamic stock movement of pangolins in the stalls of dealers was also monitored to determine quantity of pangolins sold into the traditional Yorubic medicinal practices. Specific conditions treated and the parts required were also documented. Results A total of 178 whole pangolin carcasses were sold into traditional medical practices. Above 55% of respondents had just primary education, over 90% of respondents were not aware of either the conservation status of this species or the existence of any legal machinery regulating its trade and utilisation, while 14% admitted to giving contracts to hunters for deliberate search for this animal when needed. More than 98% of respondents have no other means of livelihood. The trade was female dominated while the healing practice had more males. Pangolins were used in various preparations to treat a total of 42 conditions

  6. Intersection between Alcohol Abuse and Intimate Partner's Violence in a Rural Ijaw Community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O.

    2012-01-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education and Career Intentions of Tertiary Education Students in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekpoh, Uduak Imo; Edet, Aniefiok Oswald

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of entrepreneurship education on career intentions among 500 students drawn from two universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States of Nigeria. The study adopted a survey design. Two research questions and two hypotheses were raised for the study. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire titled…

  8. Availability of Instructional Materials at the Basic Education Level in Enugu Educational Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chukwu, Leo C.; Eze, Thecla A. Y.; Agada, Fidelia Chinyelugo

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the availability of instructional materials at the basic education level in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. One research question and one hypothesis guided the study. The research question was answered using mean and grand mean ratings, while the hypothesis was tested using t-test statistics at 0.05 level of…

  9. Sports Participation and Social Personality Variable of Students in Secondary Schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edim, M. E.; Odok, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The main thrust of this study was to investigate sports participation and social personality variable of students in secondary schools in Central Senatorial District of Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, one hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Literature review was carried out according to the variable of…

  10. Qualification and Gender Dimensions in Attitude of Secondary School Social Studies Teachers towards Computer Usage in Kogi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achor, Emmanuel E.; Shaibu, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined attitude dimensions of secondary school social studies teachers towards computer usage in Kogi State Nigeria. Qualification and Gender influence on their use was examined. Participants were 427 (Male = 224; female = 203) social studies teachers. Sampling was purposive and random. The study adopted the survey design. Data were…

  11. Personality Variables as Predictors of Leadership Role Performance Effectiveness of Administrators of Public Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Charles P.; Archibong, Ijeoma A.

    2012-01-01

    The study sought to find out the predictive effect of self-concept, self-efficacy, self-esteem and locus of control on the instructional and motivational leadership roles performance effectiveness of administrators of public secondary schools in Cross River State of Nigeria. The relative contribution of each of the independent variables to the…

  12. Predictive Factors in Undergraduates' Involvement in Campus Secret Cults in Public Universities in Edo State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azetta Arhedo, Philip; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Adomeh, Ilu O. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictive factors in undergraduates' involvement in campus secret cults in public universities in Edo State of Nigeria. The study employed the descriptive method, specifically the survey format. A random sample of three hundred and eighty (380) undergraduates was drawn from the two public universities. Data were elicited…

  13. Assessing Students' Metacognitive Awareness of Learning Strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoza, Jolly; Aluede, Oyaziwo; Owens-Sogolo, Osasere

    2013-01-01

    This study examined metacognitive awareness of learning strategies among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria. The study was an exploratory one, which utilized descriptive statistics. A total number of 1200 students drawn through multistage proportionate random sampling technique participated in the study. The study found that secondary…

  14. Usability Assessment of Educational Software by Students: Case of "?Pón-Ìm?`" in Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tijani, O. K.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated usability of educational software: case of "?pón-Ìm?`" in Osun state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study investigated influences of gender and school locations on students' assessment of "?pón-Ìm?`" Technology Enhanced Learning System (OTELS) based on selected usability parameters. 701 students were…

  15. Influence of Retraining Programme on Self-Esteem of Primary School Teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igbo, Janet N.; Eze, Justina U.; Eskay, M.; Onu, V. C.; Omeje, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of retraining programme on self-esteem of primary school teachers in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. The study was guided by one research question and a null hypothesis. A purposively selected sample of 775 primary school teachers who attended capacity building retraining programme provided the data collected using…

  16. Effects of Training Programme on HIV/AIDS Prevention among Primary Health Care Workers in Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajuwon, Ademola; Funmilayo, Fawole; Oladepo, Oladimeji; Osungbade, Kayode; Asuzu, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to train primary health care workers to be trainers and implementers of community-based AIDS prevention activities in Oyo State, Nigeria, by describing an evaluation of the project. Design/methodology/approach: A total of 148 primary health care workers recruited from the 33 local government areas (LGA) of the…

  17. Factors Affecting Gender Equity in the Choice of Science and Technology Careers among Secondary School Students in Edo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osagie, Roseline O.; Alutu, Azuka N.

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the factors affecting gender equity in science and technology among senior secondary school students. The study was carried out at the University of Benin Demonstration Secondary School in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. One hundred and fifty students of average age 15 years in their penultimate year were administered the…

  18. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  19. Influence of Students' Understanding and Goal Commitment on Academic Achievement in Introductory Technology in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akpan, Godwin A.; Mbaba, Uduak G.; Udofia, Aniefiok E.

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the influence of students' understanding and goal commitment on their academic achievement in Introductory Technology in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. An ex-post facto survey design was used and a random sample of 2,500 junior secondary three (13-14 years old) students from a population of 48,302 JSS three…

  20. Western and Traditional Educational Background of Midwives and Delivery Pain Control among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Emon, Umoe Duke; Essien, N. C.; Ekpenyong, Affiong Onoyom

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to investigate western and traditional educational background of midwives with regard to their effectiveness in delivery pain control in Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the investigation. The study adopted the survey design. The sample consisted of 360 post-natal…

  1. Violation of Students' Legal Rights as Correlate of Organization Climate in Imo State Secondary Schools, in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anuna, M. C.; Mbonu, F. O.; Amanchukwu, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether violation of students' legal rights has relationship with organizational climate in secondary schools in Imo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and null hypothesis were put forward and tested in order to make one's decisions on the issues investigated. Relevant literature to the study was…

  2. Public Perception of the Millennium Development Goals on Access to Safe Drinking Water in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eni, David D.; Ojong, William M.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the public perception of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of environmental sustainability with focus on the MDG target which has to do with reducing the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water in Cross River State, Nigeria. The stratified and systematic sampling techniques were adopted for the study,…

  3. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  4. A Review of Special Education Services Delivery in the United States and Nigeria: Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Eskay; Onu, Victoria; Janeth, Igbo

    2012-01-01

    Both Nigeria and the United States represent developing and developed countries respectively, and special education policy between these two countries are different. Both countries have contributed to help learners with exceptionalities in their policies. These policies help in the formulation and implementation of special education programmes for…

  5. The Private Cost of National Certificate in Education (NCE) through National Teachers Institute Distance Learning Programme in Ekiti State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borode, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The study set out to examine the private cost of a National Certificate in Education, through the distance learning mode as organized by the National Teachers Institute (NTI) Ekiti State branch in Nigeria. This was to open the eyes of the prospective students to know what on the average he has to spend, and also to provide data for the state…

  6. Comparative Analysis of Pathogenic Organisms in Cockroaches from Different Community Settings in Edo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-01-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents. PMID:24850961

  7. Improving maternal and child healthcare programme using community-participatory interventions in Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ndukwe, Chinwendu Daniel; Ezeoha, Abel Abeh; Urochukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla

    2014-10-01

    In Nigeria, the government is implementing the Free Maternal and Child Health Care Programme (FMCHCP). The policy is premised on the notion that financial barriers are one of the most important constraints to equitable access and use of skilled maternal and child healthcare. In Ebonyi State, Southeastern Nigeria the FMCHCP is experiencing implementation challenges including: inadequate human resource for health, inadequate funding, out of stock syndrome, inadequate infrastructure, and poor staff remuneration. Furthermore, there is less emphasis on community involvement in the programme implementation. In this policy brief, we recommend policy options that emphasize the implementation of community-based participatory interventions to strengthen the government's FMCHCP as follows: Option 1: Training community women on prenatal care, life-saving skills in case of emergency, reproductive health, care of the newborn and family planning. Option 2: Sensitizing the community women towards behavioural change, to understand what quality services that respond to their needs are but also to seek and demand for such. Option 3: Implementation packages that provide technical skills to women of childbearing age as well as mothers' groups, and traditional birth attendants for better home-based maternal and child healthcare. The effectiveness of this approach has been demonstrated in a number of community-based participatory interventions, building on the idea that if community members take part in decision-making and bring local knowledge, experiences and problems to the fore, they are more likely to own and sustain solutions to improve their communities' health. PMID:25337602

  8. Serological Evidence of Brucellosis in Goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Kaltungo, B. Y.; Saidu, S. N. A.; Sackey, A. K. B.; Kazeem, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the current status of Brucella antibodies in goats in Kaduna North Senatorial District of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 442 serum samples (31 bucks and 411 does) were screened using Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (SAT-EDTA), and lateral flow assay (LFA). Results. The prevalence of Brucella antibodies was found to be 25.8%, 11.1%, and 2.5% using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence in bucks was 32.3%, 3.2%, and 0.0% and 17.5%, 12.4%, and 3.9% in does using RBPT, SAT-EDTA, and LFA, respectively. The prevalence rates for goats less than one year of age using the tests were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 0.0%. While for those within the age bracket of one to three years, the rates were 19.4%, 10.5%, and 3.5%, respectively. The corresponding values for goats above 3 years of age were 34.2%, 15.2%, and 1.8%, respectively. The prevalence of brucellosis in goats in the study area is high which poses a threat to the development of the livestock industry and is of important zoonotic implications in Nigeria. PMID:23762594

  9. Comparative analysis of pathogenic organisms in cockroaches from different community settings in Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Clement; Orue, Philip Ogbeide; Iyamu, Mercy Itohan; Ehiaghe, Joy Imuetiyan; Isaac, Osesojie

    2014-04-01

    Cockroaches are abundant in Nigeria and are seen to harbour an array of pathogens. Environmental and sanitary conditions associated with demographic/socio-economic settings of an area could contribute to the prevalence of disease pathogens in cockroaches. A total of 246 cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) in urban (Benin, n=91), semi-urban (Ekpoma, n=75) and rural (Emuhi, n=70) settings in Edo State, Nigeria were collected within and around households. The external body surfaces and alimentary canal of these cockroaches were screened for bacterial, fungal, and parasitological infections. Bacillus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common bacteria in cockroaches. However, Enterococcus faecalis could not be isolated in cockroaches trapped from Ekpoma and Emuhi. Aspergillus niger was the most prevalent fungus in Benin and Ekpoma, while Mucor sp. was predominant in Emuhi. Parasitological investigations revealed the preponderance of Ascaris lumbricoides in Benin and Emuhi, while Trichuris trichura was the most predominant in Ekpoma. The prevalence and burden of infection in cockroaches is likely to be a reflection of the sanitary conditions of these areas. Also, cockroaches in these areas making incursions in homes may increase the risk of human infections with these disease agents.

  10. A techno-economic analysis of aquaculture business in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kareem, R. O.; Williams, S. B.

    2009-05-01

    Fish supplies 25% of the total protein source in developing countries. A techno-economic analysis was performed for developing a good business proposal for aquaculture loans to enhance aquaculture development in Nigeria. A case study of catfish Clarias gariepinus framing was conducted in Abeokuta North Local Government of Ogun State, Nigeria. The results show that the fixed cost is N18 338 per year, and the variable cost is N459 700 per year, accounting for the largest amount of the total; therefore, a profit of N43 289 per month can be made. Sensitivity analysis was performed to assess any risk(s) that associated with unfavorable changes in government policy with particular reference to monetary policy. Positive net present value shows that the investment in fish farm is economically feasible and the net investment ratio is 3.52. Also, the benefit-cost ratio is 2.17. The internal rate of return (IRR) is 21% showing that the enterprise is able to offset the interest being charged on the loan. It is therefore worthwhile to invest into fish farm business in the study area. The study suggests that to better sustain the local aquaculture business, the government should create a good conducive environment to foster development of the fish farming. Government intervention is urgently needed to solve problems such as in traditional land tenure, grant credit facilities and subsidies, to enhance the aquacultural development in the country.

  11. Spatial distribution of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria using geographical information system and school based questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Adie, H A; Okon, O E; Arong, G A; Braide, E I; Ekpo, U F

    2013-10-15

    Urinary schistosomiasis is a serious disease in Cross River State, Nigeria. Dearth of information on its distribution has hampered the implementation of focused control of the disease. The availability of a rapid method for mapping the disease necessitated this research to provide data for control of Urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used a rapid validated school-based questionnaire method in mapping schistosomiasis. Geographical information system (GIS) software tools were used to produce a spatial map for prevalence of infection and areas at risk for urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State. Data analysis with SPSS package revealed that 9,993 (10.2%) female and 10,328 (10.0%) male pupils in 218 schools passed blood in urine in one month out of 199,794 pupils interviewed. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence between male and female pupils with infection (p < 0.005). The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis using questionnaire method correlated positively with the filtration method used in determining the egg output (r = 0.71, p < 0.001). Endemic schools were distributed in thirteen Local Government Areas of Cross River State, Nigeria. Yala and Yakurr LGAs had the highest number of schools that reported schistosomiasis with 39 (59%) and 13 (59%), respectively. Odukpani LGA had the lowest prevalence of 1 (0.2%). The overall results showed a mean urinary schistosomiasis prevalence of 10.2% for Cross River State, Nigeria. The findings of this study would guide Government and other relevant agencies in the implementation of control strategies for the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria.

  12. Filariasis in Gongola State Nigeria. I: Clinical and parasitological studies in Mutum-Biyu District.

    PubMed

    Akogun, O B

    1992-08-01

    A total of 2,552 persons living in 9 villages along the Benue river valley, Mutum Biyu district of Gongola State, Nigeria were examined between October and December 1989 for filariasis. It is the first time a filariasis survey will be carried out in this state. 276 (10.8%) had Wuchereria bancrofti, 50 (2.0%) had Loa loa, 281 (11.0%) were positive for Mansonella perstans while 12 (0.5%) were positive for Onchocerca volvulus. Villages located near the Benue river had higher prevalence rates than those further away. Dermatitis and hydrocoele were common and clinical manifestations were associated with parasite types. Clinical symptoms without microfilaremia and microfilaremia without clinical symptoms were also observed.

  13. Determinants of Youths` Participation in Rural Agriculture in Imo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnadi, F. N.; Akwiwu, C. D.

    The lack of empirical data on the determinants of youths` participation in rural agriculture necessitated this study that investigated the rate of youths` participation, agricultural activities participated in and the factors that determined their participation in Imo State, Nigeria. Data were generated from 230 youths from the three agricultural zones of the state using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with the aid of frequency tables, simple percentage counts and logit regression model at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated about 84% participation in land clearing, planting, fertilizer application, collection of fodder for livestock etc. The participation was determined by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, household size and youths` dependence status. It was recommended that institutional support services for agriculture should be extended to the youths and intervention strategies for youths` agricultural activities should be guided and guarded by their ages, education, marital status, parents` income, parents` occupation, family size and youths` dependence status.

  14. Sociocultural Factors Associated With Abuse of Mentally Impaired Persons in Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Ngozi E; Onyeneho, Nkechi G

    2015-01-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors associated with abuse of mentally impaired persons (MIP) in Imo state, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,147 persons aged 10 years and above who had at least one MIP in their household was conducted. Six in-depth interviews and 21 focus group discussion (FGD) sessions with 160 study participants comprising adult male and female members of the communities, respectively, were conducted. The study established that a multitude of cultural and social factors shape the attitude of individuals toward mental impairment and MIPs. It was found that cultural perceptions of the cause of mental impairment as supernatural and evil forces were widespread within the study communities. Among those surveyed, 74.6% were aware that MIPs are victims of abuse. Perpetrators identified were mostly relatives and persons close to MIPs. The findings provide useful insights into gaps in conventional understanding of mental impairment and abuse of MIPs in Imo State. PMID:26470398

  15. Fire history and fire-climate relationships in upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolis, Ellis Quinn

    Fire history and fire-climate relationships of upper elevation forests of the southwestern United States are imperative for informing management decisions in the face of increased crown fire occurrence and climate change. I used dendroecological techniques to reconstruct fires and stand-replacing fire patch size in the Madrean Sky Islands and Mogollon Plateau. Reconstructed patch size (1685-1904) was compared with contemporary patch size (1996-2004). Reconstructed fires at three sites had stand-replacing patches totaling > 500 ha. No historical stand-replacing fire patches were evident in the mixed conifer/aspen forests of the Sky Islands. Maximum stand-replacing fire patch size of modern fires (1129 ha) was greater than that reconstructed from aspen (286 ha) and spruce-fir (521 ha). Undated spruce-fir patches may be evidence of larger (>2000ha) stand-replacing fire patches. To provide climatological context for fire history I used correlation and regionalization analyses to document spatial and temporal variability in climate regions, and El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO) teleconnections using 273 tree-ring chronologies (1732-1979). Four regions were determined by common variability in annual ring width. The component score time series replicate spatial variability in 20th century droughts (e.g., 1950's) and pluvials (e.g., 1910's). Two regions were significantly correlated with instrumental SOI and AMO, and three with PDO. Sub-regions within the southwestern U.S. varied geographically between the instrumental (1900-1979) and the pre-instrumental periods (1732-1899). Mapped correlations between ENSO, PDO and AMO, and tree-ring indices illustrate detailed sub-regional variability in the teleconnections. I analyzed climate teleconnections, and fire-climate relationships of historical upper elevation fires from 16 sites in 8 mountain ranges. I tested for links between Palmer

  16. Perchlorate in the feed-dairy continuum of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, C A; Blount, B C; Valentin-Blasini, L; Lesch, S M; Krieger, R I

    2008-07-01

    Perchlorate has the potential to cause thyroid dysfunction by inhibiting iodide uptake by the sodium iodide symporter. Perchlorate-contaminated waters may lead to human exposure through drinking water and food chain transfer in crops by way of irrigation water. Perchlorate has been found in dairy milk collected nationally and internationally. This study was conducted to evaluate perchlorate in the feed-dairy continuum in the southwestern United States. All feed products collected at dairies in this study had detectable levels of perchlorate as analyzed by ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The calculated total perchlorate intake across dairies ranged from 1.9 to 12.7 mg/cow per day. The variation in total perchlorate intake across dairies was largely associated with variation in forage and silage products. Alfalfa products were the single most important source of perchlorate intake variability among dairies. The estimated perchlorate intake from drinking water ranged from 0.01 mg per cow per day and was generally less than 2% of the total perchlorate intake. The perchlorate content of milk ranged from 0.9 to 10.3 microg/L and was similar to levels reported by the Food and Drug Administration's Total Diet Study. The perchlorate content of milk was significantly related to the presence of perchlorate in feed but the variation of perchlorate in milk could not be explained by feed intake alone.

  17. Density structure of the lithosphere in the southwestern United States and its tectonic significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaban, M.K.; Mooney, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate a density model of the lithosphere of the southwestern United States through an integrated analysis of gravity, seismic refraction, drill hole, and geological data. Deviations from the average upper mantle density are as much as ?? 3%. A comparison with tomographic images of seismic velocities indicates that a substantial part (>50%) of these density variations is due to changes in composition rather than temperature. Pronounced mass deficits are found in the upper mantle under the Basin and Range Province and the northern part of the California Coast Ranges and adjacent ocean. The density structure of the northern and central/southern Sierra Nevada is remarkably different. The central/southern part is anomalous and is characterized by a relatively light crust underlain by a higher-density upper mantle that may be associated with a cold, stalled subducted plate. High densities are also determined within the uppermost mantle beneath the central Transverse Ranges and adjoining continental slope. The average density of the crystalline crust under the Great Valley and western Sierra Nevada is estimated to be up to 200 kg m~3 higher than the regional average, consistent with tectonic models for the obduction of oceanic crust and uppermost mantle in this region.

  18. Seismic discontinuities beneath the southwestern United States from S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanbi, Olufemi; Li, Aibing

    2016-05-01

    S-receiver functions along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande Rift-Great Plains Transect known as LA RISTRA in the southwestern United States have been utilized to map seismic discontinuities beneath this tectonically active region. Individual receiver functions were stacked according to ray piercing points with moveout corrections in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the converted S-to-P phases. A mantle discontinuity, which is interpreted as the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), is observed along the profile with depth ranging from 80 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) to 100 km beneath the Great Plains (GP) and 120-180 km beneath the Colorado Plateau (CP). The shallow LAB beneath the Rio Grande Rift is indicative of lithosphere extension and asthenosphere upwarp. The LAB deepens sharply at the RGR-CP and RGR-GP boundaries, providing evidence for edge-driven, small-scale mantle convection beneath LA RISTRA. Two local discontinuities beneath the southeastern Colorado Plateau are imaged at ~ 250 km and ~ 300 km and could be the top and base of the eroded lithosphere, respectively. The S receiver function images suggest that edge-driven, small-scale convection is probably the mantle source for recent extension and uplift in the Rio Grande Rift and the Colorado Plateau.

  19. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit.

  20. Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Yobe State, Nigeria: Examining Predictors and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Abubakar Sadiq; Bawa, Samuel Bitrus

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Nigeria, wide disparities exist between the different parts of the country, with the states in the North East zone having poor health resources. The objective of this study is to assess whether women’s biological, sociocultural, and economic characteristics are associated with utilization of ante natal care services as measured by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits in Yobe State. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis of the 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey with records from 33,385 women between 15-49 years who had given birth between January 2003 and December 2008 in Yobe State. Bivariate Pearson’s Chi square test and two stages of Multivariate regression analysis were conducted. Results: Women with at least primary level education (adjusted OR (AOR) = 2.40; CI 1.24 – 4.67), belonging to professional employment category (AOR = 12.07; CI 0.19 – 75.74) and those who had access to skilled health workers (AOR = 5.13; CI 2.50 – 10.52) are more likely to make the required number of ANC visits compared to those who are illiterates, unemployed and had no access to skilled health workers. Conclusion and Global Health Implications: This study demonstrated that educational level, family wealth income, and availability of skilled health worker were consistently associated with the number of ANC visits even after controlling for covariates. These three covariates are in tandem with the Millenium Development Goals (MDG) 1 - eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; MDG 2 - universal basic education; MDG 3 - gender equality; and MDG 4 - maternal mortality. There is the need for inter-sectoral holistic intervention approach.

  1. Application of data on climate extremes for the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, K. T.; Fleishman, E.; Cayan, D. R.; Daudert, B.; Gershunov, A.

    2015-12-01

    We are improving the scientific capacity to evaluate responses of natural resources to climate extremes. We also are enhancing a platform for derivation of and access to customized climate information for the full extent or any subset of the southwestern United States. Extreme climate can have substantial effects on species, ecological and evolutionary processes, and the health of visitors to public lands. We are working with federal and state managers and with researchers who collaborate with decision-makers to use data on climate extremes to inform resource management. Current applications include sudden oak death, estuarine management, and fine-resolution manipulation of montane vegetation. To facilitate practical use of data on climate extremes, we are screening global climate models on the basis of their realism in representing natural regional patterns and extremes of temperature and precipitation, including those driven by El Niño and La Niña. We are assessing how well each model represents different climate elements. We also are delivering point and gridded observations and downscaled model projections, all at daily and 6 km resolution, on past and future climate extremes. Additionally, we are using the downscaled outputs to drive a hydrologic model and derive multiple probabilistic measures of water availability, flood, and drought. Moreover, we are extending the capacity of the Southwest Climate and Environmental Information Collaborative (SCENIC; wrcc.dri.edu/csc/scenic), a product developed by the Western Regional Climate Center, to provide access to diverse observed and simulated data on regional weather and climate, particularly on extremes.

  2. A hybrid statistical-dynamical framework for meteorological drought prediction: Application to the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadgar, Shahrbanou; AghaKouchak, Amir; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Wood, Andrew W.; Cheng, Linyin; Hsu, Kou-Lin; Svoboda, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Improving water management in water stressed-regions requires reliable seasonal precipitation predication, which remains a grand challenge. Numerous statistical and dynamical model simulations have been developed for predicting precipitation. However, both types of models offer limited seasonal predictability. This study outlines a hybrid statistical-dynamical modeling framework for predicting seasonal precipitation. The dynamical component relies on the physically based North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) model simulations (99 ensemble members). The statistical component relies on a multivariate Bayesian-based model that relates precipitation to atmosphere-ocean teleconnections (also known as an analog-year statistical model). Here the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) are used in the statistical component. The dynamical and statistical predictions are linked using the so-called Expert Advice algorithm, which offers an ensemble response (as an alternative to the ensemble mean). The latter part leads to the best precipitation prediction based on contributing statistical and dynamical ensembles. It combines the strength of physically based dynamical simulations and the capability of an analog-year model. An application of the framework in the southwestern United States, which has suffered from major droughts over the past decade, improves seasonal precipitation predictions (3-5 month lead time) by 5-60% relative to the NMME simulations. Overall, the hybrid framework performs better in predicting negative precipitation anomalies (10-60% improvement over NMME) than positive precipitation anomalies (5-25% improvement over NMME). The results indicate that the framework would likely improve our ability to predict droughts such as the 2012-2014 event in the western United States that resulted in significant socioeconomic impacts.

  3. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  4. Seasonal variation of indoor Rn at a location in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Wilkening, M; Wicke, A

    1986-10-01

    Radon-222 concentrations have been measured in 12 homes typical of a small town in the southwestern United States. Nine of the houses, in which both summer and winter data are available, have an annual mean of 63 +/- 18 Bq m-3 (1.7 +/- 0.5 pCi L-1) and a range of 41 to 96 Bq m-3 (1.1 to 2.6 pCi L-1). These results were obtained with passive Rn dosimeters using polycarbonate nuclear track detector foils. The overall results fall slightly above the middle of the range of values obtained in other studies in the United States. Winter levels clearly exceed summer by a factor of from two to three. This result is attributed primarily to wide use of evaporative air conditioners for daytime cooling in the summer together with the fact that doors and windows are left open frequently during evening and nighttime hours. Both practices enhance the exchange of outdoor air with indoor air contributing to a decrease in the indoor Rn levels during the summer season. Room-to-room differences were evident during the winter season only. Bedrooms and bathrooms were generally higher in Rn than kitchens and living rooms but by only about 25%. The two adobe houses in the group showed higher Rn concentrations during the winter season than did those of frame-stucco, concrete, or cinder block construction. Dose equivalent calculations yielded a mean figure of 0.29 WLM y-1 for typical occupancy patterns in these New Mexico houses.

  5. Institutional and production characteristics among smallholder pig producers in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane M; Dimelu, Mebel U; Ukwuani, Stella U

    2014-10-01

    A study on the institutional and production characteristics of pig farming in Enugu State, Nigeria, was conducted using 80 randomly selected smallholder pig producers. Data were collected by using an interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze data. The mean number of pigs owned by smallholder producer was 18. Only 20.0 and 6.3 % of the producers had access to credit and to extension services, respectively. Ninety percent of the respondents practiced intensive management system. The major housing type used by producers was cement brick walls with aluminum roofing sheets (97.6 %). The majority (80 %) of producers reared mostly crossbred pigs and family labor (68.7 %) was most prevalent. Fourteen (50 %) of the 28 routine management practices were always performed by the pig producers. Extension service providers should intensify efforts to provide producers with appropriate management practices and training for effective disease control and improve productivity.

  6. The goitre-soil-water-diet relationship: case study in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ubom, G A

    1991-09-01

    The effect of drinking water, soil mineral composition and nutrition on the incidence of goitre in Plateau State, Nigeria, was studied. The study shows that the water used for drinking and cooking in the goitrous areas is low in iodine content and trihalomethanes, but high in mineral content, including calcium, magnesium, nitrate, chloride and total hardness. The water is also high in organic, inorganic and bacterial pollution content. Soil pH in the goitrous area is acidic and mineral composition follows the same pattern indicated from water analysis. Soil iodine content is very low. Diet in the goitrous zone consists mostly of foods with high cyanogenic glycoside and low iodide. The ratios of iodide to thiocyanate in urine excreted by subjects from both goitrous and non-goitrous areas show a strong correlation with goitre endemia. These studies exemplify goitre as having multicausal factors--lack/deficiency of iodine, familial or genetic tendencies, diet, and pollutants which serve as goitrogens.

  7. Bridewealth, marriage and fertility in the east-central states of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-abanihe, U C

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the determinants of high bridewealth in the east-central states of Nigeria, inhabited by the Igbo, and relates high bridewealth to rising age at marriage among both men and women. High and rising bridewealth in Igboland is associated with the prevailing economic situation, socio-economic status of bride's parents, raising incidence of self-selection of marital partners in place of arranged marriages, and particularly increasing female education.... Rising age at marriage in Igboland cannot be understood only on the basis of increasing urbanization, female education and employment opportunities, but also on the basis of rising bridewealth which reduces the tempo of marriage....The study ends with an investigation of the determinants of marital fertility through the use of a causal model that includes bridewealth, age at marriage and other socio-economic variables." (SUMMARY IN ITA AND FRE)

  8. Influence of independent and proximate variables on condom use in selected states in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, A I; Aransiola, J O; Banjo, O; Bamiwuye, O; Fadeyibi, O; Adewuyi, A

    2010-12-01

    The study examined the influence of individual and proximate factors in determining condom use. Current use of condom and condom use during last sex were used as proxies for consistent condom use. Data on 3,797 sexually active respondents of reproductive age were analyzed from the 2007 USAID-COMPASS midline evaluation on basic family planning and reproductive health outcomes in five Nigerian states. About 9% of respondents were current users, while 11% used a condom during last sex. Younger and more educated respondents were more likely to report condom use. Of the 23 variables, four were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in predicting current use for females, and five for males; six were statistically significant in predicting condom use during last sex for females and seven for males. The paper concluded that understanding the determinants and predictors of condom use is critical to improving family planning and reproductive health indicators in Nigeria.

  9. Projecting climate effects on birds and reptiles of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Mattson, David; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Nowak, Erika M.; Ironside, Kirsten; Peters, Michael; Heinrich, Paul; Cole, K.L.; Truettner, C.; Schwalbe, Cecil R.

    2014-01-01

    We modeled the current and future breeding ranges of seven bird and five reptile species in the Southwestern United States with sets of landscape, biotic (plant), and climatic global circulation model (GCM) variables. For modeling purposes, we used PRISM data to characterize the climate of the Western United States between 1980 and 2009 (baseline for birds) and between 1940 and 2009 (baseline for reptiles). In contrast, we used a pre-selected set of GCMs that are known to be good predictors of southwestern climate (five individual and one ensemble GCM), for the A1B emission scenario, to characterize future climatic conditions in three time periods (2010–39; 2040–69; and, 2070–99). Our modeling approach relied on conceptual models for each target species to inform selection of candidate explanatory variables and to interpret the ecological meaning of developed probabilistic distribution models. We employed logistic regression and maximum entropy modeling techniques to create a set of probabilistic models for each target species. We considered climatic, landscape, and plant variables when developing and testing our probabilistic models. Climatic variables included the maximum and minimum mean monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation for three time periods. Landscape features included terrain ruggedness and insolation. We also considered plant species distributions as candidate explanatory variables where prior ecological knowledge implicated a strong association between a plant and animal species. Projected changes in range varied widely among species, from major losses to major gains. Breeding bird ranges exhibited greater expansions and contractions than did reptile species. We project range losses for Williamson’s sapsucker and pygmy nuthatch of a magnitude that could move these two species close to extinction within the next century. Although both species currently have a relatively limited distribution, they can be locally common, and neither

  10. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. Methods A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results Health facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. Conclusion The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State. PMID:27642401

  11. Space geodiversity review: a case study in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manosso, Fernando; Tauana Basso, Bruna; Alcindo Da Roza, Douglas; Souza dos Santos, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Considering the strong global concern for nature protection, improvements emerge to support techniques to understand physical and biological means of selecting areas for environmental conservation. Most techniques take into consideration mainly the biological characteristics of nature, however as the nature is a complex of biotic and abiotic elements it becomes thus necessary the creation of parameters to understand the diversity of abiotic elements, their distribution, occurrence, threats and values as well. This paper aims to identify, quantify and perform a spatial analysis of the distribution of geodiversity in the southwestern region of Paraná State, Brazil, from the different concepts of geodiversity with the use of techniques on digital cartographic database in a Geographic Information System - GIS. Gray (2004) conceptualized geodiversity as the natural distribution of geology, including rocks, minerals, fossils, soil characteristics, land forms and processes (geomorphology), and their connections. Geodiversity is composed by the variability of abiotic nature, including lithological elements, tectonic, geomorphological, edaphic, hydrological, topographical and physical processes of the Earth surface, seas, oceans, together with natural endogenous, exogenous and anthropogenic processes that include a diversity of particles, elements and places (Serrano and Ruiz Flaño, 2007). Different methods of quantitative assessment of geodiversity in different territories were applied by Carcavilla et al (2007), Pellitero and González-Amuchastegui (2010), Navarro (2010), Katerina and Dušan (2008), Serrano et al (2007; 2009), Kozlowski (2010), Zwolinski and Stachowiak (2012), Thomas (2012), Hjort and Luoto (2010; 2012), Pellitero et al (2014), and Silva (2014). Considering geodiversity as the abiotic elements which constitute the landscape; it is important to mention that such set may vary spatially according to the occurrence of different geological formations, rock

  12. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge areas

  13. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km(2) for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  14. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  15. A Projection of Maize-Yield Potential in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Walko, R. L.; Myoung, B.; Stack, D.; Kafatos, M.

    2014-12-01

    As human population is projected to increase by 35% by 2050, agricultural production requires substantial growth compared to the current yield levels. In the coming decades, evaluating yield potential (Yp), the yield of a crop cultivar when grown without limitation of water and nutrients with effectively controlled pest and diseases change and solely determined by climate variables, is crucial to assess food security under climate change scenarios as it is directly connected to amount of exploitable yield. In this study, Yp is estimated and projected using regional climate models (RCM) and a process-based crop model over the Southwestern United States. High-resolution (8km grid spacing at the inner domain) climate variables are obtained using dynamical downscaling with two RCMs (WRF and OLAM) driven by boundary conditions from a GCM (GFDL-ESM2M) in the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archives. 20 years of the high-resolution and bias-corrected climate data from the two RCM runs (historical (1981-2000) and future (2031-2050)) are employed on the process-based crop model, Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (ASPIM) to assess the climate change impact on maize Yp. The potential maize yield in the future period under the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas concentrations pathways shows that the yields are significantly changed when compared to the historical period. In the generally rising temperature regime, the projected Yp shows strong geospatial variations according to the regional climate characteristics in the high-resolution RCM projections.

  16. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10(kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000(kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000(kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000(kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Gravity Monitoring of Ground-Water Storage Change in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winester, D.; Pool, D. R.; Schmerge, D. L.; Hoffmann, J. P.; Keller, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Repeat measurements of absolute gravity have been made since 1998 to estimate changes in ground-water mass as part of ground-water budget estimates in arid and semiarid regions of the Southwestern United States. The absolute acceleration of gravity is measured twice each year at 16 stations to an accuracy of about plus or minus 2 microGal, or about 5 cm of water. Observations are normally done for the purpose of providing gravity control for relative gravity surveys of networks of stations across wider areas. Other data incorporated into the ground-water budget estimates include precipitation, water levels, moisture content in the unsaturated zone, surface water runoff, and ellipsoid heights using the Global Positioning System (GPS). Gravity and water-level changes are correlated for stations measured in the Basin and Range Physiographic Province near Tucson, Phoenix, Casa Grande, and Sierra Vista, Arizona. Decreasing gravity and water levels in the Tucson area since the summer of 1998 are likely related to predominant drought conditions and decreases in ground-water storage following above average winter precipitation and recharge during the El Nino of 1998. Increases in gravity at stations in the upper and middle Verde Valley Watershed in central Arizona since the fall of 2000 do not correlate well with declining streamflows and water levels and may be caused by temporary increases in soil moisture following wet winters. There have been no significant observed gravity changes at two stations in the El Paso, Texas, area since the initial observations during the summer of 2003, even though ground-water pumping in the area has been heavy.

  18. Seismic Discontinuities beneath the Southwestern United States from S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akanbi, O. E.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    S- Receiver functions along the Colorado Plateau-Rio Grande Rift-Great Plains Transect known as La RISTRA in the southwestern United States have been utilized to map the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath this tectonically active region. The receiver functions were stacked according to ray piercing points with moveout corrections in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of converted S-to-P phases. The Moho appears at 30-40 km beneath the Rio Grande Rift (RGR) and deepens to 35-45 km beneath the Great Plains (GP) and the Colorado Plateau (CP). A sharp discontinuity is observed along the profile with the average depth of 80 km beneath the RGR, 100 km beneath the GP, and 160 km beneath the CP. This discontinuity is consistent with the top of a low velocity zone in a shear wave model beneath the array and is interpreted as the LAB. Strong phases imaged at ~90 km beneath the CP and GP could be a combination of side-lobes of the Moho conversions and primary Sp phases from a mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD). The relatively shallow Moho and LAB beneath the Rio Grande Rift is indicative of lithosphere extension and asthenosphere upwarp. In addition, the LAB shows depth-step depressions at the RGR-CP and RGR-GP boundaries, providing evidence for mantle downwelling. The variation of the lithospheric depth across the RISTRA array supports that edge-driven, small-scale mantle convection is largely responsible for the recent extension and uplift in the Rio Grande Rift and the Colorado Plateau.

  19. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  20. Microfossil zonation and correlation of nonmarine Triassic of southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Kietzke, K.K. )

    1989-09-01

    Recent studies of the nonmarine Triassic in New Mexico and adjacent states by the New Mexico Museum of Natural History have resulted in a data base that for the first allows the use of calcareous microfossils for zonation of the Moenkopi and Chinle formations. Three biostratigraphic assemblages have been recognized thus far: Moenkopi, lower Chinle, and upper Chinle. The Middle Triassic Moenkopi assemblage is characterized by the charophyte Porochara, uncoiled species of Spirorbis, and the presence of the ostracod genus Darwinuloides. The Upper Triassic lower Chinle assemblage is present in the lower shale member of the Chinle Formation. It is characterized by lacking a charophyte component and in containing an exceptionally large species of Darwinula. The upper Chinle assemblage is present in the upper shale and Redonda members of the Chinle Formation and in the Sloan Canyon Formation. It contains the charophyte Stellatochara, a diverse assemblage of darwinulid ostracods, the ostracod genus Lutkevichinella, and a generally coiled species of Spirorbis. These three microfossil assemblages contain several elements of apparent cosmopolitan distribution and should greatly facilitate long-range correlations. Initial correlations suggest the Moenkopi can be correlated with the middle Bundsandstein of Europe and the Lower Triassic of the Caspian depression of the Soviet Union. The lower Chinle assemblage appears to be restricted to the southwestern US with no known correlatives elsewhere. The upper Chinle assemblage contains elements in common with the middle and upper Keuper of Europe and the Upper Triassic Wayaobu Formation of Shaanxi, China. As more collections are made and studied, correlations with other Triassic assemblages should increase in refinement and utility. Additionally, the paleoecologic aspects of these assemblages should help greatly in refining Triassic paleoenvironmental interpretations.

  1. Ground-Water Recharge in the Arid and Semiarid Southwestern United States - Climatic and Geologic Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stonestrom, David A.; Harrill, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Ni?o and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly but irregularly control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Anthropogenically induced climate change likely will reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations, and perhaps through increased drought. Future changes in El Ni?o and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge directly through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area, and indirectly through climate change. High ranges bounding the study area?the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east?provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive

  2. Desert grassland responses to climate and soil moisture suggest divergent vulnerabilities across the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Gremer, Jennifer R; Bradford, John B; Munson, Seth M; Duniway, Michael C

    2015-11-01

    Climate change predictions include warming and drying trends, which are expected to be particularly pronounced in the southwestern United States. In this region, grassland dynamics are tightly linked to available moisture, yet it has proven difficult to resolve what aspects of climate drive vegetation change. In part, this is because it is unclear how heterogeneity in soils affects plant responses to climate. Here, we combine climate and soil properties with a mechanistic soil water model to explain temporal fluctuations in perennial grass cover, quantify where and the degree to which incorporating soil water dynamics enhances our ability to understand temporal patterns, and explore the potential consequences of climate change by assessing future trajectories of important climate and soil water variables. Our analyses focused on long-term (20-56 years) perennial grass dynamics across the Colorado Plateau, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan Desert regions. Our results suggest that climate variability has negative effects on grass cover, and that precipitation subsidies that extend growing seasons are beneficial. Soil water metrics, including the number of dry days and availability of water from deeper (>30 cm) soil layers, explained additional grass cover variability. While individual climate variables were ranked as more important in explaining grass cover, collectively soil water accounted for 40-60% of the total explained variance. Soil water conditions were more useful for understanding the responses of C3 than C4 grass species. Projections of water balance variables under climate change indicate that conditions that currently support perennial grasses will be less common in the future, and these altered conditions will be more pronounced in the Chihuahuan Desert and Colorado Plateau. We conclude that incorporating multiple aspects of climate and accounting for soil variability can improve our ability to understand patterns, identify areas of vulnerability, and predict

  3. LA-MC-ICPMS Determination of Copper Isotope Ratios in Turquoise from the Southwestern United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. J.; Fayek, M.; Riciputi, L.; Anovitz, L.; Hull, S.; Mathien, F. J.; Milford, H.

    2004-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation driven by igneous intrusion led to the deposition of turquoise throughout the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica. The genesis of these copper-ore deposits is unclear; conflicting hypotheses call on ascent of magmatic waters (hypogene) or descent and recirculation of meteroric waters (supergene). Copper isotope analyses were performed by laser-ablation multi-collector ICPMS to survey turquoise deposits from AZ, NV, CA, NM, and CO. The turquoise have [Cu] from 0.1 to 10 wt% and are all found in near-surface alteration zones. Analyses of individual turquoise grains are reproducible to better than 0.4\\permil \\delta65Cu (1\\sigma) (relative to NBS-976). \\delta65Cu values show significant variation (ca. 10\\permil) between the deposits, equal to the total range reported for continental ores and both hypogene and supergene deposits. The variability between deposits may reflect differences in source Cu isotopic composition or more likely, hydrothermal processes during leaching and deposition. The mining and trade of turquoise played an important role in early social and economic development between Mesoamerica and N. America. Copper isotopes will improve differentiation between turquoise source areas, aiding archaeological and cultural studies of trade between and within Mesoamerica and the SW USA. Research sponsored by NSF-BCS (Archaeology) grant #0312088 to Fayek and the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy, under contract with Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes.

  4. Hydrogeology and groundwater evaluation of a shallow coastal aquifer, southern Akwa Ibom State (Nigeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edet, Aniekan

    2016-06-01

    The rapid expansion of economic activities in coastal parts of Nigeria has triggered an uncoordinated development of groundwater leading to stress on the resource. Hence a study was conducted to assess the hydrogeological characteristics of the shallow coastal aquifer of southern Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Emphasis was on the hydraulic characteristics, quality with respect to domestic and irrigation purposes and influence of seawater. The study result revealed that the aquifer consist of intercalations of clayey sand and sand. The aquifer is characterized by high hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity values. The groundwater flow direction is southwards with higher groundwater depletion in the dry season. Groundwater samples from hand dug wells and boreholes were evaluated based on World Health Organization standard and some indices, respectively, for drinking and irrigation uses. The groundwaters are fit for drinking and domestic uses. However, more than 70 % of the pH values are not within the allowable limits of between 6.5 and 9.2 for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, it is recommended that neutralizing filter containing calcite or ground limestone should be applied to raise the pH of the groundwater. Of the 10 parameters used to assess the water for irrigation use, only sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH) and magnesium ratio indicated the excellent quality of these waters. Na+-K+-HCO3 - constitute the dominant water type. Total dissolved solids and ratios of Na+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Ca2+/SO4 2- and saltwater mixing index (SMI) suggest some level of seawater intrusion in the area.

  5. Coevolution of topography, hydrology, soil development, and vegetation in sky islands of the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.; Breshears, D. D.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.; Huxman, T. E.; Lohse, K. A.; Meixner, T.; McIntosh, J. C.; Kurc, S. A.; Schaap, M. G.; Swetnam, T.; Troch, P. A.; University Of Arizona Czo

    2010-12-01

    , in turn, promote greater biomass in a positive feedback. To test this hypothesis, we developed a landscape evolution model that couples soil development, the partitioning of rainfall into runoff, infiltration, and evapotranspiration, vegetation growth, and geomorphic processes (colluvial and fluvial transport) over geologic time scales. Numerical experiments with this model can be run for a range of input data for climate, tectonics, and rock type. Across a climate gradient similar to that of the sky islands of the southwestern U.S., the model self-organizes into states similar to those observed in the Santa Catalina and Pinaleno ranges, i.e. higher biomass, thicker soils, higher water storage potential, lower relief, and lower valley density at higher elevations/north-facing slopes. The model exhibits similar nonlinear relationships among landscape variables across the elevation/climate gradient, lending support to the hypothesis that positive feedback mechanisms contribute to the observed nonlinearity.

  6. The Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Mineral Analyses of Phragmanthera Incana (Klotzsch), A Species of Mistletoe Growing on Three Plant Hosts in South-Western Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ogunmefun, O. T.; Fasola, T. R.; Saba, A. B.; Oridupa, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper. PMID:23675287

  7. Agronomic and kernel compositional traits of blue maize landraces from the southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multiple races of maize have been cultivated for centuries in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico. These landraces, used primarily for human food consumption, display considerable genetic variation for traits such as kernel color and texture. Traditional cultivation of these landraces has decli...

  8. Scale dependence of disease impacts on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bell, David M; Bradford, John B; Lauenroth, William K

    2015-07-01

    Depending on how disease impacts tree exposure to risk, both the prevalence of disease and disease effects on survival may contribute to patterns of mortality risk across a species' range. Disease may accelerate tree species' declines in response to global change factors, such as drought, biotic interactions, such as competition, or functional traits, such as allometry. To assess the role of disease in mediating mortality risk in quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), we developed hierarchical Bayesian models for both disease prevalence in live aspen stems and the resulting survival rates of healthy and diseased aspen near the species' southern range limit using 5088 individual trees on 281 United States Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis plots in the southwestern United States. We found that disease prevalence depended primarily on tree size, tree allometry, and spatial variation in precipitation, while mortality depended on tree size, allometry, competition, spatial variation in summer temperature, and both temporal and spatial variation in summer precipitation. Disease prevalence was highest in large trees with low slenderness found on dry sites. For healthy trees, mortality decreased with diameter, slenderness, and temporal variation in summer precipitation, but increased with competition and spatial variation in summer temperature. Mortality of diseased trees decreased with diameter and aspen relative basal area and increased with mean summer temperature and precipitation. Disease infection increased aspen mortality, especially in trees of intermediate size and trees on plots at climatic extremes (i.e., cool, wet and warm, dry climates). By examining variation in disease prevalence, mortality of healthy trees, and mortality of diseased trees, we showed that the role of disease in aspen tree mortality depended on the scale of inference. For variation among individuals in diameter, disease tended to expose intermediate-size trees experiencing moderate

  9. High-resolution, regional-scale crop yield simulations for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, D. H.; Kafatos, M.; Medvigy, D.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.; Asrar, G. R.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past few decades, there have been many process-based crop models developed with the goal of better understanding the impacts of climate, soils, and management decisions on crop yields. These models simulate the growth and development of crops in response to environmental drivers. Traditionally, process-based crop models have been run at the individual farm level for yield optimization and management scenario testing. Few previous studies have used these models over broader geographic regions, largely due to the lack of gridded high-resolution meteorological and soil datasets required as inputs for these data intensive process-based models. In particular, assessment of regional-scale yield variability due to climate change requires high-resolution, regional-scale, climate projections, and such projections have been unavailable until recently. The goal of this study was to create a framework for extending the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop model for use at regional scales and analyze spatial and temporal yield changes in the Southwestern United States (CA, AZ, and NV). Using the scripting language Python, an automated pipeline was developed to link Regional Climate Model (RCM) output with the APSIM crop model, thus creating a one-way nested modeling framework. This framework was used to combine climate, soil, land use, and agricultural management datasets in order to better understand the relationship between climate variability and crop yield at the regional-scale. Three different RCMs were used to drive APSIM: OLAM, RAMS, and WRF. Preliminary results suggest that, depending on the model inputs, there is some variability between simulated RCM driven maize yields and historical yields obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Furthermore, these simulations showed strong non-linear correlations between yield and meteorological drivers, with critical threshold values for some of the inputs (e.g. minimum and

  10. Suitability assessment and mapping of Oyo State, Nigeria, for rice cultivation using GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoade, Modupe Alake

    2016-07-01

    Rice is one of the most preferred food crops in Nigeria. However, local rice production has declined with the oil boom of the 1970s causing demand to outstrip supply. Rice production can be increased through the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and crop-land suitability analysis and mapping. Based on the key predictor variables that determine rice yield mentioned in relevant literature, data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity, slope, and soil of Oyo state were obtained. To develop rice suitability maps for the state, two MCE-GIS techniques, namely the Overlay approach and weighted linear combination (WLC), using fuzzy AHP were used and compared. A Boolean land use map derived from a landsat imagery was used in masking out areas currently unavailable for rice production. Both suitability maps were classified into four categories of very suitable, suitable, moderate, and fairly moderate. Although the maps differ slightly, the overlay and WLC (AHP) approach found most parts of Oyo state (51.79 and 82.9 % respectively) to be moderately suitable for rice production. However, in areas like Eruwa, Oyo, and Shaki, rainfall amount received needs to be supplemented by irrigation for increased rice yield.

  11. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abah, A E; Arene, F O I

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  12. Status of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Primary School Children in Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abah, A. E.; Arene, F. O. I.

    2015-01-01

    Status of intestinal parasitic infections among primary school children in Rivers State, Nigeria, was investigated between January and December 2011. A total of 3,826 stool samples were collected from school children (1,828 males and 1998 females) in 36 primary schools from 13 local government areas of Rivers State. The samples were analyzed using wet saline/iodine and formol ether concentration methods. Of the 3,826 stool samples examined, 1059 (27.66%) were positive for different intestinal parasites, namely, Ascaris lumbricoides (51.78%), hookworm sp. (25.0%), Trichuris trichiura (15.18%), Strongyloides stercoralis (7.14%), Taenia sp. (0.89%), and Enterobius vermicularis (0.01%). The prevalence of the infection was generally higher in males (57.60%) than females (42.40%). The differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Among these intestinal parasites, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm sp., and Trichuris trichiura were found in all the 13 local government areas studied while Strongyloides stercoralis was found in 12, Taenia sp. in five, and Enterobius vermicularis in only one community in Ahoada Local Government Area. The overall infection rate remains high and would require coordinated deworming of the school children within the state. PMID:26600945

  13. Midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security in Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alayande, Audu; Mamman-Daura, Fatima; Adedeji, Olanike; Muhammad, Ado Zakari

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The significant improvement in the contraceptive prevalence rate in Kaduna State, Nigeria, from 8.4% in 2008 to 18.5% in 2013 is a notable achievement. This article analyses the role of midwives as drivers of reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) and their impact on contraceptive use in Kaduna State. Methods: The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) supported the bimonthly review resupply meetings facilitated by midwives at State and local government area (LGA) levels. The midwives deliver contraception to the LGAs for onward distribution to 6974 of the 25,000 health facilities across the country according to usage data from the previous 2 months. They also collect requisition, issue and resupply form data from the previous 2 months. Results: The active participation of midwives at the bimonthly meetings improved data timeliness by 23% and data completeness by 50% in 1 year. Only one health facility ran out of intrauterine devices and only 17% reported running out of female condoms. The total number of contraceptives issued increased from 31,866 in 2012 to 177,828 in 2013, resulting in a couple–year protection increase from 3408 in 2012 to 102,207 in 2013. Conclusions: Creation of increased demand and engagement of midwives in providing family planning services, especially long-acting contraceptive methods, coupled with the removal of cost to the user and the strengthening of the supply chain have been major factors in more than doubling the contraceptive prevalence rate. PMID:26909871

  14. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ardo, Mohammed B; Abubakar, Dauda M

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  15. Seroprevalence of horse (Equus caballus) brucellosis on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    ARDO, Mohammed B.; ABUBAKAR, Dauda M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A cross-sectional study was conducted on the seroprevalence of horse brucellosis using the Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT) and Serum Agglutination Test (SAT) on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria where horses are reared under a free range management system on cattle farms. The objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of brucella antibodies in horses as well as the distribution of the infection according to sex and age. A total of 100 horses were sampled, 25 each from four locations where horses were concentrated on the plateau: Gembu, Nguroje, Dorofi, and Mayo Ndaga. Sixty-two of the horses were males, and 38 were females. Eighty of the horses were adults, while 20 were young. All horses were reared under a free range management system together with cattle. The overall seroprevalence rate was 16 (16%) according to the RBPT and 6 (6%) according to the SAT. The seroprevalence rates were 19.40% (12/62) according to the RBPT and 6.50% (4/62) according to the SAT in the males and 10.50% (4/38) according to the RBPT and 5.30% (2/38) according to the SAT in the females. The prevalence was highest in Nguroje (8/25, 32%) followed by Gembu (5/25, 20%), Dorofi (3/25, 12%) and Mayo Ndaga (0%). Adult horses showed a seroprevalence of 18.8% (n=15) according to the RBPT and 7.5% (n=1) according to the SAT. Young horses had a seroprevalence rate of only 5% (n=1) according to the RBPT and 0% (n=0) according to the SAT. There was no statistically significance association with location, sex, and age (P>0.05). From this result, it can be concluded that brucellosis in horses on the Mambilla plateau of Taraba state, Nigeria was essentially a disease of adult horses and more prevalent in male horses than female horses. Further studies need to be conducted to determine the disease status in lowland areas of the state where horses are reared on zero grazing or are tethered and also to determine the involvement of other species and humans. PMID:27073329

  16. Geospatial Data to Support Analysis of Water-Quality Conditions in Basin-Fill Aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  17. Prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria: results of a population-based house-to-house survey

    PubMed Central

    Ijezie, Innocent Chukwuonye; Chuku, Abali; Onyeonoro, Ugochukwu Uchenna; Okpechi, Ikechi Gareth; Madukwe, Okechukwu Ojoemelam; Umeizudike, Theophilus Ifeanyichukwu; Ogah, Okechukwu Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Abdominal obesity is associated with the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes and hypertension. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Materials and methods We carried out a cross-sectional study aimed at ascertaining the prevalence of abdominal obesity in Abia State, Nigeria. Participants in the study were recruited from communities in the three senatorial zones in the state. Screening for abdominal obesity was carried out in these subjects using waist circumference (the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel criteria were used). The World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance of chronic disease risk factors was used. Body mass index, anthropometric measurements, and other relevant data were also collected. Results Data on waist circumference were obtained from 2,807 subjects. The prevalence of obesity using body mass index in the population was 11.12%. In men and women, it was 7.73%, and 14.37%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in the population was 21.75%. In men and women, it was 3.2% and 39.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is high in Nigeria, and needs to be monitored because it is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:23946664

  18. Deposition and removal of fugitive dust in the arid southwestern United States: measurements and model results.

    PubMed

    Etyemezian, Vic; Ahonen, Sean; Nikolic, Djordje; Gillies, John; Kuhns, Hampden; Gillette, Dale; Veranth, John

    2004-09-01

    This work was motivated by the need to better reconcile emission factors for fugitive dust with the amount of geologic material found on ambient filter samples. The deposition of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm (PM10), generated by travel over an unpaved road, over the first 100 m of transport downwind of the road was examined at Ft. Bliss, near El Paso, TX. The field conditions, typical for warm days in the arid southwestern United States, represented sparsely vegetated terrain under neutral to unstable atmospheric conditions. Emission fluxes of PM10 dust were obtained from towers downwind of the unpaved road at 7, 50, and 100 m. The horizontal flux measurements at the 7 m and 100 m towers indicated that PM10 deposition to the vegetation and ground was too small to measure. The data indicated, with 95% confidence, that the loss of PM10 between the source of emission at the unpaved road, represented by the 7 m tower, and a point 100 m downwind was less than 9.5%. A Gaussian model was used to simulate the plume. Values of the vertical standard deviation sigma(z) and the deposition velocity Vd were similar to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ISC3 model. For the field conditions, the model predicted that removal of PM10 unpaved road dust by deposition over the distance between the point of emission and 100 m downwind would be less than 5%. However, the model results also indicated that particles larger than 10 microm (aerodynamic diameter) would deposit more appreciably. The model was consistent with changes observed in size distributions between 7 m and 100 m downwind, which were measured with optical particle counters. The Gaussian model predictions were also compared with another study conducted over rough terrain and stable atmospheric conditions. Under such conditions, measured PM10 removal rates over 95 m of downwind transport were reported to be between 86% and 89%, whereas the Gaussian model predicted

  19. Identifying bird and reptile vulnerabilities to climate change in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Nowak, Erika M.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Ironside, Kirsten E.; Van Riper, Charles, III; Peters, Michael; Truettner, Charles; Cole, Kenneth L.

    2016-01-01

    Current and future breeding ranges of 15 bird and 16 reptile species were modeled in the Southwestern United States. Rather than taking a broad-scale, vulnerability-assessment approach, we created a species distribution model (SDM) for each focal species incorporating climatic, landscape, and plant variables. Baseline climate (1940–2009) was characterized with Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data and future climate with global-circulation-model data under an A1B emission scenario. Climatic variables included monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation; landscape variables included terrain ruggedness, soil type, and insolation; and plant variables included trees and shrubs commonly associated with a focal species. Not all species-distribution models contained a plant, but if they did, we included a built-in annual migration rate for more accurate plant-range projections in 2039 or 2099. We conducted a group meta-analysis to (1) determine how influential each variable class was when averaged across all species distribution models (birds or reptiles), and (2) identify the correlation among contemporary (2009) habitat fragmentation and biological attributes and future range projections (2039 or 2099). Projected changes in bird and reptile ranges varied widely among species, with one-third of the ranges predicted to expand and two-thirds predicted to contract. A group meta-analysis indicated that climatic variables were the most influential variable class when averaged across all models for both groups, followed by landscape and plant variables (birds), or plant and landscape variables (reptiles), respectively. The second part of the meta-analysis indicated that numerous contemporary habitat-fragmentation (for example, patch isolation) and biological-attribute (for example, clutch size, longevity) variables were significantly correlated with the magnitude of projected range changes for birds and reptiles. Patch isolation was

  20. Identifying bird and reptile vulnerabilities to climate change in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Giermakowski, J. Tomasz; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Nowak, Erika M.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Ironside, Kirsten E.; Van Riper, Charles; Peters, Michael; Truettner, Charles; Cole, Kenneth L.

    2016-07-06

    Current and future breeding ranges of 15 bird and 16 reptile species were modeled in the Southwestern United States. Rather than taking a broad-scale, vulnerability-assessment approach, we created a species distribution model (SDM) for each focal species incorporating climatic, landscape, and plant variables. Baseline climate (1940–2009) was characterized with Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data and future climate with global-circulation-model data under an A1B emission scenario. Climatic variables included monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation; landscape variables included terrain ruggedness, soil type, and insolation; and plant variables included trees and shrubs commonly associated with a focal species. Not all species-distribution models contained a plant, but if they did, we included a built-in annual migration rate for more accurate plant-range projections in 2039 or 2099. We conducted a group meta-analysis to (1) determine how influential each variable class was when averaged across all species distribution models (birds or reptiles), and (2) identify the correlation among contemporary (2009) habitat fragmentation and biological attributes and future range projections (2039 or 2099). Projected changes in bird and reptile ranges varied widely among species, with one-third of the ranges predicted to expand and two-thirds predicted to contract. A group meta-analysis indicated that climatic variables were the most influential variable class when averaged across all models for both groups, followed by landscape and plant variables (birds), or plant and landscape variables (reptiles), respectively. The second part of the meta-analysis indicated that numerous contemporary habitat-fragmentation (for example, patch isolation) and biological-attribute (for example, clutch size, longevity) variables were significantly correlated with the magnitude of projected range changes for birds and reptiles. Patch isolation was

  1. Integrated Resources Management Approach to Ensuring Sustainable Food Security in Nigeria-The Nexus of Rice Production in Niger State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, T.

    2015-12-01

    By 2050, the world will need to feed 9 billion people. This will require a 60% increase in agricultural production and subsequently a 6% increase in water use by the agricultural sector alone. By 2030, global water demand is expected to increase by 40%, mostly in developing countries like Nigeria (Addams, Boccaletti, Kerlin, & Stuchtey, 2009) and global energy demand is expected to increase by 33% in 2035, also, mostly in emerging economies (IEA, 2013). These resources have to be managed efficiently in preparation for these future demands. Population growth leads to increased demand for water, energy and food. More food production will lead to more water-for-food and energy-for-food usage; and more demand for energy will lead to more water-for-energy needs. This nexus between water, energy and food is poorly understood and furthermore, complicated by external drivers such as climate change. Niger State Nigeria, which is blessed with abundant water and arable land resources, houses the three hydropower dams in Nigeria and one of the governments' proposed Staple Crops Processing Zones (SCPZ) for rice production. Both of these capital intensive investments depend heavily on water resources and are all highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Thus, it is essential to know how the local climate in this state will likely change and its impacts on water, energy and food security, so that policy makers can make informed mitigation/adaptation plans; operational and investment decisions. The objective of this project is to provide information, using an integrated resources management approach, on the effects of future climate changes on water, energy (hydropower) and food resources in Niger State, Nigeria and improve knowledge on the interlinkages between water, energy and food at a local scale.

  2. Seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis in goats in selected states in Nigeria and the public health implications

    PubMed Central

    Ogugua, A.J.; Akinseye, V.O.; Ayoola, M.C.; Oyesola, O.O.; Shima, F.K.; Tijjani, A.O.; Musa, Aderemi N. A.; Adesokan, H.K.; Perrett, Lorraine; Taylor, Andrew; Stack, Judy A.; Moriyon, I; Cadmus, S.I.B.

    2015-01-01

    Available reports on brucellosis in Nigeria are largely confined to cattle while it is believed that other ruminants like sheep and goats are equally exposed to the disease. To have an insight into the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria, we conducted a cross-sectional study between June 2011 and May 2013 to determine the seroprevalence of brucellosis in goats in some selected states in Nigeria. Serum samples were collected from goats at different locations and tested for antibodies to Brucella spp using the Rose Bengal Test (RBT), samples positive by RBT were further subjected to Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). Data collected to determine risk factors were also analysed using chi-square and logistics regression statistics. Out of a total of 2827 samples tested from the different states (Benue = 331; Borno =195; Oyo = 2155; Sokoto = 146), we recorded an overall seroprevalence of 2.83% (Benue = 17.30%; Borno = 2.05%; Oyo = 0.60% and Sokoto = 0.00%) by RBT. The cELISA further supported 9.45% (7/74) of the total RBT positive samples. Logistic regression analysis showed that the location (p = 0.004) and source (p < 0.0001); are probable risk factors to be considered in the epidemiology of brucellosis with sex (p = 0.179); age (p = 0.791) and breed (p = 0.369) not playing any major role. Our findings reveal a relatively low seroprevalence of brucellosis among goats screened except for Benue State. Since most of the goats sampled in the present study were from the abattoirs, further farm level investigations are required to determine the role of goats in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Nigeria since they share common environment with sheep and cattle that are natural hosts of Brucella species which are of major public health threat. PMID:26689681

  3. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Southwestern United States (Arizona, Nevada, and Utah)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 113 natural asbestos occurrences in the Southwestern United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Southwestern U.S., which includes sites in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), and the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/. These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  4. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, 'Southwest') since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality. The synthesis consists of three major components: 1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report). 2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants. 3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination. Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  5. The Menace of Schistosomiasis in Nigeria: Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices Regarding Schistosomiasis among Rural Communities in Kano State

    PubMed Central

    Dawaki, Salwa; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Ithoi, Init; Ibrahim, Jamaiah; Abdulsalam, Awatif M.; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Sady, Hany; Nasr, Nabil A.; Atroosh, Wahib M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is one of the most common neglected tropical diseases, especially in the developing countries in Africa, Asia and South America, with Nigeria having the greatest number of cases of schistosomiasis worldwide. This community-based study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding schistosomiasis among rural Hausa communities in Kano State, Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 551 participants from Hausa communities in five local government areas in Kano State, North Central Nigeria. Demographic, socioeconomic and environmental information as well as KAP data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Moreover, faecal and urine samples were collected and examined for the presence of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium eggs respectively. Results The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was 17.8%, with 8.9% and 8.3% infected with S. mansoni and S. haematobium respectively, and 0.5% had co-infection of both species. Moreover, 74.5% of the participants had prior knowledge about schistosomiasis with 67.0% of them how it is transmitted and 63.8% having no idea about the preventive measures. Three-quarters of the respondents considered schistosomiasis a serious disease while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate, with only 34.7% of them seeking treatment from clinics/hospitals. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, education and employment status were reported. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age, gender, history of infection and educational level of the respondents were the most important factors significantly associated with the KAP on schistosomiasis among this population. Conclusions Schistosomiasis is still prevalent among Hausa communities in Nigeria and participants’ knowledge about the disease was poor. Mass drug administration, community mobilization and health education regarding the cause, transmission and

  6. Preventing malaria in pregnancy through community-directed interventions: evidence from Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite massive anti-malaria campaigns across the subcontinent, effective access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) among pregnant women remain low in large parts of sub-Saharan Africa. The slow uptake of malaria prevention products appears to reflect lack of knowledge and resistance to behavioural change, as well as poor access to resources, and limited support of programmes by local communities and authorities. Methods A recent community-based programme in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is analysed to determine the degree to which community-directed interventions can improve access to malaria prevention in pregnancy. Six local government areas in Southern Nigeria were selected for a malaria in pregnancy prevention intervention. Three of these local government areas were selected for a complementary community-directed intervention (CDI) programme. Under the CDI programme, volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) were appointed by each village and kindred in the treatment areas and trained to deliver ITNs and IPTp drugs as well as basic counseling services to pregnant women. Findings Relative to women in the control area, an additional 7.4 percent of women slept under a net during pregnancy in the treatment areas (95% CI [0.035, 0.115], p-value < 0.01), and an additional 8.5 percent of women slept under an ITN after delivery and prior to the interview (95% CI [0.045, 0.122], p-value < 0.001). The effects of the CDI programme were largest for IPTp adherence, increasing the fraction of pregnant women taking at least two SP doses during pregnancy by 35.3 percentage points [95% CI: 0.280, 0.425], p-value < 0.001) relative to the control group. No effects on antenatal care attendance were found. Conclusion The presented results suggest that the inclusion of community-based programmes can substantially increase effective access to malaria prevention, and also increase access to formal health care access in

  7. Occurrence of tick-transmitted pathogens in dogs in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia rossi, transmitted by Haemaphysalis elliptica in South Africa, has also been reported from Nigeria. Although H. leachi (sensu lato) is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, published literature on the occurrence of canine babesiosis is meagre. It has been postulated that the genotype of Babesia rossi Erythrocyte Membrane Antigen 1 (BrEMA1) may be linked to virulence of the specific isolate. The primary objective of this study was to detect and characterise tick-borne pathogens in dogs presented to a veterinary hospital using molecular techniques. In B. rossi-positive specimens, we aimed to determine whether the BrEMA1 gene occurred and to compare genotypes with those found in other isolates. Lastly, we wished to identify the tick species that were recovered from the sampled dogs. Methods Blood specimens (n = 100) were collected during January to March 2010 from domestic dogs presented at an animal hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. They were screened for the presence of Babesia/Theileria and Ehrlichia/Anaplasma genomic DNA using PCR and Reverse Line Blot (RLB) assays. Positive B. rossi specimens were tested for the presence of the BrEMA1gene using an RT-PCR. In addition, ticks were collected from dogs found to be infested during sampling. Results On RLB, 72 (72%) of the specimens were positive for one or more haemoparasites. Of the positive specimens, 38 (53%) were infected with B. rossi; 9 (13%) with Theileria sp. (sable); 5 (7%) with either Ehrlichia canis or Anaplasma sp. Omatjenne, respectively; 3 (4%) with Theileria equi; and 1 (1%) with B. vogeli and E. ruminantium, respectively. Co-infections were detected in 13 (18%) of the specimens. Results of RT-PCR screening for the BrEMA1 gene were negative. A total of 146 ticks belonging to 8 species were collected and identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus 107 (73%), Haemaphysalis leachi (sensu stricto) 27 (18%), R. turanicus 3 (2%), and Amblyomma variegatum, H

  8. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Human Rotavirus from Children with Diarrhoeal Disease in Sokoto State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alkali, B. R.; Daneji, A. I.; Magaji, A. A.; Bilbis, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to detect and characterize prevalent human group A rotavirus strains from 200 diarrheic children in Sokoto, Nigeria, by ELISA, monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) techniques. Rotavirus was detected in 25.5% of the children. The G-serotypes observed in circulation were G4: 16 (59.3%), G1: 4 (14.8%), G2: 3 (11.1%), G3: 3 (11.1%), and G12: 1 (3.7%). The monoclonal antibody (Mab) serotyping detected G1 and G3 but did not detect G4 and G2 serotypes. The Mab typing of the G1 and G3 serotypes was consistent with the result of the RT-PCR. The VP4 genotypes detected were P[6] 3 (13%), P[8] 11 (47.8%), and the rare human P genotype (P[9]), found in 9 patients (39.1%). Nine strains identified with the common G and P combinations were G4 P[8] 5 (56%), G4 P[6] 1 (11%), G1 P[8] 2 (22%), and G3 P[8] 1 (11%), while seven strains with unusual combinations or rare G or P genotypes identified were G12 P[8] 1 (14%), G2 P[8] 2 (29%), and G4 P[9] 4 (57%). To our knowledge this is the first molecular study of human rotavirus and report of rare human G and P serotypes in Sokoto State. PMID:27051531

  10. Climate change adaptation: a panacea for food security in Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatuase, A. I.

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the likely perceived causes of climate change, adaptation strategies employed and technical inefficiency of arable crop farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from primary sources using a set of structured questionnaire assisted with interview schedule. Multistage sampling technique was used. Data were analyzed using the following: descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier production function. The findings showed that majority of the respondents (59.1 %) still believed that climate change is a natural phenomenon that is beyond man's power to abate while industrial release, improper sewage disposal, fossil fuel use, deforestation and bush burning were perceived as the most human factors that influence climate change by the category that chose human activities (40.9 %) as the main causes of climate change. The main employed adaptation strategies by the farmers were mixed cropping, planting early matured crop, planting of resistant crops and use of agrochemicals. The arable crop farmers were relatively technically efficient with about 53 % of them having technical efficiency above the average of 0.784 for the study area. The study observed that education, adaptation, perception, climate information and farming experience were statistically significant in decreasing inefficiency of arable crop production. Therefore, advocacy on climate change and its adaptation strategies should be intensified in the study area.

  11. Perceived Effects of Occupational Hazards on Farmers' Productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akangbe, Jones Adebola; Komolafe, Sola Emmanuel; Oduwaiye, Muyiwa Olarinde

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the perceived effects of occupational hazards on farmers' productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis for empirical analysis were used. The results show common agricultural production to include maize, yam and cassava. The results also revealed prevalent occupational hazards that include cut/injury from farm tools, malaria due to mosquito bite, and general body pain. The findings further revealed that injury from farm tools and general body pain had high effects on agricultural productivity. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship (P≤0.05) between selected socio-economic characteristics with the perceived effects of occupational hazards on productivity. Based on the findings, the study concludes that occupational (farming) hazards, most especially general body pain, had negative effects on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that government and relevant agencies should encourage farmers by providing for them protective equipment at subsidized cost through extension agents who will train farmers on their use. Also, public health agents should educate farmers on personal health care practices in order to ensure good health status of farmers.

  12. Compliance with regimens of existing vaccines in Orumba North local government area of Anambra state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Nkechi; Igwe, Ijeoma; I'Aronu, Ngozi; Okoye, Uzoma

    2015-01-01

    The factors associated with third dose of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT3) uptake, a true indicator of compliance with required regimen of vaccines, in Anambra state, Nigeria, were investigated in a cross-sectional survey of 600 mothers (15-49). Being an older mother showed a positive association with compliance. Compliance was more among those who used the government health facilities for their health needs (χ(2 )= 12.286, p < .001). Satisfactory experiences with health service influenced compliance (χ(2 )= 8.542, p = .002). Those with good perception (30.1%) complied more (χ(2 )= 42.572, p < .001). Those who were aware that immunization protects the children against vaccine preventable diseases complied more (χ(2 )= 8.735, p = .002). In conclusion, the action-hesitancy model strengthens the Health Belief Model in explaining parents' attitude to childhood immunization, as experience and perception of the health service influenced uptake more. Health education and campaigns should be directed at factors that would encourage mothers to adopt required behaviours.

  13. Quality of groundwater in the Coastal Plain Sands aquifer of the Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajayi, Owolabi; Umoh, Obot A.

    1998-08-01

    The Coastal Plain Sands Formation is exploited by most of the population of the Akwa Ibom State in southeastern Nigeria. The aquifer is mostly coarse-grained, pebbly and poorly sorted sands with minor clay intercalations. It is up to 1500 m thick near the coast, but only a few metres thick along the northeastern boundary. Groundwater occurs principally under unconfined conditions. Boreholes penetrating less than 130 m yield over 300 m 3 hr -1. The main groundwater flow direction is seaward from north to south. The probable location of the fresh water-sea water interface is seaward. Forty-two groundwater and two surface water samples were analysed. Groundwater quality meets the WHO standards for potability and is dominated by bicarbonates of Na, Ca and Mg. The Sodium Adsorption Ratio lies between 0.2 and 2.0, indicating that the water is suitable for irrigation. The area has very high annual rainfall exceeding 2000 mm annually. Groundwater recharge should be high, although it is recommended that groundwater levels and quality near the coast be monitored regularly, especially in urban areas with high groundwater abstraction, to detect the onset of sea water intrusion which remains a potential hazard in this area.

  14. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended.

  15. Ethnobotanical study of plants used in treating hypertension in Edo State of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Gbolade, Adebayo

    2012-10-31

    A study was undertaken in 12 local government areas (LGAs) of Edo State located in central southern Nigeria, representing 66.6% coverage, in order to obtain an inventory of the major medicinal plants used in folk medicine to treat arterial hypertension. One hundred and eighty nine respondents who were mainly traditional medical practitioners and were knowledgeable in the medicinal plants for treating hypertension were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific, vernacular and common names of the plants/frequency of citation, the part of the plant and method of preparation of recipes. The study indicated 70 plants belonging to 67 genera in 43 families are commonly prescribed. Of these plants, 39 species are cultivated, 29 species grow in the wild, while only 2 both grow wild and also cultivated. Ninety three herbal antihypertensive recipes are recognized and are mainly prepared as decoctions, infusions, powders and juice. The leaf (43%) represented the dominant morphological part often included in recipes. Plants frequently included in antihypertensive recipes were Allium species, Persea americana, Acalypha godseffiana, Zingiber officinale, Sida acuta, Hunteria umbellata, Rauwolfia vomitoria, Viscum album and Aframomum melegueta. PMID:22975417

  16. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: utilization of physiotherapy services in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Omoyemi O; Kaka, Bashir; Adeniyi, Ade F

    2013-02-01

    Physiotherapy is usually indicated for health promotion and the rehabilitation of individuals with paralytic poliomyelitis. The endemic nature of this condition in children in Zamfara State, Nigeria necessitated investigation into the utilization of physiotherapy services by parents or primary caregivers of children affected with polio in this sub-region. Parents and primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were recruited using a purposive multi-stage sampling procedure in a cross-sectional survey. Factors associated with the utilization of physiotherapy services were assessed based on questions extracted from a 4-part, 52-item structured questionnaire originally designed for a study which investigated knowledge, attitude, and beliefs of parents of children with paralytic poliomyelitis. A total of 217 participants were included in this study. The mean age was 32.29 ± 9.89 years and the mean knowledge of polio score was 62.0 ± 17.3%. The mean age of the children with paralytic poliomyelitis was 6.41 ± 2.50 years. Only 27.2% of the parents or primary caregivers had utilized physiotherapy service for their children at some point. No association existed between utilization of physiotherapy service and 'knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis', 'employment status', and 'family income' of respondents. Explanations for low utilization of physiotherapy services for children with paralytic poliomyelitis by parents or primary caregivers are discussed. PMID:22871225

  17. Perceived Effects of Occupational Hazards on Farmers' Productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akangbe, Jones Adebola; Komolafe, Sola Emmanuel; Oduwaiye, Muyiwa Olarinde

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the perceived effects of occupational hazards on farmers' productivity in Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 160 respondents were selected using a multi-stage random sampling technique. Descriptive statistical techniques such as frequency count, percentages as well as Pearson Product Moment correlation analysis for empirical analysis were used. The results show common agricultural production to include maize, yam and cassava. The results also revealed prevalent occupational hazards that include cut/injury from farm tools, malaria due to mosquito bite, and general body pain. The findings further revealed that injury from farm tools and general body pain had high effects on agricultural productivity. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation analysis showed no significant relationship (P≤0.05) between selected socio-economic characteristics with the perceived effects of occupational hazards on productivity. Based on the findings, the study concludes that occupational (farming) hazards, most especially general body pain, had negative effects on agricultural productivity. The study recommends that government and relevant agencies should encourage farmers by providing for them protective equipment at subsidized cost through extension agents who will train farmers on their use. Also, public health agents should educate farmers on personal health care practices in order to ensure good health status of farmers. PMID:26370039

  18. Antinutrients Evaluation of Staple Food in Ebonyi State, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeogu, C. O.; Ezeonu, F. C.; Okaka, A. N. C.; Ekuma, C. E.; Eiom, S. O.

    Evaluating the levels of antinutrients in the staple foods is an important aspect of nutritional studies. The levels of these antinutrients were quantitatively estimated in staple foods in a major food producing rural areas of Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria using spectrophotometric method. Results indicated that phytate was not detected in tubers while legumes recorded the highest mean values of phytate (260.07 mg gG1). The oxalate levels of legumes were significantly high compared to tubers and cereals (p< 0.000). Tubers had the highest mean. Concentration of cyanogenic glycoside 15.20 mg gG1 followed by legumes while cereals were the least correlation analysis shows that the cyanogenic glycoside was negatively related to all other antinutrients except tannin. Also tannin was related to all other antinutrients except cyanogenic glycoside. Interestingly, all other antinutrients were positively related to each other except cyanogenic glycoside and tannins. The consumption of staple foods rich in these antinutrients pose a health risk to livestock and poor communities that reside around the study sites, especially children.

  19. Zika virus infections in Nigeria: virological and seroepidemiological investigations in Oyo State.

    PubMed

    Fagbami, A H

    1979-10-01

    A study of Zika virus infections was carried out in four communities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Virus isolation studies between 1971 and 1975 yielded two virus isolations from human cases of mild febrile illness. Haemagglutination-inhibition tests revealed a high prevalence of antibodies to Zika and three other flaviviruses used. The percentages of positive sera were as follows: Zika (31%), Yellow fever (50%), West Nile (46%), and Wesselsbron (59%). Neutralization tests showed that 40% of Nigerians had Zika virus neutralizing antibody. Fifty per cent of zika virus immune persons had neutralizing antibody to Zika alone or to Zika and one other flavivirus. A total of 121 sera had antibody to Zika virus; of these 48 (40%) also showed antibody to two other flaviviruses, and 12 (10%) had antibodies to three or more other viruses. The percentage of neutralizing antibodies to other flaviviruses in Zika virus immune sera was 81% to Dengue type 1, 58% to Yellow fever, 7% to Wesselsbron, 6% to West Nile and 3% to Uganda S.

  20. The prevalence, intensity and clinical signs of urinary schistosomiasis in Imo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okoli, C G; Iwuala, M O E

    2004-12-01

    Urine samples were assayed for urinary schistosomiasis in four local government areas (LGA) of Imo State, Nigeria between May 1998 and September 2000. A total of 3504 persons were sampled, with 880 (25.1%) being positive for urinary schistosomiasis, based on records of eggs of Schistosoma haematobium. The prevalence of S. haematobium infection differed in the various LGAs, with Oguta (38.9%) and Owerri-West (10.4%) showing the highest and the lowest values, respectively. Prevalence was higher in males (67.4%) than in females (32.6%) and in subjects 11-20 years of age (31.5%), while prevalence varied among different occupational groups, with farmers ranking the highest (41.6%). Visible haematuria was the predominant symptom (P<0.05). Of 880 persons positive for eggs of S. haematobium, 452 (51.4%) had visible haematuria, followed by suprapubic pains 214 (24.3%) and painful micturition 97 (11.0%). Although 367 (10. 5%) of the sampled subjects with eggs of S. haematobium showed no visible haematuria, 513 (14.6%) clearly demonstrated haematuria. PMID:15575992

  1. Cardiac risk indices of staff of Federal University Of Technology Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emerole, C O; Aguwa, E N; Onwasigwe, C N; Nwakoby, B A N

    2007-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases are the major health burden in the industrialized countries and are increasing rapidly in the developing countries owing to demographic transitions and changing lifestyles among the people. Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasingly becoming a great cause of morbidity and mortality. A total of 100 senior and 141 junior staff in Federal University of Technology, Owerri (FUTO), Imo State, Nigeria was randomly selected for a study on cardiac risk factors. A questionnaire was used to record cardiac risk indices like age, heredity, body mass index (BMI), tobacco smoking, exercise, serum cholesterol estimation, systolic blood pressure and sex. There was no significant difference between the senior and junior staff in sex distribution (P = 0.71), family history of CVD (P = 0.34), smoking habit (P = 0.85) and serum cholesterol (P = 0.89). Senior staff had significantly higher values in age distribution (P < 0.001), presence of systolic hypertension (P<0.001) and overweight (P < 0.001). Senior staff workers, were however, significantly less involved in moderate exercise than junior staff (P < 0.001). The senior staff had a significantly higher total score in CVD risk scoring than junior staff (chi2 = 7.25; P = 0.01). In conclusion, the risk of CVD among staff of FUTO is high especially among the senior staff. Health education campaign targeted at improving life style is strongly recommended. PMID:17722417

  2. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  3. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with

  4. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des

  5. Groundwater contamination in the basement-complex area of Ile-Ife, southwestern Nigeria: A case study using the electrical-resistivity geophysical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adepelumi, A. A.; Ako, B. D.; Ajayi, T. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hydrogeoenvironmental studies were carried out at the sewage-disposal site of Obafemi Awolowo University campus, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The objective of the survey was to determine the reliability of the electrical-resistivity method in mapping pollution plumes in a bedrock environment. Fifty stations were occupied with the ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter using the Wenner array. The electrical-resistivity data were interpreted by a computer-iteration technique. Water samples were collected at a depth of 5.0 m in 20 test pits and analyzed for quality. The concentrations of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu are moderately above the World Health Organization recommended guidelines. Plumes of contaminated water issuing from the sewage ponds were delineated. The geoelectric sections reveal four subsurface layers, with increasing depth, lateritic clay, clayey sand/sand, and weathered/fractured bedrock, and fresh bedrock. The deepest layers, 3 and 4, constitute the main aquifer, which has a thickness of 3.1-67.1 m. The distribution of the elements in the sewage effluent confirms a hydrological communication between the disposal ponds and groundwater. The groundwater is contaminated, as shown by sampling and the geophysical results. Thus, the results demonstrate the reliability of the direct-current electrical-resistivity geophysical method in sensing and mapping pollution plumes in a crystalline bedrock environment. Résumé. Des études géo-environnementales ont été réalisées sur le site d'épandages du campus universitaire d'Obafemi Awolowo, à Ile-Ife (Nigeria). L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la fiabilité de la méthode des résistivités électriques pour cartographier les panaches de pollution dans un environnement de socle. Cinquante stations ont été soumises à mesures au moyen d'un ABEM SAS 300C Terrameter en utilisant le dispositif de Wenner. Les données de résistivité électrique ont été interprétées au moyen d'une technique de calcul itérative. Des

  6. Relevance of thermal environment to human health: a case study of Ondo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    The interconnection between weather and climate and the performance, well-being, and human health cannot be overemphasized. The relationship between them is of both local and global significance. Information about weather, climate, and thermal environment is very important to human health and medical practitioners. The most crucial environmental information needed by medical practitioners and for maintaining human health, performance, and well-being are thermal conditions. The study used meteorological variables: air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, and RayMan model as an analytical tool to compute physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) in order to assess thermo-physiological thresholds in Ondo State. The study revealed that there are marked spatial and seasonal variations in the environmental thermal conditions in the study area. The results of physiologically equivalent temperature for different grades of thermal sensation and physiological stress on human beings indicate that about 60 % of the total study period (1998-2008) fall under physiological stress level of moderate heat stress (PET 31-36 °C). In derived savannah, 32.6 % out of the total study period was under strong heat stress. In view of this, the study concluded that Ondo State may likely be prone to heat-related ailments and that some of the death recorded in the State, in recent times, may be heat-related mortality, but this is difficult to ascertain because there is no postmortem records in Nigeria where it could be confirmed. This type of study is relevant to help government to improve health care interventions and achieve Millennium Development Goals in health sector.

  7. Hydrologic response to modeled snowmelt input in alpine catchments in the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.; Meixner, T.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    Snowmelt from high elevation catchments is the primary source of water resources in the Southwestern United States. Timing and duration of snowmelt and resulting catchment response can show the physical and chemical importance of storage at the catchment scale. Storage of waters in subsurface materials provides a physical and chemical buffer to hydrologic input variability. We expect the hydrochemistry of catchments with less storage capacity will more closely reflect input waters than a catchment with more storage and therefore more geochemical evolution of waters. Two headwater catchments were compared for this study; Emerald Lake Watershed (ELW) in the southern Sierra Nevada and Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Colorado Front Range. These sites have geochemically similar granitic terrane, and negligible evaporation and transpiration due to their high-elevation setting. Eleven years of data (1996-2006) from spatially-distributed snowmelt models were spatially and temporally aggregated to generate daily values of snowmelt volume for each catchment area. Daily storage flux was calculated as the difference between snowmelt input and catchment outflow at a daily timestep, normalized to the catchment area. Daily snowmelt values in GL4 are more consistent (the annual standard deviation ranged from 0.19 to 0.76 cm) than the daily snowmelt in ELW (0.60 to 1.04 cm). Outflow follows the same trend, with an even narrower range of standard deviations from GL4 (0.27 to 0.54 cm) compared to the standard deviation of outflow in ELW (0.38 to 0.98 cm). The dampening of the input variability could be due to storage in the catchment; the larger effect would mean a larger storage capacity in the catchment. Calculations of storage flux (the input snowmelt minus the output catchment discharge) show the annual sum of water into storage in ELW ranges from -0.9200 to 1.1124 meters, in GL4 the ranger is narrower, from -0.655 to 0.0992 meters. Cumulative storage for each year can be negative

  8. Geochemistry of magnetite from porphyry Cu and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, Patrick; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; LeVeille, Richard A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of petrographic observations, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and statistical data exploration was used in this study to determine compositional variations in hydrothermal and igneous magnetite from five porphyry Cu–Mo and skarn deposits in the southwestern United States, and igneous magnetite from the unmineralized, granodioritic Inner Zone Batholith, Japan. The most important overall discriminators for the minor and trace element chemistry of magnetite from the investigated porphyry and skarn deposits are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and Ga—of these the elements with the highest variance for (I) igneous magnetite are Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Zn, for (II) hydrothermal porphyry magnetite are Mg, Ti, V, Mn, Co, Zn, and for (III) hydrothermal skarn magnetite are Mg, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Ga. Nickel could only be detected at levels above the limit of reporting (LOR) in two igneous magnetites. Equally, Cr could only be detected in one igneous occurrence. Copper, As, Mo, Ag, Au, and Pb have been reported in magnetite by other authors but could not be detected at levels greater than their respective LORs in our samples. Comparison with the chemical signature of igneous magnetite from the barren Inner Zone Batholith, Japan, suggests that V, Mn, Co, and Ga concentrations are relatively depleted in magnetite from the porphyry and skarn deposits. Higher formation conditions in combination with distinct differences between melt and hydrothermal fluid compositions are reflected in Al, Ti, V, and Ga concentrations that are, on average, higher in igneous magnetite than in hydrothermal magnetite (including porphyry and skarn magnetite). Low Ti and V concentrations in combination with high Mn concentrations are characteristic features of magnetite from skarn deposits. High Mg concentrations (<1,000 ppm) are characteristic for magnetite from magnesian skarn and likely reflect extensive fluid/rock interaction. In porphyry deposits

  9. Assessing the strength of the monsoon during the late Pleistocene in southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros-Dozal, Luz M.; Huang, Yongsong; Heikoop, Jeffrey M.; Fawcett, Peter J.; Fessenden, Julianna; Anderson, R. Scott; Meyers, Philip A.; Larson, Toti; Perkins, George; Toney, Jaime; Werne, Josef P.; Goff, Fraser; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Allen, Craig D.; Berke, Melissa A.

    2014-11-01

    Improved predictions of drought require an understanding of natural and human-induced climate variability. Long-term records across glacial-interglacial cycles provide the natural component of variability, however few such records exist for the southwestern United States (US) and quantitative or semi-quantitative records of precipitation are absent. Here we use the hydrogen isotope (δD) value of C28n-alkanoic acid in lacustrine sediments of Pleistocene age to reconstruct δD values of precipitation in northern New Mexico over two glacial-interglacial cycles (˜550,000-360,000 years before present) and obtain a record of monsoon strength. Overall, reconstructed δD values range from -53.8‰ to -94.4‰, with a mean value of -77.5 ± 8‰. Remarkably, this variation falls within the measured present-day summer monsoonal and winter weighted means (-50.3 ± 3‰ and -106.4 ± 20‰ respectively), suggesting that processes similar to those of present time also controlled precipitation during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 13 to 10. Using the δD summer monsoonal and winter mean values as end-members, we interpret our reconstructed δD record of precipitation as a direct, and semi-quantitative, indicator of monsoon strength during MIS 13 to 10. Interglacial periods were characterized by greater monsoon strength but also greater variability compared to glacial periods. Pronounced cycles in the strength of the monsoon occurred during interglacial periods and in general were positively correlated with maximum mean annual temperatures. Our estimates of monsoon strength are supported by independent proxies of ecosystem productivity, namely, TOC, δ13C of TOC and Si/Ti ratio and warm pollen taxa Juniperus and Quercus. Interglacial variability in the strength of the monsoon resembles a response to the land-sea surface temperature contrast (LSTC) except for the early part of MIS 11. During this period, LSTC would have remained relatively strong while monsoonal strength decreased

  10. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  11. A Comparative Analysis of Teacher Supply and Pupils' Enrolment in Public and Private Primary Schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated teacher supply and pupils' enrolment in public and private primary schools in Kwara and Ekiti States, Nigeria. The study population comprised all the 811 primary schools in Kwara State and 810 primary schools in Ekiti State. Out of the forty-seven higher institutions that supply teachers to primary schools in the two…

  12. Tree mortality patterns following prescribed fire for Pinus and Abies across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Brooks, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The reintroduction of fire to historically fire-prone forests has been repeatedly shown to reduce understory fuels and promote resistance to high severity fire. However, there is concern that prescribed fire may also have unintended consequences, such as high rates of mortality for large trees and fire-tolerant Pinus species. To test this possibility we evaluated mortality patterns for two common genera in the western US, Pinus and Abies, using observations from a national-scale prescribed fire effects monitoring program. Our results show that mortality rates of trees >50 DBH were similar for Pinus (4.6% yr-1) and Abies (4.0% yr-1) 5 years following prescribed fires across seven sites in the southwestern US. In contrast, mortality rates of trees >50 cm DBH differed between Pinus (5.7% yr-1) and Abies (9.0% yr-1). Models of post-fire mortality probabilities suggested statistically significant differences between the genera (after including differences in bark thickness), but accounting for these differences resulted in only small improvements in model classification. Our results do not suggest unusually high post-fire mortality for large trees or for Pinus relative to the other common co-occurring genus, Abies, following prescribed fire in the southwestern US.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep and goats in Borno state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kamani, Joshua; Mani, Aliyu U; Egwu, Godwin O

    2010-04-01

    Serum samples were collected from 372 sheep and same number of goats from the three geopolitical zones of Borno state, Nigeria. The samples were tested for the presences of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of these, 6.7% (25/372) and 4.6% (17/372) of sheep and goats, respectively, were found to be seropositive to T. gondii antibodies, both far less than the estimated global average of 31%. Results were statistically analyzed by chi-square (chi(2)) test. The results showed that age, environmental conditions, and farm location are the main determinants of prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii in the study area. Older animals (>3 years) are significantly more infected than younger animals (between 6 months and 1 year).The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibodies is significantly higher (P < 0.05) in both sheep and goats sampled from the southern zone than the northern zone. Animals from the southern zones are about four times more likely to be exposed to T. gondii infection than those in the northern zone, (sheep; odds ratio (OR) = 4.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.177-15.36, P = 0.018), (goats; OR = 4.38, 95% CI = 0.925-20.73, P = 0.04). Farm location in urban area was identified as a risk factor for sheep (OR = 6.06, 95% CI = 2.53-14.54, P = 0.000), and goats (OR = 4.99, 95% CI = 1.59-15.62, P = 0.004). Current data on prevalence of ovine and caprine T. gondii in Borno state are provided by the study as well as identifying the main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in the area.

  14. Fitting mathematical models to lactation curves from Holstein cows in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Abílio G T; Henrique, Douglas S; Vieira, Ricardo A M; Maeda, Emilyn M; Valotto, Altair A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four mathematical models with regards to their fit to lactation curves of Holstein cows from herds raised in the southwestern region of the state of Parana, Brazil. Initially, 42,281 milk production records from 2005 to 2011 were obtained from "Associação Paranaense de Criadores de Bovinos da Raça Holandesa (APCBRH)". Data lacking dates of drying and total milk production at 305 days of lactation were excluded, resulting in a remaining 15,142 records corresponding to 2,441 Holstein cows. Data were sorted according to the parity order (ranging from one to six), and within each parity order the animals were divided into quartiles (Q25%, Q50%, Q75% and Q100%) corresponding to 305-day lactation yield. Within each parity order, for each quartile, four mathematical models were adjusted, two of which were predominantly empirical (Brody and Wood) whereas the other two presented more mechanistic characteristics (models Dijkstra and Pollott). The quality of fit was evaluated by the corrected Akaike information criterion. The Wood model showed the best fit in almost all evaluated situations and, therefore, may be considered as the most suitable model to describe, at least empirically, the lactation curves of Holstein cows raised in Southwestern Parana.

  15. Autosomal recessive diseases among the Athabaskans of the southwestern United States: recent advances and implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Robert P

    2009-11-01

    Genetic and linguistic data suggest that the Na-Dene, of which the Athabaskans are the largest group, are part of a later immigration into the Americas than the first Amerind immigration. Whether a second and third immigration can be separated seems unlikely but continued cross-Bering Strait exchanges may have masked what was a greater separation in the past. The movement of tribes into Siberia appears to have involved a genetic bottleneck leading to at least one disease allele shared by Eskimo/Aleuts and Navajos and a second possibly shared by the Navajo and a Siberian population, but not the same Siberian population that share deep linguistic affinities with the Navajo. A second bottleneck appears to have occurred with the migration of Athabaskans from Northwest North America to the Southwestern United States along the Rocky Mountains. This bottleneck is reflected in several rare recessive diseases shared by the Navajo and Apache. Finally, the Navajo were captured and imprisoned under conditions which led to severe population loss. This, and the "hiding away" of a small number of Navajos in what is now the Western portion of the reservation, led to a Navajo-specific bottleneck(s) resulting in an increased frequency of several rare recessive diseases among the Navajo. Prejudice against human genetic research is high among the Southwestern Athabaskans but attempts to bridge the gap are now occurring. The involvement of Navajo scientists in this process is especially encouraging. PMID:19842189

  16. Long-Term Influence of Wildfire on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Southwestern United States Ponderosa Pine Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, B. W.; Kolb, T.; Hart, S.; Dore, S.; Montes-Helu, M.

    2007-12-01

    The southwestern United States is home to the largest contiguous ponderosa pine forest in the world. Climate change and historical fire suppression have placed this forest at risk of stand-replacing wildfire. Ponderosa pine forest soils emit carbon dioxide (CO2) and consume methane (CH4) by biological oxidation. This study addresses how fire effects the source and sink strength of ponderosa pine forest soil. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 were measured simultaneously in a dense unburned forest and a forest that experienced a high- severity fire 10 years previously using a static chamber technique and gas chromatography. We hypothesized that wildfire would reduce CO2 efflux due to a reduction in respiring belowground plant biomass and would increase CH4 consumption due to increased substrate diffusion into the soil. Our results supported these hypotheses. Additionally, CO2 efflux responds differently to changes in soil water content and soil temperature at the two sites, and models of the two environmental drivers produce significantly different results between sites. Ten years after fire, soil CO2 efflux is still depressed when compared to a dense forest; however, a reduction in net ecosystem production causes the burned site to be a net source to the atmosphere. The greater CH4 sink at the burned site does not offset the annual source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Wildfire in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests has lasting impacts on soil gas fluxes.

  17. Bionomics of Cuterebra austeni (Diptera: Cuterebridae) and its association with Neotoma albigula (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Baird, C R

    1997-11-01

    Cuterebra austeni Sabrosky causes cutaneous myiasis in white-throated woodrats, Neotoma albigula, in the southwestern United States. In central and southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico, this species is bivoltine. Adult flies are active at hilltop aggregation sites from early spring through mid-May and again to a lesser extent in the fall months. Eggs produced from laboratory matings of adult flies hatched in response to warm breath (34-36 degrees C) 6-8 d after oviposition. Oviposition takes place around burrow entrances and near the bases of Opuntia cacti. In the wild, myiasis occurs in woodrats primarily during the spring months, with a small second peak during the fall. Larvae develop in cutaneous warbles in the sternal and the ventral cervical area of N. albigula and complete development in 33 d. Woodrats do not appear to be affected seriously by the presence of 1-5 larvae. Morphological changes in larvae and pupae are described through to adult eclosion.

  18. Fertility differentials in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogum, G E

    1980-01-01

    A review of the numerous fertility studies carried out in Nigeria during the last 3 decades. Evidence of differences in fertility among subgroups of the population is gleaned from these studies, as very few have addressed this issue specifically. Results still need to be evaluated. The only strong indication of possible geographic fertility differentials remains Van de Walle's analysis of age data from the census of 1952-53. 2 studies among populations of southwestern Nigeria yielded conflicting results with regard to urban-rural differentials, 1 finding lower fertility among urban residents while the other found no differences. Similarly, 2 studies with regard to religious differences yielded somewhat conflicting results, 1 showing Moslems and traditional worshippers having higher fertility than Christians, the other showing Moslems with lower fertility than traditional believers. There is some consensus among researchers that education has some depressing effect on fertility.

  19. Source to point of use drinking water changes and knowledge, attitude and practices in Katsina State, Northern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.

    In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users’ Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and

  20. A satellite model of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeding habitat and a simulation of potential effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.), southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2016-08-08

    The study described in this report represents the first time that a satellite model has been used to identify potential Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) (hereinafter referred to as “flycatcher”) breeding habitat rangewide for 2013–15. Fifty-seven Landsat scenes were required to map the entire range of the flycatcher, encompassing parts of six States and more than 1 billion 30-meter pixels. Predicted flycatcher habitat was summarized in a hierarchical fashion from largest to smallest: regionwide, State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) management unit, 7.5-minute quadrangle, and critical-habitat reach. The term “predicted habitat” is used throughout this report to distinguish areas the satellite model predicts as suitable flycatcher habitat from what may actually exist on the ground. A rangewide accuracy assessment was done with 758 territories collected in 2014, and change detection was done with yearly habitat maps to identify how and where habitat changed over time. Additionally, effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) on flycatcher habitat were summarized for the lower Virgin River from 2010 to 2015, and simulations of how tamarisk leaf beetles may affect flycatcher habitat in the lower Colorado and upper Gila Rivers were done for 2015. Model results indicated that the largest areas of predicted flycatcher habitat at elevations below 1,524 meters were in New Mexico and Arizona, areas followed in descending order by California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. By FWS management unit, the largest area of flycatcher habitat during all 3 years were the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico), followed by the Upper Gila (Arizona and New Mexico) and Middle Gila/San Pedro (Arizona) management units. The area of predicted flycatcher habitat varied considerably in 7.5-minute quadrangles, ranging from 0 to1,398 hectares (ha). Averaged across 3 years, the top three producing quadrangles were Paraje Well (New Mexico), San Marcial

  1. A satellite model of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) breeding habitat and a simulation of potential effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.), southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this report represents the first time that a satellite model has been used to identify potential Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) (hereinafter referred to as “flycatcher”) breeding habitat rangewide for 2013–15. Fifty-seven Landsat scenes were required to map the entire range of the flycatcher, encompassing parts of six States and more than 1 billion 30-meter pixels. Predicted flycatcher habitat was summarized in a hierarchical fashion from largest to smallest: regionwide, State, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) management unit, 7.5-minute quadrangle, and critical-habitat reach. The term “predicted habitat” is used throughout this report to distinguish areas the satellite model predicts as suitable flycatcher habitat from what may actually exist on the ground. A rangewide accuracy assessment was done with 758 territories collected in 2014, and change detection was done with yearly habitat maps to identify how and where habitat changed over time. Additionally, effects of tamarisk leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.) on flycatcher habitat were summarized for the lower Virgin River from 2010 to 2015, and simulations of how tamarisk leaf beetles may affect flycatcher habitat in the lower Colorado and upper Gila Rivers were done for 2015. Model results indicated that the largest areas of predicted flycatcher habitat at elevations below 1,524 meters were in New Mexico and Arizona, areas followed in descending order by California, Texas, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado. By FWS management unit, the largest area of flycatcher habitat during all 3 years were the Middle Rio Grande (New Mexico), followed by the Upper Gila (Arizona and New Mexico) and Middle Gila/San Pedro (Arizona) management units. The area of predicted flycatcher habitat varied considerably in 7.5-minute quadrangles, ranging from 0 to1,398 hectares (ha). Averaged across 3 years, the top three producing quadrangles were Paraje Well (New Mexico), San Marcial

  2. Determinants of routine immunization coverage in Bungudu, Zamfara State, Northern Nigeria, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gidado, Saheed; Nguku, Patrick; Biya, Oladayo; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Mohammed, Abdulaziz; Nsubuga, Peter; Akpan, Henry; Oyemakinde, Akin; Nasidi, Abdulsalami; Suleman, Idris; Abanida, Emmanuel; Musa, Yusuf; Sabitu, Kabir

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Immunization is a cost-effective public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2008 indicated that only 5.4% of children aged 12-23 months in Bungudu, Zamfara State were fully immunized. We conducted this study to identify the determinants of routine immunization coverage in this community. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study. We sampled 450 children aged 12-23 months. We interviewed mothers of these children using structured questionnaire to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge on immunization, vaccination status of children and reasons for non-vaccination. We defined a fully immunized child as a child who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of oral polio vaccine, three doses of Diptheria-Pertusis-Tetanus vaccine and one dose of measles vaccine by 12 months of age. We performed bivariate analysis and logistic regression using Epi-info software. Results The mean age of mothers and children were 27 years (standard error (SE): 0.27 year) and 17 months (SE: 0.8 month) respectively. Seventy nine percent of mothers had no formal education while 84% did not possess satisfactory knowledge on immunization. Only 7.6% of children were fully immunized. Logistic regression showed that possessing satisfactory knowledge (Adjusted OR=18.4, 95% CI=3.6-94.7) and at least secondary education (Adjusted OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.2-10.6) were significantly correlated with full immunization. Conclusion The major determinants of immunization coverage were maternal knowledge and educational status. Raising the level of maternal knowledge and increasing maternal literacy level are essential to improve immunization coverage in this community. PMID:25328628

  3. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dogo, Josephine; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5–10 years (42.6%) than that of 11–15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2–4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  4. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Agwu, Ekenma Julia; Igbinosa, Igho Benjamin; Isaac, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended. PMID:27189925

  5. Characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chah, Jane Mbolle; Inegbedion, Grace

    2013-02-01

    The study was carried out to determine the characteristics of snail farming in Edo South Agricultural Zone of Edo State Nigeria. The interview schedule was used to collect data from 60 snail farmers randomly selected from six cells in the study area. Information on the socioeconomic status of the farmers, production system, management practices and production constraints in the snail farms were elicited. The constraints were determined using a four-point Likert-type scale; a mean score of ≥ 2.5 was considered as a production constraint. Majority (85.0 %) of the respondents were part-time snail farmers. The major species of snails reared were Achatina achatina and Archachatina marginata, reared by 43.3 and 26.7 % of the farmers, respectively. Semi-intensive system of production was practised by 40.0 % of the farmers. Majority (78.0 %) of the respondents used car tyres to house their snails. About 56 % of the respondents kept their snails for 1-2 years before sale. Up to 51.7 % of the respondents separated their snails into different pens according to their size/age. The most commonly used feeds were vegetables (71.2 %), plant leaves (67.8 %) and kitchen waste (59.3 %). Records of snail production activities were kept by 75.0 % of respondents. The major constraints identified were lack of capital (3.31), inability to get good laying stock (3.00), lack of formulated feed to buy (2.98) and slow growth rate of snails (2.52). The potentials of snail farming in the study area have not been fully exploited as farmers produced at subsistence level.

  6. Cyanide and Aflatoxin Loads of Processed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Tubers (Garri) in Njaba, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chikezie, Paul Chidoka; Ojiako, Okey A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study sought to investigate the role of palm oil, in conjunction with the duration of fermentation, on cyanide and aflatoxin (AFT) loads of processed cassava tubers (Garri). Materials and Methods: Matured cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) tubers were harvested from three different locations (Akunna, Mkporo-Oji and Durungwu) in Njaba Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria. The cassava tubers were processed into Garri according to standard schemes with required modifications and measured for cyanide content using titrimetric methods. Samples of Garri for determination of AFT levels were stored for 30 days before the commencement of spectrophotometric analysis. Results: Cyanide content of peeled cassava tubers was within the range of 4.07 ± 0.16-5.20 ± 0.19 mg hydrocyanic acid (HCN) equivalent/100 g wet weight, whereas the various processed cassava tubers was within the range of 1.44 ± 0.34-3.95 ± 0.23 mg HCN equivalents/100 g. For the 48 h fermentation scheme, Garri treated with palm oil exhibited marginal reduction in cyanide contents by 0.96%, 3.52% and 3.69%, whereas 4 h fermentation scheme is in concurrence with palm oil treatment caused 4.42%, 7.47% and 5.15% elimination of cyanide contents compared with corresponding untreated Garri samples (P > 0.05). Levels of AFT of the various Garri samples ranged between 0.26 ± 0.07 and 0.55 ± 0.04 ppb/100 g. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in AFT levels among the various samples in relation to their corresponding sources. Conclusion: The present study showed that the 48 h fermentation scheme for Garri production caused significant (P < 0.05) reduction, but did not obliterate the cyanide content of cassava tubers. Conversely, the 48 h fermentation scheme promoted the elevation of AFT levels, but was relatively reduced in Garri samples treated with palm oil. PMID:24403736

  7. Entomological assessment of yellow fever-epidemic risk indices in Benue State, Nigeria, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Agwu, Ekenma Julia; Igbinosa, Igho Benjamin; Isaac, Clement

    2016-09-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas. In the past, there have been pockets of YF outbreaks in Nigeria that resulted in preventable deaths. Surveillance efforts towards avoiding another outbreak have been put in place with the aim of early detection and control. However, risk indices relating to the density of immature YF-mosquito vectors are given little consideration even though it is the first step in curbing a possible outbreak. Immature collections from 1538 houses in Ega, Oju, Otukpoicho and Otukpo in Benue State were carried out in 2010 and 2011. Risk indices such as house index (HI), container index (CI) and Breteau index (BI) were estimated. Molecular detection of YF was carried out on randomly selected Aedes larvae and pupae. Overall, 431,381 mosquitoes were collected in and around house premises. Thirteen species were identified: Ae. aegypti (Linneaus), Ae. africanus (Theobald), Ae. albopictus (Skuse), Ae. cumminsii (Theobald), Ae. luteocephalus (Newstead), Ae. simpsoni s.l. (Theobald), Ae. vittatus (Bigot), Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. nili (Theobald), Cx. nebulosus Theobald, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Lutzia tigripes (Grandpre and Charmoy) and Toxorhynchites brevipalpis Theobald. The HI, CI and BI for Ae. aegypti were high in all the study locations, but low for Ae. lueteocephalus except in Ega. With 50 immature Aedes mosquitoes screened across locations, only Ae. aegypti from Ega were positive for YF. This study places Ega on a high alert of an impending YF outbreak. Thus, urgent steps to clear this area of potential mosquito sites are highly recommended.

  8. Prevalence of Tinea Capitis among School Children in Nok Community of Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Dogo, Josephine; Afegbua, Seniyat Larai; Dung, Edward Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of tinea capitis, an infection of the scalp by dermatophytes, has increased in children worldwide. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factor of tinea capitis among school children in Nok community of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A total of 100 children were screened and 45% were diagnosed to have tinea capitis after fungal culture and microscopy. The prevalence of tinea capitis among girls was higher (51.4%) than that among boys (41.5%) but not significantly different (p = 0.402). The prevalence with respect to age was lower for the age group 5-10 years (42.6%) than that of 11-15 years (50%) but was not significantly different (p = 0.524). Trichophyton rubrum (28.8%) and Microsporum canis (22.7%) were the most prevalent dermatophytes isolated and the least were Trichophyton verrucosum (4.5%) and Trichophyton tonsurans (4.5%). There were 73.3% single infection while 26.7% had 2-4 dermatophytes of the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. The predisposing factors with statistically significant association with tinea capitis were number of children in the family (p = 0.02) and sharing of the same bed (p = 0.002). This indicates the high tendencies of spread of tinea capitis through human-to-human mode of transmission and possible animal contact. Community health education on the cause, mode of transmission, prevention, and prompt treatment of tinea capitis is recommended. PMID:27471603

  9. Demographic and Ecological Survey of Dog Population in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Otolorin, Gbeminiyi Richard; Umoh, Jarlath U.; Dzikwi, Asabe Adamu

    2014-01-01

    Dog ecology is essential in understanding the distribution, structure, and population density of dogs and pattern of dog ownership in any given area. A cross-sectional study was designed to study dog ecology in Aba, Abia state, Nigeria, from April to June 2013. The study revealed that the 500 households surveyed possessed 5,823 individuals and 747 dogs, giving a dog to human ratio of 1 : 7.8; hence dog population in Aba was estimated to be 68,121. About 495/747 (66.3%) of the dogs were exotic and 465/747 (62.2%) were males. A total of 319/500 (63.8%) of the households had fences that restrained dog movement and there was no incidence of dog bite in 447/500 (89.4%) of the households surveyed. There were statistical associations between vaccination against antirabies and breeds of dogs (χ2 = 79.8, df = 2, P < 0.005). Exotic breed (adjusted OR = 0.39; CI = 0.23–0.65) and local breed of dogs (adjusted OR = 0.08; CI = 0.04–0.14) had less odds of being vaccinated as compared to crossbreed of dogs. About 126 dogs (2.5 dogs per street) were estimated from street counts survey. The relative high dog to human ratio and low vaccination coverage of owned dogs population pose public health concerns requiring adequate public health education and proper antirabies vaccination coverage of dogs in the study area. PMID:25002978

  10. Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O.; Idowu Olayinka, A.

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3-18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10-5 mm s-1, while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10-4 to 1.36 × 10-3 mm

  11. Dissolved Solids in Basin-Fill Aquifers and Streams in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors. Dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest ranged from less than 500 milligrams per liter near basin margins where ground water is recharged from nearby mountains to more than 10,000 milligrams per liter in topographically low areas of some basins or in areas adjacent to specific streams or rivers in the Basin and Range and Rio Grande aquifer systems. The area of the basin-fill aquifer systems with dissolved-solids concentrations less than or equal to 500 milligrams per liter was about 57 percent for the Rio Grande aquifer system, 63 percent for the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and 44 percent for the California Coastal Basin aquifers. At least 70 percent of the

  12. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  13. DISCRIMINATION OF ALTERED BASALTIC ROCKS IN THE SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES BY ANALYSIS OF LANDSAT THEMATIC MAPPER DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Berlin, Graydon L.; Chavez, Pat S.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper image data were analyzed to determine their ability to discriminate red cone basalts from gray flow basalts and sedimentary country rocks for three volcanic fields in the southwestern United States. Analyses of all of the possible three-band combinations of the six nonthermal bands indicate that the combination of bands 1, 4, and 5 best discriminates among these materials. The color-composite image of these three bands unambiguously discriminates 89 percent of the mapped red volcanic cones in the three volcanic fields. Mineralogic and chemical analyses of collected samples indicate that discrimination is facilitated by the presence of hematite as a major mineral phase in the red cone basalts (hematite is only a minor mineral phase in the gray flow basalts and red sedimentary rocks).

  14. Primary School Environment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers Overcrowded Classrooms Management Strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babatunde, Ehinola Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Primary school Enrolment Trend, Class-Ratio and Head Teachers overcrowded classrooms management strategies in Northern Senatorial District of Ondo State, Nigeria was investigated. The purpose of the study is to examine the current enrolment trend in public primary schools in northern senatorial District of Ondo State. Also, is to ascertain the…

  15. Nigeria`s Escravos gas project starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Nwokoma, M.

    1998-04-20

    Nigeria`s Escravos gas project, Delta state, officially began late last year. The project -- 6,650 b/d of LPG and 1,740 b/d of condensate from 165 MMscfd of gas -- is the first attempt to rid Nigeria of incessant flares that have lit the Delta skies. Operator Chevron Nigeria Ltd. believes that the Escravos project will enable the joint venture to utilize a significant portion of the gas reserves, thus reducing gas flaring. The paper describes the background of the project, the gas fields, transport pipeline, process design, construction, and start-up.

  16. Impact of Sexual Harassment on Women Undergraduates' Educational Experience in Anambra State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okeke, Carina Maris Amaka

    2010-01-01

    Sexual harassment in educational settings is a common problem globally. While it is well addressed in college and university campuses in most developed countries of the world through specific policies and mechanisms of enforcement, it remains a taboo topic in African colleges and universities particularly in Nigeria. This study investigated the…

  17. Adult Education for Social Development (Women Programme in the Western State of Nigeria).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, S. S.

    A brief background and history of the Women Programme in Nigeria are given, followed by a statement of the objectives of the program. The operation of the program and staff training are described. Women Circle Centres where courses in Community Development and Home Improvement are given are listed, as are Women Special Centres for pre-vocational…

  18. Information Needs and Seeking Behaviours of Nurses: A Survey of Two Hospitals in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baro, Emmanuel E.; Ebhomeya, Loveth

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the information needs of nurses in two hospitals in Nigeria and the ways in which they went about attempting to meet those needs. Design/methodology/approach: The study is a descriptive survey of nurses at the Federal Medical Center (FMC), Yenagoa, and Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital…

  19. Delivery Pain Anxiety/Fear Control between Midwives among Women in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oyira, Emilia James; Mgbekem, Mary; Osuchukwu, Easther Chukwudi; Affiong, Ekpenyong Onoyom; Lukpata, Felicia E.; Ojong-Alasia, Mary Manyo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine background of midwives the effectiveness in delivery pain and anxiety/fear control of expectant mothers in Nigeria. Methods: Two null hypotheses were formulated. The survey design with sample of 360 post-natal women was selected from a population of 78,814 through the polio immunization registers of selected health center in…

  20. Trends in Early Childhood Obesity in a Large Urban School District in the Southwestern United States, 2007–2014

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Orrin; Scharmen, Thomas; Kinyua, Peter; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although recent studies indicate that rates of childhood obesity and severe obesity may be declining, few studies have reported prevalence trends in early childhood or differences in trends across sociodemographic groups. The primary aim of this study was to report trends in prevalence of early childhood obesity and severe obesity 2007 through 2014 in a diverse, metropolitan school district in the southwestern United States and determine whether these trends vary by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability status. Methods We analyzed height, weight and demographic data from 43,113 kindergarteners enrolled in a large, urban school district in the southwestern United States for 7 school years. Adjusted odds of obesity and severe obesity were calculated to assess changes in prevalence for non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and American Indian students; free or reduced-price lunch participants and nonparticipants; and students with and without disabilities. To test for differences in obesity trends, interaction terms were added to the logistic regressions between school year and sex, race/ethnicity, free or reduced-price lunch participation, and disability status. Results The adjusted prevalence of both obesity (from 13.1% in 2007–2008 to 12.0% in 2013–20014) and severe obesity (from 2.4% in 2007–2008 to 1.2% in 2013–2014) declined overall. We found no significant interactions between the adjusted prevalence of obesity over time and any of the sociodemographic subgroups. Obesity prevalence declined more among American Indian students than among Hispanic or non-Hispanic white students. Conclusion In this district, from 2007 through 2014, severe obesity decreased and obesity did not increase, overall and across all sociodemographic subpopulations for kindergarten students. PMID:27253637

  1. Eolian sand transport pathways in the southwestern United States: Importance of the Colorado River and local sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Reynolds, R.L.; Been, J.; Skipp, G.

    2003-01-01

    Geomorphologists have long recognized that eolian sand transport pathways extend over long distances in desert regions. Along such pathways, sediment transport by wind can surmount topographic obstacles and cross major drainages. Recent studies have suggested that three distinct eolian sand transport pathways exist (or once existed) in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the southwestern United States. One hypothesized pathway is colian sand transport from the eastern Mojave Desert of California into western Arizona, near Parker, and would require sand movement across what must have been at least a seasonally dry Colorado River valley. We tested this hypothesis by mineralogical, geochemical and magnetic analyses of eolian sands on both sides of the Colorado River, as well as sediment from the river itself. Results indicate that dunes on opposite sides of the Colorado River are mineralogically distinct: eastern California dunes are feldspar-rich whereas western Arizona dunes are quartz-rich, derived from quartz-rich Colorado River sediments. Because of historic vegetation changes, little new sediment from the Colorado River is presently available to supply the Parker dunes. Based on this study and previous work, the Colorado River is now known to be the source of sand for at least three of the major dune fields of the Sonoran Desert of western Arizona and northern Mexico. On the other hand, locally derived alluvium appears to be a more important source of dune fields in the Mojave Desert of California. Although many geomorphologists have stressed the importance of large fluvial systems in the origin of desert dune fields, few empirical data actually exist to support this theory. The results presented here demonstrate that a major river system in the southwestern United States is a barrier to the migration of some dune fields, but essential to the origin of others. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  2. Children with paralytic poliomyelitis: a cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents in Zamfara state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nigeria is one of the major African countries in which incidences of polio infection persist in spite of several eradication efforts. The preponderance of paralytic poliomyelitis particularly in the northern part of Nigeria raises the question as to whether parents of children affected with polio know how polio is contracted and spread, whether having a disabled child affects the parents’ attitude towards these children, and what they believe about poliomyelitis in view of their socio-cultural and belief system in the sub-region. Zamfara State, in the north-west of Nigeria is one of the endemic areas where resistance to the global campaign on polio eradication was very high. Therefore this study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents/primary caregivers of children affected with paralytic poliomyelitis in Zamfara State. Methods This study is a cross-sectional survey in which the multistage probability sampling technique was used to randomly select two local government areas in Zamfara State where consenting parents/primary caregivers of children with paralytic poliomyelitis were purposively selected. The knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents were assessed with the aid of a 4-part 52-item structured researcher administered questionnaire and the data obtained were analyzed. Results Two hundred and seventeen parents/primary caregivers participated in the study. One hundred and forty-two, (65.4%) reported good, 51 (23.8%) reported fair, while 24 (11%) of participants reported poor knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. More respondents 120 (55.3%) showed a positive attitude towards children with paralytic poliomyelitis. Younger age (P=0.016) and paid employment (P=0.020) were positively associated with good knowledge of paralytic poliomyelitis. Female gender (P=0.020), higher educational level (P=0.015), being employed (P=0.010) and having from middle to high household income (P=0.016) were positively associated

  3. Prevalence of antimicrobial residues in raw table eggs from farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezenduka, Ekene V; Oboegbulem, Steve I; Nwanta, John A; Onunkwo, Joseph I

    2011-03-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents in poultry production results in their accumulation in the body tissues and products such as milk and egg. The subsequent accumulation of these drugs and their metabolites in body cells is known as drug residue. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from poultry farms and retail outlets in Enugu State, Nigeria. Eggs from 25 selected commercial farms and ten retail outlets were screened for the prevalence of antimicrobial residue. Also, structured questionnaires were administered to 25 commercial farms in the state to determine the management practices and the most widely used antimicrobial drugs in farms and possible association between the management practices and the occurrence of antimicrobial residues in eggs from these farms. All the 25 farms surveyed use oxytetracycline. Eggs from nine of the surveyed farms tested positive for antimicrobial residue and three of the ten surveyed farms also tested positive for antimicrobial residue. No association was observed (p 0.05; Fisher's exact test) between the occurrence of antibiotic residues in eggs and farm size, feed source and housing systems. This study was able to demonstrate the presence of antimicrobial residues in eggs destined for human consumption. Drugs like nitrofurans which has been banned for use in food animals are still very much in use in Enugu State, Nigeria. Antibiotics given as feed additives may give rise to drug residues in food animals. PMID:21104128

  4. Isotopic Composition and Origin of Indigenous Natural Perchlorate and Co-Occurring Nitrate in the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Andrew; Bohlke, J. K.; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected over an expansive area in groundwater and soils in the southwestern United States. Because of its wide distribution, much of the ClO4- is presumed to be from natural sources, primarily atmospheric deposition and accumulation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the range of the isotopic composition of natural ClO4- indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios of Cl and O were determined for ClO4- collected from numerous sources, including: groundwater from several locations in the southern high plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico, vadose zone soil from the SHP, and surface NO3--rich caliches from four locations in Death Valley, CA. The data suggest that natural ClO4- in the southwestern U.S. has at least two distinctive isotope signatures that differ both from each other and from those previously reported for natural ClO4- from the Atacama Desert of Chile and all anthropogenic ClO4- sources tested to date. The ClO4- in four caliche samples collected in Death Valley has high 17O values (8.6 to 18.4 ), similar to those described for ClO4- from the Atacama, and suggesting atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley samples have 37Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 ) and 18O values (+2.9 to +26.1 ), that are appreciably higher than Atacama perchlorate ( 37Cl; -14.3 to -10.2 and 18O; (-10.5 to -2.2 , respectively). In contrast, samples from 8 locations in West Texas and New Mexico were characterized by only a slight elevation in 17O (0.3 to 1.3 ), suggesting either that this material is not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4- has been consistently altered post-deposition by one or more processes that caused isotopic exchange of O. The 37Cl values in the SHP perchlorate (+ 3.4 to + 5.1 ) were consistently higher than for the Atacama or Death Valley salts, while the 18O values (+ 0.5 to + 4.8 ) overlapped significantly

  5. Hierarchical analysis of rainfall variability across Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nnaji, Chidozie Charles; Mama, Cordelia Nnennaya; Ukpabi, Okechukwu

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall in Nigeria is subjected to wide variability both in time and space. This variability has assumed a more pronounced dimension as a result of climate change. In this paper, cluster analyses were used to study rainfall variability in Nigeria. Rainfall data in 20 locations spread across the geopolitical and ecological zones of Nigeria were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis and analysis of time series and coefficient of variation for over periods spanning 30 years. Maps of spatial variations of mean annual rainfall and mean rainfall coefficient of variation were produced using ARCGIS 10.1. Furthermore, a better understanding of temporal variation of rainfall was sought by an investigation into the time series of rainfall coefficients of variation. It was found that the southern parts of the country were given to more severe rainfall variability/fluctuations than the northern parts. The north central parts exhibited more similarity to the southern parts than the other northern locations. The relationship between average annual rainfall and the coefficient of rainfall variation was found to follow a power law with R 2 value approximately 0.7. With respect to variability of annual rainfall, three zones emerged as follows: a linear relationship ( R 2 = 0.90) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for the rainforest zone of the southsouth; a power law ( R 2 = 0.86) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all rainforest and derived guinea savannah zones of the southeastern and southwestern states; and a logarithmic relationship ( R 2 = 0.54) exists between coefficient of variation and average annual rainfall for all northern states regardless of ecological zone. Generally, in-year rainfall variability increases from the northwest to the southwest; while between-year (yearly) rainfall variability increases from the north central to the southeast. This study further confirms that rainfall variability

  6. Migrating birds’ use of stopover habitat in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.; Diehl, R.H.; Felix, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the arid Southwest, migratory birds are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Using radar data and satellite land-cover data, we determined the habitats with which birds are associated during migration stopover. Bird densities differed significantly by habitat type at all sites in at least one season. In parts of Arizona and New Mexico upland forest supported high densities of migrants, especially in fall. Developed habitat, in areas with little upland forest, also supported high densities of migrants. Scrub/shrub and grassland habitats supported low to intermediate densities, but because these habitat types dominate the Southwestern landscape, they may provide stopover habitat for larger numbers of migratory birds than previously recognized. These results are complicated by continuing challenges related to target identity (i.e., distinguishing among birds, arthropods and bats). Our results suggest that it is too simplistic to (1) consider the arid West as a largely inhospitable landscape in which there are only relatively small oases of habitat that provide the resources needed by all migrants, (2) think of western riparian and upland forests as supporting the majority of migrants in all cases, and (3) consider a particular habitat unimportant for stopover solely on the basis of low densities of migrants.

  7. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2010-11-01

    Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

  8. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the Southeastern and Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61±12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

  9. Child Survival Strategies: Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of Rural Women of Reproductive Age in Cross River State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ofonime

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Nigeria is one of the five countries that account for about 50% of under-five mortality in the world. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge and practice of child survival strategies among rural community caregivers in Cross River State of Nigeria. Materials and Methods. This descriptive cross-sectional survey used a pretested questionnaire to obtain information from 150 women of reproductive age. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Results. The child survival strategy known to most of the respondents was oral rehydration therapy as indicated by 98% followed by female education by 73.3% and immunization by 67.3%. Only 20% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of frequency of weighing a child while only 32.7% knew that breastfeeding should be continued even if the child had diarrhea. More respondents with nonformal education (83.3%) practiced exclusive breastfeeding of their last children compared to respondents with primary education (77.3%), secondary education (74.2%), and tertiary education (72.2%). Conclusion. Although respondents demonstrated adequate knowledge and practice of most of the strategies, there was evidence of gaps, including myths and misconceptions that could mar efforts towards reducing child morbidity and mortality in the state. PMID:27807452

  10. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isara, Alphonsus Rukevwe; Adam, Vincent Yakubu; Aigbokhaode, Adesuwa Queen; Alenoghena, Innocent Osi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Workers in the quarry industries are exposed to hazards resulting from the inhalation of air borne particulates. The study determined the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and assessed ventilatory functions among quarry workers in Edo state, Nigeria. Methods Quarry workers (site workers and office workers) were interviewed using structured questionnaire. FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC and PEFR were measured using a KoKo Legend spirometer. Results A total of 113 quarry workers (76 exposure and 37 controls) were studied. The exposure group had significantly higher occurrence of chest tightness (35.5%) compared with 16.2% of the controls (p < 0.05). The occurrence of cough (23.7% versus 13.5%), sputum (21.1% versus 16.2%), and dyspnoea (7.9% versus 5.4%), were higher in exposure groups while wheeze (10.8% versus 10.5%) and nasal congestion (27.0% and 25.0%) were higher in the control groups. The mean (SD) FEV1, and FVC were significantly lower among the exposure compared with the control group; 2.77L (0.73) versus 3.14L (0.78), p < 0.05, and 3.48L (0.84) versus 3.89L (0.92), p < 0.05. In both groups, smokers had significantly lower mean (SD) FEV1, FVC and PEFR compared with non-smokers; 2.91L (0.77) versus 3.39L (0.69), p = 0.01, 3.61L (0.91) versus 4.26L (0.74), p < 0.05 and 6.56L (2.43) versus 7.98L (1.67), p < 0.05. Conclusion Chronic exposure to quarry dust is associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function indices among quarry workers. The enforcement of the use of PPEs and periodic evaluation the lung function status of quarry workers is advocated. PMID:27347301

  11. The 1970 yellow fever epidemic in Okwoga District, Benue Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Monath, T. P.; Wilson, D. C.; Casals, J.

    1973-01-01

    Serological studies of persons infected with yellow fever (YF) during the 1970 epidemic in Okwoga District, Nigeria, indicated that epidemic YF occurred despite a high prevalence of pre-existing group B arbovirus immunity, which increased with age. The viruses involved were primarily dengue, Zika, and Wesselsbron. Patterns of responses of haemagglutination-inhibiting, complement-fixing, and neutralizing antibodies in primary YF and in superinfections are defined in this paper. PMID:4546521

  12. American Indian Methamphetamine and other Drug use in the Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Forcehimes, A.A.; Venner, K.L; Bogenschutz, M.P.; Foley, K.; Davis, M. P.; Houck, J. M.; Willie, E. L.; Begaye, P.

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate the extent of methamphetamine and other drug use among American Indians (AI) in the Four Corners region, we developed collaborations with Southwestern tribal entities and treatment programs in and around New Mexico. Methods (1) We held nine focus groups, mostly with Southwest AI participants (N=81) from three diverse New Mexico communities to understand community members, treatment providers, and clients/relatives views on methamphetamine (2) We conducted a telephone survey of staff (N=100) from agencies across New Mexico to assess perceptions of methamphetamine use among people working with AI populations. (3) We collected and analyzed self-reported drug use data from 300 AI clients/relatives who completed the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in the context of treatment at three diverse addiction treatment programs. Results Each focus group offered a unique perspective about the effect of drugs and alcohol on each respective community. Though data from the phone surveys and ASIs suggested concerning rates of methamphetamine use, with women more adversely affected by substance use in general, alcohol was identified as the biggest substance use problem for AI populations in the Southwest. Conclusions There appears to be agreement that methamphetamine use is a significant problem in these communities, but that alcohol is much more prevalent and problematic. There was less agreement about what should be done to prevent and treat methamphetamine use. Future research should attend to regional and tribal differences due to variability in drug use patterns, and should focus on identifying and improving dissemination of effective substance use interventions. PMID:21988577

  13. Relative Contributions of Selected Teachers' Variables and Students' Attitudes toward Academic Achievement in Biology among Senior Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gbore, L. O.; Daramola, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relative contributions of selected teachers' variables and students' attitude towards academic achievement in biology among senior secondary schools in Ondo State, Nigeria. It involved descriptive survey research and ex-post facto research designs. The sample, 360 respondents which consists of 180 biology teachers and…

  14. Gender Differences in Achievement Goals and Performances in English Language and Mathematics of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Borno State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…

  15. Guidelines on How to Read a Physics Textbook and the Assessment of the Readability of Recommended Physics Textbooks in Secondary Schools in Osun State of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinbobola, Akinyemi Olufunminiyi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the readability of the four recommended physics textbooks in senior secondary schools in Osun State of Nigeria. A total of 25 physics teachers and 300 senior secondary three (SS3) physics students were randomly selected in the 12 secondary schools used for the study. A survey design was used for the study. Results showed that…

  16. Effect of Instruction in Emotional Intelligence Skills on Locus of Control and Academic Self-Efficacy among Junior Secondary School Students in Niger State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umaru, Yunusa; Umma, Abdulwahid

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of instruction in emotional intelligence Skills on locus of control and academic self-efficacy among junior secondary school students in Niger state, Nigeria. This study employed a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent control group, pre-test - post-test design. The population of this study was 105,034 secondary…

  17. Mode of Entry as a Predictor of Success in Final Year Bachelor of Education Degree Examinations in Universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adeyemi, T. O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mode of entry as a predictor of success in final year bachelor of education degree examinations in universities in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria. As an ex-post facto and correlational research, the study population comprised all the 1810 final year 400 level students in the two universities offering education courses,…

  18. An Investigation into the Subject Preference of Students in Western State of Nigeria Grammar Schools with Stress on Differentiated Interest between Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adejumobi, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    An investigation into history teaching in some secondary grammar schools in the Western State of Nigeria is discussed. The position of history in relation to other high school subjects studied, the attitude of students towards a subject, and whether boys are more interested in history than girls are described. (MLW)

  19. Teacher Self-Efficacy Enhancement and School Location: Implication for Students' Achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durowoju, Esther O.; Onuka, Adams O. U.

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated the effect of teacher self-efficacy enhancement and school location on students' achievement in Economics in Senior Secondary School in Ibadan Metropolis of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in the study. Four Local Government Areas (two…

  20. Evaluation of Teachers' Activities in the Use of Animated Instructional Resource Materials in Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary Schools in Bauchi State Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwasu, I. A.; Abubakar; Ema, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a profile on how teachers in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state Nigeria utilise animated instructional resource (AIR) in the teaching of biology. A structured questionnaire used to generate data on the availability, accessibility and application of the AIR for classroom instruction by teachers. The instrument for data…

  1. Levels of Possession of Science Process Skills by Final Year Students of Colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akani, Omiko

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the levels of possession of science process skills by final year Nigerian Certificate in Education (NCE) Students in colleges of Education in South-Eastern States of Nigeria. The skills that were assessed were observation, experimentation, measurement, communication, and inference. The research was guided by five research…

  2. Cheating Tendency in Examinations among Secondary School Students in Nigeria: A Case Study of Schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area, Cross River State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisong, Nonso Ngozika; Akpama, Felicia; Edet, Pauline B.

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to examine cheating tendency among secondary school students in Nigeria, with evidence from schools in the Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River State. A total of 331 respondents in Senior Secondary 3 classes were randomly selected from 10 post-primary schools in the area. A survey questionnaire was used to elicit…

  3. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (μg/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (μg/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health. PMID:25971518

  4. Toxic elements in groundwater of Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria and their human health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ayedun, H; Gbadebo, A M; Idowu, O A; Arowolo, T A

    2015-06-01

    A good quality drinking water is essential for human survival. However, a large percentage of the populations in most developing countries (Nigeria inclusive) do not have access to potable water. This study was therefore conducted to assess the extent of risk arising from consumption of toxic elements in groundwater samples collected from Lagos and Ogun States, Southwest, Nigeria. Twelve toxic elements concentrations (As, Mn, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Al, Ti, V, Hg, Li, and Sn) were determined from 170 groundwater samples using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the physicochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. The pH results revealed that most of the water samples were slightly acidic. Of the twelve toxic elements, only Mn, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Al have concentrations higher than the WHO recommended limit in drinking water. The average dose of Mn and Al consumed daily from groundwater by an adult in Lagos state is 3.4 and 23.2 (μg/kg body weight), respectively. Similarly, an adult in Ogun State consumed an average daily dose of 6.09 and 25 (μg/kg body weight) Mn and Al, respectively. A greater threat was posed to children and infants. The order for risk of cancer in groundwater from Lagos State was Pb > Cr > As > Cd while the order in Ogun State groundwater was Cr > Cd > As > Pb. The relative high concentrations of Mn, Al, and Pb obtained in this study can be attributed to industrial and anthropogenic activities in the study area. Treatment of groundwater before consumption is recommended to avoid possible adverse cumulative effect. Improved waste disposal methods and regular monitoring of toxic elements in groundwater of the study area should be adopted to safeguard human health.

  5. Socio-environmental factors and ascariasis infection among school-aged children in Ilobu, Osun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ugbomoiko, U S; Dalumo, V; Ofoezie, I E; Obiezue, R N N

    2009-03-01

    The risk factors predisposing children to ascariasis transmission in a rural community of Osun State, Nigeria were investigated from November 2005 to April 2006. Children below 16 years of age were examined at the household level after information on biodata, access to water supply and sanitation, socio-economic status of their parents and degree of cohabitation with their parents was collected using a questionnaire. Of 440 children examined, overall prevalence was 60% and median intensity was 1548 eggs per gram (epg) (min. 48 epg; max. 55464 epg). Infection patterns were gender comparable and age dependent, with peak prevalence (67.8%) occurring in children aged 5-9 years and peak median intensity (4368 epg) in children aged >or=15 years. Logistic regression analysis revealed that prevalence was influenced by patterns of water supply and sanitation, parents' educational background, number of biological parents living with a child and number of playmates a child has. These findings suggest that socio-environmental risk factors which play a role in disease transmission need to be taken into account when formulating sustainable control strategies for ascariasis and other intestinal parasites in Nigeria and elsewhere.

  6. Evaluation of the pathogenicity and virulence of Yersinia species isolated in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Ogbimi, A O; Agbonlahor, D E; Obi, C L

    1993-12-01

    Sixteen isolates of four species of Yersinia comprising five of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia fredricksenii, four of Yersinia intermedia and two of Yersinia kristensenii isolated from domestic and wild animals in villages in Edo and Delta States, Nigeria, were evaluated for their pathogenicity using laboratory animal models and virulence characteristics tests which included autoagglutinability, calcium dependency for growth, heat-stable enterotoxin production and conjunctivities in guinea pig eye. Results obtained revealed that Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were enteropathogenic as demonstrated by the production of diarrhoea and eventual recovery from faeces, spleen and liver of the infected animals. Three (60%) (2 serotypes 0:3 and 1 serotype 0:8) of the five Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were lethal to the animals. Other Yersinia isolates (Yersinia kristensenii, Yersinia fredricksenii and Yersinia intermedia) were uniformly non pathogenic to the animals. However, a strain of Yersinia intermedia isolate produced diarrhoea in the inoculated animals and caused lethality in guinea pigs and mice, but was negative for autoagglutination test, calcium dependency, conjunctivities, and positive for heat-stable enterotoxin production. We are of the view that this strain may be another Yersinia intermedia--like bacterium, previously isolated in Nigeria. Results therefore, suggest an emergence of a pathogenic Yersinia intermedia species in this environment.

  7. HIV/Tuberculosis Co-Infection among Patients Attending a Referral Chest Clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeh, E. U.; Ishaleku, D.; Iheukwumere, C. C.

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive persons being coinfected was 1.075, while it was 0.401 for TB infected persons. The estimated Odds Ratio (OR) shows that the risk of co-infection was 2.68 times higher among HIV+ persons than among those with tuberculosis. The attributable risk was 45% and shows the extent to which co-infection could be attributed to HIV infection. A key socio-economic variable, eating in groups, was significantly correlated with coinfection (r = 0.107; p< 0.05). The results of this study may provide a useful policy guide in the formulation of HIV and tuberculosis control measures in Nigeria.

  8. Causes, Effects and Strategies for Eradicating Cultism among Students in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria--A Case Study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka Anambra State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinwe, Udoh Victoria; Mag, Ikezu Uju Joy

    2015-01-01

    The issue of cultism has in spite of many efforts at reducing it, soared up in the Nigeria's tertiary institutions. Cultism has cast gloom over the educational sector. It is repeatedly said that the youths are the future leaders but it is a little wonder what the future holds for the youth of this country which has a good proportion of her youth…

  9. Nigeria: A Study of the Educational System of Nigeria and a Guide to the Academic Placement of Students in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Alan M.

    Written as a guide to be used in the admission and placement of Nigerian students in U.S. institutions of higher education, this study discusses the education system of Nigeria. Following an historical summary of the Nigerian's education system, information is provided on Nigerian primary education, secondary education, external examinations,…

  10. Monitoring maternal, newborn, and child health interventions using lot quality assurance sampling in Sokoto State of northern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abegunde, Dele; Orobaton, Nosa; Shoretire, Kamil; Ibrahim, Mohammed; Mohammed, Zainab; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Ganiyu, Akeem

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality ratio and infant mortality rate are as high as 1,576 per 100,000 live births and 78 per 1,000 live births, respectively, in Nigeria's northwestern region, where Sokoto State is located. Using applicable monitoring indicators for tracking progress in the UN/WHO framework on continuum of maternal, newborn, and child health care, this study evaluated the progress of Sokoto toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 by December 2015. The changes in outcomes in 2012–2013 associated with maternal and child health interventions were assessed. Design We used baseline and follow-up lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) data obtained in 2012 and 2013, respectively. In each of the surveys, data were obtained from 437 households sampled from 19 LQAS locations in each of the 23 local government areas (LGAs). The composite state-level coverage estimates of the respective indicators were aggregated from estimated LGA coverage estimates. Results None of the nine indicators associated with the continuum of maternal, neonatal, and child care satisfied the recommended 90% coverage target for achieving MDGs 4 and 5. Similarly, the average state coverage estimates were lower than national coverage estimates. Marginal improvements in coverage were obtained in the demand for family planning satisfied, antenatal care visits, postnatal care for mothers, and exclusive breast-feeding. Antibiotic treatment for acute pneumonia increased significantly by 12.8 percentage points. The majority of the LGAs were classifiable as low-performing, high-priority areas for intensified program intervention. Conclusions Despite the limited time left in the countdown to December 2015, Sokoto State, Nigeria, is not on track to achieving the MDG 90% coverage of indicators tied to the continuum of maternal and child care, to reduce maternal and childhood mortality by a third by 2015. Targeted health system investments at the primary care level remain a

  11. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  12. Health and ecological hazards due to natural radioactivity in soil from mining areas of Nasarawa State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ibrahim, Umar; Akpa, Chidozie Timothy; Garba, Nuraddeen Nasiru; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi

    2015-01-01

    Nasarawa State is located in north central Nigeria and it is known as Nigeria's home of solid minerals. It is endowed with barite, copper, zinc, tantalite and granite. Continuous releases of mining waste and tailings into the biosphere may result in a build-up of radionuclides in air, water and soil. This work therefore aims to measure the activity concentration levels of primordial radionuclides in the soil/sediment samples collected from selected mines of the mining areas of Nasarawa State. The paper also assesses the radiological and radio ecological impacts of mining activities on the residents of mining areas and their environment. The activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides ((226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K) in the surface soils/sediment samples were determined using sodium iodide-thallium gamma spectroscopy. Seven major mines were considered with 21 samples taken from each of the mines for radiochemistry analysis. The human health hazard assessment was conducted using regulatory methodologies set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, while the radio ecological impact assessment was conducted using the ERICA tool v. 1.2. The result shows that the activity concentrations of (40)K in the water ways of the Akiri copper and the Azara barite mines are 60 and 67% higher than the world average value for (40)K, respectively. In all mines, the annual effective dose rates (mSv y(-1)) were less than unity, and a maximum annual gonadal dose of 0.58 mSv y(-1) is received at the Akiri copper mine, which is almost twice the world average value for gonadal dose. The external hazard indices for all the mines were less than unity. Our results also show that mollusc-gastropod, insect larvae, mollusc-bivalve and zooplankton are the freshwater biotas with the highest dose rates ranging from 5 to 7 µGy h(-1). These higher dose rates could be associated with zinc and copper mining at Abuni and Akiri, respectively. The most exposed

  13. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  14. Policy strategies to improve maternal health services delivery and outcomes in Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ezeonwu, Mabel

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and childbirth present major health risks for Nigerian women. Key maternal mortality measures indicate that the risks are high. Despite improvement efforts, the country has made insufficient progress in reaching the United Nations' millennium development goal of decreasing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015. The author in this qualitative descriptive study explores the perspectives of experienced nurse leaders on policy strategies to improve maternal health in Nigeria. In this study, the author suggests that removal of financial barriers to access and utilization of health services, spousal and family inclusiveness in plan of care, and health systems-related physical and human infrastructural improvements constitute critical policy approaches.

  15. Climate change, agriculture and water resources in the Southwestern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In February 2014 the USDA established regional climate hubs across the United States to assist farmers, ranchers and foresters in adapting to the effects of climate change. The Southwest (SW) region encompasses six states which provide highly diverse agricultural crops including cotton, stone fruit ...

  16. Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values. Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much

  17. Nutritional knowledge, nutrients intake and nutritional status of hypertensive patients in Ondo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ijarotimi, O S; Keshinro, O O

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed at assessing the anthropometry, dietary intake and micronutrient status of hypertensive patients attending specialist hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. A descriptive case control study was conducted among subjects attending two specialist hospitals located in Akure and Ondo towns. A total of 452 subjects (44.9% males and 55.1% females), was purposely selected from the study centres. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information on demographic characteristics, socio-economic parameters, nutrition knowledge and dietary intakes of the subjects. The quantities of subjects' dietary intakes were measured using household measurements. Weight, height, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured using electronic bathroom scale, standiometer and sphygmomanometer, respectively. The subject's urine was collected; and vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium, zinc and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. The results showed the following means: age 52.4 +/- 2.38 years, weight 66.4 +/- 1.63kg, height 1.64 +/- 0.01m, body mass index (BMI) 24.13 +/- 0.69kg/m2, SBP 124.86 +/- 2.3mmHg and DBP 76.22 +/- 1.86 mmHg. Blood pressure (BP) of the subjects showed that 46.9% had optimal BP, 14.2% normal BP, 11.5% high normal BP, 12.8% mild hypertension, 9.7% moderate hypertension and 4.9% severe hypertension. For BMI, 8.8% were underweight, 47.1% normal, 30.3% overweight, 6.0% obesity class I, 6.0% obesity class II and 1.8% obesity class III. The proportion of hypertensive subjects that were obese was significantly (P = 0.0001) higher than control subjects. Three-fifth of the control subjects had good nutrition knowledge compared to one-fifth of hypertensive subjects. The estimated mean energy intake was 8.46 MJ, protein 93.1g, carbohydrate 314.5g, fat 42.9g, fibres 5.6g and appreciable amount of vitamin C, calcium, zinc, magnesium, sodium and potassium. The subjects' urinary vitamin C concentration was 32.49 +/- 2.53mg

  18. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, W. Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Sturchio, Neil C.

    2010-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO4− appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO4− indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO4− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ37Cl) and associated NO3− (δ18O, Δ17O, δ15N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO3−-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO4− in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO4− from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO4−. ClO4− in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Δ17O values (+8.6 to +18.4 ‰), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O3). However, the Death Valley δ37Cl values (−3.1 to −0.8 ‰) and δ18O values (+2.9 to +26.1‰) are higher than those of Atacama ClO4−. In contrast, ClO4− from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Δ17O (+0.3 to +1.3‰), with relatively high δ37Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 ‰) and δ18O (+0.5 to +4.8 ‰), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O3 as a reactant or that the ClO4− was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Δ17O values in ClO4− (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Δ17O values in NO3−, indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O3-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings, whereas both compounds have low Δ17O values in less arid settings. Although Δ17O variations in terrestrial NO3− can be attributed to mixing of atmospheric

  19. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C

    2010-07-01

    Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings

  20. Isotopic composition and origin of indigenous natural perchlorate and co-occurring nitrate in the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W Andrew; Böhlke, John Karl; Gu, Baohua; Hatzinger, Paul B; Sturchio, Neil C

    2010-07-01

    Perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)) has been detected widely in groundwater and soils of the southwestern United States. Much of this ClO(4)(-) appears to be natural, and it may have accumulated largely through wet and dry atmospheric deposition. This study evaluates the isotopic composition of natural ClO(4)(-) indigenous to the southwestern U.S. Stable isotope ratios were measured in ClO(4)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(37)Cl) and associated NO(3)(-) (delta(18)O, Delta(17)O, delta(15)N) in groundwater from the southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas and New Mexico and the Middle Rio Grande Basin (MRGB) in New Mexico, from unsaturated subsoil in the SHP, and from NO(3)(-)-rich surface caliche deposits near Death Valley, California. The data indicate natural ClO(4)(-) in the southwestern U.S. has a wide range of isotopic compositions that are distinct from those reported previously for natural ClO(4)(-) from the Atacama Desert of Chile as well as all known synthetic ClO(4)(-). ClO(4)(-) in Death Valley caliche has a range of high Delta(17)O values (+8.6 to +18.4 per thousand), overlapping and extending the Atacama range, indicating at least partial atmospheric formation via reaction with ozone (O(3)). However, the Death Valley delta(37)Cl values (-3.1 to -0.8 per thousand) and delta(18)O values (+2.9 to +26.1 per thousand) are higher than those of Atacama ClO(4)(-). In contrast, ClO(4)(-) from western Texas and New Mexico has much lower Delta(17)O (+0.3 to +1.3 per thousand), with relatively high delta(37)Cl (+3.4 to +5.1 per thousand) and delta(18)O (+0.5 to +4.8 per thousand), indicating either that this material was not primarily generated with O(3) as a reactant or that the ClO(4)(-) was affected by postdepositional O isotope exchange. High Delta(17)O values in ClO(4)(-) (Atacama and Death Valley) are associated with high Delta(17)O values in NO(3)(-), indicating that both compounds preserve characteristics of O(3)-related atmospheric production in hyper-arid settings

  1. Relations between climatic variability and hydrologic time series from four alluvial basins across the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Newhouse, M.W.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrologic time series of groundwater levels, streamflow, precipitation, and tree-ring indices from four alluvial basins in the southwestern United States were spectrally analyzed, and then frequency components were reconstructed to isolate variability due to climatic variations on four time scales. Reconstructed components (RCs), from each time series, were compared to climatic indices like the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North American Monsoon (NAM), and El Nin??o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), to reveal that as much as 80% of RC variation can be correlated with climate variations on corresponding time scales. In most cases, the hydrologic RCs lag behind the climate indices by 1-36 months. In all four basins, PDO-like components were the largest contributors to cyclic hydrologic variability. Generally, California time series have more variation associated with PDO and ENSO than the Arizona series, and Arizona basins have more variation associated with NAM. ENSO cycles were present in all four basins but were the largest relative contributors in southeastern Arizona. Groundwater levels show a wide range of climate responses that can be correlated from well to well in the various basins, with climate responses found in unconfined and confined aquifers from pumping centers to mountain fronts. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  2. Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 μg/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 μg/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

  3. Numerical study of the hydroclimate of the Southwestern United States using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.

    1996-09-01

    The UC-LLNL Regional Climate System Model (RCSM) has been under development since 1991. This modeling system includes interactions among atmospheric, land surface, and subsurface processes. Important physical processes included in this RCSM are effects of vegetation, surface energy and water budgets, lateral hydrologic transport, and agro-ecosystem response. Our RCSM is composed of a preprocessor fro importing, interpreting, and analyzing multi-scale data, a Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation (MAS) model, a multi-layer soil-plant-snow (SPS) model that is interactively coupled with the atmospheric model, a physically based, fully distributed watershed hydrology-riverflow model (TOPMODEL) and a post-processor for output data analysis. We are currently implementing and validating the Decision Support System for Agro-Economic Transfer (DSSAT). An important feature of our RCSM us the ability to simulate the atmospheric, land surface, and hydrologic variables from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale. the full coupled MAS and SPS models have been used for experimental operational NWP over the southwestern United States since October 1993. Our watershed hydrology-riverflow model has been set up for the Russian River watershed and the Headwaters to the North Fork of the American River in Northern California.

  4. Solar Energy Development and Aquatic Ecosystems in the Southwestern United States: Potential Impacts, Mitigation, and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W.; O'Connor, Ben L.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  5. 21st century increases in the likelihood of extreme hydrologic conditions for the mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Ficklin, Darren L.; Carrillo, Carlos A.; McIntosh, Russell

    2015-10-01

    Extreme hydrologic conditions, such as floods, droughts, and elevated stream temperatures, significantly impact the societal fabric and ecosystems, and there is rising concern about increases in the frequency of extreme conditions with projected climate changes. Here we ask what changes in the occurrence of extreme hydrologic conditions can be expected by the end of the century for the important water-generating, mountainous basins of the Southwestern United States, namely the Sierra Nevada and Upper Colorado River Basins. The extreme conditions considered are very high flows, low flows, and elevated stream temperature as derived from historic and future simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrologic model and downscaled output from a General Circulation Model ensemble. Results indicate noteworthy differences in the frequency changes of extremes based on geographic region, season, elevation, and stream size. We found wide-spread increases in the occurrence of stream flows exceeding 150% of historic monthly averages for winter by the end of the century, and extensive increases in the occurrence of both extreme low flows (representing <50% of historic monthly averages), and elevated stream temperatures (>3 °C of monthly averages) during the summer months, with some basins expecting extreme conditions 90-100% of the time by the end of the century. Understanding the differences in the changes of extreme conditions can identify climate-sensitive regions and assist in targeted planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation.

  6. All-Sky Imaging Measurements of an Unusually Bright Gravity Wave Event Observed Over the South-Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. M.; Taylor, M. J.; Swenson, G. R.; Hocking, W.; Baumgardner, J. L.; Mendillo, M.

    2001-05-01

    Multi-wavelength all-sky imaging of the nighttime mesospheric emission layers can yield valuable information about the vertical structure and dynamics of the region. Wave structures occur very frequently in these layers and comprise of two main types: bands and ripples. In contrast to these types, this paper presents observations of a wave event known as a mesospheric bore which was observed on 14 November 1999 at two sites in the South-Western United States separated by over 500 km. The bore event was easily visible to the naked eye and lasted for over 2 1/2 hours. The event was observed using two wide-angle imaging systems: (1) in the OI, Na and OH nightglow emissions at the Boston University field-station at McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, Texas; (2) in the OH emission at the Starfire Optical Range, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The intensity and temperature measurements made at the two sites provided a unique opportunity to estimate the physical extent of the bore and its time history. Simultaneous radar neutral wind measurements in the 85 to 95 km altitude region were made from the Starfire Optical Range and these indicated that a strong vertical wind shear (14 m/s/km) occurred at the time of the bore's appearance.

  7. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems.

  8. Solar energy development and aquatic ecosystems in the southwestern United States: potential impacts, mitigation, and research needs.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Mark; Hayse, John W; O'Connor, Ben L

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of utility-scale solar energy facilities on aquatic ecosystems in the Southwestern United States are of concern, considering the many existing regional anthropogenic stressors. We review the potential impacts of solar energy development on aquatic habitat and biota. The greatest potential for impacts is related to the loss, fragmentation, or prolonged drying of ephemeral water bodies and drainage networks resulting from the loss of desert washes within the construction footprint of the facility. Groundwater-dependent aquatic habitat may also be affected by operational groundwater withdrawal in the case of water-intensive solar technologies. Solar panels have also been found to attract aquatic insects and waterbirds, potentially resulting in mortality. Avoiding construction activity near perennial and intermittent surface waters is the primary means of reducing impacts on aquatic habitats, followed by measures to minimize erosion, sedimentation, and contaminant inputs into waterways. Currently, significant data gaps make solar facility impact assessment and mitigation more difficult. Examples include the need for more regional and site-specific studies of surface-groundwater connectivity, more detailed maps of regional stream networks and riparian vegetation corridors, as well as surveys of the aquatic communities inhabiting ephemeral streams. In addition, because they often lack regulatory protection, there is also a need to develop valuation criteria for ephemeral waters based on their ecological and hydrologic function within the landscape. By addressing these research needs, we can achieve the goal of greater reliance on solar energy, while at the same time minimizing impacts on desert ecosystems. PMID:25331641

  9. Urban vegetation and income segregation in drylands: a synthesis of seven metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerette, G. Darrel; Miller, Greg; Buyantuev, Alexander; Pataki, Diane E.; Gillespie, Thomas W.; Pincetl, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    To better understand how urbanization affects the amount and timing of urban vegetation in drylands we investigated remotely sensed vegetation patterns across seven large metropolitan regions in the southwestern United States. We asked (1) how low density urban land cover differed from adjacent wildland grass, herb, and shrub land covers in both the amount of vegetation and the length of the growing season, (2) how neighborhood income affected patterns of vegetation within low density urban cover, and (3) how cities differed from one another in their vegetation patterns. We found that urbanization generally has a strong influence on vegetation compared to adjacent wildlands. In four of the metropolitan regions the cumulative enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and growing season length in low density developments were higher than grass, herb, and shrub land covers. Within all metropolitan regions, there was a significant socioeconomic effect where higher income areas had a higher cumulative EVI than lower income areas. The large differences in urban vegetation among cities were related to precipitation and total domestic water use. These findings help to identify how urbanization influences vegetation, with implications for the availability of ecosystem services and requirements for irrigation in hot dryland cities.

  10. Probability of detecting perchlorate under natural conditions in deep groundwater in California and the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-02-15

    We use data from 1626 groundwater samples collected in California, primarily from public drinking water supply wells, to investigate the distribution of perchlorate in deep groundwater under natural conditions. The wells were sampled for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Priority Basin Project. We develop a logistic regression model for predicting probabilities of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than multiple threshold concentrations as a function of climate (represented by an aridity index) and potential anthropogenic contributions of perchlorate (quantified as an anthropogenic score, AS). AS is a composite categorical variable including terms for nitrate, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Incorporating water-quality parameters in AS permits identification of perturbation of natural occurrence patterns by flushing of natural perchlorate salts from unsaturated zones by irrigation recharge as well as addition of perchlorate from industrial and agricultural sources. The data and model results indicate low concentrations (0.1-0.5 μg/L) of perchlorate occur under natural conditions in groundwater across a wide range of climates, beyond the arid to semiarid climates in which they mostly have been previously reported. The probability of detecting perchlorate at concentrations greater than 0.1 μg/L under natural conditions ranges from 50-70% in semiarid to arid regions of California and the Southwestern United States to 5-15% in the wettest regions sampled (the Northern California coast). The probability of concentrations above 1 μg/L under natural conditions is low (generally <3%).

  11. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogle, Rian C.; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  12. Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Health: Voices and Images of Latina Immigrant Survivors in Southwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Eva M.; Chávez-Baray, Silvia; Martinez, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV), which describes physical and/or sexual assault of a spouse or sexually intimate companion, is a common health care issue across the globe. However, existing health outcomes studies are limited. Additionally, no study to our knowledge has specifically focused on the relationship between IPV and sexual health among Latina immigrants in southwestern United States. Through the use of photovoice methodology and a community-based participatory research approach, we assessed these types of relationships drawing on data gathered from 22 Latina survivors of IPV and 20 community stakeholders in El Paso, Texas. Participants identified two major themes: the different expressions of domestic violence and the need for access to sexual and reproductive health services. Community stakeholders and participants identified practical and achievable recommendations and actions including the development of a promotora training program on IPV and sexual health. This assessment extends beyond HIV and STI risk behaviors and highlights disease prevention within a wellness and health promotion framework. PMID:24787021

  13. Late Pleistocene C4 plant dominance and summer rainfall in the southwestern United States from isotopic study of herbivore teeth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connin, S.L.; Betancourt, J.; Quade, Jay

    1998-01-01

    Patterns of climate and C4 plant abundance in the southwestern United States during the last glaciation were evaluated from isotopic study of herbivore tooth enamel. Enamel ??13C values revealed a substantial eastward increase in C4 plant consumption for Mammuthus spp., Bison spp., Equus spp., and Camelops spp. The ??13C values were greatest in Bison spp. (-6.9 to + 1.7???) and Mammuthus spp. (-9.0 to +0.3???), and in some locales indicated C4-dominated grazing. The ??13C values of Antilocaprids were lowest among taxa (-12.5 to -7.9???) and indicated C3 feeding at all sites. On the basis of modern correlations between climate and C4 grass abundance, the enamel data imply significant summer rain in parts of southern Arizona and New Mexico throughout the last glaciation. Enamel ??18O values range from +19.0 to +31.0??? and generally increase to the east. This pattern could point to a tropical or subtropical source of summer rainfall. At a synoptic scale, the isotope data indicate that interactions of seasonal moisture, temperature, and lowered atmospheric pCO2 determined glacial-age C4 abundance patterns.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Ebola Virus Disease among Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria, October, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The first case of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in Nigeria was imported on 20th July 2014, by an air traveller. On 8th August, 2014, WHO declared the Ebola outbreak in West Africa a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This study aimed at assessing the knowledge, perception and attitude of secondary school students towards EVD and adopting disease preventive behaviour. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a mixed secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free.Simple random sampling was used to select the school while Systematic random sampling was used in the selection of participants. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 21. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were done, level of statistical significant was 5%. Results: Mean age of respondents was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Most of the respondents had heard of Ebola Virus Disease (95.4%). Female respondents (51.3%), those who were 15 years and above (51.1%) and in the senior class (54.1%), and had good general knowledge of EVD and across all domains. Being in the senior secondary class and seeking for health care in the hospital were positively associated with good general knowledge (p-value: 0.029, and <0.001 respectively). Three commonest modes of spread of EVD mentioned were contact between infected animals and men (74.8%), touching body fluids of a person who is sick of EVD (57.0%), and contact (55.2%). The top three signs of EVD mentioned were abnormal bleeding from any part of the body (56.10%), vomiting (47.0%) and fever (42.3%). Conclusion: Our results revealed suboptimal EVD-related knowledge, attitude and practice among the students. Promotion of health messages and training of students on prevention of EVD to effectively control past and future outbreaks of EVD in

  15. Ecology and management of oak and associated woodlands: Perspectives in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    The report includes three listings of research and management needs in the woodlands of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. The first two provide an historical perspective to current efforts within the woodlands; the third listing represents suggestions and recommendations made by the participants at the 1992 symposium. Topics in the present listing are grouped under several broadly defined headings, such as general ecology, tree regeneration, mass production, wildlife, fire, hydrology and watershed management, social concerns, inventory and monitoring, and management.

  16. Distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood and haemoglobin electrophoresis among the undergraduate students of Niger Delta State University, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egesie, U G; Egesie, O J; Usar, I; Johnbull, T O

    2008-01-01

    The distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis among 200 undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria randomly selected were studied. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from the antecubital vein. The blood sample were transferred into EDTA bottle and mixed. The determination of the ABO, Rhesus (RhD) blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis was done. The results showed that blood group O had the highest percentage distribution of 49% followed by blood groups A and B with 22% respectively and the least percentage distribution of 7% was blood group AB. Rh-D positive rate was 98% and it was 2% for Rh-D negative. The percentage distribution for the haemoglobin electrophoresis pattern for HbAA, HbAS, HbSS, HbAC and HbSC were 66%, 26%, 2%, 2%, and 4% respectively. HbAA and HbAS occurred more frequently than other haemoglobin variants in this study.

  17. Urinary schistosomiasis in rural communities of some local government areas in Plateau State, Nigeria: a preliminary parasitological and malacological survey.

    PubMed

    Akufongwe, P F; Dakul, D A; Michael, P D; Dajagat, P D; Arabs, W L

    1996-03-01

    A preliminary parasitological and malacological survey was effected in rural communities of some Local Government Areas (LGA) in Plateau State, Nigeria, to estimate the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and identify active transmission foci. Out of 2888 persons examined in six LGAs, 1381 (47.82%) were excreting eggs of Schistosoma haematobium in their urine. Prevalence rates did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) between the LGAs: Pankshin (62.4%), Shendam (40.2%), Qua'an-Pan (22.9%), Langtang South (45.4%), Langtang North (58.8%) and Wase (50.0%). Infection rates were significantly different (P < 0.001) between the sexes. Many water bodies in the study communities were colonized by infected Bulinus snails. Snail infection rates varied significantly (P < 0.001) between the dry and wet seasons. A positive correlation was observed between snail infection rates and the prevalence of S. haematobium. PMID:8960195

  18. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  19. Antimicrobials in animal production: usage and practices among livestock farmers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Fabusoro, Eniola; Majasan, Ademola Adetokunbo; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials have proven to be important for sustainable livestock production by their use as growth promoters and in the control of animal infections. However, injudicious use of antimicrobials could accelerate the emergence and spread of resistant bacterial strains with attendant socioeconomic and public health issues. This work assessed antimicrobial usage in animal production with emphasis on usage and practices by livestock producers in Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria. Data on antimicrobial usage were collected through interviews, questionnaire and focus group discussions. Four hundred and fifty-four farmers in 11 communities within 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo and Kaduna States of Nigeria were sampled in a multi-stage sampling procedure. The study showed that antimicrobial agents were widely distributed, readily accessible and commonly used in animal production. Fluoroquinolones and other critically important antimicrobials for human medicine were widely used in animals as prophylactics. Potentially harmful antimicrobials including furazolidones and chloramphenicol already banned for use in humans and animals were freely marketed and used in livestock production. Most of the respondents believed that veterinarians should be responsible for the administration of antimicrobials to animals, but in practice, they buy and administer antimicrobials without consulting veterinary professionals. It was observed that the ready availability of antimicrobial agents promoted the use of antimicrobials in livestock production and may encourage non-adherence to hygienic principles and management laxity in farm operations. The non-involvement of veterinary professionals and laboratory investigations in disease diagnosis prior to antimicrobial use could lead to improper usage that contribute to the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial strains. Responsible antimicrobial stewardship and strict regulations are vital to prolonging the benefits derivable from

  20. Revisiting haboobs in the southwestern United States: An observational case study of the 5 July 2011 Phoenix dust storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F.; Brost, John J.

    2014-06-01

    Convectively-driven dust storms (or haboobs) are common phenomena in the southwestern United States. However, studies about haboobs in this region are limited. Here, we investigate the state and fate of a massive haboob that hit Phoenix, Arizona on 5 July 2011 using satellite, radar, and ground-based observations. This haboob was a result of strong outflow boundaries (with peak wind gusts of 29 m s-1) from storms that were initiated in the southeast of Tucson. In particular, we find three major outflow systems (based on radar data) that were generated by forward propagating storms, ultimately merging near Phoenix. This resulted in peak hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations of 1974 μg m-3 and 907 μg m-3 at US EPA stations near Phoenix. The high PM concentration is consistent in space and time with the dust wall movement based on our analysis of radar data on hydrometeor classification. Enhanced aerosol loadings over metropolitan Phoenix were also observed on 6 July from NASA Terra/Aqua MODIS aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals (AOD > 0.8). We infer from CALIOP vertical feature masks and HYSPLIT back trajectories that remnants of the haboob were transported to northwest of Phoenix on 6 July at 2-4 km above ground level. Ratios of PM2.5 to PM10 from IMPROVE stations also imply low-level transport to the east of Phoenix on 8 July. Finally, we find that this haboob, which had local and regional impacts, is atypical of other dust events in this region. We note from this analysis that extreme events such as this haboob require an integrated air quality observing system to provide a more comprehensive assessment of these events.

  1. Using Hydrologic Landscape Classification to Evaluate the Hydrologic Effects of Climate in the Southwestern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hydrologic landscapes (HLs) have been an active area of research at regional and national scales in the United States. The concept has been used to make spatially distributed assessments of variability in streamflow and climatic response in Oregon, Alaska, and the Pacific Northwe...

  2. SOUTHWESTERN STATES DEVELOPMENTAL PROJECT RELATING TO EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF ADULT AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS. THE ARIZONA REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, HAROLD E.; SCHUFLETOWSKI, CHARLES

    A STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MIGRANTS WAS CONDUCTED FROM SEPTEMBER THROUGH DECEMBER, 1964, IN ARIZONA, COLORADO, NEW MEXICO, AND TEXAS. THIS REPORT, CONCERNED WITH THE ARIZONA STUDY, IDENTIFIED THE MOST COMPLICATED PROBLEM AS THE LACK OF A COORDINATED ATTACK ON MIGRANT SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, HEALTH, AND EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS BY LOCAL, STATE, AND…

  3. Lecturers' Awareness and Utilization of Instructional Media in the State-Owned Colleges of Education, South-West Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakomogbon, Micheal Ayodele; Olanrewaju, Olatayo Solomon; Soetan, Aderonke Kofo

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the awareness and utilization of instructional media (IM) based on gender of the lecturers of tertiary institutions in Nigeria. It was a descriptive type of survey research. All lecturers of Colleges of Education in Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria formed the population. Some 621 lecturers were randomly selected.…

  4. Managing the Recurrent Cost of University Education in Nigeria: A Case of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oni, Abimbola Oluranti

    2013-01-01

    The education sector especially higher education in Nigeria faces financial challenges. The recurrent cost of university education constitutes about 95% of the total cost incurred by the government in Nigeria. However, the Nigerian government is unable to meet the UNESCO recommendation that 26% of national budgets should be allocated to education.…

  5. Divergence among barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, C.S.; Sullivan, B.K.; Malone, J.H.; Schwalbe, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    Barking frogs (Eleutherodactylus augusti) are distributed from southern Mexico along the Sierra Madre Occidental into Arizona and the Sierra Madre Oriental into Texas and New Mexico. Barking frogs in Arizona and most of Texas live in rocky areas in oak woodland, while those in New Mexico and far western Texas live in rodent burrows in desertscrub. Barking frogs in each of the three states have distinct coloration and differ in sexually dimorphic characters, female vocalization, and skin toxicity. We analyzed advertisement call variation and conducted a phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and tRNA regions) for barking frogs from these three states. Advertisement calls of frogs from Arizona were significantly longer in duration, higher in frequency, and had longer duration pulses than those of frogs from either New Mexico or Texas; frogs from these latter two sites were indistinguishable in these call variables. Phylogenetic analysis showed deep divisions among barking frogs from the three states. Differences in call structure, coloration, and mitochondrial DNA sequences strongly suggest that barking frogs in Arizona are reproductively isolated from those in New Mexico and Texas. Our results indicate that either northern populations are connected via gene flow through southern Mexico (i.e., they are subspecies as currently recognized), or represent independent lineages as originally described (i.e., western barking frogs, E. cactorum in AZ, and the eastern barking frogs, E. latrans in NM, TX).

  6. Stress state of the Baoxing segment of the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone before and after the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Manlu; Zhang, Chongyuan; Fan, Taoyuan

    2016-05-01

    In situ stress measurements were conducted with hydraulic fracturing and piezomagnetic overcoring method in a borehole at Qiaoqi of Baoxing region in the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone, to understand the current stress state and stress change after the Ms 7.0 Lushan earthquake. The stress regime of the Qiaoqi borehole is characterized by SH > Sh > Sv, indicating that the regional stress field is dominated by the maximum horizontal stress and this stress regime is prone to reverse faulting. Impression tests show that the orientations of the maximum horizontal principal stress are NW-NWW oriented. The magnitudes of the maximum horizontal principal stress at Qiaoqi are obviously higher than those before the Lushan earthquake, signifying that stress is still accumulating in this region. The real-time stress monitoring data shows that the stress in the NWW direction is increasing continuously before and after the earthquake. Authors have computed the frictional parameter, μm, using the derived stress data. The result demonstrates a high stress build-up level in the shallow crust before and after the Lushan earthquake. Adopting the Coulomb frictional-failure criteria, we conclude that Baoxing area, the southwestern section of the Longmenshan Fault Zone has already reached or exceeded a frictional limit equilibrium state. Evidence shows that the Lushan earthquake did not release the highly accumulated stress of the southwestern Longmenshan Fault Zone and the potential risk of earthquakes in this region still exists.

  7. Preventive and social cost implications of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak on selected organizations in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olugasa, Babasola Oluseyi; Oshinowo, Oluwafunmilola Yemisi; Odigie, Eugene Amienwanlen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As Ebola virus disease (EVD) continues to pose public health challenge in West Africa, with attending fears and socio-economic implications in the current epidemic challenges. It is compelling to estimate the social and preventive costs of EVD containment in a Nigerian city. Hence, this study was to determine the social and preventive cost implications of EVD among selected public institutions in Lagos, Nigeria, from July to December, 2014. Methods Questionnaires and key-informants interview were administered to respondents and administrators of selected hospitals, hotels and schools in Eti-Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. Knowledge of disease transmission, mortality and protocols for prevention, including cost of specific preventive measures adopted against EVD were elicited from respondents. Descriptive statistics and categorical analysis were used to summarize and estimate social and preventive costs incurred by respective institutions. Results An estimated five million, nineteen thousand, three hundred and seventy-nine Naira and eighty kobo (N5,019,379.80) only was observed as direct and social cost implication of EVD prevention. This amount translated into a conservative estimate of one billion, twenty-seven million, ninety-four thousand, seven hundred and fifty-six Naira (N1,027,094,756.10) for a total of four thousand schools, two hundred and fifty-three hospitals and one thousand, four hundred and fifty one hotels in Lagos during the period (July 20-November 20, 2014). Conclusion The high cost of prevention of EVD within the short time-frame indicated high importance attached to a preventive policy against highly pathogenic zoonotic disease in Nigeria. PMID:26740848

  8. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, A; Oboh, B; Oduola, A; Otubanjo, O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2-69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9-199.96), while a decrease (243-63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides.

  9. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ayorinde, A; Oboh, B; Oduola, A; Otubanjo, O

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2-69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9-199.96), while a decrease (243-63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  10. The Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Farm and Nonfarm Sites of Lagos State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayorinde, A.; Oboh, B.; Oduola, A.; Otubanjo, O.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is one of the malaria-endemic countries. In Lagos State, Nigeria, various malaria vector control programs including the use of chemical insecticides are currently being implemented. This study was designed to provide information on the susceptibility status of some nontargeted vectors such as Aedes aegypti. Adult Ae. aegypti mosquitoes from two farm sites and a nonfarm site were exposed to World Health Organization test papers impregnated with Deltamethrin (0.05%), Permethrin (0.75%), and DDT (4%) insecticides. The Knockdown time (KdT50 and KdT95) and percentage mortality after 24 h post exposure were determined. In all the exposed mosquito populations to permethrin, mortality rate > 98% (susceptibility) was recorded, whereas mortality rates < 95.8% (resistance) and > 98% (susceptibility) to deltamethrin were observed in the nonfarm site and farm sites mosquito populations, respectively. All the mosquito populations were resistant to DDT in 2 yr. The KdT50 of the populations to DDT increased (60.2–69.6) in one of the farm sites and the nonfarm site (68.9–199.96), while a decrease (243–63.4) in another farm site in 2 yr. Significant difference (P < 0.05) in KdT50 was recorded between the farm and nonfarm sites Ae. aegypti mosquitoes in the second year after exposure to deltamethrin and DDT. An increase in KdT95 after exposure to deltamethrin in the first year was recorded. Higher KdT values and lower mortality rates in Ae. aegypti populations in the nonfarm sites are indications there are existing factors selecting for insecticide resistance outside agricultural use of insecticides. PMID:26106087

  11. Migration status and investment in rural productive activities: evidence from Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, A

    1988-01-01

    "This paper presents an attempt to investigate the differential contributions of return migrants and non migrants [in Nigeria] to rural economy with respect to their level of investment in rural productive activities. The study is [a] sequel to the controversy generated by the selectivity theory which tends to suggest that return migrants are superior to, and more enterprising than non migrants. The relevant data were collected from 363 returnees and non migrants.... An examination of the differential characteristics of the two groups shows that returnees are slightly superior to their non migrant counterparts. The differential characteristics seem to translate to differences in investment level and the general conclusion is that return migrants are likely to invest more in rural productive activities than non migrants." (SUMMARY IN FRE AND ITA)

  12. Local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Paul, Abdu A; Assam, Assam; Ndang, Tabe-Ntui L

    2013-01-01

    The study appraised local poultry biosecurity risks to highly pathogenic avian influenza by assessing farmers' knowledge, beliefs and poultry practices using a standard questionnaire. Farmers' knowledge on transmission and prevention was high but low on disease recognition. Radio was ineffective at informing Islamic educated farmers. Extensive knowledge on transmission and protection did not result in behavioural change as farmers engaged in risky practices of selling, eating or medicating infected poultry and not reporting poultry death. Islamic educated farmers do not believe highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious and preventable disease. Women are more likely to self medicate when experiencing influenza-like illness. Audio-visual aids would improve avian influenza recognition while involvement of community leaders would enhance disease reporting. Outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in local poultry in Nigeria would follow a similar pattern in Southeast Asia if the risk perception among farmers is not urgently articulated.

  13. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment. PMID:23341202

  14. Health and environmental implications of rural female entrepreneurship practices in osun state Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinbami, Catherine A O; Momodu, Abiodun S

    2013-09-01

    In rural Nigeria, food processing is mostly engaged in by women and children. Most of these processes are done using outdated technologies that make use of traditional woodstoves. This article presents the health and environmental implications of the rural female entrepreneurs involved in food processing and proffer means of bettering the lot of these women to handle these hazards. A partially structured questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to capture data from respondents. The study revealed that about 73 % of women involved in direct production of garri and palm oil processing could be at risk of early death or disability-adjusted life years from the mentioned diseases. The article concludes that the rural female entrepreneur needs to be better positioned to handle these hazards, for her health, that of her children, as well as for the environment.

  15. A test of a climatic index of dune mobility using measurements from the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lancaster, N.; Helm, P.

    2000-01-01

    The climatic index of dune mobility developed by Lancaster (1988) has been applied to a variety of different environments. The index is, however, untested and unverified. We tested the index by comparison of values of the dune mobility index calculated from climate data with rates of sand transport measured at three stations in Arizona and New Mexico over the period 1985 to 1997. Our results show that changes in measured rates of sand transport closely parallel temporal changes in the dune mobility index. The mobility index is, however, a relatively poor predictor of the magnitude of actual sand transport on a year-to-year basis. This discrepancy is probably due to the fact that sand transport rates at these sites are strongly influenced by vegetation cover, the state of which may lag changes in annual precipitation. There is, however, a good relation between the mean annual mobility index and mean annual rates of sand transport. This indicates that the dune mobility index is a valid predictor of the long-term state of the aeolian system and can be used confidently for the purposes for which it was originally intended. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  16. Monitoring forest changes in the southwestern United States using multitemporal Landsat data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Tolk, B.; Zhu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Landsat time series data sets were acquired for the Santa Fe National Forest in New Mexico. This area includes the San Pedro Parks Wilderness area, which was designated as an official wilderness in 1964. Eight autumnal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes acquired from 1988 to 2006 were analyzed to determine whether significant changes have occurred throughout the region during the past 18??years and, if so, to assess whether the changes are long-term and gradual or short-term and abrupt. It was found that, starting in about 1995, many of the conifer stands within the Wilderness area showed consistently gradual and marked increases in the Shortwave Infrared/Near Infrared Index. These trends generally imply decreases in canopy greenness or increases in mortality. Other high-elevation conifer forests located outside of the Wilderness area showed similar spectral trends, indicating that changes are potentially widespread. The spatial patterns of forest damage as inferred from the image analyses were very similar to the general patterns of insect defoliation damage mapped via aerial sketch mapping by the United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring Program. A field visit indicated that zones of spectral change are associated with high levels of forest damage and mortality, likely caused by a combination of insects and drought. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of using historical Landsat data for providing objective and consistent long-term assessments of the gradual ecosystem changes that are occurring within the western United States.

  17. Drought risk mapping of south-western state in the Indian peninsula - A web based application.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Girish; Ambili, G K; Gregory, Shery Joseph; Anusha, C K

    2015-09-15

    Application of geospatial technology is very shimmering in drought monitoring. Drought severity in crops for six northern districts of Kerala has been attempted using Geospatial Techniques. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is the major parameter used to measure vegetation health obtained from MODIS, Terra satellite products MOD13Q1, MOD02QKM. The mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of Kerala state over 13 years was calculated. The daily anomalies of NDVI from its long term mean NDVI over the same period was determined based on which drought risk classification was done. High negative NDVI anomaly areas are susceptible to drought and the severity of drought risk on each crop can be identified using Land Use/Land Cover data. Overlaying daily NDVI Anomaly based drought risk map on land use/land cover map gives the drought risk for different crops. Based on this, a web application has been developed for Northern districts of Kerala state in India. This web application can be used to plan for drought management measures and can also serve as a database for drought analysis.

  18. A 1300 Year Sub-Decadally Resolved Hydrologic Record from the Coastal Southwestern United States (Crystal Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents a 1300 year sub-decadally resolved record of hydrologic variability from coastal southwestern United States (Crystal Lake, CA). Crystal Lake is a small (0.02 km2), alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The hydrologically closed lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake in the range; its catchment is small (0.77 km2). In May 2014, lake depth measured 5.5 m, however the spillover point in the southeastern end of the lake indicates a max depth of ~50 m. Two Livingston piston cores were taken in May 2014, 15 m apart in the lake's depocenter. Magnetic susceptibility, LOI 550 °C and 950 °C, and grain size were measured at 1 cm contiguous intervals; C:N ratios and C and N isotopic analyses were measured every 2 cm. In addition, representative allochthonous and autochthonous vegetation were collected within the drainage basin for δ13Corg values. An age model was generated using Bacon v2.2, based on 11 AMS 14C dates of discrete organic matter (i.e. charcoal or wood). Age control for the past 200 years is based on correlation to Rothenberg et al. (2010) core ages. Initial results suggest a history of event sedimentation (large storms) superimposed on multi-decadal to centennial hydrologic changes (wet vs. dry periods) such as the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Additionally, the Crystal Lake record is compared to preexisting regional records to further explore the record's spatial coherence. Mechanisms driving these hydrologic shifts are explored.

  19. Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability Reconstruction of the Coastal Southwestern United States Using Lake Sediments from Crystal Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, J. A.; Kirby, M. E.; Hiner, C.; Leeper, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to reconstruct a high resolution, late Holocene record of precipitation variability for the coastal southwestern United States region using sediment cores from Crystal Lake, CA. This region is especially susceptible to droughts and episodic floods, making it of particular importance to understand past hydrologic variability. Crystal Lake is a small, alpine landslide dammed lake in the Angeles National Forest of the San Gabriel Mountains. The lake is the only permanent, freshwater lake located in the range. It is hydrologically closed, meaning all lake level changes are controlled by changes in precipitation: evaporation. To reconstruct past hydrologic variability, two Livingston piston cores were taken 15 m apart in the depocenter of the lake in May 2014. A multi-proxy methodology was utilized including: magnetic susceptibility, total organic matter and total carbonate content, grain size, and bulk d13Corg of sediments. All analyses were conducted at 1 cm contiguous intervals except bulk d13Corg (at 2 cm). Seismic reflection profiles were also generated to examine the basin's stratigraphic features in the context of the individual sediment cores. A working age model was provided by multiple AMS 14C dates from discrete organic matter (i.e., seeds, charcoal). Results from this study are compared to preexisting records of late Holocene hydrologic variability from coastal, central, and southern California. Further, the forcing mechanisms that drive hydrologic change (wet vs. dry episodes) in Southern California, such as ocean-atmosphere interactions including El Niño Southern Oscillation or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, are discussed.

  20. A methodology to asess relations between climatic variability and variations in hydrologic time series in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Newhouse, M.W.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    A new method for frequency analysis of hydrologic time series was developed to facilitate the estimation and reconstruction of individual or groups of frequencies from hydrologic time-series and facilitate the comparison of these isolated time-series components across data types, between different hydrologic settings within a watershed, between watersheds, and across frequencies. While climate-related variations in inflow to and outflow from aquifers have often been neglected, the development and management of ground-water and surface-water resources has required the inclusion of the assessment of the effects of climatic variability on the supply and demand and sustainability of use. The regional assessment of climatic variability of surface-water and ground-water flow throughout the southwestern United States required this new systematic method of hydrologic time-series analysis. To demonstrate the application of this new method, six hydrologic time-series from the Mojave River Basin, California were analyzed. The results indicate that climatic variability exists in all the data types and are partially coincident with known climate cycles such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The time-series also indicate lagged correlations between tree-ring indices, streamflow, stream base flow, and ground-water levels. These correlations and reconstructed time-series can be used to better understand the relation of hydrologic response to climatic forcings and to facilitate the simulation of streamflow and ground-water recharge for a more realistic approach to water-resource management. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bao, H.; Reheis, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (??34S and ??18O) are 5.8 ?? 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ?? 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (?? 17O), with an average value of 1.0 ?? 0.6???. Except for a weak positive correlation between ??18O and ??17O values (r2 ??? 0.4), no correlation exists for ??18O versus ??34S, ?? 17O versus ??34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive ?? 17O values (up to 4.23???) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero ?? 17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ???4.8??? lower for ??18O, ???2.1??? higher for ??34S , and ???0.3??? lower for ?? 17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  2. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States1

    PubMed Central

    Anning, David W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from <10 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments with little or no natural or human-related solute sources in them to 563,000 (kg/year)/km2 for catchments that were almost entirely cultivated land. For the region as a whole, geologic units contributed 44% of the dissolved-solids deliveries to streams and the remaining 56% of the deliveries came from the release of solutes through irrigation of cultivated and pasture lands, which comprise only 2.5% of the land area. Dissolved-solids accumulation is manifested as precipitated salts in the soil or underlying sediments, and (or) dissolved salts in soil-pore or sediment-pore water, or groundwater, and therefore represents a potential for aquifer contamination. Accumulation rates were <10,000 (kg/year)/km2 for many hydrologic accounting units (large river basins), but were more than 40,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Middle Gila, Lower Gila-Agua Fria, Lower Gila, Lower Bear, Great Salt Lake accounting units, and 247,000 (kg/year)/km2 for the Salton Sea accounting unit. PMID:22457583

  3. Multiple oxygen and sulfur isotopic analyses on water-soluble sulfate in bulk atmospheric deposition from the southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Huiming; Reheis, Marith C.

    2003-07-01

    Sulfate is a major component of bulk atmospheric deposition (including dust, aerosol, fog, and rain). We analyzed sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of water-soluble sulfate from 40 sites where year-round dust traps collect bulk atmospheric deposition in the southwestern United States. Average sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions (δ34S and δ18O) are 5.8 ± 1.4 (CDT) and 11.2 ± 1.9 (SMOW) (n = 47), respectively. Samples have an oxygen 17 anomaly (Δ17O), with an average value of 1.0 ± 0.6‰. Except for a weak positive correlation between δ18O and Δ17O values (r2 ≈ 0.4), no correlation exists for δ18O versus δ34S, Δ17O versus δ34S, or any of the three isotopic compositions versus elevation of the sample site. Exceptional positive Δ17O values (up to 4.23‰) are found in samples from sites in the vicinity of large cities or major highways, and near-zero Δ17O values are found in samples close to dry lakes. Comparison of isotopic values of dust trap sulfate and desert varnish sulfate from the region reveals that varnish sulfate has average isotopic values that are ˜4.8‰ lower for δ18O, ˜2.1‰ higher for δ34S, and ˜0.3‰ lower for Δ17O than those of the present-day bulk deposition sulfate. Although other factors could cause the disparity, this observation suggests a possibility that varnish sulfate may have recorded a long-term atmospheric sulfate deposition during the Holocene or Pleistocene, as well as the differences between sulfur and oxygen isotopic compositions of the preindustrial bulk deposition sulfate and those of the industrial era.

  4. The origin and evolution of maize in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Rute R; Smith, Bruce D; Wales, Nathan; Cappellini, Enrico; Skoglund, Pontus; Fumagalli, Matteo; Samaniego, José Alfredo; Carøe, Christian; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Hufnagel, David E; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Vieira, Filipe Garrett; Jakobsson, Mattias; Arriaza, Bernardo; Willerslev, Eske; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hufford, Matthew B; Albrechtsen, Anders; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    The origin of maize (Zea mays mays) in the US Southwest remains contentious, with conflicting archaeological data supporting either coastal(1-4) or highland(5,6) routes of diffusion of maize into the United States. Furthermore, the genetics of adaptation to the new environmental and cultural context of the Southwest is largely uncharacterized(7). To address these issues, we compared nuclear DNA from 32 archaeological maize samples spanning 6,000 years of evolution to modern landraces. We found that the initial diffusion of maize into the Southwest about 4,000 years ago is likely to have occurred along a highland route, followed by gene flow from a lowland coastal maize beginning at least 2,000 years ago. Our population genetic analysis also enabled us to differentiate selection during domestication for adaptation to the climatic and cultural environment of the Southwest, identifying adaptation loci relevant to drought tolerance and sugar content. PMID:27246050

  5. Processed 1938 aerial photography for selected areas of the lower Colorado River, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Gishey, Michael; Gass, Leila; Yanites, Brian; Pfeifer, Edwin; Simms, Ron; Ahlbrandt, Ray

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a study of the Lower Colorado River to derive temporal-change characteristics from the predam period to the present. In this report, we present summary information on accomplishments under a USGS task for the Department of the Interior's Landscapes in the West project. We discuss our preliminary results in compiling a digital database of geospatial information on the Lower Colorado River and acquisition of data products, and present a geospatial digital dataset of 1938 aerial photography of the river valley. The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (BOR)'s, Resources Management Office in Boulder City, Nev., provided historical aerial photographs of the river valley from the Hoover Dam to the United States-Mexican border, with some exclusions. USGS authors scanned and mosaicked the photographs, registered the photo mosaics, and created metadata describing each mosaic series, all 15 of which are presented here.

  6. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources. About 46.6 million people live in the SWPA study area, mostly in urban areas, but also in rural, agricultural communities that cultivate about 14.4 million acres of cropland. Other rural areas contain small communities with mining, retirement, or tourism/recreational-based economies. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in the arid to semiarid climate, cultural and economic activities in the region are particularly dependent on good-quality groundwater supplies. In the year 2000, about 33.7 million acre-feet (acre-ft) of surface water was diverted from streams, and about 23.0 million acre-ft of groundwater was withdrawn from basin-fill aquifers in the SWPA study area. Irrigation and public-supply withdrawals from basin-fill aquifers in the study area for 2000 were about 18.0 million acre-ft and 4.1 million acre-ft, respectively, and together account for about one quarter of the total withdrawals from all aquifers in the United States. Although irrigation and public supply are the primary uses of basin-fill aquifer withdrawals in the study area, water use varies locally by basin, and withdrawals for industrial, mining, and electric power generation also are substantial in some areas.

  7. Taxonomic status of certain clapper rails of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, R.C.; Tomlinson, R.E.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of 58 Clapper Rail specimens taken in the breeding season from the Colorado Valley and the west coast of mainland Mexico verifies the distinctness of the races Rallus longirostris yomanensis, R. 1. rhizophorae, and R. 1. nayaritensis. Rallus 1. yumanensis is a relatively pale brown, pointed-winged, summer resident of freshwater marshes along the valley and delta of the Colorado River. Late winter specimens of yumanensis have been taken in freshwater and saltwater habitats in the Mexican states of Sinaloa and Puebla. Both R. 1. rhizophorae, a pale grayish bird, and R. 1. nayaritensis, a darker grayish form, are presumed year-round residents of the western Mexican mangrove swamps. Both have more rounded wings than yumanensis. The range of rhizophorae extends south along the coast from central Sonora to central Sinaloa, and that of nayaritensis from central Sinaloa to the vicinity of San Blas, Nayarit. Features of the range and characters of birds where the range of these two races approach each other are unclear.

  8. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013.

    PubMed

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009-2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January-October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  9. Improving Access to Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test in Niger State, Nigeria: An Assessment of Implementation up to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Awoleye, Olatunji Joshua; Thron, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria's 2009–2013 malaria strategic plan adopted WHO diagnosis and treatment guidelines, which include the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) prior to prescribing treatment with artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). The current study explores accessibility barriers to the use of RDTs in Niger State and makes recommendations for improving the uptake of RDTs. The study employs literature review, review of data from the Niger State Health Management Information System for January–October 2013, and application of Peters' conceptual framework for assessing access to health services. Data showed that 27 percent of public health facilities (HFs) implemented RDTs, with the aid of donor funds. In these facilities, 77 percent of fever cases presented during the study period were tested with RDTs; 53 percent of fever cases were confirmed cases of malaria, while 60 percent of fever cases were treated. Stockouts of RDTs were a major constraint, and severe fever tended to trigger presumptive treatment. We conclude that although implementation of RDTs led to a reduction in the use of ACTs at HFs, more substantial reduction could be achieved if the state government directed more resources towards the acquisition of RDTs as well as raising the level of awareness of potential users. PMID:27042376

  10. Utilization of LANDSAT-8 Data for Lithological Mapping of Basement Rocks of Plateau State North Central Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusuk, D. J.; Hashim, M.; Pour, A. B.; Musa, S. I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper utilized the Landsat-8 image data to map the lithology's of Plateau state north central Nigeria. This is includes the rocks, with particular emphasis on their description and classification. We are living in geologic times and sciences that provide adequate knowledge of the natures of what we live on so as to preserve and have means of sustaining human life. Plateau State is covered by four scenes of Landsat Data, and to describe the lithology's, each scene was processed to produce images. Two different false colour composite images of Landsat-8 (FCC 7, 5 and 3 and BR composites) in RGB were generated and used for the production of 1:100,000 geological map of the study area. The identification of predominant biotitic granitic rocks was revealed and that are distributed along the Jos-Bukuru complex and underlying almost half of the entire state. Moreover, the other rock complexes such as basalts and rhyolites volcanic rocks were also discriminated. This study indicates that Landsat-8 image data has great capability to discriminate lithological units and the production of up-to-date geological maps at regional scale and could be applicable in other regions of the African continent.

  11. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December–February) and during the monsoon season (July–September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5–6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42−, NO3−, and Cl–, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42− show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42− unlike snow SO42−, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42− (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42−-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3− : SO42− ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3− : SO42− ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3− : SO42− ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42− precursors. PMID:24432030

  12. Economic Threshold for Cotton Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Cotton in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Kerns, D L; Yates, J A; Baugh, B A

    2015-08-01

    Cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a common pest of cotton throughout much of the world. In the United States, insecticide applications targeting cotton aphid in cotton are common in the Mid-South, Texas, and California. Cotton aphid population dynamics data were collected from eight insecticide efficacy trials conducted in Lubbock, TX, over a 4-yr period. Among the field populations in the nontreated plots, the instantaneous rate of population growth averaged 0.56 ± 0.608, and the mean population doubling time was 3.97 ± 2.16 d. For calculating economic injury levels (EIL) and thresholds, control costs were set at US$30.50/ha, market prices were evaluated at US$0.88, US$1.33, US$1.77, and US$2.21 kg-lint, and cotton yield potentials were evaluated at 672, 896, and 1,120 kg-lint/ha. The EIL we calculated ranged from 66 to 272 aphids per leaf, and averaged 137 aphids per leaf. Economic thresholds (ET) were calculated based on lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d before EIL occurs. The mean ET across control cost, market price, and yield potential were 110 ± 48, 70 ± 31, 45 ± 19, and 29 ± 13 aphids per leaf at lead times of 1, 3, 5, and 7 d, respectively. Most curative pest management tactics in cotton are implemented within 3 d of determining need, and the ET at 3 d that we calculated (70 ± 31 aphids per leaf) overlaps the current recommended action threshold in Texas and California of 50 aphids per leaf. PMID:26470321

  13. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, A; Shingler, T; Harpold, A; Feagles, C W; Meixner, T; Brooks, P D

    2013-08-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Na(+)) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Cl(-), suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate [Formula: see text] show a statistically significant correlation with rain [Formula: see text] unlike snow [Formula: see text], which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of [Formula: see text] (and precursors) and the varying degree to which [Formula: see text]-enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the [Formula: see text] : [Formula: see text] ratio in rain increased at the

  14. Ordinary High Water Mark in ephemeral and intermittent channels in the arid southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, K. E.; Lichvar, R.; Dixon, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) is important for regulating stream channels, as it defines the lateral extent of non-wetland waters, as defined under Waters of the United States in the Clean Water Act (33 CFR Part 328.3). Prior to this study, little was known about the OHWM and geomorphically effective events in arid southwest ephemeral and intermittent channels. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain features and flow dynamics are challenging to identify in these channels because of the unstable channel morphology, flashy flood events, and lack of gage data. Through field surveys, LiDAR high-resolution topography data collection, HEC-RAS flow modeling, analysis of aerial photography, and determination of recurrence intervals using gage data, we have developed a methodology to identify the hydrogeomorphic floodplain units and delineate the OHWM. The hydrogeomorphic floodplain units include a migratory low-flow channel, an active floodplain associated with low to moderate discharge events, and a low terrace inundated by moderate to high floods. We identified primary OHWM indicators such as a break in slope, a change in sediment texture, and a change in vegetation characteristics that create a repeatable and reliable signature in the channel morphology that is associated with the OHW boundary between the active floodplain and the low terrace. Secondary indicators such as drift, ripples, and silt deposits are randomly distributed throughout the channel and cannot be linked to a particular inundation extent. In an analysis of 14 gaged ephemeral and intermittent channels, we determined that the recurrence intervals varied from <1 to 15.5 yr. Lower recurrence intervals were typically associated with more stable channels, while channels with a sandy, erodable substrate had higher recurrence intervals. A more complete understanding of the channel morphology and the highly variable OHW recurrence intervals allows more reliable and repeatable delineations in southwest ephemeral

  15. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-04-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+,Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain decreased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

  16. Aerosol and precipitation chemistry in the southwestern United States: spatiotemporal trends and interrelationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, A.; Shingler, T.; Harpold, A.; Feagles, C. W.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.

    2013-08-01

    This study characterizes the spatial and temporal patterns of aerosol and precipitation composition at six sites across the United States Southwest between 1995 and 2010. Precipitation accumulation occurs mostly during the wintertime (December-February) and during the monsoon season (July-September). Rain and snow pH levels are usually between 5-6, with crustal-derived species playing a major role in acid neutralization. These species (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+) exhibit their highest concentrations between March and June in both PM2.5 and precipitation due mostly to dust. Crustal-derived species concentrations in precipitation exhibit positive relationships with SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-, suggesting that acidic gases likely react with and partition to either crustal particles or hydrometeors enriched with crustal constituents. Concentrations of particulate SO42- show a statistically significant correlation with rain SO42- unlike snow SO42-, which may be related to some combination of the vertical distribution of SO42- (and precursors) and the varying degree to which SO42--enriched particles act as cloud condensation nuclei versus ice nuclei in the region. The coarse : fine aerosol mass ratio was correlated with crustal species concentrations in snow unlike rain, suggestive of a preferential role of coarse particles (mainly dust) as ice nuclei in the region. Precipitation NO3- : SO42- ratios exhibit the following features with potential explanations discussed: (i) they are higher in precipitation as compared to PM2.5; (ii) they exhibit the opposite annual cycle compared to particulate NO3- : SO42- ratios; and (iii) they are higher in snow relative to rain during the wintertime. Long-term trend analysis for the monsoon season shows that the NO3- : SO42- ratio in rain increased at the majority of sites due mostly to air pollution regulations of SO42- precursors.

  17. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    16 of the CMIP5 models had all the data needed for this work for at least one simulation that was continuous from 1950 to 2040. Details of the models analyzed here are provided in Table S1. The model data analyzed here are available at http://strega.ldeo.columbia.edu:81/expert/home/.naomi/.AR5/.v2/.historical:rcp85/.mmm16/ a. Assessing the climatology of the models Despite increases in horizontal resolution of many models compared to their CMIP3 counterparts none of these models can adequately resolve the topography of the south west United States, such as the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the associated orographic precipitation. This requires that caution be used when interpreting the results presented here. To assess the ability of the models to simulate the current hydroclimate, in Figure S1 we show the observed (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded rain gauge data, (1)) monthly climatology of precipitation and the same for all the models and the multimodel mean for the California-Nevada, Colorado headwaters and Texas regions. The GPCC data uses rain gauges only and interpolates to regular grids of which we used the 1? by 1? one. Details of the data set can be found in (2). While the models apparently overestimate precipitation in California and Nevada the seasonal cycle with wet winters and dry summers is very well represented. It is also possible that the rain gauge observations are biased low by inadequately sampling the higher mountain regions. How ever the models might also be expected to underestimate orographic precipitation due to inadequate horizontal resolution. The 25 models are also too wet in the Colorado headwaters region but correctly represent the quite even distribution though the year. The bimodal distribution of precipitation in Texas, with peaks in May and September, and the absolute amounts, are well modeled but with the September peak too weak. The positive precipitation bias translates into a positive runoff

  18. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    16 of the CMIP5 models had all the data needed for this work for at least one simulation that was continuous from 1950 to 2040. Details of the models analyzed here are provided in Table S1. The model data analyzed here are available at http://strega.ldeo.columbia.edu:81/expert/home/.naomi/.AR5/.v2/.historical:rcp85/.mmm16/ a. Assessing the climatology of the models Despite increases in horizontal resolution of many models compared to their CMIP3 counterparts none of these models can adequately resolve the topography of the south west United States, such as the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the associated orographic precipitation. This requires that caution be used when interpreting the results presented here. To assess the ability of the models to simulate the current hydroclimate, in Figure S1 we show the observed (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded rain gauge data, (1)) monthly climatology of precipitation and the same for all the models and the multimodel mean for the California-Nevada, Colorado headwaters and Texas regions. The GPCC data uses rain gauges only and interpolates to regular grids of which we used the 1? by 1? one. Details of the data set can be found in (2). While the models apparently overestimate precipitation in California and Nevada the seasonal cycle with wet winters and dry summers is very well represented. It is also possible that the rain gauge observations are biased low by inadequately sampling the higher mountain regions. How ever the models might also be expected to underestimate orographic precipitation due to inadequate horizontal resolution. The 25 models are also too wet in the Colorado headwaters region but correctly represent the quite even distribution though the year. The bimodal distribution of precipitation in Texas, with peaks in May and September, and the absolute amounts, are well modeled but with the September peak too weak. The positive precipitation bias translates into a positive runoff

  19. Revised Household-Based Microplanning in Polio Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kano State, Nigeria. 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Emmanuel; Mkanda, Pascal; Banda, Richard; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Warigon, Charity; Abdullahi, Suleiman; Abba, Bashir; Isiaka, Ayodeji; Yahualashet, Yared G.; Touray, Kebba; Chevez, Ana; Tegegne, Sisay G.; Nsubuga, Peter; Etsano, Andrew; Shuaib, Faisal; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Remarkable progress had been made since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988. However endemic wild poliovirus transmission in Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan remains an issue of international concern. Poor microplanning has been identified as a major contributor to the high numbers of chronically missed children. Methods. We assessed the contribution of the revised household-based microplanning process implemented in Kano State from September 2013 to April 2014 to the outcomes of subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities using used preselected planning and outcome indicators. Results. There was a 38% increase in the number of settlements enumerated, a 30% reduction in the number of target households, and a 54% reduction in target children. The reported number of children vaccinated and the doses of oral polio vaccine used during subsequent polio supplemental immunization activities showed a decline. Postvaccination lot quality assurance sampling and chronically missed settlement reports also showed a progressive reduction in the number of children and settlements missed. Conclusions. We observed improvement in Kano State's performance based on the selected postcampaign performance evaluation indicators and reliability of baseline demographic estimates after the revised household-based microplanning exercise. PMID:26908755

  20. An assessment of food safety needs of restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N; Hedberg, Craig W

    2013-08-02

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they cleaned and sanitized food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson's Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri.

  1. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Enwereji, EE

    2009-01-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. Method: The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. Results: None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. Conclusion: The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS PMID:21483498

  2. An Assessment of Food Safety Needs of Restaurants in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onyeneho, Sylvester N.; Hedberg, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred and forty five head chefs and catering managers of restaurants in Owerri, Nigeria were surveyed to establish their knowledge of food safety hazards and control measures. Face-to-face interviews were conducted and data collected on their knowledge of risk perception, food handling practices, temperature control, foodborne pathogens, and personal hygiene. Ninety-two percent reported that they clean and sanitize food equipment and contact surfaces while 37% engaged in cross-contamination practices. Forty-nine percent reported that they would allow a sick person to handle food. Only 70% reported that they always washed their hands while 6% said that they continued cooking after cracking raw eggs. All respondents said that they washed their hands after handling raw meat, chicken or fish. About 35% lacked knowledge of ideal refrigeration temperature while 6% could not adjust refrigerator temperature. Only 40%, 28%, and 21% had knowledge of Salmonella, E. coli, and Hepatitis A, respectively while 8% and 3% had knowledge of Listeria and Vibrio respectively, as pathogens. Open markets and private bore holes supplied most of their foods and water, respectively. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient analysis revealed almost perfect linear relationship between education and knowledge of pathogens (r = 0.999), cooking school attendance and food safety knowledge (r = 0.992), and class of restaurant and food safety knowledge (r = 0.878). The lack of current knowledge of food safety among restaurant staff highlights increased risk associated with fast foods and restaurants in Owerri. PMID:23917815

  3. Knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes to female genital mutilation (FGM) in Shao community of Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Amusan, O A; Asekun-Olarinmoye, E O

    To determine the level of knowledge, belief, and assess the attitude to female genital mutilation (FGM) and its complications in Shao community, Nigeria, a cross-sectional descriptive study with a health education intervention was used. A majority of respondents (99.5%) understood female circumcision to mean cutting off parts of the female genitals. There was a high level of knowledge regarding most of the complications of FGM as more than 50% of respondents knew at least four complications of FGM. Awareness of the global anti-FGM campaign was also high (78.8%). The most common reasons proffered for the practice of FGM were based on tradition or religion. Paternal grandfathers (50.0%) and fathers (21.0%) were cited as decision makers in the family most often responsible for requesting FGM. Post-intervention results showed that there was a statistically significant increase in the proportion of respondents who know more complications of FGM and who have no intention of circumcising future female children. Despite a high level of knowledge regarding the complications of FGM and a high level of awareness of the global campaign against it, there still exists a high prevalence of practice of FGM in this community. FGM remains a pressing human rights and public health issue. It is our recommendation that this health education intervention strategy be replicated nationwide especially using mass media.

  4. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its determinants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Bayelsa state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Ismail A.; Momo, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: A high level of adherence is required to achieve the desired outcomes of antiretroviral therapy. There is paucity of information about adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy in Bayelsa State of southern Nigeria. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine the level of adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy among the patients, evaluate the improvement in their immune status and identify reasons for sub-optimal adherence to therapy. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved administration of an adapted and pretested questionnaire to 601 consented patients attending the two tertiary health institutions in Bayesla State, Nigeria: The Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa and the Niger-Delta University Teaching Hospital Okolobiri. The tool was divided into various sections such as socio-demographic data, HIV knowledge and adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy. Information on the patient’s CD4+ T cells count was retrieved from their medical records. Adherence was assessed by asking patients to recall their intake of prescribed doses in the last fourteen days and subjects who had 95-100% of the prescribed antiretroviral drugs were considered adherent. Results: Three hundred and forty eight (57.9%) of the subjects were females and 253 (42.1%) were males. The majority of them, 557 (92.7%) have good knowledge of HIV and combined anti-retroviral therapy with a score of 70.0% and above. A larger proportion of the respondents, 441 (73.4%), had ≥95% adherence. Some of the most important reasons giving for missing doses include, “simply forgot” 147 (24.5%), and “wanted to avoid the side-effects of drugs” 33(5.5%). There were remarkable improvements in the immune status of the subjects with an increment in the proportion of the subjects with CD4+ T cells count of greater than 350 cells/mm3 from 33 (5.5%) at therapy initiation to 338 (56.3%) at study period (p<0.0001). Conclusion: The adherence level of 73.4% was low which calls

  5. Contamination of shallow wells in Nigeria from surface contaminant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Ademoroti, C.M.A. )

    1987-01-01

    Contaminated wells, located in six south/western and western states of Nigeria, were sampled and analyzed for pollution characteristics. Results of analysis indicated migration of contaminants into the wells from places where there was a potential source. There was a significant microbiological population in the wells placed near domestic waste sites. Also, there were excessive levels of trace heavy metals in those placed near metal dumping sites. On the other hand, the contaminants were minimal in wells that were not close to polluting sources. The studies revealed that groundwater contamination occurred primarily by dumping of wastes, wrong placement of waste disposal facilities, and improper construction of wells. The groundwater sources (wells, etc.) are used when pipe-borne water facilities are inadequate.

  6. Tobacco related knowledge and support for smoke-free policies among community pharmacists in Lagos state, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Poluyi, Edward O.; Odukoya, Oluwakemi O.; Aina, Bolajoko; Faseru, Babalola

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are no safe levels of exposure to second hand smoke and smoke-free policies are effective in reducing the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Pharmacists, as a unique group of health professionals, might be able to play a role in the promotion of smoke-free policies. Objective: To determine the tobacco-related knowledge of community pharmacists and assess their support for smoke-free policies in Lagos state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study design using both quantitative and qualitative methods was employed. Two hundred and twelve randomly selected community pharmacists were surveyed using a pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. In addition, one focus group discussion was conducted with ten members of the Lagos state branch of the Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria. Results: The quantitative survey revealed that the majority (72.1%) of the respondents were aged between 20 and 40 years, predominantly male (60.8%), Yoruba (50.2%) or Igbo (40.3%) ethnicity and had been practicing pharmacy for ten years or less (72.2%). A majority (90.1%) of respondents were aware that tobacco is harmful to health. Slightly less (75.8%) were aware that second hand smoke is harmful to health. Among the listed diseases, pharmacists responded that lung (84.4%) and esophageal (68.9%) cancers were the most common diseases associated with tobacco use. Less than half of those surveyed associated tobacco use with heart disease (46.9%), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (27.8%), bladder cancer (47.2%), peripheral vascular disease (35.8%) and sudden death (31.1%). Only 51.9% had heard of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). A little over half of the respondents (53.8%) were aware of any law in Nigeria controlling tobacco use. The majority of respondents supported a ban on smoking in homes (83.5%), in public places (79.2%), and in restaurants, nightclubs and bars (73.6%). For every

  7. Relative Technical Efficiency of Cassava Farmers in the Three Agro-Ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhabor, P. O.; Emokaro, C. O.

    This study employed the use of the Stochastic Frontier Production Function in the comparative economic analysis of the relative technical efficiency of cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of Edo State. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 156 cassava farmers from the three agro-ecological zones of the State and the differences in the results obtained were discussed. The empirical estimates showed individual technical efficiency values that ranged from 23 to 95%, 43 to 97% and 52 to 98% with a mean of 72, 83 and 91%, for Edo South, Edo North and Edo Central agro-ecological zones, respectively. This shows that systemic differences in relative technical efficiency levels exist between the three zones and these differences were shown to be related to particular farmer`s characteristics. Non-physical factors that served as determinants of technical inefficiency in the three zones were, farmers level of education, age, farming experience and variety of planting materials used. Gender and family size were however, not found to be significant determinants of the technical inefficiency of cassava farmers in the State. Apart from this estimates serving as a guide to potential investors in the cassava industry in the State, the relative variations in technical efficiency is also an indication of the gaps that exist in the current production technologies employed by cassava farmers in the three agro-ecological zones of the State. The gaps should serve as intervention points for government and non-governmental agencies as well as other stakeholders in the emerging cassava industry in Nigeria.

  8. A field guide for the assessment of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition in incised channels of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John T.C.

    2000-01-01

    Deeply incised channels, commonly called arroyos, are a typical feature of the dry alluvium-filled valleys of the southwestern United States. Unlike many geological processes that operate over millions of years, the formation of many miles of arroyos is one that took place in a little more than a century. Most arroyos in the region began to form in the late 19th century. Because dry landscapes change so quickly, they present society with special problems. Rapid expansion of channels by headcut migration, deepening, and widening causes loss of productive agricultural and commercial lands and threatens infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and buildings. High rates of sedimentation shorten the life of reservoirs, clog culverts, and fill stream channels to the extent that they can no longer contain streamflow within their banks. This report presents an explanation of erosional and depositional processes in desert landscapes, especially those characterized by incised channels, for the use of those who use, manage, and live on such lands. The basic principles of erosion, sediment transport, and deposition are presented including the formation of sediment, the forces that erode and transport it, the forces that resist its erosion and transport, and the conditions that cause it to be deposited. The peculiarities of sedimentation processes in the Southwest include the infrequent and variable precipitation, the geological setting, and the sparseness of vegetation. A classification system for incised channels that is intended for users who do not necessarily have a background in fluvial hydrology has been developed and is presented in this report. The classification system is intended to enable a user to classify a reach of channel quickly on the basis of field observations. The system is based on the shape and condition of channels and on the sedimentation processes that are predominantly responsible for those conditions. Because those processes are controlled by

  9. Using remotely sensed indices of primary productivity to evaluate large mammal abundance and movement in the arid Southwestern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, D.; Edwards, T.; Sexton, J. O.; Nagol, J.; Sims, A.; Ironside, K.; Choate, D.; Longshore, K.; Anand, A.; Mattson, D.

    2013-12-01

    Southwestern ecoregions are marked by topographic and climatic variability, which facilitates the coexistence of large herbivores exploiting different dietary niches. Mountain ungulates buffer this variability through physiological and behavioral adaptations such as fat accumulation and seasonal migrations. However, projected climatic shifts imply changes in vegetation biomass and phenology, and therefore mammalian distributions. Here we evaluate how the distribution of primary productivity and phenological rhythms influence abundance and seasonal movements of three widely distributed ungulate species and their principal predator. We used spatio-temporal patterns in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) measurements at 250-m, daily resolution to explain spatial variability in the abundance of mule deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Ungulate population response to NDVI was assessed using annual survey data collected by state wildlife agencies with jurisdiction on and around the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. We used NDVI-ungulate relationships to evaluate the spatial requirements and potential densities of cougars; a predator whose diet, density, and distribution is closely tied to these species. Cougar location data were combined from nine radio-telemetry studies conducted over a range of climatic conditions. Focal ungulates demonstrated differing responses to patterns in NDVI. Mule deer abundance corresponded to the timing of green-up (late spring), elk abundance correlated best with peak green biomass (July-Aug), and bighorn showed no relationship to NDVI. Seasonal movements also differed, with deer migrating between distinct summer and winter ranges; bighorn residing on annual ranges, and elk demonstrating a mixed pattern of residency and migration. Cougar movements did not correspond to phenology per se, but home range size and diet diversity varied inversely with NDVI. Projected shifts in the

  10. Effects of salinity on establishment of Populus fremontii (cottonwood) and Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) in southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1995-01-01

    The exotic shrub Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) has replaced the native Populus fremontii(cottonwood) along many streams in southwestern United States. We used a controlled outdoor experiment to examine the influence of river salinity on germination and first year survival of P. fremontii var. wislizenii (Rio Grande cottonwood) and T. ramosissima on freshly deposited alluvial bars. We grew both species from seed in planters of sand subjected to a declining water table and solutions containing 0, 1, 3, and 5 times the concentrations of major ions in the Rio Grande at San Marcia, NM (1.2, 10.0, 25.7 and 37.4 meq 1-1; 0.11, 0.97, 2.37, and 3.45 dS m-1). Germination of P. fremontii declined by 35% with increasing salinity (P = .008). Germination of T. ramosissima was not affected. There were no significant effects of salinity on morality or above- and belowground growth of either species. In laboratory tests the same salinities had no effect onP. fremontii germination. P. fremontii germination is more sensitive to salinity outdoors than in covered petri dishes, probably because water scarcity resulting from eavaportion intensifies the low soil water potential associated with high salinity. River salinity appears to play only a minor role in determining relative numbers of P. fremontii and T. ramosissima seedlings on freshly deposited sandbars. However, over many years salt becomes concentrated on floodplains as a result of evaporation and salt extrusion from saltcedar leaves. T. ramosissima is known to be more tolerant of the resulting extreme salinities than P. fremontii. Therefore, increases in river salinities could indirectly contribute to decline of P. fremontii forests by exacerbating salt accumulation on floodplains.

  11. Population redistribution in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, A

    1984-07-01

    One of the major consequences of the reorganization of Nigeria from 4 states into 12 states in 1967 and then into 19 states in the late 1970s was the redistribution of the Nigerian population. Prior to 1967 Nigeria's rural population migrated primarily to the 4 state capitals of Kaduna, Ibadan, Enugu, Benin City and to the federal capital of Lagos. The creation of additional states, each with their own capital, provided new urban environments where migrants from rural areas were afforded opportunities for employment and social mobility. Between 1960-1980, World Bank estimates indicate that 1) population in Nigerian cityes of over 500,000 population increased from 22-57%; 2) the number of cities with a population of 500,000 or more increased from 2 to 9 and 3) the urban population increased from 13-20%. Given Nigeria's estimated population growth rate of 3.6%/year, it is imperative that the goverment continue its decentralization efforts. Tables show 1) population by region based on the 1963 census; 2) estimated population of the 19 state capitals for 1963 and 1975; and 3) estimated population of the areas included in each of the 19 states for 196o, 1977, 1979, and 19819

  12. Salmonella and Escherichia coli contamination of poultry meat from a processing plant and retail markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeyanju, Gladys Taiwo; Ishola, Olayinka

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella spp and Escherichia coli are the two most important food-borne pathogens of public health interest incriminated in poultry meat worldwide. This study is to access their levels in frozen poultry meat obtained in Ibadan, Oyo State and compare those obtained from a commercial Nigerian-registered poultry company having a broiler-processing plant, Sayed Farms Ltd(R), with that obtained from retail stores. These retail stores source their products as illegal imports from neighboring Benin Republic or Togo because of a ban imposed by Government policy in Nigeria since July 2002 (USDA, GAIN report #NI2025:1-6, 2002). Microbiological Standards and Guidelines by USDA (National Agricultural library) (USDA 2011) and NCCLS guidelines (from Global Salm-Surv, 2003) were used during the research work. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Review Board (ERRB, Research Management Office 2011), University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A total of one hundred and fifty-two (152) frozen poultry meat samples comprising ninety-nine retail poultry (53 chicken and 46 turkey) and 53 chicken from the processing plant were accessed. ISO Standards catalogue 07.100.30 (2011) was used in accessing the levels of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae counts and Aerobic plate count. ISO 6579: 2002 was used for Salmonella isolation and ISO-16654:2001 for Escherichia coli isolation. There was a higher level of Aerobic plate counts and Enterobacteriaceae counts in frozen retail poultry meat than from the processing plant. Salmonella contamination from the ninety-nine poultry samples (53 chicken and 46 turkey) obtained from retail markets was at 33% [chicken 32.1% (17/53) and turkey 34.8% (16/46)] while Escherichia coli at 43.4% [chicken 47.2% (25/53) and turkey 39.1% (18/46)]. From the processing plant, twelve (12) Salmonella isolates were obtained and prevalence rate calculated as 22.6% while three (3) Escherichia coli isolates at 5.7% was obtained. Antibiotic sensitivity for

  13. The effect of Ebola Virus Disease outbreak on hand washing among secondary school students in Ondo State Nigeria, October, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Alele, Faith Osaretin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand washing with soap and water is one of the cheapest, most effective ways of limiting the spread of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). Despite its importance the prevalence of hand washing was low before the EVD outbreak in Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the factors associated with improved hand washing practices following the EVD outbreak. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study of 440 students from a secondary school in Owo, Ondo State was done. Data was collected in October 2014 when Nigeria was yet to be declared EVD free. Systematic random sampling was used. A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire was used. Data was analysed with epi info version 7, descriptive statistics were done, Chi square test was used for the assessment of significant associations between proportions. Determinants of good hand washing practices was identified using logistics regression analysis at 5% level of significance. Results Of 440 respondents, mean age was 13.7±1.9 years. Females were 48.2%. Only 4.6% have never heard of Ebola Virus Disease.Level of hand washing with soap and water improved by62.6%. Significant improvement in hand washing was in 75.8% of those who heard through social media (p < 0.001), 70.5% of Newspaper readers(p < 0.001), 65.6% of radio listeners (p = 0.001), 75.4% of family members p < 0.001, 76.3% talk in church p < 0.001, 77.6% peers p = 0.02, 72.4% TV p < 0.001.Change in hand washing practices was associated with watching television (AOR: 2.2; CI 95%: 1.1-4.3) and listening to health education in church (AOR: 2.4; CI 95%: 1.2-4.7).Major reason for change in hand washing practices was because of EVD deadly nature, 170(40.5%). Conclusion Watching health education messages on television and listening to it in church are the determinants of change in hand washing practices. Promotion of hand washing with soap and water needs to be sustained to prevent other diseases. Training of students on prevention of EVD was

  14. Exploring Consumer Perceptions and Economic Burden of Onchocerciasis on Households in Enugu State, South-East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ibe, Ogochukwu; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Ajuba, Miriam; Okonkwo, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Onchocerciasis or river blindness constitutes a major burden to households especially in resource-poor settings, causing a significant reduction in household productivity. There has been renewed interest from policy makers to reduce the burden of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as onchocerciasis on individuals and households. This paper provides new information on the patient’s perceptions of onchocerciasis and its economic burden on households in South-eastern Nigeria. The information will be useful to health providers and policy makers for evidence-informed resource allocation decisions. Methods Information was generated from a cross-sectional household survey conducted in Achi community, Oji River Local Government Area (LGA) of Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria. A pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 747 households were visited randomly and data were collected using pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire from 370 respondents. The respondents’ knowledge of the cause of symptoms of the disease, costs incurred for seeking treatment and productivity losses were elicited. Data were analyzed using tabulations and inferential statistics. A socio-economic status (SES) index was used to disaggregate some key variables by SES quintiles for equity analysis. Results Many people had more than one type of manifestation of onchocerciasis. However, more than half of the respondents (57%) had no knowledge of the cause of their symptoms. Male respondents had significantly more knowledge of the cause of symptoms than females (P = 0.04) but knowledge did not differ across SES (P = 0.82). The average monthly treatment cost per respondent was US$ 14.0. Drug cost (US$10) made up about 72% of total treatment cost. The per capita productivity loss among patients was US$16 and it was higher in the poorest (Q1) (US$20) and the third SES quintiles (Q3) (US$21). The average monthly productivity loss among

  15. Correlates of the Quality of life of Adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS in Benue State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Akpa, Onoja Matthew; Bamgboye, Elijah Afolabi

    2015-01-01

    It was estimated that over 260,000 children are living with HIV/AIDS while close to 2 million are directly or indirectly affected by the disease in Nigeria. Improvements in treatments for infected children have been documented in the literature but there is a gross knowledge gap on the impact of HIV/AIDS on the quality of life and psychosocial functioning (PSF) of affected children in Nigeria. We comparatively explored the association of quality of life with PSF and other factors among adolescents in families affected by HIV/AIDS (FAHA) and in families not affected by HIV/AIDS (FNAHA). Data was extracted for 960 adolescents from a State wide cross-sectional study in which participants were selected through multistage sampling techniques. Data was collected using questionnaires consisting of demographic information, adapted WHO-QOL BREF and the Strength & Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ). The quality of life scores were categorized into Poor, Moderate and High based on the amount of standard deviation away from the mean while the SDQ scores were categorized into normal, borderline and abnormal based on the SDQ scoring systems. Chi-square test and independent t-test were used for bivariate analyses while logistic regression was used for multivariate analyses at 5% level of significance. Proportion with poor quality of life (27.0%) was significantly higher among adolescents in FAHA than in FNAHA (p=0.0001). Adolescents in FAHA (OR:2.32; 95%CI:1.67-4.09) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those in FNAHA. In FAHA, adolescents on the borderline of PSF (OR:2.19; 95%CI:1.23-3.89) were twice more likely to have poor quality of life than those with normal PSF. Adolescents in FAHA have poorer quality of life than those in FNAHA and also face additional burdens of psychosocial dysfunctions. Interventions focusing on functional social support and economic empowerment will benefit adolescents in FAHA in the studied location. PMID:26587049

  16. Study of Landcover Change in Yelwa-Heipang Area of Plateau State, North-Central Nigeria: A Geoinformatics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Gajere, E. N.; Jeb, D. N.; Agene, I. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study is a research programme carried out to detect the change in land use/land cover of Yelwa-Heipang area of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria. It lies within the South-Eastern part of the Jos-Plateau. It is about 40 km South of Jos city. It is located between latitude 9°35'16.65" N, longitude 8°52'29.91" E and Latitude 9°38'38.92" N, longitude 8°57'03.87" E (Naraguta topomap, sheet 168S.E). Two sets of Landsat images of 1975, 1986 and NigeriaSat-X image of 2012 were subjected to various image processing techniques and a supervised classification was carried out on the various images using ILWIS (Integrated land and water information system) software. The classification scheme used are bare-surface, built-up, farmland and vegetation. A follow up field work was carried out to confirm the results of the classification. The results were subjected to various statistical analyses and it shows natural vegetated area coverage increased from 5.80 sqkm in 1975 to 18.47 sqkm in 1986 and later reduced to 16.85 sqkm in 2012. Non-vegetated area which comprised built-up area, farmlands and bare surface, decreased from 42.2 sqkm in 1975 to 33.82 sqkm in 1986, then to 35.86 sqkm in 2012.The rate of change of natural vegetation between 1975 and 1986 was 1.152 sqkm per annum, while that of 1986 and 2012 was 0.108 sqkm per annum. Loss of naturally vegetated area in Yelwa-Heipang Barkin-Ladi is mainly as a result of urban growth and expansion, farming and gully erosion. Another important issue in the study area is the problem of soil erosion. In the past mining activity had led to accelerated gully erosion which has stripped substantial areas of lands of their vegetations. This has led to the formation of bare surface. Land cover of the study area during the period between 1975 and 2012 changed from a forested area to other land uses as a result of increase in population, demand for land for agricultural purposes and increase in the demand for firewood.

  17. A geospatial approach to evaluation of accessibility to secondary educational institution in Ogun State, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunyemi, S. A.; Muibi, K. H.; Eguaroje, O. E.; Fabiyi, O. O.; Halilu, A. S.

    2014-06-01

    The study therefore examined the spatial distribution of secondary school and the accessibility levels to students in Yewa South local Government area of Nigeria and the factors that give rise to them with a view to providing a framework for effective placement of students. Primary and secondary data were used for the study. Primary data was collected using questionnaire and a hand-held GPS receiver used to capture the coordinate points of schools and other relevant data. Secondary data include administrative map, population figures of both students and Teachers, Names and addresses of the secondary schools in the study area, the school placement sheet and list of schools. The data analysis was carried out using network analysis. School location, number of secondary schools in each ward and the total area were used to determine the pattern of distribution of secondary schools in the study area. Settlements, roads, schools location, number of secondary schools, ward and school enrolments were used to generate both school accessibility and effective placement measure using network analysis. Network analyses were also performed to evaluate nearest school to student and a set of origin-destination (OD) matrix. However, the whole of 25 secondary schools in Yewa south were considered for network analysis ward by ward, and the results of the distance students travel from their settlements to their various schools were shown for all the secondary schools in each ward. Out of 415 Students, 210 students travel below 2 km to their schools which constitute 50.60% total number of students in the local government area while 205 students travel above 2 km to their schools which constitute 49.40%.

  18. Studies on dentition and oral disorders of Camels in Maiduguri Abattoir, Borno State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Eze, Chinedu Athanasius; Adamu, Simon S; Bukar, Mohammed M

    2012-12-01

    Camelus dromedarius dental disorders were surveyed using abattoir samples from Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 313 heads, were randomly examined. The age and sex of the heads were estimated using standard methods and disorders were observed following the split of the oral commissure. Heads with multiple disorders were counted once and of 313 heads, 114 (41.67 %) and 199 (58.33 %) were males and females, respectively. Heads aged <5 years was 18.21 %; 5-10 years, 44.41 %; and >15 years was 37.38 %. Whereas 22.61 % of the total heads had one disorder or another, 7.98 and 14.06 % of the disorders belonged to male and female heads, respectively. The prevalence rate of the disorders observed include dental tartar and calculus (5.42 %), inward rotation of incisors (2.87 %), fractured teeth (7.66 %), maleruption (0.31 %), oligodontia (0.31 %), gingivitis (4.15 %), ulcerated cheek(0.63 %), and presence of foreign body(0.31 %) in the mouth. Prevalence rate of oral-cavity abnormalities in relation to age of the total heads is 5.75, 5.11, and 10.54 % for animals <5, between 5 and 10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively. Furthermore, heads that were affected with various types of disorders are 31.58 % (<5 years of age), 11.51 % (aged 5-10 years), and 28.21 % (>15 years). The study serves as a call for increased oral-cavity health care of camels. PMID:22573007

  19. Estimating the Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants: A Case Study of the Southwestern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2012-05-01

    We estimate the capacity value of concentrating solar power (CSP) plants without thermal energy storage in the southwestern U.S. Our results show that CSP plants have capacity values that are between 45% and 95% of maximum capacity, depending on their location and configuration. We also examine the sensitivity of the capacity value of CSP to a number of factors and show that capacity factor-based methods can provide reasonable approximations of reliability-based estimates.

  20. Nigeria: Teaching Plans and Materials for Secondary Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andriot, Karen; And Others

    This publication contains teacher developed units of study to teach secondary students about Nigerian history, government, geography, industry, and family life. The units are: Sources of Historical Information; History of Benin; Constitutions; Nigeria and the United States; Elections in Nigeria; Nigerian Diplomacy; and Family in Nigeria.…

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in Slaughtered cattle in the abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Saidu, Adamu Saleh; Okolocha, E. C.; Gamawa, A. A.; Babashani, M.; Bakari, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The cause (s) of grossly suspected bTB lesions encountered at the abattoirs during post-mortem (PM), as whether due to Mycobacterium bovis alone or together with other acid fast bacilli (AFB). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional abattoir based study was conducted on 800 cattle slaughtered in the Northern, Central and Southern zonal abattoirs of Bauchi State, Nigeria, from June to August 2013; using PM meat inspection, Ziehl-Neelsen staining (ZN) and confirmatory polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Results: The occurrence of bTB lesions from the organs of slaughtered cattle in Bauchi State, showed that the lungs had the highest number of suspected tissues 65 (54.20%), followed by the lymph nodes 28 (23.30%) while the heart, liver, spleen, intestines and mammary glands had the other 8.3%, 6.7%, 5.0%, 1.7%, and 0.8%, suspected tissues respectively. By ZN microscopic staining all 100% (2/2) of the intestines were positive for bTB, followed by the heart with 50% (5/10), then the lungs 29.23% (19/65); while the liver, lymph nodes, and spleen had 25%, 21.43% and 16.67% respectively were tested positive for bTB. It was only the mammary gland that tested negative for bTB in all the suspected tissues sampled. By PCR, the intestines had the highest positive bTB with 100% (2/2), followed by the liver with 12.5% (1/8), and then the lungs with 7.8% (5/65). The lymph nodes had 7.14% (2/28) tissues that tested positive for bTB. However, the spleen, heart and mammary gland were all tested negative with 0%; indicating that the false positive for bTB detected by ZN were confirmed by PCR. While based on the location of the abattoirs in the three senatorial zones of Bauchi State, Bauchi zonal abattoir had the highest number of suspected bTB cases 75 (62.50%), followed by Katagum zonal slaughter house with 32 (26.7%) and then Misau with 13 (10

  2. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted.

  3. Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obiora, Daniel N.; Ajala, Adeolu E.; Ibuot, Johnson C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents result of 30 vertical electrical soundings carried out in Makurdi, Benue state capital, north-central Nigeria to evaluate aquifer protective capacity and soil corrosivity of overburden units in the study area. This was done using the Schlumberger electrode array to obtain the data and was modelled using computer iteration (Winresist software). The field data gives a resolution with 3-4 geoelectric layers and the observed frequencies in curve types include: 30% of KQ, 16.67% of QH, 6.67% of AA and K, 3.33% of HA, Q and A, 10% of H, KH and HK. Using the longitudinal unit conductance (S), the protective capacities of the study area were classified as 36.67% weak, 10% poor, 40% moderate, and 13.33% as good. The corrosivity ratings of the study area show that 10% is strongly corrosive, 23% moderately corrosive, 37% slightly corrosive, and 30% noncorrosive The results reasonably provide information on areas where industries can be sited and iron pipes can be laid in order to safeguard the hydrological setting for resident's safety in the study area. Regions with moderate/good protective capacity are good sites for locating boreholes.

  4. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled. PMID:17655174

  5. Sero-epizootiological investigation of infectious laryngotracheitis infection in commercial poultry of Plateau State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Shittu, Ismaila; Sulaiman, Lanre K; Gado, Dorcas A; Egbuji, Anthony N; Ndahi, Mwapu D; Pam, Ezekiel; Joannis, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens with outbreaks resulting in high economic losses due to increased mortality and drop in egg production. This study reports a survey of ILT virus antibody conducted in nine local government areas (LGAs) of Plateau State involving 67 randomly selected commercial poultry flocks. In all, 938 sera were tested using the Agar Gel Immuno-diffusion (AGID) technique. Overall prevalence of 1.2% (N = 11) was recorded. ILT virus antibody was found in 2.5% (n = 9) and 7.1% (n = 2) of the tested sera from Jos South and Langtang North LGAs, respectively. No detectable ILT virus antibody was found from the other seven LGAs. This is the first report of ILT infection in poultry from the North central part of Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that the economic implication of ILT infection in Nigerian poultry population be conducted in order to know if vaccination should be adopted for control. PMID:26918306

  6. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products. PMID:25273960

  7. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

  8. Epidemiology of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes in the tropical rainforest of Imo State, south-east Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Anosike, Jude C; Nwoke, Bertram E B; Okere, Anthony N; Oku, Ene E; Asor, Joe E; Emmy-Egbe, Ifeyinwa O; Adimike, Desmond A

    2007-01-01

    The study of tree-hole breeding mosquitoes was carried out in the tropical rainforest of Imo State Nigeria (two rural areas and two forest reserves in some parts of Orlu Senatorial Zone) between May-October 2002. Using standard entomological procedures, two macrohabitats (natural tree-holes and bamboo traps) and two microhabitats (leaf axils of cocoyams/pineapples and leaf axils of plantain/banana) were sampled for various mosquito species. Mosquitoes were recovered from all the various biotypes sampled. Types of mosquitoes species encountered, their relative abundance, as well as genera varied significantly during the study (p<0.05). Four genera of mosquitoes: Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Toxorhynchites were recovered while 16 species of mosquitoes encountered include: Aedes aegypti, Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni, Ae. albopictus, Ae. stokesi, Ae. taylori, Ae. apicoargenteus, Culex quinquefasciatus, Cx. nebulosus, Cx. trigripes, Cx. decens, Anopheles gambiae, An. funiestus, An. coustani and Toxorhynchites viridibasis. Most of the mosquitoes showed oviposition preferences for one or more habitats. The presence of Ae. africanus, Ae. simpsoni and Ae. aegypti indicate that the study areas were at risk of yellow fever epidemic. The presence of Anopheles and Culex species ensured endemicity of malaria and filariasis, while the recovery of Ae. albopictus in this region suggests a possible outbreak of dengue fever in future if not properly controlled.

  9. Acceptance and Utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine and Insecticide-Treated Nets among Pregnant Women in Oyo State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeola, Aderonke A.; Okwilagwe, Eugenia A.

    2015-01-01

    The study is an investigation of the acceptance and utilisation of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (Fansidar), the drug of choice for Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy, and Insecticide-Treated Nets among pregnant women who access different health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Pregnant women (582) attending government primary healthcare antenatal clinics and 50 attending faith clinics purposively selected responded to structured instruments that were analysed using percentages, t-test correlation, and multiple regression. Acceptance and utilisation of RBM tools were higher in government clinics than faith clinics and in rural areas. Pregnant women in government clinics, 60.8% and 66.8%, and faith clinics, 18% and 38.0%, utilised Roll Back Malaria tools, significant at t(630) = 5.81, p ≤ 0.05, and t(630) = 3.99, p ≤ 0.05, respectively. Pregnant women in rural locations who accessed government clinics utilised Roll Back Malaria tools more than those in urban areas, t(580) = −641, p ≤ 0.05. Number of pregnancies, educational qualification of the pregnant women, and marital status significantly and consistently influenced acceptance and utilisation of these tools. To ensure that set targets are met, the utilization of RBM tools among the two categories of pregnant women can be improved by increasing the supply of the tools and ensuring that treatment is free. PMID:26839732

  10. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  11. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ivbade, Akhigbe; Ojo, Olufemi Ernest; Dipeolu, Morenike Atinuke

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 is a major cause of food-borne illnesses in humans. This study investigated the presence of STEC O157 in milk and milk products in Ogun State, Nigeria. Of a total of 202 samples 10 (5%) were positive for STEC O157 including 1 (2%) of 50 raw milk samples, 3 (6%) of 50 samples of fresh local cheese, 1 (2%) of 50 samples of fried local cheese and 5 (9.6%) of 52 fermented milk samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the prevalence of STEC O157 among the sample types. Of 10 isolates, shiga toxin 1 gene (stx1) was detected only in 2 samples (20%), shiga toxin 2 (stx2) was extracted only in 6 samples (60%), stx1 /stx2 in 2 samples (20.0%), intimin gene (eaeA) in 5 samples (50%), and enterohaemolysin (E-hlyA) gene was isolated in 7 (70%) samples. Rates of resistance of the STEC O157 isolates were: amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 100%, ampicillin 100%, chloramphenicol 60%, nalidixic acid 20%, norfloxacin 10%, streptomycin 30%, sulphamethoxazole/trimethprim 20%, and tetracycline 90%. The isolates were all susceptible to ciprofloxacin and neomycin. The presence of virulent multidrug resistant E. coli O157 strains in milk and milk products as revealed by this study unveils a risk of human exposure to these potentially fatal pathogens following consumption of contaminated products.

  12. Household feeding patterns and feeding habits: effects on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo Urban, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ikoh, Moses Udo; Emmanuel, Agness Unwana; Charles, Arit O; Charles, J O

    Food is one of the basic needs of man, and has a strong positive relationship with health. This article examines the impact of food consumption patterns and habits on the health of Ibibio households in Uyo, the capital of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Employing a stratified random sampling framework, the study administered 368 questionnaires to respondents from both low-income and high-income households on equal proportion, and was complimented with four Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Results indicate that the majority of households consumed foods classified under condiments/spices, stem/roots, vegetables, fat/oil, seafood, and poultry/meat on daily basis. Foods such as cereals, fruits, and bulbs were not common in their daily menu. Some respondents, especially from the low-income households, had to skip and/or forego meals for the benefit of the younger ones. The Linear Estimation System (LES) revealed deficiency in the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and blamed this on income poverty and lack of knowledge on the nutritional values of food. To obtain good health, there are prescribed food items that must be eaten in a scientifically required mix. The study therefore recommends nutritional and health education and the creation of awareness on the nutritional values of locally produced food items that would enhance nutritional and health status of the citizenry and food security. PMID:21576067

  13. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation (P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  14. Effect of thermal environment on the temporal, spatial and seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omonijo, Akinyemi Gabriel; Matzarakis, Andreas; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Adeofun, Clement Olabinjo

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics, as well as the seasonal occurrence of measles in Ondo state, Nigeria, to better understand the role of the thermal environment in the occurrence of the childhood killer disease measles, which ranks among the top ten leading causes of child deaths worldwide. The linkages between measles and atmospheric environmental factors were examined by correlating human-biometeorological parameters in the study area with reported clinical cases of measles for the period 1998-2008. We also applied stepwise regression analysis in order to determine the human-biometeorological parameters that lead to statistical changes in reported clinical cases of measles. We found that high reported cases of measles are associated with the least populated areas, where rearing and cohabitation of livestock/domestic animals within human communities are common. There was a significant correlation ( P < 0.01) between monthly cases of measles and human-biometeorological parameters except wind speed and vapour pressure. High transmission of measles occurred in the months of January to May during the dry season when human thermal comfort indices are very high. This highlights the importance of the thermal environment in disease demographics since it accounted for more than 40% variation in measles transmission within the study period.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices among Prison Inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Saliu, Abdulsalam; Akintunde, Babatunde

    2014-01-01

    Prisoners are at special risk for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) because of overcrowded prisons, unprotected sex and sexual assault, occurrence of sexual practices that are risky to health, unsafe injecting practices, and inadequate HIV prevention, care, and support services. This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitude, and preventive practices towards HIV/AIDS by male inmates in Ogbomoso Prison at Oyo State, South West Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study. A simple random sampling method was employed to select 167 male participants and data were collected using pretested structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. The data were collated and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Fifty (29.9%) were in the age group 20-24 years with mean age of 30.99 ± 11.41. About half (50.3%) had been married before incarceration. Family and friends (30%), health care workers (25%), prison staff (20%), and mass media (25%) were the commonest sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Knowledge about HIV was found to be high (94.6%). About 68.9% believed that people with the disease should be avoided. The knowledge about HIV/AIDS among inmates was high, but misconceptions about HIV/AIDS are still rife among the prisoners and educational programs would be required to correct this.

  16. Nigeria's youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Igwe, S A

    1992-05-01

    Improved family and community support would prevent many youth in Nigeria from risk behavior including drinking alcohol, smoking, and using illicit drugs. In Rivers State, 70% of secondary students have had at least 1 alcoholic drink. Further, in Bendel State, 13% of 15-19 year olds in the coastal region drink alcohol compared with 75% of those in the hinterland. Since alcohol affects good judgment skills, this behavior is especially risky during rituals and social activities and causes accidents. Youth who drink are likely to have unplanned and unprotected sexual intercourse. Drinking during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages, low birth weight, and birth defects. Despite the problems with youth and drinking, Nigeria does not have law restricting sales of alcohol to youth. In Nigeria smoking was once predominantly a male habit but is now increasing quickly among women. Most smokers 1st begin their habit when 18 years old. Even thought he Nigerian government has restricted smoking in public places, it has not yet been effective. Smoking has numerous negative effects such as lung cancer, other cancers, shorter life spans, low birth weight, prematurity, higher perinatal mortality, and more labor complications. Moreover the tobacco and alcohol companies advertise widely using ingenious and persuasive promotions. Youth are especially vulnerable to these slick promotions. Cannabis remains the most common illegal drug. Heroin use is growing among urban adolescents in Nigeria, however. Nigeria also serves as a transhipment point for drugs to the US as well as a consumption point. Drug use results in rising numbers of patients in mental hospitals and treatment centers. A particular concern of drug use is transmission of HIV and hepatitis B via needles. Smokers and alcohol drinkers are likely to also be drug users. Families, government, and community organizations need to collaborate to prevent these risk behaviors among youth. PMID:12317498

  17. Post-Closure Challenges of U.S. Department of Energy Sites in Desert Environments of the Southwestern United States - 12095

    SciTech Connect

    Gil, April; Steckley, Deborah; Gauthier, Cassie; Miller, David

    2012-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites located in harsh desert environments of the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States require diligence and continual maintenance to ensure the remediation systems function as designed to protect human health and the environment. The geology and climate of this area create issues that are unique to these sites. Geologic formations contain naturally occurring constituents that are often the same as the residual contaminants remaining from historical milling activities at the sites. Although annual precipitation is low, when precipitation events occur they can be of extreme intensity, resulting in erosion and flooding that can quickly destroy infrastructure and rapidly change site conditions. Winds can cause sand storms and sand mounding that effect site features. These challenging environmental conditions, along with the remote locations of the sites, require active management beyond what was originally envisioned for uranium disposal sites to address concerns in a safe and cost-effective manner. The unique environment of the Four Corners region creates many challenges to the LTSM of LM sites in southwestern United States. The remediation efforts and approaches to infrastructure have to be specifically structured to work in this environment. Often, the systems and structures have to be modified based on lessons learned on how to best adapt to these difficult conditions and remote locations. These sites require continual maintenance and additional efforts compared to many other LM sites. (authors)

  18. Pattern of risky sexual behavior and associated factors among undergraduate students of the University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Imaledo, John Abdulrahman; Peter-Kio, Opirite Boma; Asuquo, Eme Olukemi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Age at sexual debut had decreased in the developing countries recently. Few documented studies have looked into the pattern of risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among undergraduate students in Rivers state of recent. This study examined the pattern of sexual risky behaviour of undergraduate in University of Port-Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Methods A descriptive cross sectional survey was adopted and three hundred students were purposively recruited. Data were collected by a self –administered semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using descriptive and chi-square statistics at 0.05 significant level. Results The mean age of respondents was 21.3±2.8years; more than half (57.4%) were females. Almost a quarter (24.5%) was each in 200 and 300 level of study respectively and more than a quarter (26.7%) lives alone. Sixty-one percent of the respondents had ever taken alcohol beverage with 36.1% of them were current users. More than half (52.0%) the respondents had either boy/girlfriend and a total of 144 (52.0%) had ever had sexual intercourse; of these 13% reportedly had only one sexual partner in their lifetime; girl/boy friend topped the list of their sexual partner; 48.6% respondents were currently sexually active and 32% used a form of protection during their last sexual activity. The mean age at sexual debut was 17.0± 4.5years. Few (13.4%) have had sex in exchange for gifts and 5.1% of these was with a friend. Higher proportions of respondents who reported lifetime use of alcohol were sexually active (p<0.005). Conclusion Respondents exhibits risky sexual behavior as more had sex without any form of protection. Public enlightenment programmes and targeted behavioral change interventions are therefore recommended. PMID:23133697

  19. Sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in three states in North Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajuwon, Ademola J; Olaleye, Adeniyi; Faromoju, Banji; Ladipo, Oladapo

    2006-01-01

    Background Interest in the reproductive health of adolescents continues to grow throughout the world. Few studies had explored the reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion among secondary school students in North Eastern states of Nigeria. The objectives of this descriptive survey were to collect data to plan appropriate interventions that meet the reproductive health knowledge, service and skills needs of students in Bauchi, Borno and Gombe states. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted for 624 consenting students who were randomly selected from eighteen secondary schools using an 83-item structured questionnaire. Data were collected on demographic profile, reproductive health knowledge, sexual behavior and experience of sexual coercion. Results The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 years. There were slightly more males (52%) than females (48%). Students' knowledge about reproductive health was generally low even though girls had better knowledge than boys. Thirteen percent of the entire students had had sexual experience; significantly more males (19%) than females (6%) had done so (p < 0.001). Among boys the age at sexual debut ranged from 10–26 with a mean of 15.7 and median of 16. By contrast, the age at first sex among girls ranged from 10 to 18 years with a mean and median of 16.1 and 17 years respectively. Only 24% of those who were sexually active used a condom during their last sexual encounter. Overall 11% of the students reported that they had been tricked into having sex, 9% had experienced unwanted touch of breast and backside, and 5% reported rape. Conclusion Students low reproductive health knowledge and involvement in risky sexual activities predispose them to undesirable reproductive health outcomes. PMID:17187685

  20. Rationale for Students' Participation in University Governance and Organizational Effectiveness in Ekiti and Ondo States, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akomolafe, C. O.; Ibijola, E. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the rationale for students' participation in university governance and organizational effectiveness. A descriptive research of survey design was adopted. The population consisted of all staff and students of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State and Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Ondo State. 700 subjects…

  1. Malaria prevalence, anemia and baseline intervention coverage prior to mass net distributions in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria suffers the world’s largest malaria burden, with approximately 51 million cases and 207,000 deaths annually. As part of the country’s aim to reduce by 50% malaria-related morbidity and mortality by 2013, it embarked on mass distribution of free long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Methods Prior to net distribution campaigns in Abia and Plateau States, Nigeria, a modified malaria indicator survey was conducted in September 2010 to determine baseline state-level estimates of Plasmodium prevalence, childhood anemia, indoor residual spraying (IRS) coverage and bednet ownership and utilization. Results Overall age-adjusted prevalence of Plasmodium infection by microscopy was similar between Abia (36.1%, 95% CI: 32.3%–40.1%; n = 2,936) and Plateau (36.6%, 95% CI: 31.3%–42.3%; n = 4,209), with prevalence highest among children 5-9 years. P. malariae accounted for 32.0% of infections in Abia, but only 1.4% of infections in Plateau. More than half of children ≤10 years were anemic, with anemia significantly higher in Abia (76.9%, 95% CI: 72.1%–81.0%) versus Plateau (57.1%, 95% CI: 50.6%–63.4%). Less than 1% of households in Abia (n = 1,305) or Plateau (n = 1,335) received IRS in the 12 months prior to survey. Household ownership of at least one bednet of any type was 10.1% (95% CI: 7.5%–13.4%) in Abia and 35.1% (95% CI: 29.2%-41.5%) in Plateau. Ownership of two or more bednets was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.2%–3.7%) in Abia and 14.5% (95% CI: 10.2%–20.3%) in Plateau. Overall reported net use the night before the survey among all individuals, children <5 years, and pregnant women was 3.4%, 6.0% and 5.7%, respectively in Abia and 14.7%, 19.1% and 21.0%, respectively in Plateau. Among households owning nets, 34.4% of children <5 years and 31.6% of pregnant women in Abia used a net, compared to 52.6% of children and 62.7% of pregnant women in Plateau. Conclusions These results reveal high Plasmodium prevalence and childhood

  2. Knowledge and acceptance of sex education at Agbo-Oba, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ebomoyi, E; Elimian, A A

    1985-09-01

    Data on knowledge about and attitudes toward sex education was collected from 178 females and 224 males, 15 years of age or older, who resided in a random sample of 243 households in Agbo-Oba, an urban center located in the Ilorin area of Kwara, Nigeria. Nigerian youth are rarely exposed to sex education in the schools; yet, they are increasingly exposed to the portrayal of irresponsible sex and pornography in imported films, books, and magazines. The present study assessed the need for sex education in Nigerian society and examined public attitudes toward sex education. Percent distributions were used to analyze the material. 63.4% of the male respondents and 70.2% of the female respondents had some knowledge of sex education. The proportion of those with knowledge of sex education increased with educational level. In all age groups, at least 60% of the respondents knew about sex education. Respondents' sources of sex education included parents (24.6%), friends (36.8%), school teachers (18.4%), books and magazines (64.7%), health personnel (6%), and churches (1.5%). Respondent knowledge of specific components of sex education was limited. For example, only 55.45 recognized contraception as a component of sex education, and only 37.1% considered the dissemination of information on sexually transmitted diseases to be a part of sex education. Only 9.2% of the respondents were satisfied with their current level of sexual knowledge. 95.3% knew about gonorrhea, and 47.8% knew about syphilis, but only 12.2% knew about herpes, and only 7.7% knew about chancroid. 65.1% of the Moslems and 78.4% of the Christian respondents, or 74.1% of all the respondents, agreed that there was a need for sex education in Nigerian society. The proportion who agreed increased with educational level. Among those who were receptive to sex education, 88.3% said it should be taught by health personnel; 59.7%, by parents; 42.3%, by school teachers; 11.4%, by religious institutions; and 9.7%, by

  3. Pattern of Skin Diseases at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Nigeria: A 12 Month Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ukonu, B. A.; Eze, E. U

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective: This study aims to look at the pattern and incidence of skin diseases seen in Dermatology/Venereology clinic at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South Zone, Nigeria and compare it with other zones of Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study on pattern and incidence of skin diseases in new patients presenting at the Dermatology/Venereology outpatient clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State, South-South, Nigeria, from September 2006 to August 2007. All patients were seen by the researchers. Diagnosis were made clinically and sometimes with the support of histopathology. Results: A total number of 4786 patients were seen during the study period and these comprised 2647 HIV/AIDS patients and 2112 pure Dermatological patients. Out of 4786 patients, 755 (15.8%) were new patients. The new patients comprised 96 (12.7%) children patients (< 15 years) and 659 (83.7%) adult patients (>15years). The ages of the patients ranged from 2 weeks to 80 years and more than two-third were < 40 years. There were 354 males (46.9%) and 401 females (53.1%). This represents female: male ratio of 1.1: 1. Eczematous dermatitis accounted for 20.9% of the skin diseases and was the most common of the skin diseases observed. This is consistent with observation from other zones in Nigeria. Other skin diseases observed in order of frequencies include: Papulosqamous disorder (9.0%), Infectious skin diseases like fungal, viral, bacterial and parasitic infestation, at 7.9%, 7.7%, 2.3% and 2.1% respectively. Pigmentary disorders (5.0%), hair disorders (4.2%) and Benign neoplastic skin disease (6.5%). All the patients that had neurofibromatosis were females (1.9%). HIV-related skin diseases were observed to have increased remarkably (7.9%) with Kaposi’s sarcoma, papular pruritic eruptions and drug eruptions being the commonest mode of presentation. Conclusion: The current pattern of

  4. Clinical epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis and community practices and perceptions amongst the ado people of benue state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omudu, Edward Agbo; Ochoga, Jennifer Ochanya

    2011-01-01

    As part of efforts to initiate lymphatic filariasis elimination activities in Benue State, this study employed the use of lymphatic filariasis-related clinical signs as rapid diagnostic features, immunochromatographic card test (ICT) to detect circulating filarial antigen (CFA) and questionnaire to investigate community perceptions and beliefs. 81 (32.6%) out of the 248 persons were positive for circulating filarial antigen (CFA). Infection rates denoted by CFA ranged from 41 (46.1%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam districts. Distribution of community ICT prevalence showed a significant variation (X(2), P < 0.05). The prevalence of clinical signs and/or symptoms in the communities also showed significant variations (X(2), P < 0.05). Community hydrocoele prevalence ranged from 8 (9.0%) in Uffia to 1(6.6%) in Ijigbam. The overall hydrocoele prevalence was 21 (8.5%), while the overall lymphoedema prevalence was 16 (6.4%) and women accounted for 14 (87.5%) of persons with swollen limbs. Only about 14 (15.9%) of unaffected respondents knew that lymphatic filariasis is transmitted through mosquito bites, this differ significantly from affected respondents 10 (66.6%) (X(2), P < 0.05). The communities' capacity to protect themselves is hindered by a lack of understanding of the true cause, symptoms, transmission route and prevention of the disease. Our study demonstrates the need for the development of health education programmes that will enable people to protect themselves against mosquito bites. As Nigeria commence her lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes, there is an urgent need to develop morbidity management activities that will alleviate the burden of patients.

  5. Prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene status of a screened population in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olabisi, Arigbede Abiodun; Udo, Umanah Ayamma; Ehimen, Ukegheson Gabriel; Bashiru, Braimoh Omoigberai; Gbenga, Omitola Olufemi; Adeniyi, Akadiri Oladimeji

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to determine the prevalence of dental caries and partial edentulism, in addition to assessing the oral hygiene status and restorative care among adults in a community-based outreach program in Port Harcourt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults who participated in oral health screening program, which took place in Alakahia and Obigbo rural communities in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. After a brief oral health education, clinical examination was conducted and the diagnosis of caries was made based on the guidelines laid down by World Health Organization. Prevalence of caries was measured using decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) index, and oral hygiene status was assessed using the OHI-S. The restorative index [(F/F + D) ×100] was also calculated and the sociodemographic factors of the subjects were noted. Chi-square test, independent t-test and descriptive statistic were employed for analysis. Results: One fifty-five females (53.8%) and 133 males (46.2%) attended the events and their mean age was 29.3 ± 10.5 years. About one-third of the participants (35.1%) presented with dental caries. The mean DMFT for the whole group was 0.67 ± 2.0. The restorative index for the subjects was 26.8%. The oral hygiene status of most of the participants was fair. This was significantly better in females than in males (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Although about one-third of the participants had dental caries, only a quarter of them had received restorative care. Most of the respondents had fair and poor oral hygiene, this suggests the need to educate and motivate the community toward adopting and maintaining positive oral health attitudes and practices. PMID:25767769

  6. Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

    2012-02-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community. PMID:21987506

  7. Factors associated with coverage in community-directed treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis control in Oyo State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brieger, William R; Otusanya, Sakiru A; Oke, Ganiyu A; Oshiname, Frederick O; Adeniyi, Joshua D

    2002-01-01

    Community-directed distribution with ivermectin (CDTI) has been adopted by the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) as its main strategy for achieving sustained high coverage in endemic communities. This article describes the coverage results achieved when CDTI was introduced in four local government areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. Using a household survey after the second distribution, researchers documented that 68.6% of the community overall received the drug, and as did 85.0% of those who were eligible (not pregnant, not sick and at least 5 years of age). Six factors were associated with having received ivermectin. Four were personal characteristics: being male, being at least 35 years of age, belonging to the Fulani ethnic minority, having taken the drug at a previous distribution. Two village characteristics were smaller size, as measured by number of houses, and use of the central place mode of distribution as opposed to house-to-house. In-depth interviews with village leaders and volunteer community-directed distributors (CDDs) and focus group discussions among villagers provided qualitative data to help interpret the findings. Women in many villages felt excluded from decision making. The concerns of migrant farm workers living in Yoruba farm settlements were not well understood by health staff or the majority population. The main factor associated with receiving the ivermectin was having received it before, and qualitative comments about side-effects and beliefs about orthodox drugs indicated that issues of personal preferences, not addressed in a household coverage survey, need to be explored further. The findings can provide guidance in re-orienting health workers to the importance of fostering participation and cohesion among all segments of the community, especially the inclusion of women and minority groups. PMID:11851950

  8. Intersection between alcohol abuse and intimate partner's violence in a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Brisibe, Seiyefa; Ordinioha, Best; Dienye, Paul O

    2012-02-01

    According to the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, the south-south zone of Nigeria had the highest prevalence of domestic violence. This study is to find out if this is related to the widespread consumption of alcohol in the region. The study was carried out in Okoloba, a rural Ijaw community in Bayelsa State, where alcohol is produced and consumed in large quantities; using a cross-sectional study design. The data was collected from married or cohabitating adults aged between 16 and 65 years, with a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire. A total of 346 subjects, comprising 187 males, and 159 females were studied. They had an average age of 41.4 ± 2.5 years, were mostly Christians (91.9%), farmers/fisher folk (52.3%), and had at most primary school education (64.2%). More than 90% of the subjects took alcohol in the preceding year, while 36% can be classified as alcohol abusers according to their AUDIT score. More than half (55.8%) were perpetrators of intimate partner violence during the preceding 12 months, with a male-to-female prevalence of 83.4%, and female-to-male prevalence of 23.3%. Out of these, 77.2% were under the influence of alcohol during the act. The violence was more likely to be perpetrated by male alcohol abusers (p-value < 0.001), but there were no significant differences in the educational levels and religion of the perpetrators (p-value > 0.05). The study therefore concludes that there is a link between intimate partner abuse and alcohol abuse in the study community.

  9. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of common urinary bacteria from asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onanuga, Adebola; Selekere, Tamaradobra Laurretta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asymptomatic bacteriuria frequently occurs among all ages with the possibility of developing into urinary tract infections, and the antimicrobial resistance patterns of the etiologic organisms are essential for appropriate therapy. Thus, we investigated the virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of common urinary bacteria in asymptomatic students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria in a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Clean catch mid-stream early morning urine samples collected from 200 asymptomatic University students of aged ranges 15–30 years were cultured, screened and common bacteria were identified using standard microbiological procedures. The isolates were screened for hemolysin production and their susceptibility to antibiotics was determined using standard disc assay method. Results: A total prevalence rate of 52.0% significant bacteriuria was detected and it was significantly higher among the female with a weak association (χ2 = 6.01, phi = 0.173, P = 0.014). The Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus isolates were most frequently encountered among the isolated bacteria and 18 (12.7%) of all the bacterial isolates produced hemolysins. All the bacterial isolates exhibited 50–100% resistance to the tested beta-lactam antibiotics, tetracycline and co-trimoxazole. The isolated bacteria were 85-100% multi-drug resistant. However, most of the isolates were generally susceptible to gentamicin and ofloxacin. The phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases was 9 (9.6%) among the tested Gram-negative bacterial isolates. Conclusions: The observed high proportions of multidrug resistant urinary bacteria among asymptomatic University students call for the need of greater control of antibiotic use in this study area. PMID:26957865

  10. School Dropout Pattern among Senior Secondary Schools in Delta State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, O. Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of dropout among secondary school students in Delta State. To guide this study, 7 research questions were asked and answered, 3 hypotheses stated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design of study was ex post facto using the past school attendance registers as the major…

  11. Teachers' Perception and Implementation of Continuous Assessment Practices in Secondary Schools in Ekiti-State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modup, Ale Veronica; Sunday, Omirin Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the practices and implementation of continuous assessment in Ekiti State Secondary Schools with special interest in Ado Local Government. The population for the study was the whole number of teachers in Ekiti State secondary school and the sample for the study was 160 secondary school teachers who were randomly selected from…

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant status of female diabetic patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okuonghae, E O P; Onyenekwe, C C; Ahaneku, J E; Ukibe, N R; Nwani, P O; Asomugha, A L; Osakue, N O; Aidomeh, F; Awalu, C C

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has become an onerous disease to developing countries such as Nigeria. Rapid acceptance of urbanisation and sedentary life styles pose an encumbrance to its prevention and management. Increased oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus has been implicated as a culprit in perpetuating antioxidant depletion and diabetic complications in diabetes mellitus individuals. This study aims to evaluate the level of antioxidant status in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) female participants visiting the out-patient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 86 participants aged 51±10 years were recruited for this study. The test group consists of 43 already confirmed type 2 diabetes mellitus females, while the control group consists of 43 apparently healthy females. The test subjects were further subgrouped into good and poor glycaemic control groups, using a cut-off of <7% for HbA1c. Whole blood was collected from participants and aliquoted into specified sample containers for analysis of the following parameters: random blood glucose (RBG; mg/dL), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c; %), glutathione reductase (GR; U/L) and total antioxidant status (TAS; mmol/L). Results from this study showed that the mean differences in RBG (197.74±49.29 mg/dL) and HbA1c (9.86±1.44%) were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control group RBG (104.79±11.33 mg/dL) and HbA1c (5.21±1.23%) (P<0.05). The mean differences of GR (45.81±20.45 U/L) and TAS (1.81±1.04 mmol/L) were significantly lower in the test group compared to the control group GR (61.21±14.34 U/L) and TAS (2.73±2.08 mmol/L) (P<0.05). The poor glycaemic test group was observed to have the highest RBG (200.34±50.4 mg/dL) and HbA1c (10.23±1.33%) compared both to good glycaemic test group RBG (186.38±45.39 mg/dL), HbA1c (6.54±0.45%) and non-diabetic group RBG (104.79±11.33 mg/dL) and HbA1c (5.21±1.23%) (P<0.05). Glutathione

  13. Iodine status and the effect of soil erosion on trace elements in Nanka and Oba towns of Anambra State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olife, Ifeyinwa C; Okaka, Antoinette N; Dioka, Chudi E; Meludu, Samuel C; Orisakwe, Orish E

    2007-09-01

    Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is common in all populations. Iodine and other trace elements naturally occur in the soil but erosion leaches off these elements from the soil. This results in a continued loss of trace elements from the soil. In the present study, the levels of iodine, selenium, zinc and lead in the environment (measured in soil, bitter leaves (Vernonia amygdalina), cassava roots (mannihot utilissima, staple food in Nigeria), and drinking water) and urinary iodine from school children (n=200), pregnant women (n=60) and women of child bearing age (n=60) were determined for Nanka prone to soil erosion and Oba all in Anambra State, Nigeria (used as control) to assess their risk to IDD. The levels of selenium, zinc and lead were analysed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry while the levels of iodine in the environment and urinary iodine were estimated using the method of Dunn et al.,(1993). In this study there was a positive correlation between iodine and the metals. The results show that the mean concentrations of total soil zinc (0.69 +/- 0.16 ppm); lead (0.40 +/- 0.12 ppm) values in Oba were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than values from Nanka (Zn = 0.33 +/- 0.10 ppm; Pb = 0.21 +/- 0.09 ppm). However, total soil values for selenium and iodine in soil were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total vegetable zinc (0.63 +/- 0.14 ppm) value in Oba is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka (Zn = 0.31 +/- 0.07 ppm). However, total vegetable values for I, Se and Pb were not significantly different in the two communities. Also, mean concentration of total cassava zinc (0.65 = 0.15 ppm) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than Zn (0.44 +/- 0.1l ppm) from Nanka. However, values for Se, Pb, and I were not significantly different in the two communities. Mean concentration of total water iodine (105.25 +/- 10.44 microg/L) in Oba was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value from Nanka

  14. An Assessment of the Computer Literacy Level of Open and Distance Learning Students in Lagos State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osuji

    2010-01-01

    Nigeria has embraced the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) mode of education in order to make education affordable and to reach the teaming population of qualified citizens yearning to have quality education but are left out of it. Most universities in the country run the single mode conventional system of education; some run the dual mode while…

  15. Correlates of Unemployed Graduates' Perceptions of the Importance of Entrepreneurial Education in Poverty Alleviation in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekuri, E. E.; Alade, F. O.; Sule, M.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing from the empirical research on unemployment among young graduates and the question of economic relevance of curricula of the tertiary education in Nigeria, this investigation was carried out to answer the following research question: Will unemployed graduates' perceptions of the importance of entrepreneurial education in poverty…

  16. Relationship between the Curriculum and Attributes of Nigerian Faculty of Education Graduates towards Teaching in Kwara State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayode, David Jimoh; Yusoff, Nurahimah BtMohd; Veloo, Arsaythamby

    2015-01-01

    University education in Nigeria has been recognized for its role in pertinent workforce training for the benefit of learners and the community. However, the role of university education in stimulating national economic growth and transformation exacerbates the need to ensure quality within the universities system. The quality and focus of the…

  17. Prospects of using community directed intervention strategy in delivering health services among Fulani Nomads in Enugu State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Community Directed Interventions (CDI) strategy has proven effective in increasing access to health services in sedentary populations. It remains to be seen if CDI strategy is feasible among nomads given the dearth of demographic and medical data on the nomads. This study thus characterized the nomadic populations in Enugu State, Nigeria and outlined the potentials of implementing CDI among nomads. Study design and methods This exploratory study adopted qualitative methods. Forty focus group discussions (FGD) were held with members of 10 nomadic camps in 2 LGAs in Enugu State, as well as their host communities. Thirty in-depth interviews (IDIs) were held with leaders of nomadic camps and sedentary populations. Ten IDIs with traditional healers in the nomadic camps and 14 key informant interviews with health workers and programme officers were also conducted. Documents and maps were reviewed to ascertain the grazing routes of the nomads as well as existing health interventions in the area. Results Like sedentary populations, nomads have definable community structures with leaders and followers, which is amenable to implementation of CDI. Nomads move their cattle, in a definite pattern, in search of grass and water. In this movement, the old and vulnerable are left in the camps. The nomads suffer from immunization preventable health problems as their host communities. The priority health problems in relation to CDI include malaria, measles, anemia, and other vaccine preventable infections. However, unlike the sedentary populations, the nomads lack access to health interventions, due to the mutual avoidance between the nomads and the sedentary populations in terms of health services. The later consider the services as mainly theirs. The nomads, however, are desirous of the modern health services and often task themselves to access these modern health services in private for profit health facilities when the need arises. Conclusion Given the definable

  18. Nigeria's Triumph: Dracunculiasis Eradicated

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Emmanuel S.; Hopkins, Donald R.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Keana, Adamu S.; Withers, P. Craig; Anagbogu, Ifeoma N.; Sadiq, Lola K.; Kale, Oladele O.; Edungbola, Luke D.; Braide, Eka I.; Ologe, Joshua O.; Ityonzughul, Cephas

    2010-01-01

    This report describes how Nigeria, a country that at one time had the highest number of cases of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease) in the world, reduced the number of cases from more than 653,000 in 1988 to zero in 2009, despite numerous challenges. Village-based volunteers formed the foundation of the program, which used health education, cloth filters, vector control, advocacy for safe water, voluntary isolation of patients, and monitored program interventions and cases reported monthly. Other factors in the program's success were strong governmental support, advocacy by a former head of state of Nigeria, technical and financial assistance by The Carter Center, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Health Organization, and many other partners and donors. The estimated cost of the Nigerian program during 1988–2009 is $37.5 million, not including funding for water supply projects or salaries of Nigerian governmental workers. PMID:20682859

  19. School Types, Facilities and Academic Performance of Students in Senior Secondary Schools in Ondo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alimi, Olatunji Sabitu; Ehinola, Gabriel Babatunde; Alabi, Festus Oluwole

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of school types and facilities on students' academic performance in Ondo State. It was designed to find out whether facilities and students' academic performance are related in private and public secondary schools respectively. Descriptive survey design was used. Proportionate random sampling technique was used…

  20. Resource Availability and Distribution in Public and Private Special Education Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntukidem, Peter James; Ntukidem, Eno Peter; Eyo, Eno Etudor

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the availability and distribution of staff and facilities/equipment in private and public special needs schools in Cross River State. Sixty-nine (69) teachers and three (3) principals of these schools constituted the sample size of the study. One hypothesis and one research question were postulated to guide the study. The…